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1

Cryptosporidium oocysts on fresh produce from areas of high livestock production in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of fresh vegetables and soft fruit were collected from farmers' markets in the Lublin Area of Poland during 2006–2007; the produce was grown in areas of high to moderate livestock production. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were eluted from food surfaces, separated from residual food materials by IMS and identified by immunofluorescence and Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts

A. Rze?utka; R. A. B. Nichols; L. Connelly; A. Kaupke; I. Kozyra; N. Cook; S. Birrell; H. V. Smith

2010-01-01

2

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas  

E-print Network

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas Charles G-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia

Cochlan, William P.

3

High surface area calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

2013-05-01

4

Sound production patterns from humpback whales in a high latitude foraging area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have been conducted on humpback whale song, but substantially fewer have focused on the acoustic properties of non-song sound production (i.e., feeding and social sounds). Non-invasive digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGS) were attached to humpback whales on the western North Atlantics Great South Channel feeding grounds during July 2004. Acoustic records totaling 48.4 data hours from four of

Alison K. Stimpert; David N. Wiley; Kira L. Barton; Mark P. Johnson; Marc O. Lammers; Whitlow W. L. Au

2005-01-01

5

Sound production patterns from humpback whales in a high latitude foraging area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have been conducted on humpback whale song, but substantially fewer have focused on the acoustic properties of non-song sound production (i.e., feeding and social sounds). Non-invasive digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGS) were attached to humpback whales on the western North Atlantics Great South Channel feeding grounds during July 2004. Acoustic records totaling 48.4 data hours from four of these attachments were aurally analyzed for temporal trends in whale signal production. A custom automatic detection function was also used to identify occurrences of specific signals and evaluate their temporal consistency. Patterns in sound usage varied by stage of foraging dive and by time of day. Amount of time with signals present was greater at the bottom of dives than during surface periods, indicating that sounds are probably related to foraging at depth. For the two tags that recorded at night, signals were present during a greater proportion of daylight hours than night hours. These results will be compared with previously published trends describing diel patterns in male humpback whale song chorusing on the breeding grounds. Data from the continuation of this research during the summer of 2005 will also be included.

Stimpert, Alison K.; Wiley, David N.; Barton, Kira L.; Johnson, Mark P.; Lammers, Marc O.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2005-09-01

6

Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the ability of this high resolution based methodology to forecast and hindecast cultivated area, which is particularly relevant in climate-sensitive East Africa.

Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

2013-12-01

7

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity  

E-print Network

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity of 5 poplar clones during; The stem volume and biomass (stem + branches) production, net photosynthesis of mature leaves and leaf area found in volume production, woody biomass production, total leaf area and net photosynthesis. Above

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

2011-01-01

9

7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

2012-01-01

10

7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

2013-01-01

11

7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.  

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

2014-01-01

12

7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

2010-01-01

13

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

2011-01-01

14

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

2014-01-01

15

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

2012-01-01

16

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND... Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2014-01-01

17

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND... Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2012-01-01

18

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND... Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2013-01-01

19

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND... Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2011-01-01

20

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND... Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2010-01-01

21

7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val Verde, Kinney, Uvalde, Medina, Wilson, Karnes, Goliad, Victoria, Calhoun, Maverick, Zavala, Frio, Atascosa, Dimmit, La Salle,...

2012-01-01

22

7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

2013-01-01

23

7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

2012-01-01

24

7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.  

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

2014-01-01

25

7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

2011-01-01

26

Ozone production rate and hydrocarbon reactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of high ozone concentration in Houston  

E-print Network

; revised 3 April 2002; accepted 5 April 2002; published 28 May 2002. [1] Observations of ozone (O3) and O3 concentrations that exceed the health- based National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) [Environ- mental] Ozone production in the lower troposphere occurs by reac- tion of NOx (NO + NO2) and VOCs (volatile

27

High radon areas in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norway is considered to be one of the most radon-affected areas in Europe. Based on results of nationwide surveys, the mean radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings has been estimated to be 89 Bq\\/m3, and 9% of houses have an annual mean radon concentration exceeding the recommended action level of 200 Bq\\/m3. Very high radon concentrations (50,000 Bq\\/m3) have been recorded

Terje Strand; Camilla Lunder Jensen; Katrine Ånestad; Line Ruden; Gro Beate Ramberg

2005-01-01

28

A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

Yue Kuo

2010-08-15

29

Two of Mentors' key technology product areas,  

E-print Network

PCB design tools for UCSB's Computer Engineering Senior Capstone design class.This course is a twoTwo of Mentors' key technology product areas, printed circuit board design tools and simulation- quarter design class which allows students to specify, design and manufacture a circuit board based

Akhmedov, Azer

30

7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production...

2010-01-01

31

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2014-01-01

32

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2013-01-01

33

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2011-01-01

34

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2010-01-01

35

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2012-01-01

36

Utilization of high specific surface area CuO-CeO2 catalysts for high temperature processes of hydrogen production: steam re-forming of ethanol and methane dry re-forming.  

PubMed

CuO-CeO(2) mixed oxide catalysts with 10, 15, and 20 mol % CuO content were prepared by the hard template method using KIT-6 silica as a template. The applied synthesis method yields solids with BET surface area in excess of 147 m(2)/g, highly porous nanocrystalline CeO(2) morphology and dispersion of CuO phase between 28 and 40%, corresponding to CuO particle size between 1.3 and 1.9 nm. Increasing the CuO content caused a decrease in dispersion of this phase and a further decrease of surface acid site abundance, determined by NH(3) chemisorption/TPD method, but improved the reducibility extent of CeO(2) (14.5, 16.1 and 24.5% for CuCe10, CuCe15, and CuCe20 catalyst, respectively) and oxygen mobility of prepared powders. It was discovered during ethanol steam re-forming experiments that increasing CuO content is favorable in terms of ethanol conversion but also causes quicker catalyst deactivation, primarily as a result of sintering and loss of CuO dispersion. Reaction temperatures in excess of 550 degrees C strongly promoted ethanol dehydratation reaction, leading to a rise in methane production and extensive coking of the catalyst surface. Coking was slower in the case of CuO-CeO(2) catalysts with a higher CuO content as a result of lower acid site abundance and more pronounced oxygen mobility. Temperatures in excess of 450 degrees C are required for any noticeable CO(2) and CH(4) conversion in methane dry re-forming reaction over CuO-CeO(2) materials. The examined materials displayed steady performance during stability tests at a reaction temperature of 650 degrees C, with catalysts containing 15 and 20 mol % CuO exhibiting the highest activity. Additionally, very low amounts of carbon were deposited on spent catalyst samples. PMID:19883056

Djinovi?, Petar; Batista, Jurka; Cehi?, Benis; Pintar, Albin

2010-03-25

37

Cloudiness and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover maps provide an information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they allow to estimate the regional snow resource. Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. In this context, MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometeron on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloudiness can hide the ground, thus preventing snow detection. Here, we considered MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over Po river basin. Modeling the variability of snow cover duration, distribution and snow water equivalent is a first important step in investigating climate change impacts on the regime of the major Italian river. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analyzed and processed with the support of 500 m-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We firstly investigated the issue of cloudiness, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting season. Such a result is certainly related to satellite crossing times, since cloud coverage over mountains usually increases in the afternoon: however, in Aqua and Terra snow products it highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, on the basis of previous studies, we proposed a cloud removal procedure and its application to a wide area, characterized by high topographic and geomorphological heterogeneities such as northern Italy. While conceiving the new method, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there were not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we improved a temporal filter with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter. In the validation stage, the proposed procedure has been compared against others, showing improvements in the performance for our case study. At the same time it results quite handy both in terms of input data required and computational effort.

Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

2014-04-01

38

The cascade high productivity language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

2004-01-01

39

Ozone production efficiency in an urban area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone production efficiency can be defined as the number of molecules of oxidant (O3 + NO2) produced photochemically when a molecule of NOx (NO + NO2) is oxidized. It conveys information about the conditions under which O3 is formed and is an important parameter to consider when evaluating impacts from NOx emission sources. We present calculational and observational results on

Lawrence I. Kleinman; Peter H. Daum; Yin-Nan Lee; Linda J. Nunnermacker; Stephen R. Springston; Judith Weinstein-Lloyd; Jochen Rudolph

2002-01-01

40

Laser processing system development of large area and high precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As industry of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and display growing, this industry requires an increasingly high-precision quality so current cutting process in industry is preferred laser machining than mechanical machining. Now, laser machining is used almost "step and repeat" method in large area, but this method has a problem such as cutting quality in the continuity of edge parts, cutting speed and low productivity. To solve these problems in large area, on-the-fly (stagescanner synchronized system) is gradually increasing. On-the-fly technology is able to process large area with high speed because of stage-scanner synchronized moving. We designed laser-based high precision system with on-the-fly. In this system, we used UV nano-second pulse laser, power controller and scanner with telecentric f-theta lens. The power controller is consisted of HWP(Half Wave Plate), thin film plate polarizer, photo diode, micro step motor and control board. Laser power is possible to monitor real-time and adjust precision power by using power controller. Using this machine, we tested cutting of large area coverlay and sheet type large area PCB by applying on-the-fly. As a result, our developed machine is possible to process large area without the problem of the continuity of edge parts and by high cutting speed than competitor about coverlay.

Park, Hyeongchan; Ryu, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Taesang

2013-03-01

41

A mechanistic model to study ozone production in urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple box model for studying the influence of emissions changes and meteorological conditions on ozone production in urban areas is presented. Several calculation examples illustrate how the model can be used to investigate the interrelationships of the primary mechanisms which determine ozone concentration levels in urban areas.

A. Rachel Laird; Paulette Middleton; Richard W. Miksad

1983-01-01

42

High throughput protein production screening  

DOEpatents

Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

2009-09-08

43

General view of the High Bay area of the Space ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the High Bay area of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows the specially modified fork lift used for horizontal installation and removal of the SSMEs into and out of the Orbiters. SSME number 2059 is in the background and is in the process of being scanned with a high-definition laser scanner to acquire field documentation for the production of historic documentatin. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

44

Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

1991-01-01

45

High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

2013-10-01

46

Focusing Resources on High-Priority Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Perkins provides more flexibility to encourage innovation and program improvement; one of these areas of flexibility is the state-level "reserve" fund. This article looks at how Tennessee is using its funds to improve programming within the framework set out in the law.

Hyslop, Alisha

2009-01-01

47

Modeling biotic habitat high risk areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.

Despain, D.G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B.M.; Stephens, T.

2000-01-01

48

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2010-01-01

49

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

...2014-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2014-01-01

50

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2012-01-01

51

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2011-01-01

52

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2013-01-01

53

Measuring Productivity on High Performance Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the high performance computing domain, the speed of execution of a program has typically been the prima ry performance metric. But productivity is also of con cern to high performance computing developers. In this pape r we will discuss the problems of defining and measuring productivity for these machines and we develop a mo del of productivity that includes

Marvin V. Zelkowitz; Victor R. Basili; Sima Asgari; Lorin Hochstein; Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Taiga Nakamura

2005-01-01

54

Design-based validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global burned area product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. Burned area product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with burning. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val Burned Area Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.

Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.

2012-12-01

55

High power/large area PV systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major photovoltaic power system technology drivers for a wide variety of mission types were ranked. Each technology driver was ranked on a scale of high, medium, or low in terms of importance to each particular mission type. The rankings were then compiled to determine the overall importance of each driver over the entire range of space missions. In each case cost was ranked the highest.

Wise, Joseph; Baraona, Cosmo

1987-01-01

56

Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NO\\/sub X\\/, SOâ, and particulate NOâ⁻ than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the high emissions are due to the revolatilization of previoulsy

Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Charles A. Brock; Philip J. Riggan

1987-01-01

57

Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

2010-01-01

58

Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

1997-01-01

59

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

60

Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest  

PubMed Central

In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better targeting high conservation value areas. PMID:25502238

Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

2014-01-01

61

Activation of frontal neocortical areas by vocal production in marmosets.  

PubMed

Primates often rely on vocal communication to mediate social interactions. Although much is known about the acoustic structure of primate vocalizations and the social context in which they are usually uttered, our knowledge about the neocortical control of audio-vocal interactions in primates is still incipient, being mostly derived from lesion studies in squirrel monkeys and macaques. To map the neocortical areas related to vocal control in a New World primate species, the common marmoset, we employed a method previously used with success in other vertebrate species: Analysis of the expression of the immediate early gene Egr-1 in freely behaving animals. The neocortical distribution of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in three marmosets that were exposed to the playback of conspecific vocalizations and vocalized spontaneously (H/V group) was compared to data from three other marmosets that also heard the playback but did not vocalize (H/n group). The anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex presented a higher number of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in the H/V group than in H/n animals. Our results provide direct evidence that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the region that comprises Broca's area in humans and has been associated with auditory processing of species-specific vocalizations and orofacial control in macaques, is engaged during vocal output in marmosets. Altogether, our results support the notion that the network of neocortical areas related to vocal communication in marmosets is quite similar to that of Old world primates. The vocal production role played by these areas and their importance for the evolution of speech in primates are discussed. PMID:20953246

Simões, Cristiano S; Vianney, Paulo V R; de Moura, Marco Marcondes; Freire, Marco A M; Mello, Luiz E; Sameshima, Koichi; Araújo, John F; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Mello, Claudio V; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2010-01-01

62

Activation of Frontal Neocortical Areas by Vocal Production in Marmosets  

PubMed Central

Primates often rely on vocal communication to mediate social interactions. Although much is known about the acoustic structure of primate vocalizations and the social context in which they are usually uttered, our knowledge about the neocortical control of audio–vocal interactions in primates is still incipient, being mostly derived from lesion studies in squirrel monkeys and macaques. To map the neocortical areas related to vocal control in a New World primate species, the common marmoset, we employed a method previously used with success in other vertebrate species: Analysis of the expression of the immediate early gene Egr-1 in freely behaving animals. The neocortical distribution of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in three marmosets that were exposed to the playback of conspecific vocalizations and vocalized spontaneously (H/V group) was compared to data from three other marmosets that also heard the playback but did not vocalize (H/n group). The anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex presented a higher number of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in the H/V group than in H/n animals. Our results provide direct evidence that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the region that comprises Broca's area in humans and has been associated with auditory processing of species-specific vocalizations and orofacial control in macaques, is engaged during vocal output in marmosets. Altogether, our results support the notion that the network of neocortical areas related to vocal communication in marmosets is quite similar to that of Old world primates. The vocal production role played by these areas and their importance for the evolution of speech in primates are discussed. PMID:20953246

Simões, Cristiano S.; Vianney, Paulo V. R.; de Moura, Marco Marcondes; Freire, Marco A. M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Sameshima, Koichi; Araújo, John F.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Mello, Claudio V.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2010-01-01

63

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

64

Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

2013-01-01

65

High resolution, large area, high energy x-ray tomography  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray tomography system is being developed for high resolution inspection of large objects. The goal is to achieve 25 micron resolution over object sizes that are tens of centimeters in extent. Typical objects will be metal in composition and therefore high energy, few MeV x-rays will be required. A proof-of-principle system with a limited field of view has been developed. Preliminary results are presented.

Trebes, J.E.; Dolan, K.W.; Haddad, W.S.; Haskins, J.J.; Lerche, R.A.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Rikard, R.D.

1997-08-01

66

Monitoring High-Quality Wine Production using Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the experience on the design and de- ployment of a WSN-based system for monitoring the pro- ductive cycle of high-quality wine in a Sicilian winery. Be- sides providing the means for pervasive monitoring of the cultivated area, the project described here is aimed to sup- port the producer in ensuring the overall quality of their production, in

Giuseppe Anastasi; Orazio Farruggia; Giuseppe Lo Re; Marco Ortolani

2009-01-01

67

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

1999-05-11

68

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-05-11

69

Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM  

SciTech Connect

CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo [CBMM-Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineracao, Fazenda Corrego da Mata, P.O. Box 838.183.903, Araxa, MG (Brazil)

2011-03-31

70

Health survey in high background radiation areas in China  

SciTech Connect

The radiation level in some regions of Yangjiang County, Guangdong Province, is about three times that in the neighboring control areas, but lower than that in some parts of high background radiation areas in India and Brazil. Results of the health survey carried out between 1972 and 1975, which did not demonstrate any significant difference between inhabitants living in the high-background and control areas, suggest that the size of the population investigated may be not large enough to reveal minor increments of detrimental effects at such a low dose range of ionizing radiation. Further investigation of a larger population is necessary.

Not Available

1980-08-22

71

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2008-10-10

72

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2009-05-15

73

15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

74

Production system improvement : floor area reduction and inventory optimization  

E-print Network

This thesis shows improvements of a medical device production system. The demand at the Medical Device Manufacturing Company (MDMC¹) is low for the occlusion system product and there is a need to introduce other production ...

Yang, Tianying, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

75

Multistage high cell continuous fermentation for high productivity and titer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out the first simulation on multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) to show that the MSC-HCDC\\u000a can achieve batch\\/fed-batch product titer with much higher productivity to the fed-batch productivity using published fermentation\\u000a kinetics of lactic acid, penicillin and ethanol. The system under consideration consists of n-serially connected continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) with either hollow fiber cell recycling

Ho Nam Chang; Nag-Jong Kim; Jongwon Kang; Chang Moon Jeong; Jin-dal-rae Choi; Qiang Fei; Byoung Jin Kim; Sunhoon Kwon; Sang Yup Lee; Jungbae Kim

2011-01-01

76

The Cancer Mortality in High Natural Radiation Areas in Poland  

PubMed Central

The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed. Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927–2011) PMID:23304104

Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik

2012-01-01

77

Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them <1 mmol C m-2 d-1). It appears that nitrate is assimilated in the upper part of the mixed layer (coinciding with the euphotic layer) and regenerated in the lower parts. We suggest that such high contribution of nitrification to nitrate assimilation is driven by (i) a deep mixed layer, extending well below the euphotic layer, allowing nitrifiers to compete with phytoplankton for the assimilation of ammonium, (ii) extremely high rates of primary production for the Southern Ocean, stimulating the release of dissolved organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

2014-12-01

78

Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.  

PubMed

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching in rural areas. PMID:17407927

Monk, David H

2007-01-01

79

Identifying high production, low production and degraded rangelands in Senegal with normalized difference vegetation index data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seasonal herbaceous vegetation production on Senegal's native rangelands exhibits high spatial and temporal variability. This variability can be monitored using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data computed from 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data. Although annual fluctuations in rainfall account for some of the variability, numerous long-term production patterns are evident in the AVHRR time-series data. Different n productivity reflect variations in the region's climate, topography, soils, and land use. Areas of overgrazing and intensive cultivation have caused long-term soil and vegetation degradation. Rangelands of high and low productivity, and degraded rangelands were identified using NDVI. Time-series image data from 1987 though 1992 were used to map relative rangeland productivity. The results were compared to detailed resource maps on soils, vegetation and land use. Much of the variation in rangeland productivity correlated well to the known distribution of resources. The study developed an approach that identified a number of areas of degraded soils and low vegetation production.

Tappan, G. Gray; Wood, Lynette; Moore, Donald G.

1993-01-01

80

New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

1974-01-01

81

Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity  

SciTech Connect

Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

1994-02-01

82

Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United States, the use of existing fire perimeter data bases from various state and federal agencies as reference data is economical and enables the validation of different time periods and locations. Additionally, the incorporation of existing satellite-derived reference data used to validate other coarser resolution global burned area data sets such as the MCD45 (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, 500 m spatial resolution), GlobCarbon (Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor, 1 km spatial resolution), and L3JRC (SPOT-VEGETATION sensor, 1 km spatial resolution) is also being pursued. The validation the approach developed for the USGS ECV products and the challenges of using the vector polygons and raster layers from these reference datasets will be reported in the presentation.

Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

2013-12-01

83

The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features in the MSG/SEVIRI images. The fractional snow cover area (H12) algorithm is based on a sub-pixel reflectance model applied on METOP-AVHRR data. Knowing the effects of topography on satellite-measured radiances for rough terrain, the sun zenith and azimuth angles, as well as direction of observation relative to these are taken into account in estimating the target reflectances from the satellite images. The values of SWE products (H13) were obtained using an assimilation process based on the Helsinki University of Technology model using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) daily brightness-temperature values. The validation studies for three products have been performed for the water years 2010 and 2011. Average values of 70% of probability of detection for snow recognition product, 60% of overall accuracy for the fractional snow cover product and 45 mm RMSE for the snow water equivalent product have been obtained from the validation studies. Final versions of these three products will be presented and discussed. Key words: snow, satellite images, mountain, HSAF, snow cover, snow water equivalent

Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

2012-04-01

84

Large area high-speed metrology SPM system.  

PubMed

We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm(2) regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope. PMID:25597347

Klapetek, P; Valtr, M; Picco, L; Payton, O D; Martinek, J; Yacoot, A; Miles, M

2015-02-13

85

Large area high-speed metrology SPM system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

2015-02-01

86

Production system improvement : floor area reduction and visual management  

E-print Network

This thesis suggests on the development process of a new layout design and visual management tools to improve the efficiency of a production line in a medical device company. Lean production philosophy and common lean ...

Chen, Zhuling, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

87

High-Voltage CMOS ESD and the Safe Operating Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established methods for testing ESD robustness of high-voltage pins in smart power CMOS can lead to erroneous results. This paper investigates both LDNMOS and certain types of SCRLDMOS (SCRs embedded in LDNMOS) high-voltage clamps for safe-operating-area collapse due to trigger voltage (V t1) walk-in after transmission-line pulsing (TLP) corresponding to leakage-current increase below I t2. For the first time, the

Andrew J. Walker; Helmut Puchner; Sai Prashanth Dhanraj

2009-01-01

88

IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO DETERMINE SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF AXISYMMETRIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image processing based method was developed to measure volume and surface area of ellipsoidal agricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes, and peaches. The method assumes that each product has an axi-symmetric geometry and is a sum of superimposed elementary frustums of right circular cones. The product volume and surface area are calculated as the sum of the volumes

C. M. Sabliov; D. Boldor; K. M. Keener; B. E. Farkas

2002-01-01

89

Production of high-capacity adenovirus vectors.  

PubMed

High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ad), also known as "helper-dependent" (HD-Ad), "gutless", "gutted", or "third-generation" Ad vectors, are devoid of all viral coding sequences and have shown promising potential for a wide variety of different applications-from classic gene therapy to genetic vaccination and tumor treatment. However, compared to first-generation adenoviral vectors their production is more complex and requires specific in-depth knowledge. This chapter delivers a detailed protocol for the successful production of HC-Ad vectors to high titers. PMID:24132488

Kreppel, Florian

2014-01-01

90

High-pt Particle Production at PHENIX  

E-print Network

It has been established that "hard probes", observables involving high-momentum transfer, provide useful tools for studying the hot, dense medium created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC. The nuclear modification factor, azimuthal correlations, direct photon production, as well as the dependence of the nuclear modificaton factor on centrality and angle with respect to the reaction plane are critical for understanding the early dynamics of such heavy-ion collisions. We will review recent results from PHENIX for particle production at high-pT and discuss their implications.

David Winter

2006-09-13

91

Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hierarchical framework integrates the effects of time, area, productivity, and temperature at their respective relevant scales and successfully predicts the latitudinal gradient in global vertebrate diversity.

Walter Jetz; Paul V. A. Fine

2012-01-01

92

High Energy Product Developed from Cobalt Nanowires  

PubMed Central

Cobalt nanowires with high aspect ratio have been synthesized via a solvothermal chemical process. Based on the shape anisotropy and orientation of the nanowire assemblies, a record high room-temperature coercivity of 10.6?kOe has been measured in Co nanowires with a diameter of about 15?nm and a mean length of 200?nm. As a result, energy product of the wires reaches 44?MGOe. It is discovered that the morphology uniformity of the nanowires is the key to achieving the high coercivity and high energy density. Nanowires of this type are ideal building blocks for future bonded, consolidated and thin film magnets with high energy density and high thermal stability. PMID:24939036

Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Liu, J. Ping

2014-01-01

93

Effective Area of the AXAF High Resolution Camera (HRC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AXAF High-Resolution Camera (HRC) was calibrated at NASA MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) during 1997 March and April. We have undertaken an analysis of the HRC effective area using all data presently available from the XRCF. We discuss our spectral fitting of the beam-normalization detectors (BNDs), our method of removing higher order contamination lines present in the spectra, and corrections for beam non-uniformities. We apply a model of photon absorption depth in order to fit a smooth curve to the quantum efficiency of the detector. This is then combined with the most recent model of the AXAF High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) to determine the ensemble effective area versus energy for the HRC. We also address future goals and concerns.

Patnaude, Daniel; Pease, Deron; Donnelly, Hank; Juda, Mike; Jones, Christine; Murray, Steve; Zombeck, Martin; Kraft, Ralph; Kenter, Almus; Meehan, Gary; Meehan, Gary; Swartz, Doug; Elsner, Ron

1998-01-01

94

Production system improvement : floor area reduction and cycle time analysis  

E-print Network

A medical device company challenged a research team to reduce the manufacturing floor space required for an occlusion system product by one third. The team first cataloged equipment location and size, detailed the processes ...

Peterson, Jennifer J. (Jennifer Jeanne)

2012-01-01

95

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOEpatents

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-12-03

96

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOEpatents

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-10-28

97

Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

Boz, Ismail, E-mail: ismailb@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Kaluza, Stefan [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Boroglu, Mehtap Safak [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Muhler, Martin [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

2012-05-15

98

Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

Michaels, D.

1982-01-01

99

High-value products from transgenic maize.  

PubMed

Maize (also known as corn) is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as food and animal feed for tens of thousands of years. It is currently the most widely grown crop in the world, and is used not only for food/feed but also to produce ethanol, industrial starches and oils. Maize is now at the beginning of a new agricultural revolution, where the grains are used as factories to synthesize high-value molecules. In this article we look at the diversity of high-value products from maize, recent technological advances in the field and the emerging regulatory framework that governs how transgenic maize plants and their products are grown, used and traded. PMID:20816943

Naqvi, Shaista; Ramessar, Koreen; Farré, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

2011-01-01

100

PULSION® HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism—deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

2011-01-01

101

High Surface Area Nanoporous Polymers for Reversible HydrogenStorage  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen adsorption using a series of nanoporous synthetic polymers has been studied. Promising results were obtained during the screening of commercially available porous polymer beads; of the polymers considered, hypercrosslinked Hypersol-Macronet MN200 resin exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for hydrogen. This initial success triggered the development of our own high surface area hypercrosslinked materials. Subjecting gel-type and macroporous vinylbenzyl chloride-based precursors swollen in dichloroethane to a Friedel-Crafts reaction catalyzed by iron trichloride afforded beads with surface areas of 1 930 and 1 300 m{sup 2}/g, respectively, as calculated using the BET equation. The former polymer reversibly stores up to 1.5 wt % H{sub 2} at a pressure of 0.12 MPa and a temperature of 77.3 K. The initial heat of adsorption of hydrogen molecules onto this polymer is 6.6 kJ/mol.

