Sample records for high productivity area

  1. Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas

    E-print Network

    Cochlan, William P.

    Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas Charles G-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia

  2. Phosphorus limitation of forest leaf area and net primary production on a highly weathered soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darrell A. Herbert; James H. Fownes

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that P was the nutrient limiting net primary production of a nativeMetrosideros polymorpha forest on a highly weathered montane tropical soil in Hawaii. A factorial experiment used all combinations of three fertilizer treatments: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and a mix of other essential nutrients (OE), consisting primarily of mineral derived cations and excluding N and P.

  3. Development of urban area geospatial information products from high resolution satellite imagery using advanced image analysis techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron K. Shackelford

    2004-01-01

    The latest generation of commercial satellite imaging sensors have a number of characteristics (e.g. high spatial resolution, multispectral bands, and quick revisit time), that make them ideal data sources for a variety of urban area applications. The goal of this doctoral research was to develop advanced automated and semi-automated image analysis and classification techniques for the extraction of urban area

  4. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area...

  5. Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity of 5 poplar clones during; The stem volume and biomass (stem + branches) production, net photosynthesis of mature leaves and leaf area found in volume production, woody biomass production, total leaf area and net photosynthesis. Above

  6. Distribution and life history of the planktonic copepod, Eucalanus californicus, in the northwestern Pacific: Mechanisms for population maintenance within a high primary production area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimode, Shinji; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Yugo; Nonomura, Takumi; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the geographical and vertical distribution of the copepodid stages of Eucalanus californicus in the northwestern (NW) Pacific Ocean, and compared life history characteristics against the northeastern (NE) population of the species and the neighboring subarctic sister species, Eucalanus bungii. In the NW Pacific, multi-layered zooplankton samples were collected between 15°N and 49°N. High abundances (>1000 inds. m-2) of E. californicus were restricted to an area around 33°N, whereas E. bungii was highly abundant between 36°N and 49°N. The occurrence of E. californicus in the surface layer was associated with seasonal spring ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM), as suggested by previous studies in the NE Pacific. Gonadal analysis of adult females showed that surface reproduction occurs during the spring in the slope water area, which is a region on the continental slope north of the Kuroshio axis, and within the Kuroshio-Oyashio Transition Area (TA). The seasonal OVM strategy of E. californicus in the NW Pacific is characterized by (1) shorter periods of surface reproduction and growth and (2) deep C5 stage dormancy (500-2000 m). The former is an adaptive response to relatively high water temperatures and short bloom periods in the TA and slope water area. The latter strategy of deep dormancy is considered to be an adaptation to avoid drift caused by a local oceanic feature of deeper westward (>1000 m) recirculation currents, thus retaining the population within the high primary production zones of the TA and slope water area.

  7. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

  8. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde, Kinney, Uvalde, Medina, Wilson, Karnes, Goliad, Victoria, Calhoun, Maverick, Zavala, Frio, Atascosa, Dimmit, La Salle, McMullen, Live...

  9. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means...

  10. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means...

  11. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means...

  12. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means...

  13. 7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PRUNES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON AND IN UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.4 Production area. Production area...

  14. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State of...

  15. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde, Kinney, Uvalde, Medina, Wilson, Karnes, Goliad, Victoria, Calhoun, Maverick, Zavala, Frio, Atascosa, Dimmit, La Salle, McMullen, Live Oak, Bee, Refugio, Webb, Duval,...

  16. Business Productivity and Area Productivity in Rural England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Webber; Nigel Curry; Anthony Plumridge

    2009-01-01

    Webber D., Curry N. and Plumridge A. Business productivity and area productivity in rural England, Regional Studies. Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) definition of ‘rural’. Labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less

  17. Ozone production rate and hydrocarbon reactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of high ozone concentration in Houston

    E-print Network

    Composition and Structure: Pollution--urban and regional (0305); 0365 Atmospheric Composition and Structure Council, 1991]. Control of O3 is accomplished by identifying the sources of NOx and VOCs, quantifying their contribution to O3 production, and then reducing emissions of either NOx or VOCs or both. Ozone precursors

  18. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area....

  19. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area....

  20. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  1. High speed local area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hodara; E. Miles

    1992-01-01

    Radical changes are taking place in the computer architecture landscape. The big mainframes are being replaced by networks of microcomputers distributed over a wide geographical area. Increases in the speed and memory of computers has created a need for a communication medium capable of transmitting data at a rate exceeding gigabits per second. The low loss, low dispersion optical fiber

  2. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  3. Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

  4. Sandstone consolidation analysis to delineate areas of high-quality reservoirs suitable for production of geopressured geothermal energy along the Texas Gulf Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Loucks; M. M. Dodge; W. E. Galloway

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of reservoir quality of lower Tertiary sandstones along the Texas Gulf Coast delineates areas most favorable for geopressured geothermal exploration. Reservoir quality is determined by whole core, acoustic log, and petrographic analyses. The Wilcox Group has good reservoir potential for geopressured geothermal energy in the Middle Texas Gulf Coast and possibly in adjacent areas, but other Wilcox areas are

  5. Presented by High-Productivity

    E-print Network

    Universität Dresden Center for Information Services and High Performance Computing University of TennesseePresented by High-Productivity Software Development Tools Jack Dongarra University of Tennessee Institute for Applied Mathematics RWTH Aachen University Center for Computing and Communication Technische

  6. Catalytic dry reforming of methane over high surface area ceria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Laosiripojana; S. Assabumrungrat

    2005-01-01

    High surface area ceria (CeO2 (HSA)), synthesized by a surfactant-assisted approach, was found to have useful dry reforming activity for H2 and CO production under solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) conditions. The catalyst provides significantly higher reforming reactivity and excellent resistance toward carbon deposition compared to Ni\\/Al2O3 and conventional low surface area ceria (CeO2 (LSA)) under dry reforming conditions. These

  7. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

  8. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

  9. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

  10. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

  11. Measuring High Performance Computing Productivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart R. Faulk; John Gustafson; Philip Johnson; Adam A. Porter; Walter F. Tichy; Lawrence G. Votta

    2004-01-01

    One key to improving high performance computing (HPC) productivity is to find better ways to measure it. We define productivity in terms of mission goals, i.e. greater produc- tivity means that more science is accomplished with less cost and effort. Traditional software productivity metrics and computing benchmarks have proven inadequate for assessing or predicting such end-to-end productivity. In this paper

  12. High Surface Area Dendrite Nanoelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, Nathan; Glover, Jennifer; Goyal, Saurabh; Simidjiysky, Svetoslav; Naughton, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Solution-based electrodeposition of metal using a low ion concentration, surface passivation agents, and/or electrochemical crystal conditioning has allowed for the formation of high surface area metal electrodes, useful for Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensors. Additionally, high frequency electrical oscillations have been used to electrically connect co-planar electrodes, a process called directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA). These approaches aim to control the crystal face that metal atoms in solution will nucleate onto, thus causing anisotropic growth of metal crystals. However, DENA has not been used to create high surface area electrodes, and no study has been conducted on the effect of micron-scale surface topography on the initial nucleation of metal crystals on the electrode surface. When DENA is used to create a high surface area electrode, such a texture has a strong impact on the subsequent topography of the three dimensional dendritic structures by limiting the areal density of crystals on the electrode surface. Such structures both demonstrate unique physics concerning the nucleation of metal dendrites, and offer a unique and highly facile fabrication method of high surface area electrodes, useful for chemical and biological sensing. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  13. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of...

  14. Blackberry production options for cold areas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry is not widely planted in the Northeast, because most available varieties are not cold-hardy, and production can be variable from year to year with canes killed to the ground in some years. This report describes production options for more reliable cropping in blackberry. Planting variet...

  15. The cascade high productivity language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

  16. Laser processing system development of large area and high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeongchan; Ryu, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Taesang

    2013-03-01

    As industry of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and display growing, this industry requires an increasingly high-precision quality so current cutting process in industry is preferred laser machining than mechanical machining. Now, laser machining is used almost "step and repeat" method in large area, but this method has a problem such as cutting quality in the continuity of edge parts, cutting speed and low productivity. To solve these problems in large area, on-the-fly (stagescanner synchronized system) is gradually increasing. On-the-fly technology is able to process large area with high speed because of stage-scanner synchronized moving. We designed laser-based high precision system with on-the-fly. In this system, we used UV nano-second pulse laser, power controller and scanner with telecentric f-theta lens. The power controller is consisted of HWP(Half Wave Plate), thin film plate polarizer, photo diode, micro step motor and control board. Laser power is possible to monitor real-time and adjust precision power by using power controller. Using this machine, we tested cutting of large area coverlay and sheet type large area PCB by applying on-the-fly. As a result, our developed machine is possible to process large area without the problem of the continuity of edge parts and by high cutting speed than competitor about coverlay.

  17. Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou Department model accounts for the inter-temporal and spatial dependencies of multi-area wind power production. Results are presented for a case study of the California power system. Keywords - Wind power generation

  18. High Energy Lepton Production Underground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Bulmahn; Mary Hall Reno

    2010-01-01

    The differential cross section for lepton pair production from muons in transit is reevaluated in a manner such that it is valid beyond low lepton mass and low momentum transfer regions. Our results are more broadly applicable than the approximate formulas in the literature. Given the high fluxes of atmospheric muons, we evaluate the high energy underground electron and tau

  19. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [22 FR 10734, Dec. 27, 1957. Redesignated at 26 FR 12751, Dec. 30, 1961,...

  20. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [22 FR 10734, Dec. 27, 1957. Redesignated at 26 FR 12751, Dec. 30, 1961,...

  1. Ozone production efficiency in an urban area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence I. Kleinman; Peter H. Daum; Yin-Nan Lee; Linda J. Nunnermacker; Stephen R. Springston; Judith Weinstein-Lloyd; Jochen Rudolph

    2002-01-01

    Ozone production efficiency can be defined as the number of molecules of oxidant (O3 + NO2) produced photochemically when a molecule of NOx (NO + NO2) is oxidized. It conveys information about the conditions under which O3 is formed and is an important parameter to consider when evaluating impacts from NOx emission sources. We present calculational and observational results on

  2. High Productivity Implantation ''PARTIAL IMPLANT''

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., LTD., Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-11-03

    The patterned ion implantation 'PARTIAL IMPLANT' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is 'DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT', that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is 'RING PARTIAL IMPLANT' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

  3. MODIS leaf area index products: from validation to algorithm improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenze Yang; Bin Tan; Dong Huang; Miina Rautiainen; Nikolay V. Shabanov; Y. Wang; Jeffrey L. Privette; Karl Fred Huemmrich; Rasmus Fensholt; Inge Sandholt; M. Weiss; Douglas E. Ahl; Stith T. Gower; Ramakrishna R. Nemani; Yuri Knyazikhin; Ranga B. Myneni

    2006-01-01

    Global products of vegetation green Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) are being operationally produced from Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) at 1-km resolution and eight-day frequency. This paper summarizes the experience of several collaborating investigators on validation of MODIS LAI products and demonstrates the close connection between product

  4. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ?-HCH, and ?-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention. PMID:22777609

  5. The Cascade High Productivity Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Callahan; Bradford L. Chamberlain; Hans P. Zima

    The strong focus of recent High End Computing efforts on performance has resulted in a low-level parallel pro- gramming paradigm characterized by explicit control over message-passing in the framework of a fragmented pro- gramming model. In such a model, object code performance is achieved at the expense of productivity, conciseness, and clarity. This paper describes the design of Chapel, the

  6. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in Maintaining Plant Production

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a “supporting” ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed. PMID:21552560

  7. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, R.M.

    1991-04-01

    Continental Shelf Associates was contracted to update and expand an earlier work on a comparison of primary productivity among Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) planning areas. The update consists of four general objectives. This report addresses the fourth objective, the potential to use measures of marine secondary productivity in determining relative rankings of the OCS planning area. Ideally, comparisons of secondary productivity among diverse geographic areas would take an ecosystem perspective. However, there is not enough ecosystem-level understanding to allow a comparison on that basis. The report focuses on individual species and group of species. Zooplankton and benthic communities represent major portions of the marine ecosystems and would be the preferred subjects for comparative studies. At this time comparisons of secondary productivity among planning areas would be difficult with existing databases. It is unlikely this situation will improve in the near future.

  8. High throughput protein production screening

    DOEpatents

    Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  9. A mechanistic model to study ozone production in urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rachel Laird; Paulette Middleton; Richard W. Miksad

    1983-01-01

    A simple box model for studying the influence of emissions changes and meteorological conditions on ozone production in urban areas is presented. Several calculation examples illustrate how the model can be used to investigate the interrelationships of the primary mechanisms which determine ozone concentration levels in urban areas.

  10. The Cascade High Productivity Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Callahan; Bradford L. Chamberlain; Hans P. Zima

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The strong focus of recent High End Computing efforts on performance,has resulted in a low-level parallel pro- gramming,paradigm characterized by explicit control over message-passing in the framework of a fragmented,pro- gramming model. In such a model, object code performance is achieved at the expense of productivity, conciseness, and clarity. This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cas- cade

  11. Global Topography of Mars from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-Orbit Data Products: the first Quadrangle (MC-11E) and the Landing Site Areas of ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Hauber, Ernst; Jaumann, Ralf; Michael, Gregory; Hoffmann, Harald; Heipke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    After more than 10 years of operation, the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital elevation models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. The new global mapping program is based on the USGS MC-30 quadrangle scheme, where quadrangles are split into eastern and western parts to limit data volumes. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic (grid spacing of 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively) for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), and highlight their use for characterizing the landing site areas of ESA's ExoMars landing mission to be launched in 2018. HRSC is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars and its satellites. As a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of derived 3D points allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. HRSC also bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. A quality assessment of the MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus) quadrangle products shows that, using bundle block adjustment, adjacent image strips can be co-registered with an accuracy of approximately one pixel at the highest image resolution available. We will discuss the resolution of topographic detail in these datasets, including improvements with respect to the case of single-strip data products and a comparison with external datasets. The quadrangle contains two of the four remaining landing sites for the ExoMars 2018 rover, and also the other two candidate sites are well covered by HRSC. HRSC data products are valuable to analyze large-scale topographic parameters (e.g., slopes over long baselengths) that are relevant for landing site safety assessments. Moreover, HRSC data enable investigating the geological context of landing sites, including the role of endogenic and exogenic processes. In particular, local and regional HRSC-derived topography serves as a basis for quantitative analyses of aqueous processes, e.g., discharge rates, sediment transport, and depositional geometries. We discuss the use of HRSC data products for landing site assessment and regional characterization of candidate landing site geology.

  12. Cytokine Production in Whole Blood Cultures from a Fishing Community in an Area of High Endemicity for Schistosoma mansoni in Uganda: the Differential Effect of Parasite Worm and Egg Antigens†

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sarah; Jones, Frances M.; Kimani, Gachuhi; Mwatha, Joseph K.; Kamau, Timothy; Kazibwe, Francis; Kemijumbi, Jovanice; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Booth, Mark; Kariuki, Henry C.; Ouma, John H.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Dunne, David W.

    2004-01-01

    The human host is continuously exposed to the egg and the adult worm developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni during chronic infections with the parasite. To assess the cytokine responses induced by these different costimulating stages and how they are influenced by host age and infection intensity, whole blood samples from a cross-sectional cohort of 226 members of a Ugandan fishing community who had been resident in an area with high transmission of S. mansoni for the previous 10 years or from birth were stimulated with S. mansoni egg antigen (SEA) or worm antigen (SWA). SWA-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?) production increased with age, and the levels of SWA- and SEA-specific interleukin 3 (IL-3) were weakly correlated with schistosome infection intensity. The production of most cytokines was little affected by age or infection intensity but was either SEA or SWA specific. One hundred thirty-two members of the cohort coproduced IL-5 and IL-13 specifically in response to SWA, whereas only 15 produced these cytokines, and at much lower levels, in response to SEA. IL-10, IL-4, and IFN-? were also produced in response to SWA, whereas the response to SEA consisted almost exclusively of IL-10. Our results suggest that, in contrast to what has been described for the murine model of S. mansoni and during acute human infections, chronic intense exposure to and infection with S. mansoni in this cohort resulted in very low levels of response to SEA in vitro in the presence of a vigorous and mixed Th1-Th2 response to SWA. PMID:14742514

  13. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements...Productionâ § 780.720 “Area of production” requirement of exemption. ...elevator be “employed within the area of production (as defined by the Secretary).”...

  14. Prioritising Carbon Sequestration Areas in Southern Queensland using Time Series MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apan, A.; Suarez Cadavid, L. A.; Richardson, L.; Maraseni, T.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method that will use satellite imagery to identify areas of high forest growth and productivity, as a primary input in prioritising revegetation sites for carbon sequestration. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, this study analysed the annual net primary production (NPP) values (gC/m2) of images acquired from 2000 to 2013, covering the Condamine Catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia. With the analysis of annual rainfall data during the same period, three transitions of "normal to dry" years were identified to represent the future climate scenario considered in this study. The difference in the corresponding NPP values for each year was calculated, and subsequently averaged to the get the "Mean of Annual NPP Difference" (MAND) map. This layer identified the areas with increased net primary production despite the drought condition in those years. Combined with key thematic maps (i.e. regional ecosystems, land use, and tree canopy cover), the priority areas were mapped. The results have shown that there are over 42 regional ecosystem (RE) types in the study area that exhibited positive vegetation growth and productivity despite the decrease in annual rainfall. However, seven (7) of these RE types represents the majority (79 %) of the total high productivity area. A total of 10,736 ha were mapped as priority revegetation areas. This study demonstrated the use of MODIS-NPP imagery to map vegetation with high carbon sequestration rates necessary in prioritising revegetation sites.

  15. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  16. High Technology in the Vocational Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Earl; Etlinger, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    Presents a broad overview of the technological revolution and its impact on American business and industry, focusing on electronics and computers. Argues that high technology vocational programs must become a part of high school and college curricula. (KH)

  17. Focusing Resources on High-Priority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    The new Perkins provides more flexibility to encourage innovation and program improvement; one of these areas of flexibility is the state-level "reserve" fund. This article looks at how Tennessee is using its funds to improve programming within the framework set out in the law.

  18. Modeling biotic habitat high risk areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B.M.; Stephens, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.

  19. Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southwest - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  20. Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southeast - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  1. Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/ J, Lubbock; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Program Specialist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research......................................................................................................................... 6 Table COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lamesa 1 Production Information

  2. Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/ J.K. Dever; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Entomologist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research Scientist......................................................................................................................... 6 Table UNIFORM COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lubbock 1 Production Information

  3. Design, Production and Testing of Cost-Effective, Large-Area, MCP-based Planar Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junqi; Byrum, Karen; Demarteau, Marcel; Noonan, John; Setru, Sagar; Virgo, Mathew; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean; Wang, Xing; Xia, Lei; Zhao, Huyue

    2014-03-01

    Microchannel plate (MCP)-based photodetectors with large-area, thin planar geometry and glass-body assembly, are considered as next generation photodetector to replace photomultiplier tubes. They have shown significant potential for applications in high energy collider physics and astrophysics. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the photocathode to water and oxygen, the production of this kind of photodetectors requires photocathodes to be transferred under high vacuum. A new photodetector production facility at Argonne National Laboratory was designed and constructed. The facility aims to produce small form-factor, MCP-based photodetectors completely made out of glass. 6 x 6 cm2 photodetectors using metal and alkali antimonide as photocathode are currently under production. An overview of the production sequence and first performance results will be presented. Scaling up the production to larger form-factor devices will be discussed. The challenge of sealing a large area photodetector has recently been overcome. Windows with 20 × 20 cm2 active photocathode area were successfully sealed and progress towards large-area photodetector production progress will be reported.

  4. Pilot production of large-area CuInS 2-based solar modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Meyer; Alexander Meeder; Dieter Schmid

    2007-01-01

    A pilot production of CuInS2-based thin-film solar modules has been established in Berlin, Germany. To date, its 125 cm×65 cm modules have produced an aperture area conversion efficiency as high as 7.6%, and avenues towards even higher performance levels have been identified. The pilot production features industrially-proven sputtering technology for material deposition and a new rapid thermal process allowing a five-minute sulfurization

  5. Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Charles A. Brock; Philip J. Riggan

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NO\\/sub X\\/, SOâ, and particulate NOâ⁻ than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the high emissions are due to the revolatilization of previoulsy

  6. Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

  7. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  8. Production of high strength concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Peterman; R. L. Carrasquillo

    1986-01-01

    The criteria for selection of concrete materials and their proportions to producer uniform, economical, high strength concrete are presented in this book. The recommendations provided are based on a study of the interactions among components of plain concrete and mix proportions, and of their contribution to the compressive strength of high strength concrete. These recommendations will serve as guidelines to

  9. Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

  10. High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

  11. Continuous tables. Perforation of high productivity wells

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Perforating correctly is an important step in completing a quality producer, particularly if the well is to be gravel packed. The figures presented contain useful information pertaining to the perforation and perforation cleanup of high productivity wells. They illustrate well productivity vs. pack to formation permeability ratio, pressure drop vs. flow rate for 3 perforation sizes, and perforating gun configurations.

  12. High Performance Computing Productivity Model Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Kepner

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) High Productivity Computing System (HPCS) program is developing systems that deliver increased value to users at a rate commensurate with the rate of improvement in the underlying technologies. For example, if the relevant technology was silicon, the goal of such a system would be to double in productivity (or value) every 18 months,

  13. 15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. High-Performance and High-Productivity Computing ( ) Platform

    E-print Network

    High-Performance and High-Productivity Computing ( ) Platform Thomas C. Schulthess #12;Friday, 26 high-impact scientific applications that scale and run efficiently on leadership computing platforms Hardware Phase II (2012-15): Goal for CSCS is to host systems with performance of 20-25% compared

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sterling Thompson

    \\u000a The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid\\u000a sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft\\/gummy candy,\\u000a caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar\\u000a products is their low water activity (a\\u000a w), which is known to

  16. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  17. Identifying high production, low production and degraded rangelands in Senegal with normalized difference vegetation index data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Wood, Lynette; Moore, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal herbaceous vegetation production on Senegal's native rangelands exhibits high spatial and temporal variability. This variability can be monitored using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data computed from 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data. Although annual fluctuations in rainfall account for some of the variability, numerous long-term production patterns are evident in the AVHRR time-series data. Different n productivity reflect variations in the region's climate, topography, soils, and land use. Areas of overgrazing and intensive cultivation have caused long-term soil and vegetation degradation. Rangelands of high and low productivity, and degraded rangelands were identified using NDVI. Time-series image data from 1987 though 1992 were used to map relative rangeland productivity. The results were compared to detailed resource maps on soils, vegetation and land use. Much of the variation in rangeland productivity correlated well to the known distribution of resources. The study developed an approach that identified a number of areas of degraded soils and low vegetation production.

  18. Radical Chemistry and Ozone Production in the Houston Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Brown, S. S.; Roberts, J. M.; Parker, A. E.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Osthoff, H. D.; Gilman, J. B.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Williams, E. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Trainer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of radicals (HO2+RO2, NO3) were taken on board of the NOAA ship R/V Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS) 2006 field campaign. HO2+RO2 was measured by Chemical Amplification and NO3 (with N2O5) was measured by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. The R/V Brown cruised for a month (August-September 2006) off the coast of Texas and inside Galveston Bay and Houston industrial and shipping area, sampling air masses coming from the highly industrialized region of Southern United States. The data collected during the cruise were analyzed using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The model was constrained to the measurements of long-lived species and physical parameters and used to calculate the concentrations of radicals (OH, HO2, RO2, NO3) during the cruise of the R/V Brown. The modelled concentrations of HO2+RO2 and NO3 were compared with the measurements. The model and the measurements were used to study ozone formation and photochemistry in one of the most polluted areas of the United States.

  19. Production system improvement : floor area reduction and inventory optimization

    E-print Network

    Yang, Tianying, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis shows improvements of a medical device production system. The demand at the Medical Device Manufacturing Company (MDMC¹) is low for the occlusion system product and there is a need to introduce other production ...

  20. Adsorption of arsenic using high surface area magnetites.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Kaoru; Oshima, Tatsuya; Baba, Yoshinari

    2010-08-01

    Magnetites (MEBWx) were prepared by precipitation in 1-butanol/water mixtures of various mole ratios of 1-butanol to water. It was found that the magnetites prepared in the mixture with high mole ratio of 1-butanol to water have high specific surface area. The adsorption isotherms of As(III) and As(V) with the magnetites at 303 K fitted the Langmuir model well. The adsorption capacities of the magnetite prepared in the mixtures were higher than those of the magnetite prepared without 1-butanol. Their adsorption capacities increased with increasing specific surface area. PMID:20379842

  1. Primary productivity of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research Area and the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.; Baker, K. S.; Byers, M. L.; Stammerjohn, S. E.

    1998-11-01

    A major objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (Palmer LTER) project is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various components of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Phytoplankton production plays a key role in this so-called high nutrient, low chlorophyll environment, and factors that regulate production include those that control cell growth (light, temperature, and nutrients) and those that control cell accumulation rate and hence population growth (water column stability, grazing, and sinking). Sea ice mediates several of these factors and frequently conditions the water column for a spring bloom which is characterized by a pulse of production restricted in both time and space. This study models the spatial and temporal variability of primary production within the Palmer LTER area west of the Antarctic Peninsula and discusses this production in the context of historical data for the Southern Ocean. Primary production for the Southern Ocean and the Palmer LTER area have been computed using both light-pigment production models [Smith, R.C., Bidigare, R.R., Prézelin, B.B., Baker, K.S., Brooks, J.M., 1987. Optical characterization of primary productivity across a coastal front. Mar. Biol. (96), 575-591; Bidigare, R.R., Smith, R.C., Baker, K.S., Marra, J., 1987. Oceanic primary production estimates from measurements of spectral irradiance and pigment concentrations. Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1), 171-186; Morel, A., Berthon, J.F., 1989. Surface pigments, algal biomass profiles and potential production of the euphotic layer—relationships reinvestigated in view of remote-sensing applications. Limnol. Oceanogr. (34), 1545-1562] and an ice edge production model [Nelson, D.M., Smith, W.O., 1986. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics of the western Ross Sea ice edge: II. Mesoscale cycling of nitrogen and silicon. Deep-Sea Res. (33), 1389-1412; Wilson, D.L., Smith, W.O., Nelson, D.M., 1986. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics of the Western Ross Sea ice edge: I. primary productivity and species-specific production. Deep-Sea Res., 33, 1375-1387; Smith, W.O., Nelson, D.M., 1986. Importance of ice edge phytoplankton production in the Southern Ocean. BioScience (36), 251-257]. Chlorophyll concentrations, total photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and sea ice concentrations were derived from satellite data. These same parameters, in addition to hydrodynamic conditions, have also been determined from shipboard and Palmer Station observations during the LTER program. Model results are compared, sensitivity studies evaluated, and productivity of the Palmer LTER region is discussed in terms of its space time distribution, seasonal and interannual variability, and overall contribution to the marine ecology of the Southern Ocean.

  2. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

  3. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  4. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, P; Valtr, M; Picco, L; Payton, O D; Martinek, J; Yacoot, A; Miles, M

    2015-02-13

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm(2) regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope. PMID:25597347

  5. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  6. 67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  7. Resilience Strategies for New Teachers in High-Needs Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Antonio J.; Kelly, John; Shih, Minyi

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates strategies of resilience exhibited by fifteen novice teachers employed in high-needs areas, such as in urban and rural contexts and in special education. Findings indicated that teachers utilised a variety of strategies, including help-seeking, problem-solving, managing difficult relationships, and seeking…

  8. High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Waste Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Srinivasakannan

    The present work relates to efforts made towards developing a high surface area, activated carbon from rubber wood sawdust by a two-stage activation process with phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Experiments are conducted in lab scale using muffle furnace under static conditions in a self-generated atmosphere covering process parameters such as impregnation ratio, carbonization time and temperature. The process

  9. The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local Exceptionality

    E-print Network

    #12;The Economic Productivity of Urban Areas: Disentangling General Scale Effects from Local The factors that explain differences in the economic productivity of urban areas have remained difficult of economic activity in a city in terms of a production function, together with a scaling perspective

  10. IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO DETERMINE SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF AXISYMMETRIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Sabliov; D. Boldor; K. M. Keener; B. E. Farkas

    2002-01-01

    An image processing based method was developed to measure volume and surface area of ellipsoidal agricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes, and peaches. The method assumes that each product has an axi-symmetric geometry and is a sum of superimposed elementary frustums of right circular cones. The product volume and surface area are calculated as the sum of the volumes

  11. High Surface Area Tunnels in Hexagonal WO3.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanmei; Yeung, Michael T; Lech, Andrew T; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chain; Li, Tianqi; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Jun; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H(+) and Li(+), but not Na(+) in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption. PMID:26075682

  12. Basics of High TunnelBasics of High Tunnel ProductionProduction --20112011

    E-print Network

    Netoff, Theoden

    no pesticides neededUsually no pesticides needed ·· Organic productionOrganic production #12;4 Advantages of High TunnelsAdvantages of High Tunnels ·· Natural disease controlNatural disease controlNatural disease controlNatural disease control ·· Insect controlInsect control ·· Control waterControl water ·· Guarantee

  13. Production system improvement : floor area reduction and visual management

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhuling, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis suggests on the development process of a new layout design and visual management tools to improve the efficiency of a production line in a medical device company. Lean production philosophy and common lean ...

  14. SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

  15. High Energy Product Developed from Cobalt Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Liu, J. Ping

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt nanowires with high aspect ratio have been synthesized via a solvothermal chemical process. Based on the shape anisotropy and orientation of the nanowire assemblies, a record high room-temperature coercivity of 10.6?kOe has been measured in Co nanowires with a diameter of about 15?nm and a mean length of 200?nm. As a result, energy product of the wires reaches 44?MGOe. It is discovered that the morphology uniformity of the nanowires is the key to achieving the high coercivity and high energy density. Nanowires of this type are ideal building blocks for future bonded, consolidated and thin film magnets with high energy density and high thermal stability. PMID:24939036

  16. High Energy Product Developed from Cobalt Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Liu, J. Ping

    2014-06-01

    Cobalt nanowires with high aspect ratio have been synthesized via a solvothermal chemical process. Based on the shape anisotropy and orientation of the nanowire assemblies, a record high room-temperature coercivity of 10.6 kOe has been measured in Co nanowires with a diameter of about 15 nm and a mean length of 200 nm. As a result, energy product of the wires reaches 44 MGOe. It is discovered that the morphology uniformity of the nanowires is the key to achieving the high coercivity and high energy density. Nanowires of this type are ideal building blocks for future bonded, consolidated and thin film magnets with high energy density and high thermal stability.

  17. Area production in supercritical, transitional mixing layers for reactive flow applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Okong'o, N.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of surface area production is conducted for supercritical mixing layers; the results are relevant to flame area evolution and fluid disintegration. In this study, the surface is chosen perpendicular to the mass fraction gradient.

  18. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  19. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  20. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  1. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United States only into or through areas regulated by the gypsy moth and browntail moth quarantine and regulations...

  2. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR, ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS. Sheet 79 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  3. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR,ARCHITECTURAL NORTH ELEVATION AND MISC. DETAILS. Sheet 78 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  4. A high force low area MEMS thermal actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Sinclair

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) actuator consisting of an array of in-plane micro-fabricated thermal buckle-beam actuators. The technology used in MEMS actuators is typically magnetic, electrostatic or thermal. Magnetic actuators may require special materials in the fabrication process while electrostatic actuators typically require high voltages, large chip areas and produce very low forces. Thermal actuators

  5. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A possible technology which would allow the accomplishment of the proposed targets is the use of a Cross-Flow turbine, arranged according to the scheme of Fig.1, where: - the position of the rotating wall (rw) is set according to the pressure measured at its top, so that a small but constant falling discharge (Q2) is guaranteed. This falling discharge allows the transition of floating objects and hid the all machinery, with an obvious skyline improvement. - the average distance d is set in order to guarantee in the confined channel below the turbine an average velocity V similar to the original one existing in the river. PIC Fig.1 - Scheme of the river Cross-Flow turbine. Observe in Fig.2 the results of a CFX simulation, carried on with the following input data for a large rectangular section per unit width: ho (m) h1(m) h2 (m) d(m) 1.5314 1.99 0.082 0.1021 Q2(m2/s) Q3(m2/s)w (r.p.m.)V0(m/s) 0.04 0.267 27 2.61 Table 1. Input data for the CFD simulation. Simulation have been carried out using ANSYS code, with a computational domain divided using both tetrahedral and prismatic elements. The mechanical power estimated at the rotational shaft was of 4.84 KW/m and the hydraulic power of the water stream was of 7.25 KW/m. Thus the turbine efficiency was of about 49.97 %. PIC Fig.2 - Vectors velocity water field close to the Cross-Flow turbine domain. From the environmental point of view the turbine constitutes nonetheless a physical barrier that moving organisms will have to negotiate on their movements through the blades, particularly larger ones such as fish. Also, the hydraulic environment of the river will be modified, e.g. turbulence, shear stress, pressure and flow patterns, affecting as well the smaller organisms. While developing the turbine, a thorough appraisal of its environmental consequences for aquatic ecosystems has to be done, in order to develop an environmentally-friendly structure, embedding mitigation aspects. Furthermore, the structure itself will be subject to colonization on its surfaces by a biological matrix including microbial organisms but also

  6. Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Ismail, E-mail: ismailb@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Kaluza, Stefan [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Boroglu, Mehtap Safak [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Muhler, Martin [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

  7. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  8. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  9. Generating Testable Hypotheses from Tacit Knowledge for High Productivity Computing

    E-print Network

    Basili, Victor R.

    performance, programmability, portability, robustness and ultimately, productivity in the HPC domain"1Generating Testable Hypotheses from Tacit Knowledge for High Productivity Computing Sima Asgari1 expect, will validate or negate these assumptions. Keywords High Productivity Development Time

  10. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t? attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ?2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t? values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t? data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50˜100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values < 300. Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the observed seismic wave intensity distribution. Stations where our model predicts high attenuation display low intensity values whereas stations where our model predicts low attenuation display high intensities. The implementation of our findings could help towards a better understanding of the damage area of future earthquakes and mitigate the disaster of the affected areas.

