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1

Agglomeration Economies among High Technology Firms in Advanced Production Areas: The Case of Denver\\/Boulder  

Microsoft Academic Search

LYONS D. (1995) Agglomeration economies among high technology firms in advanced production areas: the case of Denver\\/Boulder, Reg. Studies29, 265–278. Research on the agglomeration economies generated by high technology industry has tended to focus on either core high technology areas or fabrication clusters. This paper directs attention to intermediate or advanced production areas through an investigation of the agglomeration advantages

Donald Lyons

1995-01-01

2

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas  

E-print Network

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas Charles G-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia

Cochlan, William P.

3

Pesticide occurrence in groundwater in areas of high-density row crop production in Alabama, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-density row crop production occurs in three areas of Alabama that are underlain by productive aquifers, northern Alabama, southeastern Alabama, and Baldwin County in southwestern Alabama. The U.S. Geological Survey collected five groundwater samples from each of these three areas during 2009 for analysis of selected pesticides. Results of these analyses showed detections for 37 of 152 analytes. The three most frequently detected compounds were atrazine, 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-triazine (CIAT), and metolachlor. The highest concentration for any analyte was 4.08 micrograms per liter for metolachlor.

Moreland, Richard S.

2011-01-01

4

Mass Production of PV Modules with 18% Total-Area Efficiency and High Energy Delivery Per Peak Watt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes photovoltaic modules in high- volume production with world-record efficiency. SunPower Corporation has achieved a total-area efficiency of 18% by using proprietary back-contact silicon cells and new module design features. The modules have been certified under IEC61215 edition 2 and UL1703, are free of hazardous materials, and have aesthetic characteristics which facilitate customer adoption. High energy production per

Doug Rose; Oliver Koehler; Neil Kaminar; Bill Mulligan; David King

2006-01-01

5

High surface area calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

2013-05-01

6

Ozone production rate and hydrocarbon reactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of high ozone concentration in Houston  

E-print Network

stringent emis- sion controls, approximately 1/3 of the population of the U.S. is exposed to ground level O3Ozone production rate and hydrocarbon reactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of high ozone; revised 3 April 2002; accepted 5 April 2002; published 28 May 2002. [1] Observations of ozone (O3) and O3

7

Inexpensive approach for production of high-surface-area silica nanoparticles from rice hulls biomass.  

PubMed

In this study, we prepared amorphous and crystalline silica nanoparticles from rice hulls biomass using pyrolysis technique at different processing temperatures such as 923, 973, 1023, 1073, 1123 and 1173 K. X-ray fluorescence studies show that the purity of all the synthesised silica nanoparticles is in the range of 98-99.7%. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that amorphous silica nanoparticles are formed at 923-1023 K, whereas crystalline particles at 1073-1173 K. Morphology and microstructure of silica nanoparticles are studied by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Silica nanoparticles obtained at different processing temperatures yield particle size in the range of 6-100 nm. Chemical composition and surface functionalities of the particles are examined by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies. The developed method effectively uses rice hulls biomass as a green natural source in the synthesis of amorphous and crystalline silica nanoparticles with high-specific surface area. The optimised processing temperature (1023 K) enables amorphous silica nanoparticles to have high-specific surface area of 538 m(2)g(-1). PMID:25429510

Palanivelu, Rajagounder; Padmanaban, Periasamy; Sutha, Sadhasivam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam

2014-12-01

8

Development of urban area geospatial information products from high resolution satellite imagery using advanced image analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest generation of commercial satellite imaging sensors have a number of characteristics (e.g. high spatial resolution, multispectral bands, and quick revisit time), that make them ideal data sources for a variety of urban area applications. The goal of this doctoral research was to develop advanced automated and semi-automated image analysis and classification techniques for the extraction of urban area geospatial information products from commercial high-resolution satellite imagery. We developed two semi-automated urban land cover classification approaches, as well as fully automated techniques for road network and 2-D building footprint extraction. By utilizing fully automated feature extraction techniques for training data generation, a self-supervised classification approach was also developed. The self-supervised classifier is significantly more accurate than traditional classification approaches, and unlike traditional approaches it is fully automated. The development of automated and semi-automated techniques for generation of urban geospatial information products is of high importance not only for the many applications where they can be used but also because the large volume of data collected by these sensors exceeds the human capacity of trained image specialists to analyze. In addition, many applications, especially those for the military and intelligence communities, require near real time exploitation of the image data.

Shackelford, Aaron K.

9

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas  

PubMed Central

Oceanic high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll environments have been highlighted for potential large-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives, both in the degree of carbon removal and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. Previous open ocean enrichment experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia. Most Pseudonitzschia species in coastal waters produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), with their blooms causing detrimental marine ecosystem impacts, but oceanic Pseudonitzschia species are considered nontoxic. Here we demonstrate that the sparse oceanic Pseudonitzschia community at the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll Ocean Station PAPA (50° N, 145° W) produces approximately 200 pg DA L?1 in response to iron addition, that DA alters phytoplankton community structure to benefit Pseudonitzschia, and that oceanic cell isolates are toxic. Given the negative effects of DA in coastal food webs, these findings raise serious concern over the net benefit and sustainability of large-scale iron fertilizations. PMID:20231473

Trick, Charles G.; Bill, Brian D.; Cochlan, William P.; Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Pickell, Lisa D.

2010-01-01

10

Development of urban area geospatial information products from high resolution satellite imagery using advanced image analysis techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The latest generation of commercial satellite imaging sensors have a number of characteristics (e.g. high spatial resolution, multispectral bands, and quick revisit time), that make them ideal data sources for a variety of urban area applications. The goal of this doctoral research was to develop advanced automated and semi-automated image analysis and classification techniques for the extraction of urban area

Aaron K. Shackelford

2004-01-01

11

Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the ability of this high resolution based methodology to forecast and hindecast cultivated area, which is particularly relevant in climate-sensitive East Africa.

Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

2013-12-01

12

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity  

E-print Network

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity of 5 poplar clones during; The stem volume and biomass (stem + branches) production, net photosynthesis of mature leaves and leaf area found in volume production, woody biomass production, total leaf area and net photosynthesis. Above

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2013-01-01

14

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2012-01-01

15

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2011-01-01

16

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2010-01-01

17

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

2011-01-01

18

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

2012-01-01

19

7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means...

2010-01-01

20

7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means...

2011-01-01

21

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

...5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn due north and south through the Post Office in White Water,...

2014-01-01

22

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all...