Germain, Jonathan; Hradil, Jiri; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Svec,Frantisek

2006-06-29

102

Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

Kanki, Barbara G.

1997-01-01

103

High Temperature Thermoelectric Device Concept Using Large Area PN Junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature thermoelectric device concept using large area nanostructured silicon p-type and n-type ( PN) junctions is presented. In contrast to conventional thermoelectric generators, where the n-type and p-type semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept in which a large area PN junction made from highly doped densified silicon nanoparticles is subject to a temperature gradient parallel to the PN interface. In the proposed device concept, the electrical contacts are made at the cold side eliminating the hot side substrate and difficulties that go along with high temperature electrical contacts. This concept allows temperature gradients greater than 300 K to be experimentally applied with hot side temperatures larger than 800 K. Electronic properties of the PN junctions and power output characterizations are presented. A fundamental working principle is discussed using a particle network model with temperature and electric fields as variables, and which considers electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity according to Fourier's law, as well as Peltier and Seebeck effects.

Chavez, R.; Angst, S.; Hall, J.; Stoetzel, J.; Kessler, V.; Bitzer, L.; Maculewicz, F.; Benson, N.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

2014-06-01

104

Cloud obstruction and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover maps provide information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they enable estimation of the regional snow resource. In this context, Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloud cover can hide the ground, thus obstructing snow detection. Here, we consider MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over the Po River basin. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analysed and processed with the support of a 500 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We first investigate the issue of cloud obstruction, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting period. Thus, cloud cover highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, starting from previous studies, we propose a cloud removal procedure and we apply it to a wide area, characterized by high geomorphological heterogeneity such as the Po River basin. In conceiving the new procedure, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there was not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we used temporal filters with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter. In the validation stage, the proposed procedure was compared against others, showing improvements in the performance for our case study. The accuracy is assessed by applying the procedure to clear-sky maps masked with additional cloud cover. The average value is higher than 95% considering 40 days chosen over all seasons. The procedure also has advantages in terms of input data and computational effort requirements.

Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

2014-11-01

105

Discover areas of highest plant productivity in the ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science animation presents a series of monthly satellite images that track global levels of phytoplankton throughout a year. The introduction explains that the color-enhanced images indicate chlorophyll concentration in the oceans. In addition, the text briefly describes the significance of these concentration values. Students are encouraged to analyze changes in plant productivity that occur over the course of a year. Movie control buttons allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images.

Education, Terc. C.

2003-01-01

106

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou  

E-print Network

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou CORE, UCL anthony of wind power production on power system operations over an entire year, it is necessary to account for the non-stationary (seasonal and diurnal) patterns of wind power production. This paper presents a multi

Oren, Shmuel S.

107

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities  

E-print Network

production plant, with a lower carbon footprint, while creating jobs, improving air quality, and improvingAlternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production for stormwater runoff. These upgrades are complimentary to process improvements that validate production

108

The principle of minimum production cost model for multiple area interconnected power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minimum cost production model which can be used to account economical energy exchange between utilities and evaluate production cost saving in multiple area interconnected systems is proposed in this paper. A fast probabilistic production simulation model is used to determine the thermal incremental cost of each system separately. Based on the thermal incremental cost of each subsystem, a nonlinear

Tian Weidong

1993-01-01

109

A chronological probabilistic approach in production costing with multi-area transfer consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new cumulant chronological probabilistic production costing approach for multi-area power systems is developed. The proposed approach uses an improved cumulant method, which gives an approximation of the distribution function of available capacity with the chronological load curve to estimate the expected production cost. The chronological information is taken into account in the probabilistic production costing. By

Y. Z. Li

1997-01-01

110

High surface area tapes produced with functionalized graphene.  

PubMed

We describe a scalable method for producing continuous graphene networks by tape casting surfactant-stabilized aqueous suspensions of functionalized graphene sheets. Similar to all other highly connected graphene-containing networks, the degree of overlap between the sheets controls the tapes' electrical and mechanical properties. However, unlike other graphene-containing networks, the specific surface area of the cast tapes remains high (>400 m(2)·g(-1)). Exhibiting apparent densities between 0.15 and 0.51 g·cm(-3), with electrical conductivities up to 24 kS·m(-1) and tensile strengths over 10 MPa, these tapes exhibit the best combination of properties with respect to density heretofore observed for carbon-based papers, membranes, or films. PMID:21545115

Korkut, Sibel; Roy-Mayhew, Joseph D; Dabbs, Daniel M; Milius, David L; Aksay, Ilhan A

2011-06-28

111

Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Claus, Robert; And Others

112

High Resolution Aerosol Retrievals from ETM+ Over Urban Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite monitoring of the main sources of the man-made pollutants is important to understand the climate forcing of anthropogenic aerosols. Over land, the aerosol retrievals are most accurate over dark dense vegetation (DDV). In the urban/industrial areas the DDV targets are small, often varying from a few tens of meters (clumps of trees) to several hundred meters (small fields and parks), and can only be captured by the high-resolution sensors. In this case, because of the high surface heterogeneity and focus on the dark pixels, the traditional aerosol retrievals based on 1D radiative transfer (RT) theory have a substantial bias. We developed a new dark target method for unbiased simultaneous retrieval of the aerosol model and optical thickness over land from Landsat ETM+ data, based on 3-D RT theory. The method automatically selects an aerosol model from a large set of candidate models using statistical approach of probability distribution function. The aerosols are retrieved in the blue and red bands relying on prediction of the surface reflectance in these bands from the shortwave infrared region (2.1-2.2 mkm). We will describe the developed method and its validation with AERONET measurements for a set of ETM+ images of the Washington-Baltimore area.

Lyapustin, A.

2005-05-01

113

Nitridation under ammonia of high surface area vanadium aerogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanadium pentoxide gels have been obtained from decavanadic acid prepared by ion exchange on a resin from ammonium metavanadate solution. The progressive removal of water by solvent exchange in supercritical conditions led to the formation of high surface area V 2O 5, 1.6H 2O aerogels. Heat treatment under ammonia has been performed on these aerogels in the 450-900 °C temperature range. The oxide precursors and oxynitrides have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA, BET. Nitridation leads to divided oxynitride powders in which the fibrous structure of the aerogel is maintained. The use of both very low heating rates and high surface area aerogel precursors allows a higher rate and a lower threshold of nitridation than those reported in previous works. By adjusting the nitridation temperature, it has been possible to prepare oxynitrides with various nitrogen enrichment and vanadium valency states. Whatever the V(O,N) composition, the oxidation of the oxynitrides in air starts between 250 and 300 °C. This determines their potential use as chemical gas sensors at a maximum working temperature of 250 °C.

Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; El Badraoui, Khadija; L'Haridon, Paul

2005-01-01

114

Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area  

SciTech Connect

The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

1994-12-31

115

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...from leaving a high radiation area. (e) Control is not required...access point to a room or other area that is a high radiation area solely because of the presence of radioactive materials prepared for transport and...

2010-01-01

116

High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation is divided into two main chapters, each focused on a different application for aerogel. The first chapter concerns the development of silica aerogel for thermal insulation. It begins with initial characterization of a silica aerogel insulation for a next-generation Advanced Radioisotope Stirling Generator for space vehicles. While the aerogel as made performs well, it is apparent that further improvements in mechanical strength and durability are necessary. The chapter then continues with the exploration of chlorotrimethysilane surface modification, which somewhat surprisingly provides a drastic increase in mechanical properties, allowing the inherently brittle silica network to deform plastically to >80% strain. It is hypothesized that the hydrophobic surface groups reduce capillary forces during drying, lowering the number of microcracks that may form and weaken the gel. This surface modification scheme is then implemented in a fiber-reinforced, opacified aerogel insulation for a prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. This is the first known report of aerogel insulation for thermoelectrics. The aerogel insulation is able to increase the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator by 40% compared with commercial high-temperature insulating wool. Unfortunately, the supercritical drying process adds significant cost to the aerogel insulation, limiting its commercial viability. The chapter then culminates in the development and characterization of an Ambiently Dried Aerogel Insulation (ADAI) that eliminates the need for expensive supercritical drying. It is believed that this report represents the first aerogel insulation that can be dried without undergoing a large volume change before "springing back" to near its original volume, which allows it to be cast into place into complex geometries and around rigid inclusions. This reduces a large barrier to the commercial viability of aerogel insulation. The advantages of ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Maloney, Ryan Patrick

117

CLIC RF High Power Production Testing Program  

SciTech Connect

The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and generate RF power for the main linac accelerating structure. The demands on the high power production ({approx} 150 MW) and the needs to transport the 100 A drive beam for about 1 km without losses, makes the PETS design rather unique and the operation very challenging. In the coming year, an intense PETS testing program will be implemented. The target is to demonstrate the full performance of the PETS operation. The testing program overview and test results available to date are presented.

Syratchev, I.; Riddone, G.; /CERN; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

2011-11-02

118

Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

1999-01-01

119

Characteristics of the flux of isoprene and its oxidation products in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the mixing ratios and fluxes of isoprene and its oxidation products, methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) from a tall flux tower in metropolitan Houston, Texas, during summertime using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID instrument. We show that isoprene was affected dominantly by biogenic emission sources during daytime, but also that tail-pipe emission sources (alongside 2-pentenes) are contributing during the rush hours and at night. The observed daytime mixing ratios of isoprene were much lower than over forested areas due to a comparatively low density of isoprene emitting trees in the tower's footprint area. Daytime isoprene fluxes displayed the expected light and temperature driven emission characteristics, and a detailed isoprene emissions model explained average fluxes fairly well. Our investigation of isoprene's oxidation products MACR and MVK showed that both anthropogenic and isoprene oxidation sources exist for MACR, while MVK was strongly dominated by isoprene oxidation between its emission and sampling points due to presumably high local OH radical concentrations. While biogenic emission modeling appears to work well for this urban environment when supplied with accurate input data, emission inventories used for ozone modeling may need to consider tailpipe isoprene (and MACR) emissions to properly account for urban concentrations, particularly higher morning abundances.

Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W.; Boedeker, Ian

2011-11-01

120

CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-08-01

121

LACIE area, yield, and production estimate characteristics: U.S.S.R.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No estimates were generated for the U.S.S.R. during LACIE phase 1. Phase 2 effort was limited to two indicator regions: winter wheat areas where 385 segments were allocated, and spring wheat areas with 362 allocated segments. The level of activity for phase 3 was extended to the entire country which automatically increased the segment workload from 747 to 1947 segments. Production, area, and yield estimates, and their accuracy are discussed for phases 2 and 3 with emphasis on scope, sampling strategy, data base, LANDSAT data, yield analysis for winter and spring wheat, area and production analysis for winter and spring wheat, and technical issues and problems.

Hickman, J. R. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

122

Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross ? and gross ? activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross ? and gross ? activities in drinking water. The gross ? activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross ? activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. PMID:25087070

Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

2014-11-01

123

High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst  

DOEpatents

A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21

124

Microbial production of itaconic acid: developing a stable platform for high product concentrations.  

PubMed

Biotechnologically produced itaconic acid (IA) is a promising organic acid with a wide range of applications and the potential to open up new application fields in the area of polymer chemistry, pharmacy, and agriculture. In this study, a systematic process optimization was performed with an own isolated strain of Aspergillus terreus and transferred from a 250-mL to a 15-L scale. An IA concentration of 86.2 g/L was achieved within 7 days with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/(L h), a maximum productivity of 1.2 g/(L h), and a yield of 86 mol%. A cultivation of other well-known A. terreus strains with the developed process showed no significant differences. Based on this, a process is developed providing a high final IA concentration independent of the used strain combined with high reproducibility. PMID:22752264

Kuenz, Anja; Gallenmüller, Yvonne; Willke, Thomas; Vorlop, Klaus-Dieter

2012-12-01

125

GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2008-05-15

126

Two-Area Probabilistic Production Costing by the Method of Bivariant Cumulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic techniques for estimating the production cost of electric generation are developed for two areas using bi-variant cumulants and bivariant Gram-Charlier Series A approximations. Area energy supply by generation class is determined from the difference in expected unserved energy before and after each class is introduced. Transmission import limits and whole or partial foreign ownership of generation are modeled. A

L. R. Noyes

1983-01-01

127

Two-Area Probabilistic Production Costing by the Method of BiVariant Cumulants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic techniques for estimating the production cost of electric generation are developed for two areas using bi-variant cumulants and bi- variant Gram-Charlier Series A approximations. Area energy supply by generation class is determined from the differetice in expected unserved energy before and after each class is introduced. Transmission import limits and whole or partial foreign ownership of generation are modeled.

L. R. Noyes

1983-01-01

128

An intercomparison of burnt area estimates derived from key operational products: the Greek wildland fires of 2005-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the support of new technologies such as of remote sensing, today's societies have been able to map and analyse wildland fires at large observational scales. With regards to burnt area mapping in particular, two of the most widely used operational products are offered today by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Forest Fires Information System (EFFIS) of the European Commission. In this study, a rigorous intercomparison of the burnt area estimates derived by these two products is performed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment for the Greek fires that occurred from 2005 to 2007. For the same temporal interval, the relationships of the burnt area estimates by each product are examined with respect to land use/cover and elevation derived from CORINE 2000 and the ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM), respectively. Generally, noticeable differences were found in the burnt area estimates by the two products both spatially and in absolute numbers. The main findings are described and the differences in the burnt area estimates between the two operational datasets are discussed. The lack of precise agreement between the two products which was found does not necessarily mean that one or the other product is inaccurate. Rather, it underlines the requirement for their calibration and validation using high-resolution remote sensing data in future studies. Our work not only builds upon a series of analogous studies evaluating the accuracy of the same or similar operational products worldwide, but also contributes towards the development of standardised validation methodologies required in objectively evaluating such datasets.

Kalivas, D. P.; Petropoulos, G. P.; Athanasiou, I. M.; Kollias, V. J.

2013-06-01

129

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

2006-04-01

130

Cotton Production on the Texas High Plains.  

E-print Network

humid areas. Most of the problems are with annuals such as Russian thistle (Snlsonio kali) and careless or pigweed (Amaranthus sp.). Some local areas are infested with perennials such : as field bindweed (Convol?tulus arvensis) , white- weed...

Lane, H. C.; Owen, W. L. Jr.; Walker, H. J.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.; Ray, L. L.; Hudspeth, E. B. Jr.; Jones, D. L.

1956-01-01

131

High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have foreseen: Samples of rocks and soils to determine the Uranium concentration; Collection of water samples for the determination of Radon concentrations; Measurements of the Radon concentration in soil air; The Lecce's area is divided into 4 sub-areas, each of them with the same geological features: subsoil structure with high/normal/low fracturing, cracking, permeability, porosity, ecc... The potential Radon risk increases with the alteration's degree of subsoil structure. Results show that the 4 Lecce's subareas are characterized by average Radon value between 1.000-2.000 Bq/m3, and that in 2 of the 4 zones, characterized by high fracturing and big permeability, the range is high, from 400 Bq/m3 to over the 60.000 Bq/m3. The distribution of anomalies isn't homogeneous in the study zone, but as Hot-Spot and these are present in all sub-areas; the greatest number is detected in areas with high fracturing and cracking and in areas with lithological changes at different permeability. The others determinants factors in these areas are those anthropogenic; in some little zones belonging to subareas there are industrial and commercial areas built removing soil and damaging and altering the subsoil structure; in this way create zones of Radon accumulation in the soil air with fast ascent of the gas to the surface, and this produce high Radon concentration indoor. In the soil around these areas, few meters from buildings, and in the indoor air the Radon concentration is higher than 60.000 Bq/m3.

Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

2010-05-01

132

Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

1990-01-01

133

Exploratory study on the land area required for global food supply and the potential global production of bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The areas of agricultural land on this globe that in the future possibly are available for biomass production for energy use and the potential global production of biomass were calculated. These available land areas increased when the global potential for food production (dependent on agricultural system and available land areas for agriculture) became higher in comparison to the global food

J. Wolf; P. S. Bindraban; J. C. Luijten; L. M. Vleeshouwers

2003-01-01

134

Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.  

PubMed

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C

2012-01-01

135

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

136

The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.  

PubMed

Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors. PMID:25200960

Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

2014-12-28

137

Manganese concentrations in soil and settled dust in an area with historic ferroalloy production.  

PubMed

Ferroalloy production can release a number of metals into the environment, of which manganese (Mn) is of major concern. Other elements include lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium. Mn exposure derived from settled dust and suspended aerosols can cause a variety of adverse neurological effects to chronically exposed individuals. To better estimate the current levels of exposure, this study quantified the metal levels in dust collected inside homes (n=85), outside homes (n=81), in attics (n=6), and in surface soil (n=252) in an area with historic ferroalloy production. Metals contained in indoor and outdoor dust samples were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, whereas attic and soil measurements were made with a X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean Mn concentrations in soil (4600??g/g) and indoor dust (870??g/g) collected within 0.5?km of a plant exceeded levels previously found in suburban and urban areas, but did decrease outside 1.0?km to the upper end of background concentrations. Mn concentrations in attic dust were ~120 times larger than other indoor dust levels, consistent with historical emissions that yielded high airborne concentrations in the region. Considering the potential health effects that are associated with chronic Mn inhalation and ingestion exposure, remediation of soil near the plants and frequent, on-going hygiene indoors may decrease residential exposure and the likelihood of adverse health effects.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 22 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.70. PMID:25335867

Pavilonis, Brian T; Lioy, Paul J; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bostick, Benjamin C; Donna, Filippo; Peli, Marco; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bertrand, Patrick; Lucas, Erika; Smith, Donald R; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Mi, Zhongyuan; Royce, Steven G; Lucchini, Roberto G

2014-10-22

138

Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.  

PubMed

Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available. PMID:17166651

Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

2007-11-01

139

Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

2013-01-01

140

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2010-01-01

141

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2013-01-01

142

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2012-01-01

143

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2014-01-01

144

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2011-01-01

145

76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice...eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

2011-07-26

146

75 FR 21368 - Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice...Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated five additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21...

2010-04-23

147

75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice...Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21...

2010-08-27

148

Production of high power femtosecond terahertz radiation  

SciTech Connect

The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is attracting interest for a broad range of applications ranging from diagnosing electron beams to biological imaging. Most sources of short pulse THz radiation utilize excitation of biased semiconductors or electro-optic crystals by high peak power lasers. For example, this was done by using an un-doped InAs wafer irradiated by a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Microwatt levels of THz radiation were detected when excited with FEL pulses at 1.06 mm wavelength and 10W average power. Recently substantially higher powers of femtosecond THz pulses produced by synchrotron emission were extracted from the electron beamline. Calculations and measurements confirm the production of coherent broadband THz radiation from relativistic electrons with an average power of nearly 20W, a world record in this wavelength range by a factor of 10,000. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. Potential applications of this exciting new source include driving new non-linear phenomena, performing pump-probe studies of dynamical properties of novel materials, and studying molecular vibrations and rotations, low frequency protein motions, phonons, superconductor band gaps, electronic scattering, collective electronic excitations (e.g., charge density waves), and spintronics.

Neil, George R.; Carr, G.L.; Gubeli III, Joseph F.; Jordan, K.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Shinn, Michelle; Tani, Masahiko; Williams, G.P.; Zhang, X.-C.

2003-07-11

149

High frequency noise studies at the Hartousov mofette area (CZE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient noise analysis has been used as a reliable tool to investigate sub-surface structures at seismological quiet regions with none or less specific seismic events. Here, we consider the acoustic signals from a single mofette at the Hartoušov area (CZE) as a noise-like high frequency source caused by multiple near surface degassing processes in a restricted location. From this assumption we have used different array geometries for recording at least one hour of continuous noise. We installed triangular arrays with 3 component geophones: the first deployment consisted on two co-centric triangles with side length of 30 and 50 m with the mofette in the center; the second deployment consisted on two triangular arrays, both with side length of 30 m, co-directional to the mofette. Furthermore, we also installed profiles with 24 channels and vertical geophones locating them in different positions with respect to the mofette. In this work, we present preliminary results from the data analysis dependent on the geometry, to show the characteristics of the noise wave-field referring to frequency content and propagation features, such as directionality and surface wave velocity. The spectral analysis shows that the energy is concentrated in a frequency band among 10 and 40 Hz. However, in this interval there is no evidence of any exclusive fundamental frequencies. From this, man-induced influences can be identified as intermittent signal peaks in narrow frequency bands and can be separated to receive the revised mofette wave-field record. The inversion of dispersive surface waves, that were detected by interferometric methods, provides a velocity model down to 12 m with an S-wave velocity between 160 and 180 m/s on the uppermost layer. Furthermore, the interferometric signal properties indicate that it is not possible to characterize the mofette as a punctual source, but rather as a conglomerate of multiple sources with time and location variations.

Schmidt, Andreas; Flores-Estrella, Hortencia; Pommerencke, Julia; Umlauft, Josefine

2014-05-01

150

Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to ?-, ?- and ?-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied.

T. Evseeva; T. Majstrenko; S. Geras'kin; J. E. Brown; E. Belykh

2009-01-01

151

Johns Hopkins University Requirements for Travel to High-Risk Areas  

E-print Network

Johns Hopkins University Requirements for Travel to High-Risk Areas Key Points for JHU SON Faculty Hopkins faculty, graduate students, and staff that travel to high-risk areas. These recommendations have are cautioned, but not prohibited, from traveling to high-risk areas of the world. 2. No one may be required

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

152

Johns Hopkins University Requirements for Travel to High-Risk Areas  

E-print Network

Johns Hopkins University Requirements for Travel to High-Risk Areas Key Points for JHU SON Faculty Hopkins faculty, graduate students, and staff that travel to high-risk areas. These recommendations have, from traveling to high-risk areas of the world. 2. No one may be required or coerced (e

Niebur, Ernst

153

What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea  

SciTech Connect

The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

Weiler, C.S. (comp.)

1991-06-25

154

What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?  

SciTech Connect

The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

Weiler, C.S. [comp.

1991-06-25

155

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high- temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

156

Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas (Arabian Gulf, South Africa)  

E-print Network

REPORT B. Riegl Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas other corals in 2002 at Sir Abu Nuair and recovered at Jebel Ali and Ras Hasyan. In South Africa, reef, the Arabian Gulf and South Africa, have rich coral faunas but little to no recent reef- framework production

157

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. [Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)] [and others

1996-12-31

158

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. (Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)) (and others)

1996-01-01

159

Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

Breslavets, A. V.

1974-01-01

160

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

161

Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

Monk, David H.

2007-01-01

162

FTIR investigation of adsorption and chemical decomposition of CCl4 by high surface-area aluminum oxide.  

PubMed

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are among the most recalcitrant pollutants for control by sorption or catalytic destruction. High surface-area alumina holds promise as a catalytic media as well as a component of other binary catalyst systems. We have prepared an alumina catalyst using the aerogel technique that has a very high surface area of 550 m2/g. This catalyst destroys carbon tetrachloride with an efficiency >99% at 400 degrees C. Its reactivity toward carbon tetrachloride is remarkably higher than that of commercial alumina, which has a surface area of 155 m2/g. Carbon dioxide is the major product. Minor products include hydrogen chloride and tetrachloroethylene along with traces of phosgene. Some of the carbon tetrachloride reacts with the alumina to form aluminum chloride, which vaporizes to reveal a fresh catalytic surface. A mechanism for adsorption and destruction has been developed that involves chemisorption followed by surface to adsorbate oxygen transfer and adsorbate to surface chlorine transfer. PMID:11999074

Khaleel, Abbas; Dellinger, Barry

2002-04-01

163

Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

2001-01-01

164

The Toyota Production System and art: making highly customized and creative products the Toyota way  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Toyota Production System has led to a movement of ‘lean production’ focused on taking waste out of value streams. Most applications have been to high volume, and relatively standardized products. Under this system work becomes highly standardized specifying to the second what the operator should do. Buffers are precisely sized and controlled through various types of pull signals. When

E. Lander; J. K. Liker

2007-01-01

165

Dynamics of light interception, leaf area and biomass production in Populus clones  

E-print Network

Dynamics of light interception, leaf area and biomass production in Populus clones. trichocarpa x P. deltoides (11-11 and 44-136) and a clone of each of the parental species, P. trichocarpa (1- 12) and P. deltoides (111-5). Growing conditions were near optimal with periodic fertilization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Civil defence in agricultural production areas; Grazhdanskaya oborona na ob'ektakh sel'skokhozyaistvenogo proizvodstva  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this textbook for students of agricultural schools the following ; topics are covered: the nature of rocket-nuclear warfare, the role and problems ; of civil defense applicable to agricultural production areas; organization of ; civil defense in agricultural regions, at cooperative farms, and at state farms; ; the nature of biological, chemical, and radiation surveys and dosimetric control; ;

N. I. Akimov; V. G. Ilin

1973-01-01

167

A Seasonal Survey of Click Beetles in a Potato Production Area Near Palmer, Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adult elaterids associated with potato production were collected in the three major potato producing areas of Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, and from a subsistence farm above the arctic circle in Wiseman. Twelve species from ten genera were collected including three of the six most e...

168

Correlation of patient skin doses in cardiac interventional radiology with dose-area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of X-rays in cardiac interventional radiology has the potential to induce deterministic radiation effects on the patient's skin. Guidelines published by official organizations encourage the recording of information to evaluate this risk, and the use of reference values in terms of the dose-area product (DAP). Skin dose measurements were made with thermo- luminescent dosemeters placed at eight different

S VAN DE PUTTE; F VERHAEGEN; Y TAEYMANS; H THIERENS

169

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...sources. 63.11 Control Device Requirements No...

2013-07-01

170

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...sources. 63.11 Control Device Requirements No...

2014-07-01

171

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...sources. 63.11 Control Device Requirements No...

2010-07-01

172

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...sources. 63.11 Control Device Requirements No...

2012-07-01

173

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources...sources. 63.11 Control Device Requirements No...