  11. Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Larson; Andy Wones; C. David McIntire; Barbara Samora

    1994-01-01

    A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics,\\u000a lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis\\u000a was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area,\\u000a depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A

  12. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption...establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator be “employed within the area of production...section 13(b)(14) if the country elevator establishment by which he is...

  13. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption...establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator be “employed within the area of production...section 13(b)(14) if the country elevator establishment by which he is...

  14. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption...establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator be “employed within the area of production...section 13(b)(14) if the country elevator establishment by which he is...

  15. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption...establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator be “employed within the area of production...section 13(b)(14) if the country elevator establishment by which he is...

  16. CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area Candice Lagnya, a former coal mining area. To understand the origin of this production, a borehole of 90 meters deep located above a former coal mine associated with a rising water table. These variations are characterized

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  2. High Temperature Thermoelectric Device Concept Using Large Area PN Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, R.; Angst, S.; Hall, J.; Stoetzel, J.; Kessler, V.; Bitzer, L.; Maculewicz, F.; Benson, N.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

    2014-06-01

    A new high temperature thermoelectric device concept using large area nanostructured silicon p-type and n-type ( PN) junctions is presented. In contrast to conventional thermoelectric generators, where the n-type and p-type semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept in which a large area PN junction made from highly doped densified silicon nanoparticles is subject to a temperature gradient parallel to the PN interface. In the proposed device concept, the electrical contacts are made at the cold side eliminating the hot side substrate and difficulties that go along with high temperature electrical contacts. This concept allows temperature gradients greater than 300 K to be experimentally applied with hot side temperatures larger than 800 K. Electronic properties of the PN junctions and power output characterizations are presented. A fundamental working principle is discussed using a particle network model with temperature and electric fields as variables, and which considers electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity according to Fourier's law, as well as Peltier and Seebeck effects.

  3. Non Timber Forest Products and Biodiversity Conservation - A Study of Tribals in a Protected Area in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Ninan

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the economics of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and the economic values appropriated by tribals in a protected area in India. Using primary data covering a cross section of tribals in the Nagarhole National Park (NNP), South India the stud y notes that the economic values appropriated by the tribals are quite high. Even after including external

  4. Large-area, triple junction a-Si alloy production

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, R.; Jansen, K.; Johnson, B.; Willing, F.; Raquet, J.; Kloss, T.; Morris, J.; Weiss, P.; Yang, L.; Hainsworth, M.C.; Ashenfelter, W.; Stabinsky, B.; Twesme, E.; Chen, L.F.; O'Dowd, J. (Solarex Corporation, Thin Film Division, 826 Newtown-Yardley Road, Newtown, Pennsylvania 18940 (United States))

    1994-06-30

    Amorphous silicon alloy based triple junction 0.1 m[sup 2] modules with initial efficiencies greater than 11% have been produced using manufacturing equipment. Scale-up of equipment to process substrates 0.56 m[sup 2] in area is nearly complete.

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...

  6. Global products of vegetation leaf area and fraction absorbed PAR from year one of MODIS data

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    Global products of vegetation leaf area and fraction absorbed PAR from year one of MODIS data R of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies for the retrieval of vegetation green leaf area index (LAI and ongoing validation activities. D 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Inc. 1. Introduction Leaf area index

  7. Agroclimatic Profiles for Uniform Productivity Areas in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Dyer; A. Teshome; J. K. Torrance

    1993-01-01

    The climate resources of Ethiopia were analyzed to help determine food production potential. Monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration normals were compared to identify growing seasons. These two variables were analyzed in a simple monthly time step soil moisture computer model to objectively interpret their combined effects on water supply and moisture stress and to incorporate soil factors. The soil moisture

  8. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  9. ?ccc production in high energy nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hang; Liu, Yunpeng; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the production of ?ccc baryon in high energy nuclear collisions via quark coalescence mechanism. The wave function of ?ccc is solved from the Schrödinger equation for the bound state of three charm quarks by using the hyperspherical method. The production cross section of ?ccc per binary collision in a central Pb+Pb collision at ?{sNN} = 2.76 TeV reaches 9 nb, which is at least two orders of magnitude larger than that in a p+p collision at the same energy. Therefore, it is most probable to discover ?ccc in heavy ion collisions at LHC, and the observation will be a clear signature of the quark-gluon plasma formation.

  10. Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

    2013-11-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production. PMID:24511757

  11. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brzezinski, M.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Marine Biotechnology Center

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  12. Discover areas of highest plant productivity in the ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    2003-01-01

    This Earth science animation presents a series of monthly satellite images that track global levels of phytoplankton throughout a year. The introduction explains that the color-enhanced images indicate chlorophyll concentration in the oceans. In addition, the text briefly describes the significance of these concentration values. Students are encouraged to analyze changes in plant productivity that occur over the course of a year. Movie control buttons allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images.

  13. CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

  14. Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.

    PubMed

    Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

    2014-11-01

    Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross ? and gross ? activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross ? and gross ? activities in drinking water. The gross ? activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross ? activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. PMID:25087070

  15. Experimental performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at high combustion chamber pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion area ratio of 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1, was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.

  16. Controlling Orientation, Edge Geometry and Thickness of High Quality Large-area CVD Adrian Murdock, Antal Koos, Benjamin Britton, Lothar Houben, Tim Batten, Tong Zhang,

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Controlling Orientation, Edge Geometry and Thickness of High Quality Large-area CVD Graphene Adrian substrates in conjunction with low-pressure CVD to generate high quality, tailored graphene with controlled provides a new avenue towards the controlled production of high quality large-area graphene sheets

  17. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 37-86. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1999): Klei

  18. High resolution tsunami modelling for the evaluation of potential risk areas in Setúbal (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Silva, A.; Leitão, P.

    2011-08-01

    The use of high resolution hydrodynamic modelling to simulate the potential effects of tsunami events can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas. Moreover, the consideration of complementary data such as the type of buildings, location of priority equipment, type of roads, enables mapping of the most vulnerable zones, computing of the expected damage on man-made structures, constrain of the definition of rescue areas and escape routes, adaptation of emergency plans and proper evaluation of the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipment. Such an approach was used to evaluate the specific risks associated with a potential occurrence of a tsunami event in the region of Setúbal (Portugal), which was one of the areas most seriously affected by the 1755 tsunami. In order to perform an evaluation of the hazard associated with the occurrence of a similar event, high resolution wave propagation simulations were performed considering different potential earthquake sources with different magnitudes. Based on these simulations, detailed inundation maps associated with the different events were produced. These results were combined with the available information on the vulnerability of the local infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, priority buildings) in order to impose restrictions in the production of high-scale potential damage maps, escape routes and emergency routes maps.

  19. Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities

    E-print Network

    Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

  20. High pH values in the German Bight as an indication of intensive primary production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Weichart

    1985-01-01

    Results of chemical investigations are reported which were carried out in the German Bight between 1969 and 1979. During spring and summer large patches or areas with high pH values were found. From these data and the relatively low winter pH the minimum primary production (gross primary production minus respiration of all organisms) was calculated. The horizontal distribution of the

  1. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  2. Productivity of Angora goats in the communal rangelands of Molimo-Nthuse area in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Matebesi, P A; Khitsane, L

    2006-01-01

    Production parameters were determined for kidding, offtake and mortality rates, and milk production and composition of Angora goats in two communal agro-ecological zones, Mountains and Lowlands, of Molimo-nthuse area in Lesotho. True incidence rates and risk rates as used in dynamic populations were used to calculate the different production parameters. A completely randomized design was used to compare the differences between the two agro-ecological zones. Angora goats in the two agro-ecological zones produced milk similarly (p > 0.05) in amounts and composition. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in annual kidding, mortality and offtake rates between Angora goats kept in the Lowlands and those in the Mountains. However, high mortality rates and mortality risk rates were observed in both zones. Thus, the risk rates that suckling Angora goats would die within their first 6 months after birth were 28% and 34% for the Mountains and Lowlands, respectively. It is suggested that future emphasis should be on reducing kid mortality through better herding of the goats and improvement of pre- and post-partum nutrition of the doe in this communal livestock farming system. PMID:17265776

  3. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  4. High Evapotranspiration in Urban Areas - A Case Study in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Z.; Zhou, L.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization has a significant influence on the local, regional even global hydrologic process, such as runoff generation, drainage, and water consumption. The final water consumption is evapotranspiration into atmosphere, so it is important to estimate the evapotranspiration in urban area. Usually the urban area is considered as an area of low evapotranspiration, but it is challenged by the wet islands effects. In order to make it clear, we estimated the evapotranspiration by water balance based on the hydrology information and water process data of Beijing from 2003 to 2012. The water balance analyses were made in total area and different sub area including mountain area, plain area, urban area and the suburban area. The results show that (1) the average evapotranspiration in Beijing was close to the precipitation so Beijing made limited contribution to the water resources of the Haihe River Basin; (2) the average evapotranspiration in urban area is about 928mm/a, even higher than the evaporation on water surface; (3) the evapotranspiration in urban area controlled by the precipitation and human activities. We can conclude that the evapotranspiration or water consumption in urban area is higher than that in surround area in Beijing.

  5. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-01-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to

  6. URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR , A. Villa ,

    E-print Network

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR P. Gamba , A. Villa , , A. Plaza for remote sensing classification, especially in a urban environment. In this work, we will focus on the simulation of urban area environment at a low spatial resolution, comparable to the new hyperspectral sensors

  7. Negative ion production in cesium seeded high electron temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, T.; Tobari, H.; Takado, N.; Hanada, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Hatayama, A.; Wada, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Doshisha University, Kyotanabe 610-0394 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    In experiments on uniformity improvement in a large negative ion source, steep gradients have been observed in the profiles of electron temperature and H{sup -} ion beam intensity. It has been observed that the gradient in the H{sup -} ion beam intensity is altered by seeding cesium, though the electron temperature distribution is not affected by Cs. Thus in the Cs seeded condition, the H{sup -} ion beam intensity is enhanced in local area illuminated by high electron temperature plasmas. A brief analysis suggests possible advantages of high electron temperature plasmas for the negative ion surface production, by enhancement of dissociation to yield proton or atoms as parent particles of the negative ions.

  8. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husak, G. J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, D.; Funk, C.; Galu, G.

    2008-07-01

    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  9. Cotton Production on the Texas High Plains.

    E-print Network

    Lane, H. C.; Owen, W. L. Jr.; Walker, H. J.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.; Ray, L. L.; Hudspeth, E. B. Jr.; Jones, D. L.

    1956-01-01

    humid areas. Most of the problems are with annuals such as Russian thistle (Snlsonio kali) and careless or pigweed (Amaranthus sp.). Some local areas are infested with perennials such : as field bindweed (Convol?tulus arvensis) , white- weed...

  10. High Power Microwave Production by Gyroharmonic Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, M. A.; Ganguly, A. K.; Yoder, R. B.; Wang, Changbiao; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1996-11-01

    Recent progress on the production of third and fourth harmonic microwave radiation from a high power, axis-encircling beam will be presented. The 4--10 MW beam is produced by cyclotron autoresonance acceleration (CARA) which is described in detail elsewhere.(M. A. LaPointe, R. B. Yoder, C. Wang, A. K. Ganguly and J. L. Hirshfield, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 2718 (1996); J. L. Hirshfield, M. A. LaPointe, A. K. Ganguly, R. B. Yoder and C. Wang, Phys. Plasmas 3, 2163 (1996). The output section consists of an open cylindrical cavity whose radius is beyond cutoff at the third harmonic of the drive frequency in the TE_31 mode but resonant in the TE_41 mode. Results to date have shown strong third harmonic but only weak fourth harmonic output. One explanation for the presence of the third harmonic could be reactive pulling of the TE_31 cutoff by the high current (25--30 A) beam. Descriptions of the output cavities as well as frequency spectra and calorimetric power measurements will be presented.

  11. Production of extremely thin plastic films of large area for gas-filled detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Gassel; K.-Th. Brinkmann; H. Freiesleben; J. Kiesewetter

    1990-01-01

    The production and investigation of properties of 60 × 15 cm2 Formvar foils with mass area densities from 1 to 150 mugcm-2 is described. The foils are used both as entrance windows of a large ionization chamber and coated with a thin gold layer, as cathode foils of a parallel-plate avalanche counter. The production technique is based on the method

  12. Area Products and Mass Formula for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT Space-time

    E-print Network

    Parthapratim Pradhan

    2014-08-13

    We derive some important physical black hole thermodynamic products (e.g."area product", "entropy product", irreducible mass product etc.) of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons of Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT(Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. We observe that these thermodynamic products are \\emph{not} universal (mass-independence) for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT(KNTN) black hole(BH), whereas for Kerr-Newman(KN) BH such products are universal (mass-independence). We also examine the "entropy sum" and "area sum" for this BH. It is shown that they are all depends on mass, charge and NUT parameter of the back ground space-time. Thus we can conclude that the universal(mass-independence) behaviour of "area product", "entropy product", "area sum" and "entropy sum" for KNTN BH is broken down and which is also quite different from KN BH. We further show that the KNTN BH do not possess \\emph{first law of BH thermodynamics } and \\emph {Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem } realations and that such relations are unlikely in the KN case . The BH \\emph{ mass formula } and \\emph{Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula} for KNTN black holes are derived.

  13. Analysis of leaf area index products from combination of MODIS Terra and Aqua data

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms is designed for monitoring of the Earth 2002 to the present in the case of AquaMODIS. The product suite of both instruments includes vegetationAnalysis of leaf area index products from combination of MODIS Terra and Aqua data W. Yang a,, N

  14. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  15. An assessment of the predictors of the dynamics in arable production per capita index, arable production and permanent cropland and forest area based on structural equation models.

    PubMed

    Epule, Epule Terence; Bryant, Christopher Robin; Akkari, Cherine; Sarr, Mamadou Adama; Peng, Changhui

    2014-01-01

    This study sets out to verify the key predictors of the dynamics of the arable production per capita index, the arable production and permanent crop land and forest area at a national scale in Cameroon. To achieve this objective, data for twelve time series data variables spanning the period 1961-2000 were collected from Oxford University, the United Nations Development program, the World Bank, FAOSTAT and the World Resource Institute. The data were analysed using structural equation models (SEM) based on the two stage least square approach (2SLS). To optimize the results, variables that showed high correlations were dropped because they will not add any new information into the models. The results show that the arable production per capita index is impacted more by population while the influence of rainfall on the arable production per capita index is weak. Arable production and permanent cropland on its part has as the main predictor arable production per capita index. Forest area is seen to be more vulnerable to trade in forest products and logging than any other variable. The models presented in this study are quite reliable because the p and t values are consistent and overall, these results are consistent with previous studies. PMID:26034674

  16. The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

    2014-12-28

    Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors. PMID:25200960

  17. 75 FR 21368 - Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice...Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated five additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21...

  18. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice...Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21...

  19. 76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice...eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  20. High photosynthetic productivity of green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Watanabe, Y; Saiki, H

    2000-06-01

    The batch culture of a newly isolated strain of a green microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana, was carried out using a conical helical tubular photobioreactor. The isolate was capable of good growth at 40 degrees C under an airstream enriched with 10% CO2. The maximum photosynthetic productivity was 34.4 g of dry biomass/(m2 of installation area x d) (12-h light/12-h dark cycle) when the cells were illuminated with an average photosynthetic photon flux density (photosynthetically active radiation ([PAR] 400-700 nm) simulating the outdoors in central Japan (0.980 mmol photons/[m2 x s]). This corresponded to a photosynthetic efficiency of 8.67% (PAR), which was defined as the percentage of the light energy recovered as biomass (394 kJ/[reactor x d]) to the total light energy received (4545 kJ/[reactor x d]). A similarly high photosynthetic efficiency (8.12% [PAR]) was also attained in the combined presence of 10% CO2, 100 ppm of NO, and 25 ppm of SO2. Moreover, good photosynthetic productivity was also obtained under high temperature and high light intensity conditions (maximum temperature, 46.5 degrees C; 1.737 mmol photons/[m2 x s]), when simulating the strong irradiance of the midday summer sun. This strain thus appears well suited for practical application for converting CO2 present in the stack gases emitted by thermal power plants and should be feasible even during the hot summer weather. PMID:10982230

  1. Exploratory study on the land area required for global food supply and the potential global production of bioenergy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wolf; P. S. Bindraban; J. C. Luijten; L. M. Vleeshouwers

    2003-01-01

    The areas of agricultural land on this globe that in the future possibly are available for biomass production for energy use and the potential global production of biomass were calculated. These available land areas increased when the global potential for food production (dependent on agricultural system and available land areas for agriculture) became higher in comparison to the global food

  2. Comment on the $?^+$-production at high energy

    E-print Network

    A. I. Titov; A. Hosaka; S. Date'; Y. Ohashi

    2004-09-15

    We show that the cross sections of the $\\Theta^+$-pentaquark production in different processes decrease with energy faster than the cross sections of production of the conventional three-quark hyperons. Therefore, the threshold region with the initial energy of a few GeV or less seemsto be more favorable for the production and experimental study of $\\Theta^+$-pentaquark.

  3. Production of large area LST products of HJ-1B IRS based on a fusion framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changmiao; Tang, Ping

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, image fusion algorithm are used to improve the quality of HJ-1 B IRS LST products. The HJ-1 B IRS LST data with multi temporal are transformed to the similar temporal based on a fusion framework, and the MODIS LST products are used as reference data. There are two research core: 1) How to simplify the fusion model to obtain more robustness data production result; 2)How to deal with the cloud and cloud shadow region. A algorithm process for HJ-1 B LST products is proposed, and a specific experiment showed the application prospect of the algorithm process.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  5. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high- temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be

  6. Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

  7. High radon areas in the Walloon region of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Tondeur, F; Cinelli, G; Dehandschutter, B

    2015-06-01

    Indoor radon data from Southern Belgium are organised in 35 geological units (GUs), most of which are homogeneous with respect to the radon risk. The percentage of cases above the reference level (400 Bq m(-3); 300 Bq m(-3) in the future) is calculated for these GUs from the observations and from the log-normal distribution fitted to the data. Affected areas are defined as areas with more than 1 % of houses above the reference level. In the north of the region, the old Palaeozoic basement is generally covered by Silesian, Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks, which are unaffected. The affected areas here are hot spots associated with specific Palaeozoic outcrops. In the south, there is generally no cover above Palaeozoic formations, which are often radon affected. The affected areas of Ardenne and Condroz dominate this part, but unaffected areas occur like Famenne and Gaume. About 48 % of the Walloon region is expected to be radon affected. PMID:25969523

  8. [The productive district of textile asbestos in the Lower Iseo Lake area].

    PubMed

    Caironi, Massimo; Polini, Sandro; Storto, Teodorico; Bertoli, Mariarosa

    2007-01-01

    In the Bergamo area of Basso Sebino (lower Lake Iseo), for decades there has been a large concentration of small firms (mostly family-run), specialised in the production of rubber gaskets. Within this production field, some companies used to manufacture textile asbestos exclusively or as part of their business. The asbestos goods were therefore marketed as they were or subsequently cut and transformed into gaskets. Among the 5 companies involved, "Manifattura Colombo & C" was the first one that started this production in the district, and the one that engaged the greatest number of employees (considering both the Sarnico and Predore factories). In the Predore factory, operating from the fifties to 1979, the asbestos thread production was carried out exclusively and to the complete technological cycle (i.e. from crashing the raw asbestos that was brought in from Balangero). The whole process was performed in an extremely dusty environment (according to the witness of former workers), expecially during the first production steps. In the Sarnico factory which operated from 1920 to 1993, they produced textile asbestos items (laces, ropes, etc.), as well as rubber and metal gaskets. The latter were coupled with asbestos by means of metal-plastics co-moulding operations, in order to obtain gaskets highly resistant to exhaust vapours, gases, oils, solvents and so on. The environmental data available (referred to the 1980-1992 period), supply evidence of severe exposure in the first years of activity, whilst a sharp reduction in the asbestos-fiber concentration rate was achieved along the years, thanks mainly to the completion and improvement of exhaust systems installed on winding and braiding machines. Finally we shortly describe the work of the four other factories and in more detail that of the "Manifattura Sebina srl" is mentioned herein because, although this is a "typical" textile mill and exclusively manufacturing cotton products, a considerable number of cases of mesothelioma has been detected among its workforce. This has been attributed to the presence of asbestos insulated piping, to maintenance and replacement interventions on looms brake pads, and above all to the nearly 50 asbestos blankets that were employed in the weekly fire-fighting exercises, and usually leaned against the walls of departments, with no protection whatsoever. PMID:18050852

  9. Detection and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish from Italian production areas.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Elisabetta; Mioni, Renzo; Mazzette, Rina; Bordin, Paola; Serratore, Patrizia; Fois, Federica; Piano, Annamaria; Cozzi, Loredana; Croci, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine microorganism, recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness particularly in Asia, South America and United States. Outbreaks are rarely reported in Europe, but they can occur unexpectedly in relation, among other reasons, to the spread of highly virulent strains. It is known that the risk is proportional to exposure levels to pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (i.e. carrying the tdh and/or the trh genes) but currently there is a lack of occurrence data for pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish production areas of the Member States. In this study a total of 147 samples of bivalve molluscs, from harvesting areas of two Italian regions (Sardinia and Veneto) were analyzed for Escherichia coli and salmonella, according to Reg 2073/2005, and for detection and enumeration of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus strains using a new DNA colony hybridization method. Environmental parameters (water temperature and salinity) were also recorded. Results of E. coli were consistently in agreement with the legislation limits for the harvesting class of origin and Salmonella was detected only in one sample. The average contamination levels for total V. parahaemolyticus were 84 and 73 CFU/g respectively for Sardinia and Veneto, with the highest value reaching 8.7 × 10(3)CFU/g. Nineteen samples (12.9%) resulted positive for the presence of potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, with levels ranging between 10 and 120 CFU/g and most of the positive samples (n=17) showing values equal or below 20 CFU/g. A significant correlation (r=0.41) was found between water temperature and V. parahaemolyticus levels, as well as with isolation frequency. The data provided in this study on contamination levels of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, seasonal distribution and correlation with water temperature, will help in defining appropriate monitoring programs and post-harvest policies for this hazard, improving the management of the harvesting areas and the safety of bivalve molluscs. PMID:24810197

  10. High B-field, large area ratio MHD duct experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Wang, S. Y.; Morgan, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the effect of area ratio variation on the performance of a supersonic Hall MHD duct were extended up to area ratios of 6.25/1. It is shown that for a given area ratio there is a combustion pressure above which the power generating region of the duct is shock free and the power output increases linearly with the square of the magnetic field. Below this pressure a shock forms in the duct which moves upstream with increasing magnetic field strength and results in a less rapid rise in power output.

  11. Particle Production in High-energy Heavy-ion Collisions

    E-print Network

    Xin-Nian Wang

    2001-11-29

    Particle production mechanisms in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed in connection with recent experimental data from RHIC. Implications on mini-jet production, parton saturation and jet quenching are discussed.

  12. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi [SEN Corporation, 1501, Imazaike, Saijo, Ehime, 799-1362 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  13. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S. [comp.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  14. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S. (comp.)

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  15. Research productivity in the areas of child abuse and domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R A; Holmes, M; Maly, C

    1999-06-01

    Research productivity in the areas of child abuse and domestic violence was reviewed for the years 1990-1996 by examining articles published in Child Abuse and Neglect, the Journal of Family Violence, and the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. To examine productivity across institutions, quantification of productivity was based on ordinal position of authorship as previously used. Productivity across these three journals was also summed based on the 1987 composite productivity index formula of Howard, et al., and the data were compared with a productivity assessment based on a search process in the PsycLIT database. Rank-order correlations between the raw productivity total, the composite measure, and productivity based on first-authored publications in PsycLIT were all significant. The findings suggest that the composite measure represents a good estimate of productivity across the three journals and that publication in these three journals provides a good representation of research in the general areas of child abuse and domestic and interpersonal violence. The findings, along with implications regarding the relative utility of such information for selection of graduate programs that have a strong research focus on child abuse or domestic violence, are discussed. PMID:10408213

  16. Effect of drainage area and production rate on the performance of depletion drive oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khatib, N.A.F.

    1982-01-01

    A modified performance prediction method for depletion drive oil reservoirs that accounts for pressure and saturation variations within the reservoir is outlined. This developed method is used to study the effect of such parameters as production rate, well spacing, shape of drainage area and well location and formation damage on reservoir performance. This study shows that production rate, well spacing, and formation damage significantly affect the performance while the shape of drainage area and the well location within a specified drainage area has insignificant effect on the performance. Fractional oil recovery is found to increase and the producing gas-oil ratio to increase at increasing production rate, increasing well spacing and increasing skin factor.

  17. The effect of drainage area and production rate on the performance of depletion drive oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    El-Khatib, N.A.F.

    1982-09-01

    A modified performance prediction method for depletion drive oil reservoirs that accounts for pressure and saturation variations within the reservoir is outlined. This developed method is used to study the effect of such parameters as production rate, well spacing, shape of drainage area and well location and formation damage on reservoir performance. This study shows that production rate, well spacing and formation damage significantly affect the performance while the shape of drainage area and the well location within a specified drainage area has insignificant effect on the performance. Fractional oil recovery is found to increase and the producing gas-oil ratio to increase at increasing production rate, increasing well spacing and increasing skin factor.

  18. High surface area stainless steel brushes as cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas F; Merrill, Matthew D; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-03-15

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are an efficient technology for generating hydrogen gas from organic matter, but alternatives to precious metals are needed for cathode catalysts. We show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates and efficiencies similar to those achieved with platinum-catalyzed carbon cloth cathodes in single-chamber MECs. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2/m3, hydrogen was produced at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.1 m3-H2/m3-d (current density of 188 +/- 10 A/m3) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V. The energy efficiency relative to the electrical energy input was 221 +/- 8%, and the overall energy efficiency was 78 +/- 5% based on both electrical energy and substrate utilization. These values compare well to previous results obtained using platinum on flat carbon cathodes in a similar system. Reducing the cathode surface area by 75% decreased performance from 91 +/- 3 A/m3 to 78 +/- 4 A/m3. A brush cathode with graphite instead of stainless steel and a specific surface area of 4600 m2/m3 generated substantially less current (1.7 +/- 0.0 A/m3), and a flat stainless steel cathode (25 m2/m3) produced 64 +/- 1 A/m3, demonstrating that both the stainless steel and the large surface area contributed to high current densities. Linear sweep voltammetry showed that the stainless steel brush cathodes both reduced the overpotential needed for hydrogen evolution and exhibited a decrease in overpotential over time as a result of activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that hydrogen production can be achieved at rates comparable to those with precious metal catalysts in MECs without the need for expensive cathodes. PMID:19368232

  19. Milk production and calf rearing practices in the smallholder areas in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mapekula, M; Chimonyo, M; Mapiye, C; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Farmer perceptions on milk production and calf rearing practices on communal rangelands in the smallholder areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were evaluated on a total of 218 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with key informants and personal observations. Nearly 70% of the households in the small-scale areas milked twice a day compared to 60% in the communal areas. About 62% of the interviewees weaned calves between 6 and 12 months of age. Milk yield/cow/day (7.5 +/- 0.5 litres), fresh milk consumption/household/day (3.2 +/- 0.5 litres) and sales/household/day (3.1 +/- 1.1 litres) were highest in the sour-veld, small-scale farms (P < 0.05). Sour milk consumption/household/day (2.6 +/- 0.2 litres) and sales/household/day (0.8 +/- 0.2 litres) were significantly high in communal farms with a sour-veld. It was concluded that, calf rearing practices were poor and milk yield, consumption and sales were generally low and varied with production system and rangeland type. Further research is required to improve calf management practices, cow nutrition, milk yield and quality and how milk production can be used as a toll for rural development in the smallholder areas of South Africa. PMID:19347665

  20. High efficiency thin film silicon hybrid solar cell module on 1 m\\/sup 2\\/-class large area substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masashi Yoshimi; Toshiaki Sasaki; Toru Sawada; Takashi Suezaki; Tomomi Meguro; Takahiro Matsuda; Koji Santo; Kazuya Wadano; Mitsuru Ichikawa; Akihiko Nakajima; Kenji Yamamoto

    2003-01-01

    To realize both high performance and low cost, we have developed thin-film a-Si\\/poly-Si (\\/spl mu\\/c-Si) HYBRID solar cell on 1 m\\/sup 2\\/-class large area substrates. In mass production scale, the deposition rate of poly-Si has been increased up to 11 A\\/sec. An averaged initial efficiency of around 11% has been obtained for the large-sized module by using the high throughput

  1. Variation of the area-to-mass ratio of high area-to-mass ratio space debris objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Früh, C.; Schildknecht, T.

    2012-02-01

    An unexpected space debris population with the unique property of a very high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) was detected in 2004 by Schildknecht and colleagues. Ever since, attempts have been made to investigate the dynamical properties of these objects further. Their orbits are heavily perturbed by the effect of direct radiation pressure, and unknown attitude motion complicates orbit prediction. The area-to-mass ratio of the objects seems to be unstable over time. Only sparse optical data are available for these objects in drift orbits. This paper makes use of optical observations of five HAMR objects, observed over several years, and investigates the variation of their area-to-mass ratio and orbital parameters. A normalized orbit determination setup is established and validated with two low- and two high-area-to-mass-ratio-objects, to ensure that comparable orbits over longer time spans are determined even with sparse optical data.

  2. Evaluation of the snow-covered area data product from MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Edwin P.; Rhoads, Joshua D.; Dubayah, Ralph O.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2003-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flown on board the Terra Earth Observing System (EOS) platform launched in December 1999, produces a snow-covered area (SCA) product. This product is expected to be of better quality than SCA products based on operational satellites (notably GOES and AVHRR), due both to improved spectral resolution and higher spatial resolution of the MODIS instrument. The gridded MODIS SCA product was compared with the SCA product produced and distributed by the National Weather Service National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) for 46 selected days over the Columbia River basin and 32 days over the Missouri River basin during winter and spring of 2000-01. Snow presence or absence was inferred from ground observations of snow depth at 1330 stations in the Missouri River basin and 762 stations in the Columbia River basin, and was compared with the presence/absence classification for the corresponding pixels in the MODIS and NOHRSC SCA products. On average, the MODIS SCA images classified fewer pixels as cloud than NOHRSC, the effect of which was that 15% more of the Columbia basin area could be classified as to presence-absence of snow, while overall there was a statistically insignificant difference over the Missouri basin. Of the pixels classified as cloud free, MODIS misclassified 4% and 5% fewer overall (for the Columbia and Missouri basins respectively) than did the NOHRSC product. When segregated by vegetation cover, forested areas had the greatest differences in fraction of cloud cover reported by the two SCA products, with MODIS classifying 13% and 17% less of the images as cloud for the Missouri and Columbia basins respectively. These differences are particularly important in the Columbia River basin, 39% of which is forested. The ability of MODIS to classify significantly greater amounts of snow in the presence of cloud in more topographically complex, forested, and snow-dominated areas of these two basins provides valuable information for hydrologic prediction.

  3. Analytical profiles of "legal highs" containing cathinones available in the area of Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Zancajo, Victor M R; Brito, J; Carrasco, Marta P; Bronze, M R; Moreira, Rui; Lopes, Alvaro

    2014-11-01

    Thirteen "legal highs" were purchased in different "smart shops" in the area of Lisbon, Portugal, during the month of February 2013. The samples were analyzed by a battery of analytical methods including Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF). Active ingredients were found either as single component or in mixtures in the different products. The cathinone derivative methedrone was present in three products; it is suspected to have a particular high toxicity and narrow therapeutic window linked with the methoxy group. A total of seven compounds were identified: 4-fluoromethcathinone, ethcathinone, buphedrone, methedrone, pentedrone, 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone and 4-methylethcathinone. Analytical profiles of all the samples were obtained and compared. Elemental composition of the products was obtained by XRF analysis. The inorganic profiles obtained contain useful information and can be used to distinguish and classify samples according to their origin. PMID:25240621

  4. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells 

    E-print Network

    Tosic, Slavko

    2008-10-10

    Operators, especially those managing production from deepwater reservoirs, are striving to produce hydrocarbons at higher and higher rates without exposing the wells to completion failure risk. To avoid screen failures, recent studies have favored...

  5. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells 

    E-print Network

    Tosic, Slavko

    2009-05-15

    Operators, especially those managing production from deepwater reservoirs, are striving to produce hydrocarbons at higher and higher rates without exposing the wells to completion failure risk. To avoid screen failures, recent studies have favored...