2010-01-01

23

Peanut Profits and Irrigation Yield Response in the Northern Texas High Plains, A Non-Traditional Production Area.  

E-print Network

) averaged 5.96 in. Stages of economic production are also indicated in Figure 1. Stage I of economic production indicates the range of irrigation over which average physical prod uct (APP) increases to a maximum. Profits are not yet max imized over... this stage since APP increases as water increases. In Stage II, however, APP decreases as water increases and, at some point within Stage II, the in cr:mental value of added product (MPP multiplied by pnce) becomes less than the added cost of irrigation...

Harman, Wyatte L.; Regier, C.; Petr, F.; Lansford, V.D.

1990-01-01

24

7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.  

...area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [27 FR 5188, June 2,...

2014-01-01

25

7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [66 FR 58356, Nov. 21,...

2013-01-01

26

7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...area. Production area means the Counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat in the State of Washington and all counties in Washington lying east thereof and Umatilla County in the State of...

2010-01-01

27

7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [27 FR 5188, June 2,...

2011-01-01

28

7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [66 FR 58356, Nov. 21,...

2012-01-01

29

7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.  

...area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [66 FR 58356, Nov. 21,...

2014-01-01

30

7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

2010-01-01

31

7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

2013-01-01

32

7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

2012-01-01

33

7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

2011-01-01

34

7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.  

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

2014-01-01

35

High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek

2012-02-01

36

7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the counties of Adams, Valley, Lemhi, Clark, and Fremont in the State of Idaho, and all of the counties in Idaho lying south...

2013-01-01

37

7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.  

...Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the counties of Adams, Valley, Lemhi, Clark, and Fremont in the State of Idaho, and all of the counties in Idaho lying south...

2014-01-01

38

7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.4 Production...area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the counties of Adams, Valley, Lemhi, Clark, and...

2010-01-01

39

7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 945.4 Production...area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the counties of Adams, Valley, Lemhi, Clark, and...

2012-01-01

40

Forecasting industrial production in the Euro area  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The creation of the Euro area has increased the importance of obtaining timely information about short-term changes in the\\u000a area's real activity. In this paper we propose a number of alternative short term forecasting models, ranging from simple\\u000a ARIMA models to more complex cointegrated VAR and conditional models, to forecast the index of industrial production in the\\u000a euro area.

Giorgio Bodo; Roberto Golinelli; Giuseppe Parigi

2000-01-01

41

A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

Yue Kuo

2010-08-15

42

7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions ...Area of production. Area of production means the States of Oregon and...

2013-01-01

43

7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions ...Area of production. Area of production means the States of Oregon and...

2012-01-01

44

7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions ...Area of production. Area of production means the States of Oregon and...

2011-01-01

45

7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.  

...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions ...Area of production. Area of production means the States of Oregon and...

2014-01-01

46

7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production...

2010-01-01

47

7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

2011-01-01

48

7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

2010-01-01

49

7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

2013-01-01

50

7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.  

...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [33 FR 8585, June 12, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 19186, Dec. 4,...

2014-01-01

51

Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

2003-01-01

52

The global MODIS burned area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-observing satellite systems provide the potential for an accurate and timely mapping of burned areas, also known as fire-affected areas. Remote sensing algorithms developed to map burned areas are difficult to implement reliably over large areas however because of variations in both the surface state and those imposed by the sensing system. The availability of robustly calibrated, atmospherically corrected, cloud-screened,

David P. Roy; Luigi Boschetti; Christopher O. Justice

53

To settle or protect? A global analysis of net primary production in parks and urban areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We test—at the global scale—the hypothesis that human beings tend to build settlements in areas of high biological productivity, and protect (as parks) areas of low productivity. Furthermore, we propose an alternative measure of the extent and effectiveness of the global protected areas network based on potential net primary production (NPP0). The average NPP0 in urban areas and parks is

Daniel W. O'Neill; David J. Abson

2009-01-01

54

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling...area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2011-01-01

55

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

...CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling...area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2014-01-01

56

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling...area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2012-01-01

57

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling...area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2013-01-01

58

7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.  

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon, and all counties south and southeast of the southern...

2014-01-01

59

7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon, and all counties south and southeast of the southern...

2011-01-01

60

7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...territory included within the boundaries of the County of Malheur in Oregon, and all counties south and southeast of the southern...

2010-01-01

61

The cascade high productivity language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

2004-01-01

62

7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.  

...area means that portion of the State of Florida which is bounded by the Suwannee River, the Georgia border, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Gulf of Mexico. [22 FR 10734, Dec. 27, 1957. Redesignated at 26 FR 12751, Dec. 30, 1961,...

2014-01-01

63

Cloudiness and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover maps provide an information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they allow to estimate the regional snow resource. Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. In this context, MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometeron on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloudiness can hide the ground, thus preventing snow detection. Here, we considered MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over Po river basin. Modeling the variability of snow cover duration, distribution and snow water equivalent is a first important step in investigating climate change impacts on the regime of the major Italian river. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analyzed and processed with the support of 500 m-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We firstly investigated the issue of cloudiness, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting season. Such a result is certainly related to satellite crossing times, since cloud coverage over mountains usually increases in the afternoon: however, in Aqua and Terra snow products it highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, on the basis of previous studies, we proposed a cloud removal procedure and its application to a wide area, characterized by high topographic and geomorphological heterogeneities such as northern Italy. While conceiving the new method, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there were not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we improved a temporal filter with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter. In the validation stage, the proposed procedure has been compared against others, showing improvements in the performance for our case study. At the same time it results quite handy both in terms of input data required and computational effort.

Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

2014-04-01

64

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production  

E-print Network

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou Department model accounts for the inter-temporal and spatial dependencies of multi-area wind power production. Results are presented for a case study of the California power system. Keywords - Wind power generation

Oren, Shmuel S.

65

Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

Dusterhoft, R.G. (Halliburton Energy Services, Duncan, OK (United States)); Chapman, B.J. (Halliburton Energy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States))

1994-06-20

66

Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.  