2011-07-01

174

Pesticides residues and metals in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

The objective of study was to assess the levels of selected metals and pesticides in plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia in order to indicate their possible sources and risks of contamination and to evaluate their sanitary probity and safety. The concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were below limits established by national and international regulations (maximum found concentrations were 0.028, 1.91, 11.16, 1.77, 0.605, 0.073 and 1.76 mg kg(-1) respectively). Only residue of one of examined pesticides was found in amount below MRL (bifenthrin 2.46 ?g kg(-1)) in only one of analysed samples, while others were below detection limits. Obtained results indicate that crops from examined agricultural areas are unpolluted by contaminants used for plant protection and nutrition, indicating good agricultural practice regarding pesticides and fertilizer usage as well as moderate industrial production within examined areas. PMID:22139297

Ethor?evi?, Tijana; Ethurovi?, Rada

2012-03-01

175

High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

Hays, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

176

Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We developed,interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas (excluding Antarctica) at a spatial resolution of 30 arc s (often referred to as 1-km spatial resolution). The climate elements considered were monthly precipitation and mean, minimum, and maximum temperature. Input data were gathered from a variety of sources and, where possible, were restricted to records from the 1950–2000 period. We

Robert J. Hijmans; Susan E. Cameron; Juan L. Parra; Peter G. Jones; Andy Jarvis

2005-01-01

177

Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

2012-06-01

178

Lithological influences on occurrence of high-fluoride groundwater in Nagar Parkar area, Thar Desert, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Factors regulating the occurrence of high fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in groundwater near Nagar Parkar Town, SE corner of Pakistan have been investigated considering lithological influences. F(-) ion concentrations in groundwater range up to 7.85 with mean value of 3.33 mg L(-1). Plots of major elements and their normative mineral composition reflect granitic composition of the rocks in the study area. Modal mineralogical analysis show high perthite, plagioclase feldspars and quartz, while micas, amphiboles and pyroxenes occur in minor quantities. Water-rock interactions, based on dissolved ions of F(-), SiO(2), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Li(+) and Sr(2+) suggest that fluoriferous groundwater originates from granitic rocks, typically from albite, biotite, hornblende and pyroxene and its alteration products such as kaolin and soil. The Log TDS, Na/Na+Ca ratio, Mg/Ca+Mg and Cl/Sigma anions are significant to review the impact of weathering processes which promote the availability of F(-) ions in the groundwater of study area. Principal component analysis (PCA) also renders close association among F(-) ions and other elements in the rocks and groundwater. Studies on F(-) estimation in the granite rock, china clay, soil and sand samples also indicate the presence of high F(-) concentration in these materials and average values have been found to be 1939, 710, 254 and 16 mg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:20149412

Naseem, Shahid; Rafique, Tahir; Bashir, Erum; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Laghari, Amanullah; Usmani, Tanzil Haider

2010-03-01

179

Adaptability and stability of conilon coffee in areas of high altitude.  

PubMed

In view of the predicted models of global climate change and differences in prices and production costs, there is increased interest in Coffea canephora cultivation in areas of high altitude. However, this species is sensitive to low temperatures, where genotypes vary regarding adaptation/tolerance mechanisms, demonstrating genotype x environment interaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and adaptability of C. canephora varieties in high-altitude areas. The experiments were carried out in February 2004, in Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, at an altitude of 725 m. Four clonal varieties (EMCAPA 8111, EMCAPA 8121, EMCAPA 8131, and EMCAPA 8151) and five harvests (2006 to 2010) were used. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments and six plots, with 12 plants in each plot and spaced 2.5 x 1.2 m. Adaptability and stability parameters were determined using methods based on nonparametric analysis and analysis of variance. The results showed that the EMCAPA 8131 had the best performance according to stability and adaptability parameters and may be promising for high-altitude regions. PMID:25299102

Barbosa, D H G S; Rodrigues, W P; Vieira, H D; Partelli, F L; Viana, A P

2014-01-01

180

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

2005-01-01

181

High level radioactive waste glass production and product description  

SciTech Connect

This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

1993-12-01

182

High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

183

High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

2007-01-01

184

High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

1993-01-01

185

High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium  

E-print Network

High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium v.v. Stre1kov1'2', V ABSTRACT We have studied the high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in a plasma or gas positions of the particles using the Monte-Carlo method. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due

Becker, Andreas

186

15.831 Updated Schedule Marketing High Technology Products  

E-print Network

15.831 Updated Schedule Marketing High Technology Products PROFESSOR: Ely Dahan E56-317, (617) 253 Labor Day 1 September 5 The Technology Paradox 2 September 10 The Profitless PC 3 September 12 Crossing Outline Marketing High-Technology Products Spring Semester 2001 Ã? Tuesdays & Thursdays Ã? 10:05am-11:25am

Gabrieli, John

187

H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program  

E-print Network

H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program® Areas public high school. BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF TEXAS: SECTION 1. Subchapter A instruction in personal financial literacy in one or more courses required for high school graduation. (b

188

An area-efficient high-throughput hybrid interconnection network for single-chip parallel processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-chip parallel processing requires high bandwidth be- tween processors and on-chip memory modules. A recently proposed Mesh-of-Trees (MoT) network provides high through- put and low latency at relatively high area cost.In this paper, we introduce a hybrid MoT-BF network that combines MoT network with the area efficient butterfly network. We prove that the hybrid network reduces MoT network's area cost.

Aydin O. Balkan; Gang Qu; Uzi Vishkin

2008-01-01

189

Improved chronic neural stimulation using high surface area platinum electrodes.  

PubMed

We report a novel nano-cluster platinum (NCPt) film that exhibits enhanced performance as an electrode material for neural stimulation applications. Nano-cluster films were deposited using a custom physical vapor deposition process and patterned on a flexible polyimide microelectrode array using semiconductor processing technology. Electrode performance was characterized in vitro using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared with sputtered thinfilm platinum (TFPt) electrodes. We characterized electrode impedance, charge storage capacity, voltage transient properties, and relative surface area enhancement in vitro. Preliminary lifetime testing of the electrode reveals that the NCPt electrodes degrade more slowly than TFPt electrodes. The combination of material biocompatibility, electrochemical performance, and preliminary lifetime results point to a promising new electrode material for neural interface devices. PMID:24109995

Shah, Kedar G; Tolosa, Vanessa M; Tooker, Angela C; Felix, Sarah H; Pannu, Satinderpall S

2013-01-01

190

Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis  

DOEpatents

Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

191

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise. PMID:23635281

Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

2013-01-01

192

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., 39655 Eureka Drive, Newark, California 94560 (United States); Speidel, Michael A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2013-05-15

193

High-efficiency large-area CdTe panels  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this three year effort has been to develop an improved materials technology and fabrication process for limited volume production of 1 ft{sup 2} and 4 ft{sup 2} CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. The module stability objective by the end of this three year subcontract was to develop techniques to provide ten year life exploration with no greater than 10% degradation. In order to achieve these efficiency and stability objectives, the research program has been separated into tasks including: (1) analysis and characterization of CdS/CdTe Devices; (2) performance optimization on small cells; (3) encapsulation and stability testing; and (4) module efficiency optimization. 27 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

1990-11-01

194

Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.  

PubMed

Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

2013-12-01

195

Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

None

2008-06-30

196

Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 1,612 adolescents from nine different high schools in the region of Québec city completed a questionnaire developed by Lesieur and Klein (1987) concerning their gambling behavior. Seventy-six percent had gambled once in their lifetime, 65% placed a bet in the last year and 24% gambled at least once a week. Of those who had gambled, 5.6% wanted

Robert Ladouceur; Chantal Mireault

1988-01-01

197

New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

198

Production of high voltage by ion bombardment  

E-print Network

and 2. 54 cm in diameter. The target has to be held in place and since it was charged to high voltages, it was also insulated. Teflon PTFE was chosen as a holder because of its excellent insulating properties. The volume resistivity of Teflon PTFE...

Phinney, Lucas Carter

2003-01-01

199

Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

2014-01-01

200

Universal area product formulas for rotating and charged black holes in four and higher dimensions.  

PubMed

We present explicit results for the product of all horizon areas for general rotating multicharge black holes, both in asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in four and higher dimensions. The expressions are universal, and depend only on the quantized charges, quantized angular momenta and the cosmological constant. If the latter is also quantized these universal results may provide a "looking glass" for probing the microscopics of general black holes. PMID:21517293

Cveti?, M; Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N

2011-03-25

201

A global comparison between MODIS hotspot and high resolution burned area data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are an important environmental factor at a global scale, influencing vegetation dynamics, carbon stocks, land-use change and being an important emission source of CO2 and aerosols. However, large uncertainty exists on the distribution, extend and intensity of fire occurrence over the world. Satellite products are the only source of information on fire occurrence which gives a good spatial resolution at a global scale. Two types of satellite data products have been widely used to study fire occurrence, hotspots and burned area (BA) maps. Hotspots are temperature anomalies registered by the thermal channels of the satellites, while the BA is detected by the contrast between the unburned land and the black carbon, ashes,... and the change between these two states. Till now the existing datasets have been poorly validated, with the hotspot global datasets only been validated by other thermal anomaly detections at higher resolution. Here we studied the relationship between high resolution BA datasets and the global MODIS hotspot dataset (MOD14). The high resolution BA dataset was produced from Landsat-TM/ETM+ scenes covering 10 different areas distributed over the globe. These areas include boreal, temperate, Mediterranean and tropical areas with important fire activity. For each BA dataset a pre and post fire image was analysed and BA, non-burned land and no-data (clouds,...) detected using the ABAMS software. This database, >100 separate BA maps, was produced under the framework of the Fire_cci project (http://www.esa-fire-cci.org/). For each of these BA datasets the MODIS hotspots were extracted for the same spatial and temporal extend. The analysis performed consists in determining the number and size of the omitted fire scares and the commission errors of the hotpots, being those hotspots that could not be related to any fire polygon. Regression analysis was performed to study more in depth the relation between number of hotspots and BA/number of fires. These results were then related to the some characteristics of the fire regime and environmental factors such as fire size, fire number, ecozone and vegetation type.

Hantson, S.; Padilla, M.; Cardoso, R.; Corti, D.; Chuvieco, E.

2012-04-01

202

Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.  

PubMed

Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. PMID:23452757

Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

2013-12-01

203

Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of the size of the contributing area to the city well field. However, increasing recharge and hydraulic conductivity values appreciably affected the shape of the contributing area and zone of contribution of reacharge. Simulation results indicate that the region immediately to the south and southeast of the well field is contributing water to the production wells. Detailed aquifer characterization would be needed to describe and simulate the heterogeneous glacial deposits in the watershed.

Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

2005-01-01

204

Closing gaps in the information society: providing high-speed broadband access to rural areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadband, in particular the national level of broadband penetration is a significant driver for economic growth. Whilst the availability of broadband in terms of bandwidth and variety of competitive communication providers is highly sufficient in population dense areas, rural areas suffer massively from the digital divide effect. The term “digital divide” refers to the absence of high performance broadband connections

Arnold PICOT; Nico GROVE

2010-01-01

205

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2011-01-01

206

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2012-01-01

207

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2013-01-01

208

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

...2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2014-01-01

209

Phytoremediation of a heavy metal contaminated agricultural area combined with energy production in the Campine (BE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to atmospheric deposition of dust, a large agricultural area in Belgium is moderately superficially (0-40 cm) contaminated with lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). Phytoremediation is a technique that uses plants for the removal of pollutants or to render them harmless. Rapeseed and SRC seem a good choice because of high accumulation of metals. When income and energy

Van Slycken; E. Meers; K. Adriaensen; L. Meiresonne; J. Vangronsveld

210

Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

Larson, Gary L.; Wones, A.; McIntire, C.D.; Samora, B.

1994-01-01

211

Congestion Control for High Bandwidth-Delay Product Dina Katabi  

E-print Network

-delay product. 1. INTRODUCTION For the Internet to continue to thrive, its congestion control mech- anism must. By casting the problem into a control theory framework, Low et al. [23] show that as capacity or delayCongestion Control for High Bandwidth-Delay Product Networks Dina Katabi Mark Handley Charlie

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

212

High-Efficiency Production of Bioplastics from Biodegradable Organic Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have been extensively studied as environmentally friendly biodegradable thermoplastics. The major obstacle to wide acceptance of PHAs is their high price, mainly attributed to the costs of raw materials and polymer recovery. A large amount of organic solids are discarded from food production and consumption and may be used as carbonaceous raw materials for production of PHAs.

Guochen Du; Lilian X. L. Chen; Jian Yu

2004-01-01

213

Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

Dunstan, Peter

214

Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production  

E-print Network

Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production Peer M. Schenk fuels make up a much larger share of the global energy demand (66%). Biofuels are therefore rapidly for transport fuels. Increasing biofuel production on arable land could have severe consequences for global food

Kudela, Raphael M.

215

Technological Intervention for Production of High Carbon Billets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial market exists for high carbon grades having 0.50–0.65 wt% C for agricultural, automobile, and wire drawing application. However, attributes of cast product in terms of internal and surface\\/subsurface quality have to be achieved for the required end applications. For production of high carbon grades, the process route followed at Durgapur Steel Plant is through BOF-LTS\\/LF-Billet Caster. In order to control total

K. Patwari; N. Pradhan; N. Banerjee; B. R. Pal; S. R. Sarkar; B. Mukhopadhyay; S. K. Ray; D. S. Basu

2010-01-01

216

Production of sophorolipids with enhanced volumetric productivity by means of high cell density fermentation.  

PubMed

To achieve high time-space efficiency for sophorolipid production with yeast Candida bombicola, a strategy of high cell density fermentation was employed. The approach consisted of two sequential stages: (1) the optimization of the carbon source and the nutrient concentration to achieve the maximal cell density and (2) the computer-aided adjustment of physical parameters and the controlled feeding of substrates for enhanced volumetric productivity. Both stages have been successfully implemented in a 10-L fermenter, where up to 80 g dry cell weight/L was obtained and a remarkably high volumetric productivity (> 200 g isolated sophorolipids/L/day) was achieved. Both the biomass and volumetric productivity were markedly higher than previously reported. Specifically, the high productivity of sophorolipids could be attained on a very short time scale (24 h), highlighting the industrial potential of the platform developed in this work. PMID:22987201

Gao, Renjun; Falkeborg, Mia; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

2013-02-01

217

A Box-Model Analysis of Ozone Production Potential as a Function of Source Region in the Houston\\/Galveston Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in ozone production rates and efficiencies are presented as a function of air mass history for an air quality monitoring site located on the west side of a major metropolitan area (Houston, Texas). This site was located at the top of a tall building (~ 832 ft AGL) to minimize effects from highly localized sources of NOx and VOCs.

C. M. Berkowitz; P. V. Doskey; C. W. Spicer; R. A. Zaveri

2002-01-01

218

Direct and Indirect Estimation of Leaf Area Index, f APAR, and Net Primary Production of Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary objective of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is to develop and validate algorithms to estimate leaf area index (L), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), and net primary production (NPP) from remotely sensed products. These three products are important because they relate to or are components of the metabolism of the biosphere and can be determined for

Stith T. Gower; Chris J. Kucharik; John M. Norman

1999-01-01

219

Ozone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee, Linda J. Nunnermacker,  

E-print Network

Ozone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee; accepted 1 August 2002; published 14 December 2002. [1] Ozone production efficiency can be defined and observational results on ozone production efficiency based on measurements made from aircraft flights

220

A Generative Model of Speech Production in Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas  

PubMed Central

Speech production involves the generation of an auditory signal from the articulators and vocal tract. When the intended auditory signal does not match the produced sounds, subsequent articulatory commands can be adjusted to reduce the difference between the intended and produced sounds. This requires an internal model of the intended speech output that can be compared to the produced speech. The aim of this functional imaging study was to identify brain activation related to the internal model of speech production after activation related to vocalization, auditory feedback, and movement in the articulators had been controlled. There were four conditions: silent articulation of speech, non-speech mouth movements, finger tapping, and visual fixation. In the speech conditions, participants produced the mouth movements associated with the words “one” and “three.” We eliminated auditory feedback from the spoken output by instructing participants to articulate these words without producing any sound. The non-speech mouth movement conditions involved lip pursing and tongue protrusions to control for movement in the articulators. The main difference between our speech and non-speech mouth movement conditions is that prior experience producing speech sounds leads to the automatic and covert generation of auditory and phonological associations that may play a role in predicting auditory feedback. We found that, relative to non-speech mouth movements, silent speech activated Broca’s area in the left dorsal pars opercularis and Wernicke’s area in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus. We discuss these results in the context of a generative model of speech production and propose that Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas may be involved in predicting the speech output that follows articulation. These predictions could provide a mechanism by which rapid movement of the articulators is precisely matched to the intended speech outputs during future articulations. PMID:21954392

Price, Cathy J.; Crinion, Jenny T.; MacSweeney, Mairéad

2011-01-01

221

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01

222

Mode Identification of Electromagnetic Waves for Large-Area Planar RF Plasma Productions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine electromagnetic (EM) eigenmodes for radio-frequency (RF) plasma productions between a pair of large-area electrodes, normal EM modes propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed. Exact solutions are obtained by solving Maxwell’s equations. It is concluded that plasmas higher than a critical value of electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd surface wave SWo and less than the critical value, by two transverse-magnetic (TM) odd EM modes, TM01 and TM10.

Nonaka, Shigehiko

1992-05-01

223

The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.

Trouve, A.

1993-01-01

224

Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.  

PubMed

Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. PMID:24467512

Marshall, K

2014-10-01

225

Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

2009-12-01

226

Long-Term Evolution of High Area-to-Mass Ratio Objects in Different Orbital Regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objects with high area-to-mass ratios (HAMR) in high-altitude orbits were first discovered in 2004. The orbits of these objects had semimajor axes near the nominal value of geosynchronous objects but eccentricities considerably different from zero. They are believed to stem from parent objects which reside (or resided) in or near the geostationary ring (GEO). The mechanisms of their production are, however, still unknown. Several hypotheses were put forward, including breakup events and aging processes leading to delamination of spacecraft surface materials. Similar HAMR populations as found in GEO-like orbits may be expected in other orbital regions. Optical surveys of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) revealed HAMR objects in a variety of geostationary transfer orbits (GTO). This paper will analyze the long-term evolution of HAMR objects in different orbital regimes including the GEO disposal orbits, Medium-Earth orbits of the navigation satellite constellations and Molniya orbits. The characteristics of the hypothetic HAMR populations will be based on the observed population in GEO and GTO. The simulation results allow assessing the future threats stemming from HAMR objects.

Schildknecht, T.; Vananti, A.; Hinze, A.; Herzog, J.

2012-09-01

227

High level of activation Coupled product is very stable, especially  

E-print Network

for pharmaceutical companies producing therapeutic products, especially those working with synthetic peptides between matrix and activated group is especially suitable for immobilising small proteins and peptides protein and peptide ligands. The advantages of high stability and a spacer arm combined with the high flow

Lebendiker, Mario

228

Anaerobic reactor/high rate pond combined technology for sewage treatment in the Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

Two high-rate, anaerobic/aerobic units were used to treat the sewage of the Institut Agronomique st Vétérinaire Hassan II (Morocco) campus in a 1,100 m2-plant designed for 1,500 e.p. and receiving 63 m3 per day. The anaerobic pre-treatment consisted of a two-step up-flow anaerobic reactor (TSUAR) comprising two reactors and one external settler all in series. The aerobic line, or post-treatment, consisted of a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) and one maturation pond in series. The system totalized a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 days. A gravel filter (GF) was constructed behind the TSUAR to trap low-density particles. The TSUAR removed 80% of COD and 90% of SS within 48 h. Solids retention time in the reactors averaged 32 d with a specific sludge production of 0.28 g SS g(-1) COD removed. Almost 93% of the sludge evacuated from the settler was stabilized. Specific biogas production from both reactors was 0.25m3 kg(-1) COD removed. Used in this configuration, the HRAP lost its BOD removal activity and increased its nutrients and pathogens removal capabilities (tertiary treatment). Results showed that 85% of total nitrogen and 48% of total phosphorus were removed by the HRAP. Land area requirement of this combination was less than 1 m2 per capita and filtered final effluent was of excellent quality (COD, 82 mg/l; TKN, 8.3 mg/l; total P, 2.7 mg/l, faecal coliforms, 2.4 10(3)/100 ml and zero helminths eggs). PMID:16114674

El Hafiane, F; El Hamouri, B

2005-01-01

229

High-pT hadron production and triggered particle correlations  

E-print Network

The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has performed measurements of high transverse momentum particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. High-pT hadrons are generated from hard parton scatterings early in the collision. The outgoing partons probe the surrounded hot and dense matter through interactions. Recent results on high-pT inclusive particle production and leading particle correlations in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV are reviewed.

A. Mischke

2006-05-25

230

Highly Functional Bioplastics (PLA compounds) Used for Electronic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed highly functional bioplastics (biomass-based plastics), polylactic acid composites, which improve the environmental friendliness of electronic products. A kenaf-fiber-reinforced polylactic acid has high heat resistance, high impact strength, and good moldability, and its use in PC parts and mobile phone housing has started from September 2004 and May 2006 respectively. A thermoreversibly cross-linked polylactic acid has excellent shape

Kazuhiko Inoue; Shin Serizawa; Midori Yamashiro; Masatoshi Iji

2007-01-01

231

First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.  

SciTech Connect

On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

Normann, Randy Allen

2006-04-01

232

High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success  

PubMed Central

Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L?1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

2014-01-01

233

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

234

Technique eliminates high voltage arcing at electrode-insulator contact area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coating the electrode-insulator contact area with silver epoxy conductive paint and forcing the electrode and insulator tightly together into a permanent connection, eliminates electrical arcing in high-voltage electrodes supplying electrical power to vacuum facilities.

Mealy, G.

1967-01-01

235

Microwave pyrolysis of microalgae for high syngas production.  

PubMed

The microwave induced pyrolysis of the microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis and its extraction residue was carried out at 400 and 800°C. The results show that it is possible to obtain a gas fraction with a high content (c.a. 50vol.%) in H2 from both materials, regardless of the pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, an outstanding syngas production and high gas yields were achieved. The maximum syngas concentration obtained was c.a. 94 vol.%, in the case of the pyrolysis of the residue at 800°C, indicating that the production of CO2 and light hydrocarbons was minimized. The same experiments were carried out in a conventional electric furnace in order to compare the products and yields obtained. It was found that microwave induced pyrolysis gives rise not only to higher gas yields but also to greater syngas and H2 production. PMID:23871926

Beneroso, D; Bermúdez, J M; Arenillas, A; Menéndez, J A

2013-09-01

236

Heavy particle production in high energy hadron collisions  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of how to compute the cross section for producing heavy strongly interacting particles (quarks, gluinos, squarks...) in high energy hadron collisions, supposing that the heavy particle masses are large compared to 1 GeV. We use heavy quark production as an example. We consider several low order graphs in the kinematic region expected to produce the bulk of the total production cross section. Based on the structure of the low order graphs, we argue that the cross section can be reliably computed in QCD by using the same factorization formula that is used for jet production and W and Z production, but inserting the appropriate parton level cross sections for the heavy particle production. We emphasize that an analysis at all orders of perturbation theory is needed to reliably establish this conjecture. 30 refs., 10 figs.

Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

1985-01-01

237

Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The “Altiplano”) was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35?C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity

René Alvarez; Saul Villca; Gunnar Lidén

2006-01-01

238

Causality constraints on hadron production in high energy collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For hadron production in high energy collisions, causality requirements lead to the counterpart of the cosmological horizon problem: the production occurs in a number of causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) must be conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. This provides a theoretical basis for the observed suppression of strangeness production in elementary interactions (pp, e+e-). In contrast, the space-time superposition of many collisions in heavy ion interactions largely removes these causality constraints, resulting in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full equilibrium.

Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut

2014-04-01

239

Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production. PMID:25562933

Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

2014-12-01

240

Do High Technology Policies Work?: High Technology Industry Employment Growth in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1988-1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970s, federal, state and local governments have launched an array of new high technology development programs. Researchers and policy-makers disagree about the relative merits of these policies. We address the effects of seven of these policies on high tech industry employment growth in metropolitan statistical areas in the United…

Jenkins, J. Craig; Leicht, Kevin T.; Jaynes, Arthur

2006-01-01

241

Virtual lithography system to improve the productivity of high-mix low-volume production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new virtual lithography system to improve the productivity of high-mix / low-volume production. In the case of the conventional technique, product mask and wafer are used to determine a focus-exposure-matrix (FEM) exposure condition. The conventional technique is a "send-ahead" process involving exposure, metrology and data analysis that decreases productivity of manufacturing. In the case of low-volume/high-mix ASIC manufacturing, such a send-ahead process is particularly time-consuming and costly. Moreover, the exposure condition setting imposes a huge workload that is desirable to be avoided from the viewpoints of cost and TAT. Thus, a new methodology to determine exposure dose conditions for each mask in high-mix / low-volume production is required. In this paper, we propose a virtual lithography system to eliminate send-ahead exposure. Firstly, to improve wafer CD prediction accuracy, we rebuild the system, thereby transforming it from a training-based system to a simulation-based system. To make simulation models, we use a golden mask, which is not a product mask. Secondly, exposure conditions are determined by considering 2D patterns including hotspot patterns. Thirdly, the lithography simulation is carried out for each exposure tool. Using the golden mask, we calibrate simulation models for each exposure tool 1-3. Various patterns including hotspots likely to become fatal errors for circuit reliability due to process proximity effects are considered. The virtual system provides optimal exposure parameters according to product and layer, considering long-term variation of exposure tool conditions. By developing this system, TAT and cost for the determination of exposure parameters will be improved. Elimination of send-ahead wafers can reduce TAT from mask delivery to exposure condition setup in high-mix / low-volume production. Drastic cost reduction is realized in high-mix / low-volume production.

Yoshida, Kenji; Sato, Takashi; Kono, Takuya; Yamanaka, Eiji; Kariya, Mitsuyo; Inoue, Arata; Mimotogi, Shoji

2007-05-01

242

78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard...activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., within Site 28, in...

2013-07-26

243

Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment  

PubMed Central

Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (? = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg, particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

244

Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment.  

PubMed

Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg ) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g ), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (? = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg ), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg , particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

2014-10-01

245

HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS: CONVERTING OATS TO HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS FOR USE IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new generation of soluble beta-glucan product, called Nutrim-OB (OB, oat bran), was developed that qualified for a FDA health claim. Nutrim-OB was prepared by heat-shearing oat flour or bran aqueous slurry in series of treatments that solubilises oat beta-glucans but maintains basic bran composit...