  6. Application of remote sensors in mapping rice area and forecasting its production: a review.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Mostafa K; Hassan, Quazi K; Chowdhury, Ehsan H

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ~19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ~65 kg during 2010-2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

  7. Application of Remote Sensors in Mapping Rice Area and Forecasting Its Production: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh, Mostafa K.; Hassan, Quazi K.; Chowdhury, Ehsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ?19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ?65 kg during 2010–2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

  8. Large area high density plasma source by helical resonator arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Se-Geun Park; Beom-hoan O; Minyoung Sohn; Jinwoo Kim

    2000-01-01

    An array of smaller unit plasma sources has been used for generating a larger area plasma to process large substrates such as flat panel displays. In this work, four helical resonators are distributed in a 2×2 array by modifying the upper part of the conventional reactive ion etching type LCD etcher. Since the resonance condition of the individual unit can

  9. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production 

    E-print Network

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09

    High-biomass sorghums are being developed as a dedicated energy crop for biofuels. Their high biomass yields provide large quantities of structural carbohydrates (cellulose, lignin, etc.) for energy production. Sorghum improvement for applications...

  10. CHANGES IN CROP PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY WITH HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in crop yield are due to changes in the genetic efficiency in the use of inputs. However, there are constraints on efficient use of resources, e.g., water, nitrogen, solar radiation, that limit consistent high yield response. The interactions of water, nitrogen, and light form a basis fo...

  11. Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

  12. Gender in urban food production in hazardous areas in Kampala, Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace Nabulo; Juliet Kiguli; Lilian N. Kiguli

    Urbanization is an important development process that is linked to land access, food production, and food security. This chapter focuses on a gender-analysis study of urban agriculture, specifi cally of farmers growing food crops in hazardous areas in Kampala city, investigating the division of labour, relationships, constraints, and initiatives within urban farming households. Such a study is important to ensure

  13. Optimized size design of integrated magnetic components using area product approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nijende; N. Frohleke; J. Bocker

    2005-01-01

    Substantial reductions in size and costs of magnetic components and power supplies can be achieved by an integration of magnetic components on one core. So far, no adequate method is known for computerized design of integrated magnetics. In this contribution, an optimized size design approach of integrated magnetic components using area product formulation is presented. In a first step, optimal

  14. Dynamics of light interception, leaf area and biomass production in Populus clones

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dynamics of light interception, leaf area and biomass production in Populus clones this relationship between light interception and biomass growth on 4 very different Popu- lus clones during, U.S.A., with unrooted, 25 cm hardwood cuttings of 4 poplar clones, including 2 hybrids P

  15. Globalization of Production and Innovation: How Outsourcing is Reshaping an Advanced Manufacturing Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Cusmano; Maria Luisa Mancusi; Andrea Morrison

    2010-01-01

    Cusmano L., Mancusi M. L. and Morrison A. Globalization of production and innovation: how outsourcing is reshaping an advanced manufacturing area, Regional Studies. This paper investigates the determinants and the spatial and functional dimensions of firms' outsourcing. Based on a large survey of manufacturing firms in Lombardy, Italy, the analysis shows that outsourcing is remarkably wide across sectors and has

  16. Opportunities to increasing dry season rice productivity in low temperature affected areas

    E-print Network

    van Kessel, Chris

    to poor germination, poor seedling growth or insufficient seedlings. Rice needs to be sown at times whereOpportunities to increasing dry season rice productivity in low temperature affected areas of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia c Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University

  17. Estimating leaf area index from Landsat using MODIS LAI products and field measurements as reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical parameter used in most land surface models. Operationally, LAI products currently used typically come from coarse resolution sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While coarse resolution data at the kilometer scale are o...

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  19. A comparison of Lisp, Prolog, and Ada programming productivity in AI area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Hattori; K. Kushima; T. Wasano

    1985-01-01

    An experiment comparing programming productivity of Lisp, Prolog, and Ada used in the AI (Artificial Intelligence) area is reported. Lisp and Prolog have been the main languages used for AI programming because of their symbol manipulation and list processing facilities. There is a possibility, however, that general purpose languages such as Ada or C can be used to develop large-scale,

  20. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  1. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PRODUCTION AREA OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM BASED ON EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Xi; Wei Guo; Yinchao Che; Hao Zhang; Qiang Wang; Xinming Ma

    2009-01-01

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal,\\u000a applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and\\u000a data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking\\u000a embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting

  2. Historical U.S. cropland areas and the potential for bioenergy production on abandoned croplands.

    PubMed

    Zumkehr, A; Campbell, J E

    2013-04-16

    Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be driven by growing demand for food and biofuels. While these impacts have been explored using global gridded maps of croplands, such maps are based on relatively coarse spatial data. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories for the conterminous U.S. with a land-use model to develop historical gridded cropland areas for the years 1850-2000 and year 2000 abandoned cropland maps. While the historical cropland maps are consistent with generally accepted land-use trends, our U.S. abandoned cropland estimates of 68 Mha are as much as 70% larger than previous gridded estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. Renewed cultivation on the subset of abandoned croplands that have not become forests or urban lands represents one approach to mitigating the future expansion of agriculture. Potential bioenergy production from these abandoned lands using a wide range of biomass yields and conversion efficiencies has an upper-limit of 5-30% of the current U.S. primary energy demand or 4-30% of the current U.S. liquid fuel demand. PMID:23506118

  3. Array Optimizations for Parallel Implementations of High Productivity Languages

    E-print Network

    Budimliæ, Zoran

    Array Optimizations for Parallel Implementations of High Productivity Languages Mackale Joyner, vsarkar, ruizhang}@cs.rice.edu Abstract DARPA's HPCS program has set a goal of bringing high pro- ductivity to high-performance computing. This has resulted in the creation of three new high-level languages

  4. High Tunnel Crop Production Tips Lewis W. Jett

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    High Tunnel Crop Production Tips Lewis W. Jett West Virginia University 2102 Agriculture Sciences Building Morgantown, WV 26506 What is a high tunnel? High tunnels are low-cost season-extension technology. Specifically, high tunnels are passively vented, solar greenhouses covered with 1-2 layers of greenhouse

  5. High rate PECVD of low defect density a-Si:H on large areas

    SciTech Connect

    Roehlecke, S.; Steinke, O.; Schade, K.; Stahr, F.; Albert, M.; Deltschew, R.; Kottwitz, A.; Carius, R.

    1997-07-01

    Industrial production of amorphous silicon solar cells, photoreceptors and several opto-electronic devices requires large area, high-deposition-rate plasma reactors and deposition processes. Non-uniformity of the film thickness and particle generation at high power densities as well as the deposition rate are found to be important limiting factors in large area PECVD. The deposition was performed in a capacitively-coupled coaxial diode rf glow discharge with large areas (1,000 cm{sup 2} and 2,000 cm{sup 2}) at 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz. The authors studied the particle generation in the plasma reactor over a wide range of silane concentration (20% to 100%) in the SiH{sub 4}/He mixture. They will present the opto-electronic properties of a-Si:H films and the influence of the substrate bias. The films are characterized by dark- and photoconductivity and by PDS. It was confirmed through this study that helium dilution is effective in the suppression of powder growth for high-rate deposition up to 18 {micro}m/hr. Special attention was paid to the optimization of reactor design and plasma conditions for the deposition of low density of states a-Si:H ({approximately}10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}) at deposition rates of up to 18 {micro}m/hr. Dark conductivity was 10{sup {minus}9} S/cm and photoconductivity was about 5{center_dot}10{sup {minus}4} S/cm.

  6. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils from European High Mountain Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Quiroz; Joan O. Grimalt; Pilar Fernandez; Lluis Camarero; Jordi Catalan; Evzen Stuchlik; Hansjoerg Thies; Ulrike Nickus

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 70 soils distributed in mountain areas such as Montseny (300–1,700 m),\\u000a Pyrenees (1,500–2,900 m), Alps (1,100–2,500 m), and Tatras (1,400–1,960 m). Average total PAH concentrations, excluding retene\\u000a and perylene, were about 400 ng\\/g in the Pyrenees and 1,300–1,600 ng\\/g in the other mountain ranges. No correlations between\\u000a PAH concentrations and total organic carbon were observed. Retene was the major

  8. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  9. Lut Desert (Iran): A High - Potential Area for Finding Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourkhorsandi, H.; Mirnejad, H.

    2013-09-01

    Field trips to the Lut desert in recent years have led to the discovery of several fragments of meteorites. Climate and surface conditions in Lut desert makes it a high-potential region for preserving large concentrations of meteorites.

  10. CM-SAF high-resolution radiation budget products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicula, Bogdan; Dewitte, Steven; Clerbaux, Nicolas

    2003-04-01

    In this paper the system employed at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) within the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM-SAF) for the production of Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget components is described. One of the goals of the CM-SAF is to provide consistent TOA and surface radiation budget components and cloud properties at high spatial resolution and on an approximate equal area grid for a region that covers at least Europe and part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The TOA radiation products will be based on data from polar orbiting satellites for northern latitudes, and on data from MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) for mid latitudes. The instruments used for the reflected solar and emitted thermal flux estimates will be GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and SEVIRI as the geostationary instruments and CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) for the non geostationary instruments. Daily means, monthly means and monthly mean diurnal cycles are to be provided. Until MSG fluxes will become available, fluxes from METEOSAT and CERES are used for development. At the TOA the three radiative flux components of incoming solar radiation, reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal radiation will be given. The daily mean GERB and CERES fluxes will be merged to produce a homogenized TOA flux product. The method used for the merging of the TOA fluxes and together with results using currently available input data are shown. The merging consists in the collocation of the two instruments, detection and the removal of the systematic dependencies of the flux estimates on scene type and viewing angles and regridding on a common grid.

  11. High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

  12. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  13. Operation of a frequency-narrowed high-beam quality broad-area laser by a passively stabilized external cavity technique

    E-print Network

    Bayram, S. Burçin

    systems in many demanding applications such as the production of laser polarized noble gas samplesOperation of a frequency-narrowed high-beam quality broad-area laser by a passively stabilized The average spectral bandwidth of a 2 W broad-area diode laser was narrowed to 5 GHz with wavelength

  14. Compounds of molybdenum and tungsten with high specific surface area: carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, L.; Boudart, M.

    1985-10-01

    Temperature-programmed carburization of W/sub 2/N and Mo/sub 2/N powders in CH/sub 4/-H/sub 2/ mixtures up to 1150 and 970 K, respectively, leads to metastable face-centered cubic carbide phases. The reaction is topotactic in the sense that the face-centered cubic structure of the metal atoms remains unaltered, while the nitrogen and carbon atoms exchange their interstitial positions. Thus, the product retains the structure, crystallite size, and high specific surface area of its nitride parent, namely, 55 and 185 m/sup 2/g/sup -1/ for ..beta..-WC /SUB 1-x/ and ..cap alpha..-MoC /SUB 0.45/ , respectively.

  15. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., 39655 Eureka Drive, Newark, California 94560 (United States); Speidel, Michael A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

  16. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  17. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Löffler; O. Rössler

    2002-01-01

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where pro- cess dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosys- tem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå\\/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER WUN- DRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing

  18. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers with flattened dispersion and low effective mode area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Liang; Maojin Yun; Weijin Kong; Xin Sun; Wenfei Zhang; Sixing Xi

    2011-01-01

    A highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers with flattened dispersion and low effective area is proposed by introducing elliptical air holes in the cladding and small holes both in the core area and in the cladding. With the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, the birefringent, dispersion and effective area of the fundamental modes in such photonic crystal fibers are analyzed

  19. The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehle, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas. (GR)

  20. Innovation diffusion of successive generations of high technology products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Kapur; Udayan Chanda; Abhishek Tandon; Sameer Anand

    2010-01-01

    As most of the high-technology companies are trying to be more demand driven, technological innovation and diffusion have become important force in markets today. It critically affects the fortunes of consumers, firms, and nations. Despite research across many disciplines, many important areas still remain to be explored fully. Consumer adoption decision for multi-generation innovation is one such important research area

  1. MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUBHUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. N. LUNGU

    MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUB-HUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA. Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop\\/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on

  2. Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

    2013-12-01

    Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

  3. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  4. GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamae, Tuneyoshi

    2003-07-01

    GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (~ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and ? beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on the cosmic-ray background expected in the orbit. All subsystems of GLAST-LAT are scheduled to be completed and come to SLAC in 2005 for integration. The integrated instrument will go through a set of tests before being integrated onto the spacecraft. The spacecraft will be put into a Low Earth Orbit (altitude ~ 450-550km) in the fall of 2006 and the LAT will begin collecting data after the commissiong phase. The astronomical gamma-ray data collected in the observation will be processed by the LAT team and archived for public use GLAST Science Support Center at Goddard Space Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. For the GLAST-LAT collaboration.

  5. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities. PMID:21860777

  6. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  7. Low-cost high purity production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapur, V. K.

    1978-01-01

    Economical process produces high-purity silicon crystals suitable for use in solar cells. Reaction is strongly exothermic and can be initiated at relatively low temperature, making it potentially suitable for development into low-cost commercial process. Important advantages include exothermic character and comparatively low process temperatures. These could lead to significant savings in equipment and energy costs.

  8. Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Ladouceur; Chantal Mireault

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 1,612 adolescents from nine different high schools in the region of Québec city completed a questionnaire developed by Lesieur and Klein (1987) concerning their gambling behavior. Seventy-six percent had gambled once in their lifetime, 65% placed a bet in the last year and 24% gambled at least once a week. Of those who had gambled, 5.6% wanted

  9. High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E. Anderson; Susan S. Owicki; James B. Saxe; Charles P. Thacker

    1993-01-01

    Current technology trends make it possible to build communication networks that can support high-performance distributed computing. This paper describes issues in the design of a prototype switch for an arbitrary topology point-to-point network with link speeds of up to 1 Gbit\\/s. The switch deals in fixed-length ATM-style cells, which it can process at a rate of 37 million cells per

  10. NILE: wide-area computing for high energy physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Marzullo; Michael Ogg; Aleta Ricciardi; Alessandro Amoroso; F. Andrew Calkins; Eric Rothfus

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO project [2], centered at Cornell University, is alarge-scale high energy physics project. The goals of the projectarise from an esoteric question---why is there apparently so littleantimatter in the universe?---and the computational problems thatarise in trying to answer this question are quite challenging.To answer this question, the CESR storage ring at Cornell isused to generate a beam of electrons

  11. High resolution numerical simulation of the Monterey Bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Heng; Dietrich, David E.; Ferziger, Joel H.

    2003-11-01

    Ocean circulation off the west coast of the United States is driven by a variety of mechanisms, the most important of which are the seasonally varying wind stress and coastal irregularities. We use a non-hydrostatic, z-level DieCAST ocean model to simulate regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay area, California. The complex topography is accurately represented by a ghost-cell immersed boundary method (GCIBM). Satellite images often show a cyclonic eddy in the bay and an anti-cyclonic eddy outside the bay during spring and summer. We compare the simulation results with observed mooring data and compare the simulated upwelling process with the satellite images. The mean currents follow the annual cycle of the seasonal circulation. The coastal geometry plays an important role in the generation and movement of coastal eddies. We also study the effects of Monterey Submarine Canyon on the large scale coastal circulation. Quantitative comparisons between hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models are made to investigate the importance of the non-hydrostatic effects on the coastal ocean simulation. The non-hydrostatic model predicts the vertical structure more accurately than does the hydrostatic model. We also find out the deep Canyon contributes significantly to the non-hydrostatic effects and the effects cannot be ignored in coastal ocean modeling with complex topography.

  12. Psittacosis in a highly endemic area in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, C.; Marracino, A.; Di Stanislao, F.; Pauri, P.; Clementi, M.; Varaldo, P. E.

    1987-01-01

    In one locality in Italy where the incidence of psittacosis has increased rapidly since 1980, a hospital-based study and a seroepidemiological survey were carried out in order to define the clinical and epidemiological features of psittacosis in that area. Registers of the Virology Unit of the University of Ancona, Italy, were reviewed and all hospitalized patients with a serological diagnosis of psittacosis were identified. A total of 76 cases were found and studied. A presumptive bird source was identified in 80% of 62 patients, on whom a detailed investigation had been possible. Poultry represented the most frequent probable source of infection. Clinically, the predominant pattern of illness was a moderately severe lower respiratory tract infection, with chest X-rays showing pulmonary shadowings in 68 patients (89%). In the seroepidemiological study, 51 out of 143 subjects were exposed to birds (35.7%), but only 7 out of 96 urban adult blood donors (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial antibodies using the microimmunofluorescence test. PMID:3315709

  13. Mycoflora of Argentinian corn harvested in the main production area in 1990

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. L. González; S. L. Resnik; R. T. Boca; W. F. O. Marasas

    1995-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays) is the main cereal produced in and exported from Argentina. The risk of contamination by mycotoxins is related to the mycoflora\\u000a associated with the corn kernels. This paper reports on the identification of internal and external mycoflora of corn kernels\\u000a harvested in the main production area in Argentina in 1990. A mycological survey was carried out on

  14. Model Analysis of PM 10 Concentration Variations Over a Mineral Products Industrial Area in Saraburi, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sittichai Pimonsree; Prungchan Wongwises; Rudklao Pan-Aram; Meigen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution associated with particulate matters is a serious problem in the mineral products industrial area (MPIA) in Saraburi,\\u000a central Thailand. PM10 concentrations monitored at Nah Phra Laan station located in the MPIA show that PM10 levels exhibit strong seasonal variations; the number of days in 2005 that PM10 concentrations exceeded the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 120 ?g\\/m3

  15. Multi Jet Production at High Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Kluge, Thomas [DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-10-06

    Deep-inelastic e+p scattering data, taken with the H1 detector at HERA, are used to investigate jet production over a range of four-momentum transfers 150 < Q2 < 15000 GeV2 and transverse jet energies 5 < ET < 50 GeV. The analysis is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of Lint = 65.4 pb-1 taken in the years 1999-2000 at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s) {approx_equal} 319 GeV. Jets are defined by the inclusive kt algorithm in the Breit frame of reference. Dijet and trijet jet cross sections are measured with respect to the exchanged boson virtuality and in addition the ratio of the trijet to the dijet cross section R3/2 is investigated. The results are compared to the predictions of perturbative QCD calculations in next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant {alpha}s. The value of {alpha}s(mZ) determined from the study of R3/2 is {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1175 {+-} 0.0017(stat.) {+-} 0.0050(syst.){sub -0.0068}{sup +0.0054}(theo.)

  16. [Radio-ecological situation in the area of JSC "Priargunsky Production Mining and Chemical Association"].

    PubMed

    Shandala, N K; Semenova, M P; Isaev, D V; Kiselev, S M; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Filonova, A A; Zhuravleva, L A; Marenny, A M

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the radioecological situation created in the area of the location of diversified uranium mining enterprise "Priargunsky Production Mining and Chemical Association" (PIMCU) there was investigated the radioactivity of a number of the compartments of environment, both at the industrial site and beyond it, as well as the volume activity of radon inside the ground and working premises. Radioecological situation in the vicinity of the uranium mines was performed in comparison with the background (fixed reference, control) district, where there is no uranium mining. Performed studies have shown the significant excess content of 226Ra, 232Th, 210Pb, 222Rn in soil, water open water bodies and local foods near uranium mines compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining that allows to make a conclusion about the significant technogenic pollution of local areas of the plant and adjoining territory. PMID:25842487

  17. Cotton Production on the Texas High Plains. 

    E-print Network

    Lane, H. C.; Owen, W. L. Jr.; Walker, H. J.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.; Ray, L. L.; Hudspeth, E. B. Jr.; Jones, D. L.

    1956-01-01

    the mechanical stripper is used for harvesting, the final stand should be three to four plants per foot of row. The planter should be equipped with the seed press wheel which runs over the seed before covering. The opening plow should be narrow a~d shielded... season and lowers yields. June 15 to 20 is the last practical date for planting. Funow Depth Generally cotton is planted in a furrow with the lister type planter. The furrow gives some protection to the young seedlings from high winds and blowing...

  18. ?^+ and ?(1520) production in pp reactions at high energies

    E-print Network

    I. M. Narodetskii; M. A. Trusov

    2006-01-25

    We estimate the cross sections for the inclusive production of $\\Theta^+$ and $\\Lambda(1520)$ in $pp$ collisions at high energy using the $K$ exchange diagrams. We find that inclusive $\\Theta^+$ production should be at the level of 1 $\\mu$b at energies~ $\\sqrt{s}~\\gtrsim~10~{\\rm GeV}$. The ratio of $\\Theta^+(1540)$ to $\\Lambda(1520)$ production cross-sections is $\\sim 1%$.

  19. [Smoking. Analysis of the scientific production in the SEPAR smoking area in 2009].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Reina, Segismundo Solano; López, Cristina Esquinas; Rebollo, José Carlos Serrano

    2010-03-01

    The SEPAR Smoking Area was started in the year 1995. Its main aims were to increase awareness of the problem of smoking among the members of our scientific society, to improve their scientific knowledge on this problem, to help in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in smokers, and finally, to promote interventions for the prevention and treatment of smoking by the health and political administrations. Nowadays, it is the most dynamic areas of SEPAR and has more than 400 members. Throughout the year 2009, the health professionals of the SEPAR smoking area have carried out intense research work that has led to a reasonable scientific production that has covered different aspects of the discipline of smoking. The most impressive studies were those that tried to determine the impact that Law 28/2005 has had in the prevalence of smoking in Spain, the studies that assessed the scientific productivity of the area members and the numerous articles that published the results from different smoking units that are led by Spanish pneumologists. PMID:20353843

  20. Recurrent acute respiratory tract infections in areas with high nitrate concentrations in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S K; Gupta, R C; Gupta, A B; Seth, A K; Bassin, J K; Gupta, A

    2000-01-01

    A review of the literature indicated an association among high nitrate ingestion, methemoglobinemia, and pathologic changes in bronchi and lung parenchyma. The present study examined a possible correlation among drinking water nitrate concentration, methemoglobin levels, cytochrome b(5) reductase activity, and acute respiratory tract infection with a history of recurrence (RRTI). Our study was conducted in five village units in the state of Rajasthan, India, with nitrate concentrations of 26, 45, 95, 222, and 459 mg NO(3) ion/L. We randomly selected 88 children. The children were up to 8 years of age, age matched, and represented 10% of the total population of these areas. We obtained detailed RRTI histories and conducted medical examinations. Methemoglobin levels and cytochrome b(5) reductase activity were estimated biochemically. The data collected were statistically analyzed using spreadsheet software on a personal computer. We observed strong interdependence between methemoglobin levels and RRTI in children up to 8 years of age. Methemoglobin levels alone explained 80% of the variation in the RRTI cases. This study indicates that methemoglobinemia, secondary to high nitrate ingestion in drinking water, causes RRTI. Increased production of methemoglobin and free radicals of nitric oxide and oxygen due to nitrate metabolism in the body lead to alveolar damage and mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, which may be the reason for high mortality in children due to RRTI. Images Figure 1 PMID:10753096

  1. Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Wones, A.; McIntire, C.D.; Samora, B.

    1994-01-01

    A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

  2. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    E-print Network

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production Peer M. Schenk fuels make up a much larger share of the global energy demand (66%). Biofuels are therefore rapidly for transport fuels. Increasing biofuel production on arable land could have severe consequences for global food

  3. Single leptoquark production at high-energy e+ e- colliders

    E-print Network

    Costas G. Papadopoulos

    1999-01-19

    A study of the production and the decay of scalar and vector leptoquarks at high-energy e+ e- colliders is presented. All tree-order contributions to single leptoquark production have been calculated and incorporated in the Monte Carlo event generator ERATO-LQ.

  4. Dynamic capabilities and new product development in high technology ventures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L Deeds; DONA Decarolis; Joseph Coombs

    2000-01-01

    In industries populated by entrepreneurial high technology firms, the rapid development of new products is viewed as a key determinant of success. Developing a portfolio of new products is necessary to gain early cash flows, external visibility and legitimacy, early market share, and increase the likelihood of survival (Schoonhoven, Eisenhardt, and Lymman 1990). In addition, recent research has shown that

  5. Spatial variability of meiofaunal communities at areas of contrasting depth and productivity in the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampadariou, N.; Tselepides, A.

    2006-04-01

    The abundance and community structure of metazoan meiofauna were studied in deep-sea sediments from the north and south Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean) in summer 1997 and spring 1998. The two areas varied in their surface primary productivity with the northern area being more productive. Meiofaunal densities displayed strong spatial variability while no temporal changes were observed. Total metazoan density ranged from 128 to 1251 ind./10 cm 2, with significantly higher values in the north. Meiofaunal biomass ranged from 27 to 391 ?gC/10 cm 2 with higher values also in the north. At all stations nematodes dominated the community, comprising on average more than 91% of the total abundance. On a broad scale, meiofaunal densities displayed a positive correlation with food availability (sediment-bound chloroplastic pigments, carbohydrates and lipids); carbon mineralization (an indicator of organic matter turnover) was significantly higher in the northern Aegean, providing evidence of high organic-matter input and intense benthic-pelagic coupling. The spatial structure of the nematode community indicated that the two areas were similar in terms of their dominant genera ( Halalaimus, Acantholaimus, and Thalassomonhystera).

  6. Impact of sea-level change on the paleo Primary Productivity record in the NW African coastal upwelling area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, X.; Paul, A.

    2009-04-01

    A sea level decrease of 120 m at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically modifies the shelf morphology of the North West African coastal upwelling area. Using a regional coupled circulation-ecosystem model subject to a set of boundary conditions that reflect Present Day (PD) and LGM conditions, we aim to quantify how changes in shelf morphology, as well as changes in sub-surface nutrient concentrations or local climatic conditions, influence the biological productivity and its record in the sediments. The oceanic circulation is simulated by the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), taking advantage of the AGRIF (Adaptive Grid Refinement in Fortran) technique to set-up an embedded grid structure. A high-resolution grid (1/10°) is centred on our study area, and is nested in a larger, coarser grid (1/2°) over the Atlantic domain. Boundary and initial conditions for PD and LGM are provided by global simulations performed with the University of Victoria Earth System-Climate Model (UVic ESCM). We used NPZD (Nutrient, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Detritus) biogeochemical models. We have identified the following issues in interpreting a sedimentary record at a fixed core location as an indicator of the total upwelling productivity: - Changes in the shelf morphology due to sea-level change appeared to have an impact on the productivity of the upwelling itself, but also to displace the high-productivity zone. - Comparing the Primary Production (PP) between PD and LGM at a given geographical location, or comparing the zonal mean of the PP, can show opposite results. The comparison at geographical locations assumes a direct connection between the production in the surface ocean and the underlying sediments. The comparison of the zonal mean of PP or sediment flux assumes that lateral advection of particulates and sediment transport are significant processes in producing the sedimentary signal at a given location. We illustrate the various situations, with or without lateral integration of the PP, by a comparison of sedimentary data with the different modelling scenarios. While core data north of 23°N show an increase of organic carbon flux to the sediments at LGM compared to PD, our standard LGM simulation yielded a decrease. We attribute this decrease to the nutrient depletion of subsurface waters. Model results showed an increase in PP in an experiment where the wind stress was doubled over the NW Africa area. All simulations showed the same decoupling between PP at a geographical location and zonal mean PP.

  7. Retrieving leaf area index from landsat using MODIS LAI products and field measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple reference-based approach has been developed for retrieving leaf area index (LAI) from Landsat imagery. The approach uses homogeneous and high quality LAI retrievals from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) as reference to develop a regression tree relating these MODIS ...

  8. A Box-Model Analysis of Ozone Production Potential as a Function of Source Region in the Houston\\/Galveston Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Berkowitz; P. V. Doskey; C. W. Spicer; R. A. Zaveri

    2002-01-01

    Variations in ozone production rates and efficiencies are presented as a function of air mass history for an air quality monitoring site located on the west side of a major metropolitan area (Houston, Texas). This site was located at the top of a tall building (~ 832 ft AGL) to minimize effects from highly localized sources of NOx and VOCs.

  9. Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifang Zhu; Suqin Xu; Pinpin Shao; Hui Zhang; Donseng Wu; Wenjia Yang; Jia Feng; Lei Feng

    2005-01-01

    The health effects of long-term ingestion of rare earth elements (REEs) on the villagers living in high-REE-background areas\\u000a in South Jangxi Province, China were studied. Major health complaints from the REE area population included indigestion, diarrhea,\\u000a abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Liver function tests\\u000a were conducted for adult villagers. Among them, 45 live

  10. A competitive candidate material for aqueous supercapacitors: High surface-area graphite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Qiao Li; Yong-Gang Wang; Cong-Xiao Wang; Yong-Yao Xia

    2008-01-01

    The specific surface area of flake natural graphite can be definitely increased from 7m2g?1 to 580m2g?1 by high-energy ball-milling. The obtained high surface-area graphite (HSG) was first investigated in detail as a new kind of electrode material for aqueous supercapacitors. HSG sample obtained by long-time ball-milling showed quite large capacitance, e.g. 205Fg?1 for 70h milling. The high capacitance of HSG

  11. Bottom-up synthesis of high surface area mesoporous crystalline silicon and evaluation of its hydrogen evolution performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Fang; Zai, Jiantao; Yi, Ran; Gordin, Mikhail L.; Sohn, Hiesang; Chen, Shuru; Wang, Donghai

    2014-04-01

    As an important material for many practical and research applications, porous silicon has attracted interest for decades. Conventional preparations suffer from high mass loss because of their etching nature. A few alternative routes have been reported, including magnesiothermic reduction; however, pre-formed porous precursors are still necessary, leading to complicated syntheses. Here we demonstrate a bottom-up synthesis of mesoporous crystalline silicon materials with high surface area and tunable primary particle/pore size via a self-templating pore formation process. The chemical synthesis utilizes salt by-products as internal self-forming templates that can be easily removed without any etchants. The advantages of these materials, such as their nanosized crystalline primary particles and high surface areas, enable increased photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate and extended working life. These also make the mesoporous silicon a potential candidate for other applications, such as optoelectronics, drug delivery systems and even lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Stabilizers: indispensable substances in dairy products of high rheology.

    PubMed

    Tasneem, Madiha; Siddique, Farzana; Ahmad, Asif; Farooq, Umar

    2014-01-01

    The functionality of stabilizers is apparent in many food applications including dairy products. The role of stabilizers like gelatin, pectins, alginates, carboxymethylcellulose, gums, ispghol, sago starch, and chitosan in the development of dairy products of high rheology, like yoghurt, ice cream, and flavored milk, is discussed in this review. Attention is also paid to comprehend on interactions among milk proteins, minerals, and other milk constituents with the reactive sites of stabilizers to get the desirable properties such as appearance, body and texture, mouthfeel, consistency. The role played by stabilizers in the control of syneresis and overrun problems in the high-rheology dairy products is also the topic of discussion. PMID:24499066

  13. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  14. An assessment of the MODIS collection 5 leaf area index product for a region of mixed coniferous forest

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    An assessment of the MODIS collection 5 leaf area index product for a region of mixed coniferous November 2010 Accepted 6 November 2010 Keywords: Leaf area index MODIS Conifer Validation Canopy leaf area and the atmosphere. LAI is routinely available from Earth Observation (EO) instruments such as MODIS. However EO

  15. Intercomparison of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Products in a Semi-Arid Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, S.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation is the driving force of the terrestrial water cycle over land, and is also one of the most common indicators of climate change. As such, it is rigorously monitored by many organizations using an array of instruments and/or models. However, disparities between the various products and observations lead to the questions: what are the uncertainties of these products? and how do these uncertainties propagate to the estimation of soil moisture? To address the first question, we have evaluated over 20 gauge-based, satellite-based, modeled, and reanalysis precipitation products using 57 years of observations over a highly instrumented 150 km2 watershed in southern Arizona. Most of the products do a better job of estimating winter precipitation than summer or annual precipitation with higher daily correlation and lower root mean square differences compared with observations. All products with the exception of models estimate the timing of the peaks in the annual cycle well, but overestimate amount with respect to the observations. The gauge and satellite products estimate average intensity of precipitation well, while the models estimate drizzle (<0.01 mm/day) too frequently. Many products reveal positive or negative trends in seasonal and annual precipitation total, while observations do not show any significant trends over the same time period. To answer the second question, several modeled and reanalysis soil moisture products relying on the above mentioned precipitation products are compared with 11 years of in situ soil moisture measurements as well as the modeled soil moisture of Stillman et al. (2014), which extends the measurement period of summer soil moisture to 57 years. Most of the soil moisture products are significantly correlated with observations except for the models, partly due to errors in precipitation estimation. Improvements in soil moisture estimation from updated versions of ERA and MERRA are also shown.