PubMed

?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ?-HCH, and ?-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention. PMID:22777609

Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

2013-04-01

67

New technologies and productivity growth in the euro area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the available evidence on the importance of information and communication technologies (ICT) for developments in average labour productivity (ALP) growth in the euro area. The contribution of ICT to ALP growth is found to have increased both in terms of production and investment over the 1990s (up to 2001). However, there is no evidence

Focco Vijselaar; Ronald Albers

2004-01-01

68

General view of the High Bay area of the Space ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the High Bay area of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows the specially modified fork lift used for horizontal installation and removal of the SSMEs into and out of the Orbiters. SSME number 2059 is in the background and is in the process of being scanned with a high-definition laser scanner to acquire field documentation for the production of historic documentatin. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

69

Nutrient depletion indicates high primary productivity in the Weddell Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Ocean, and in particular the Weddell Sea, have long been considered areas of high biological productivity1, but recent isotopic measurements of primary productivity have not confirmed this view2,3. Because the large Zooplankton and marine mammal populations of the Southern Ocean depend ultimately on phytoplankton as the base of the food web, accurate knowledge of primary productivity is essential

Joe C. Jennings; Louis I. Gordon; David M. Nelson

1984-01-01

70

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

71

Special Opportunities for Highly Sampled Areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the coverage areas for the two instruments that are scheduled to be on board the HyspIRI mission, (i.e.,visible to short wave infrared (VSWIR) and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) imager.)

Knox, Robert G.

2010-01-01

72

High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

2013-10-01

73

Focusing Resources on High-Priority Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new Perkins provides more flexibility to encourage innovation and program improvement; one of these areas of flexibility is the state-level "reserve" fund. This article looks at how Tennessee is using its funds to improve programming within the framework set out in the law.

Hyslop, Alisha

2009-01-01

74

Modeling biotic habitat high risk areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.

Despain, D.G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B.M.; Stephens, T.

2000-01-01

75

High throughput protein production screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and

Peter T. Beernink; Matthew A. Coleman; Brent W. Segelke

2009-01-01

76

Staphylococcus aureus in dairy products in the Bologna area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to evaluate the extent of contamination by Staphylococcus spp. and in particular by Staphylococcus aureus in dairy products on sale in the Bologna area. Staphylococcus aureus was found in 16.30% of the 135 cheese samples examined: 8.3% in soft cheese, 17.60% in blue cheese, 18.9% in semi-soft cheese and 25.0% in mozzarella-type cheese. The mean

Giovanna De Luca; Franca Zanetti; Serena Stampi

1997-01-01

77

Measuring Productivity on High Performance Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the high performance computing domain, the speed of execution of a program has typically been the prima ry performance metric. But productivity is also of con cern to high performance computing developers. In this pape r we will discuss the problems of defining and measuring productivity for these machines and we develop a mo del of productivity that includes

Marvin V. Zelkowitz; Victor R. Basili; Sima Asgari; Lorin Hochstein; Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Taiga Nakamura

2005-01-01

78

High power/large area PV systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major photovoltaic power system technology drivers for a wide variety of mission types were ranked. Each technology driver was ranked on a scale of high, medium, or low in terms of importance to each particular mission type. The rankings were then compiled to determine the overall importance of each driver over the entire range of space missions. In each case cost was ranked the highest.

Wise, Joseph; Baraona, Cosmo

1987-01-01

79

High-energy black hole production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black hole production in high-energy collisions is briefly surveyed. Included is a summary of recent developments and open problems relevant to collider (LHC) production, as well as of some theoretical issues pointing towards fundamental principles of quantum gravity.

Steven B. Giddings

2007-01-01

80

Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

2010-01-01

81

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/  

E-print Network

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/ J, Lubbock; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Program Specialist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research......................................................................................................................... 6 Table COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lamesa 1 Production Information

Mukhtar, Saqib

82

Analysis of satellite precipitation products referred to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitation measurement is a key factor for several scientific disciplines, research activities and management of human activities related to water resources. Climatology, meteorology and hydrology can be considered three main sectors in which precipitation estimation is carefully addressed although with different peculiarities. In order to retrieve precipitation information several products have been developed related to different information sources, methodologies and final products features. In this study we select a specific area in Sicily island (Italy) having high density rain gauges to evaluate of satellite precipitation products. Sicily has an area of 26,000 km2 and the gauge density of the network considered in this study is about 250 km2/gauge. It is an island in the Mediterranean sea with variegated climatology and morphology, which is considered as an interesting test site for satellite precipitation products on the European mid-latitude area. Four only satellite products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TMPA-RT, PERSIANN-CCS) along with two adjusted products (TMPA and PERSIANN Adjusted) have been selected for the study. Evaluation and comparisons between selected products is performed with reference to data provided by the gauge network of Sicily and using statistical and visualization tools. An interpolation procedure has been adopted to compare reference rain-gauge network data to satellite products. An effort to organize and characterize evaluation tools within a simplified application framework has been done. Then three evaluation index groups have been identified corresponding to related application groups. Results show that bias is considerable for all satellite products although adjusted products are effective reducing it. Climatic considerations are reported to address this issue along with an overall analysis of the PMW retrieval algorithm performances. A convective/stratiform classification procedure is used to relate precipitation features to satellite information and retrieval algorithms. A strong convective component is present probably due to the study area morphology. It results affecting PMW capability to retrieve information since most of the precipitation event are convective in nature.

Noto, L. V.; Lo Conti, F.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

2011-12-01

83

Extremely high secondary production of introduced snails in rivers.  

PubMed

The functional importance of invasive animals may be measured as the degree to which they dominate secondary production, relative to native animals. We used this approach to examine dominance of invertebrate secondary production by invasive New Zealand mudsnails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in rivers. We measured secondary production of mudsnails and native invertebrates in three rivers in the Greater Yellowstone Area (Wyoming, USA): Gibbon River, Firehole River, and Polecat Creek. Potamopyrgus production was estimated by measuring in situ growth rates and multiplying by monthly biomass; native invertebrate production was estimated using size frequency and instantaneous growth methods. Mudsnail growth rates were high (up to 0.06 d(-1)) for juvenile snails and much lower for adult females (0.003 d(-1)). Potamopyrgus production in Polecat Creek (194 g x m(-2) x yr(-1)) was one of the highest values ever reported for a stream invertebrate. Native invertebrate production ranged from 4.4 to 51 g x m(-2) x yr(-1). Potamopyrgus was the most productive taxon and constituted 65-92% of total invertebrate productivity. Native invertebrate production was low in all streams. Based on a survey of production measures from uninvaded rivers, the distribution of secondary production across taxa was much more highly skewed toward the invasive dominant Potamopyrgus in the three rivers. We suggest that this invasive herbivorous snail is sequestering a large fraction of the carbon available for invertebrate production and altering food web function. PMID:16827007

Hall, Robert O; Dybdahl, Mark F; VanderLoop, Maria C

2006-06-01

84

Dose area product reference levels in dental panoramic radiology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure DAP (Dose Area Product) values in panoramic radiology with the use of a DAP meter, to determine corresponding reference levels, and to compare DAP between panoramic and intraoral radiology. DAP was measured in 62 panoramic X-ray units for 3 types of exposure (male, female and child) and in 20 intraoral X-ray units of 50, 60 and 70 kVp. DAP reference levels were 117 mGy cm2, 97 mGy cm2 and 77 mGy cm2 for exposure of a male, female and child respectively. Results showed that DAP from a panoramic dental examination is approximately twice that from a single intraoral examination. DAP meter is a very convenient and easy to use tool for patient dosimetry and for the establishment of reference levels in dental panoramic radiology. PMID:15266083

Tierris, Christine E; Yakoumakis, Emmanuel N; Bramis, George N; Georgiou, Evangelos

2004-01-01

85

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

HCR, Washington, DC.