246

Production of flat top beam profiles for high energy lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a modified version of a rectangular pipe optical conduit known as a kaleidoscope to produce a flat top or rectangular beam profile for a high-energy laser with minimum beam energy loss is considered. The kaleidoscope acts to divide the wave fronts emanating from a focus into rectangular segments approximately equal in area to the pipe cross section,

R. E. Grojean; D. Feldman; J. F. Roach

1980-01-01

247

High production rate of IBAD-MgO buffered substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional IBAD (Ion Beam Assisted Deposition) process using fluorite materials yields low production rates, resulting in high production cost, which reduces the motivation for practical application in spite of its high quality. The IBAD process using rock salt materials, e.g. MgO, is well known as a strong candidate of practical application due to its potential of high production rate and high in-plane grain alignment. In this work, the IBAD-MgO process was investigated for a newly developed architecture of PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition)-CeO 2/sputter-LMO (LaMnO 3)/IBAD-MgO/sputter-GZO (Gd 2Zr 2O 7)/Hastelloy TM to make long buffered metal tapes with high properties and a high production rate. The 50 m-long IBAD-MgO substrates with about 4° of ? ?CeO 2 in an XRD ? scan could be fabricated repeatedly. A GdBCO (GdBa 2Cu 3O x) layer deposited on the buffered substrate showed the minimum Ic value of 325 A/cm-w in a 41 m-long tape. Almost of the tape showed 500-600 A/cm-w of Ic value. The deposition time for the IBAD-MgO layer was 60 s which was about 2 orders of magnitude shorter than the conventional IBAD process. The production rate of 24 m/h was realized at the IBAD-MgO process to fabricate the GdBCO coated conductor with high Jc and Ic properties.

Yoshizumi, M.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

2009-10-01

248

Basics of High TunnelBasics of High Tunnel ProductionProduction --20112011  

E-print Network

.Tunnels in Zones 2 and 3. ·· Any crop that can normally be grown inAny crop that can normally be grown inAny crop that can normally be grown inAny crop that can normally be grown in the areathe area ·· Most crops raised soil ·· Roll Up sidesRoll Up sides ·· 6 mil UV treated plastic6 mil UV treated plastic ·· Can

Netoff, Theoden

249

Evaluation of ocean color products from Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao coastal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first geostationary ocean color satellite sensor launched in June 2010 on board the South Korean Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). The GOCI has a local coverage area of the western Pacific Ocean including Bohai, Yellow Sea and East Sea of China. Jiaozhou Bay is a semienclosed basin in the western part of the Yellow Sea, which is an important representative of gulf ecosystem in the North Temperate Zone. The GOCI data can provide useful information with an-hour temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions for monitoring oceanic and atmospheric process in Jiaozhou Bay. The performance of the atmospheric and optical algorithms of GOCI was evaluated by comparing with the simultaneous data from MODIS/Aqua. The match-up products include remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and chlorophyll-a concentration ([chl-a]) and they were derived by GDPS software for GOCI data and SeaDAS software for MODIS and GOCI data, respectively, using default atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms. Our analyses show that GOCI products (i.e., Rrs(490), Rrs(555) and [chl-a]) are compared well with MODIS products. GOCI shows a potential capability of oceanography investigations in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao coastal area. The consistency of Rrs between GOCI and MODIS is relatively good but significant difference was observed in [chl-a] especially in Jiaozhou Bay. Moreover, it is suggested to improve GOCI standard atmospheric correction algorithm for high turbid water and cloud detection to increase data utilization.

Yang, Qian; Du, Libin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Lianbo; Chen, Shuguo; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Zhangjun; Zhou, Yan

2014-11-01

250

Evaluating pedestrian crashes in areas with high low-income or minority populations.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present an analysis of the relationship between pedestrian-vehicle crashes and characteristics of areas with high low-income and minority populations in the Chicago metropolitan area (also called environmental justice or EJ areas in the United States). While related research has indicated that pedestrian crashes occur more frequently in these areas than in non-EJ areas, this paper attempts to relate the incidence to environmental characteristics and behavioral factors through a better understanding of the contributing factors present in crash occurrences in EJ versus non-EJ areas. Specially constructed small-area factors from a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) are used to explain pedestrian-vehicle crashes. Using a Poisson model that corrects for underreporting, we find that pedestrian crash incidents in EJ areas are related to variables of exposure (including the suitability of the area for walking and transit accessibility), crime rates, transit availability, and general population demographics such as income and presence of children. Results suggest that it may be necessary to better incorporate a safety perspective or measures of safety improvements in pedestrian and transit improvements and expansion programs within EJ areas. PMID:20728622

Cottrill, Caitlin D; Thakuriah, Piyushimita Vonu

2010-11-01

251

Responses of primary productivity to current and climate changes in the mud area to the southwest of Cheju Island during the past 800 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and grain size were analyzed with a gravity core (3250-6) collected from the mud area in the north East China Sea. The average deposition rate of the upper core was about 0.078 cm yr-1 based on the results of 210Pbex. The mean grain size increased with depth in general. The frequency distribution of grain size showed that two marked changes of deposition environment occurred at 30 cm and 50 cm depths (about 1550 AD and 1300 AD, respectively). The variations of BSi and TOC indicated two distinct major periods of primary productivity over the past 800 years: a stage of low primary productivity corresponding to weak upwelling and low nutrient input below 30 cm depth (about 1200-1550 AD), and a stage of high primary productivity with strong currents and upwelling above 30 cm depth (about 1550-1950 AD). The stage with high primary productive appeared to be due to the northward-expanded muddy area caused by strong Asian Winter Monsoon and enhanced Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter. In conclusion, the BSi and TOC in the muddy sediments, the symbols of marine primary productivity, can be then used to investigate the evolution history of currents and relative climate change in the offshore areas.

Liu, Yi; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Wang, Yuhong; Jia, Nan; Ji, Haoyuan; Huang, Yiya; Sun, Liguang

2013-12-01

252

Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provision of biofuels today is based on energy crops rather than residual biomass, which results in the requirement of agricultural land area. The side products may serve as animal feed and thus prevent cultivation of other feedstock and the use of corresponding land area. These effects of biofuel provision have to be taken into account for a comprising assessment

Enver Doruk Özdemir; Marlies Härdtlein; Ludger Eltrop

2009-01-01

253

Automatic system for measuring dose - area product (DAP) in ROI fluoroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computerized system for monitoring dose - area product (DAP) has been developed for region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy in which patient exposure is reduced using an x-ray attenuating filter with an aperture. The system includes an IBM compatible computer which is connected through an IEEE-488 interface to an electrometer which measures the charge from a DAP ionization chamber. A digital input/output board connects the computer to the filter placement device to determine whether the filter is in or out of the beam, and to the x-ray generator to determine when the exposure is due to spot filming. The computer logs the DAP from conventional fluoroscopy, ROI fluoroscopy and spot filming separately, applying the appropriate calibration factor for each. Measured DAPs, fluoroscopic DAP rates and exposure times are displayed in real-time. The system has been installed in a GI fluoroscopic room so that the dose-reduction potential of ROI imaging can be evaluated.

Kezerashvili, M.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

1997-04-01

254

Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  

PubMed

Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-06-01

255

Heat management for hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research and development projects throughout the world are devoted to sustainable hydrogen production processes. Low-temperature electrolysis, when consuming electricity produced without greenhouse gas emissions, is a sustainable process, though having limited efficiency.The performance of electrolysis processes can be improved by functioning at high temperature (high-temperature electrolysis, HTE). This leads to a reduction in energy consumption but requires some of

Christine Mansilla; Jon Sigurvinsson; André Bontemps; Alain Maréchal; François Werkoff

2007-01-01

256

Synthesis and application of magnesium oxide nanospheres with high surface area  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? MgO nanospheres with high specific surface area synthesized by the polyol method. ? The BET specific surface area of nanopowders was 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. ? MgO nanospheres were applied to remove hexavalent chromium. -- Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanospheres with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the polyol method. The BET specific surface area of the nanopowders was ?90 m{sup 2}/g by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursor, the reaction time, and the washing solution. It was increased to 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the MgO nanospheres composed of highly folded flakes, which were responsible for the observed high surface area. The high BET characteristic of the MgO nanospheres can be applied to sintering of microwave ceramics at a reducing sintering temperature, uniformed grain size distribution, and high bulk density. Finally, their capacity to remove hexavalent chromium was presented.

Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Li, Wei-Min; Tung, Kuo-Shin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail: cfshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Dung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2012-11-15

257

Feedback model evaluation of high-mix product manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the patterns are getting smaller, the difficulty to control a margin-tight process expands exponentially. The use of the Automated Process Control (APC), therefore, becomes a widely employed mean in photolithography process to control overlay and CD variations. The accuracy of APC is dependent upon the amount of the previous process data. However, in a foundry with high-mix products it is typical that there are not enough historic data points for accurate calculation of process parameters for a low volume product. The consequence is the high rework rate of pilot runs and test runes due to poor process parameter prediction for overlay. Several studies of the method for predicting the overlay correction have been reported. The key to build a good prediction model is to break the overlay errors down to several parts. Some are equipment or technology related errors, which are shared by all products. Others are the characteristic for certain products, for instance, mask error or special alignment marks. In the production environment the former parts are updated in real time by data feedback from processing all kinds of products. The low volume products or pilot products can share the information. Thus we can achieve a more accurate control or prediction for a new product. In this paper we provide a new model for predicting the process parameter settings of overlay for a pilot run or a product not being run on a tool for a long period of time. This new model is a Simplified Cerebellar Manipulation Arithmetic Controller (SCMAC), which is one kind of Neural Network (NN) model. We assume each part of overlay errors is a cell in SCMAC and build the whole cell table by using this assumption. The final overlay correction value is the sum of a group of cells, which is activated by one lot information. We will also present the details of the building and training of this new SCMAC model. The prediction accuracy of SCMAC in overlay parameters is also evaluated. According to the results, SCMAC can split the overlay error to several factors successfully and also overcome the mismatch in the equipments and processes. We also compare the new SCMAC model with the general Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) model, which calculates the correction value based on the history data points, and in which the newer data points have more weight in the calculation. Based on the results, the SCMAC model is not good enough to substitute the EWMA model in controlling the overlay of a high volume product.

King, Dion; Cheng, Mingjen; Lu, Aho; Mao, Zhibiao; Liang, Curtis

2006-03-01

258

RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity  

E-print Network

1 RRR Degradation and Gas Absorption in the Electron Beam Welding Area of High Purity Niobium W degradation and gas absorption of high purity niobium welded at different electron beam (EB) facilities are summarized. The oxygen and nitrogen content is increased as a rule at the welding seam. The absorption

259

High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis  

E-print Network

High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Abstract Titanium dioxide is one, as support in catalysis etc. Common synthesis methods of titanium dioxide typically require a high

Pfeifer, Holger

260

Cooking methods and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk areas of Iran.  

PubMed

Cooking methods have been implicated in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancers, reflecting exposure to potential carcinogens as results of cooking. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire and a pretested cooking method questionnaire in 3 groups: 40 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases from a high-risk area in northeast of Iran, 40 healthy subjects from the same high-risk area, and 40 healthy subjects from a low-risk area in Southern Iran. We compared the frequency of boiling, grilling, and frying, and the frying score among these 3 groups. We also calculated "frying index" by multiplying the frequency of each fried food item by its frying score. Mean frying to boiling ratios were 18.2:1, 12.8:1, and 2.6:1 for cases, high-risk controls, and low-risk controls, respectively (P < 0.01). Reuse of cooking oil for frying was reported in 37.5% of the ESCC cases, 25% of high-risk controls, and 7.5% of low-risk controls (P < 0.001). Frying index was higher in the high-risk than in the low-risk controls (P < 0.001) and in cases than in the high-risk controls (P < 0.05) after adjusting for smoking, opium use, rural residence, education, and ethnicity. High-temperature cooking and frying may be associated with increased risk of ESCC in high-risk areas. PMID:24033341

Hakami, Roya; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Pourshams, Akram; Mohtadinia, Javad; Firoozi, Mehdi Saberi; Birkett, Nicholas; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

261

Benefits of Green Energy and Proportionality in High Speed Wide Area Networks Connecting Data Centers  

E-print Network

Benefits of Green Energy and Proportionality in High Speed Wide Area Networks Connecting Data Aksanli , Tajana Rosing, and Inder Monga. Benefits of Green Energy and Proportionality in High Speed Wide function prop 2.5x with smooth prop 3x with ideal prop · GEAR + proportionality is better than non-proportional

Simunic, Tajana

262

Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy consumption.

Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

2012-04-01

263

Condition, Potential Recovery Rate, and Productivity of Lichen (Cladonia spp.) Ranges in the Finnish Reindeer Management Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the work was to investigate dependency between reindeer density and lichen (Cladonia spp.) ranges in the Finnish semidomesticated reindeer management area. Secondly, we formed a model on the recovery rate of ungrazed woodland lichen ranges (29 sites) after forest fires to evaluate the potential productivity and time needed for Finnish lichen ranges to recover at optimal production.

JOUKO KUMPULA; ALFRED COLPAERT; MAURI NIEMINEN

2000-01-01

264

High-throughput production of two disulphide-bridge toxins.  

PubMed

A quick and efficient production method compatible with high-throughput screening was developed using 36 toxins belonging to four different families of two disulphide-bridge toxins. Final toxins were characterized using HPLC co-elution, CD and pharmacological studies. PMID:24947561

Upert, Grégory; Mourier, Gilles; Pastor, Alexandra; Verdenaud, Marion; Alili, Doria; Servent, Denis; Gilles, Nicolas

2014-08-01

265

Very high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran: preliminary biological studies.  

PubMed

People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation that is up to 260 mSv y(-1), substantially higher than the 20 mSv y(-1) that is permitted for radiation workers. Inhabitants of Ramsar have lived for many generations in these high background areas. Cytogenetic studies show no significant differences between people in the high background compared to people in normal background areas. An in vitro challenge dose of 1.5 Gy of gamma rays was administered to the lymphocytes, which showed significantly reduced frequency for chromosome aberrations of people living in high background compared to those in normal background areas in and near Ramsar. Specifically, inhabitants of high background radiation areas had about 56% the average number of induced chromosomal abnormalities of normal background radiation area inhabitants following this exposure. This suggests that adaptive response might be induced by chronic exposure to natural background radiation as opposed to acute exposure to higher (tens of mGy) levels of radiation in the laboratory. There were no differences in laboratory tests of the immune systems, and no noted differences in hematological alterations between these two groups of people. PMID:11769138

Ghiassi-nejad, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Cameron, J R; Niroomand-rad, A; Karam, P A

2002-01-01

266

HIGH SCHOOL Special Privilege Registration The High School Special Privileges card is available to area high school students whose research requires  

E-print Network

HIGH SCHOOL Special Privilege Registration The High School Special Privileges card is available to area high school students whose research requires access to the University Libraries' collection. Referral by the high school librarian is required and indicates that the student has exhausted

Dasgupta, Dipankar

267

Balancing livestock production and wildlife conservation in and around southern Africa's transfrontier conservation areas.  

PubMed

Biodiversity conservation, of which the transfrontier conservation area movement is an integral part, and more effective livestock production/trade are pivotal to future rural development in southern Africa. For that reason, it is imperative to effectively ameliorate the obstacles that have impeded progress towards the coexistence of these two sectors for more than half a century. Transboundary animal diseases, foot and mouth disease in particular, have been and continue to be the most important of these obstacles. Fortunately, new developments in international sanitary standards applicable to trade in commodities and products derived from animals are beginning to make a solution possible. However, while progress in principle has been achieved, practical implementation remains problematic for technical reasons, exacerbated by inconsistent attitudes towards acceptance of non-traditional international trade standards. This paper describes the background to this situation, progress that has been achieved in the recent past and remaining difficulties that need to be overcome to advance towards achievement of balanced rural development in southern Africa. PMID:24148143

Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Atkinson, S J; Cassidy, D; Osofsky, S A

2013-12-01

268

Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the Mayan, ‘ancient Criollo’ cacao. PMID:21264251

Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

2011-01-01

269

ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

2015-01-01

270

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030m2g-1 (ref. 2). Until recently, the

Hee K. Chae; Diana Y. Siberio-Pérez; Jaheon Kim; YongBok Go; Mohamed Eddaoudi; Adam J. Matzger; Michael O'Keeffe; Omar M. Yaghi

2004-01-01

271

Using high resolution QuickBird imagery for crop identification and area estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagery from recently launched high spatial resolution satellite sensors offers new opportunities for crop assessment and monitoring. A 2.8-m multispectral QuickBird image covering an intensively cropped area in south Texas was evaluated for crop identification and area estimation. Three reduced-resolution images with pixel sizes of 11.2 m, 19.6 m, and 30.8 m were also generated from the original image to simulate coarser resolution

Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Reginald S. Fletcher; Dale Murden

2007-01-01

272

The primary motor area for voluntary diaphragmatic motion identified by high field fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify the precise location of the primary motor area for the diaphragm with respect to the classical motor homunculus, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were performed utilizing independent component-cross correlation- sequential epoch ( ICS) analysis on a high-field (3.0 Tesla) system. Activations which correlated with voluntary diaphragmatic motion mapped onto the area anterolateral to that for

Takahiro Nakayama; Yukihiko Fujii; Kiyotaka Suzuki; Ichiro Kanazawa; Tsutomu Nakada

2004-01-01

273

Earthquake characteristics and building damage in high-intensity areas of Wenchuan earthquake I: Yingxiu town  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 12, 2008, an Ms 8.0 earthquake occurred on the Longmen Mountain Fault in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province, China.\\u000a Based on the reported earthquake intensity and surface displacement distributions in the affected areas, the damages to buildings\\u000a in high-intensity areas were investigated. This paper focused on the buildings in Yingxiu Town, Wenchuan County. The unreasonable\\u000a structural design and structural

Chang-Rong He; Ru Zhang; Qun Chen; Sheng-Li Han

2011-01-01

274

Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

Liu, Linyue, E-mail: liulinyue@gmail.com; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping, E-mail: oyxp@yahoo.com; Zhang, Jianfu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China) [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-01-15

275

Hydrogen Production:. Ceramic Materials for High Temperature Water Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydogen, H2 is regarded as the main energy vector for the future. Today, the world production of hydrogen rises to 550 billion Nm3 (44 Mt) corresponding to 1,5% of the primary energy production. Contrary to fossil fuels, H2 does not exist in a native form and its use obviously requires its fabrication and storage. The future status of H2 as a fuel for electricity production (fuel cells) and for automobile transportation makes necessary a considerable increase of its production. Some H2 manufactoring processes are briefly described in the first part of this article : (i) steam methane reforming, (ii) water decomposition by thermochemical cycles, (iii) water decomposition by photoelectrochemistry, (iv) water or organic compounds decomposition in using bacteria or alguae. The second part concerns the H2 production by water electrolysis. This manufactoring process does not exceed 1% of the total production of hydrogen. It is expected that the electrolysers working at high temperature (700-900°C) using ceramic oxides based electrolytes are the more promising. Two groups are considered: electrolysers with proton conductors or oxide ion conductors as electrolytes. Proton conductors belong to the perovskite oxides family MCe1-xLnxO3 with M = Ba, Sr and Ln = Lanthanide. For these conductors, few results on water electrolysis at high temperature are available in the litterature and will be shown here. Electrolysers using oxide ion conductors are more promising. The selected materials are those developped for SOFCs : YSZ for the electrolyte, Ni based cermets for the cathode materials and La1-xSrxMO3±? with M = Mn, Co, Ni, Fe ... The electrochemical characteristics of the anodic and cathodic interfaces as well as the perfomances of electrolysers working at high temperature are presented.

Hammou, A.

2006-06-01

276

Ethanol and hydrogen production by two thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from Icelandic geothermal areas.  

PubMed

Microbial fermentations are potential producers of sustainable energy carriers. In this study, ethanol and hydrogen production was studied by two thermophilic bacteria (strain AK15 and AK17) isolated from geothermal springs in Iceland. Strain AK15 was affiliated with Clostridium uzonii (98.8%), while AK17 was affiliated with Thermoanaerobacterium aciditolerans (99.2%) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both strains fermented a wide variety of sugar residues typically found in lignocellulosic materials, and some polysaccharides. In the batch cultivations, strain AK17 produced ethanol from glucose and xylose fermentations of up to 1.6 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose (80% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.1 mol-EtOH/mol-xylose (66%), respectively. The hydrogen yields by AK17 were up to 1.2 mol-H2/ mol-glucose (30% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.0 mol-H2/mol-xylose (30%). The strain AK15 produced hydrogen as the main fermentation product from glucose (up to 1.9 mol-H2/mol-glucose [48%]) and xylose (1.1 mol-H2/mol-xylose [33%]). The strain AK17 tolerated exogenously added ethanol up to 4% (v/v). The ethanol and hydrogen production performance from glucose by a co-culture of the strains AK15 and AK17 was studied in a continuous-flow bioreactor at 60 degrees C. Stable and continuous ethanol and hydrogen co-production was achieved with ethanol yield of 1.35 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose, and with the hydrogen production rate of 6.1 mmol/h/L (H2 yield of 0.80 mol-H2/mol-glucose). PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the AK17 became the dominant bacterium in the bioreactor. In conclusion, strain AK17 is a promising strain for the co-production of ethanol and hydrogen with a wide substrate utilization spectrum, relatively high ethanol tolerance, and ethanol yields among the highest reported for thermoanaerobes. PMID:18500766

Koskinen, Perttu E P; Beck, Steinar R; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Puhakka, Jaakko A

2008-11-01

277

Identifying high-risk areas for sporadic measles outbreaks: lessons from South Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To develop a model for identifying areas at high risk for sporadic measles outbreaks based on an analysis of factors associated with a national outbreak in South Africa between 2009 and 2011. Methods Data on cases occurring before and during the national outbreak were obtained from the South African measles surveillance programme, and data on measles immunization and population size, from the District Health Information System. A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model was used to investigate the association between the risk of measles in infants in a district and first-dose vaccination coverage, population density, background prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and expected failure of seroconversion. Model projections were used to identify emerging high-risk areas in 2012. Findings A clear spatial pattern of high-risk areas was noted, with many interconnected (i.e. neighbouring) areas. An increased risk of measles outbreak was significantly associated with both the preceding build-up of a susceptible population and population density. The risk was also elevated when more than 20% of infants in a populous area had missed a first vaccine dose. The model was able to identify areas at high risk of experiencing a measles outbreak in 2012 and where additional preventive measures could be undertaken. Conclusion The South African measles outbreak was associated with the build-up of a susceptible population (owing to poor vaccine coverage), high prevalence of HIV infection and high population density. The predictive model developed could be applied to other settings susceptible to sporadic outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:23476090

Cohen, C; Chirwa, T; Ntshoe, G; Puren, A; Hofman, K

2013-01-01

278

Presence of plant protection products in three agricultural areas of Regione Lazio.  

PubMed

Aim of the research was to verify the impact of plant protection products on three significant agricultural areas of Regione Lazio: Maccarese, Cisterna di Latina, Sabaudia-Terracina. This research studied the presence of some active ingredients, indicated by technicians as distributed, on soil, water, crop and air samples, the last one in greenhouse; the analysis, carried out by multi-residue methods, allowed to investigate also on a large amount of active ingredients not indicated by technicians. The determinations have been obtained, using internal standards, by GC-NPD, GC-ECD, HPLC-UV, HPLC-DAD, with different columns, conditions and wavelength of adsorption. Taking into account the results we could to assert that only a small part of the molecules searched were found in the samples and that they are typical for the crops and the environment treated. In greenhouse, more persistence was founded in wood greenhouse, treated from the outside, probably for the release of a.i. in time from wood and for a better distribution. The active ingredients more frequently founded must be controlled to avoid possible accumulation or leaching, especially for herbicides in the areas of Maccarese and Cisterna di Latina. Furthermore, the molecule on which more attention must be done when applied, are: linuron on carrots, penconazole on zucchini and cymoxanil, often used inappropriately, particularly on minor crops, like red-radish. Although the number of sampling was limited, it has been possible to outline the situation in the three zones considered, for directing choices, that could be more sensible at sanitary spin-off and at the environment. PMID:15151325

Conte, E; Rossi, E; Spera, G; Pompi, V; Carfi', F; Spadoni, A R; Rosati, M; Montereali, M R; Donnarumma, L; Perconti, W

2003-01-01

279

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

2005-10-01

280

Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046

Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei

2014-07-01

281

Large area detector based computed tomography system for production nondestructive evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

We present a system for industrial x-ray computed tomography that has been optimized for all phases of nondestructive component inspection. Data acquisition is greatly enhanced by the use of high resolution, large area, flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors. The detectors have proven, over several years, to be a robust alternative to CCD-optics and image intensifier CT systems. In addition to robustness, these detectors provide the advantage of area detection as compared with the single slice geometry of linear array systems. Parallel processing provides significant speed improvements for data reconstruction, and is implemented for parallel-beam, fan-beam and Feldkamp conebeam reconstruction algorithms. By clustering ten or more equal-speed computers, reconstruction times are reduced by an order of magnitude. We have also developed interactive software for visualization and interrogation of the full three-dimensional dataset. Inspection examples presented in this paper include an electro-mechanical device, nonliving biological specimens and a turbo-machinery component. We also present examples of everyday items for the benefit of the layperson.

Keating, S. C. (Scott C.); Davis, A. A. (Anthony A.); Claytor, T. N. (Thomas N.)

2001-01-01

282

Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated from Si isotopic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive diatom-bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the Plateau biogenic silica production fluxes are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 in average), silica dissolution rates were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (Si:C and Si:N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate the primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution to production ratios (D:P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustained most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS-expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution on the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to a higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling between H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross-Si:N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the HNLC area, likely due to different diatoms communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long time scales does not necessarily decrease Si:N uptake ratios as suggested by the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis. Finally, we propose the first seasonal estimate of Si-biogeochemical budget above the Kerguelen Plateau based on direct measurements. This study points out that naturally iron fertilized areas of the Southern Ocean could sustain very high regimes of biogenic silica production, similar to those observed in highly productive upwelling systems.

Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

2014-05-01

283

Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated with Si isotopic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive diatom bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes (?Si and ?Diss, respectively) in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the plateau biogenic ?Si are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 on average), ?Diss were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (?Si : ?C and ?Si : ?N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution-to-production ratios (D : P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustain most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution of the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling of H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross Si : N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area, likely due to different diatom communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long timescales does not necessarily decrease Si : N uptake ratios as suggested by the silicic acid leakage hypothesis. Finally, we propose the first seasonal estimate of the Si biogeochemical budget above the Kerguelen Plateau based on direct measurements. This study points out that naturally iron-fertilized areas of the Southern Ocean could sustain very high regimes of biogenic silica production, similar to those observed in highly productive upwelling systems.

Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

2014-10-01

284

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2011-01-01

285

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2013-01-01

286

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2012-01-01

287

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2014-01-01

288

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2010-01-01

289

FERMENTATON AND FORMULATION: CRUCIAL FOCUS AREAS FOR EXPEDITING THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOCONTROL PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developing an effective, commercially successful biological control product is a complex, labor-intensive undertaking. The process must begin with a carefully crafted microbial selection procedure, proceed by employing biomass production protocols that optimize product quantity and quality, and end...