  16. High level of activation Coupled product is very stable, especially

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    between matrix and activated group is especially suitable for immobilising small proteins and peptides protein and peptide ligands. The advantages of high stability and a spacer arm combined with the high flow for pharmaceutical companies producing therapeutic products, especially those working with synthetic peptides

  17. Ozone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee, Linda J. Nunnermacker,

    E-print Network

    and observational results on ozone production efficiency based on measurements made from aircraft flights emission patterns. Ozone production efficiencies derived from aircraft measurements in 20 plumes showOzone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee

  18. Direct and Indirect Estimation of Leaf Area Index, f APAR, and Net Primary Production of Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stith T. Gower; Chris J. Kucharik; John M. Norman

    1999-01-01

    A primary objective of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is to develop and validate algorithms to estimate leaf area index (L), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), and net primary production (NPP) from remotely sensed products. These three products are important because they relate to or are components of the metabolism of the biosphere and can be determined for

  19. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (?), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (?), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  20. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the potential for industrial application. To our knowledge, this represents the most effective engineered microbial system for propionate production with titers and yields comparable to those achieved by anaerobic batch cultivation of various native propionate-producing strains of Propionibacteria. PMID:25948049

  1. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  2. H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program

    E-print Network

    H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program® Areas market and using other investment options X Unit Three: Investing: Making Money Work for You 6. beginning a savings program and planning for retirement X Unit One: Your Financial Plan: Where It All begins Unit

  3. Contactless measurement of the transition temperature for large area high Tc films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Fang; Y. C. Yang; Wenwei Mao; Z. Gao; M. L. Liu

    1994-01-01

    The noncontact electromagnetic induction method for measuring the transition temperature of large area high Tc films is described. This technique rely on the variation of the mutual inductance between two coils. Our designed system can detect the large area samples which diameter more than 10 mm. In addition, the apparatus can measure many positions on same sample simultaneously by a

  4. A high-throughput and selective method for the measurement of surface areas of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Yuana Elly; Tsai, Shen-Long

    2015-04-21

    A high-throughput and selective method based on biomolecule affinity coordination was employed for measuring nanoparticle surface area in solutions. In this design, silver binding peptides (AgBPs) are immobilized on bacterial cellulose via fusion with cellulose binding domains to capture silver nanoparticles whereas green fluorescent proteins are fused with AgBPs as reporters for surface area quantification. PMID:25713816

  5. HIGH-LEVEL POWER ESTIMATION AND THE AREA COMPLEXITY OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Najm, Farid N.

    HIGH-LEVEL POWER ESTIMATION AND THE AREA COMPLEXITY OF BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS Mahadevamurty Nemani complexity of single-output Boolean functions given only their functional descrip- tion, where area thatthe asymptotic complex- ity of Boolean functions is exponential in the number of inputs n

  6. The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouve, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.

  7. Technique eliminates high voltage arcing at electrode-insulator contact area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mealy, G.

    1967-01-01

    Coating the electrode-insulator contact area with silver epoxy conductive paint and forcing the electrode and insulator tightly together into a permanent connection, eliminates electrical arcing in high-voltage electrodes supplying electrical power to vacuum facilities.

  8. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia

  9. High-speed non-directional infrared communication for wireless local-area networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Kahn; J. R. Barry; W. J. Krause; M. D. Audeh; J. B. Carruthers; G. Messerschmitt; E. A. Lee; D. G. Messerschmitt

    1992-01-01

    The use of wide-area infrared beams to establish high-speed digital links between portable terminals and a base station, allowing construction of in-building wireless local-area networks, is discussed. Key impairments to high-speed communication using nondirectional infrared links, namely, small received power in the face of potentially intense ambient infrared radiation and intersymbol interference caused by multipath optical propagation, are examined. Transmitter

  10. Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weifang; Xu, Suqin; Shao, Pinpin; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Donseng; Yang, Wenjia; Feng, Jia; Feng, Lei

    2005-04-01

    The health effects of long-term ingestion of rare earth elements (REEs) on the villagers living in high-REE-background areas in South Jangxi Province, China were studied. Major health complaints from the REE area population included indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Liver function tests were conducted for adult villagers. Among them, 45 live in a heavy rare earth (HREE) area, 62 in a light rare earth (LREE) area, and 49 in the control area. Test results showed that serum total protein and globulin from both HREE and LREE areas, as well as albumin from the LREE area, were significantly lower (p < 0.01 - 0.01) compared to the results from the control area, whereas albumin from the HREE area showed no significant variance (p > 0.05). The chi-square test showed that Serum-glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) in both areas were not significant (p > 0.05), whereas the IgM in the HREE area was significantly elevated. It is our conclusion that long-term ingestion of REE affected activities of some digestive enzymes, causing malabsorption and indigestion, and might further lead to a low-protein effect for the villagers in the LREE area. However, the damage to the liver was rather mild. The elevation of IgM was probably the result of stimulation induced by the formation of a large amount of granules as a result of direct binding of REEs to globulin or albumin (combination of REEs with globulin or albumin). PMID:15851827

  11. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (? = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg, particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

  12. Meson production in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    Göran Fäldt

    2010-06-09

    Experimental studies of meson production through two-photon fusion in inelastic electron-nucleus scattering is now under way. A high-energy photon radiated by the incident electron is fused with a soft photon radiated by the nucleus. The process takes place in the small-angle-Coulomb region of nuclear scattering. We expound the theory for this production process as well as its interference with coherent-radiative-meson production. In particular, we investigate the distortion of the electron wave function due to multiple-Coulomb scattering.

  13. Causality constraints on hadron production in high energy collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut

    2014-04-01

    For hadron production in high energy collisions, causality requirements lead to the counterpart of the cosmological horizon problem: the production occurs in a number of causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) must be conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. This provides a theoretical basis for the observed suppression of strangeness production in elementary interactions (pp, e+e-). In contrast, the space-time superposition of many collisions in heavy ion interactions largely removes these causality constraints, resulting in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full equilibrium.

  14. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  15. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

  16. Factors affecting phytoplankton distribution and production in the Elephant Island area, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Helbling, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    During the austral summer of four years, 1990 to 1993, studies on phytoplankton were performed in the Elephant Island area as one component of the US Antarctica Marine Living Resources program. In addition to continuous measurements (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, beam attenuation) made on ship's intake water, a profiling CTD-rosette unit was used to obtain water column characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, attenuation of solar radiation, beam attenuation) from the surface to 750m depth and also water samples from at least 10 depths for chemical and biological analyses. The sampling grid consisted of an average of 70 stations, all of which were occupied two times each year. The Elephant Island area is a transition zone between the rich coastal areas, where phytoplankton can develop dense blooms, and pelagic waters where the phytoplankton biomass is in general very low. A frontal zone was usually found to the north of Elephant Island and over the continental slope, and high phytoplankton biomass was in general associated with this frontal region. Although the location of this frontal system showed seasonal movement in a north-south direction, it seems to be a consistent feature from year to year. There seems to be considerable year-to-year variability in physical (water temperatures and salinity) and phytoplankton characteristics within the study area, in regard to both distributional patterns in surface waters and to profile characteristics in the upper 100m of the water column. With shallow upper mixed layer depths of less than 50 m, phytoplankton can attain relatively high concentrations. Optimum light conditions for growth occurred when the mixed layer was less than 55% of the euphotic zone. As the area around Elephant Island is characterized by relatively strong and frequent winds, the depth of the upper mixed layer at many stations approached the depth of the euphotic zone, with the result that growth of phytoplankton was light limited.

  17. Transmutation and energy production with high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

  18. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1995-07-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

  19. 75 FR 51734 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances; Third Group of Chemical Substances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemical Substances...Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group...processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances...to obtain screening level data for health and...

  20. Evaluating pedestrian crashes in areas with high low-income or minority populations.

    PubMed

    Cottrill, Caitlin D; Thakuriah, Piyushimita Vonu

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the relationship between pedestrian-vehicle crashes and characteristics of areas with high low-income and minority populations in the Chicago metropolitan area (also called environmental justice or EJ areas in the United States). While related research has indicated that pedestrian crashes occur more frequently in these areas than in non-EJ areas, this paper attempts to relate the incidence to environmental characteristics and behavioral factors through a better understanding of the contributing factors present in crash occurrences in EJ versus non-EJ areas. Specially constructed small-area factors from a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) are used to explain pedestrian-vehicle crashes. Using a Poisson model that corrects for underreporting, we find that pedestrian crash incidents in EJ areas are related to variables of exposure (including the suitability of the area for walking and transit accessibility), crime rates, transit availability, and general population demographics such as income and presence of children. Results suggest that it may be necessary to better incorporate a safety perspective or measures of safety improvements in pedestrian and transit improvements and expansion programs within EJ areas. PMID:20728622

  1. HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS: CONVERTING OATS TO HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS FOR USE IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new generation of soluble beta-glucan product, called Nutrim-OB (OB, oat bran), was developed that qualified for a FDA health claim. Nutrim-OB was prepared by heat-shearing oat flour or bran aqueous slurry in series of treatments that solubilises oat beta-glucans but maintains basic bran composit...

  2. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard...activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., within Site 28, in...

  3. PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research

    E-print Network

    Binkley, Dan

    Stewardship, Colorado State University; 1987present. Research and outreach on forest dynamics, includingApril 2012 PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research focus on longterm changes in ecosystems

  4. Long-term dynamical evolution of high area-to-mass ratio debris released into high earth orbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Anselmo; Carmen Pardini

    2010-01-01

    The long-term dynamical evolution of objects with extremely high area-to-mass ratios released in synchronous and semi-synchronous Earth orbits was simulated with a numerical propagator including all the relevant perturbations. In fact, as suggested by optical observations in the geosynchronous regime and orbital analysis of breakup fragments in low Earth orbit, artificial debris characterized by average area-to-mass ratios hundreds or thousands

  5. OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99.

    SciTech Connect

    KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

    2001-10-01

    As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O{sub 3} production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O{sub 3} production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O{sub 3} concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O{sub 3} concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city.

  6. Modeled velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during simulated stop consonant production in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance.

    PubMed

    Smith, B E; Maddox, C M; Kostinski, A B

    1985-07-01

    This project examined modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimation under conditions simulating voiceless stop consonant production in the presence of nasal airway obstruction. The results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained using Warren's hydrokinetic equation during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during speech in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance. These findings provide support for clinical and research use of Warren's pressure-flow approach to investigate velopharyngeal function during speech production. PMID:3860307

  7. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Garriga; Teresa Aymerich

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for ``natural'' foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and

  8. Cooking methods and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk areas of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Roya; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Pourshams, Akram; Mohtadinia, Javad; Firoozi, Mehdi Saberi; Birkett, Nicholas; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Cooking methods have been implicated in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancers, reflecting exposure to potential carcinogens as results of cooking. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire and a pretested cooking method questionnaire in 3 groups: 40 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases from a high-risk area in northeast of Iran, 40 healthy subjects from the same high-risk area, and 40 healthy subjects from a low-risk area in Southern Iran. We compared the frequency of boiling, grilling, and frying, and the frying score among these 3 groups. We also calculated "frying index" by multiplying the frequency of each fried food item by its frying score. Mean frying to boiling ratios were 18.2:1, 12.8:1, and 2.6:1 for cases, high-risk controls, and low-risk controls, respectively (P < 0.01). Reuse of cooking oil for frying was reported in 37.5% of the ESCC cases, 25% of high-risk controls, and 7.5% of low-risk controls (P < 0.001). Frying index was higher in the high-risk than in the low-risk controls (P < 0.001) and in cases than in the high-risk controls (P < 0.05) after adjusting for smoking, opium use, rural residence, education, and ethnicity. High-temperature cooking and frying may be associated with increased risk of ESCC in high-risk areas. PMID:24033341

  9. Evaluation of ocean color products from Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Du, Libin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Lianbo; Chen, Shuguo; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Zhangjun; Zhou, Yan

    2014-11-01

    The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first geostationary ocean color satellite sensor launched in June 2010 on board the South Korean Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). The GOCI has a local coverage area of the western Pacific Ocean including Bohai, Yellow Sea and East Sea of China. Jiaozhou Bay is a semienclosed basin in the western part of the Yellow Sea, which is an important representative of gulf ecosystem in the North Temperate Zone. The GOCI data can provide useful information with an-hour temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions for monitoring oceanic and atmospheric process in Jiaozhou Bay. The performance of the atmospheric and optical algorithms of GOCI was evaluated by comparing with the simultaneous data from MODIS/Aqua. The match-up products include remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and chlorophyll-a concentration ([chl-a]) and they were derived by GDPS software for GOCI data and SeaDAS software for MODIS and GOCI data, respectively, using default atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms. Our analyses show that GOCI products (i.e., Rrs(490), Rrs(555) and [chl-a]) are compared well with MODIS products. GOCI shows a potential capability of oceanography investigations in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao coastal area. The consistency of Rrs between GOCI and MODIS is relatively good but significant difference was observed in [chl-a] especially in Jiaozhou Bay. Moreover, it is suggested to improve GOCI standard atmospheric correction algorithm for high turbid water and cloud detection to increase data utilization.

  10. Blood lead levels among children in high-risk areas--California, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In the United States, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) are a major health risk for children; this risk is totally preventable (1). To better characterize lead poisoning among children at high risk for lead exposure in California, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) conducted lead-screening surveys that measured lead levels in children's blood, household paint, and soil in three selected high-risk areas in northern, southern, and central California. This report summarizes the survey findings and describes CDHS's efforts to reduce lead exposure among children in California, especially among those in high-risk areas.

  11. Feedback model evaluation of high-mix product manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Dion; Cheng, Mingjen; Lu, Aho; Mao, Zhibiao; Liang, Curtis

    2006-03-01

    As the patterns are getting smaller, the difficulty to control a margin-tight process expands exponentially. The use of the Automated Process Control (APC), therefore, becomes a widely employed mean in photolithography process to control overlay and CD variations. The accuracy of APC is dependent upon the amount of the previous process data. However, in a foundry with high-mix products it is typical that there are not enough historic data points for accurate calculation of process parameters for a low volume product. The consequence is the high rework rate of pilot runs and test runes due to poor process parameter prediction for overlay. Several studies of the method for predicting the overlay correction have been reported. The key to build a good prediction model is to break the overlay errors down to several parts. Some are equipment or technology related errors, which are shared by all products. Others are the characteristic for certain products, for instance, mask error or special alignment marks. In the production environment the former parts are updated in real time by data feedback from processing all kinds of products. The low volume products or pilot products can share the information. Thus we can achieve a more accurate control or prediction for a new product. In this paper we provide a new model for predicting the process parameter settings of overlay for a pilot run or a product not being run on a tool for a long period of time. This new model is a Simplified Cerebellar Manipulation Arithmetic Controller (SCMAC), which is one kind of Neural Network (NN) model. We assume each part of overlay errors is a cell in SCMAC and build the whole cell table by using this assumption. The final overlay correction value is the sum of a group of cells, which is activated by one lot information. We will also present the details of the building and training of this new SCMAC model. The prediction accuracy of SCMAC in overlay parameters is also evaluated. According to the results, SCMAC can split the overlay error to several factors successfully and also overcome the mismatch in the equipments and processes. We also compare the new SCMAC model with the general Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) model, which calculates the correction value based on the history data points, and in which the newer data points have more weight in the calculation. Based on the results, the SCMAC model is not good enough to substitute the EWMA model in controlling the overlay of a high volume product.

  12. Thermal decomposition of commercial silicone oil to produce high yield high surface area SiC nanorods.

    PubMed

    Pol, V G; Pol, S V; Gedanken, A; Lim, S H; Zhong, Z; Lin, J

    2006-06-15

    This article reports on the synthesis of high surface area (563m2/g) beta-SiC nanorods by thermal decomposition of commercial silicone oil at a relatively low reaction temperature (800 degrees C) in a closed Swagelok cell. High yield (75%) of SiC nanorods are obtained in this one-stage, solvent-, catalyst-, and template-free synthesis technique that runs at a relative low temperature and employs cheap single-precursor. The morphological (TEM, HR-SEM), compositional (CHNS, EDX, SAEDX]), structural (XRD, HR-TEM, and ED), thermal (TGA) characterizations and surface area analysis are carried out for the obtained SiC nanorods. The possibility of hydrogen storage in this high surface area nano-SiC rods are also tested and reported for the first time. PMID:16771390

  13. Geohydrology of the High Plains Aquifer system, Cheyenne urban area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Crist, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    The Cheyenne area is on broad tablelands that form part of the High Plains aquifer. Surficial deposits, along with the Ogallala Formation and the White River Group, are included in the High Plains aquifer in the study area, and both unconfined and confined ground-water conditions exist within 100 feet of land surface. During wet years, shallow ground-water problems affect urban development. The High Plains aquifer is considered an aquifer system in the Cheyenne area. Water-yielding sandstone and conglomerate units are surrounded by sequences of clay and silt; although the water-yielding units under confined conditions may be areally extensive, they are not easily identified. Urban development has modified the High Plains aquifer system locally as indicated by the mapped potentiometric surfaces, the perched water zones, and the surface-drainage patterns. That part of the system in the shallow zones is affected by excavations and by structures that penetrate the saturated zones. (USGS)

  14. Comparison of the MODIS Active Fire Product and Burned Area Product in Detecting Fire Affected Pixels in the Ecosystems of Belize 2003 - 2009 

    E-print Network

    van, Warmerdam

    2010-11-24

    The MODIS Active Fire Product (AFP) and the Burned Area Product (BAP) were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of fire affected pixels in the ecosystems of Belize from 2003-2009. There was an overall trend of decreasing fire...

  15. High P_T Leptons and W Production at HERA

    E-print Network

    C. Diaconu; J. Kalinowski; T. Matsushita; H. Spiesberger; D. S. Waters

    1999-01-18

    Details are given of the observation by H1 of events containing high P_T leptons in addition to large missing P_T. A closely related ZEUS analysis, including a preliminary measurement of the W production cross section, is discussed and the two experiments are compared. Some possible non-Standard Model sources for the events are considered.

  16. Product data management practices in high-tech companies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna Kropsu-vehkapera; Harri Haapasalo; Janne Härkönen; Risto Silvola

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide tangible examples of product data management (PDM) practices in large high-tech companies, and to highlight current challenges. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is a qualitative interview study. First, a PDM system frame was defined to aid analyses. Second, an interview study was carried out in four companies to clarify the practical

  17. High Productivity Computing Systems Program The ASC-Alliance projects

    E-print Network

    Basili, Victor R.

    of computers to advance scientific research through the simulation of physical phenomena where experimentation of Energy) to develop computational simulation as a credible method of scientific research [1]. The majorHigh Productivity Computing Systems Program The ASC-Alliance projects: A case study of large

  18. Downstep and high raising: interacting factors in Yoruba tone production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yetunde O. Laniran; G. N. Clements

    2003-01-01

    This study examines interacting factors in tone production in Yoruba, a tone language with three tone levels, high (H), mid (M), and low (L). Its primary goals are to confirm the existence of downstep, a principle which causes successive H tones separated by L tones to step down in pitch, and to examine the interaction between downstep and H tone

  19. Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Ogawa; Seiji Fujiwara; Shigeo Kasai; Kazuya Yamada

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating

  20. Identification of potential areas for biomass production in China: Discussion of a recent approach and future challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilko Schweers; Zhanguo Bai; Elliott Campbell; Klaus Hennenberg; Uwe Fritsche; Heinz-Peter Mang; Mario Lucas; Zifu Li; Andrew Scanlon; Haoran Chen; Qin Zhihao; Dianxiong Cai; Yunxiang Jin; Jun Zhang; Lili Tu; Marco Gemmer; Tong Jiang; Nannan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A standard methodology is needed to recognize potentially suitable areas for sustainable bioenergy crop production. This facilitates better identification of promising crops and cropping systems, logistical and economic studies, and work needed to meet regulatory criteria. A possible approach is built upon three layers of internationally available spatial data: (1) degrading and abandoned areas, (2) potentially suitable land cover classes,

  1. Aboveground Net Primary Production and Leaf-Area Index in Early Postfire Vegetation in Yellowstone National Park

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    Aboveground Net Primary Production and Leaf-Area Index in Early Postfire Vegetation in Yellowstone and Leaf-Area Index in Early Postfire Vegetation in YellowstoneNational Park Rebecca A. Reed,1Mary firesin YellowstoneNationalPark(YNP).Measure- ments were made in four sites representinga wide range

  2. Primary production and plankton carbon biomass in a river-influenced upwelling area off Concepción, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriarte, Jose Luis; Vargas, Cristian A.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Bermúdez, Rafael; Urrutia, Roberto E.

    2012-01-01

    The combined influence of freshwater inputs and wind-driven upwelling may generate contrasting environmental conditions over small spatial scales in the coastal ocean. Over two consecutive years (mid-2006 through to mid-2008), we compared the springtime and wintertime composition, biomass, and primary production of the main phytoplankton groups at two coastal stations (RV and UW) near the Itata River mouth in the upwelling area off central Chile. Hydrographic and nutrient profiles showed distinct seasonal features: a relatively weak surface thermocline and weak river influence at both stations in spring, and in winter a stronger surface halocline at station RV, located closer to the river mouth. At both stations, primary production (24-8000 mg C m -2 d -1) and chlorophyll-a concentrations (5-20 mg Chl-a m -3) were highest in the spring, with a dominance of microphytoplankton ( Chaetoceros spp., Thalassiosira spp.). Total primary production and chlorophyll-a in the winter corresponded mostly to smaller size fractions (pico- and nanoplankton), which dominated the phytoplankton community (>50%) in terms of carbon biomass at station RV. At this river-influenced station, small autotrophic and heterotrophic groups (<20 ?m), including picophytoeukaryotes, photo- and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and ciliates, were two to four times more abundant than at station UW. We conclude that most of the integrated carbon biomass and production rates during winter months are accounted for by small cells in the microbial food web. This component of the phytoplankton community may be enhanced in response to the additional surface input of nutrients by river discharges into the nearshore environment.

  3. High-performance blazed GxLTM device for large-area laser projector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Ito; Kunihiko Saruta; Hiroto Kasai; Masato Nishida; Masanari Yamaguchi; Keitaro Yamashita; Ayumu Taguchi; Kazunao Oniki; Hitoshi Tamada

    2006-01-01

    A blazed GxL device is described that has high optical efficiency (>70% for RGB lasers), and high contrast ratio (> 10,000:1), and that is highly reliable when used in a large-area laser projection system. The key features were a robust design and precise stress control technology to maintain a uniform shape (bow and tilt) of more than 6,000 ribbons, a

  4. Milk production capacity of dairy cattle under limited resources and distribution pattern in peri-urban area of southwest Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Modupe O. Daodu; O. J. Babayemi

    A study was carried out using 50 dairy cattle farmers to appraise the trend of dairy production and the distribution channels of milk and its products for local consumption. The study showed that the most favoured breed in the area was Bunaji cattle accounting for 80%, N'Dama (15%) and Keteku (5%). Grass and browse were major forages for feeding the

  5. Condition, Potential Recovery Rate, and Productivity of Lichen (Cladonia spp.) Ranges in the Finnish Reindeer Management Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOUKO KUMPULA; ALFRED COLPAERT; MAURI NIEMINEN

    2000-01-01

    The focus of the work was to investigate dependency between reindeer density and lichen (Cladonia spp.) ranges in the Finnish semidomesticated reindeer management area. Secondly, we formed a model on the recovery rate of ungrazed woodland lichen ranges (29 sites) after forest fires to evaluate the potential productivity and time needed for Finnish lichen ranges to recover at optimal production.

  6. Land uplift at Kvarken archipelago and High Coast UNESCO World Heritage area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutanen, Markku; Steffen, Holger

    2014-05-01

    The land uplift is a well-known phenomenon at the coastal areas of the Gulf of Bothnia in Finland and Sweden. Today, about 700 hectares of new land is rising from the sea every year. This is changing the landscape rapidly, especially at the shallow coastlines and archipelago of Kvarken where the uplift rate is about 9 mm/year. At the opposite side in Sweden, the High Coast has much steeper landscape and changes there are less prominent during one generation. Due to its unique nature, the area has received the UNESCO World Heritage status. The area is at the uplift maximum of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound. In this presentation we describe the uplift on the area, based on geodetic measurements, modelling and relations to the sea level rise and climate change. We also discuss future scenarios in this UNESCO World Heritage area.

  7. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  8. Economics of electricity production and distribution in rural areas of Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))

    1990-01-01

    This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in rural areas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.

  9. Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Linyue, E-mail: liulinyue@gmail.com; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping, E-mail: oyxp@yahoo.com; Zhang, Jianfu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China) [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

  10. Using high resolution QuickBird imagery for crop identification and area estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Reginald S. Fletcher; Dale Murden

    2007-01-01

    Imagery from recently launched high spatial resolution satellite sensors offers new opportunities for crop assessment and monitoring. A 2.8-m multispectral QuickBird image covering an intensively cropped area in south Texas was evaluated for crop identification and area estimation. Three reduced-resolution images with pixel sizes of 11.2 m, 19.6 m, and 30.8 m were also generated from the original image to simulate coarser resolution

  11. Large area, high speed InGaAs thin film MSMs for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Seo; J. J. Shen; N. M. Jokerst; A. S. Brown

    2003-01-01

    Thin film InGaAs photodetectors for heterogeneously integrated optoelectronics are demonstrated with low dark current (0.161~4 at 5V), and high speed (3ps rise time, 6.3ps FWHM), large area (40 pm). and good responsivity (0.19A\\/W at 5V). OCIS codes: (040.5 160) Photodetectors As optical fiber per channel data rates increase, higher bandwidth photodetectors with surface normal addressing are necessary. Large area photodetectors

  12. [Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].

    PubMed

    Chávez, J F

    1980-03-01

    A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections. PMID:7447587

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of a Conceptual HBV Ra?nfall-Runoff MODEL Using Eumetsat Snow Covered Area Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Parajka, J.

    2014-12-01

    HBV is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in operational hydrological forecasting and water balance studies. In this study, we apply the HBV model on the upper Euphrates basin in Turkey, which has 10 624 km2 area. The Euphrates basin is largely fed from snow precipitation whereby nearly two-thirds occur in winter and may remain in the form of snow for half of the year. We analyze individual sensitivity of the parameters by calibrating the model using the Multi-Objective Shuffled Complex Evolution (MOSCEM) algorithm. The calibration is performed against snow cover area (SCA) in addition to runoff data for the water years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. The SCA product has been developed in the framework of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The product is generated by using data from Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument making observations from a geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In the previous study evaluation of the model was done with commonly used statistical performance metrics (Nash-Sutcliffe) for high and low flows, volume error and root mean square error (RMSE). In this study signature metrics, which are based on the flow duration curve (FDC) are used to see the performance of the model for low flows. In order to consider a fairly balanced evaluation between high and low flow phases we divided the flow duration curve into segments of high, medium and low flow phases, and additionally into very high and very low phases. Root mean square error (RMSE) is used to evaluate the performance in these segments. The sensitivity analysis of the parameters around the calibrated optimum points showed that parameters of the soil moisture and evapotranspiration (FC, beta and LPrat) have a strong effect in the total volume error of the model. The parameters from the response and transformation routines (LSUZ, K1, K0 and bmax) have a significant influence on the peak flows. It is observed that the parameters of snow routine (Tmelt, CSF and DDF) have strong effect in high flows and total volume. The parameters FC, K0, K1 And K2 are found to have effect on low flows from the signature metrics.

  14. Numerical simulation and optimization of microstructured high brightness broad area laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Hans-Christoph; Zeitner, Uwe; Tünnermann, Andreas; Lauer, Christian; Strauß, U.

    2015-03-01

    The development of broad area laser diodes towards higher output power, efficiency and brightness is essential to gain progress in almost all laser applications because those devices provide the basis for high power laser sources. To systematically improve the characteristics of high power broad area laser diodes through a design process, it is necessary to have an accurate and efficient computation model self-consistently taking into account optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this publication we present numerical techniques to compute the optical properties of the multimode beam generated by high power AlGaAs broad area laser diodes with an operating wavelength of 970 nm. This simulation considers fluctuations of the carrier and power density as well as the temperature distribution. The numerical results show an excellent agreement to measured data of conventional and microstructured high power broad area lasers. The high computation speed of the model allows optimizing microstructures inside the laser resonator with the use of a genetic optimization algorithm. We show that this design approach potentially leads to a substantial performance gain of the device. In particular degradation of the beam quality due to thermal effects at high injection currents can be controlled.

  15. Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kasai, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuya [Toshiba Corporation: 1 Toshiba-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8511 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating temperature and pressure, and the air to product O{sub 2} ratio. In this study, the maximum system efficiency is 56.3%. (authors)

  16. Production of high intensity Beta beams at the ISOLDE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hodak, Rastislav [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Stora, Thierry [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mendonca, Tania M. [IFIMUP and IN - Institute of Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-12-16

    We discuss a design study devoted to a construction of the Beta beams facility at CERN, a next generation European facility aiming for a production of pure and collimated ultra-relativistic beam of electron (anti)neutrinos with help of accelerated {beta}-decaying radioactive ions circulating in a storage decay ring. This high intense source of (anti)neutrinos directed towards a remote underground neutrino detector will allow to measure neutrino oscillations with high accuracy offering a unique chance for establishing a value of the {beta}{sub 13} mixing angle and CP violating phase. Recently, a significant progress have been achieved on the conceptual design of high power targets required for a production and an extraction of two baseline isotopes, {sup 6}He and {sup 18}Ne, at the unexampled rate of several 10{sup 13} ions/s. There is a possibility to produce these isotopes using the so-called Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) method at the ISOLDE facility (CERN). The {sup 6}He production is realized by taking advantage of the {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}){sup 6}He reaction and with help of spallation neutrons and porous BeO target material. The production of {sup 18}Ne through the {sup 19}F(p,2n){sup 18}Ne reaction at required intensities is even more challenging. Currently, a molten salt (NaF) loop target is proposed for a production of high rate of {sup 18}Ne required for the Beta beams project. The progress on the design study associated with new data and plans for future is briefly presented.

  17. Feasibility of a wide area illumination scheme for reliable Raman measurement of petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaejin; Han, Jintae; Noh, Jaegeun; Chung, Hoeil

    2007-07-01

    A newly developed Raman collection scheme, a wide area illumination (WAI) scheme, was employed to demonstrate its utility for the analysis of petroleum products. For this purpose, the compositional analysis of simulated naphtha samples was attempted. The WAI scheme utilized a laser beam that illuminated a sample in a circular fashion with a diameter of 6 mm and a focal length of 250 mm. The reproducibility of the Raman measurement can be improved due to decreased sensitivity of the sample position as well as orientation with regard to the focal plane, as shown in a previous study. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, widely adopted in the field of petroleum refining, was also employed to compare with the prediction results obtained using the WAI scheme. Since the Raman spectral feature is more distinct and selective, the resulting calibration accuracy could be improved as long as reproducible Raman spectra could be collected. Overall prediction results using Raman spectroscopy were superior to those from NIR spectroscopy. The feasibility of the WAI scheme for reliable Raman analysis of petroleum products such as naphtha was demonstrated in this paper. PMID:17697461

  18. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the Mayan, ‘ancient Criollo’ cacao. PMID:21264251

  19. Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the Mayan, 'ancient Criollo' cacao. PMID:21264251

  20. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical predictions show good agreement for the first 0.5 in. from the nozzle wall; but the further into the core flow that measurements were taken, the more that TDK overpredicted the boundary layer thickness.

  1. Running Coupling Corrections to High Energy Inclusive Gluon Production

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, W A

    2010-01-01

    We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. In the final answer for the cross section the three powers of fixed coupling are replaced by seven factors of running coupling, five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a 'septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the 'triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small-x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the 'septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. We use our lowest-order result to conjecture how running coupling corrections may enter the full fixed-coupling kT-factorization formula for gluon production which includes non-linear small-x evolution.

  2. Status and research of highly efficient hydrogen production through high temperature steam electrolysis at INET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Bo; Zhang Wenqiang; Xu Jingming; Chen Jing

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen generation through high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) has recently received increasingly international interest in the large-scale, highly efficient nuclear hydrogen production field. The research and development of HTSE technology was initiated in INET of Tsinghua University from 2005 as one of the approaches in National Key Special Projects for HTGR which aims at

  3. Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated from Si isotopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

    2014-05-01

    A massive diatom-bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the Plateau biogenic silica production fluxes are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 in average), silica dissolution rates were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (Si:C and Si:N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate the primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution to production ratios (D:P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustained most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS-expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution on the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to a higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling between H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross-Si:N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the HNLC area, likely due to different diatoms communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long time scales does not necessarily decrease Si:N uptake ratios as suggested by the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis. Finally, we propose the first seasonal estimate of Si-biogeochemical budget above the Kerguelen Plateau based on direct measurements. This study points out that naturally iron fertilized areas of the Southern Ocean could sustain very high regimes of biogenic silica production, similar to those observed in highly productive upwelling systems.

  4. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peer M. Schenk; Skye R. Thomas-Hall; Evan Stephens; Jan H. Mussgnug; Clemens Posten; Olaf Kruse; Ben Hankamer

    2008-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse\\u000a gases in the environment that have already exceeded the “dangerously high” threshold of 450 ppm CO2-e. To achieve environmental and economic sustainability, fuel production processes are required that are not only renewable,\\u000a but also capable of sequestering atmospheric CO2. Currently, nearly

  5. Production of glucose syrups in highly concentrated systems.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, M E; van der Goot, A J; Boom, R M

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrolysis of maltodextrins in a high concentration (up to 70%), by means of enzymatic and acid catalysis. The study revealed that the equilibrium compositions of the catalyzed reactions were kinetically determined by the selectivity of the catalyst, the substrate concentration and the reaction time. A model comprising a set of two kinetic equations was used to describe the hydrolysis and condensation reactions of glucoamylase-catalyzed reactions, even to highly concentrated systems. Increased substrate concentration resulted in the formation of more condensation products. The enzyme inhibition was low and was found to be independent of the substrate concentration. PMID:15801804

  6. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total daily E was unaffected by position in the interrow. Under wet soil conditions, wind speed and direction affected soil evaporation. Row orientation interacted with wind direction in this study such that aerodynamic resistance to E usually increased when wind direction was perpendicular to row direction; but this interaction needs further study because it appeared to be lessened under higher wind speeds.