86

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2008-10-10

87

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2009-05-15

88

Arizona: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Arizona High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The drug threat posed to the Arizona HIDTA remained relatively unchanged in 2010 compared with 2009, with methamphetamine trafficking and abuse remaining the m...

2011-01-01

89

Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the results of previous modeling work to more precisely define the extent and magnitude of this plume. SRS proposes incorporating depth discrete sampling during any future characterization effort to optimize any proposed remediation system. Finally, by using a full three-dimensional model rather than the traditional quasi-three dimensional methods an efficient remediation system can be developed.

Jackson, D.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

1996-02-29

90

Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.  

PubMed

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R

2013-01-01

91

Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

2013-01-01

92

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

1999-05-11

93

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-05-11

94

Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

de Moura, Lourenço; de Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

2011-03-01

95

Production of high voltage by ion bombardment  

E-print Network

Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering PRODUCTION OF HIGH VOLTAGE BY ION BOMBARDMENT A Thesis by LUCAS CARTER PHINNEY Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved... as to style and content by: Ron R. Hart (Chair of Committee) Leslie Braby (Member) Don Parker (Member) William Burchill (Head of Department) December 2003 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering ABSTRACT Production of High Voltage by Ion Bombardment...

Phinney, Lucas Carter

2012-06-07

96

Health survey in high background radiation areas in China  

SciTech Connect

The radiation level in some regions of Yangjiang County, Guangdong Province, is about three times that in the neighboring control areas, but lower than that in some parts of high background radiation areas in India and Brazil. Results of the health survey carried out between 1972 and 1975, which did not demonstrate any significant difference between inhabitants living in the high-background and control areas, suggest that the size of the population investigated may be not large enough to reveal minor increments of detrimental effects at such a low dose range of ionizing radiation. Further investigation of a larger population is necessary.

Not Available

1980-08-22

97

High volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-10-13

98

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid\\u000a sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft\\/gummy candy,\\u000a caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar\\u000a products is their low water activity (a\\u000a w), which is known to

Sterling Thompson

99

Multiple Classifier System for Urban Area’s Extraction from High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, a land-cover extraction thematic mapping approach for urban areas from very high resolution aerial images is\\u000a presented. Recent developments in the field of sensor technology have increased the challenges of interpreting images contents\\u000a particularly in the case of complex scenes of dense urban areas. The major objective of this study is to improve the quality\\u000a of land-cover

Safaa M. Bedawi; Mohamed S. Kamel

100

High surface area carbon aerogel monoliths with hierarchical porosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter describes the synthesis and structural characterization of monolithic carbon aerogel (CA) materials that possess both high surface areas and hierarchical porosity. Thermal activation of a macroporous CA structure, one that was derived from an acetic acid-catalyzed sol–gel polymerization reaction, yields monolithic materials with large pore volumes and surface areas exceeding 3000m2\\/g. Given the flexibility of CA synthesis, this

Theodore F. Baumann; Marcus A. Worsley; T. Yong-Jin Han; Joe H. Satcher

2008-01-01

101

High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

Tobagi, Fouad A.

1988-01-01

102

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

Thompson, Sterling

103

Preparation of high-surface-area activated carbons from coconut shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-surface-area activated carbons were prepared by chemical activation of coconut shell with KOH as active agent. The influence of activation parameters on the final products was studied by varying the KOH-to-shell ratio, activation temperature and pre-heat temperatures. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77K. The surface area and pore volume of the carbons were estimated by BET,

Zhonghua Hu; M. P Srinivasan

1999-01-01

104

Low temperature carburization of high surface area tungsten powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductive decomposition of WO3 precursor powder gives high surface area ?-W at temperatures above 650 °C, ?-W at temperatures below 575 °C, and mixtures of ?-W and ?-W (in various ratios) at intermediate temperatures. The carburization behavior of these powders in flowing CO over the temperature range 350 °–700 °C is sensitive to the initial crystalline state of the powder.

L. Gao; B. H. Kear

1995-01-01

105

High frequency ocean acoustic tomography observation at coastal estuary areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) technique can obtain oceanographic information and has received much interest. High frequency OAT (in a narrow kHz range) can be used for small and confined areas, such as estuaries and bays, with complicated hydrological conditions. In this study, we investigate the application of high-frequency reciprocal transmission OAT to assess the sound speed, temperature, and current field in the Xiamen sea area using computer simulations and sea experiments. Based on the temperature data obtained from remote sensing and the predefined stream function, high frequency OAT is employed to reconstruct the two-dimensional sound speed, temperature, and current fields of a 1.2km×1.2km small-scale region. The correlation coefficient of the computer inversion result and the original data is higher than 0.8. The result shows that increasing the number of acoustic stations decreases the influence of the travel-time errors in high frequency OAT; however, excessively increasing the number of stations could not significantly improve the inversion accuracy. Furthermore, this method has been tested by a sea experiment on monitoring the shallow water temperature of Wuyuan Bay. High frequency OAT might provide an effective method for temperature and current observation at coastal estuary areas.

Zhao, Zongxi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wuyi; Chen, Dongsheng

2012-11-01

106

Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees developed over periods when burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data were available to indirectly estimate burned area. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated that the global annual area burned for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 13 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.

2010-03-01

107

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-01-01

108

SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

2009-12-01

109

Assessing variability and long-term trends in burned area by merging multiple satellite fire products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term, high quality estimates of burned area are needed for improving both prognostic and diagnostic fire emissions models and for assessing feedbacks between fire and the climate system. We developed global, monthly burned area estimates aggregated to 0.5° spatial resolution for the time period July 1996 through mid-2009 using four satellite data sets. From 2001-2009, our primary data source was 500-m burned area maps produced using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance imagery; more than 90% of the global area burned during this time period was mapped in this fashion. During times when the 500-m MODIS data were not available, we used a combination of local regression and regional regression trees to develop relationships between burned area and Terra MODIS active fire data. Cross-calibration with fire observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) allowed the data set to be extended prior to the MODIS era. With our data set we estimated the global annual area burned for the years 1997-2008 varied between 330 and 431 Mha, with the maximum occurring in 1998. We compared our data set to the recent GFED2, L3JRC, GLOBCARBON, and MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area products and found substantial differences in many regions. Lastly, we assessed the interannual variability and long-term trends in global burned area over the past 12 years. This burned area time series serves as the basis for the third version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) estimates of trace gas and aerosol emissions.

Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Collatz, G. J.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.

2009-12-01

110

Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

2012-09-01

111

A high force low area MEMS thermal actuator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new type of MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) actuator consisting of an array of in-plane micro-fabricated thermal buckle-beam actuators. The technology used in MEMS actuators is typically magnetic, electrostatic or thermal. Magnetic actuators may require special materials in the fabrication process while electrostatic actuators typically require high voltages, large chip areas and produce very low forces. Thermal actuators

Michael J. Sinclair

2000-01-01

112

Large-area, triple junction a-Si alloy production  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon alloy based triple junction 0.1 m[sup 2] modules with initial efficiencies greater than 11% have been produced using manufacturing equipment. Scale-up of equipment to process substrates 0.56 m[sup 2] in area is nearly complete.

Oswald, R.; Jansen, K.; Johnson, B.; Willing, F.; Raquet, J.; Kloss, T.; Morris, J.; Weiss, P.; Yang, L.; Hainsworth, M.C.; Ashenfelter, W.; Stabinsky, B.; Twesme, E.; Chen, L.F.; O'Dowd, J. (Solarex Corporation, Thin Film Division, 826 Newtown-Yardley Road, Newtown, Pennsylvania 18940 (United States))

1994-06-30

113

Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

Kanki, Barbara G.

1997-01-01

114

Production of high purity titanium by electrorefining  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of impurities in electrorefining of Ti by NaCl-KCl-TiClx molten salts and the production process of its molten salts have been studied. As a result, purification of salts, materials for the apparatus and the quality of anode Ti were important for the production of high purity Ti. By using purified molten salts and the apparatus constructed of Ni, impurities of the Ti deposit, such as Fe, Ni, could be lowered to about 0.01 ppm. The contents of Al and Cr of this Ti were about 0.1 ppm. Volatile impurities were removed from the Ti obtained in this process by electron beam melting and Ti ingots with grades in excess of 6N (except for gas elements) were obtained.

Kanda, Minoru; Sato, Kazusuke; Kimura, Etsuji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Omiya, Saitama (Japan). Central Research Inst.

1996-10-01

115

High Temperature Thermoelectric Device Concept Using Large Area PN Junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature thermoelectric device concept using large area nanostructured silicon p-type and n-type ( PN) junctions is presented. In contrast to conventional thermoelectric generators, where the n-type and p-type semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept in which a large area PN junction made from highly doped densified silicon nanoparticles is subject to a temperature gradient parallel to the PN interface. In the proposed device concept, the electrical contacts are made at the cold side eliminating the hot side substrate and difficulties that go along with high temperature electrical contacts. This concept allows temperature gradients greater than 300 K to be experimentally applied with hot side temperatures larger than 800 K. Electronic properties of the PN junctions and power output characterizations are presented. A fundamental working principle is discussed using a particle network model with temperature and electric fields as variables, and which considers electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity according to Fourier's law, as well as Peltier and Seebeck effects.

Chavez, R.; Angst, S.; Hall, J.; Stoetzel, J.; Kessler, V.; Bitzer, L.; Maculewicz, F.; Benson, N.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

2014-06-01

116

CASE STUDY OF ITOSHIRO DAM ON SOIL PRODUCTION AREA CAUSING DAM SEDIMENTATION  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to realize effective and efficient countermeasures against reservoir sedimentation in the near future. This paper shows the case study of JPOWER’s Itoshiro Dam regarding analysis of soil production area in the relevant dam’s basin. The authors are trying to clarify the major soil production area causing reservoir sedimentation by geological expertise and Egashira Model.

Kawata, Nobuaki; Momoshima, Akira; Maeda, Shuuichi; Shikano, Kumetoyo; Yoshino, Hideki; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Fujita, Masaharu

117

29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption...establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator be “employed within the area of production...section 13(b)(14) if the country elevator establishment by which he is...

2011-07-01

118

High Surface Area Molybdenum Nitride Support for Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Alternative supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells were synthesized and catalytic activity was explored using electrochemical analysis. High surface area, molybdenum nitride supports were synthesized by rapidly heating a gel of polyethyleneimine bound molybdenum in a tube furnace under a forming gas atmosphere. Subsequent disposition of platinum through an incipient wetness approach lead to dispersed crystallites of platinum on the conductive support. All the ceramic materials were characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM and electrochemical analysis. The supports without platinum are highly stable to acidic aqueous conditions and show no signs of oxygen reduction reactivity (ORR). However, once the 20 wt % platinum is added to the material, ORR activity comparable to XC72 based materials is observed.

Blackmore, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Elbaz, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brosha, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Mccleskey, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Burrell, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2011-01-01

119

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

Phillips, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brzezinski, M.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Marine Biotechnology Center

1998-12-31

120

High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation is divided into two main chapters, each focused on a different application for aerogel. The first chapter concerns the development of silica aerogel for thermal insulation. It begins with initial characterization of a silica aerogel insulation for a next-generation Advanced Radioisotope Stirling Generator for space vehicles. While the aerogel as made performs well, it is apparent that further improvements in mechanical strength and durability are necessary. The chapter then continues with the exploration of chlorotrimethysilane surface modification, which somewhat surprisingly provides a drastic increase in mechanical properties, allowing the inherently brittle silica network to deform plastically to >80% strain. It is hypothesized that the hydrophobic surface groups reduce capillary forces during drying, lowering the number of microcracks that may form and weaken the gel. This surface modification scheme is then implemented in a fiber-reinforced, opacified aerogel insulation for a prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. This is the first known report of aerogel insulation for thermoelectrics. The aerogel insulation is able to increase the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator by 40% compared with commercial high-temperature insulating wool. Unfortunately, the supercritical drying process adds significant cost to the aerogel insulation, limiting its commercial viability. The chapter then culminates in the development and characterization of an Ambiently Dried Aerogel Insulation (ADAI) that eliminates the need for expensive supercritical drying. It is believed that this report represents the first aerogel insulation that can be dried without undergoing a large volume change before "springing back" to near its original volume, which allows it to be cast into place into complex geometries and around rigid inclusions. This reduces a large barrier to the commercial viability of aerogel insulation. The advantages of ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Maloney, Ryan Patrick

121

Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

1999-01-01

122

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium...General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As required...