290

Heavy quark production in ultra high energy cosmic ray interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a comprehensive study of the heavy quark production in ultra high energy cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere considering that the primary cosmic ray can be either a photon, neutrino or a proton. The analysis is performed using a unified framework - the dipole formalism - and the saturation effects, associated to the physical process of parton recombination, are taken into account. We demonstrate that the contribution of heavy quarks for cosmic ray interactions is in general non-negligible and can be dominant depending of the process considered. Moreover, our results indicate that new dynamical mechanisms should be included in order to obtain reliable predictions for the heavy quark production in pp collisions at ultra high cosmic ray energies.

Gonçalves, V. P.; Gratieri, D. R.

2015-02-01

291

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

292

Nutritional profile and productivity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in different habitats of a protected area of the eastern Italian Alps.  

PubMed

Plant productivity and fruit quality in terms of occurrence of mineral elements and metabolites were determined on wild bilberry growing in open and forest stands in a protected area of N-Italy. Plant productivity was significantly higher in open stands (3 ± 2.5 compared with 0.03 ± 0.05 fruits per plant) suggesting that both collections in the wild and semi-wild cultivation should be planned in open habitats. Results obtained by ionomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that high quality fruits can be collected in the analyzed area and their nutritional profile did not differ between open and forest stands. Cyanidin and delphinidin proportion of bilberries from our study area was respectively 23.8% and 43.9% of total antocyanin and it is similar to that previously considered peculiar to bilberry fruits of high latitude regions of Europe and indicative of high quality food properties. A comparison between wild bilberry collected in the protected area and commercial blueberry was also performed and relevant differences between them detected, confirming the concept that wild bilberry has a better nutritional profile than blueberry. PMID:23573813

Elisabetta, Barizza; Flavia, Guzzo; Paolo, Fanton; Giorgio, Lucchini; Attilio, Sacchi G; Fiorella, Lo Schiavo; Juri, Nascimbene

2013-05-01

293

Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation

I. Lehnherr; V. L. St. Louis

2010-01-01

294

GEOMETRIC VALIDATION OF TERRASAR-X HIGH-RESOLUTION PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switzerland's diversity of flat, rolling and Alpine terrain makes it ideal territory for geometric validation studies. We describe here two parallel investigations of TerraSAR-X (TSX) high-resolution data: geometric validation and estimation of the tropospheric path delay using measurements of corner reflectors (CRs) placed at different altitudes but nearly identical ranges. Geometric validation was conducted using products from the spotlight and

Adrian Schubert; Michael Jehle; David Small; Erich Meier

295

Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fossil fuels is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse\\u000a gases in the environment that have already exceeded the “dangerously high” threshold of 450 ppm CO2-e. To achieve environmental and economic sustainability, fuel production processes are required that are not only renewable,\\u000a but also capable of sequestering atmospheric CO2. Currently, nearly

Peer M. Schenk; Skye R. Thomas-Hall; Evan Stephens; Jan H. Mussgnug; Clemens Posten; Olaf Kruse; Ben Hankamer

2008-01-01

296

Passive sampling of atmospheric organochlorine compounds by SPMDs in a remote high mountain area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been deployed in high mountain areas (Central Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) over a period of 1.5 years. These devices were filled with triolein and have been deployed at three altitudes, 1600, 2240 and 2600 m above sea level. Performance reference compounds were used to calibrate their sampling rates. The SPMD results were validated by comparison to active air sampling with high-volume systems. Sampling rates between 0.55 and 1.3 m 3 d -1 were estimated from the dissipation of PCB155. Atmospheric concentrations measured by SPMDs were in good agreement with the levels obtained by high-volume sampling. These findings suggest that SPMDs can be useful monitoring systems for the atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine compounds in remote high mountain areas.

Van drooge, Barend L.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Booij, Kees; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi

297

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: levels and partitioning.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of Sigma11PBDE were 0.017-1.17 ng/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5-161.1 ng/m3 in particulate phase, and 73-2629 ng/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that in the particulate phase, and the PBDE congener pattern in the particulate phase was similar with that in soil. This demonstrated that there was little difference with atmospheric particle-soil transfer efficiency among PBDE congeners. In addition, there were seasonal variations in percentages on particle for lower brominated congeners. The BDE-28 was mostly in the gaseous phase in summer (88.3%), whereas the average proportion of BDE-28 in gaseous phase in winter was 38.9%. Higher brominated congeners (i.e., BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208, and BDE-209) were bound to the atmospheric particulate phase, and their potentials for long-range migration were mainly affected by the environmental behavior of atmospheric particles. Results indicated that PBDE congeners in summer were closer to gas-particle partition equilibrium than in winter. Temperature should be considered the main factor causing nonequilibrium in winter. PMID:21520812

Jin, Jun; Wang, Ying; Liu, Weizhi; Yang, Congqiao; Hu, Jicheng; Cui, Jian

2011-01-01

298

Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

1998-01-01

299

UAV systems for photogrammetric recording in archaeological areas: problems, suggestions, and products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documentation and measurements on archaeological areas are mostly connected with close-range photogrammetry, in order to analyze the detailed structure of the objects. Classical aerial photogrammetric surveys are expensive and limited by the image resolution. An alternative way is represented by the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with photogrammetric sensors. The paper deals with the acquisition and processing of low-height aerial imagery acquired by UAVs, in order to provide large-scale mapping in support of archaeological researches. Two remote controlled systems (one mini helicopter and one mini fixed wing plane) were tested on two different archaeological sites in order to provide Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and large-scale maps (numeric maps and orthophotos). The experimental analyses underline the potentialities and the problems of these systems for photogrammetric surveys. In particular, the UAV image acquisition is far from flights performed by manned planes: their dimensions and their little weights never allow to flight the coarse previously set and, as a consequence, their images are often affected by big rotation and little overlaps. In these conditions, traditional matching algorithms don't always succeed in the generation of reliable DSMs. For this reason, a procedure for the DSM generation in these application field is proposed. It will be shown as this procedure allows satisfying the needs of the archaeological survey in the production of Solid True Ortho-Photos (STOP).

Chiabrando, F.; Marenchino, D.; Nex, F.; Piatti, D.; Rinaudo, F.

2009-09-01

300

Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

Giulianetti, Demo J.

2001-01-01

301

Automatic system for measuring dose-area product (DAP) in ROI fluoroscopy.  

PubMed

A computerized system for monitoring dose-area product (DAP) has been developed for region of interest (ROI) fluoroscopy in which patient exposure is reduced using an x-ray attenuating filter with an aperture. The system includes an IBM compatible computer which is connected through an IEEE-488 interface to an electrometer which measures the charge from a DAP ionization chamber. A digital input/output board connects the computer to the filter placement device to determine whether the filter is in or out of the beam, and to the x-ray generator to determine when the exposure is due to spot filming. The computer logs the DAP from conventional fluoroscopy, ROI fluoroscopy and spot filming separately, applying the appropriate calibration factor for each. Measured DAPs, fluoroscopic DAP rates and exposure times are displayed in real-time. The system has been installed in a GI fluoroscopic room so that the dose-reduction potential of ROI imaging can be evaluated. PMID:9127440

Kezerashvili, M; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

1997-04-01

302

CORNPLANTER ROADLESS AREA, PENNSYLVANIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cornplanter Roadless Area is on the west shore of Allegheny Reservoir, Pennsylvania, in an area containing flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Devonian and Mississippian age. Based on mineral-resource studies, these rocks have a substantiated potential for natural gas and a probable potential for oil in the roadless area. Other identified mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, conglomeratic sandstone suitable for high silica uses, and shale suitable for production of clay products.

Lesure, Frank G.; Welsh, Robert A., Jr.

1984-01-01

303

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

in the High Plains cotton area of Texas is highly mechanized except for some hand hoeing and much of the harvesting. Some growers rely on mechanical strippers to harvest their entire crop. Others use hand labor to harvest cotton that matures before frost... operation and harvesting conditions. Mechanical stripping is confined to the period after frost has killed the plants. Open cotton left standing in the field is subject to weather damage. Therefore, hand harvested cotton before frost grades higher than...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01

304

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

1999-03-16

305

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

1999-01-01

306

Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ? 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. PMID:24929722

Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2014-09-01

307

Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

2000-03-08

308

Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico  

E-print Network

/ honeybee / microsatellites / pollinator decline / population size 1. INTRODUCTION The western honeybee ApisNumber of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico Robin ­ The number of colonies in feral and managed honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) was determined for various

Paxton, Robert

309

Physical Layer Design Alternatives for High Speed Outdoor Packet Radio Local and Medium Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, the development of wireless local area networks (WLANs) has become a major goal in the field of computer and wireless communications. The Network Technologies Research group at the Communications Research Center in Canada has been working on a project to develop a high speed outdoor WLAN. In contrast to many existing WLANs, the new WLAN

Chokri Trabelsi; Erdal Torun

1999-01-01

310

Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically

Chad E Duty; Rob R Smith; Arpad Alexander Vass; Ralph H Ilgner; Gilbert M Brown

2008-01-01

311

A Bayesian Approach to Modeling Binary Data: The Case of High-Intensity Crime Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the fitting of a number of Bayesian logistic models with spatially structured or\\/and unstructured random effects to binary data with the purpose of explaining the distribution of high-intensity crime areas (HIAs) in the city of Sheffield, England. Bayesian approaches to spatial modeling are attracting considerable interest at the present time. This is because of the availability of

Jane Law; Robert P. Haining

2004-01-01

312

Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics  

E-print Network

Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics Graciela B that thermal imaging, a nonlithographic technique which enables printing multiple, successive layers via a dry-to-reel printing method may provide a practical route to realizing the expected benefits of plastics

Rogers, John A.

313

Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

Esser, Robert

314

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Casablanca, Morocco Loubna Tazi a,*, Ralf Reintjes b,c , Anne-Laure Ban in most developing countries, tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Morocco. This paper

315

Middle- and High-School Content Area Teachers' Perceptions about Literacy Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle- and high-school content area teachers' beliefs about literacy teaching and learning were investigated during the initial implementation phase of a year-long content literacy professional development project. Teacher interview data were used to examine factors that contribute to and/or inhibit teachers' successful implementation of content…

Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Burns, Leslie David; Callaway, Patricia

2009-01-01

316

Fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems via the integration of high surface area glancing angle deposition thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) coated with a high surface area thin film are fabricated. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is used to uniformly deposit high surface area, nanostructured SiO2 films on top of released NEMS. The resonance frequencies and quality factors are measured to assess the potential of the high surface area NEMS for sensing experiments. Resonance frequencies of coated cantilevers, although reduced by mass loading, can be predicted accurately using our derived model. Compressive stress makes the resonance frequencies of coated doubly-clamped beams difficult to predict. The quality factors of the coated NEMS are reduced by one order of magnitude by a quasi-continuous layer at the base of the GLAD film, which also introduces an estimated compressive stress of 5.3-9.3 MPa. The limit of detection is demonstrated to be ˜2 pg cm-2. With this successful proof-of-concept demonstration, we anticipate the future use of these devices as high surface area gravimetric mass sensors for applications such as gas chromatography.

Westwood, J. N.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Kwan, J. K.; Hiebert, W. K.; Sit, J. C.

2014-06-01

317

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

318

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

319

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

320

Preparation of high surface area activated carbon by chemical activation using waste PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), the most important specie of thermoplastic polyester, have been widely used in humans' life. Waste PET is not easy to degradation and become a burden for the environment; therefore, its recycling is very important. High surface area activated carbon is prepared by chemical activation using waste PET. The experiment condition are as follows: carbonization temperature 500

Jinyang Chen; Feng Liu; Ruyi Ruan; Zhi Li

2011-01-01

321

76 FR 44834 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; Northern Area Trophy Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; Northern Area Trophy Fishery...giant (``trophy'') Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2011. This...implemented under the authority of the Atlantic Tunas Convention Act (16 U.S.C. 971...

2011-07-27

322

Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West Indies)  

E-print Network

1 Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West, France 3. BRGM, Department of Geothermal Energy 3, Av. Claude Guillemin - 45060 Orléans Cedex 2, France Abstract The Bouillante geothermal field presently provides about 8% of the annual electricity needs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can

Mattia Taroni; Paolo Bartolomei; Massimo Esposito; Carmela Vaccaro

2010-01-01

324

Intestinal parasites in children, in highly deprived areas in the border region of Chiapas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children in highly deprived areas, and its possible association with demographic and socioeconomic indicators. Material and Methods. From March to Sep- tember 1998 in a convenience sample of 32 communities of the border region of Chiapas, Mexico, selected at random based on the level of poverty and distance from the

Emma Marianela Morales-Espinoza; Héctor Javier Sánchez-Pérez; María del Mar García-Gil; Guadalupe Vargas-Morales; José Domingo Méndez-Sánchez; Margarita Pérez-Ramírez

2003-01-01

325

High-throughput gene expression profiling of opioid-induced alterations in discrete brain areas.  

PubMed

Whole-genome screening methods are unique approach to search for novel genes and molecular pathways involved in drug action. High-throughput profiling allows the gene expression levels of tens of thousands of transcripts to be measured simultaneously. Here, we describe transcriptional profiling in a specific area of the brain using DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing. PMID:25293316

Korostynski, Michal; Piechota, Marcin; Golda, Slawomir; Przewlocki, Ryszard

2015-01-01

326

Water use and distribution profile under pulse and oilseed crops in semiarid northern high latitude areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oilseed and pulse crops have been increasingly used to replace conventional summer fallow and diversify cropping systems in northern high latitude areas. The knowledge of water use (WU) and its distribution profile in the soil is essential for optimizing cropping systems aimed at improving water use efficiency (WUE). This study characterized water use and distribution profile for pulse and oilseed

Y. Gan; C. A. Campbell; L. Liu; P. Basnyat; C. L. McDonald

2009-01-01

327

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Louisville, Kentucky, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The model allows various economic projections to be…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

328

High similarity between bacterioneuston and airborne bacterial community compositions in a high mountain lake area.  

PubMed

The bacterioneuston (bacteria inhabiting the air-water interface) is poorly characterized and possibly forms a unique community in the aquatic environment. In high mountain lakes, the surface film is subjected to extreme conditions of life, suggesting the development of a specific and adapted bacterioneuston community. We have studied the surface film of a remote high mountain lake in the Pyrenees by cloning the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene and comparing with bacteria present in underlying waters (UW), and airborne bacteria from the dust deposited on the top of the snow pack. We did not detect unusual taxa in the neuston but rather very common and widespread bacterial groups. Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria accounted for >75% of the community composition. Other minor groups were Gammaproteobacteria (between 8% and 12%), Alphaproteobacteria (between 1% and 5%), and Firmicutes (1%). However, we observed segregated populations in neuston and UW for the different clades within each of the main phylogenetic groups. The soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp. was only detected in the snow-dust sample. Overall, higher similarities were found between bacterioneuston and airborne bacteria than between the former and bacterioplankton. The surface film in high mountain lakes appears as a direct interceptor of airborne bacteria useful for monitoring long-range bacterial dispersion. PMID:19049500

Hervas, Anna; Casamayor, Emilio O

2009-02-01

329

Synthesis of high surface area hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by mixed surfactant-mediated approach.  

PubMed

A new surfactant-mediated approach was developed to synthesize hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles with high surface areas by calcination of their precursors encapsulated with calcium stearate using mixed surfactant-containing reaction mixtures. Acidic aqueous solution of calcium phosphate was mixed with both or either nonaoxyethylene dodecyl ether (C12EO9) and polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monostearate (Tween 60) and then was treated with aqueous ammonium at 25 degrees C. The C12EO9-based single surfactant system yielded an aggregate of platy HAp nanoparticles 20-40 nm in size, whereas the Tween 60-based single and mixed systems led to lath-shaped HAp nanoparticles 2-8 nm wide and encapsulated with calcium stearate. On calcination at 500 degrees C, the stearate-encapsulated HAp nanoparticles in the latter two systems were deorganized into high surface area HAp nanoparticles. Particularly, the HAp nanoparticles in the mixed system exhibited a specific surface area as high as 364 m2 g(-1) that is roughly 3 times larger than 160 m2 g(-1) for those in the single system. The significantly high surface area for the former is attributed to much less adhesion of decapsulated HAp nanoparticles, which originated from the particle-separating effect of the C12EO9 molecules adsorbed on the outer surface of the stearate-encapsulated HAp nanoparticles to inhibit their agglomeration or interfacial coordination. The present results demonstrate that the mixed use of two different surfactants as a source of encapsulating and templating agent and a particle-separating agent is specifically effective for the synthesis of high surface area HAp nanoparticles. PMID:16032896

Uota, Masafumi; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Nana; Yoshimura, Takumi; Tanaka, Junzo; Kijima, Tsuyoshi

2005-05-10

330

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High-Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature electrolytic water-splitting supported by nuclear process heat and electricity has the potential to produce H{sub 2} with an overall system efficiency near those of the hydrocarbon and thermochemical processes, but without the corrosive conditions of thermochemical processes and without the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with hydrocarbon processes. Specifically, a high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%. A research program is under way at INEEL to develop a conceptual design for large-scale nuclear production of hydrogen via planar solid oxide electrolysis technology. The design effort is addressing solid oxide cell materials and configuration, performance, durability, operating conditions, economics, and safety. Single and multiple cell experimental studies are being conducted. Interim results indicate that this technology performs close to theoretical predictions and remains a viable means for hydrogen production using nuclear energy. (authors)

Herring, J.S.; O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2004-07-01

331

Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing  

SciTech Connect

General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will apply our programming model to more large scale applications. In particular, we plan to classify and formalize more high level abstractions and semantics which are relevant to high performance computing. We will also investigate better ways to allow language designers, library developers and programmers to communicate abstraction and semantics information with each other.

Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

2009-10-06

332

Combination of geophysical prospecting techniques into areas of high protection value: Identification of shallow volcanic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timanfaya National Park is a volcanic area located in the southwest of Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Several lava tubes have been found in the lava flows but many others remain unknown. Its location and identification are important to mitigate collapse hazards in this touristic area. We present a new study about the location of recent lava tubes by the analysis and joint interpretation of ground penetrating radar (GPR), microgravity and electromagnetic induction (EMI) data along the same profile over an area not previously surveyed. GPR data display a complex pattern of reflections up to ~ 10 m depth. The strongest hyperbolic reflections can be grouped in four different areas. Visual inspections carried out in the field allow confirming the occurrence of lava tubes at two of them. These reflections have been interpreted as the effect of the roof and bottom interfaces of several lava tubes. The microgravity survey defines a wide gravity low with several over-imposed minor highs and lows. Using the GPR data, a 2.5D gravity model has been obtained revealing four lava tubes. EMI data have been used to obtain an inverted resistivity model that displays four high resistivity areas that closely match the locations of the lava tubes derived from the previous methods. This resistivity model exhibits the lower resolution although reaches a deeper investigation depth (~ 20 m). The comparison of the results has revealed that joint interpretation of GPR, microgravity and EMI methods provides reliable models useful for the detection of unknown shallow lava tubes.

Gómez-Ortiz, David; Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Martín-Crespo, Tomás; Solla, Mercedes; Arnoso, José; Vélez, Emilio

2014-10-01

333

Estimating potential output and the output gap for the euro area: a model-based production function approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an analysis of multivariate unobserved components models for the estimation of potential output and the\\u000a output gap in the euro area. Bivariate models of output and inflation and multivariate model-based implementations of the\\u000a production function approach are considered; according to the latter potential output is derived from the permanent components\\u000a of the factors of production consistent with

Tommaso Proietti; Alberto Musso; Thomas Westermann

2007-01-01

334

Video-rate structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput imaging of large tissue areas  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a structured illumination microscopy instrument specifically designed for the requirements for high-area-throughput, optically-sectioned imaging of large, fluorescently-stained tissue specimens. The system achieves optical sectioning frame-rates of up to 33 Hz (and pixel sampling rates of up to 138.4 MHz), by combining a fast, ferroelectric spatial light modulator for pattern generation with the latest large-format, high frame-rate scientific CMOS camera technology. Using a 10X 0.45 NA objective and a 7 mm/sec scan stage, we demonstrate 4.4 cm2/min area-throughput rates in bright tissue-simulating phantoms, and 2 cm2/min area-throughput rates in thick, highly-absorbing, fluorescently-stained muscle tissue, with 1.3 ?m lateral resolution. We demonstrate high-contrast, high-resolution imaging of a fluorescently-stained 30.4 cm2 bovine muscle specimen in 15 minutes comprising 7.55 gigapixels, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach for gigapixel imaging of large tissues in short timeframes, such as would be needed for intraoperative imaging of tumor resection specimens. PMID:24575333

Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C.; Wang, Mei; Elfer, Katherine N.; Brown, J. Quincy

2014-01-01

335

Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted with highly irradiated light-water reactor fuel rod segments to investigate fission products released in steam in the temperature range 500 to 1200/sup 0/C. (Two additional release tests were conducted in dry air.) The primary objectives were to quantify and characterize fission product release under conditions postulated for a spent-fuel transportation accident and for a successfully terminated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). In simulated, controlled LOCA-type tests, release at the time of rupture proved to be more significant than the diffusional release that followed. Comparison of the release data for the dry-air tests with the release data of similarly conducted tests in steam indicated significant increases in the releases of iodine, ruthenium, and cesium in air. Various parameters that affect fission product release are discussed, and experimental observations and analysis of the chemical behavior of releasable fission products in inert, steam, and dry-air atmospheres are examined.

Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Kirkland, O.L.; Towns, R.L.

1980-02-01

336

Exclusive vector meson production at high energies and gluon saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We systematically study exclusiv2 diffractive (photo)production of vector mesons (J/?, ?(2s), ?, and ?) off protons in high-energy collisions and investigate whether the production is a sensitive probe of gluon saturation. We confront saturation-based results for diffractive ?(2s) and ? production at HERA and J/? photoproduction with all available data, including recent work from HERA, ALICE, and LHCb, finding good agreement. In particular, we show that the t distribution of differential cross sections of photoproduction of vector mesons offers a unique opportunity to discriminate among saturation and nonsaturation models. This is due to the emergence of a pronounced dip (or multiple dips) in the t distribution of diffractive photoproduction of vector mesons at relatively large, but potentially accessible |t| that can be traced back to the unitarity features of color dipole amplitude in the saturation regime. We show that in saturation models the dips in t distribution recede towards lower |t| with decreasing mass of the vector meson, increasing energy or decreasing Bjorken-x, and decreasing virtuality Q. We provide various predictions for exclusive (photo)production of different vector mesons including the ratio of ?(2s)/J/? at HERA, the LHC, and future colliders.

Armesto, Néstor; Rezaeian, Amir H.

2014-09-01

337

Assembly of BaTiO3 nanocrystals into macroscopic aerogel monoliths with high surface area.  

PubMed

Aerogels with their low density and high surface area are fascinating materials. However, their advantageous morphology is still far from being fully exploited owing to their limited compositional variety and low crystallinity. Replacing the sol-gel process by a particle-based assembly route is a powerful alternative to expand the accessible functionalities of aerogels. A strategy is presented for the controlled destabilization of concentrated dispersions of BaTiO3 nanoparticles, resulting in the assembly of the fully crystalline building blocks into cylindrically shaped monolithic gels, thereby combining the inherent properties of ternary oxides with the highly porous microstructure of aerogels. The obtained aerogels showed an unprecedentedly high surface area of over 300?m(2) ?g(-1). PMID:24853124

Rechberger, Felix; Heiligtag, Florian J; Süess, Martin J; Niederberger, Markus

2014-06-23

338

Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522  

SciTech Connect

'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 ?Sv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 ?Sv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 ?Sv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The seasonal dependence of radon activity concentration is observed in the air of workshops (radon levels are lower in winter in comparison with spring-summer period). - in drinking water, intervention levels by gross alpha activity and by some radionuclides, in particular by Rn-222, are in excess. Annual effective dose of internal exposure due to ingestion of such water will be 0.14-0.28 mSv. (authors)

Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)] [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

339

Summary for Working Group a on High Brightness Beam Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working group A was devoted to high brightness beam production and characterization. The presentations and discussions could be categorized as cathode physics, new photoinjector designs, computational modeling of high brightness beams, and new experimental methods and results. Several novel injector and cathode designs were presented. However, a standard 1.5 cell rf photoinjector is still the most common source for high brightness beams. New experimental results and techniques were presented and thoroughly discussed. The brightest beam produced in a rf photoinjector published at the time of the workshop is approximately 2 1014 A/(m-rad)2 at Sumitomo Heavy Industries in Japan with 1 nC of charge, a 9 ps FWHM long laser pulse and a normalized transverse emittance of 1.2 ?m. The emittance was achieved by utilizing a temporally flat laser pulse which decreased the emittance by an estimated factor of 2 from the beam produced with a Gaussian pulse shape with an identical pulse length.

Schmerge, J. F.

2003-12-01

340

Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas are defined as areas with reported or estimated incidence of 20 cases per 100,000  

E-print Network

Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas Niger Swaziland Source: World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory, Tuberculosis Incidence 2009. For future updates , refer to http://apps.who.int/ghodata/?vid=510 Tuberculosis Screening

Myers, Lawrence C.

341

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-09-22

342

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-04-21

343

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag.

Hubble, David H. (Export, PA); Ulrich, Klaus H. (Duisburg, DE)

1998-01-01

344

Higgs boson production in high energy proton-nucleus collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study Higgs boson production from gluon-gluon fusion at midrapidity in high energy proton-nucleus collisions. For this process the presently still little known gluon distribution function h1?g(x,k?) might give a numerically relevant contribution. We show by explicit calculation that using color glass condensate model input the result obtained in the naive kt factorization approach matches the result obtained in the transverse momentum dependent factorization framework for a dilute medium. We also verify the earlier finding [P. Sun, B.-W. Xiao, and F. Yuan, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 84, 094005 (2011)10.1103/PhysRevD.84.094005] that the kt factorization formalism for Higgs production breaks down in a dense medium. In doing so, we formulate a hybrid model which allows one to treat such reactions theoretically.

Schäfer, Andreas; Zhou, Jian

2012-06-01

345

Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions  

SciTech Connect

Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year.

None

1999-09-02

346

ENTROPY PRODUCTION AT HIGH ENERGY AND mu B.  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on Ai-A, p + y and e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at high energies and large {mu}{sub B} is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities are different at low beam energies.

STEINBERG,P.

2006-07-03

347

Large area selective emitters/absorbers based on 2D tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature energy applications  

E-print Network

We report highly selective emitters based on high-aspect ratio 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated on large area (2 inch diameter) polycrystalline tantalum substrates, suitable for high-temperature operation. As an ...

Rinnerbauer, V.

348

Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China  

SciTech Connect

Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage.

Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.; Beebe, G.W.; Zha, Y.R.; Kaplan, M.M.; Tao, Z.F.; Maxon, H.R. III; Zhang, S.Z.; Schneider, A.B. (Ministry of Public Health, Beijing (China))

1990-03-21

349

Experimental thrust performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust performance attainable from high-area-ratio rocket nozzles. A modified Rao-contoured nozzle with an expansion area of 1030 was test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants at altitude conditions. The nozzle was also tested as a truncated nozzle, at an expansion area ratio of 428. Thrust coefficient and thrust coefficient efficiency values are presented for each configuration at various propellant mixture ratios (oxygen/fuel). Several procedural techniques were developed permitting improved measurement of nozzle performance. The more significant of these were correcting the thrust for the aneroid effects, determining the effective chamber pressure, and referencing differential pressure transducers to a vacuum reference tank.

Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Smith, Tamara A.

1987-01-01

350

Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System.  

SciTech Connect

Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically decompose CB agents over large areas (12 m2). Preliminary tests indicate that more than 5 decades (99.999%) of an Anthrax spore simulant (Bacillus globigii) were killed in less than 7 seconds of exposure to the HEAL system. When combined with a catalyst material (TiO2) the HEAL system was also effective against a chemical agent simulant, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP). These results demonstrate the feasibility of a rapid, large-area chemical and biological decontamination method that does not require toxic or corrosive reagents or generate hazardous wastes.

Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

2008-01-01

351

[Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].  

PubMed

Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840

Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

2008-11-01

352

Meson production in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering  

E-print Network

Pseudoscalar mesons can be produced and studied in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering. We review and extend our previous analysis of meson production in the nuclear Coulomb field. The $P\\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ decay rates are most directly determined for mesons produced in the double-Coulomb region where both photons are nearly real, and provided the background-hadronic contribution remains small. The larger the mass of the meson the higher the electron energy needed to assure such a condition.

Göran Fäldt

2012-02-03

353

Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.  

PubMed

Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive. PMID:25531980

Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

2015-01-21

354

Overview of water-saving potato production research for the semi-arid areas of Northern China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China, potato makes a greater contribution to solve food problems, even though,frequent droughts, general water shortages and poor irrigation management often lead to low yields and poor tuber quality. Therefore, water-saving potato production plays an imp...

355

Validation of a dust production model from measurements performed in semi-arid agricultural areas of Spain and Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of two processes (saltation and sandblasting) that lead to fine dust release in arid areas have recently been combined to form a dust production model (DPM), the physical bases of which are summarized. In order to validate DPM at field scale, its predictions in terms of horizontal and vertical mass fluxes are compared to direct measurements made in natural

L Gomes; J. L Rajot; S. C Alfaro; A Gaudichet

2003-01-01

356

Large area aggregation and mean-squared prediction error estimation for LACIE yield and production forecasts. [wheat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aggregation formulas are given for production estimation of a crop type for a zone, a region, and a country, and methods for estimating yield prediction errors for the three areas are described. A procedure is included for obtaining a combined yield prediction and its mean-squared error estimate for a mixed wheat pseudozone.

Chhikara, R. S.; Feiveson, A. H. (principal investigator)

1979-01-01

357

Abstract--Medical image segmentation is one of the most productive research areas in medical image processing. The  

E-print Network

Abstract--Medical image segmentation is one of the most productive research areas in medical image processing. The goal of most new image segmentation algorithms is to achieve higher segmentation accuracy a prototype composite index that includes the measurement of seven metrics on segmented image sets. We explain

Jepson, Allan D.

358

FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

359

One-pot procedure to synthesize high surface area alumina nanofibers using supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

For the first time, high surface area nanofibers were synthesized using aluminum isopropoxide monomer with acetic acid as the polycondensation agent in the green solvent, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)). It was found that the synthesis temperature, pressure, concentration, and acid/alkoxide ratio had a large effect on fiber formation. By optimizing the experimental conditions at 80 degrees C and 6000 psi of scCO(2) using aluminum isopropoxide at a concentration of 0.3 mmol/mL and acid/alkoxide ratio of 10, alumina nanofibers were formed ranging from 11 to 22 nm in diameter and 500 to 1000 nm in length, and with surface areas up to 580 m(2)/g. Lower temperatures gave irregular shaped nanoparticles, while a lower acid/alkoxide ratio (5:1) resulted in the formation of low surface area alumina bars. Increasing pressure led to better separation of the nanofibers and higher surface areas. In addition to the synthesis conditions, the influence of calcination temperature on the structural, textural, and morphological properties of the materials was examined using various physicochemical techniques including electron microscopy, TGA/DTA, powder XRD, FTIR, XPS, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The long fibers with high aspect ratios were found to be thermally stable even after calcining at up to 1050 degrees C. The mechanism of fiber formation in scCO(2) is proposed based on a [Al(OH)(CH(3)CO(2))(2)](n) polycondensate backbone. PMID:20141211

Chowdhury, Muhammad B I; Sui, Rouhong; Lucky, Rahima A; Charpentier, Paul A

2010-02-16

360

Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data.  

PubMed

Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128

Almeida, Andréa S; Werneck, Guilherme L

2014-01-01

361

Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data  

PubMed Central

Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128

2014-01-01

362

Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. I - Plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a test plant with a hydrogen-production capacity of 4 cu Nm\\/hour based on a high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolyzer is discussed, and results of corrosion tests on metallic materials for plant construction are presented. The test plant electrolyzer was designed and constructed on the basis of the construction and testing of a series of bench-scale electrolyzers operating at

I. Abe; T. Fujimaki; Y. Kajiwara; Y. Yokoo

1981-01-01

363

Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields  

DOEpatents

A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Wham, Robert M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01

364

Urinary iodine concentrations in the high background radiation areas of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India.  

PubMed

We screened urinary iodine (UI) concentrations in high background radiation areas of the Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu, India. We collected 331 urine samples from three villages in the district: Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar. The median UI concentrations were 257, 262, and 454 microg/L in Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar, respectively. Only 27 samples showed mild or moderate iodine deficiency (<100 microg/L) and none showed severe deficiency (<20 microg/L). These findings indicate that iodine supplementation in the villages is sufficient, probably as a result of appropriate fortification of iodized salt in the region. Further screening, including morphological and functional analysis of the thyroid gland, will be needed to clarify the health effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure attributable to residing in a high background radiation area. PMID:19789421

Brahmanandhan, Gopalganapathi M; Hayashida, Naomi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Malathi, Jeyapandian; Khnna, David; Selvasekarapandian, Subramaniyan; Matsuda, Naoki; Takamura, Noboru

2010-01-01

365

Synthesis of high-surface-area titanium dioxide by sol-gel process for DSSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous TiO2 material was synthesized from dissolution ilmenite as well as from titanium chloride precursor via a sol-gel process in acidic aqueous solution. The properties of these materials were characterized with several analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis. The mesoporous TiO2 materials calcinated at various temperatures were found to have high value surface areas. The photovoltaic of photo-anode build from the mesoporous TiO2 was characterized with I-V Keitley Multimeter, and it was found that photovoltaics fabricated using the mesoporous TiO2 have a good performance. Such a high photovoltaic activity is explained with large surface area and small crystal size.

Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Juliana, G.; Khoirunisa, A. R.; Rahardjo, S. B.; Pramono, E.; Suharyana, S.; Suryana, R.; Supriyanto, A.

2014-05-01

366

Production of porcine parvovirus empty capsids with high immunogenic activity.  

PubMed

The VP2 gene of porcine parvovirus was cloned in the baculovirus system and expressed in insect cells. The resulting product was present in high yield. It self-assembled into particles which were structurally and antigenically indistinguishable from regular PPV capsids. A high degree of purity of the recombinant capsids was obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation of cell lysates. These virus-like particles were used as antigen in the immunization of two pigs. The pigs elicited an immune response which, when assayed by standard serological techniques, was identical to that of a commercial vaccine. The amount of recombinant antigen needed in a vaccine dose was only 3 micrograms in a primary dose and 1.5 micrograms in the booster. PMID:1523879

Martínez, C; Dalsgaard, K; López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Vela, C; Casal, J I

1992-01-01

367

Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

2011-01-01

368

Versatile, High Quality and Scalable Continuous Flow Production of Metal-Organic Frameworks  

PubMed Central

Further deployment of Metal-Organic Frameworks in applied settings requires their ready preparation at scale. Expansion of typical batch processes can lead to unsuccessful or low quality synthesis for some systems. Here we report how continuous flow chemistry can be adapted as a versatile route to a range of MOFs, by emulating conditions of lab-scale batch synthesis. This delivers ready synthesis of three different MOFs, with surface areas that closely match theoretical maxima, with production rates of 60?g/h at extremely high space-time yields. PMID:24962145

Rubio-Martinez, Marta; Batten, Michael P.; Polyzos, Anastasios; Carey, Keri-Constanti; Mardel, James I.; Lim, Kok-Seng; Hill, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

369

Versatile, High Quality and Scalable Continuous Flow Production of Metal-Organic Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further deployment of Metal-Organic Frameworks in applied settings requires their ready preparation at scale. Expansion of typical batch processes can lead to unsuccessful or low quality synthesis for some systems. Here we report how continuous flow chemistry can be adapted as a versatile route to a range of MOFs, by emulating conditions of lab-scale batch synthesis. This delivers ready synthesis of three different MOFs, with surface areas that closely match theoretical maxima, with production rates of 60 g/h at extremely high space-time yields.

Rubio-Martinez, Marta; Batten, Michael P.; Polyzos, Anastasios; Carey, Keri-Constanti; Mardel, James I.; Lim, Kok-Seng; Hill, Matthew R.

2014-06-01

370

Feedback-assisted MAC protocol for real time traffic in high rate wireless personal area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade, there has been much standardization effort for indoor or shot-range networks, as communication devices and applications for such networks populate. As a prominent example of these activities, the IEEE 802.15.3 Task Group (TG) published a standard for high-rate wireless personal area network (HR-WPAN). To support strictly timed multimedia services, the TG adopts a time-slotted channel access

Byung-Seo Kim; Sung Won Kim; Yuguang Fang; Tan F. Wong

2010-01-01

371

Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous lanthanum carbide-carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of carbon nanotubes was maintained after thermal treatment.

Biasetto, L.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G.; Zanonato, P.; Di Bernardo, P.; Colombo, P.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.

2009-04-01

372

High specific surface area, reticulated current collectors for lead–acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high specific surface area (>10 cm2 cm-3) reticulated current collectors in lead–acid batteries was studied by cyclic voltammetry, 2 V battery testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Comparative cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed differences in the electrochemical behaviour of reticulated and book-mould current collector designs, with regard to both PbSO4 and PbO2 film formation. Battery testing showed that

E. Gyenge; J. Jung; S. Splinter; A. Snaper

2002-01-01

373

Synthetic process for preparation of high surface area electroactive compounds for battery applications  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the preparation of electroactive cathode compounds useful in lithium-ion batteries, comprising exothermic mixing of low-cost precursors and calcination under appropriate conditions. The exothermic step may be a spontaneous flameless combustion reaction. The disclosed process can be used to prepare any lithium metal phosphate or lithium mixed metal phosphate as a high surface area single phase compound.

Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard

2013-07-23

374

Compounds of molybdenum and tungsten with high specific surface area I. Nitrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature-programmed reaction between MoO3 or WO3 with NH3 provides a new way to prepare Mo2N and W2N powders with specific surface areas as high as 220 and 91 m2 g-1, respectively, corresponding to 3- to 4-nm crystallites. The transformation of MoO3 platelets is topotactic in the sense that {100} planes of Mo2N are parallel to {010} planes of MoO3. As

Leo Volpe; M. Boudart

1985-01-01

375

Mountain lion use of an area of high recreational development in Big Bend National Park, Texas  

E-print Network

, Texas. (December 1991) Toni Karen Ruth, B. S. , University of Florida Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jane M. Packard Although predators are ecologically important in national parks, close association of predators with visitors can cause conflict.... High recreational development in the Chisos Basin overlaps the areas most biologically important to mountain lion prey. Mountain lion attacks on two visitors (1984 and 1986) and one pet dog (1989) occurred in Big Bend National Park (BIBE), Texas...

Ruth, Toni Karen

1991-01-01

376

Location of Irrigated Land Classified from Satellite Imagery - High Plains Area, Nominal Date 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

2002-01-01

377

Growth Standards for Urban Infants in a High Altitude Area of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to establish up-to-date growth standards for use in assessing the adequacy of children's growth in every population, especially those with peculiar environmental chal- lenges. The purpose of this study is to update growth reference values for the normal population of urban infants (0-24 months) from the high altitude area of Southwestern Saudi Arabia, and to compare

Mohammed A. Al-Shehri; Mostafa A. Abolfotouh; Mohammed Yunis Khan; Luke O. Nwoye

2005-01-01

378

Enhanced DSSC performance with high surface area thin anatase TiO 2 nanoleaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin anatase TiO2 nanoleaves (NLs) with high surface area (?93m2\\/g) are synthesized by hydrothermal route and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) made using such NLs are compared with those made with hydro-thermally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and the Degussa P25 powder. The NLs-based DSSCs show increment of 16% and 24% in the total conversion efficiency over the cells made with NPs and

Vivek Dhas; Subas Muduli; Shruti Agarkar; Abhimanyu Rana; Beatrice Hannoyer; Rahul Banerjee; Satishchandra Ogale

2011-01-01

379

Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect

A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2008-08-01

380

Edge electrospinning for high throughput production of quality nanofibers.  

PubMed

A novel, simple geometry for high throughput electrospinning from a bowl edge is presented that utilizes a vessel filled with a polymer solution and a concentric cylindrical collector. Successful fiber formation is presented for two different polymer systems with differing solution viscosity and solvent volatility. The process of jet initiation, resultant fiber morphology and fiber production rate are discussed for this unconfined feed approach. Under high voltage initiation, the jets spontaneously form directly on the fluid surface and rearrange along the circumference of the bowl to provide approximately equal spacing between spinning sites. Nanofibers currently produced from bowl electrospinning are identical in quality to those fabricated by traditional needle electrospinning (TNE) with a demonstrated ? 40 times increase in the production rate for a single batch of solution due primarily to the presence of many simultaneous jets. In the bowl electrospinning geometry, the electric field pattern and subsequent effective feed rate are very similar to those parameters found under optimized TNE experiments. Consequently, the electrospinning process per jet is directly analogous to that in TNE and thereby results in the same quality of nanofibers. PMID:21799242

Thoppey, N M; Bochinski, J R; Clarke, L I; Gorga, R E

2011-08-26

381

High Throughput, Continuous, Mass Production of Photovoltaic Modules  

SciTech Connect

AVA Solar has developed a very low cost solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing process and has demonstrated the significant economic and commercial potential of this technology. This I & I Category 3 project provided significant assistance toward accomplishing these milestones. The original goals of this project were to design, construct and test a production prototype system, fabricate PV modules and test the module performance. The original module manufacturing costs in the proposal were estimated at $2/Watt. The objectives of this project have been exceeded. An advanced processing line was designed, fabricated and installed. Using this automated, high throughput system, high efficiency devices and fully encapsulated modules were manufactured. AVA Solar has obtained 2 rounds of private equity funding, expand to 50 people and initiated the development of a large scale factory for 100+ megawatts of annual production. Modules will be manufactured at an industry leading cost which will enable AVA Solar's modules to produce power that is cost-competitive with traditional energy resources. With low manufacturing costs and the ability to scale manufacturing, AVA Solar has been contacted by some of the largest customers in the PV industry to negotiate long-term supply contracts. The current market for PV has continued to grow at 40%+ per year for nearly a decade and is projected to reach $40-$60 Billion by 2012. Currently, a crystalline silicon raw material supply shortage is limiting growth and raising costs. Our process does not use silicon, eliminating these limitations.

Kurt Barth

2008-02-06

382

High level production of tyrosinase in recombinant Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Tyrosinase is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes both the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase activity) and the subsequent oxidation of the diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity). Due to the potential applications of tyrosinase in biotechnology, in particular in biocatalysis and for biosensors, it is desirable to develop a suitable low-cost process for efficient production of this enzyme. So far, the best production yield reported for tyrosinase was about 1?g?L-1, which was achieved by cultivating the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei for 6?days. Results In this work, tyrosinase from Verrucomicrobium spinosum was expressed in Escherichia coli and its production was studied in both batch and fed-batch cultivations. Effects of various key cultivation parameters on tyrosinase production were first examined in batch cultures to identify optimal conditions. It was found that a culture temperature of 32?°C and induction at the late growth stage were favorable, leading to a highest tyrosinase activity of 0.76 U mL-1. The fed-batch process was performed by using an exponential feeding strategy to achieve high cell density. With the fed-batch process, a final biomass concentration of 37?g?L-1 (based on optical density) and a tyrosinase activity of 13 U mL-1 were obtained in 28?hours, leading to a yield of active tyrosinase of about 3?g?L-1. The highest overall volumetric productivity of 103?mg of active tyrosinase per liter and hour (corresponding to 464?mU?L-1?h-1) was determined, which is approximately 15 times higher than that obtained in batch cultures. Conclusions We have successfully expressed and produced gram quantities per liter of active tyrosinase in recombinant E. coli by optimizing the expression conditions and fed-batch cultivation strategy. Exponential feed of substrate helped to prolong the exponential phase of growth, to reduce the fermentation time and thus the cost. A specific tyrosinase production rate of 103?mg?L?1?h?1 and a maximum volumetric activity of 464?mU?L?1?h-1 were achieved in this study. These levels have not been reported previously. PMID:23442796

2013-01-01

383

Observation of vertical motion above a subduction zone using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Wide Area Product, SW Crete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) is a powerful tool to quantify vertical motion of the Earth's surface with millimeter accuracy at a wide spatial coverage of hundreds of square km. Persistent Scatterers (PS) are phase stable point targets with a consistent and strong reflectivity observed over a long time (Ferretti et al., 2001, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing). These PS originate from man-made features, or natural features like rocks. This technique, which was originally developed for urban areas (Ferretti et al., 2001, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing), is now enhanced and applied for the detection of PS in rural areas by the operational PSI system Wide Area Product (PSI-GENESIS) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The detection is possible over large areas (100 km by 100 km). A problem with the wide-area approach is to cope with inhomogeneous PS densities within an area and variable topography. Difficulties arise from uncompensated atmospheric effects and spatial error propagation. The number of available scenes per stack is limited but the amount of data to be processed is large (about 1 Gigabyte per stack). We tested the PSI technique for the island of Crete. Therefore, we used data of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites of the European Space Agency (ESA) for the PSI analysis. The western part of the island is covered by 39 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired between 1992 and 2000 of the ERS Track 193. We chose the island of Crete as test site due to its close location to the Hellenic subduction zone, which allows the observation of vertical surface motion. Crete is bounded by seismogenic faults that produced large and destructive earthquakes in the past, such as the MS > 8 earthquake in 365 AD. Vertical surface motion in the vicinity of a subduction zone may imply locking of the plate interface. Our preliminary findings of the W part of the island show an inhomogeneous distribution of PS over the whole scene. The northern part of Crete is more flat than the southern part, which leads to a more homogenous PS distribution in the North. The southern part consists of high mountain ranges, therefore the detection of PS is only possible outside the radar shadows. The northern part shows no significant vertical motion pattern. The southern coast shows uplift in the range of 3 mm/yr. The SW corner of the island shows a strong uplift of up to 5 mm/yr. Further analysis is still in progress and additional atmospheric corrections are necessary to validate our results. We interpret the observed vertical motion in Crete as interseismic strain accumulation. This implies that the subduction zone interface is at least partly locked and hence, may produce another large earthquake in the future.

Rieger, S. M.; Adam, N.; Friedrich, A. M.

2011-12-01

384

Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition.  

PubMed

Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a field experiment at a Dutch nature restoration area. In April 2011, we set up an experiment using biochar produced from cuttings collected from a local natural grassland. The material was pyrolyzed at 400 degrees C or at 600 degrees C. After biochar or residue (non-pyrolyzed cuttings) application (10 Mg/ha), all plots, including control (0 Mg/ ha) plots, were sown with an 18-species grassland mixture. In August 2011, we determined characteristics of the developed plant community, as well as soil nutrient status. Biochar amendment did not alter total plant productivity, but it had a strong and significant effect on plant community composition. Legumes were three times as abundant and individual legume plants increased four times in biomass in plots that received biochar as compared to the control treatment. Biomass of the most abundant forb (Plantago lanceolata) was not affected by biochar addition. Available phosphorous, potassium, and pH were significantly higher in soils that received biochar than in Control soils. The rate of biological nitrogen fixation and seed germination were not altered by biochar amendment, but the total amount of biological N fixed per Trifolium pratense (red clover) plant was more than four times greater in biochar-amended soil. This study demonstrates that biochar amendment has a strong and rapid effect on plant communities and soil nutrients. Over time these changes may cascade up to other trophic groups, including above- and belowground organisms. Our results emphasize the need for long-term studies that examine not only the short-term effects of biochar amendment, but also follow how these effects evolve over time and affect ecosystem functioning. PMID:25154104

van de Voorde, Tess F J; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jeffery, Simon; Mommer, Liesje

2014-07-01

385

URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR , A. Villa ,  

E-print Network

of satellite remote sensing imagery can provide a timely and relatively cheap view of urban land covers urban areas using remote sensing imagery is the land-cover classification, that is assignment of an area for remote sensing classification, especially in a urban environment. In this work, we will focus

Plaza, Antonio J.

386

A preliminary study to determine the diagnostic reference level using dose–area product for limited-area cone beam CT  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the dose–area product (DAP) of limited-area cone beam CT (CBCT) units used by dental offices, and to evaluate the rationale of the DAP with an aid of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter in measuring radiation dose. Method: The DAPs of 21 CBCT units used in the dental offices of Tokyo and the surrounding areas from five different manufacturers were measured using OSL nanoDot dosemeter. An assembly of OSL dosemeters with an X-ray film was exposed by CBCT units at exposure parameters commonly used in each dental office. DAP values were then calculated as expressed in mGy?cm2. Results: DAP values ranged from 126.7?mGy?cm2 to 1476.9?mGy?cm2, depending on the units used. Conclusion: OSL dosemeter coupled with film can be utilized for a large-scale study to measure DAP. The DAP values for individual CBCT units depend not only on the field of view, but also on the exposure parameters adapted by the dental offices. PMID:23420859

Endo, A; Katoh, T; Vasudeva, SB; Kobayashi, I; Okano, T

2013-01-01

387

Biotemplated synthesis of high specific surface area copper-doped hollow spherical titania and its photocatalytic research for degradating chlorotetracycline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper-doped titania (Cu/TiO2) hollow microspheres were fabricated using the rape pollen as biotemplates via an improved sol-gel method and a followed calcinations process. In the fabricated process, a titanium(IV)-isopropoxide-based sol directly coated onto the surface of rape pollen. Subsequently, after calcinations, rape pollen was removed by high temperature and the hollow microsphere structure was retained. The average diameter of as-obtained hollow microspheres is 15-20 ?m and the thickness of shell is approximately 0.6 ?m. Knowing from XRD results, the main crystal phase of microspheres is anatase, coupled with rutile. The specific surface area varied between 141.80 m2/g and 172.51 m2/g. This hollow sphere photocatalysts with high specific surface area exhibited stronger absorption ability and higher photoactivity, stimulated by visible light. The degradation process of chlortetracycline (CTC) solution had been studied. The degradated results indicate that CTC could be effective degradated by fabricated hollow spherical materials. And the intermediate products formed in the photocatalytic process had been identified.

Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Huisheng

2013-01-01

388

Evaluation of SMOS soil moisture products over the CanEx-SM10 area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth observation satellite was launched in November 2009 to provide global soil moisture and ocean salinity measurements based on L-band passive microwave measurements. Since its launch, different versions of SMOS soil moisture products processors have been developed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the processor versions 309, 400, 501 and 551 by comparing them to (a) soil moisture measurements from the Canadian Experiment for Soil Moisture in 2010 (CanEx-SM10) and from networks of permanent and temporary stations, and (b) other existing satellite-based soil moisture products (AMSR-E/NSIDC, AMSR-E/VUA, and ASCAT). Rainfall data were used during the analysis in order to understand the episodic variability of soil moisture. The analysis included both agricultural site (Canadian Prairies) and forested site (Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites; BERMS), and considered separately the SMOS ascending and descending modes. An improvement in SMOS soil moisture estimation was observed from the processor versions 309 to 551. We observed a little difference between the processor versions 400, 501, and particularly between the processor versions 501 and 551. These later versions were more correlated to ground measurements than the previous processor versions. For the agricultural site, all the four SMOS processor versions underestimated the soil moisture, but to varying degrees depending on the overpasses mode. For the ascending overpass, the four processor versions have a high bias with respect to the measured ground data (from -0.10 m3/m3 to -0.12 m3/m3). For the descending overpass, however, a good improvement in the algorithms was observed. Thus the maximum bias for the measured ground data went from -0.12 m3/m3 for processor version 309 to -0.02 m3/m3 for processor version 551, and the soil moisture error seems to be less dependent on the absolute soil moisture for the two last versions. Highest correlation coefficients with ground measurements were obtained with SMOS processor version 551 (R ? 0.58), ASCAT (R ? 0.55), and AMSR-E/NSIDC (R ? 0.54) products for ascending overpasses. For descending overpasses AMSR-E/NSIDC (R ? 0.82) is better correlated to ground measurements followed by SMOS (R ? 0.58) and ASCAT (R ? 0.32). However, AMSR-E/VUA appears weakly correlated with ground truth for both overpasses. Despite the good correlation found with ground data, the temporal evolution of AMSR-E/NSIDC data became stable with the vegetation growth and presented a weak sensitivity to rainfall. Over the forested site, SMOS soil moisture estimates were generally overestimated, especially before the active vegetation period where the bias obtained with prototype 551 was greater than 0.10 m3/m3. Moreover, due to the denser and more complex vegetation cover, SMOS data were less correlated with the in situ data than for the Kenaston agricultural site. Soil moisture values from the ascending overpass were closer to the ground measurements (bias ? 0.01m3/m3) than the estimates from the descending overpasses (0.09 ? bias ? 0.11 m3/m3). ASCAT presented correlation coefficients to ground data comparable to those obtained by SMOS (version 551), whereas lower correlation coefficients were obtained with AMSR-E-NSIDC and mainly with AMSR-E/VUA data.