  7. 975-nm high-power broad area diode lasers optimized for narrow spectral linewidth applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Crump; C. M. Schultz; A. Pietrzak; S. Knigge; O. Brox; A. Maaßdorf; F. Bugge; H. Wenzel; G. Erbert

    2010-01-01

    Many pumping and direct diode applications of high power diode lasers require sources that operate within a narrow (< 1nm) temperature stable spectral line. The natural linewidth of high power broad area lasers is too wide (4-5nm) and varies too quickly with temperature (0.3-0.4nm\\/K) for such applications. The spectrum can be narrowed by introducing gratings within the diode laser itself

  8. ?-MnO2 nanotubes: high surface area and enhanced lithium battery properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihong; Nan, Caiyun; Lu, Jun; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

    2012-07-14

    A simple one-step route for preparing ?-MnO(2) nanotubes is reported. The ?-MnO(2) nanotubes exhibit a high surface area of 226 m(2) g(-1) and reversible capacity of 512 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 800 mA g(-1) after 300 cycles, as well as cycling stability when measured as an anode in lithium batteries. PMID:22674121

  9. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  10. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  11. Strong and tough cellulose nanopaper with high specific surface area and porosity.

    PubMed

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Zhou, Qi; Ikkala, Olli; Berglund, Lars A

    2011-10-10

    In order to better understand nanostructured fiber networks, effects from high specific surface area of nanofibers are important to explore. For cellulose networks, this has so far only been achieved in nonfibrous regenerated cellulose aerogels. Here, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used to prepare high surface area nanopaper structures, and the mechanical properties are measured in tensile tests. The water in NFC hydrogels is exchanged to liquid CO2, supercritical CO2, and tert-butanol, followed by evaporation, supercritical drying, and sublimation, respectively. The porosity range is 40-86%. The nanofiber network structure in nanopaper is characterized by FE-SEM and nitrogen adsorption, and specific surface area is determined. High-porosity TEMPO-oxidized NFC nanopaper (56% porosity) prepared by critical point drying has a specific surface area as high as 482 m(2) g(-1). The mechanical properties of this nanopaper structure are better than for many thermoplastics, but at a significantly lower density of only 640 kg m(-3). The modulus is 1.4 GPa, tensile strength 84 MPa, and strain-to-failure 17%. Compared with water-dried nanopaper, the material is softer with substantiallly different deformation behavior. PMID:21888417

  12. Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Briand; Gilles Cottrell; Achille Massougbodji; Michel Cot

    2007-01-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during pregnancy – regardless of

  13. Criticality safety evaluation for Portsmouth X-345 High-Enriched-Uranium storage area

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for the High-Enriched Uranium storage area of the X-345 building of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The effects of loss of moderation or mass control are examined for storage units in or out of the storage receptacles. Recommendations are made for decreasing criticality hazards under some conditions of storage or handling considered to be hazardous.

  14. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  15. Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics Graciela B that thermal imaging, a nonlithographic technique which enables printing multiple, successive layers via a dry-to-reel printing method may provide a practical route to realizing the expected benefits of plastics

  16. The “RAPID” high rate large area X-ray detector system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Lewis; W. I. Helsby; A. O. Jones; C. J. Hall; B. Parker; J. Sheldon; P. Clifford; M. Hillen; I. Sumner; N. S. Fore; R. W. M. Jones; K. M. Roberts

    1997-01-01

    The multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) is a well-established device for capturing X-ray images from synchrotron sources and is particularly well suited to dynamic experiments. Its advantages include, almost zero noise, high dynamic range limited only by the electronic memory depth, large area and time resolutions of microseconds. It does however have some limitations, notably in global and local count rate

  17. Dropping out: Why are students leaving junior high in China's poor rural areas?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmei Yi; Linxiu Zhang; Renfu Luo; Yaojiang Shi; Di Mo; Xinxin Chen; Carl Brinton; Scott Rozelle

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few independent, survey-based studies regarding dropout rates in

  18. An Investigation of Southwestern Area Principals and the Enactment of Crisis Plans in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what southwestern area high school principals reported as the enactment of school crisis plans as described in the Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA (CMHS, 2008), "Resource Aid: Responding to a Crisis at School." The conceptual framework guiding the study was an adaptation of the Crisis…

  19. RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity

    E-print Network

    in a vacuum chamber [2]. Performance degradation due to weld imperfections has been observed in some cavities the requirements for the welding of niobium cavities for TESLA. High vacuum (between 2×10-8 and 2×10-6 mbar. 370-380. The distribution of RRR, gases, grain size and thermal conductivity in the welding area

  20. Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Robert

    This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

  1. BUILDING DETECTION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS IN URBAN AREAS

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Michel

    -ground regions are then detected by differences between DEM and DTM. Our processing chain ends with the 3D stereopair (images from the IGN digital camera, resolution about 25cm per pixel, image size is 1700 ¢ 1450BUILDING DETECTION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS IN URBAN AREAS Michel JORDAN

  2. Measurement of the high energy cosmic ray electron spectrum with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Loparco

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite is composed by 16 identical tower modules, each consisting of a silicon strip tracker (TKR) interleaved with tungsten foils and followed by a CsI crystal hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), surrounded by a segmented anticoincidence scintillator detector (ACD). Even though it was designed to be a high sensitivity gamma-ray telescope, the Fermi LAT

  3. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  4. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  5. The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

  6. High-throughput gene expression profiling of opioid-induced alterations in discrete brain areas.

    PubMed

    Korostynski, Michal; Piechota, Marcin; Golda, Slawomir; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome screening methods are unique approach to search for novel genes and molecular pathways involved in drug action. High-throughput profiling allows the gene expression levels of tens of thousands of transcripts to be measured simultaneously. Here, we describe transcriptional profiling in a specific area of the brain using DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing. PMID:25293316

  7. Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico Robin ­ The number of colonies in feral and managed honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) was determined for various sampling locations in Chiapas and Yucatan (Mexico) to assess the impact of apiculture on feral honeybee

  8. RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity Niobium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Singer; X. Singer; J. Tiessen; H. M. Wen; F. Schölz

    2003-01-01

    Experiences concerning RRR degradation and gas absorption of high purity niobium welded at different electron beam (EB) facilities are summarized. The oxygen and nitrogen content is increased as a rule at the welding seam. The absorption of hydrogen takes place not directly at the welding seam but in the heat-affected area. The RRR degradation is moderate, if the total pressure

  9. Adaptive Algorithms for Feedback-Based Flow Control in High Speed, Wide-Area ATM Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavio Bonomi; Debasis Mitra; Judith B. Seery

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a class of flow control algorithms for the adaptive allocation ofbandwidths to virtual connections (VC) in high speed, wide area ATM networks. Thefeedback rate to the source from the network is parsimonious, with each feedback bit indicatingwhether the buffer at a distant switch is above or below a threshold. The servicediscipline at the switch is First-Come-First-Served. The

  10. An Area Efficien Low Power High Speed S-Box Implementation Using Power-Gated PLA

    E-print Network

    Ayers, Joseph

    An Area Efficien Low Power High Speed S-Box Implementation Using Power-Gated PLA Ho Joon Lee- sign of Rijndael S-Box for the SubByte transformation using power-gating and PLA design techniques arrays,VLSI General Terms Cryptography, Power Gate, Low Power Keywords AES, PLA, Power Gate, S-Box 1

  11. Production of large area low-energy electron beams by extraction from a multidipolar plasma (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Lacoste, A.; Bechu, S.; Maulat, O.; Pelletier, J.; Arnal, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie - UJF, CNRS IN2P3 et ST2I, INPG, Centre de Recherche Plasmas-Materiaux-Nanostructures, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble, Cedex (France)

    2008-02-15

    The production of large area low-energy electron beams by extraction from a low-pressure plasma is investigated. In order to extract electron beams of given energy from a plasma, the plasma potential, as referred to wall potential, must be stationary and independent of the extraction potential. The macroscopic neutrality of the plasma therefore requires that reactor walls are metallic and that extraction to reactor wall area ratio is less than the square root of the electron to ion mass ratio. These specifications are fulfilled in the source presented in this study where the plasma is produced in a cylindrical chamber by seven elementary dipolar sources distributed over the end flange of a cylindrical chamber opposite to the extraction grid. The plasma is sustained at electron cyclotron resonance by microwaves at 2.45 GHz in the chamber whose wall potential (extraction potential) can be varied from 0 to -200 V with respect to the ground potential. The electron beam extracted from the plasma through the grid then expands in a second chamber whose walls are set at the ground potential. The details of the experimental arrangement built on the above specifications are presented and the characteristics of argon plasmas measured by using cylindrical Langmuir probes as a function of the extraction voltage. In the same way, electron beam characteristics in the ground potential chamber are also measured using both planar and cylindrical Langmuir probes. In particular, variations in plasma and beam potentials are simultaneously determined as a function of extraction voltage. Current-voltage extraction characteristics are also reported, which show that electron beams in the ampere range can be extracted between 0 and -200 V. The experimental results are in good agreement with the expected electron source behavior.

  12. Research on high-efficiency, large area amorphous silicon based solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, R.R.; Bennett, M.; Fleselmann, B.; Morris, J.; Newton, J.; Podlesny, R.; Twesme, E.; Wiedeman, S.; Yang, L. (Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (USA). Thin Film Div.); Rothwarf, A.; Shapiro, F. (Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This document presents the results of studies in three areas: materials research, non-semiconductor materials research, and submodule research. In materials research, hydrogen dilution of a SiGe:H alloys improved alloys homogeneity and reduced light-induced degradation. Performance improvements were made in both microcrystalline and amorphous doped films, and a method was demonstrated that appears to overcome nucleation and film growth problems by recrystallizing the amorphous n-layer. In non-semiconductor materials research, ITO/Ag production was scaled up to successfully coat 1000-cm{sup 2} submodules. Work on atmospheric chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide produced 2-{mu}m-thick films with 50--80 {Omega}/sq. sheet resistance. In submodule research, all processes were scaled up and single-junction submodules were prepared with 9.9% aperture-area conversion efficiencies. Triple-junction submodules were produced with 8.98% aperture-area efficiencies, and laser scribing was improved to allow only a 2% loss in area. Modeling was used to optimize module performance by predicting parasitic losses given the material constraints of a given device design. Modules were laser patterned to define an array of small-area devices, and topographic maps were produced to alloy visualization of both isolated defects and performance gradients. 27 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will apply our programming model to more large scale applications. In particular, we plan to classify and formalize more high level abstractions and semantics which are relevant to high performance computing. We will also investigate better ways to allow language designers, library developers and programmers to communicate abstraction and semantics information with each other.

  14. Large-area production of yttria-stabilized zirconia by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryds, N.; Schou, J.; Linderoth, S.

    2007-04-01

    The small size of most of the present-day films produced by PLD (up to few cm2) is not only a general limiting factor for applications in many scientific and technical fields, but is also problematic for studies of samples for which edge effects may play an important role. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films with a uniform thickness have been deposited at different distances from the target and at different oxygen background pressure in the largearea PLD facility at Risø National Laboratory. Films of uniform thickness up to 300 nm and 1200 nm over an area with a diameter of more than 90 mm were achieved. Depending on the oxygen background pressure the YSZ films were found to grow in a highly oriented manner on the Si wafer.

  15. High gravity brewing: Nutrient enhanced production of high concentrations of ethanol by brewing yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Casey; C. A. Magnus; W. M. Ingledew

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Supplementation of high gravity brewing worts with 0.8% yeast extract, 24 ppm ergosterol and 0.24% (v\\/v) Tween 80 can result\\u000a in the production of >14% (v\\/v) alcohol at 14°C within 5 days. Unsupplemented worts require up to 2 weeks to end ferment.\\u000a Overcoming nitrogenous and lipid nutritional deficiencies results in substantial increases in cell mass production, decreased\\u000a fermentation times and

  16. Recent Shift of Deforestation to High Elevation Areas from 2001 to 2013 in Borneo Detected by MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, R.; Nagai, S.

    2014-12-01

    The biomass of tropical forests sequestrates tons of carbon and plays an important role in the global carbon cycle regulating the climate. Also its high biodiversity ecosystems bring us many valuable resources and cultural and educational ecosystem services. However, large areas of the tropical forest are deforested and converted to oil palm or acacia plantation for the economic benefit of the local society mainly in Southeast Asia. Monitoring of the tropical forest from satellites provides us the information about the deforestation for decadal time period over extensive areas and enables us to discuss it from a scientific point of view. The purpose of this study is to reveal the interannual change and recent trend of deforestation in relation to the land elevation for decadal time period over Borneo by using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We acquired the atmospherically corrected and cloud free Terra-MODIS and Aqua-MODIS daily data products (MOD09GA and MYD09GA; collection 5) from 2001 to 2013 for Borneo. We extracted the pixel values in the 500m surface reflectance bands 1 (red) and 4 (green) products and calculated the green-red vegetation index (GRVI), (band 4 - band 1) / (band 4 + band 1), at a daily time step. GRVI shows a positive value for the land prevailed by green vegetation, while it shows a negative value for the land prevailed by no-green components such as bare land. As for the elevation data, ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) which has 33.3m spatial resolution was employed. The original resolution was resampled to the grid system of MODIS data (i.e. 500m resolution). Pixels which had a negative GRVI ratio more than 80 % (termed as "no green pixel") in each year were regarded as the land characterized by no vegetation, and mapped the distribution for each year. Throughout the 13 years, no green pixels mainly found over the coastal low land below 20m of the elevation and the area was almost constant (around 3000km2). It is considered the deforestation for the plantations generally occurred over the easy access low lands. By contrast, it was obvious that no green pixels extended their distribution up to high elevation (20 to 120m) areas mainly after 2006. This trend suggests recent development of the plantation has been extended to relatively inland and high elevation areas.

  17. Production of Fumonisin B(inf1) and Moniliformin by Gibberella fujikuroi from Rice from Various Geographic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, A. E.; Plattner, R. D.; Nelson, P. E.

    1997-01-01

    Gibberella fujikuroi strains isolated from rice in the United States, Asia, and other geographic areas were tested for sexual fertility with members of mating population D and for production of fumonisin B(inf1) and moniliformin in culture. Of the 59 field strains tested, 32 (54%) were able to cross with tester strains of mating population D, but only a few ascospores were produced in most of these crosses. Thirty-four strains produced more than 10 (mu)g of fumonisin B(inf1) per g, but only three strains produced more than 1000 (mu)g/g. Twenty-five strains produced more than 100 (mu)g of moniliformin per g, and 15 produced more than 1,000 (mu)g/g. Seven field strains produced both fumonisin B(inf1) and moniliformin, but none of these strains produced a high level of fumonisin B(inf1) (>1,000 (mu)g/g). However, a genetic cross between a strain that produced fumonisin B(inf1) but no moniliformin and a strain that produced moniliformin but no fumonisin B(inf1) yielded progeny that produced high levels of both toxins. Strains of G. fujikuroi isolated from rice infected with bakanae disease are similar to strains of mating population D isolated from maize in their ability to produce both fumonisins and moniliformin. This finding suggests a potential for contamination of rice with both fumonisins and moniliformin. PMID:16535599

  18. Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Comparison and evaluation of high resolution precipitation estimation products in Urmia Basin-Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghajarnia, N.; Liaghat, A.; Daneshkar Arasteh, P.

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the comparison and evaluation of six daily 0.25° × 0.25° high resolution precipitation data sets (PERSIANN, CMORPH-RAW, CMORPH-CRT, TMPA-RT, TMPA-V7 and APHRODITE). The comparison is performed during years 2000 till 2011 in Urmia basin of Iran and the local daily rainfall gauge observations are considered as the reference data set. Several statistical, categorical and graphical evaluation techniques are used to compare and evaluate the product performances and quantify their biases from reference data. APHRODITE and TMPA-V7, by benefiting from gauge observations during their adjustment procedures present better estimations while among near real-time products, PERSIANN is able to remarkably outperform other estimations. Both CMORPH products has shown to have great overestimation (more than 200%) over the observations while PERSIANN and TMPA-RT tend to underestimate rainfall on average about 26% and 78% respectively. TMPA-V7 and APHRODITE also overestimate observations about 26 and 3 percentages. Compared to near real-time version of products, TMPA-V7 has succeeded to significantly improve TMPA-RT performance while CMORPH-CRT has completely unsuccessful in its mission. Although all rainfall estimation products are characterized by considerable biases in comparison to the gauge observations, detailed analysis indicate that some of them have the capability of becoming a valuable source of high resolution precipitation estimation data set, especially over purely gauged areas.

  20. A large-area VUV photosensor with high gain by means of photoelectron acceleration and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, J.A.M.; Conde, C.A.N. [Univ. de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica] [Univ. de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica

    1995-08-01

    Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) are generally used to detect the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) scintillation light produced in devices like gas proportional scintillation counters (GPSC). Here, the authors report the results of the development of a new photosensor with large area and high gain. The photoelectrons from a 48 mm diameter CsI photocathode are accelerated with high voltage and electrostatically concentrated, rather than imaged, onto the surface of an 8 mm diameter semiconductor detector. The amplitude of the photoelectron signals initiated by a pulsed xenon lamp of constant intensity and high stability (instability <1%) is approximately linear with the accelerating voltage in the 10 to 20 kV region. Non uniformity of the signal amplitude over 70% of the photocathode area is below 6%.

  1. Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas are defined as areas with reported or estimated incidence of 20 cases per 100,000

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas Niger Swaziland Source: World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory, Tuberculosis Incidence 2009. For future updates , refer to http://apps.who.int/ghodata/?vid=510 Tuberculosis Screening

  2. Large area selective emitters/absorbers based on 2D tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature energy applications

    E-print Network

    Rinnerbauer, V.

    We report highly selective emitters based on high-aspect ratio 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated on large area (2 inch diameter) polycrystalline tantalum substrates, suitable for high-temperature operation. As an ...

  3. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed. PMID:25391230

  4. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  5. Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

  6. Exclusive vector meson production at high energies and gluon saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armesto, Néstor; Rezaeian, Amir H.

    2014-09-01

    We systematically study exclusiv2 diffractive (photo)production of vector mesons (J/?, ?(2s), ?, and ?) off protons in high-energy collisions and investigate whether the production is a sensitive probe of gluon saturation. We confront saturation-based results for diffractive ?(2s) and ? production at HERA and J/? photoproduction with all available data, including recent work from HERA, ALICE, and LHCb, finding good agreement. In particular, we show that the t distribution of differential cross sections of photoproduction of vector mesons offers a unique opportunity to discriminate among saturation and nonsaturation models. This is due to the emergence of a pronounced dip (or multiple dips) in the t distribution of diffractive photoproduction of vector mesons at relatively large, but potentially accessible |t| that can be traced back to the unitarity features of color dipole amplitude in the saturation regime. We show that in saturation models the dips in t distribution recede towards lower |t| with decreasing mass of the vector meson, increasing energy or decreasing Bjorken-x, and decreasing virtuality Q. We provide various predictions for exclusive (photo)production of different vector mesons including the ratio of ?(2s)/J/? at HERA, the LHC, and future colliders.

  7. Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package

    SciTech Connect

    JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

    2000-03-08

    The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

  8. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. (Univ. of Lagos (Nigeria))

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  9. Contactless measurement of the transition temperature for large area high Tc films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J. G.; Yang, Yulin; Mao, Wenwei; Gao, Zhong-Wan; Liu, M. L.

    1994-10-01

    The noncontact electromagnetic induction method for measuring the transition temperature of large area high Tc films is described. This technique rely on the variation of the mutual inductance between two coils. Our designed system can detect the large area samples which diameter more than 10 mm. In addition, the apparatus can measure many positions on same sample simultaneously by a personal computer. Transition temperature may be measured with a precision of 0.2 K. The temperature range can cover 64-300 K using a platinum resistor as temperature sensor in liquid nitrogen cryostat.

  10. Hierarchical Porous and High Surface Area Tubular Carbon as Dye Adsorbent and Capacitor Electrode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ji, Tuo; Brisbin, Logan; Zhu, Jiahua

    2015-06-10

    Hierarchically porous tubular carbon (HPTC) with large surface area of 1094 m(2)/g has been successfully synthesized by selectively removing lignin from natural wood. No templates or chemicals are involved during the process. By further KOH activation, surface area of activated HPTC reaches up to 2925 m(2)/g. These materials show unprecedented high adsorption capacity toward organic dyes (methylene blue, 838 mg/g; methyl orange, 264 mg/g) and large electrochemical capacitance of >200 F/g. The sustainable feature of the wood precursor and demonstrated superior adsorption and energy storage properties allow promising applications of the processed materials in energy and environmental related fields. PMID:25980528

  11. Advanced new daily products of cloud-free snow cover area and snow water equivalent from MODIS/Terra-Aqua & AMSR-E measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Xie, H.; Lu, N.; Liang, T.; Xue, C.

    2008-12-01

    Taking advantage of high spatial resolution of optical sensor and cloud penetration of passive microwave sensor, an advanced method is presented to combine daily MODIS/Terra-Aqua and AMSR-E (MTAA) products and to generate new daily cloud-free snow cover area (MTAA-SCA) and snow water equivalent (MTAA-SWE) products both in 500 m spatial resolution. This method consists of three major processes: unifying codes, compositing products, and redistributing snow water equivalent. The method was tested and applied to Fairbanks and Upper Susitna Valley, Alaska region for the period of October 2006 to September 2007. The result confirms again that MODIS has high classification accuracy in clear-sky condition and that the daily Terra-Aqua combination reduces cloud blockage by 12.2% and 7.3% respectively for MYD10A1 and MOD10A1 alone. As compared with in situ observations, the snow agreement of the new MTAA-SCA product is 85.6%, which is much higher than the 48.6% of the MODIS Terra-Aqua combined SCA product, and the 75.4% of the MODIS/Terra-AMSR-E combined SCA product. The result shows that the agreement between the AMSR-E SWE and in situ SWE is 54.4% and that the AMSR-E intends to overestimate SWE. Redistribution of SWE, based on sub-pixel analysis of AMSR-E pixels, not only generates the new MTAA- SWE product of 500 m spatial resolution, suitable for basin and regional monitoring and modeling, but also increases the agreement with in situ measurement and reduces the overestimation of SWE. Therefore, the new MTAA products promise a significant addition to the standard MODIS and AMSR-E product series and future NPP and NPOESS products.

  12. Kinetics of the absorption of hydrogen sulfide by high purity and doped high surface area zinc oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michael Davidson; Catriona H. Lawrie; Khalid Sohail

    1995-01-01

    Zinc oxide is used for removal of hydrogen sulfide from reformer feeds, synthesis gas, and natural gas before pipeline transmission. The stoichiometry and rate of the reaction of HâS (0.05--0.80% in Nâ) with high surface area ZnO have been studied at 273--318 K. Absorption of HâS by ZnO is not accompanied by evolution of the stoichiometric amount of HâO which

  13. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

    1998-04-21

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

  14. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

    1998-09-22

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

  15. The 2GCHAS: A high productivity software development environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, Larry

    1986-01-01

    To the user, the most visible feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is its very powerful user interface. To the programmer, TAE's user interface, proc concept, standardized interface definitions, and hierarchy search provide a set of tools for rapidly prototyping or developing production software. The 2GCHAS (Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System) project has extended and enhanced these mechanisms, creating a powerful and high productivity programming environment where the 2GCHAS development environment is 2GCHAS itself and where a sustained rate for certified, documented, and tested software above 30 delivered source instructions per programmer day has been achieved. The 2GCHAS environment is not limited to helicopter analysis, but is applicable to other disciplines where software development is important.

  16. ENTROPY PRODUCTION AT HIGH ENERGY AND mu B.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.

    2006-07-03

    The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on Ai-A, p + y and e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at high energies and large {mu}{sub B} is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities are different at low beam energies.

  17. Ecology and technological capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated during Grillo grape vinification in the Marsala production area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Francesca; Luca Settanni; Ciro Sannino; Maria Aponte; Giancarlo Moschetti

    2011-01-01

    Grapes of the “Grillo” variety, used to produce Marsala wine, were harvested from five vineyards with different climatic and\\u000a agronomic parameters, in order to obtain a first mapping of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inhabiting the production area. Marsala\\u000a base wine production was followed at a large-scale, and also two experimental vinifications, with different lysozyme and SO2 concentrations and in combination,

  18. Injection recovery based on production data in unit 13 and unit 16 areas of The Geysers field

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, K.P.; Box, W.T., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Steam production data from 13 wells including and surrounding Unit 13 injection well I-3 and 15 production wells including and surrounding Unit 16 injection well I-5 are analyzed to estimate steam decline rates with and without water injection. Such information is then utilized to estimate the first year recovery factor due to water injection in the southwest area of Unit 13 and the Unit 16 wellfields.

  19. Construction of high-energy-density supercapacitors from pine-cone-derived high-surface-area carbons.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kaliyappan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandiyan; Lee, Sol Nip; Sun, Xueliang; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Yun Sung

    2014-05-01

    Very high surface area activated carbons (AC) are synthesized from pine cone petals by a chemical activation process and subsequently evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications in a nonaqueous medium. The maximum specific surface area of ?3950?m(2) ?g(-1) is noted for the material treated with a 1:5 ratio of KOH to pine cone petals (PCC5), which is much higher than that reported for carbonaceous materials derived from various other biomass precursors. A symmetric supercapacitor is fabricated with PCC5 electrodes, and the results showed enhanced supercapacitive behavior with the highest energy density of ?61?Wh?kg(-1). Furthermore, outstanding cycling ability is evidenced for such a configuration, and ?90?% of the initial specific capacitance after 20,000?cycles under harsh conditions was observed. This result revealed that the pine-cone-derived high-surface-area AC can be used effectively as a promising electrode material to construct high-energy-density supercapacitors. PMID:24648276

  20. Estimating product bioequivalence for highly variable veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Claxton, R; Cook, J; Endrenyi, L; Lucas, A; Martinez, M N; Sutton, S C

    2012-04-01

    The occurrence of drugs and drug formulations associated with large intrasubject pharmacokinetic (PK) variability has been well described in humans and is likewise encountered in veterinary medicine. The scaled average bioequivalence (SABE) approach adopted by CDER of the FDA for the determination of bioequivalence (BE) of highly variable drugs (HVD) needs to be considered when applied to veterinary dosage forms. However, because of some of the unique challenges that are encountered within the framework of veterinary medicine, variations of CDER's approach are presented. The present manuscript discusses HVD and highly variable veterinary drugs (HVVD) from the perspective of possible alternative approaches to support the assessment of product BE in veterinary medicine. Limitations in the use of 3- and 4-way crossover study designs are enumerated. In addition to a need for a statistical analysis of HVVD when using a parallel study design, the use of the secondary criteria (test-to-reference ratio), definition of ?(0) , and average BE with expanding limits are raised. A number of the details need to be finalized, from the selection of a regulatory constant to the determination of 'highly variable' in a veterinary drug product. Academicians, industrial scientists, and regulators should continue this discussion and resolve these details. PMID:22413787

  1. Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System.

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically decompose CB agents over large areas (12 m2). Preliminary tests indicate that more than 5 decades (99.999%) of an Anthrax spore simulant (Bacillus globigii) were killed in less than 7 seconds of exposure to the HEAL system. When combined with a catalyst material (TiO2) the HEAL system was also effective against a chemical agent simulant, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP). These results demonstrate the feasibility of a rapid, large-area chemical and biological decontamination method that does not require toxic or corrosive reagents or generate hazardous wastes.

  2. Multiple vacancy production by high energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.L.; Ford, A.L.; Reading, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of atomic collisions has two ingredients: collision theory and atomic structure theory. The collision theories differ with respect to (A) the collision dynamics and (B) the treatment of the relative motion of the projectile and target nuclei. With regard to the dynamics multiple vacancy production is of fundamental interest because it is a signature for and probe of strong interactions between the projectile and the target electrons. For projectiles of large nuclear charge, Z/sub p/, especially for those which are highly stripped so as to have a large ionic charge, q, the interaction becomes strong enough to give a high probability of multiple vacancy production and a breakdown of perturbation theory. The familiar first and second Born approximations and their off-shoots cease to be adequate. Not even the recent strong-potential Born approximation (see Taulbjerg 1984) is sufficient, because the weaker of the potentials generated by the projectile and the target nuclei, respectively, is treated in first order. One needs a unitary, non-perturbative collision theory. At present this is generally available for multiple vacancy production only in the form of the highly numerical coupled channels theory (Becker et al. 1983, 1984b). For special problems analytically tractable models have been devised. For example, a simple, unitary, geometrical encounter probability model for the calculation of p/sub L/(0), the inclusive L-shell vacancy probability per electron in collisions with impact parameter B = 0, has been introduced by Sulik et al. (1984) and further developed by Sulik and Hock (1984). Along with earlier coupled-channels calculations (Becker et al. 1984ab) and first Magnus calculations (Becker et al. 1984b), this model is able to describe the saturation of p/sub L/(0) with Z/sub p/ at fixed impact speed, v, whereas all the first-order theories predict p/sub L/ proportional to Z/sub p//sup 2/, which eventually exceeds unity.

  3. Optimal Capacity Conversion for Product Transitions Under High Service Requirements

    E-print Network

    Li, Hongmin

    We consider the capacity planning problem during a product transition in which demand for a new-generation product gradually replaces that for the old product. Capacity for the new product can be acquired both by purchasing ...

  4. 1025:1 Area Ratio Nozzle Evaluated at High Combustion Chamber Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A recently completed experimental test program obtained performance data on an optimally contoured nozzle with an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 mPa (1800 to 2400 psia). Testing was conducted in the altitude test capsule at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Rocket Engine Test Facility (RETF), and results were compared with analytical performance predictions. This testing builds on previous work with this nozzle at Lewis, where testing was completed at nominal chamber pressure of 350 psia. High-area-ratio nozzles have long been sought as a means to increase the performance of spacebased rocket engines. However, as the area ratio increases, the physical size and weight of the nozzle also increase. As a result, engine and vehicle designers must make tradeoffs between nozzle size and performance enhancement. Until this test program, very little experimental data existed on the performance of the high-area-ratio nozzles used in rocket engine designs. The computer codes being used by rocket engine designers rely on data extrapolated from tests of low-area-ratio nozzles, and these extrapolations do not always provide the accuracy needed for a reliable design assessment. Therefore, we conducted this high-area-ratio nozzle testing program to provide performance data for use in rocket engine design and analysis computer codes. The nozzle had a nominal 2.54-cm- (1-in.-) diameter throat, an exit diameter of 81.3-cm (32.0-in.) at an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1025, and a length of 128.6 cm (50.6 in.). Testing was conducted in an altitude test capsule to simulate the static pressure at altitude by vacuum pumping. Data such as propellant mass flow, oxidizer-to-fuel mixture, and thrust were measured. These measurements were then used to calculate performance factors such as the thrust coefficient, the characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency, and the vacuum specific impulse. In addition, the nozzle temperature was measured to calculate the amount of heat transferred from the combustion gases to the nozzle.

  5. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive. PMID:25531980

  6. Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

    2014-01-01

    This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha?1 year?1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha?1 year?1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha?1 year?1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

  7. High power laser for peening of metals enabling production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J; Dane, C B; Hackel, L A; Harrison, J

    1998-06-11

    Laser shot peening, a surface treatment for metals, is known to induce compressive residual stresses of over 0.040 inch depth providing improved component resistance to various forms of failure. Additionally recent information suggests that thermal relaxation of the laser induced stress is significantly less than that experienced by other forms of surface stressing that involve significantly higher levels of cold work. We have developed a unique solid state laser technology employing Nd:glass slabs and phase conjugation that enables this process to move into high throughput production processing.

  8. Advance in highly efficient hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Yu; WenQiang Zhang; Jing Chen; JingMing Xu; ShaoRong Wang

    2008-01-01

    High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) through a solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) has been receiving increasing research\\u000a and development attention worldwide because of its high conversion efficiency (about 45%–59%) and its potential usage for\\u000a large-scale production of hydrogen. The mechanism, composition, structure, and developing challenges of SOEC are summarized.\\u000a Current situation, key materials, and core technologies of SOEC (solid oxide

  9. Synthesis and characterisation of thermally stable high surface area anatase titania particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Anilkumar, G.M.; Damodaran, A.D.; Warrier, K.G.K. [Regional Research Lab. (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    1997-12-31

    Titanium oxide fine powders have been prepared by hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide under various controlled conditions, such as changing the pH, by refluxing the hydrolysed species and by incorporating urea. The hydrolysed product is characterised for its thermal dehydroxylation to anatase and its transformation to rutile by thermal analysis and XRD technique. The specific surface area of the powders varied from 109 m{sup 2}/g to 840 m{sup 2}/g depending on the method of synthesis. Incorporation upto 5 % cerium oxide as salt in the precursor gel has been found to considerably influence the transformation temperature of anatase to rutile.