2013-07-01

123

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium...General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As required...

2012-07-01

124

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2010-07-01

125

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table...Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2011-07-01

126

Occurrence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Pork and Poultry Products from a Cattle-Rearing Area of France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat products were collected from public retail outlets and tested for the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in an area with a high prevalence of VRE reported in human fecal samples. VRE were detected in 66% of the samples, and a predominance of VanC strains was found, which is also true for human fecal samples. In a previous study we

KARINE GAMBAROTTO; MARIE-CECILE PLOY; FREDERIC DUPRON; MARIE GIANGIOBBE; FRANCOIS DENIS

2001-01-01

127

Socio-economic aspects of Gum Arabic production in Dalanj area, South Korodofan, Sudan.  

PubMed

Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers' associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production. PMID:24511757

Koli, A O; Eltayeb, A M; Sanjak, E M; Mohammed, M H

2013-11-01

128

Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross ? and gross ? activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross ? and gross ? activities in drinking water. The gross ? activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross ? activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. PMID:25087070

Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

2014-11-01

129

High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst  

DOEpatents

A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21

130

Characteristics of the flux of isoprene and its oxidation products in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the mixing ratios and fluxes of isoprene and its oxidation products, methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) from a tall flux tower in metropolitan Houston, Texas, during summertime using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID instrument. We show that isoprene was affected dominantly by biogenic emission sources during daytime, but also that tail-pipe emission sources (alongside 2-pentenes) are contributing during the rush hours and at night. The observed daytime mixing ratios of isoprene were much lower than over forested areas due to a comparatively low density of isoprene emitting trees in the tower's footprint area. Daytime isoprene fluxes displayed the expected light and temperature driven emission characteristics, and a detailed isoprene emissions model explained average fluxes fairly well. Our investigation of isoprene's oxidation products MACR and MVK showed that both anthropogenic and isoprene oxidation sources exist for MACR, while MVK was strongly dominated by isoprene oxidation between its emission and sampling points due to presumably high local OH radical concentrations. While biogenic emission modeling appears to work well for this urban environment when supplied with accurate input data, emission inventories used for ozone modeling may need to consider tailpipe isoprene (and MACR) emissions to properly account for urban concentrations, particularly higher morning abundances.

Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W.; Boedeker, Ian

2011-11-01

131

CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-08-01

132

Experimental performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at high combustion chamber pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion area ratio of 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1, was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.

Jankovsky, Robert S.; Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

1996-01-01

133

Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment of management opportunities and potentially adverse changes on adjacent lands. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Svancara, L. K.; Scott, J. M.; Loveland, T. R.; Pidgorna, A. B.

2009-01-01

134

High resolution AOT retrieval based on MODIS surface reflectance product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution of current MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) product is 10 km. This product is suitable for global research, but it faces difficulty in local area research, especially in a city. In order to get detail aerosol distribution in local area or a city, this article mainly discussed how to retrieve 1 km resolution AOT and how to estimate

Dabin Ji; Lin Sun; Jiancheng Shi; Tao Jiang

2010-01-01

135

Effect of Resistance-Area-Product and Thermal Environment on Writing of Magneto-Thermal MRAM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blocking temperature written magnetic random access memory element test structures of various sizes and tunnel barrier resistance area products were fabricated in order to study the dependence of writing efficiency and tunnel junction integrity on the the...

J. G. Deak, J. M. Daughton, A. V. Pohm

2006-01-01

136

Comment on the $?^+$-production at high energy  

E-print Network

We show that the cross sections of the $\\Theta^+$-pentaquark production in different processes decrease with energy faster than the cross sections of production of the conventional three-quark hyperons. Therefore, the threshold region with the initial energy of a few GeV or less seemsto be more favorable for the production and experimental study of $\\Theta^+$-pentaquark.

A. I. Titov; A. Hosaka; S. Date'; Y. Ohashi

2004-08-01

137

Production of high power femtosecond terahertz radiation  

SciTech Connect

The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is attracting interest for a broad range of applications ranging from diagnosing electron beams to biological imaging. Most sources of short pulse THz radiation utilize excitation of biased semiconductors or electro-optic crystals by high peak power lasers. For example, this was done by using an un-doped InAs wafer irradiated by a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Microwatt levels of THz radiation were detected when excited with FEL pulses at 1.06 mm wavelength and 10W average power. Recently substantially higher powers of femtosecond THz pulses produced by synchrotron emission were extracted from the electron beamline. Calculations and measurements confirm the production of coherent broadband THz radiation from relativistic electrons with an average power of nearly 20W, a world record in this wavelength range by a factor of 10,000. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. Potential applications of this exciting new source include driving new non-linear phenomena, performing pump-probe studies of dynamical properties of novel materials, and studying molecular vibrations and rotations, low frequency protein motions, phonons, superconductor band gaps, electronic scattering, collective electronic excitations (e.g., charge density waves), and spintronics.

Neil, George R.; Carr, G.L.; Gubeli III, Joseph F.; Jordan, K.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Shinn, Michelle; Tani, Masahiko; Williams, G.P.; Zhang, X.-C.

2003-07-11

138

Mapping soil water holding capacity over large areas to predict the potential production of forest stands  

E-print Network

at the soil pit scale (SWHC') and both the stone content at the soil pit scale and rock outcrop at the plot predictions being recorded for soils developed on marl, clay, and hollow silicate rocks, and in flat areas1 Mapping soil water holding capacity over large areas to predict the potential production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR , A. Villa ,  

E-print Network

URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR P. Gamba , A. Villa , , A. Plaza for remote sensing classification, especially in a urban environment. In this work, we will focus on the simulation of urban area environment at a low spatial resolution, comparable to the new hyperspectral sensors

Plaza, Antonio J.