Djamai, Najib; Magagi, Ramata; Goïta, Kalifa; Hosseini, Mehdi; Cosh, Michael H.; Berg, Aaron; Toth, Brenda

2015-01-01

389

High-resolution rainfall estimation for Helsinki urban area using Helsinki radar network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution precipitation data is a crucial factor for hydrological applications in urban areas. Small fluctuations in precipitation fields are of great importance considering the fast response of urban catchments due to the dominance of impervious surfaces. High resolution precipitation observations are needed in order to characterize these fluctuations. Weather radar provides high spatial resolution precipitation estimations. However, the quality of its observations in an urban environment is significantly degraded, among other things, by ground clutter and beam-blockage. A solution for this problem is to use a radar network, where the data gaps of one radar will be filled by using observations from the others. Very few cities have dedicated weather radar networks. In some cities, like Helsinki, there are several weather radars covering the metropolitan area, but they are operated by different organizations. In this study, we show how such systems can be used to build a network and what is the advantage of using radarnetworks for estimating precipitation in urban catchments. The urban Helsinki area is covered by observations from three individual-purpose C-band weather radars (Helsinki University's Kumpula (KUM), Vaisala Oy's Kerava (KER) and Finnish Meteorological Institute's Vantaa (VAN)). We used the data from these radars to form a network and we design a similar task which runs at the same time in each radar couple of times per day. Nonetheless, it is challenging to make them observe at the same area at exactly the same time, which could lead to fast changing, short precipitation events being missed. Hence, synchronization and temporal resolution are the main concerns when building a network. Consequently, to decrease the impact of these restrictions in the Helsinki radar network we propose the use of the optic flow interpolation algorithm to retrieve information in between two radar observations and use the retrieved dataset from the three radars to estimate rainfall. The accuracy of this method is studied by comparing the composite rainfall estimation with both single radar observations and ground measurements.

Rojas, Laura; Nordling, Kalle; Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

2014-05-01

390

AN AREA EFFICIENT, SCALABLE, HIGH SPEED SERIAL FULL MESH SWITCH FABRIC DESIGN FOR FPGA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration into FPGA of high-speed serial IO blocks enables the creation of flexible switching solutions that scale to meet customer requirements in a manner not cost-effective in standard products. This paper describes a Mesh Fabric switch architecture available for the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro family of devices. The design provides a configurable mesh interconnect for line cards that can be

Hamish Fallside

391

High-Level Production of the Industrial Product Lycopene by the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum  

PubMed Central

The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93–99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3?,4?-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product. PMID:22865070

Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf

2012-01-01

392

Methods for slow axis beam quality improvement of high power broad area diode lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high brightness direct diode laser systems, it is of fundamental importance to improve the slow axis beam quality of the incorporated laser diodes regardless what beam combining technology is applied. To further advance our products in terms of increased brightness at a high power level, we must optimize the slow axis beam quality despite the far field blooming at high current levels. The later is caused predominantly by the built-in index step in combination with the thermal lens effect. Most of the methods for beam quality improvements reported in publications sacrifice the device efficiency and reliable output power. In order to improve the beam quality as well as maintain the efficiency and reliable output power, we investigated methods of influencing local heat generation to reduce the thermal gradient across the slow axis direction, optimizing the built-in index step and discriminating high order modes. Based on our findings, we have combined different methods in our new device design. Subsequently, the beam parameter product (BPP) of a 10% fill factor bar has improved by approximately 30% at 7 W/emitter without efficiency penalty. This technology has enabled fiber coupled high brightness multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. In this paper, we will elaborate on the methods used as well as the results achieved.

An, Haiyan; Xiong, Yihan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg

2014-03-01

393

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST): a Wide Field, High Angular Resolution Observatory for High Energy Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a proposed next-generation high-energy gamma-ray telescope for studying emission from astrophysical sources in the 10 MeV to 300 GeV energy range. It has been se;ected by NASA for a Mission Concept Study. The primary scientific targets include active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, neutron stars, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic high-energy radiation. GLAST relies on the unambigious identification of incident gamma-rays by detection of the electron and positron that result from pair creation in a thin converter material. Measurement of the energy and direction of the electron-positron shower provides information about the energy and direction of the incident gamma-ray. The GLAST design utilizes modern solid-state particle detector technology and recently developed advanced space-qualified computers. In particular, position-sensitive silicon strip detectors, interleaved between thin converters, are used to track particles. Because of this technical approach, the telescope design can be easily optimized to a range of sizes. For example, accomodation of GLAST within a Delta II size launch system results in an instrument with capabilities well beyond those of the highly successful EGRET currently operating on the Compton Observatory; namely, a broader energy range, larger effective area, wider field of view, and single-photon angular resolution 2 to 5 times more precise than EGRET's resolution. GLAST will have a maximum effective area of 8000 cm(2) above 300 MeV, a field of view of 2.6 sr, and a single photon angular resolution (rms projected) of 0.3deg at 1 GeV, approaching 0.03deg above 20 GeV.

Wood, K.; Michelson, P.; GLAST Collaboration

1995-12-01

394

Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments.  

PubMed

A very large area (7.5 mm(2)) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 10(14) W/cm(2) illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ~4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles. PMID:25273720

Flippo, K A; Kline, J L; Doss, F W; Loomis, E N; Emerich, M; Devolder, B; Murphy, T J; Fournier, K B; Kalantar, D H; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Merritt, E C; Perry, T S; Tregillis, I L; Welser-Sherrill, L; Fincke, J R

2014-09-01

395

Radioresistance in natural populations of Drosophila nebulosa from a Brazilian area of high background radiation.  

PubMed

D. nebulosa, collected in two woods of a high background radiation area (both in Iron Hills, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil), were compared to and found to be more resistant than flies collected as controls in two other woods of an adjacent area. This was the second time that average differences in radioresistance between natural populations were established. Previous experiments were carried out with D. willistoni, in the same area and in comparable fashion. In spite of their higher radiation resistance the flies from the radiation area carried a higher expressed load than the controls. The following tests were performed to estimate the differences: (a) survival, after whole body exposure to 90 000 R of 60Co-gamma-rays on 120 strains set up from single inseminated females and (b) reproductive performance, in 240 duplicate croses, measured in terms of the difference between irradiated series (males received 3000 R of 60Co-gamma-rays) and their unirradiated counterparts. The data are based on an offspring of 293784 individuals. Futhermore, two diallel crosses between sensitive and resistant strains have shown that the differences probably are due mainly to additive genes. PMID:1117876

Kratz, F L

1975-03-01

396

Reconstruction of the volcanic history of the Tacámbaro-Puruarán area (Michoacán, México) reveals high frequency of Holocene monogenetic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 690 km2 Tacámbaro-Puruarán area located at the arc-front part of the Michoácan-Guanajuato volcanic field in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) records a protracted history of volcanism that culminated with intense monogenetic activity in the Holocene. Geologic mapping, 40Ar/39Ar and 14C radiometric dating, and whole-rock chemical analyses of volcanic products provide insights to that history. Eocene volcanics (55-40 Ma) exposed at uplifted blocks are related to a magmatic arc that preceded the TMVB. Early TMVB products are represented by poorly exposed Pliocene silicic domes (5-2 Ma). Quaternary (<2 Ma) volcanoes (114 mapped) are mainly scoria cones with lavas (49 vol.%), viscous lava flows (22 vol.%), and lava shields (22 vol.%). Erupted products are dominantly either basaltic andesites (37 vol. %), or andesites (17 vol.%), or span across both compositions (28 vol.%). Basalts (9 vol.%), dacites (4 vol.%), shoshonites (2 vol.%), and other alkali-rich rocks (<3 vol.%) occur subordinately. Early-Pleistocene volcanism was bimodal (dacites and basalts) and voluminous while since 1 Ma small-volume eruptions of intermediate magmas have dominated. Higher rates of lithospheric extension in the Quaternary may have allowed a larger number of small, poorly evolved dikes to reach the surface during this period. Eruptive centers as old as 1.7 Ma are aligned in a NE direction parallel to both, basement faults and the direction of regional compressive stress, implying structural control on volcanic activity. Data suggest that volcanism was strongly pulsatory and fed by localized low-degree partial melting of mantle sources. In the Holocene, at least 13 eruptions occurred (average recurrence interval of 800 years). These produced ~3.8 km3 of basaltic andesitic to andesitic magma and included four eruptions dated at ~1,000; 4,000; 8,000; and 11,000 years bc (calibrated 14C ages). To date, this is one of the highest monogenetic eruption frequencies detected within such a small area in a subduction-related arc-setting. These anomalous rates of monogenetic activity in an area with thick crust (>30 km) may be related to high rates of magma production at depth and a favorable tectonic setting.

Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle; Siebe, Claus; Layer, Paul; Salinas, Sergio

2012-07-01

397

Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide levels in soil and plant products from agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to assess the levels of selected heavy metals and pesticides in soil and plant products from an agricultural area of Belgrade, Serbia and to indicate possible sources and risks of contamination. Soil, vegetable, and fruit samples from the most important agricultural city areas were collected from July to November of 2006. Metal contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, whereas pesticide residues were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction performed using solid-phase microextraction technique. Soil characterization based on the determination of selected physical and chemical properties revealed heterogeneous soils belonging to different soil groups. The concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in soil samples do not exceed the limits established by national and international regulations. Residues of the herbicide atrazine were detected in three soil samples, with levels lower than the relevant limit. The presence of other herbicides, namely prometryn, chloridazon, acetochlor, flurochloridone, and napropamide, was registered in some soil samples as well. Among the insecticides investigated in the soil, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos were the only ones detected. In most of the investigated vegetable samples from the Obrenovac area, Pb and Cd contents are higher in comparison with the maximum levels, indicating the emission of coal combustion products from local thermal power plants as a possible source of contamination. Residue levels of some herbicides and insecticides (metribuzin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin) determined in tomato, pepper, potato, and onion samples from Slanci, Ovca, and Obrenovac areas are even several times higher than the maximum residue levels. Inappropriate use of these plant protection products is considered to be the most probable reason of contamination. Because increased levels of heavy metals and pesticide residues found in plant products could pose a risk to consumers' health, their continual monitoring before product distribution to city markets is indispensable. PMID:19603130

Markovi?, Mirjana; Cupa?, Svjetlana; Durovi?, Rada; Milinovi?, Jelena; Kljaji?, Petar

2010-02-01

398

Discriminant Analysis of Undaria pinnatifida Production Areas Using Trace Elemental Analysis.  

PubMed

Increasingly, attention is being paid to declaring the origin of agricultural and marine products after the advent of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; commonly known as mad-cow disease). The display of the production centers on U. pinnatifida has been required in Japan since 2006. As an example of testing in another marine product, near-infrared spectra (NIR) and trace elemental analysis of U. pinnatifida are proven effective methods for discriminating production centers by us and Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center (FAMIC). In the present study, we found that X-ray fluorescence analysis of Br was also effective for the discrimination of production centers. The results of our study suggest that a combination of NIR and X-ray fluorescence analysis is a convenient and efficient method for determination due simple sampling procedures and increased effectiveness. PMID:20490259

Kaihara, Mikio

2010-01-01

399

High tributyltin and imposex levels in the commercial muricid Thais chocolata from two Peruvian harbor areas.  

PubMed

The first appraisal of butyltin (BT) contamination linked with imposex incidence in Peruvian coastal areas was performed in the present study. Imposex occurrence and BT levels in female bodies were analyzed in the rock snail Thais chocolata distributed along 10 sites in areas under the influence of Callao and Chimbote Harbors. Imposex levels associated to high tributyltin (TBT) concentrations were observed in six of 10 studied sites, and the highest imposex levels were seen in gastropods collected near the harbor terminals. Tributyltin concentrations were the highest reported for gastropod mollusks (up to 662?ng?Sn?g(-1)) in recent studies. Although TBT-based antifouling paints have been banned globally (International Maritime Organization, 2008), the combination of high imposex and TBTs level with butyltin degradation index values indicated fresh TBT inputs in these Peruvian coastal areas. Thus, the need to implement local regulatory strategies related to the use of TBT-free antifouling paints is urgent, as is a thorough assessment of the effectiveness of the TBT global ban. Moreover, the wide distribution of T. chocolata combined with its capability to elicit imposex and bioaccumulate BTs renders this a good sentinel species for TBT contamination along the western South American coast. PMID:22410964

Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto

2012-05-01

400

A novel high specific surface area conducting paper material composed of polypyrrole and Cladophora cellulose.  

PubMed

We present a novel conducting polypyrrole-based composite material, obtained by polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of iron(III) chloride on a cellulose substrate derived from the environmentally polluting Cladophora sp. algae. The material, which was doped with chloride ions, was molded into paper sheets and characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, N 2 gas adsorption analysis, cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and conductivity measurements at varying relative humidities. The specific surface area of the composite was found to be 57 m (2)/g and the fibrous structure of the Cladophora cellulose remained intact even after a 50 nm thick layer of polypyrrole had been coated on the cellulose fibers. The composite could be repeatedly used for electrochemically controlled extraction and desorption of chloride and an ion exchanging capacity of 370 C per g of composite was obtained as a result of the high surface area of the cellulose substrate. The influence of the oxidation and reduction potentials on the chloride ion exchange capacity and the nucleation of delocalized positive charges, forming conductive paths in the polypyrrole film, was also investigated. The creation of conductive paths during oxidation followed an effective medium rather than a percolative behavior, indicating that some conduction paths survive the polymer reduction steps. The present high surface area material should be well-suited for use in, e.g., electrochemically controlled ion exchange or separation devices, as well as sensors based on the fact that the material is compact, light, mechanically stable, and moldable into paper sheets. PMID:18774844

Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif; Bennett, Alfonso E Garcia; Strømme, Maria

2008-10-01

401

Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess ongoing changes in high latitude vegetation productivity we compared spatiotemporal patterns in remotely sensed vegetation productivity in the tundra and boreal zones of North America and Eurasia. We compared the long-term GIMMS (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to the more recent and advanced MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) NDVI data set, and mapped circumpolar trends in a gross productivity metric derived from the former. We then analyzed how temporal changes in productivity differed along an evergreen-deciduous gradient in boreal Alaska, along a shrub cover gradient in Arctic Alaska, and during succession after fire in boreal North America and northern Eurasia. We find that the earlier reported contrast between trends of increasing tundra and decreasing boreal forest productivity has amplified in recent years, particularly in North America. Decreases in boreal forest productivity are most prominent in areas of denser tree cover and, particularly in Alaska, evergreen forest stands. On the North Slope of Alaska, however, increases in tundra productivity do not appear restricted to areas of higher shrub cover, which suggests enhanced productivity across functional vegetation types. Differences in the recovery of post-disturbance vegetation productivity between North America and Eurasia are described using burn chronosequences, and the potential factors driving regional differences are discussed.

Beck, Pieter S. A.; Goetz, Scott J.

2011-10-01

402

Production of interleukin-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from residents of a marshland area in China endemic for Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokine production was assessed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 67 individuals living in an area endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in China (Dongting Lake, Hunan Province), and 11 control subjects from a non-endemic part of the same Province. Production of IL-10 was measured following in vitro stimulation of PBMC using whole parasite extract (SWAP) or a panel of recombinant Schistosoma japonicum antigens (22-kDa tegumental membrane-associated antigen, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, paramyosin, 14-kDa fatty acid-binding protein and 28-kDa glutathione S-transferase) which are of recognized interest in the development of protective immunity to schistosomiasis. Significantly, PBMC isolated from the exposed population compared with the non-exposed population produced higher levels of IL-10. There was a trend towards higher mean levels of IL-10 release in putatively resistant (insusceptible) (consistently egg negative but highly exposed) individuals compared with susceptible (egg-positive) subjects from the exposed population. Analysis of individual exposure (the duration of water contact and the percent body surface area in contact with water, expressed as m2 h/day) vs. IL-10 production indicated a weak but consistent and statistically significant inverse correlation, with lower levels of exposure being associated with higher levels of IL-10. These results suggest an association between IL-10 production and resistance to S. japonicum in subjects from this Chinese population exposed to infection. PMID:11269278

McManus, D P; Ross, A G; Sleigh, A C; Williams, G M; Yang, W; Li, Y S; Li, Y; Acosta, L; Waine, G J

1999-08-01

403

The effects of residence duration in high background radiation areas on immune surveillance  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The effective dose received by humans from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv y-1, but this is 10.2 mSv y-1 for inhabitants of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation, especially in high doses. Nonetheless carcinogenesis of low doses is uncertain. A recent epidemiological study in high background radiation areas of Ramsar showed that the cancer incidence in this era is lower than neighbors. The reason of this different behavior is under study yet. NK cells, helper, and Cytotoxic T cells are most important components of the tumor immune surveillance. The counts and activities of these cells and also leukocytes, lymphocyte, neutrophil cells, and other important parameters were studied in the residents of Ramsar with different duration of exposure to chronic low dose radiation. Materials and Methods: Fifty residents of high background radiation areas, who were between 25 and 35 years and fully healthy, were selected randomly and their consent was obtained. Then, 2 cc fresh peripheral bloods were taken in sterile conditions. Complete blood cell counts were performed by an automatic hematology analyzer and CD4+, CD8+, NK, and CD107a+ cell counts were determined by monoclonal antibodies and flowcytometry. CD4+ and CD8+ percentages and the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined and the data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The percentages of CD4+ cells increase, but the counts of CD107a+ cells decline in higher exposure durations. The other parameters did not have significant regression with exposure duration. Conclusions: These confirm that living in high background radiation areas may induce changes in the immune system gradually and address more investigations. PMID:23633866

Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Abediankenari, Saeid; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah; Khosravifarsani, Meysam

2013-01-01

404

Large area CMOS bio-pixel array for compact high sensitive multiplex biosensing.  

PubMed

A novel CMOS bio-pixel array which integrates assay substrate and assay readout is demonstrated for multiplex and multireplicate detection of a triplicate of cytokines with single digit pg ml(-1) sensitivities. Uniquely designed large area bio-pixels enable individual assays to be dedicated to and addressed by single pixels. A capability to simultaneously measure a large number of targets is provided by the 128 available pixels. Chemiluminescent assays are carried out directly on the pixel surface which also detects the emitted chemiluminescent photons, facilitating a highly compact sensor and reader format. The high sensitivity of the bio-pixel array is enabled by the high refractive index of silicon based pixels. This in turn generates a strong supercritical angle luminescence response significantly increasing the efficiency of the photon collection over conventional farfield modalities. PMID:25490928

Sandeau, Laure; Vuillaume, Cassandre; Contié, Sylvain; Grinenval, Eva; Belloni, Federico; Rigneault, Hervé; Owens, Roisin M; Fournet, Margaret Brennan

2014-12-10

405

Spatially-explicit bioenergetics of Pacific sardine in the Southern California Bight: are mesoscale eddies areas of exceptional prerecruit production?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous research shows that offshore mesoscale eddies in the Southern California Bight region are areas where sardine larval abundance is significantly increased relative to inshore, slope and surrounding offshore waters. In order for mesoscale eddies to be a mechanism linking climate and sardine population variability they must be areas of exceptional prerecruit production. Temperature and prey data from various Southern California Bight (SCB) habitats, including offshore eddies, were applied to a spatially-explicit bioenergetic model which predicts sardine prerecruit growth potential. Growth potential was similar in inshore, slope, and eddy regions (11% and 12% day -1), and was lower in the offshore region, 9% day -1. To estimate production in eddy and non-eddy habitats, growth potential was multiplied by habitat-specific estimates of sardine larval biomass from at-sea surveys. A production index, a measure of potential production resulting from individual growth rate potential and local abundance, was greater in the model cyclonic eddy than in all other regions by more than an order of magnitude. In fact, the production index in the eddy was four times greater than in all other regions combined.

Logerwell, Elizabeth A.; Lavaniegos, Bertha; Smith, Paul E.

406

Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift  

E-print Network

Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

2007-07-13

407

Adsorbed Natural Gas Storage in Optimized High Surface Area Microporous Carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is an attractive alternative technology to compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG) for the efficient storage of natural gas, in particular for vehicular applications. In adsorbants engineered to have pores of a few molecular diameters, a strong van der Walls force allows reversible physisorption of methane at low pressures and room temperature. Activated carbons were optimized for storage by varying KOH:C ratio and activation temperature. We also consider the effect of mechanical compression of powders to further enhance the volumetric storage capacity. We will present standard porous material characterization (BET surface area and pore-size distribution from subcritical N2 adsorption) and methane isotherms up to 250 bar at 293K. At sufficiently high pressure, specific surface area, methane binding energy and film density can be extracted from supercritical methane adsorption isotherms. Research supported by the California Energy Commission (500-08-022).

Romanos, Jimmy; Rash, Tyler; Nordwald, Erik; Shocklee, Joshua Shawn; Wexler, Carlos; Pfeifer, Peter

2011-03-01

408

Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic selection has increased production levels of livestock species considerably. However, apart from a favourable increase in production, animals in a population that have been selected for high production efficiency seem to be more at risk for behavioural, physiological and immunological problems. Examples are presented of over 100 references on undesirable (cor)related effects of selection for high production efficiency, with

W. M. Rauw; E. Kanis; E. N. Noordhuizen-Stassen; F. J. Grommers

1998-01-01

409

Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land-management units. Heuristic models provide a means by which to integrate understanding of ecosystem structure, composition, and function, in the midst of numerous ecosystem drivers.

Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

2011-01-01

410

Potential health risk in areas with high naturally-occurring cadmium background in southwestern China.  

PubMed

In various parts of the world, high cadmium (Cd) concentrations in environment are not related to anthropogenic contamination but have natural origins. Less is known about health risks that arise under these conditions. This study aimed to discuss the pollution of Cd with natural sources, and to investigate the concentration of Cd in food crops and the urine of inhabitants in an area of southwestern China. The results showed that the arable soils are moderately contaminated by Cd (Igeo=1.51) relative to the local background, with a high ecological risk (Er=218). The chemical fractions of Cd in soils with natural sources are probably controlled by parent materials and mostly in residual phase. The average Cd concentrations were 0.68mgkg(-1) (fresh weight) in local vegetables, 0.04mgkg(-1) in rice, and 0.14?gL(-1) in water. Leafy vegetable tends to accumulate more Cd than the other crops. The calculated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) had a much higher value (4.33) for Cd, suggesting that Cd represents a significant potential risk to the local population. The urinary Cd concentrations (mean at 3.92?gL(-1) for male and 4.85?gL(-1) for female) of inhabitants in the study area were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the control area (mean at 0.8?gL(-1) for male and 0.42?gL(-1) for female). Male and female test subjects had similar urinary Cd levels (p>0.05), but age seemed to lead to an increase in Cd in the urine. These findings show that naturally-occurring Cd in local soils is taken up appreciably by local food crops, and that dietary exposure of Cd through vegetable ingestion is a major exposure pathway for local populations, and a potential risk to public health in the study area. PMID:25463862

Liu, Yizhang; Xiao, Tangfu; Baveye, Philippe C; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Li, Huajun

2015-02-01

411

76 FR 4549 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals; Technical Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

[Federal Register Volume 76, Number 17 (Wednesday, January...2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals...concerning testing of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to...

2011-01-26

412

Highly variable phenology across the driest inhabited continent characterized by the Australian Phenology Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work for the first time quantified inter- and intra-annual variabilities in phenological cycles across Australia for 2000-2013 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data as input for the Australian Phenology Product. The Australian Phenology Product was designed to accommodate the complexity of Australian conditions featuring vast areas covered by arid and semi arid ecosystems. The product was developed under the Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and is disseminated by the AusCover TERN Sydney node. It provides an internally consistent quantification of phenological cycles of vegetation greening and browning that can inform, agricultural applications, wildfire fuel accumulation, land surface modeling, ecosystem research and climate change studies. Based on the Australian Phenology Product we were able to characterize high inter- and intra-annual variabilites of phenological cycles across large areas of arid and semi-arid Australia between 2000 and 2013 and linked these spatial-temporal variability patterns with atmospheric circulation indices such as SOI. This resulted in a spatially explicit representation of extreme vegetation productivity response to regional climatic variability highlighting the effect of the transition between El Nino drought to La Nina floods in 2011 (Fig 1: average and standard anomalies of annual EVI integrated over the phenological cycle [iEVI]). This first characterization of the inter-annual variability in vegetation phenology across the driest inhabited continent is of special interest to vegetation and ecosystem monitoring and modeling as Australia's rainfall has been described as more variable and the vegetation as different from equivalent climatic zone around the world.

Broich, M.; Huete, A. R.; Held, A. A.; Ma, X.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Devadas, R.

2013-12-01

413

Effects of a ferment soy product on the adipocyte area reduction and dyslipidemia control in hypercholesterolemic adult male rats  

PubMed Central

Background Available data on the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on circulating lipids and adiposity are not completely settled. This study aimed to observe the effects of a fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti on central obesity and dyslipidemia control in Wistar adult male rats. Methods Over a period of 8 weeks, animals had "ad libitum" food intake and water consumption as well as body weight and food consumption was monitored. The animals were assigned to four different experimental groups: Control Group (C); Control + Fermented Product Group (CPF); Hypercholesterolemic diet group (H); and Hypercholesterolemic + Fermented Product Group (HPF). The HPF and CPF groups received an intragastric administration of 1 ml of fermented product daily. After the experimental period the animals were killed by decapitation, blood was collected to measure cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol plasma concentration. Adipocyte circumference, lipolysis and lipogenis rates were measures using epididymal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissues. Results The results demonstrated that 1 ml/day/rat of the fermented soy product promoted important benefits such as reduced cholesterolemia in hypercholesterolemic diet group and the adipocyte circumference in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet group. Conclusion The fermented soy product enriched with Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus Jugurti decreased circulating lipids levels and reduced adipocyte area in rats. PMID:19087298

Cheik, Nadia Carla; Rossi, Elizeu Antônio; Guerra, Ricardo Luís Fernandes; Tenório, Neuli Maria; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia Maria; Viana, Fabiana Pavan; Manzoni, Marla Simone Jovenasso; Carlos, Iracilda Zeponni; Leão da Silva, Patrícia; Vendramini, Regina Célia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

2008-01-01

414

Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600?C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form? process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

2010-01-01

415

Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600 C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

2010-01-01

416

Superparamagnetic high-surface-area Fe3O4 nanoparticles as adsorbents for arsenic removal.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic ascorbic acid-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with a high specific surface area were successfully synthesized via an environmentally friendly hydrothermal route in the absence of any templates. The as-synthesized ascorbic acid-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles have a diameter of less than 10 nm, thus leading to a high specific surface area of about 179 m(2)/g, which is even larger than those of well-defined mesoporous structures. The only used capped agent is ascorbic acid, which serves as a functionalized molecule to make sure the high dispersibility and stability of the ascorbic acid-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles in aqueous solution. The ascorbic acid-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic properties at room temperature and saturation magnetization approaches 40 emu g(-1). The ascorbic acid-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were evaluated as an absorbent to remove heavy metal arsenic from wastewater. The adsorption data obeyed the Langmuir equation with a maximum adsorption capacity of 16.56 mg/g for arsenic (V), and 46.06 mg/g for arsenic (III). PMID:22494901

Feng, Liyun; Cao, Minhua; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yongshuang; Hu, Changwen

2012-05-30

417

Molded, high surface area polymer electrolyte membranes from cured liquid precursors.  