  10. Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

    2011-01-01

    In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

  11. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  12. Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Andréa S; Werneck, Guilherme L

    2014-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128

  13. Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area amorphous silicon based modules -- Task B

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, K.W.; Willet, D.R. (Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report documents progress in developing a stable, high- efficiency, four-terminal hybrid tandem module. The module consists of a semi-transparent, thin-film silicon:hydrogen alloy (TFS) top circuit and a copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) bottom circuit. Film deposition and patterning processes were successfully extended to 0.4-m{sup 2} substrates. A 33.2-W (8.4% efficient) module with a 3970-cm{sup 2} aperture area and a white back reflector was demonstrated; without the back reflector, the module produced 30.2 W (7.6% efficient). Placing a laminated, 31.6-W, 8.1%-efficient CuInSe{sub 2} module underneath this TFS module, with an air gap between the two, produces 11.2 W (2.9% efficient) over a 3883-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Therefore, the four-terminal tandem power output is 41.4 W, translating to a 10.5% aperture-area efficiency. Subsequently, a 37.8-W (9.7% aperture-area efficiency) CuInSe{sub 2} module was demonstrated with a 3905-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Future performances of single-junction and tandem modules of this size were modeled, and predicted power outputs exceed 50 W (13% efficient) for CuInSe{sub 2} and 65 W (17% efficient) for TFS/CuInSe{sub 2} tandem modules.

  14. Toward New Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: High Surface Area Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Kabbour, H; Baumann, T F; Satcher, J H; Saulnier, A; Ahn, C C

    2007-02-05

    We report the hydrogen surface excess sorption saturation value of 5.3 wt% at 30 bar pressure at 77 K, from an activated carbon aerogel with a surface area of 3200 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. This sorption value is one of the highest we have measured in a material of this type, comparable to values obtained in high surface area activated carbons. We also report, for the first time, the surface area dependence of hydrogen surface excess sorption isotherms of carbon aerogels at 77 K. Activated carbon aerogels with surface areas ranging from 1460 to 3200 m{sup 2}/g are evaluated and we find a linear dependence of the saturation of the gravimetric density with BET surface area for carbon aerogels up to 2550 m{sup 2}/g, in agreement with data from other types of carbons reported in the literature. Our measurements show these materials to have a differential enthalpy of adsorption at zero coverage of {approx}5 to 7 kJ/mole. We also show that the introduction of metal nanoparticles of nickel improves the sorption capacity while cobalt additions have no effect.

  15. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Wham, Robert M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  16. Highly segmented large-area hybrid photodiodes with bialkali photocathodes and enclosed VLSI readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braem, A.; Chesi, E.; Dulinski, W.; Filthaut, F.; Go, A.; Joram, C.; Séguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Wenzel, H.; Wicht, P.; Ypsilantis, T.

    2000-03-01

    We report on the principles, design, fabrication, and operation of a highly segmented, large-area hybrid photodiode, which is being developed in the framework of the LHCb RICH project. The device consists of a cylindrical, 127 mm diameter vacuum envelope capped with a spherical borosilicate UV-glass entrance window, with an active-to-total-area fraction of 81%. A fountain-focusing electron optics is used to demagnify the image onto a 50 mm diameter silicon sensor, containing 2048 pads of size 1×1 mm2. The sensor pads are read out by 16 analogue multiplexed readout chips enclosed in the vacuum envelope. A large ultra-high vacuum plant for the evaporation of visible-light transmittive bialkali (K2CsSb) photocathodes and subsequent tube encapsulation has been built and successfully operated. The characteristics and performance of the first HPDs have been measured to be in full agreement with expectations.

  17. Production of porcine parvovirus empty capsids with high immunogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Dalsgaard, K; López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Vela, C; Casal, J I

    1992-01-01

    The VP2 gene of porcine parvovirus was cloned in the baculovirus system and expressed in insect cells. The resulting product was present in high yield. It self-assembled into particles which were structurally and antigenically indistinguishable from regular PPV capsids. A high degree of purity of the recombinant capsids was obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation of cell lysates. These virus-like particles were used as antigen in the immunization of two pigs. The pigs elicited an immune response which, when assayed by standard serological techniques, was identical to that of a commercial vaccine. The amount of recombinant antigen needed in a vaccine dose was only 3 micrograms in a primary dose and 1.5 micrograms in the booster. PMID:1523879

  18. Detailed f1, f2 Area Study of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions in the Frog

    PubMed Central

    Narins, Peter M.; van Dijk, Pim

    2005-01-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are weak sounds emitted from the ear when it is stimulated with two tones. They are a manifestation of the nonlinear mechanics of the inner ear. As such, they provide a noninvasive tool for the study of the inner ear mechanics involved in the transduction of sound into nerve fiber activity. Based on the DPOAE phase behavior as a function of frequency, it is currently believed that mammalian DPOAEs are the combination of two components, each generated by a different mechanism located at a different location in the cochlea. In frogs, instead of a cochlea, two separate hearing papillae are present. Of these, the basilar papilla (BP) is a relatively simple structure that essentially functions as a single auditory filter. A two-mechanism model of DPOAE generation is not expected to apply to the BP. In contrast, the other hearing organ, the amphibian papilla (AP), exhibits a tonotopic organization. In the past it has been suggested that this papilla supports a traveling wave in its tectorial membrane. Therefore, a two-mechanism model of DPOAE generation may be applicable for DPOAEs from the AP. In the present study we report on the amplitude and phase of DPOAEs in the frog ear in a detailed f1, f2 area study. The result is markedly different from that in the mammalian cochlea. It indicates that DPOAEs generated by neither papilla agree with the two-mechanism traveling wave model. This confirms our expectation for the BP and does not support the hypothesized presence of a mechanical traveling wave in the AP. PMID:15735935

  19. Calibration methodology application of kerma area product meters in situ: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, N. A.; Potiens, M. P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The kerma-area product (KAP) is a useful quantity to establish the reference levels of conventional X-ray examinations. It can be obtained by measurements carried out with a KAP meter on a plane parallel transmission ionization chamber mounted on the X-ray system. A KAP meter can be calibrated in laboratory or in situ, where it is used. It is important to use one reference KAP meter in order to obtain reliable quantity of doses on the patient. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) is a new equipment from Radcal that measures KAP. It was manufactured following the IEC 60580 recommendations, an international standard for KAP meters. This study had the aim to calibrate KAP meters using the PDC in situ. Previous studies and the quality control program of the PDC have shown that it has good function in characterization tests of dosimeters with ionization chamber and it also has low energy dependence. Three types of KAP meters were calibrated in four different diagnostic X-ray equipments. The voltages used in the two first calibrations were 50 kV, 70 kV, 100 kV and 120 kV. The other two used 50 kV, 70 kV and 90 kV. This was related to the equipments limitations. The field sizes used for the calibration were 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm. The calibrations were done in three different cities with the purpose to analyze the reproducibility of the PDC. The results gave the calibration coefficient for each KAP meter and showed that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument to calibrate clinical KAP meters.

  20. Regional myocardial flow and capillary permeability-surface area products are nearly proportional.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J H; Martin, G V; Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    1994-08-01

    Analyses of data on the transcapillary exchange and cellular uptake in the normal heart have generally been based on the assumption that local membrane conductances and volumes of distribution are everywhere the same. The question is whether such an assumption is justified in view of the marked (sixfold) heterogeneity of local blood flows per gram tissue. The method was to estimate both flow and capillary membrane permeability-surface area products (PS) locally in the heart. For each of five dogs running on a sloped treadmill, the deposition of tracer microspheres and of [131I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA), after left atrial injection, was determined in 256 pieces of left ventricular myocardium by killing the animals at approximately 100 s after radiotracer injection. A hydraulic occluder stopped the flow to a portion of the myocardium supplied by the left circumflex coronary artery 30 s before tracer injection. Regional flows ranged from 0.1 to 7.0 ml.g-1.min-1. IPPA extractions ranged from 20 to 49%. Using the known flows, we assumed the applicability of an axially distributed blood-tissue exchange model to estimate the PS for the capillary (PSc) and the parenchymal cell. It was impossible to explain the data if the PSc values for membrane transport were uniform throughout the organ. Rather, the only reasonable descriptors of the data required that local PSc values increase with local flow, almost in proportion. Current methods of analysis using data based on deposition methods need to be revised to take into account the near proportionality of PS to flow for at least some substrates. PMID:8067421

  1. Substrate inhibition and control for high rate biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    This research addresses a critical aspect of the technical feasibility of biogas recovery with poultry manure using anaerobic digestion, namely, inhibition and toxicity factors limiting methane generation under high rate conditions. The research was designed to identify the limiting factors and to examine alternative pretreatment and in situ control methods for the anaerobic digestion of poultry manure as an energy producing system. Biogas production was indicated by the daily gas volume produced per unit digester capacity. Enhanced biogas generation from the anaerobic digester systems using poultry manure was studied in laboratory- and pilot-scale digester operations. It was found that ammonia nitrogen concentration above 4000 mg/l was inhibitory to biogas production. Pretreatment of the manure by elutriation was effective for decreasing inhibitory/toxic conditions. Increased gas production resulted without an indication of serious inhibition by increased volatile acids, indicating a limitation of available carbon sources. For poultry manure digestion, the optimum pH range was 7.1 to 7.6. Annual costs for pretreatment/biogas systems for 10,000, 30,000 and 50,000 birds were estimated and compared with annual surplus energy produced. The economic break-even point was achieved in digesters for greater than 30,000 birds. Capital cost of the digester system was estimated to be $18,300 with annual costs around $4000. It is anticipated that the digester system could be economically applied to smaller farms as energy costs increase.

  2. High yield production of extracellular recombinant levansucrase by Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Korneli, Claudia; Biedendieck, Rebekka; David, Florian; Jahn, Dieter; Wittmann, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a high yield production bioprocess with recombinant Bacillus megaterium for the production of the extracellular enzyme levansucrase (SacB) was developed. For basic optimization of culture parameters and nutrients, a recombinant B. megaterium reporter strain that produced green fluorescent protein under control of a vector-based xylose-inducible promoter was used. It enabled efficient microtiter plate-based screening via fluorescence analysis. A pH value of pH?6, 20 % of dissolved oxygen, 37 °C, and elevated levels of biotin (100 ?g?L(-1)) were found optimal with regard to high protein yield and reduced overflow metabolism. Among the different compounds tested, fructose and glycerol were identified as the preferred source of carbon. Subsequently, the settings were transferred to a B. megaterium strain recombinantly producing levansucrase SacB based on the plasmid-located xylose-inducible expression system. In shake flask culture under the optimized conditions, the novel strain already secreted the target enzyme in high amounts (14 U?mL(-1) on fructose and 17.2 U?mL(-1) on glycerol). This was further increased in high cell density fed-batch processes up to 55 U?mL(-1), reflecting a levansucrase concentration of 0.52 g?L(-1). This is 100-fold more than previous efforts for this enzyme in B. megaterium and more than 10-fold higher than reported values of other extracellular protein produced in this microorganism so far. The recombinant strain could also handle raw glycerol from biodiesel industry which provided the same amount and quality of the recombinant protein and suggests future implementation into existing biorefinery concepts. PMID:23179620

  3. The geology and geophysics of the High Island South Area, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Silver, Kenneth Edward

    1991-01-01

    ACTIVITY. SALT RIDGE SYSTEMS. BASIN EVOLUTION. Page 1 . . 2 . . . . . 6 12 12 . . . . 12 15 18 23 25 . . . . . 25 . . . . . . 27 . . 28 33 . . . , . . 34 36 38 . . 40 . . 42 . . . . . 44 . . . . . 50 51 . . . . . . 55 . . . . . 62... evolution of the High Island South Area (HISA). Information generated from the data set include structure, isochron, seismic facies, net sand, and paleobathymetric maps keyed to five seismic intervals. These intervals are bounded by the acoustic basement...

  4. GENERATION OF COARSE 3D MODELS OF URBAN AREAS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO SATELLITE IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Lehner; Peter Reinartz

    Commission I, WG I\\/5, ThS-3 ABSTRACT: With the emergence of more and more satellites delivering very high resolution (VHR) imagery with ground sampling distances in the range of one meter or below the generation of three dimensional urban models directly from space may become possible. Such models are required for many applications in areas where no up-to-date detailed urban mapping

  5. Development of KOH activated high surface area carbon and its application to drinking water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Otowa; Y. Nojima; T. Miyazaki

    1997-01-01

    High-surface-area (over 3000 m2 g ?1) active carbon (MAXSORB) was developed from a mixture of petroleum coke and an excess amount of potassium hydroxide. A considerable number (0.9–1.6 meq g?1) of surface functional groups were found compared to that of typical steam activated carbons (0.1–0.2 meq g?1). Breakthrough of sodium hypochlorite or chloroform was studied using model drinking water at

  6. Evaluation of radargrammetric DEM from RADARSAT images in high relief areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry TOUTIN

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses digital elevation model (DEM) generation with RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) fine mode images (F2-F4 and F1-F5) over high relief areas. Shallow look angles and small intersection angles were chosen to reduce layover and radiometric differences in the stereo images and thus increase the performances of the image matching. The radargrammetric DEMs are thus evaluated as functions

  7. Study of LiFePO 4 cathode materials coated with high surface area carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Zhang Lu; George Ting-Kuo Fey; Hsien-Ming Kao

    2009-01-01

    LiFePO4 is a potential cathode material for 4V lithium-ion batteries. Carbon-coated lithium iron phosphates were prepared using a high surface area carbon to react precursors through a solid-state process, during which LiFePO4 particles were embedded in amorphous carbon. The carbonaceous materials were synthesized by the pyrolysis of peanut shells under argon, where they were carbonized in a two-step process that

  8. Indoor and Outdoor in Situ High-Resolution Gamma Radiation Measurements in Urban Areas of Cyprus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Svoukis; H. Tsertos

    2006-01-01

    In situ, high-resolution, gamma-ray spectrometry of a total number of 70 outdoor and 20 indoor representative measurements were performed in preselected, common locations of the main urban areas of Cyprus. Specific activities and gamma absorbed dose rates in air due to the naturally occurring radionuclides of Th-232 and U-238 series, and K-40 are determined and discussed. Effective dose rate to

  9. Location of Irrigated Land Classified from Satellite Imagery - High Plains Area, Nominal Date 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  10. High surface area neodymium phosphate nano particles by modified aqueous sol–gel method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasidharan Sankar; Krishna Gopakumar Warrier; Rajesh Komban

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of nano rod shaped neodymium phosphate (NdPO4) particles with specific surface area as high as 107m2g?1 and an average length of 50nm with aspect ratio 5 was achieved using modified sol gel method. Crystallite size calculated from the X-ray diffraction data by applying Scherer equation was 5nm for the precursor gel after calcination at 400°C. NdPO4 was first precipitated

  11. High specific surface area carbon nanotubes from catalytic chemical vapor deposition process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Bacsa; Ch. Laurent; A. Peigney; W. S. Bacsa; Th. Vaugien; A. Rousset

    2000-01-01

    A carbon nanotube specimen with a carbon content of 83 wt.% (95 vol.%) and a specific surface area equal to 790 m2\\/g (corresponding to 948 m2\\/g of carbon) is prepared by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. The nanotubes, 90% of which are single- and double-walled, are individual rather than in bundles. High-resolution electron microscopy shows a diameter distribution in

  12. FPGA-Based High Area Efficient Time-To-Digital IP Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Chuan Lin; Guo-Ruey Tsai; Chun-Yi Liu; Shi-Shien Chu

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel design for a highly area efficient FPGA-based TDC (time to digital converter) IP (intelligent property) with resolution less than 30 ps. To avoid the unpredictable internal place and route (P&R) delay, a modified ring oscillator is presented. By integrating the gates delay and P&R delay, a design by combining schematic and VHDL codes, can generate

  13. Pelagic productivity changes in the equatorial area of the northwest Indian Ocean during the last 400,000 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélène Jacot Des Combes; Jean-Pierre Caulet; Nicolas P. Tribovillard

    1999-01-01

    Major and selected trace element (Al, Fe, Mg, K, Ba, P, Mn, V, Cu, Ni, and Ti) records were analyzed in two cores recovered from the northwestern Indian Ocean (core MD 90940 on the Madingley Rise and core MD 85668 in the Somali Basin) in order to monitor the sedimentary response to pelagic productivity in this area during the last

  14. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH-EATING BIRDS FROM THE PINCHI LAKE AREA IN RELATION TO PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shari A. Weech; R. P. Bio; Tony M. Scheuhammer

    Bald eagles and red-necked grebes were monitored from 2000 - 2002 on several lakes along the Pinchi fault, an area with a known source of geologic mercury and previous Hg mining (on Pinchi Lake), in an effort to discern whether increased Hg concentrations were affecting reproductive success and productivity. To determine whether or not Hg levels were elevated, fish tissues

  15. Abstract--Medical image segmentation is one of the most productive research areas in medical image processing. The

    E-print Network

    Jepson, Allan D.

    image segmentation is performed using statistics[1], fuzzy logic[2], neural networks[3], active contoursAbstract--Medical image segmentation is one of the most productive research areas in medical image processing. The goal of most new image segmentation algorithms is to achieve higher segmentation accuracy

  16. The Development of Integrated Crop-livestock Production Systems in the Low Rainfall Areas of Mashreq and Maghreb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Thomas; T. Ngaido; H. Halila; E. Bailey; K. Shideed; M. Malki; A. Nefzaoui; A. Chriyaa; F. Awawdeh; S. H. Hassan; Y. Sweidan; A. Sbeita

    Integrated barley-livestock production systems in the low rainfall areas of the Mashreq and Maghreb region (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Algeria, Libya, Morocco and Tunisia) were improved through the development of technological, institutional and policy options by a multidisciplinary and multi-insti- tutional team consisting of two CGIAR centres (ICARDA and IFPRI), the national agricultural research systems and two farming communities from

  17. Cortical thickness and surface area in neonates at high risk for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Ahn, Mihye; Peng, Ziwen; Zhu, Hongtu; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with subtle abnormal cortical thickness and cortical surface area. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities exist in neonates associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. To this end, this preliminary study was conducted to identify possible abnormalities of cortical thickness and surface area in the high-genetic-risk neonates. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from offspring of mothers (N = 21) who had schizophrenia (N = 12) or schizoaffective disorder (N = 9), and also matched healthy neonates of mothers who were free of psychiatric illness (N = 26). Neonatal cortical surfaces were reconstructed and parcellated as regions of interest (ROIs), and cortical thickness for each vertex was computed as the shortest distance between the inner and outer surfaces. Comparisons were made for the average cortical thickness and total surface area in each of 68 cortical ROIs. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, it was found that the female high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortical thickness in the right lateral occipital cortex than the female control neonates. Before FDR correction, the high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the left transverse temporal gyrus, left banks of superior temporal sulcus, left lingual gyrus, right paracentral cortex, right posterior cingulate cortex, right temporal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, compared with the control neonates. Before FDR correction, in comparison with control neonates, male high-risk neonates had significantly thicker cortex in the left frontal pole, left cuneus cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex; while female high-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the bilateral paracentral, bilateral lateral occipital, left transverse temporal, left pars opercularis, right cuneus, and right posterior cingulate cortices. The high-risk neonates also had significantly smaller cortical surface area in the right pars triangularis (before FDR correction), compared with control neonates. This preliminary study provides the first evidence that early development of cortical thickness and surface area might be abnormal in the neonates at genetic risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25362539

  18. Radiation dose in the high background radiation area in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Christa, E P; Jojo, P J; Vaidyan, V K; Anilkumar, S; Eappen, K P

    2012-03-01

    A systematic radiological survey has been carried out in the region of high-background radiation area in Kollam district of Kerala to define the natural gamma-radiation levels. One hundred and forty seven soil samples from high-background radiation areas and five samples from normal background region were collected as per standard sampling procedures and were analysed for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K by gamma-ray spectroscopy. External gamma dose rates at all sampling locations were also measured using a survey meter. The activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K was found to vary from 17 to 3081 Bq kg(-1), 54 to 11976 Bq kg(-1) and BDL (67.4 Bq kg(-1)) to 216 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the study area. Such heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the region may be attributed to the deposition phenomenon of beach sand soil in the region. Radium equivalent activities were found high in several locations. External gamma dose rates estimated from the levels of radionuclides in soil had a range from 49 to 9244 nGy h(-1). The result of gamma dose rate measured at the sampling sites using survey meter showed an excellent correlation with dose rates computed from the natural radionuclides estimated from the soil samples. PMID:21515614

  19. Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Eric C.

    2006-12-01

    4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

  20. Biotemplated synthesis of high specific surface area copper-doped hollow spherical titania and its photocatalytic research for degradating chlorotetracycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Copper-doped titania (Cu/TiO2) hollow microspheres were fabricated using the rape pollen as biotemplates via an improved sol-gel method and a followed calcinations process. In the fabricated process, a titanium(IV)-isopropoxide-based sol directly coated onto the surface of rape pollen. Subsequently, after calcinations, rape pollen was removed by high temperature and the hollow microsphere structure was retained. The average diameter of as-obtained hollow microspheres is 15-20 ?m and the thickness of shell is approximately 0.6 ?m. Knowing from XRD results, the main crystal phase of microspheres is anatase, coupled with rutile. The specific surface area varied between 141.80 m2/g and 172.51 m2/g. This hollow sphere photocatalysts with high specific surface area exhibited stronger absorption ability and higher photoactivity, stimulated by visible light. The degradation process of chlortetracycline (CTC) solution had been studied. The degradated results indicate that CTC could be effective degradated by fabricated hollow spherical materials. And the intermediate products formed in the photocatalytic process had been identified.

  1. Mechanisms of flash-flood generation in a gullied high-plains grassland: evidence for partial contributing area runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, A.; Tucker, G. E.; Rengers, F. K.

    2014-12-01

    Flash floods commonly cause rapid gully erosion, creating headwalls that erode into previously stable surfaces, thereby reducing arable land and releasing sediment that can contaminate water supplies. In semi-arid landscapes, gully erosion tends to be driven by flash floods. Here, we study the mechanisms for flash-flood generation, seeking to answer two questions: (1) how spatially variable is runoff production, and (2) what combination of rainfall intensity and duration is required to produce runoff? To answer these questions, we combine field data from a study site on the Colorado High Plains, USA, with numerical modeling. The site is characterized by patchy, dryland shrub vegetation dispersed throughout the otherwise bare slopes and gullies. Analysis of six years of rainfall and runoff data indicate that flash flood generation requires a 15-minute intensity of approximately 38 mm/hr. Sprinkler experiments on isolated bare and vegetated plots revealed a large contrast between infiltration capacities: bare areas can produce runoff when the rainfall exceeds 10-15 mm/hr, whereas vegetated areas permit infiltration of at least 45 mm/hr during relatively brief, intense events. These findings imply that high-intensity rainstorms associated with summertime moist convective systems drive gully incision. They also suggest that a self-enhancing feedback may exist in which initial incision creates steep and relatively bare slopes that tend to generate more runoff, leading to more aggressive gully incision.

  2. Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in highly endemic areas.

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, W. J.; Medley, G. F.; Nokes, D. J.; O'Callaghan, C. J.; Whittle, H. C.; Hall, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses meta-analysis of published data and a deterministic mathematical model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission to describe the patterns of HBV infection in high endemicity areas. We describe the association between the prevalence of carriers and a simple measure of the rate of infection, the age at which half the population have been infected (A50), and assess the contribution of horizontal and perinatal transmission to this association. We found that the two main hyper-endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have similar prevalences of carriers and values of A50, and that there is a negative nonlinear relationship between A50 and the prevalence of carriers in high endemicity areas (Spearman's Rank, P = 0.0086). We quantified the risk of perinatal transmission and the age-dependent of infection to allow a comparison between the main hyper-endemic areas. East Asia was found to have higher prevalences of HBeAg positive mothers and a greater risk of perinatal transmission from HBeAg positive mothers than sub-Saharan Africa, though the differences were not statistically significant. However, the two areas have similar magnitudes and age-dependent rates of horizontal transmission. Results of a simple compartmental model suggest that similar rates of horizontal transmission are sufficient to generate the similar patterns between A50 and the prevalences of carriers. Interrupting horizontal transmission by mass immunization is expected to have a significant, nonlinear impact on the rate of acquisition of new carriers. PMID:8870629

  3. Self-consistent electrodynamics of large-area high-frequency capacitive plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhigang; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken

    2010-10-01

    Capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) generated using high frequency (3-30 MHz) and very high frequency (30-300 MHz) radio-frequency (rf) sources are used for many plasma processing applications including thin film etching and deposition. When chamber dimensions become commensurate with the effective rf wavelength in the plasma, electromagnetic wave effects impose a significant influence on plasma behavior. Because the effective rf wavelength in plasma depends upon both rf and plasma process conditions (e.g., rf power and gas pressure), a self-consistent model including both the rf power delivery system and the plasma discharge is highly desirable to capture a more complete physical picture of the plasma behavior. A three-dimensional model for self-consistently studying both electrodynamic and plasma dynamic behavior of large-area (Gen 10, >8 m2) CCP is described in this paper. This model includes Maxwell's equations and transport equations for charged and neutral species, which are coupled and solved in the time domain. The complete rf plasma discharge chamber including the rf power delivery subsystem, rf feed, electrodes, and the plasma domain is modeled as an integrated system. Based on this full-wave solution model, important limitations for processing uniformity imposed by electromagnetic wave propagation effects in a large-area CCP (3.05×2.85 m2 electrode size) are studied. The behavior of H2 plasmas in such a reactor is examined from 13.56 to 200 MHz. It is shown that various rectangular harmonics of electromagnetic fields can be excited in a large-area rectangular reactor as the rf or power is increased. The rectangular harmonics can create not only center-high plasma distribution but also high plasma density at the corners and along the edges of the reactor.

  4. Self-consistent electrodynamics of large-area high-frequency capacitive plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zhigang; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken [Applied Materials, Inc., 974 E. Arques Avenue, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) generated using high frequency (3-30 MHz) and very high frequency (30-300 MHz) radio-frequency (rf) sources are used for many plasma processing applications including thin film etching and deposition. When chamber dimensions become commensurate with the effective rf wavelength in the plasma, electromagnetic wave effects impose a significant influence on plasma behavior. Because the effective rf wavelength in plasma depends upon both rf and plasma process conditions (e.g., rf power and gas pressure), a self-consistent model including both the rf power delivery system and the plasma discharge is highly desirable to capture a more complete physical picture of the plasma behavior. A three-dimensional model for self-consistently studying both electrodynamic and plasma dynamic behavior of large-area (Gen 10, >8 m{sup 2}) CCP is described in this paper. This model includes Maxwell's equations and transport equations for charged and neutral species, which are coupled and solved in the time domain. The complete rf plasma discharge chamber including the rf power delivery subsystem, rf feed, electrodes, and the plasma domain is modeled as an integrated system. Based on this full-wave solution model, important limitations for processing uniformity imposed by electromagnetic wave propagation effects in a large-area CCP (3.05x2.85 m{sup 2} electrode size) are studied. The behavior of H{sub 2} plasmas in such a reactor is examined from 13.56 to 200 MHz. It is shown that various rectangular harmonics of electromagnetic fields can be excited in a large-area rectangular reactor as the rf or power is increased. The rectangular harmonics can create not only center-high plasma distribution but also high plasma density at the corners and along the edges of the reactor.

  5. High-cell-density culture strategies for polyhydroxyalkanoate production: a review.

    PubMed

    Ienczak, Jaciane Lutz; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão de

    2013-04-01

    This article gives an overview of high-cell-density cultures for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production and their modes of operation for increasing productivity. High cell densities are very important in PHA production mainly because this polymer is an intracellular product accumulated in various microorganisms, so a high cellular content is needed for the polymer production. This review describes relevant results from fed-batch, repeated batch, and continuous modes of operation without and with cell recycle for the production of these polymers by microorganisms. Finally, recombinant microorganisms for PHA production, as well future directions for PHA production, are discussed. PMID:23455696

  6. Recovery of high surface area mesoporous silica from waste hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) of fertilizer industry.

    PubMed

    Sarawade, Pradip B; Kim, Jong-Kil; Hilonga, Askwar; Kim, Hee Taik

    2010-01-15

    In this article we report recovery of mesoporous silica from the waste material (hexafluorosilicic acid) of phosphate fertilizer industry. The process involves the reaction of hexafluorosilicic acid (50 ml, 24 wt% H(2)SiF(6)) and 100ml, 0.297 M Na(2)CO(3) to generate the alkaline aqueous slurry. Silica was separated from the slurry by filtration and the sodium fluoride was extracted from the aqueous solution by evaporation method. The obtained mesoporous silica was characterized by N(2) absorption/desorption (BET), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and EDS. The results confirm that the separation of silica and NaF was successful and the final products have high purity. The silica product was found to have an average pore diameter of 4.14 nm and a high surface area (up to 800 m(2)/g). The process reported in this study may significantly reduce the release of hazardous materials into the environment and it might confer economic benefits to the responsible industries. PMID:19758754

  7. High-yield chemical vapor deposition growth of high-quality large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-09-25

    Bernal-stacked (AB-stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electric field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB-stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB- and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high-quality AB-stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H(2)/CH(4) ratio in a low-pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high-temperature and low-pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90%) and high coverage (up to 99%). The electrical transport studies demonstrate that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB-stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4000 cm(2)/V · s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  8. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: do different satellite data sets agree?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Pieter; Guay, Kevin; Buermann, Wolfgang; Baccini, Alessandro; Goetz, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Satellite records of NDVI form the primary data source to study changes in global vegetation productivity in the last three decades. Creating coherent long-term NDVI records from legacy satellite data sets is challenging because of a.o. the influences of orbital drift, sensor degradation, aerosol spikes from volcanic eruptions, and changing instrument design on reflectance measurements. These issues require corrections to reduce uncertainties in long-term NDVI records. We compared depictions of long-term changes in vegetation productivity over high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI of the most widely used global NDVI data sets. These included the AVHRR based GIMMS-NDVI version G data, and its recent successor version 3g, as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from more modern sensors: SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS, with the data sets from the latter two sensors adjusted to reduce Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) effects. Our analysis reveals both large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the region, where all data sets indicate similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record (2002-2008), as well as areas where data sets show conflicting patterns. The newer GIMMS data set (version 3g) shows statistically significant (? = 0.05%) increases in vegetation productivity not seen in its predecessor (version g) in >15% of the study area whereas the reverse is very rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports based on GIMMS version G, particularly in Eurasia where 'greening' is particularly pronounced in the GIMMS 3g data. Furthermore, the two BRDF-adjusted data sets studied here show diverging patterns of high latitude vegetation productivity, with SPOT-VGT D10 showing much more vegetation 'greening' than either of the GIMMS data sets, and the MODIS data set showing slightly less. We discuss the implications of these findings for inferences made from global NDVI data sets regarding primary productivity changes, and encourage users to combine the analysis of NDVI time series data with complementary data sources where possible, such as field measurements of growth, mortality, vegetation cover and composition, tree and shrub rings, and carbon dioxide exchange.

  9. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: do different satellite data sets agree? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Guay, K.; Buermann, W.; Baccini, A.; Goetz, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite records of NDVI form the primary data source to study changes in global vegetation productivity in the last three decades. Creating coherent long-term NDVI records from legacy satellite data sets is challenging because of a.o. the influences of orbital drift, sensor degradation, aerosol spikes from volcanic eruptions, and changing instrument design on reflectance measurements. These issues require corrections to reduce uncertainties in long-term NDVI records. We compared depictions of long-term changes in vegetation productivity over high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI of the most widely used global NDVI data sets. These included the AVHRR based GIMMS-NDVI version G data, and its recent successor version 3g, as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from more modern sensors: SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS, with the data sets from the latter two sensors adjusted to reduce Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) effects. Our analysis reveals both large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the region, where all data sets indicate similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record (2002-2008), as well as areas where data sets show conflicting patterns. The newer GIMMS data set (version 3g) shows statistically significant (? = 0.05%) increases in vegetation productivity not seen in its predecessor (version g) in >15% of the study area whereas the reverse is very rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports based on GIMMS version G, particularly in Eurasia where 'greening' is particularly pronounced in the GIMMS 3g data. Furthermore, the two BRDF-adjusted data sets studied here show diverging patterns of high latitude vegetation productivity, with SPOT-VGT D10 showing much more vegetation ';greening' than either of the GIMMS data sets, and the MODIS data set showing slightly less. We discuss the implications of these findings for inferences made from global NDVI data sets regarding vegetated productivity changes, and encourage users to combine the analysis of NDVI time series data with complementary data sources where possible, such as field measurements of growth, mortality, vegetation cover and composition, tree and shrub rings, and carbon dioxide exchange.