140

Comparison of L3JRC and MODIS global burned area products from 2000 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a significant source of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere, biomass burning plays an important role in climate change and atmospheric chemistry at regional and global scales. The burned area is a critical parameter in estimating fire emissions. Recently, multiyear global burned area products with medium spatial resolution (1 km or 500 m) have been released, including

Di Chang; Yu Song

2009-01-01

141

Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

1990-01-01

142

Seasonal ice area and volume production of the Arctic Ocean: November 1996 through April 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) produces estimates of sea ice motion, deformation, and thickness of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover from time-sequential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by RADARSAT. Based on these products, we summarize the evolution of a region of the Arctic Ocean ice cover in terms of its area change, ice volume production, and multiyear

R. Kwok; G. F. Cunningham

2002-01-01

143

Concentration of international trade in high-technology products  

Microsoft Academic Search

International trade in high-technology products has been increasing at a rate faster than overall trade and world output. This paper examines whether trade in high-technology products has been associated with increased concentration of trade among a few countries. The paper explores market shares of leading exporters of high-technology products and concentration of trade in these products, measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman

Sadequl Islam

2001-01-01

144

High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have foreseen: Samples of rocks and soils to determine the Uranium concentration; Collection of water samples for the determination of Radon concentrations; Measurements of the Radon concentration in soil air; The Lecce's area is divided into 4 sub-areas, each of them with the same geological features: subsoil structure with high/normal/low fracturing, cracking, permeability, porosity, ecc... The potential Radon risk increases with the alteration's degree of subsoil structure. Results show that the 4 Lecce's subareas are characterized by average Radon value between 1.000-2.000 Bq/m3, and that in 2 of the 4 zones, characterized by high fracturing and big permeability, the range is high, from 400 Bq/m3 to over the 60.000 Bq/m3. The distribution of anomalies isn't homogeneous in the study zone, but as Hot-Spot and these are present in all sub-areas; the greatest number is detected in areas with high fracturing and cracking and in areas with lithological changes at different permeability. The others determinants factors in these areas are those anthropogenic; in some little zones belonging to subareas there are industrial and commercial areas built removing soil and damaging and altering the subsoil structure; in this way create zones of Radon accumulation in the soil air with fast ascent of the gas to the surface, and this produce high Radon concentration indoor. In the soil around these areas, few meters from buildings, and in the indoor air the Radon concentration is higher than 60.000 Bq/m3.

Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

2010-05-01

145

High frequency noise studies at the Hartousov mofette area (CZE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient noise analysis has been used as a reliable tool to investigate sub-surface structures at seismological quiet regions with none or less specific seismic events. Here, we consider the acoustic signals from a single mofette at the Hartoušov area (CZE) as a noise-like high frequency source caused by multiple near surface degassing processes in a restricted location. From this assumption we have used different array geometries for recording at least one hour of continuous noise. We installed triangular arrays with 3 component geophones: the first deployment consisted on two co-centric triangles with side length of 30 and 50 m with the mofette in the center; the second deployment consisted on two triangular arrays, both with side length of 30 m, co-directional to the mofette. Furthermore, we also installed profiles with 24 channels and vertical geophones locating them in different positions with respect to the mofette. In this work, we present preliminary results from the data analysis dependent on the geometry, to show the characteristics of the noise wave-field referring to frequency content and propagation features, such as directionality and surface wave velocity. The spectral analysis shows that the energy is concentrated in a frequency band among 10 and 40 Hz. However, in this interval there is no evidence of any exclusive fundamental frequencies. From this, man-induced influences can be identified as intermittent signal peaks in narrow frequency bands and can be separated to receive the revised mofette wave-field record. The inversion of dispersive surface waves, that were detected by interferometric methods, provides a velocity model down to 12 m with an S-wave velocity between 160 and 180 m/s on the uppermost layer. Furthermore, the interferometric signal properties indicate that it is not possible to characterize the mofette as a punctual source, but rather as a conglomerate of multiple sources with time and location variations.

Schmidt, Andreas; Flores-Estrella, Hortencia; Pommerencke, Julia; Umlauft, Josefine

2014-05-01

146

Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production  

PubMed Central

Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R.; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B.; Hiott, Lari M.; Chambers, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

147

Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products.  

SciTech Connect

The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m{sup 2}/g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal.

Totemeier, T. C.

1998-02-17

148

Center for By-Products Utilization High Durability Concrete Using  

E-print Network

. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Durable "Green" Concrete · Incorporate pulp and paper millCenter for By-Products Utilization High Durability Concrete Using High-Carbon Fly Ash and Pulp Mill-Products Utilization Durable Concrete in Northern Climates · Producing durable concrete in a freezing and thawing

Saldin, Dilano

149

Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

2013-01-01

150

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high- temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

151

[The productive district of textile asbestos in the Lower Iseo Lake area].  

PubMed

In the Bergamo area of Basso Sebino (lower Lake Iseo), for decades there has been a large concentration of small firms (mostly family-run), specialised in the production of rubber gaskets. Within this production field, some companies used to manufacture textile asbestos exclusively or as part of their business. The asbestos goods were therefore marketed as they were or subsequently cut and transformed into gaskets. Among the 5 companies involved, "Manifattura Colombo & C" was the first one that started this production in the district, and the one that engaged the greatest number of employees (considering both the Sarnico and Predore factories). In the Predore factory, operating from the fifties to 1979, the asbestos thread production was carried out exclusively and to the complete technological cycle (i.e. from crashing the raw asbestos that was brought in from Balangero). The whole process was performed in an extremely dusty environment (according to the witness of former workers), expecially during the first production steps. In the Sarnico factory which operated from 1920 to 1993, they produced textile asbestos items (laces, ropes, etc.), as well as rubber and metal gaskets. The latter were coupled with asbestos by means of metal-plastics co-moulding operations, in order to obtain gaskets highly resistant to exhaust vapours, gases, oils, solvents and so on. The environmental data available (referred to the 1980-1992 period), supply evidence of severe exposure in the first years of activity, whilst a sharp reduction in the asbestos-fiber concentration rate was achieved along the years, thanks mainly to the completion and improvement of exhaust systems installed on winding and braiding machines. Finally we shortly describe the work of the four other factories and in more detail that of the "Manifattura Sebina srl" is mentioned herein because, although this is a "typical" textile mill and exclusively manufacturing cotton products, a considerable number of cases of mesothelioma has been detected among its workforce. This has been attributed to the presence of asbestos insulated piping, to maintenance and replacement interventions on looms brake pads, and above all to the nearly 50 asbestos blankets that were employed in the weekly fire-fighting exercises, and usually leaned against the walls of departments, with no protection whatsoever. PMID:18050852

Caironi, Massimo; Polini, Sandro; Storto, Teodorico; Bertoli, Mariarosa

2007-01-01

152

The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.  

PubMed

Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors. PMID:25200960

Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Uber, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

2014-11-19

153

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

154

Particle Production in High-energy Heavy-ion Collisions  

E-print Network

Particle production mechanisms in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed in connection with recent experimental data from RHIC. Implications on mini-jet production, parton saturation and jet quenching are discussed.