PubMed

Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) for fuel cells have been synthesized from easily processable, 100% curable, low molecular weight reactive liquid precursors that are photochemically cured into highly proton conductive solid membranes. The liquid precursors were directly cured into membranes of desired dimensions without the need for further processing steps such as melt extrusion or solvent casting. By employing chemical cross-linking, high proton conductivities can be achieved through the incorporation of significant levels of acidic groups without rendering the material water-soluble, which plagues commonly used non-cross-linked polymers. Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) from these PEMs resulted in fuel cells that outperformed those based on commercial materials. Moreover, these liquid precursors enabled the formation of three-dimensional, patterned PEMs with high fidelity, micron-scale features by using soft lithographic/micromolding techniques. The patterned membranes provided a larger interfacial area between the membrane and catalyst layer than standard flat PEMs. MEAs composed of the patterned membranes demonstrated higher power densities over that of flat ones without an increase in the macroscopic area of the fuel cells. This can potentially miniaturize fuel cells and promote their application in portable devices. PMID:17002393

Zhou, Zhilian; Dominey, Raymond N; Rolland, Jason P; Maynor, Benjamin W; Pandya, Ashish A; DeSimone, Joseph M

2006-10-01

418

High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature estimation over urban areas with uncertainty indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable for studying land surface processes and interactions with the atmosphere and it is listed in the Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) identified by international organizations like Global Climate Observing System. It is a valuable source of information for a range of topics in earth sciences and essential for urban climatology studies. Detailed, frequent and accurate LST mapping may support various urban applications, like the monitoring of urban heat island. Currently, no spaceborne instruments provide frequent thermal imagery at high spatial resolution, thus there is a need for synergistic algorithms that combine different kinds of data for LST retrieval. Moreover, knowing the confidence level of any satellite-derived product is highly important to the users, especially when referred to the urban environment, which is extremely heterogenic. The developed method employs spatial-spectral unmixing techniques for improving the spatial resolution of thermal measurements, combines spectral library information for emissivity estimation and applies a split-window algorithm to estimate LST with an uncertainty estimation inserted in the final product. A synergistic algorithm that utilizes the spatial information provided by visible and near-infrared measurements with more frequent low resolution thermal measurements provides excellent means for high spatial resolution LST estimation. Given the low spatial resolution of thermal infrared sensors, the measured radiation is a combination of radiances of different surface types. High spatial resolution information is used to quantify the different surface types in each pixel and then the measured radiance of each pixel is decomposed. The several difficulties in retrieving LST from space measurements, mainly related to the temperature-emissivity coupling and the atmospheric contribution to the thermal measurements, and the measurements themselves, introduce uncertainties in the final product, which are quantified here.

Mitraka, Zina; Lazzarini, Michele; Doxani, Georgia; Del Frate, Fabio; Ghedira, Hosni

2014-05-01

419

KSAS/WSE Policy: Travel to War Zones and High Risk Areas for Graduate Students, Faculty and Staff  

E-print Network

KSAS/WSE Policy: Travel to War Zones and High Risk Areas for Graduate Students, Faculty and Staff, staff, and graduate students who travel to high-risk areas of the world (including war zones materials related to international travel. It met with the University's risk and benefits managers

Ghosh, Somnath

420

Derivation and validation of Canada-wide coarse-resolution leaf area index maps using high-resolution satellite imagery and ground measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the surface parameters that has importance in climate, weather, and ecological studies, and has been routinely estimated from remote sensing measurements. Canada-wide LAI maps are now being produced using cloud-free Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery every 10 days at 1-km resolution. The archive of these products began in 1993. LAI maps at

J. m. Chen; G. Pavlic; L. Brown; J. Cihlar; S. g. Leblanc; H. p. White; R. J Hall; D. R Peddle; D. J King; J. A Trofymow; E Swift; J Van der Sanden; P. K. E Pellikka

2002-01-01

421

Violation of the area law and long-range correlations in infinite-dimensional-matrix product states  

SciTech Connect

We propose to construct a family of states of one-dimensional spin chains by replacing the finite-dimensional matrices in matrix product states by infinite-dimensional operators constructed from bosonic annihilation and creation operators. The resulting states are demonstrated to violate the area law and to exhibit long-range correlations. In addition, we propose an efficient way to prepare the states experimentally, in which the spins interact sequentially with an ancilla system.

Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Cirac, J. Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, DE-85748 Garching (Germany); Sierra, German [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UAM-CSIC, ES-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2011-05-15

422

Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium.

King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Herdt, Gregory C. (Denver, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Denver, CO)

1997-01-01

423

Self assembled molecular monolayers on high surface area materials as molecular getters  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a gettering material that may be used as a filtration medium to remove pollutants from the environment. The gettering material comprises a high surface area material having a metal surface that chemically bonds n-alkanethiols in an organized manner thereby forming a molecular monolayer over the metal surface. The n-alkanethiols have a free functional group that interacts with the environment thereby binding specific pollutants that may be present. The gettering material may be exposed to streams of air in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or streams of water to remove specific pollutants from either medium. 9 figs.

King, D.E.; Herdt, G.C.; Czanderna, A.W.

1997-01-07

424

Mesoporous carbon nanofibers with a high surface area electrospun from thermoplastic polyvinylpyrrolidone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been synthesized from thermoplastic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using electrospinning in combination with a novel three-step heat treatment process, which successfully stabilizes the fibrous morphology before carbonization that was proven to be difficult for thermoplastic polymers other than polyacrylonitrile (PAN). These CNFs are both mesoporous and microporous with high surface areas without subsequent activation, and thus overcome the limitations of PAN based CNFs, and are processed in an environmentally friendly and more cost effective manner. The effects of heat treatment parameters and precursor concentration on the morphologies and porous properties of CNFs have been investigated, and their application as anodes for lithium ion batteries has also been demonstrated.

Wang, Peiqi; Zhang, Dan; Ma, Feiyue; Ou, Yun; Chen, Qian Nataly; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

2012-10-01

425

Role of self-sufficiency, productivity and diversification on the economic sustainability of farming systems with autochthonous sheep breeds in less favoured areas in Southern Europe.  

PubMed

Traditional mixed livestock cereal- and pasture-based sheep farming systems in Europe are threatened by intensification and specialisation processes. However, the intensification process does not always yield improved economic results or efficiency. This study involved a group of farmers that raised an autochthonous sheep breed (Ojinegra de Teruel) in an unfavourable area of North-East Spain. This study aimed to typify the farms and elucidate the existing links between economic performance and certain sustainability indicators (i.e. productivity, self-sufficiency and diversification). Information was obtained through direct interviews with 30 farms (73% of the farmers belonging to the breeders association). Interviews were conducted in 2009 and involved 32 indicators regarding farm structure, management and economic performance. With a principal component analysis, three factors were obtained explaining 77.9% of the original variance. This factors were named as inputs/self-sufficiency, which included the use of on-farm feeds, the amount of variable costs per ewe and economic performance; productivity, which included lamb productivity and economic autonomy; and productive orientation, which included the degree of specialisation in production. A cluster analysis identified the following four groups of farms: high-input intensive system; low-input self-sufficient system; specialised livestock system; and diversified crops-livestock system. In conclusion, despite the large variability between and within groups, the following factors that explain the economic profitability of farms were identified: (i) high feed self-sufficiency and low variable costs enhance the economic performance (per labour unit) of the farms; (ii) animal productivity reduces subsidy dependence, but does not necessarily imply better economic performance; and (iii) diversity of production enhances farm flexibility, but is not related to economic performance. PMID:23552287

Ripoll-Bosch, R; Joy, M; Bernués, A

2013-04-01

426

Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 e{mu}A of O{sup 7+} and 1.15 emA of O{sup 6+}, more than 100 e{mu}A of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar{sup 13+}, Ca{sup 13+}, Fe{sup 13+}, Co{sup 14+} and Kr{sup 18+}, and tens of e{mu}A of heavy ions with charge states to Kr{sup 26+}, Xe{sup 28+}, Au{sup 35+}, Bi{sup 34+} and U{sup 34+} have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 e{mu}A, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe{sup 36+}, Au{sup 46+}, Bi{sup 47+} and U{sup 48+}. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I {ge} 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams.

Xie, Z.Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1997-09-01

427

High Differentiation among Eight Villages in a Secluded Area of Sardinia Revealed by Genome-Wide High Density SNPs Analysis  

PubMed Central

To better design association studies for complex traits in isolated populations it's important to understand how history and isolation moulded the genetic features of different communities. Population isolates should not “a priori” be considered homogeneous, even if the communities are not distant and part of a small region. We studied a particular area of Sardinia called Ogliastra, characterized by the presence of several distinct villages that display different history, immigration events and population size. Cultural and geographic isolation characterized the history of these communities. We determined LD parameters in 8 villages and defined population structure through high density SNPs (about 360 K) on 360 unrelated people (45 selected samples from each village). These isolates showed differences in LD values and LD map length. Five of these villages show high LD values probably due to their reduced population size and extreme isolation. High genetic differentiation among villages was detected. Moreover population structure analysis revealed a high correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Our study indicates that history, geography and biodemography have influenced the genetic features of Ogliastra communities producing differences in LD and population structure. All these data demonstrate that we can consider each village an isolate with specific characteristics. We suggest that, in order to optimize the study design of complex traits, a thorough characterization of genetic features is useful to identify the presence of sub-populations and stratification within genetic isolates. PMID:19247500

Pirastu, Nicola; Persico, Ivana; Sassu, Alessandro; Picciau, Andrea; Prodi, Dionigio; Fraumene, Cristina; Mocci, Evelina; Manias, Maria Teresa; Atzeni, Rossano; Cosso, Massimiliano; Pirastu, Mario

2009-01-01

428

Environmental geochemistry of a highly polluted area: the Mazarambroz Pb-Zn mine (Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities, as mining, can alter the concentrations of metals in the environmental compartments and facilitate their dispersion (Moreno Grau, 2003). Total concentrations are usually evaluated, but they do not provide information about the bioavailability and toxicity of metals, since changes in the environmental conditions cause selective release of the total metal content (Sahuquillo et al., 2003). Thus, the bioavailability or toxic effects of the metals can only be studied by determining their chemical partitioning (Quevauviller, 1998). Leaching by selective chemical extracts is the conventional method for evaluating the availability of elements. The Mazarambroz Pb-Zn mine, located in the Castilla-La Mancha region (central Spain), is an important case of abandoned Pb-Zn sulphide mine, with high concentrations of other highly toxic heavy metals such as Cu, As and Cd. The objectives of this work were to determine the extent of the heavy metal contamination and to study the heavy metal bioavailability, by the application of selective chemical extractions, in the Mazarambroz mine area. Soil and sediment samples were taken from the studied area according to a systematic sampling type (regular grid). Soil main parameters (reactivity and conductivity) were determined. Chemical extractions were made using two different selective reagents: i) CaCl2 (0.01M) (Novozamsky et al., 1993) and; ii) EDTA (0.05 M) (Quevauviller, 1996). The contents of heavy metals in the extracts were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The compounds extracted with the CaCl2 solution represent the water soluble and exchangeable fractions, so they can be considered as the metal concentration that can be absorbed by plants. EDTA solution extracts metals on exchange sites of both inorganic and organic complexes. Additionally, it can dissolve calcareous materials through complexation of calcium and magnesium (Chao, 1984; Sahuquillo et al., 2003). Total geochemical analyses of the samples were carried out using a Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy analyser (EDXRF). Results were statistically processed with Minitab 15.0 and mapped with Surfer 9. The mean concentrations of the studied heavy metals are significantly higher than the world average, the Castilla-La Mancha region mean and the local reference value for soils, so the studied area can be considered a polluted area as consequence of the mining process carried out in the Mazarambroz Pb-Zn mine. The total affected area by high concentrations of heavy metals differs depending on the studied element, reaching the maximum extension and importance for lead and zinc. In the studied area, soil and sediments are also affected by very low pH and high conductivity, which indicates the presence of soluble salts, likely sulfates, products of the sulfide oxidation. These results would imply an increase in the heavy metal mobility and transference to the plants and, as a consequence, an increase in the environmental damage since the area close to the mine is used for the cultivation of cereals and rabbit hutting. The results of the extractions show that the highest extracted concentrations are obtained from the sediment samples due to the influence of the stream in the weathering of this type of materials. References - Chao, T.T., 1984. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 20, 101-135. - Moreno Grau, M.D., 2003. Environmental Toxicology: Risk Assessment to Human Health. Mc Graw Hill, Madrid. - Novozamsky, I., Lexmond, T.M., Houba, V.J.G., 1993. A single extraction procedure of soil for evaluation of uptake f some heavy metals by plants. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 51, 47-58. - Quevauviller, P., Lachica, M., Barahona, E., Rauret, G., Ure, A., Gomez, A., Muntau, H., 1996. Interlaboratory comparison of EDTA and DTPA procedures prior to certification of extractable trace elements in calcareous soil. Science of the Total Environment, 178, 137-132. - Quevauviller, Ph., 1998. Oper

González-Corrochano, Beatriz; Higueras, Pablo; Jurado, Verónica; María Esbrí, José; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

2013-04-01

429

Detection of flood extent in urban areas using high resolution TerraSAR-X data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flooding is a major hazard in both rural and urban areas worldwide, but it is in urban areas that the impacts are most severe. An investigation of the ability of high resolution TerraSAR-X data to detect flooded regions in urban areas is described. An important application for this would be the calibration and validation of the flood extent predicted by an urban flood inundation model. To date, research on such models has been hampered by lack of suitable distributed validation data. The study uses a 3m resolution TerraSAR-X image of a 1-in-150 year flood near Tewkesbury, UK, in 2007, for which contemporaneous aerial photography exists for validation. The DLR SETES SAR simulator was used in conjunction with airborne LiDAR data to estimate regions of the TerraSAR-X image in which water would not be visible due to radar shadow or layover caused by buildings and taller vegetation, and these regions were masked out in the flood detection process. A semi-automatic algorithm for the detection of floodwater was developed, based on a hybrid approach. Flooding in rural areas adjacent to the urban areas was detected using an active contour model (snake) region-growing algorithm seeded using the un-flooded river channel network, which was applied to the TerraSAR-X image fused with the LiDAR DTM to ensure the smooth variation of heights along the reach. A simpler region-growing approach was used in the urban areas, which was initialized using knowledge of the flood waterline in the rural areas. Seed pixels having low backscatter were identified in the urban areas using supervised classification based on training areas for water taken from the rural flood, and non-water taken from the higher urban areas. Seed pixels were required to have heights less than a spatially-varying height threshold determined from nearby rural waterline heights. Seed pixels were clustered into urban flood regions based on their close proximity, rather than requiring that all pixels in the region should have low backscatter. This approach was taken because it appeared that urban water backscatter values were corrupted in some pixels, perhaps due to contributions from side-lobes of strong reflectors nearby. The TerraSAR-X urban flood extent was validated using the flood extent visible in the aerial photos. It turned out that 76% of the urban water pixels visible to TerraSAR-X were correctly detected, with an associated false positive rate of 25%. If all urban water pixels were considered, including those in shadow and layover regions, these figures fell to 58% and 19% respectively. These findings indicate that TerraSAR-X is capable of providing useful data for the calibration and validation of urban flood inundation models.

Mason, D.; Speck, R.; Devereux, B.; Schumann, G.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.

2009-04-01

430

Absolute Effective Area of the Chandra High-Resolution Mirror Assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched in July 1999, and is returning exquisite sub-arcsecond x-ray images of star groups, supernova remnants, galaxies, quasars, and clusters of galaxies. In addition to being the premier X-ray observatory in terms of angular and spectral resolution, Chandra is the best calibrated X-ray facility ever flown. We discuss here the calibration of the effective area of the High Resolution Mirror Assembly. Because we do not know the absolute X-ray flux density of any celestial source, this must be based primarily on ground measurements and on modeling. In particular, we must remove the calibrated modeled responses of the detectors and gratings to obtain the mirror area. For celestial sources which may be assumed to have smoothly varying spectra, such as the Crab Nebula, we may verify the continuity of the area calibration as a function of energy. This is of significance in energy regions such as the Ir M-edges, or near the critical grazing angle cutoff of the various mirror shells.

Schwartz, D. A.; David, L. P.; Donnelly, R. H.; Edgar, R. J.; Gaetz, T. J.; Jerius, D.; Juda, M.; Kellogg, E. M.; McNamara, B. R.; Dewey, D.

2000-01-01

431

Measuring the Pattern of High Temperature Areas in Urban Greenery of Nanjing City, China  

PubMed Central

Most studies are concerned with the cooling effect of urban greenery, but some have also revealed that some patches changed from normal temperature areas (NTAs) into high temperature areas (HTAs). Landsat TM images and ArcGIS software are used to analyze the HTA patterns in Nanjing, China. The HTAs’ lower limit temperature was defined as the 30.26 °C and the percentage of the HTAs in all greenery was 24.87%. The disturbance on the cooling effect existed but not evidently. The average impervious ratio (IR) and surface temperature (ST) of HTAs, respectively, were 3.76 times and higher 2.86 °C than those of NTAs. The structure of NTAs’ IR levels was extremely uneven but the HTAs’ were relatively even. However, the co-coefficient between the IR and ST in the whole greenery was small. Sampling analysis with the same ST and IR revealed that the complex environment in green buffer affected temperature differences; The adjacent HTAs, with its 89.78% in the study area, largely along the green patch, were far more than independent HTAs and presented a ring shape. Thus, the significantly heterogeneous urban environment inevitably resulted in diverse factors forming HTAs. PMID:23066406

Su, Weizhong; Yang, Guishan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Yinbao

2012-01-01

432

Examining the major contributors and controlling factors of ozone production in a rural area of the Yangtze River Delta region during harvest season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open biomass burning (OBB) has been reported to emit substantial amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and the mixing of OBB with urban plumes could exacerbate regional ozone (O3) pollution. In the present study, an observational field campaign was performed in a rural area at the edge of Yangtze River Delta region (YRDR) during harvest season when intensive open burning of wheat residues was observed. The O3 production rate at the site was calculated using a photochemical box model (Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism, Version 2) constrained by real-time ambient measurements (e.g., O3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the sum of NO2 + NO (NOx), J values). During the period impacted by OBB, the O3 concentration frequently exceeded 100 ppbv. Analysis showed that the net O3 production was pronounced, in particular when the site was characterized by a prevailing southerly wind that also brought substantial amounts of NOx emitted from urban areas. At these times, the maximum rate of O3 production was 20 ppbv h-1 with potential production rate of 102 ppbv on a daily basis. The O3 production at the site was typically VOC-sensitive in the morning because NOx dominated the plumes. However, in the afternoon, conditions became NOx-sensitive due to the rapid photochemical consumption of NOx in the production of O3. A positive matrix factorization analysis indicated that solvent usage and OBB were the primary contributors to the mass fraction of ambient NMHCs observed at the study site, and were responsible for 35 and 23% of the total O3 production, respectively. The preferential presence of NOx in the morning inhibited net O3 production; meanwhile O3 built up in the afternoon due to a decrease in NOx concentrations. These results indicated that a joint effort in the regulation of solvent (aromatics) usage and OBB, as well as NOx from on-road vehicle exhaust may be effective in eliminating high-O3 pollution risk in the rural areas of the YRDR.

Pan, X.; Kanaya, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Wang, Z.; Kudo, S.; Uno, I.

2014-12-01

433

Chinese rice production area adaptations to climate changes, 1949-2010.  

PubMed

Climate change has great impact on cropping system. Understanding how the rice production system has historically responded to external forces, both natural and anthropogenic, will provide critical insights into how the system is likely to respond in the future. The observed historic rice movement provides insights into the capability of the rice production system to adapt to climate changes. Using province-level rice production data and historic climate records, here we show that the centroid of Chinese rice production shifted northeastward over 370km (2.98°N in latitude and 1.88°E in longitude) from 1949 to 2010. Using a linear regression model, we examined the driving factors, in particular climate, behind such rice production movement. While the major driving forces of the rice relocation are such social economic factors as urbanization, irrigation investment, and agricultural or land use policy changes, climate plays a significant role as well. We found that temperature has been a significant and coherent influence on moving the rice center in China and precipitation has had a significant but less spatially coherent influence. PMID:25625767

Li, Zhengguo; Liu, Zhenhuan; Anderson, Weston; Yang, Peng; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; You, Liangzhi

2015-02-17

434

Tobacco control policies in outdoor areas of high volume American transit systems.  

PubMed

Very little is known about how smoking and other tobacco use is regulated in outdoor and semi-enclosed spaces across transit systems. The purpose of this study was to understand how American transit systems are regulating cigarettes and other tobacco products, including smokeless tobacco and e-cigarettes, in outdoor or quasi-outdoor spaces. Within four regions of the United States, a purposive convenience sample was taken of the top five volume American transit systems (n = 20) based on annual ridership. Each transit authority website was systematically reviewed to produce a cross-sectional study of the published policies regarding tobacco product use for indoor, outdoor, and quasi-outdoor spaces of transit property; rules regarding cigarettes, smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes were identified. Policies regulating tobacco use were enacted by transit systems and/or the cities and states in which transit systems are located. The majority (80%) of transit systems banned smoking in outdoor areas; few prohibited smokeless tobacco use (15%, n = 3) and some disallowed e-cigarettes (30%, n = 6). Violation consequences ranged widely from none to verbal warnings, ejection from transit property, fines, and imprisonment. Regulating smoking in outdoor or quasi-outdoor environments is common in American transit environments. These policies can help protect vulnerable populations from exposure to secondhand smoke and communicate a tobacco-free norm. PMID:24719261

Klein, Elizabeth G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Berman, Micah

2014-08-01

435

High Resolution Tsunami Modelling for the Evaluation of Potential Risk Areas in Setubal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modeling has a relevant role in today's natural hazards mitigation planning as it can cover a wide range of natural phenomena. This is also the case for an event like a tsunami. In order to support the urban planning or prepare emergency response plans it is of major importance to be able to properly evaluate the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipments. The use of high resolution models can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas which complemented with other data such as the type of buildings, location of prioritary equipments, etc., may effectively contribute to better identify the most vulnerable zones, define rescue and escape routes and adequate the emergency plans to the constraints associated to these type of events. In the framework of FP6 SCHEMA project these concepts are being applied to different test sites and a detailed evaluation of the vulnerability of buildings and people to a tsunami event is being evaluated. One of the sites selected it is located in Portugal, in the Atlantic coast, and it refers to Setúbal area which is located about 40 km south of Lisbon. Within this site two specific locations are being evaluated: one is the city of Setúbal (in the Sado estuary right margin) and the other is the Tróia peninsula (in the Sado estuary left margin). Setúbal city is a medium size town with about 114,000 inhabitants while Tróia is a touristic resort located in a shallow area with a high seasonal occupation and has the river Sado as one of the main sources of income to the city. Setúbal was one of the Portuguese villages that was seriously damaged by the of 1755 earthquake event. The 1755 earthquake, also known as the Great Lisbon Earthquake, took place on 1 November 1755, the catholic holiday of All Saints, around 09:30 AM. The earthquake was followed by a tsunami and fires which caused a huge destruction of Lisboa and Setúbal In the framework of the present study, a detailed evaluation of the site vulnerability to a tsunami event based on the consideration of the wave heights, buildings type and access routes characteristics was performed. The wave height and most probable inundation areas was made on the basis of the simulation of three earthquake potential sources with different level of impact (extreme, moderate and weak) in the Setúbal area. In the case of the extreme event the selected source for simulation corresponds to an interpretation of the origins of the 1755 earthquake proposed by Baptista et al (2003).In this study it is suggest that the 1755 tsunami event had two sources: one located in the Marques de Pombal thrust (MPTF) and a second one located in the Guadalquivir Bank. The other two sources are based on a study done by Omira et al (2009) regarding the design of a Sea-level Tsunami Detection Network for the Gulf of Cadiz. In the framework of this study there are analyzed different areas of seismic activity in the South of Portugal and proposed some possible earthquake sources and characteristics. The tsunami propagation simulations were performed using MOHID modelling system which is an open source three-dimensional water modelling system, developed by Hidromod and MARETEC (Marine and Environmental Technology Research Center - Technical University of Lisbon). As a result of the study detailed inundation maps associated to the different events and to different tide levels were produced. As a result of the combination of these maps with the available information of the city infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, prioritary buildings, etc.) there were also produced high scale vulnerability maps, escape routes, emergency routes maps.

Ribeiro, João.; Silva, Adélio; Leitão, Paulo

2010-05-01

436

Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

Migda?, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.; ?wi ?tos?awski, J.

2000-03-01

437

Global products of vegetation leaf area and fraction absorbed PAR from year one of MODIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm based on the physics of radiative transfer in vegetation canopies for the retrieval of vegetation green leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) from surface reflectances was developed and implemented for operational processing prior to the launch of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the TERRA platform in December of 1999. The

R. B. Myneni; S. Hoffman; Y. Knyazikhin; J. L. Privette; J. Glassy; Y. Tian; Y. Wang; X. Song; Y. Zhang; G. R. Smith; A. Lotsch; M. Friedl; J. T. Morisette; P. Votava; R. R. Nemani; S. W. Running

2002-01-01

438

COMPARISON OF PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTION BETWEEN NATURAL AND ALTERED AREAS IN WEST BAY, TEXAS'  

E-print Network

- front housing sites along the Gulf of Mexico coast. When these sites are developed, shallow marsh of natural shore zone and marsh vegetation; (2) changes in marsh drainage patterns and nutrient inputsUter. Sampling stations were established in dead-end canals in a housing development, natural marsh areas

439

A seasonal survey of click beetles in two potato production areas of Interior Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wireworms are becoming more of a problem in potato [Solanum tuberosum (L.)] producing areas, especially where potatoes are seasonally rotated with grasses, like in interior Alaska. The objective of this research was to study the species composition and seasonal biology of adult elaterids (Coleoptera...

440

METHODS AND STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING FERAL HOG DAMAGE IN GRAIN PRODUCTION AREAS IN CENTRAL TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texas Wildlife Services (WS) personnel conduct feral hog damage management projects to protect a variety of resources in Texas. For the past 12 years, WS personnel have conducted feral hog (Sus scrofa) damage management projects on an 11,000 acre wildlife management area (WMA) and surrounding farmlands located in central Texas. The WMA is managed by the United States (US) Army

T. J. Muir; Gary McEwen

2007-01-01

441

Object and rule based approach for classification of high spatial resolution data over urban areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the inherent features of high resolution data, such as the shape and the texture, this paper proposed an object and rule based fuzzy classification method. First, multi-scale segmentations were used to obtain homogeneous objects at different scales. According to fuzzy classification ideas, these segmented objects were further classified by using the corresponding spectral, shape, texture, topology and other object-related characteristics. This method not only overcomes the limitations of pixel based classifications, but also takes advantage of the inherent features of high resolution data. To fully compare and analyze th