  10. Preparation and Evaluation of Carbon Coated Alumina as a High Surface Area Packing Material for High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Changyub; McCormick, Alon V.; Carr, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    The retention of polar compounds, the separation of structural isomers and thermal stability make carbonaceous materials very attractive stationary phases for Liquid Chromatography (LC). Carbon clad zirconia (C/ZrO2), one of the most interesting, exhibits unparalleled chemical and thermal stability, but its characteristically low surface area (20 – 30 m2/g) limits broader application as a second dimension separation in two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2DLC) where high retentivity and therefore high stationary phase surface area are required. In this work, we used a high surface area commercial HPLC alumina (153 m2/g) as a support material to develop a carbon phase by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at elevated temperature using hexane vapor as the carbon source. The loading of carbon was varied by changing the CVD time and temperature, and the carbon coated alumina (C/Al2O3) was characterized both physically and chromatographically. The resulting carbon phases behaved as a reversed phase similar to C/ZrO2. At all carbon loadings, C/Al2O3 closely matched the unique chromatographic selectivity of carbon phases, and as expected the retentivity was increased over C/ZrO2. Excess carbon – the amount equivalent to 5 monolayers - was required to fully cover the oxide support in C/Al2O3, but this was less excess than needed with C/ZrO2. Plate counts were 60,000 – 76,000/meter for 5 ?m particles. Spectroscopic studies (XPS and FT-IR) were also conducted; they showed that the two materials were chemically very similar. PMID:20850126

  11. Preparation and evaluation of carbon coated alumina as a high surface area packing material for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Paek, Changyub; McCormick, Alon V; Carr, Peter W

    2010-10-15

    The retention of polar compounds, the separation of structural isomers and thermal stability make carbonaceous materials very attractive stationary phases for liquid chromatography (LC). Carbon clad zirconia (C/ZrO(2)), one of the most interesting, exhibits unparalleled chemical and thermal stability, but its characteristically low surface area (20-30 m(2)/g) limits broader application as a second dimension separation in two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2DLC) where high retentivity and therefore high stationary phase surface area are required. In this work, we used a high surface area commercial HPLC alumina (153 m(2)/g) as a support material to develop a carbon phase by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at elevated temperature using hexane vapor as the carbon source. The loading of carbon was varied by changing the CVD time and temperature, and the carbon coated alumina (C/Al(2)O(3)) was characterized both physically and chromatographically. The resulting carbon phases behaved as a reversed phase similar to C/ZrO(2). At all carbon loadings, C/Al(2)O(3) closely matched the unique chromatographic selectivity of carbon phases, and as expected the retentivity was increased over C/ZrO(2). Excess carbon - the amount equivalent to 5 monolayers--was required to fully cover the oxide support in C/Al(2)O(3), but this was less excess than needed with C/ZrO(2). Plate counts were 60,000-76,000/m for 5 ?m particles. Spectroscopic studies (XPS and FT-IR) were also conducted; they showed that the two materials were chemically very similar. PMID:20850126

  12. The Flex Track: Flexible Partitioning between Low- and High-Acuity Areas of an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Laker, Lauren F.; Froehle, Craig M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ward, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective EDs with both low- and high-acuity treatment areas often have fixed allocation of resources, regardless of demand. We demonstrate the utility of discrete-event simulation to evaluate flexible partitioning between low- and high-acuity ED areas to identify the best operational strategy for subsequent implementation. Methods A discrete-event simulation was used to model patient flow through a 50-bed, urban, teaching ED that handles 85,000 patient visits annually. The ED has historically allocated ten beds to a Fast Track for low-acuity patients. We estimated the effect of a Flex Track policy, which involved switching up to five of these Fast Track beds to serving both low- and high-acuity patients, on patient waiting times. When the high-acuity beds were not at capacity, low-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Otherwise, high-acuity patients were given priority access to flexible beds. Wait times were estimated for patients by disposition and emergency severity index (ESI) score. Results A Flex Track policy using three flexible beds produced the lowest mean patient waiting of 30.9 (95% CI 30.6–31.2) minutes. The typical Fast Track approach of rigidly separating high- and low–acuity beds produced a mean patient wait time of 40.6 (95% CI 40.2–50.0) minutes, 31% higher than the three-bed Flex Track. A completely flexible ED, where all beds can accommodate any patient, produced mean wait times of 35.1 (95% CI 34.8–35.4) minutes. The results from the three-bed Flex Track scenario were robust, performing well across a range of scenarios involving higher and lower patient volumes and care durations. Conclusion Using discrete-event simulation, we have shown that adding some flexibility into bed allocation between low- and high-acuity can provide substantial reductions in overall patient waiting and a more efficient ED. PMID:24954578

  13. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Youn, Hee-Chang [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Bak, Seong-Min [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, Myeong-Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Jaye, Cherno [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Fischer, Daniel A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Lee, Chang-Wook [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roh, Kwang Chul [Korea Inst. of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Republic of Korea); Kim, Kwang-Bum [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH? gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g?¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m?¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg?¹ at a current density of 1 A g?¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g?¹ was retained at 50 A g?¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of ?-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.

  14. High-surface-area nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide for electric double-layer capacitors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A.; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH? gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007m²g?¹), high electrical conductivity (1532S m?¹), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt%) for electric double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 Fg?¹ at a current density of 1 A g?¹, and a capacitance of 261 F g?¹ was retained at 50 A g?¹, indicating a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability, preserving 96% of the initial specific capacitance after 100,000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorptionmore »fine-structure spectroscopy evidenced the recover of ?-conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed the chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content.« less

  15. Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments.

    PubMed

    Flippo, K A; Kline, J L; Doss, F W; Loomis, E N; Emerich, M; Devolder, B; Murphy, T J; Fournier, K B; Kalantar, D H; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Merritt, E C; Perry, T S; Tregillis, I L; Welser-Sherrill, L; Fincke, J R

    2014-09-01

    A very large area (7.5 mm(2)) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 10(14) W/cm(2) illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ~4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles. PMID:25273720

  16. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-01

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007?m(2) ?g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532?S?m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5?wt?%) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291?F?g(-1) at a current density of 1?A?g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261?F?g(-1) was retained at 50?A?g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96?% of the initial specific capacitance after 100?000?cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of ? conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content. PMID:25916491

  17. Heavy flavour production in high-energy ep collisions

    E-print Network

    I. Katkov; for the H1; ZEUS Collaborations

    2005-11-02

    A selection of recent results on heavy quark production at the HERA collider by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are presented with a focus on charmonium production in DIS, charm fragmentation and beauty production.

  18. Durability of high surface area platinum deposits on microelectrode arrays for acute neural recordings.

    PubMed

    Márton, Gergely; Bakos, István; Fekete, Zoltán; Ulbert, István; Pongrácz, Anita

    2014-03-01

    The durability of high surface area platinum electrodes during acute intracerebral measurements was investigated. Electrode sites with extremely rough surfaces were realized using electrochemical deposition of platinum onto silicon-based microelectrode arrays from a lead-free platinizing solution. The close to 1000-fold increase in effective surface area lowered impedance, its absolute value at 1 kHz became about 7 and 18 % of the original Pt electrodes in vitro and in vivo, respectively. 24-channel probes were subjected to 12 recording sessions, during which they were implanted into the cerebrum of rats. Our results showed that although on the average the effective surface area of the platinized sites decreased, it remained more than two orders of magnitude higher than the average effective surface area of the original, sputtered thin-film platinum electrodes. Sites with electrochemical deposits proved to be superior, e.g. they provided less thermal and 50 Hz noise, even after 12 penetrations into the intact rat brain. PMID:24318022

  19. High-potential geothermal energy resource areas of Nigeria and their geologic and geophysical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1984-04-01

    The widespread occurrence of geothermal manifestations in Nigeria is significant because the wide applicability and relative ease of exploitation of geothermal energy is of vital importance to an industrializing nation like Nigeria. There are two known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Nigeria: the Ikogosi Warm Springs of Ondo State and the Wikki Warm Springs of Bauchi State. These surficial effusions result from the circulation of water to great depths through faults in the basement complex rocks of the area. Within sedimentary areas, high geothermal gradient trends are identified in the Lagos subbasin, the Okitipupa ridge, the Auchi-Agbede are of the Benin flank/hinge line, and the Abakaliki anticlinorium. The deeper Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences of the Niger delta are geopressured geothermal horizons. In the Benue foldbelt, extending from the Abalaliki anticlinorium to the Keana anticline and the Zambuk ridge, several magmatic intrusions emplaced during the Late Cretaceous line the axis of the Benue trough. Positive Bouguer gravity anomalies also parallel this trough and are interpreted to indicate shallow mantle. Parts of this belt and the Ikom, the Jos plateau, Bauchi plateau, and the Adamawa areas, experienced Cenozoic volcanism and magmatism.

  20. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, Second quarter, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-09-01

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the second quarter of 1993 was focussed on completion of Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. Also during the report period, Task 6, Ground Support, was completed and a report containing the results was submitted to DOE. This task addressed the complete H.1 Cyclocraft system, i.e. it included the need personnel, facilities and equipment to support cyclocraft operations in wetland areas.

  1. Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Rauw; E. Kanis; E. N. Noordhuizen-Stassen; F. J. Grommers

    1998-01-01

    Genetic selection has increased production levels of livestock species considerably. However, apart from a favourable increase in production, animals in a population that have been selected for high production efficiency seem to be more at risk for behavioural, physiological and immunological problems. Examples are presented of over 100 references on undesirable (cor)related effects of selection for high production efficiency, with

  2. Lead Section Grower Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since

    E-print Network

    Lead Section Grower Four Star Greenhouse has been producing high quality garden products since 1977 and is the largest partner/supplier of the nationally recognized Winners® is known for its unique varieties and high quality products that enable

  3. Xenon GPSC high-pressure operation with large-area avalanche photodiode readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, L. C. C.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Covita, D. S.; Conceição, A. S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a xenon high-pressure gas proportional scintillation counter (GPSC) instrumented with a large area avalanche photodiode (LAAPD) as the VUV-photosensor has been investigated for filling pressures from 1 up to 10 bar, for 22- and 60-keV photons. The LAAPD photosensor is placed directly within the xenon envelope, as a substitute for the photomultiplier tube, avoiding the constraints of the use of a quartz scintillation window for GPSC-photosensor coupling, which absorbs a significant amount of scintillation and is a drawback for applications where large detection areas and high filling pressures are needed. The lowest energy resolutions are achieved for pressures around 5 bar (4.5% and 3.0% full width at half-maximum (FWHM), for 22- and 60-keV photons, respectively). Increasing the pressure to the 8 bar range, competitive energy resolutions of 5.0% and 3.6% are still achieved for 22- and 60-keV photons, respectively. This detector could be a compelling alternative in applications where compactness, large detection area, insensitivity to strong magnetic fields, room temperature operation, large signal-to-noise ratio and good energy resolution are important requirements .

  4. Highly variable phenology across the driest inhabited continent characterized by the Australian Phenology Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, M.; Huete, A. R.; Held, A. A.; Ma, X.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Devadas, R.

    2013-12-01

    This work for the first time quantified inter- and intra-annual variabilities in phenological cycles across Australia for 2000-2013 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data as input for the Australian Phenology Product. The Australian Phenology Product was designed to accommodate the complexity of Australian conditions featuring vast areas covered by arid and semi arid ecosystems. The product was developed under the Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and is disseminated by the AusCover TERN Sydney node. It provides an internally consistent quantification of phenological cycles of vegetation greening and browning that can inform, agricultural applications, wildfire fuel accumulation, land surface modeling, ecosystem research and climate change studies. Based on the Australian Phenology Product we were able to characterize high inter- and intra-annual variabilites of phenological cycles across large areas of arid and semi-arid Australia between 2000 and 2013 and linked these spatial-temporal variability patterns with atmospheric circulation indices such as SOI. This resulted in a spatially explicit representation of extreme vegetation productivity response to regional climatic variability highlighting the effect of the transition between El Nino drought to La Nina floods in 2011 (Fig 1: average and standard anomalies of annual EVI integrated over the phenological cycle [iEVI]). This first characterization of the inter-annual variability in vegetation phenology across the driest inhabited continent is of special interest to vegetation and ecosystem monitoring and modeling as Australia's rainfall has been described as more variable and the vegetation as different from equivalent climatic zone around the world.

  5. Assessment of high-latitude Arctic lake dynamics in representative areas on continuous permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Chintan Anil

    Recent evidences of Arctic lake dynamics display consistent trends linked to climatic changes. Primary control on local hydrological processes in high-latitude regions is dictated by the presence or absence of permafrost. Though our understanding of permafrost hydrologic processes has advanced considerably in the past decades, the potential linkage between permafrost and the rate and direction of recent (˜30 years) lake area change is the subject of ongoing debate. In Arctic regions with continuous permafrost, most studies have found insignificant long-term trend in lake change, whereas studies in some parts of Alaska and Siberia reported substantial increase in the areal extent of continuous permafrost lakes as a response to accelerated climatic warming. The results from these earlier studies raise an important question that if permafrost type is the key factor driving the direction of lake area changes, then how is it possible that the continuous permafrost lakes in some parts of the Arctic are expanding, whereas those in the other parts of the Arctic are shrinking. Hence, the proposed research sought to identify the cause of opposing directions of continuous permafrost lake area changes in different parts of the Arctic. Study regions were chosen in continuous permafrost regions of West Siberia, Western Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska, and Northern Canada. For estimating lake area and their changes, Landsat satellite images were chosen for the summer season of ˜1970s (MSS) and ˜2000s (ETM+). An image processing chain was proposed for processing these satellite images, and novel techniques were developed for each of its components including image registration and orthorectification, lake shoreline mapping, and change detection. Contrary to the earlier studies, the findings of the research presented in this dissertation reveal a net decline in lake area over all the three study regions. A net increase in lake counts suggests that over the past three decades, many of these lakes have disintegrated into more than one smaller lake. Also, there existed a correlation between the summer thaw degree days and the magnitude of lake area changes. Hence, if permafrost is the primary factor driving lake dynamics in these regions as reported in earlier studies, then these negative lake area changes suggest that the recent (˜30 year) rate of permafrost degradation is much higher than currently presumed. An alternative explanation for these negative trends on continuous permafrost consistent with lake area changes observed in warmer (discontinuous, isolated, and sporadic) permafrost zones could be that the variability in regional hydro-climatic processes is driving the observed changes.

  6. A preliminary study to determine the diagnostic reference level using dose–area product for limited-area cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Endo, A; Katoh, T; Vasudeva, SB; Kobayashi, I; Okano, T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the dose–area product (DAP) of limited-area cone beam CT (CBCT) units used by dental offices, and to evaluate the rationale of the DAP with an aid of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter in measuring radiation dose. Method: The DAPs of 21 CBCT units used in the dental offices of Tokyo and the surrounding areas from five different manufacturers were measured using OSL nanoDot dosemeter. An assembly of OSL dosemeters with an X-ray film was exposed by CBCT units at exposure parameters commonly used in each dental office. DAP values were then calculated as expressed in mGy?cm2. Results: DAP values ranged from 126.7?mGy?cm2 to 1476.9?mGy?cm2, depending on the units used. Conclusion: OSL dosemeter coupled with film can be utilized for a large-scale study to measure DAP. The DAP values for individual CBCT units depend not only on the field of view, but also on the exposure parameters adapted by the dental offices. PMID:23420859

  7. The effects of residence duration in high background radiation areas on immune surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Khosravifarsani, Meysam

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The effective dose received by humans from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv y-1, but this is 10.2 mSv y-1 for inhabitants of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation, especially in high doses. Nonetheless carcinogenesis of low doses is uncertain. A recent epidemiological study in high background radiation areas of Ramsar showed that the cancer incidence in this era is lower than neighbors. The reason of this different behavior is under study yet. NK cells, helper, and Cytotoxic T cells are most important components of the tumor immune surveillance. The counts and activities of these cells and also leukocytes, lymphocyte, neutrophil cells, and other important parameters were studied in the residents of Ramsar with different duration of exposure to chronic low dose radiation. Materials and Methods: Fifty residents of high background radiation areas, who were between 25 and 35 years and fully healthy, were selected randomly and their consent was obtained. Then, 2 cc fresh peripheral bloods were taken in sterile conditions. Complete blood cell counts were performed by an automatic hematology analyzer and CD4+, CD8+, NK, and CD107a+ cell counts were determined by monoclonal antibodies and flowcytometry. CD4+ and CD8+ percentages and the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The percentages of CD4+ cells increase, but the counts of CD107a+ cells decline in higher exposure durations. The other parameters did not have significant regression with exposure duration. Conclusions: These confirm that living in high background radiation areas may induce changes in the immune system gradually and address more investigations. PMID:23633866

  8. Large-area, high-intensity PV arrays for systems using dish concentrating optics

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Zweibel, K.; Coutts, T.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report on efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

  9. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Passive IM products threaten high-power satcom systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    1987-12-01

    This paper discusses causes of the passive intermodulation products (PIMP) that interfere with high-power systems with low-noise receivers and thus pose a serious threat to satellite communication systems. Factors influencing the generation of PIMP include the presence of surface contaminants, current density, thermal variations that cause dimensional changes in conductors and dielectrics, and humidity. Thus, the requirements of an RF system with minimal PIMP include the following conditions: (1) keeping current densities low where intermodulation is anticipated; (2) minimizing the impact of metal-to-metal connections; (3) the exclusion of ferromagnetic materials in multifrequency RF circuitry during all stages of design, manufacture, and system assembly; and (4) taking precautions against corrosion in all parts of a communication system. The detailed guidelines regarding the characteristics of individual system components and their handling to fulfill these requirements are presented.

  11. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land-management units. Heuristic models provide a means by which to integrate understanding of ecosystem structure, composition, and function, in the midst of numerous ecosystem drivers.

  12. Potential health risk in areas with high naturally-occurring cadmium background in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhang; Xiao, Tangfu; Baveye, Philippe C; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Li, Huajun

    2015-02-01

    In various parts of the world, high cadmium (Cd) concentrations in environment are not related to anthropogenic contamination but have natural origins. Less is known about health risks that arise under these conditions. This study aimed to discuss the pollution of Cd with natural sources, and to investigate the concentration of Cd in food crops and the urine of inhabitants in an area of southwestern China. The results showed that the arable soils are moderately contaminated by Cd (I(geo)=1.51) relative to the local background, with a high ecological risk (Er=218). The chemical fractions of Cd in soils with natural sources are probably controlled by parent materials and mostly in residual phase. The average Cd concentrations were 0.68 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) in local vegetables, 0.04 mg kg(-1) in rice, and 0.14 ?g L(-1) in water. Leafy vegetable tends to accumulate more Cd than the other crops. The calculated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) had a much higher value (4.33) for Cd, suggesting that Cd represents a significant potential risk to the local population. The urinary Cd concentrations (mean at 3.92 ?g L(-1) for male and 4.85 ?g L(-1) for female) of inhabitants in the study area were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the control area (mean at 0.8 ?g L(-1) for male and 0.42 ?g L(-1) for female). Male and female test subjects had similar urinary Cd levels (p>0.05), but age seemed to lead to an increase in Cd in the urine. These findings show that naturally-occurring Cd in local soils is taken up appreciably by local food crops, and that dietary exposure of Cd through vegetable ingestion is a major exposure pathway for local populations, and a potential risk to public health in the study area. PMID:25463862

  13. 76 FR 4549 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second...concerning testing of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to obtain screening level data for health and environmental...requirements for second group of high production volume chemicals...

  14. Effects of integrated watershed management on livestock water productivity in water scarce areas in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mapedza, Everisto; Amede, Tilahun; Ayalneh, Wagnew

    In the water scarce Lenche Dima watershed in the northern Ethiopian highlands community based integrated watershed management was implemented to fight land degradation, raise agricultural productivity and improve farmers’ livelihoods. The effects of two interventions, namely exclosures and water harvesting structures, were assessed based on data from farmers’ interviews, measurements of feed biomass production, and estimates of energy production and requirements. Water used for livestock feed production was obtained through simple soil water balance modelling. By protecting 40% of the rangelands, the water productivity of the feed increased by about 20%. This indicated that exclosure establishment could lead to similar improvements in livestock water productivity (LWP, defined as the ratio of livestock benefits over the water used in producing these). Water harvesting structures ensured year-round water availability in the homestead, which resulted in less energy used for walking to drinking points. A considerable amount of energy was thus saved, which could be used for livestock production and improved animal health without additional water use. Besides restoring regulating and supporting ecosystem services, both interventions led to a more efficient use of the scarce water resources for biomass and livestock production.

  15. They Raise Them Differently Up North - Different Production Practices in Australian Growing Areas May Affect Mycorrhizae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report briefly summarizes the results from a survey to determine cultural blueberry practices and production differences used in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, Tasmania, and Queensland. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on a number of production practices that had been s...

  16. Monolithic nanoporous gold disks with large surface area and high-density plasmonic hot-spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Arnob, Md Masud Parvez; Santos, Greggy M.; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Plasmonic metal nanostructures have shown great potential in sensing, photovoltaics, imaging and biomedicine, principally due to enhancement of the local electric field by light-excited surface plasmons, the collective oscillation of conduction band electrons. Thin films of nanoporous gold have received a great deal of interest due to the unique 3- dimensional bicontinuous nanostructures with high specific surface area. However, in the form of semi-infinite thin films, nanoporous gold exhibits weak plasmonic extinction and little tunability in the plasmon resonance, because the pore size is much smaller than the wavelength of light. Here we show that by making nanoporous gold in the form of disks of sub-wavelength diameter and sub-100 nm thickness, these limitations can be overcome. Nanoporous gold disks (NPGDs) not only possess large specific surface area but also high-density, internal plasmonic "hot-spots" with impressive electric field enhancement, which greatly promotes plasmon-matter interaction as evidenced by spectral shifts in the surface plasmon resonance. In addition, the plasmonic resonance of NPGD can be easily tuned from 900 to 1850 nm by changing the disk diameter from 300 to 700 nm. The coupling between external and internal nanoarchitecture provides a potential design dimension for plasmonic engineering. The synergy of large specific surface area, high-density hot spots, and tunable plasmonics would profoundly impact applications where plasmonic nanoparticles and non-plasmonic mesoporous nanoparticles are currently employed, e.g., in in-vitro and in-vivo biosensing, molecular imaging, photothermal contrast agents, and molecular cargos.

  17. Single inclusive particle production at high energy from HERA data to proton-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.; Mäntysaari, H.

    2013-12-01

    We study single inclusive hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions in the CGC framework. The parameters in the calculation are determined solely by standard nuclear geometry and by electron-proton deep inelastic scattering data, which are fit using the running coupling BK equation. We show that it also is possible to obtain a good fit of the HERA inclusive cross section without an anomalous dimension in the initial condition. We argue that one must consistently also use the proton transverse area as measured by a high virtuality probe in DIS for the single inclusive cross section in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. We show that this leads to a midrapidity nuclear modification ratio RpA that approaches unity at high transverse momentum independently of s, in contrast to most CGC calculations in the literature. We also present predictions for future forward RpA measurements at the LHC.

  18. An area with high density of craters on the lunar surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feoktistova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    In previous studies [1, 2] on the lunar surface were detected areas with high density of craters. One such area is located to the north of the Mare Orientale and to the west of the Mare Imbrium in the highland region placed between 0° N and 70° N, and between 160° E and 290° E. In this area there are such large craters as Mach (182 km) and Landau (225 km). According to data from GRAIL mission [3], the crust thickness in this area varies from 30 km in the eastern part up to 60 km in the western part. We investigated the distribution of the impact craters in this region using the Morphological Catalogue of Lunar Craters [4]. The characteristics, such as crater number, coordinates, diameter and morphological features, for 15000 craters with diameter more than 10 km are contained in this catalogue. All the craters in the catalogue were divided into five class of degradation: from class 1 (youngest craters) to class 5 (oldest, most destroyed craters). According to our research, the number of craters with a diameter of more than 10 km in the area reaches 4604, accounting for 31% of the total number of craters with a diameter of more than 10 km on the moon. Thus the crater density in this region is 658 craters per 1 million km². This value is much higher than the estimates of the mean crater densities for the lunar highlands (442 craters per 1 million km²), maria (73 craters per 1 million km²) and South Pole Aitken basin (393 craters per 1 million km²) obtained in previous studies [2,5]. The study of the distribution of craters by diameter revealed that the density of craters with a diameter of ? 30 km in the same area as a whole on the Moon. At the same time, in this area there is a significant increase in the craters with a diameter of 10 high-preserved craters: 1, 2 and 3 class of degradation (41, 34, and 40% of the total number of craters of these classes on the entire surface of the moon). It is assumed that the craters classes 1 and 2 were formed at the end of heavy bombardment, which occurred 3.8 - 4 billion. years ago. The reasons for this cluster of high-preserved craters in this area are unclear. Perhaps these craters formed by ejections during the formation of any large crater or basin. References: [1] Rodionova et al., Tr. Gos. Astron. Inst. im. Sternberga, 1989a, vol. LXI, pp. 356-376. [2] Rodionova et al., Astron. Vestn., 1989b, vol. 23, no. 1,pp. 50-59. [3] http://ode.rsl.wustl.edu/moon/indexDatasets.aspx [4] http://selena.sai.msu.ru/Home/Moon_Cat/moon_cat.htm [5] Rodionova et al. , 2000, Solar System Research. V. 34, No 5, p.390-397.

  19. PSI Wide Area Product (WAP) for measuring Ground Surface Displacements at regional level for multi-hazards studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Javier; Iglesias, Rubén; Blanco, Pablo; Albiol, David; Koudogbo, Fifamè

    2015-04-01

    The Wide Area Product (WAP) is a new interferometric product developed to provide measurement over large regions. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) has largely proved their robust and precise performance in measuring ground surface deformation in different application domains. In this context, however, the accurate displacement estimation over large-scale areas (more than 10.000 km2) characterized by low magnitude motion gradients (3-5 mm/year), such as the ones induced by inter-seismic or Earth tidal effects, still remains an open issue. The main reason for that is the inclusion of low quality and more distant persistent scatterers in order to bridge low-quality areas, such as water bodies, crop areas and forested regions. This fact yields to spatial propagation errors on PSI integration process, poor estimation and compensation of the Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) and the difficult to face residual long-wavelength phase patterns originated by orbit state vectors inaccuracies. Research work for generating a Wide Area Product of ground motion in preparation for the Sentinel-1 mission has been conducted in the last stages of Terrafirma as well as in other research programs. These developments propose technological updates for keeping the precision over large scale PSI analysis. Some of the updates are based on the use of external information, like meteorological models, and the employment of GNSS data for an improved calibration of large measurements. Usually, covering wide regions implies the processing over areas with a land use which is chiefly focused on livestock, horticulture, urbanization and forest. This represents an important challenge for providing continuous InSAR measurements and the application of advanced phase filtering strategies to enhance the coherence. The advanced PSI processing has been performed out over several areas, allowing a large scale analysis of tectonic patterns, and motion caused by multi-hazards as volcanic, landslide and flood. Several examples of the application of the PSI WAP to wide regions for measuring ground displacements related to different types of hazards, natural and human induced will be presented. The InSAR processing approach to measure accurate movements at local and large scales for allowing multi-hazard interpretation studies will also be discussed. The test areas will show deformations related to active faults systems, landslides in mountains slopes, ground compaction over underneath aquifers and movements in volcanic areas.

  20. Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters

    DOEpatents

    King, D.E.; Herdt, G.C.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1997-01-07

    The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium. 9 figs.

  1. Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters

    DOEpatents

    King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Herdt, Gregory C. (Denver, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium.

  2. Information Basic to Farm Adjustments in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.

    E-print Network

    Thibodeaux, B. H. (Ben Hur); Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Magee, A. C. (Aden Combs)

    1944-01-01

    in the same length of time. Cotton is most apt to be picked when the bur is too green or damp to snap easily. This condition may occur either before frost, while the bur is still green, or following rain. Laborers prefer to snap rather than pick cotton... INFORMATION BASIC TO FARM ADJUSTMENTS IN THE HIGH PLAINS COTTON AREA OF TEXAS A. C. MAGEE, C. A. BONNEN, and B. H. THIBODEAUX AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRIST, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] This bulletin deals...

  3. ONT High Gain Initiative WRAP (Wide Area Rapid Acoustic Prediction) computational performance section

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, J.R.; Hedstrom, G.; De Groot, T.

    1990-10-02

    LLNL received a contract during March 1990 to perform three tasks for ONT. This letter report covers Task I which concerned a supercomputing effort in a program termed the High Gain Initiative, which is an anti-submarine (ASW) project that requires substantial computational and signal processing expertise. The core of the computational aspects at the present time is a code called WRAP (Wide Area Rapid Acoustic Prediction). LLNL's objective was to study the WRAP model and determine the feasibility and limits of its optimization. At the present time, the WRAP code runs on a single processor VAX computer.

  4. High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Waiz; Tschupp, Simon Andreas; Oezaslan, Mehtap; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2015-04-01

    Well-defined model systems are needed for better understanding of the relationship between optical, electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties of nanoparticles and their structure. Chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles results in large size and shape dispersion and lack of lateral order. In contrast, conventional top-down lithography techniques provide control over the lateral order and dimensions. However, they are either limited in resolution or have low throughput and therefore do not enable the large patterning area needed to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio in common analytical and characterization techniques. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has the throughput and simplicity advantages of photolithography as well as high resolution due to its wavelength. Using EUV achromatic Talbot lithography, we have obtained 15 nm particle arrays with a periodicity of about 100 nm over an area of several square centimeters with high-throughput enabling the use of nanotechnology for fabrication of model systems to study large ensembles of well-defined identical nanoparticles with a density of 1010 particles cm-2.Well-defined model systems are needed for better understanding of the relationship between optical, electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties of nanoparticles and their structure. Chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles results in large size and shape dispersion and lack of lateral order. In contrast, conventional top-down lithography techniques provide control over the lateral order and dimensions. However, they are either limited in resolution or have low throughput and therefore do not enable the large patterning area needed to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio in common analytical and characterization techniques. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has the throughput and simplicity advantages of photolithography as well as high resolution due to its wavelength. Using EUV achromatic Talbot lithography, we have obtained 15 nm particle arrays with a periodicity of about 100 nm over an area of several square centimeters with high-throughput enabling the use of nanotechnology for fabrication of model systems to study large ensembles of well-defined identical nanoparticles with a density of 1010 particles cm-2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Multiple-beam EUV interference lithography using HSQ gratings with footing (S1); EUV-IL using ATL with HSQ gratings (S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00565e

  5. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of oxeladin citrate and oxybutynin hydrochloride and their degradation products.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Alaa

    2005-08-01

    Two high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods are presented for the determination of oxeladin citrate (OL) and oxybutynin hydrochloride (OB) and their degradation products. The first method was based on HPLC separation of OL from its degradation product using a Nucleosil C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile -0.1% phosphoric acid (60:40 v/v). The second method was based on HPLC separation of OB from its degradation product using a VP-ODS C(18) column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate/diethylamine (60:40:0.2). Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 220 nm based on peak area. The two HPLC methods were applied for the determination of OL or OB, their degradation products, methylparaben and propylparaben in pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed methods were used to investigate the kinetics of acidic and alkaline degradation processes of OL and OB at different temperatures and the apparent pseudofirst-order rate constant, half-life and activation energy were calculated. The pH-rate profiles of degradation of OL and OB in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions within the pH range 2-12 were studied. PMID:16023117

  6. Production of very-high-$n$ strontium Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    Ye, Shuzhen; Killian, Thomas C; Dunning, F Barry; Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Nagele, Stefan; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The production of very-high-$n$, $n\\sim300$-500, strontium Rydberg atoms is explored using a crossed laser-atom beam geometry. $n$$^{1}$S$_{0}$ and $n$$^{1}$D$_{2}$ states are created by two-photon excitation via the 5s5p $^{1}$P$_{1}$ intermediate state using radiation with wavelengths of $\\sim$~461 and $\\sim$ 413 nm. Rydberg atom densities as high as $\\sim 3 \\times 10^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$ have been achieved, sufficient that Rydberg-Rydberg interactions can become important. The isotope shifts in the Rydberg series limits are determined by tuning the 461 nm light to preferentially excite the different strontium isotopes. Photoexcitation in the presence of an applied electric field is examined. The initially quadratic Stark shift of the $n$$^{1}$P$_{1}$ and $n$$^{1}$D$_{2}$ states becomes near-linear at higher fields and the possible use of $n{}^{1}$D$_{2}$ states to create strongly-polarized, quasi-one-dimensional electronic states in strontium is discussed. The data are analyzed with the aid of a two-active-elect...

  7. Measuring the Pattern of High Temperature Areas in Urban Greenery of Nanjing City, China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Weizhong; Yang, Guishan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Yinbao

    2012-01-01

    Most studies are concerned with the cooling effect of urban greenery, but some have also revealed that some patches changed from normal temperature areas (NTAs) into high temperature areas (HTAs). Landsat TM images and ArcGIS software are used to analyze the HTA patterns in Nanjing, China. The HTAs’ lower limit temperature was defined as the 30.26 °C and the percentage of the HTAs in all greenery was 24.87%. The disturbance on the cooling effect existed but not evidently. The average impervious ratio (IR) and surface temperature (ST) of HTAs, respectively, were 3.76 times and higher 2.86 °C than those of NTAs. The structure of NTAs’ IR levels was extremely uneven but the HTAs’ were relatively even. However, the co-coefficient between the IR and ST in the whole greenery was small. Sampling analysis with the same ST and IR revealed that the complex environment in green buffer affected temperature differences; The adjacent HTAs, with its 89.78% in the study area, largely along the green patch, were far more than independent HTAs and presented a ring shape. Thus, the significantly heterogeneous urban environment inevitably resulted in diverse factors forming HTAs. PMID:23066406

  8. RISK ASSESSMENT OF ROBOT CELL PRODUCTION SYSTEM THAT ACHIEVED HIGH PRODUCTIVITY AND SAFETY IN HMI ENVIRONMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAZUYA OKADA; IKUO MAEDA; YOSHIHITO SUGANO; NOBUO HIGUCHI; IKKAN NISHIHARA; TOSHIHIRO FUJITA

    In the industrial fields such as FA (factory automation) industry, operators and robots are required to interact directly, and the robots must comply with the safety requirements set by international safety standards. Production style is gradually shifting from the mass production of few product types to multiple products in varying volume. Accordingly, production sites are changing from labor intensive to

  9. Examining the major contributors and controlling factors of ozone production in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta region during harvest season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, X.; Kanaya, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Wang, Z.; Kudo, S.; Uno, I.

    2014-12-01

    Open biomass burning (OBB) has been reported to emit substantial amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and the mixing of OBB with urban plumes could exacerbate regional ozone (O3) pollution. In the present study, an observational field campaign was performed in a rural area at the edge of Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR) during harvest season when intensive open burning of wheat residues was observed. The O3 production rate at the site was calculated using a photochemical box model (Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism, Version 2) constrained by real-time ambient measurements (e.g., O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the sum of NO2 + NO (NOx), J values). During the period impacted by OBB, the O3 concentration frequently exceeded 100 ppbv. Analysis showed that the net O3 production was pronounced, in particular when the site was characterized by a prevailing southerly wind that also brought substantial amounts of NOx emitted from urban areas. At these times, the maximum rate of O3 production was 20 ppbv h-1 with potential production rate of 102 ppbv on a daily basis. The O3 production at the site was typically VOC-sensitive in the morning because NOx dominated the plumes. However, in the afternoon, conditions became NOx-sensitive due to the rapid photochemical consumption of NOx in the production of O3. A positive matrix factorization analysis indicated that solvent usage and OBB were the primary contributors to the mass fraction of ambient NMHCs observed at the study site, and were responsible for 35 and 23% of the total O3 production, respectively. The preferential presence of NOx in the morning inhibited net O3 production; meanwhile O3 built up in the afternoon due to a decrease in NOx concentrations. These results indicated that a joint effort in the regulation of solvent (aromatics) usage and OBB, as well as NOx from on-road vehicle exhaust may be effective in eliminating high-O3 pollution risk in the rural areas of the YRDR.

  10. Components of stably high fertility in three areas of west Africa.

    PubMed

    Ahonsi, B A

    1991-01-01

    The constancy of fertility levels in Ghana, Senegal and southwest Nigeria since 1970 is separated into its nuptiality and marital fertility elements. The age-specific changes in the two components are examined and these show that the apparent stability in observed total fertility rates is essentially the outcome of the offsetting impact of increased marital fertility below age 25 and above age 40, over the effect of the increasing proportion of women remaining single up to 25 yr of age. Continuity in traditional fertility behaviour and stable nuptiality has remained operative over the broad middle segment of the reproductive lifespan of women in the three areas. The paper thus concludes that West Africa is likely to continue to display stably high fertility for many years into the next century. The social and cultural conditions behind this trend are discussed with special reference to the continued high demand for children and the low and only slowly rising contraceptive prevalence level. PMID:1948177

  11. High Resolution Tsunami Modelling for the Evaluation of Potential Risk Areas in Setubal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, João.; Silva, Adélio; Leitão, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    Modeling has a relevant role in today's natural hazards mitigation planning as it can cover a wide range of natural phenomena. This is also the case for an event like a tsunami. In order to support the urban planning or prepare emergency response plans it is of major importance to be able to properly evaluate the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipments. The use of high resolution models can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas which complemented with other data such as the type of buildings, location of prioritary equipments, etc., may effectively contribute to better identify the most vulnerable zones, define rescue and escape routes and adequate the emergency plans to the constraints associated to these type of events. In the framework of FP6 SCHEMA project these concepts are being applied to different test sites and a detailed evaluation of the vulnerability of buildings and people to a tsunami event is being evaluated. One of the sites selected it is located in Portugal, in the Atlantic coast, and it refers to Setúbal area which is located about 40 km south of Lisbon. Within this site two specific locations are being evaluated: one is the city of Setúbal (in the Sado estuary right margin) and the other is the Tróia peninsula (in the Sado estuary left margin). Setúbal city is a medium size town with about 114,000 inhabitants while Tróia is a touristic resort located in a shallow area with a high seasonal occupation and has the river Sado as one of the main sources of income to the city. Setúbal was one of the Portuguese villages that was seriously damaged by the of 1755 earthquake event. The 1755 earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, took place on 1 November 1755, the catholic holiday of All Saints, around 09:30 AM. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami and fires which caused a huge destruction of Lisboa and Setúbal In the framework of the present study, a detailed evaluation of the site vulnerability to a tsunami event based on the consideration of the wave heights, buildings type and access routes characteristics was performed. The wave height and most probable inundation areas was made on the basis of the simulation of three earthquake potential sources with different level of impact (extreme, moderate and weak) in the Setúbal area. In the case of the extreme event the selected source for simulation corresponds to an interpretation of the origins of the 1755 earthquake proposed by Baptista et al (2003).In this study it is suggest that the 1755 tsunami event had two sources: one located in the Marques de Pombal thrust (MPTF) and a second one located in the Guadalquivir Bank. The other two sources are based on a study done by Omira et al (2009) regarding the design of a Sea-level Tsunami Detection Network for the Gulf of Cadiz. In the framework of this study there are analyzed different areas of seismic activity in the South of Portugal and proposed some possible earthquake sources and characteristics. The tsunami propagation simulations were performed using MOHID modelling system which is an open source three-dimensional water modelling system, developed by Hidromod and MARETEC (Marine and Environmental Technology Research Center - Technical University of Lisbon). As a result of the study detailed inundation maps associated to the different events and to different tide levels were produced. As a result of the combination of these maps with the available information of the city infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, prioritary buildings, etc.) there were also produced high scale vulnerability maps, escape routes, emergency routes maps.

  12. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre

    SciTech Connect

    Kvasnicka, D.

    1994-03-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas. General research, based on a review of published literature from both public and private sources, indicates that the generally thin, but numerous coalbeds found in the greater Appalachian Basin area do exhibit some potential for the application of this patented process. Estimates of total gas reserves in-place (Gas Research Institute, July 1991) for coalbeds in the Central and Northern Appalachian Basin areas are 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and 61 TCF respectively. Produced waters associated with coal deposits in the greater Appalachian Basin area can be characterized on the basis of established but limited production of coalbed methane. Central Appalachian coals generally produce small quantities of water (less than 50 barrels of water per day for the average producing well) which is high in total dissolved solids (TDS), greater than 30,000 parts per million (ppM). The chemical quality of water produced from these coal seams represents a significant disposal challenge to the operators of methane-producing wells in the Central Appalachian Basin. By contrast, water associated with the production of coalbed methane in the Northern Appalachian Basin is generally fair to good quality, and daily production volumes are low. However, the relatively slow desorption of methane gas from Northern Appalachian coals may result in a greater net volume of produced water over the economic life of the well. The well operator must respond to long-term disposal needs.

  13. Hydrologic Reconnaissance of Wetland-Bird Habitat in Areas With Potential to be Influenced by Water Produced During Coalbed Methane Production in the Northern Powder River Basin, MT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, S. G.; Sojda, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    The removal and disposal of ground water during production of coalbed methane has the potential to influence wetland-bird habitat in the Powder River Basin. Office analysis of wetland areas was conducted on National Wetland Inventory maps and Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles along the Tongue and Powder rivers in the northern Powder River Basin, Montana. Selected sites were palustrine emergent, large enough to be important to waterbirds, part of a wetland complex, not dependent on artificial water regimes, in an area with high potential for coalbed methane production, and judged to be accessible in the field. Several promising wetland areas were selected for field examination. Field investigation suggests that the most promising wetlands in oxbow cutoffs would not be productive sites. Only facultative not obligate wetland plants were observed, the topographic position of the wetlands suggested that flooding would be infrequent, and the stream flow would likely dilute the effect of produced water adjacent to these rivers. Fortuitously wetland-bird habitat not recognized on the National Wetland Inventory maps and Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles was observed along Rosebud Creek during the field reconnaissance. This habitat is not continuous. The lack of continuity is reflected in the soil surveys as well as in the reconnaissance field nvestigation. The Alluvial Land soil series corresponds to observed wetland areas but the extent of the wetland-bird habitat varies substantially within the soil unit. When the Korchea series is present, extensive wetland-bird habitat is not observed. Field and aerial photo analysis suggests that the presence of the habitat may be controlled by beaver, and/or by stratigraphic and structural elements that influence stream erosion. Human modification of the stream for irrigation purposes may impact habitat continuity in some areas. The "Rosebud" type wetland-bird habitat may have the potential to be influenced by coalbed methane water production and warrants further more detailed investigation to determine the areal extent of the habitat, to determine the factors that control the distribution of intermittent wetland-bird-habitat areas, and to better model whether and how water produced during coalbed methane development might influence wetland-bird habitat.

  14. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  15. The contribution of badgers to confirmed tuberculosis in cattle in high-incidence areas in England.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Christl A; Nouvellet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The role of badgers in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in British cattle is widely debated as part of the wider discussions on whether badger culling and/or badger vaccination should play a role in the government's strategy to eradicate cattle TB. The key source of information on the contribution from badgers within high-cattle-TB-incidence areas of England is the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT), with two analyses providing estimates of the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB in these areas. A dynamical model characterizing the association between the estimated prevalence of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine TB) among badgers culled in the initial RBCT proactive culls and the incidence among sympatric cattle herds prior to culling is used to estimate the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed TB herd breakdowns among proactively culled areas. The resulting estimate based on all data (52%) has considerable uncertainty (bootstrap 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-100%). Separate analyses of experimental data indicated that the largest estimated reduction in confirmed cattle TB achieved inside the proactive culling areas was 54% (overdispersion-adjusted 95% CI: 38-66%), providing a lower bound for the average overall contribution of badgers to confirmed cattle TB. Thus, taking into account both results, the best estimate of the average overall contribution of badgers is roughly half, with 38% being a robustly estimated lower bound. However, the dynamical model also suggested that only 5.7% (bootstrap 95% CI: 0.9-25%) of the transmission to cattle herds is badger-to-cattle with the remainder of the average overall contribution from badgers being in the form of onward cattle-to-cattle transmission. These estimates, confirming that badgers do play a role in bovine TB transmission, inform debate even if they do not point to a single way forward. PMID:24761309

  16. Development of Low-cost, High Energy-per-unit-area Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. T.; Chitre, S.; Rhee, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    The development of two hexagonal solar cell process sequences, a laserscribing process technique for scribing hexagonal and modified hexagonal solar cells, a large through-put diffusion process, and two surface macrostructure processes suitable for large scale production is reported. Experimental analysis was made on automated spin-on anti-reflective coating equipment and high pressure wafer cleaning equipment. Six hexagonal solar cell modules were fabricated. Also covered is a detailed theoretical analysis on the optimum silicon utilization by modified hexagonal solar cells.

  17. Stable high surface area lactate dehydrogenase particles produced by spray freezing into liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Josh D; Simpson, Dale T; Cloonan, Carrie; Lai, Edwina S; Williams, Robert O; Barrie Kitto, G; Johnston, Keith P

    2007-02-01

    Enzyme activities were determined for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) powder produced by lyophilization, and two fast freezing processes, spray freeze-drying (SFD) and spray freezing into liquid (SFL) nitrogen. The 0.25 mg/mL LDH aqueous feed solutions included either 30 or 100 mg/mL trehalose. The SFL process produced powders with very high enzyme activities upon reconstitution, similar to lyophilization. However, the specific surface area of 13 m(2)/g for SFL was an order of magnitude larger than for lyophilization. In SFD activities were reduced in the spraying step by the long exposure to the gas-liquid interface for 0.1-1s, versus only 2 ms in SFL. The ability to produce stable high surface area submicron particles of fragile proteins such as LDH by SFL is of practical interest in protein storage and in various applications in controlled release including encapsulation into bioerodible polymers. The SFL process has been scaled down for solution volumes <1 mL to facilitate studies of therapeutic proteins. PMID:17027245

  18. Modeling watershed rainfall-runoff relations using impervious surface-area data with high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Wang, Yeqiao; Gold, Arthur J.; August, Peter V.

    2010-09-01

    A distributed object-based rainfall-runoff simulation (DORS) model with incorporation of detailed impervious surface-area (ISA) data, derived from digital true-color orthophotography data with high spatial resolution, was developed. This physically based model simulates hydrologic processes of precipitation interception, infiltration, runoff, evapotranspiration, change of soil moisture, change of water-table depth, runoff routing, groundwater routing, and channel-flow routing. The modeling processes take objects based on land-cover types as fundamental spatial units in order to reduce data volume, increase computational efficiency, strengthen representation of watersheds, and utilize the data in variable scales. US Geological Survey stream-gaging data were used to validate the temporal variation of simulated discharge within two watersheds in Rhode Island State. The ratio of absolute error to the mean and the Nash coefficient in the validation period are 7.2% and 0.90 for the first watershed, and 8.0% and 0.77 for the second watershed, respectively. The results indicate that the DORS model is able to capture the relationship between rainfall and runoff in the study area, and that it is applicable in the further study of ISA impacts on the water cycle and associated pollution problems. The results also demonstrate that the performance of the hydrologic simulation is improved with ISA data with high spatial resolution.

  19. Dynamical Properties of High Area to Mass Ratio Objects in GEO-like Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, Thomas; Früh, Carolin; Hinze, Andreas; Herzog, Johannes

    First discovered in 2004, high area-to-mass-ratio (HAMR) objects in GEO-like orbits posed unexpected and new challenges to orbit determination and propagation. The orbits of HAMR objects at high altitudes are strongly perturbed by solar radiation pressure. This force depends on the reflection properties and the ratio of the projected area to mass (AMR) of the object. Both, the AMR and the reflection coefficient depend on the object's attitude and may vary in time. Many of the HAMR objects are lost shortly after discovery or after longer observation gaps due to such variations. Variations in the AMR (or the reflection coefficient) represent a major challenge when trying to maintain an orbit catalogue of HAMR objects over longer time periods. The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) collected a significant set of observations of HAMR objects over the past years. Some of the objects could be followed over longer time intervals. This paper presents the AIUB data set of HAMR objects and in particular the observed prop-erties of their orbits. The effects of variations of the AMR and the consequences for the orbit prediction are analyzed.

  20. Identifying high-risk areas of bacillary dysentery and associated meteorological factors in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenjun; Wang, Ligui; Sun, Weige; Hou, Xuexin; Yang, Haiyan; Sun, Lina; Xu, Shuai; Sun, Qiangzheng; Zhang, Jingshan; Song, Hongbin; Lin, Hualiang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial distribution of bacillary dysentery incidence was mapped at the district level in Wuhan, China. And a generalized additive time series model was used to examine the effect of daily weather factors on bacillary dysentery in the high-risk areas, after controlling for potential confounding factors. Central districts were found to be the high-risk areas. The time series analysis found an acute effect of meteorological factors on bacillary dysentery occurrence. A positive association was found for mean temperature (excess risk (ER) for 1°C increase being 0.94% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46% to 1.43% on the lag day 2), while a negative effect was observed for relative humidity and rainfall, the ER for 1% increase in relative humidity was ?0.21% (95% CI: ?0.34% to ?0.08%), and the ER for 1?mm increase in rainfall was ?0.23% (95% CI: ?0.37% to ?0.09%). This study suggests that bacillary dysentery prevention and control strategy should consider local weather variations. PMID:24257434

  1. Solid-phase reaction synthesis of mesostructured tungsten disulfide material with a high specific surface area

    SciTech Connect

    An, Gaojun, E-mail: angaojun2003@yahoo.com.cn [Beijing POL Research Institute, Beijing 102300 (China)] [Beijing POL Research Institute, Beijing 102300 (China); Lu, Changbo; Xiong, Chunhua [Beijing POL Research Institute, Beijing 102300 (China)] [Beijing POL Research Institute, Beijing 102300 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} WS{sub 2} material was synthesized through solid-phase reaction. {yields} (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WS{sub 4} as precursor and n-octadecylamine as template. {yields} WS{sub 2} material has high specific surface area (145.9 m{sup 2}/g). {yields} The whole preparation process is simple, convenient, green and clean. -- Abstract: A mesostructured tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) material was prepared through a solid-phase reaction utilizing ammonium tetrathiotungstate as the precursor and n-octadecylamine as the template. The as-synthesized WS{sub 2} material was characterized by X-ray powder Diffraction (XRD), Low-temperature N{sub 2} Adsorption (BET method), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The characterization results indicate that the WS{sub 2} material has the typical mesopore structure (3.7 nm) with a high specific surface area (145.9 m{sup 2}/g), and large pore volume (0.18 cm{sup 3}/g). This approach is novel, green and convenient. The plausible mechanism for the formation of the mesostructured WS{sub 2} material is discussed herein.

  2. High-resolution and large-area nanoparticle arrays using EUV interference lithography.

    PubMed

    Karim, Waiz; Tschupp, Simon Andreas; Oezaslan, Mehtap; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Ekinci, Yasin

    2015-04-28

    Well-defined model systems are needed for better understanding of the relationship between optical, electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties of nanoparticles and their structure. Chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles results in large size and shape dispersion and lack of lateral order. In contrast, conventional top-down lithography techniques provide control over the lateral order and dimensions. However, they are either limited in resolution or have low throughput and therefore do not enable the large patterning area needed to obtain good signal-to-noise ratio in common analytical and characterization techniques. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography has the throughput and simplicity advantages of photolithography as well as high resolution due to its wavelength. Using EUV achromatic Talbot lithography, we have obtained 15 nm particle arrays with a periodicity of about 100 nm over an area of several square centimeters with high-throughput enabling the use of nanotechnology for fabrication of model systems to study large ensembles of well-defined identical nanoparticles with a density of 10(10) particles cm(-2). PMID:25826457

  3. Early Cretaceous high-Mg diorites in the Yanji area, northeastern China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xing-Hua; Cao, Rui; Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Wen-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Mesozoic granitic rocks are widely distributed in northeast (NE) China. However, high-Mg dioritic rocks are considerably rare. Here, we report a newly recognized high-Mg diorite (the Xintun diorite) in the Yanji area, NE China, to constrain its origin and implications for the tectonic evolution of eastern Asian continental margin. Zircon U-Pb dating yields a crystallization age of 128 ± 1 Ma for the Xintun diorite. The diorites are characterized by high MgO (4.4-6.6 wt.%), Cr (119-239 ppm), Ba (419-514 ppm) and Sr (649-747 ppm) contents and Mg# values (59-64), but low FeOtotal/MgO ratios (1.2-1.4), with geochemical features similar to those of sanukitic high-Mg andesites (HMAs). They show moderate radiogenic Sr (ISr = 0.7047-0.7050) and Nd (?Nd = 0.3-1.1), with high La/Sm ratios, which are indicative of contributions from sediment components. The mineral assemblage of euhedral hornblende, magnetite and titanite, implies a water-rich and oxidized signature for their primitive magmas. These features suggest that the Xintun high-Mg diorites were probably formed via partial melting of the subducting sediments and subsequent interaction of mantle peridotites with both melts and aqueous fluids. Geochemical modeling reveals that hornblende-dominated fractional crystallization under water-sufficient conditions enabled the evolved magmas to acquire adakitic signatures. We believe that the Paleo-Pacific subduction beneath eastern Asian continental margin caused large-scale back-arc extension of NE China in the Early Cretaceous, and, consequently, induced the asthenospheric flow toward the mantle wedge, reheating subducting sediments enough to cause melting. Therefore, the occurrence of the Xintun high-Mg diorites signifies the onset of extensive back-arc extension of eastern Asian continental margin at ca. 128 Ma.

  4. High-resolution X-Band radar measurements of currents, bathymetry and sea state in highly inhomogeneous coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessner, Katrin; Reichert, Konstanze; Borge, Jose Carlos Nieto; Stevens, Craig L.; Smith, Murray J.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, high-resolution wave, current and water depth fields derived by marine X-Band radar are presented for a coastal region of extreme tidal currents in the presence of inhomogeneous bathymetry at the south coast of New Zealand's North Island. The current and water depth information for the presented location covers an area of approximately 13 km2 with a spatial resolution of 225 m and an update rate of 3 min. The sea state data provides a spatial representation of coastal effects like wave shoaling and refraction forced by bathymetry and current interaction. The near-surface current measurements about 3 km off the coast show expected tidal current pattern with maximum northwest/southeast current of 1.5-2 m/s alongshore. This is in agreement with currents from the RiCOM hydrodynamic model. The spatial resolution of the observed current field exhibits in addition small-scale current features caused by the influence of the local bathymetry. These data demonstrate the insight to be gained in complex, high-energy coastal situations through the use of high-resolution remote sensing techniques.

  5. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol. PMID:24503897

  6. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-02-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol.

  7. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Wei, Dali; Li, Qi; Ge, Xin; Guo, Xuefeng; Xie, Zaiku; Ding, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol. PMID:24503897

  8. Assessment of a High Purity Zein Product from Commercial Zein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful utilization of commercial zein products for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and medical applications requires a decolorized/deodorized zein that is substantially undenatured protein. A zein protein product with those qualifications has already been developed by a patent pending process. ...

  9. Typology of potential high contribution areas in the sediment budget in the Upper Guil Catchment (Queyras, French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Fassetta, Gilles Arnaud; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous areas, especially in large river catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. For a better understanding of Alpine river catchments considered as complex systems, we focused our research on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317km²). This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods (June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (?12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events, several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged. Most of them were located at confluences and, at specific reaches such as canyon reaches constrained by infrastructures. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be less effective in case of flood event. In the frame of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004) project designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Climate Change, one objective is to understand the hydro-geomorphological functioning of Alpine catchments for a sustainable management of sediment yield, transfer and deposition. Part of our study is aimed at a better assessment of sediment transfers, especially on adjacent sediment supply (i.e. from hillslope to channel, and from tributaries to the trunk river) for a better management of sediment fluxes in the frame of the local "River Scheme". For this reason, we decided to establish a sediment budget of the Guil River catchment, with a quantitative assessment and a spatial analysis of erosion, transport, and deposition processes. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying contributive, erosion and deposition areas with a twofold approach: (i) assessment of longitudinal sedimentary transfers in the floodplain, (ii) assessment of slopes contribution to sediment supply with a main focus on lower slopes where lateral cutting and landslides provide huge quantities of material to the valley bottom. The semi-automatic methodology proposed here is based on data directly derived from remote sensing, GIS analysis (e.g. interpretation of aerial photographs, measurement from regional scale Digital Elevation Model (DEM), high-resolution DEM derived from airborne-based LiDAR) and field surveys. This study highlights spatial differences in sediment storage and redistribution areas grounded on quantitative and qualitative environmental parameters and index defined for 250 homogeneous sections (i.e. definition of morphological index, geometric measurement, rates and type of vegetation cover, hydraulic infrastructures location, urban development rates…). It also provides a useful classification of six distinct reach types and areas that will be susceptible to erosion, transport and deposition during the next flooding event (i.e. sediment production areas, temporary and permanent sediment storage areas, areas sensitive to erosion...).

  10. Lidar-based mapping of leaf area index and its use for validating GLOBCARBON satellite LAI product in a temperate forest of the southern USA

    E-print Network

    Lidar-based mapping of leaf area index and its use for validating GLOBCARBON satellite LAI product Accepted 17 March 2009 Keywords: Leaf area index LAI Airborne laser Forest ecosystems Lidar GLOBCARBON-derived LAI map and the GLOBCARBON moderate- resolution satellite LAI product. Specific problems we addressed

  11. Alu elements in primates are preferentially lost from areas of high GC content.

    PubMed

    Hellen, Elizabeth Hb; Brookfield, John Fy

    2013-01-01

    The currently-accepted dogma when analysing human Alu transposable elements is that 'young' Alu elements are found in low GC regions and 'old' Alus in high GC regions. The correlation between high GC regions and high gene frequency regions make this observation particularly difficult to explain. Although a number of studies have tackled the problem, no analysis has definitively explained the reason for this trend. These observations have been made by relying on the subfamily as a proxy for age of an element. In this study, we suggest that this is a misleading assumption and instead analyse the relationship between the taxonomic distribution of an individual element and its surrounding GC environment. An analysis of 103906 Alu elements across 6 human chromosomes was carried out, using the presence of orthologous Alu elements in other primate species as a proxy for age. We show that the previously-reported effect of GC content correlating with subfamily age is not reflected by the ages of the individual elements. Instead, elements are preferentially lost from areas of high GC content over time. The correlation between GC content and subfamily may be due to a change in insertion bias in the young subfamilies. The link between Alu subfamily age and GC region was made due to an over-simplification of the data and is incorrect. We suggest that use of subfamilies as a proxy for age is inappropriate and that the analysis of ortholog presence in other primate species provides a deeper insight into the data. PMID:23717800

  12. Overview of High-Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J. S.; O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Hartvigsen, J. J.; Petri, M. C.; Carter, J. D.; Bischoff, B. L.

    2007-06-01

    Over the last five years there has been a growing interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, particularly to augment transportation fuels and thus reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Hydrogen is now produced primarily via steam reforming of methane. However, in the long term, methane reforming is not a viable process for the large-scale hydrogen production since such fossil fuel conversion processes consume non-renewable resources and emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen without consuming fossil fuels and without emitting greenhouse gases through the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is developing three general categories of high temperature processes for hydrogen production: thermochemical, electrolytic and hybrid thermo-electrolytic. This paper introduces the work being done in the development of high temperature electrolysis of steam. High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) is built on the technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which were invented over a century ago, but which have been most vigorously developed during the last twenty years. SOFCs consume hydrogen and oxygen and produce steam and electricity. Solid Oxide Electrolytic Cells (SOECs) consume electricity and steam and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The purpose of the HTE research is to solve those problems unique to the electrolytic mode of operation, while building further on continuing fuel cell development. ORGANIZATION Experiments have been conducted for the last three years at the Idaho National Laboratory and at Ceramatec, Inc. on the operation of button cells and of progressively larger stacks of planar cells. In addition, the INL has been performing analyses of the cell-scale fluid dynamics and plant-scale flowsheets in order to determine optimum operating conditions and plant configurations. Argonne National Laboratory has been performing experiments for the development of new electrode materials, as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics and flowsheets for comparison with the work being done at the INL. ANL has also been performing diagnostic measures on components form long-duration tests at the INL and Ceramatec to determine the causes for the slow degradation in cell performance. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing high temperature porous membranes for the separation of hydrogen from the residual steam, thus avoiding the need to condense and reheat the steam. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas has been collaborating with ANL on the development of electrode and electrolyte materials and will soon begin to investigate the causes of cell degradation. HTE research also includes NERI projects at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute on the development of toughened SOEC composite seals and at the Georgia Institute of Technology on the microstructural design of SOEC materials. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The most recent large-scale test of HTE was performed from June 28 through Sept 22, 2006 at the Ceramatec plant in Salt Lake City. The test apparatus consists of two stacks of 60 cells each in a configuration that will be used in the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) experiment during FY-07. The ILS will contain three modules of four stacks each. The “Half-Module” initially produced 1.2 normal m3of H2/hour and 0.65 Nm3/hr at the end of the 2040-hour continuous test.

  13. A forest without trees: Development of high-surface-area materials for enhanced-sensitivity SAW arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yelton, W.G.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.

    1998-08-01

    Chemical sensor arrays are an alternative to the tedious development of highly specific single-analyte detectors. Recent efforts have focused on the chemical and physical diversity of interface materials for SAW sensor arrays. However, the issues of wide dynamic range and high sensitivity must also be addressed for sensor arrays to compete in applications requiring low detection limits. Because SAW devices respond in proportion to change in mass per nominal unit area of the device surface, sensitivity is enhanced by surface modification with high-area, thin-film coating materials: a greater mass of analyte is adsorbed at a given ambient concentration. The authors are exploring several classes of electrochemically prepared high-area films, materials whose formulations and processing are well documented for applications other than chemical sensors. They present results from films formed by anodization, chemical conversion, and electroplating, yielding surface area enhancements as high as 170x.

  14. A systems study of livestock production in the Northern Areas of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Wright; A. J Duncan; J. Clemens; A. Rahman; O. Raja; I. J. Gordon; A. J. Hester; S. M. Raffique; F. Ali; A. Baig

    Introduction Over 1 million people live in the northern areas of Pakistan, with 60% of income from livestock and agriculture, rising to 84% for the poorest families (AKRSP, 2000). Precipitation is only about 150 to 400mm per annum in the valley bottoms, but water from glacial snowmelt is used to irrigate parcels of land in the villages in the valley

  15. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migda?, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  16. Global products of vegetation leaf area and fraction absorbed PAR from year one of MODIS data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Myneni; S. Hoffman; Y. Knyazikhin; J. L. Privette; J. Glassy; Y. Tian; Y. Wang; X. Song; Y. Zhang; G. R. Smith; A. Lotsch; M. Friedl; J. T. Morisette; P. Votava; R. R. Nemani; S. W. Running

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm based on the physics of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies for the retrieval of vegetation green leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) from surface reflectances was developed and implemented for operational processing prior to the launch of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the TERRA platform in December of 1999. The

  17. Eco-monitoring of highly contaminated areas: historic heavy metal contamination in tree ring records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, Norbert; Jordán, Gy?z?; Albert, Julianna; Abdaal, Ahmed; Anton, Attila

    2014-05-01

    This study examines and compares tree rings of trees grown in a mining area highly contaminated with heavy metals. Tree rings offers an excellent opportunity for eco-monitoring polluted areas. Contamination dispersion from the source to the receptors can be studied in time and space. The sampled area is located in the eastern part of the Matra Mts. of the Inner-Carpathian calc-alkaline Volcanic Arc (Hungary) with abundant historical ore (Pb, Zn, Cu, etc.) mining in the area. Dense forests are composed of the most typical association of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European black pine (Pinus nigra), oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus sylvatica), and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) also occurs in the landscape. Sampled trees are located within a 1km radius of the abandoned historic ore mines. Sample sites were located above the old mines and waste rock heaps, under the waste rock heaps and on the floodplain of the Ilona Creek. The sampled trees were selected by the following criteria: the tree should be healthy, showing no signs of thunderbolt or diseases and having a minimum diameter of 50 cm. Samples were taken with a tree borer at the height of 150 cm. At the same time, soil samples were also taken near the trees in a 25 cm depth. Prior to laboratory analysis, the samples measured and air dried. Every fifth years tree ring was taken from the samples under microscope, working backwards from the most recent outer ring (2012, the year of the sampling). Samples were digested with a mixture of H2SO4 and H2O2m in Teflon vessels in a microwave unit. The samples were analyzed by ICP-OES instrument. The results were evaluated with statistical method. Results revealed a consistent picture showing distinct locations and years of the contamination history in the former mining area. Some elements are built into the trees more efficiently than other elements depending on mobility in the soil solution that is influenced by soil chemical properties, in turn. The majority of the metals become more mobile in acidic soil and heavy rain climatic conditions giving rise to availability of metal uptake by the studied trees.

  18. Contact holes: optical area measurement predicts printability and is highly repeatable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Glen W.; Taylor, Darren; Fiekowsky, Peter

    2001-09-01

    Small contact holes are the most difficult structures for microlithography to print because their sizes match the resolution of the stepper. Thus a mask hole that is a little too small won't print at all. It is widely accepted that the size of the contact hole on the wafer is controlled by the total light flux that gets through the contact hole on the mask. This is demonstrated by the fact that normal small contact holes print round on the wafer, no matter what shape they were on the mask. Therefore it is the area, not the shape that affects the wafer print. Contact holes have traditionally been measured in height and width. Recently, technology has been introduced to estimate corner rounding, so that a combination of height, width, and corner rounding could be used to estimate the area of the contact. Th introduction of the flux-area technique allows direct measurement of the optical area of features as small as (lambda) /4, e.g. 0.15(mu) using visible light. These measurements have been shown to be linear, repeatable, and highly correlated to what prints on the wafer. This study examines the accuracy and repeatability of optical contact hole area measurements using visible light and I-line illumination with the AVI Metrology system. A test mask is designed and printed by Photronics. It is measured with the AVI Photomask Metrology system taking images from a KLA353uv inspection system and a Zeiss AIMS tool, and a SEM. The mask is then printed at LSI Logic on a 0.25micrometers process. The contact sizes on the wafer are measured on a SEM. Results show that optical measurements from the AVI system correlate to the printed contact size as well as SEM measurements of the mask, and twice as well as conventional optical measurements. Furthermore, optical mask measurements at the mask shop and the fab correlate within 20nm despite the use of different wavelengths, and measurement with and without pellicles.

  19. Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, R.; O'Dowd, J. (Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.)

    1993-04-01

    This report describes Solarex's work to advance its photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce its a-Si:H module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. Solarex will meet these objectives by improving the deposition and quality of the transport front contact; optimizing the laser patterning process; scaling up the semiconductor deposition process; improving the back-contact deposition; and scaling up and improving the encapsulation and testing of its a-Si:H modules. In the Phase 1 portion of this subcontract, Solarex focused on scaling up components of the chemical vapor deposition system for deposition of the system contact, scaling up laser scribing techniques; triple-junction recipes for module production; and metal-oxide back contacts. The goal of these efforts is to adopt all portions of the manufacturing line to handle substrates larger than 0.37 m[sup 2].

  20. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, Third quarter, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eggington, W.J.

    1993-12-31

    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. In 1992, Task 1, Environmental Considerations, and Task 2, Transport Requirements, were completed. In the first two quarters of 1993, Task 3, Parametric Analysis, Task 4, Preliminary Design, and Task 6, Ground Support, were completed. Individual reports containing results obtained from each of these tasks were submitted to DOE. In addition, through June 30, 1993, a Subscale Test Plan was prepared under Task 5, Subscale Tests, and work was initiated on Task 7, Environmental Impacts, Task 8, Development Plan, Task 9, Operating Costs, and Task 10, Technology Transfer.