Xin-Nian Wang

2001-11-29

155

75 FR 32119 - Proposed Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California...to amend the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas by providing...describes the application procedure. History In October, 2009, the Los Angeles...modification of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas is...

2010-06-07

156

75 FR 51661 - Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California...modifies the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas to provide...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: History On Monday, June 7, 2010, the...to modify the Pacific High and Low Control Areas (75 FR...

2010-08-23

157

Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

2010-12-01

158

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

159

Assessment of the Broadleaf Crops Leaf Area Index Product from the Terra MODIS Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first significant processing of Terra MODIS data, called Collection 3, covered the period from November 2000 to December 2002. The Collection 3 leaf area index (LAI) and fraction vegetation absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) products for broadleaf crops exhibited three anomalies (a) high LAI values during the peak growing season, (b) differences in LAI seasonality between the radiative transfer-based main algorithm and the vegetation index based back-up algorithm, and (c) too few retrievals from the main algorithm during the summer period when the crops are at full flush. The cause of these anomalies is a mismatch between reflectances modeled by the algorithm and MODIS measurements. Therefore, the Look-Up-Tables accompanying the algorithm were revised and implemented in Collection 4 processing. The main algorithm with the revised Look-Up-Tables generated retrievals for over 80% of the pixels with valid data. Retrievals from the back-up algorithm, although few, should be used with caution as they are generated from surface reflectances with high uncertainties.

Tan, Bin; Hu, Jiannan; Huang, Dong; Yang, Wenze; Zhang, Ping; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

2005-01-01

160

High-frequency cortical subdural stimulation enhanced plasticity in surgery of a tumor in Broca's area.  

PubMed

Functional areas located near or within brain gliomas prevent the complete resection of these tumors. It has recently been described that slow tumor invasion promotes neural reorganization, and even topographic plasticity, allowing a staged resection of those tumors. Thus, our aim was to promote plasticity by mimicking the tumor's capability to displace brain function. This proceeded through the production of a 'virtual lesion' in eloquent areas within a tumor using continuous high-frequency cortical electrical stimulation (cHFCS). An anaplastic astrocytoma located in Broca's area progressed in a patient whose lateralization of language to the side of the lesion was demonstrated with functional MRI. After partial tumor resection using awake cortical monitoring, we implanted a subdural grid over the eloquent cortex located within residual tumor. We then applied cHFCS for 25 days, using a frequency of 130 Hz and a pulse width of 1 ms. Stimulus intensity was set to the threshold wherein mild speech disturbance was evident without any other neurological effects. This treatment successfully achieved the displacement of speech functions, and a more radical resection of the tumor was possible in a second surgery. Critically, a reorganization of motor language areas was demonstrated both with functional MRI and cortical stimulation. Furthermore, motor language areas were also identified in the right hemisphere, where previously they were absent. The patient's speech fluency improved both after stimulation and resection. We therefore demonstrate the first evidence of induced topographic plasticity using cHFCS in eloquent areas within a tumor, which allowed for increased tumor removal. Our results open the possibility to induce plasticity before the resection of brain tumors near eloquent areas, in order to increase the extent of resection. PMID:22336871

Barcia, Juan A; Sanz, Ana; Balugo, Paloma; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Brin, Juan Raúl; Yus, Miguel; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Acedo, Victoria M; Oliviero, Antonio

2012-03-28

161

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30

M. J. Giamalva; S. Clarke; K. Bischoff

1981-01-01

162

Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

Monk, David H.

2007-01-01

163

Chasing Ghosts?: Police Perception of High Crime Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been a move within police services towards a proactive and intelligence-led style of policing. This has coincided with a recognition of the value of local policing solutions and the importance of the intelligence function at the local area command level. This paper uses a combination of hotspot analysis within a geographical information system (GIS), a

J. H. Ratcliffe; M. J. MCCULLAGH

2001-01-01

164

High level radioactive waste glass production and product description  

SciTech Connect

This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

1993-12-01

165

The potential for increasing rubber production by matching tapping intensity to leaf area index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding resource capture can help design appropriate species combinations, planting designs and management. Leaf area\\u000a index (LAI) and its longevity are the most important factors defining dry matter production and thus growth and productivity.\\u000a The ecophysiological modifications and yield of rubber (Hevea spp.) in an agroforestry system (AFS) with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were studied. The experiment was established in

Ciro Abbud Righi; Marcos Silveira Bernardes

2008-01-01

166

Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

Breslavets, A. V.

1974-01-01

167

Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to ?-, ?- and ?-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied.

T. Evseeva; T. Majstrenko; S. Geras'kin; J. E. Brown; E. Belykh

2009-01-01

168

How can the poor benefit from the growing markets for high value agricultural products?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify critical areas for trade, marketing, capital market development and regulatory reforms that can facilitate the integration of small-scale farmers (small-scale farmers) in domestic, regional and global markets for high-value agricultural (HVA) products in particular high value crops, livestock, fish and non timber forest products in a sustainable manner and to increase and diversify the incomes

Junior R. Davis

2006-01-01

169

Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation is constructed on a 0.25°latitude/ longitude grid over China for a 3 year period from 2005 to 2007 by interpolating gauge reports from ~2000 stations (fig.1) collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration. Gauge-based precipitation analysis is applied to examine the performance of six high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates, including Joyce et al.’s (2004) Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and the arithmetic mean of the microwave estimates used in CMORPH; Huffman et al.’s (2007) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product 3B42 and its real-time version 3B42RT; Turk et al.’s (2004) Naval Research Laboratory blended product; and Hsu et al.’s (1997) Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN). Our results showed the following: (1) all six satellite products are capable of capturing the overall spatial distribution and temporal variations of precipitation reasonably well; (2) performance of the satellite products varies for different regions and different precipitation regimes, with better comparison statistics observed over wet regions and for warm seasons; (3) products based solely on satellite observations present regionally and seasonally varying biases, while the gauge-adjustment procedures applied in TRMM 3B42 remove the large-scale bias almost completely; (4) CMORPH exhibits the best performance in depicting the spatial pattern and temporal variations of precipitation; and (5) both the relative magnitude and the phase of the warm season precipitation over China are estimated quite well, but the early morning peak associated with the Mei-Yu rainfall over central eastern China is substantially under-estimated by all satellite products. The work reported in this paper is an integral part of our efforts to construct an analysis of hourly merged precipitation analysis in the future (Shen et al., 2010). Further work is to extend its temporal coverage and to improve the quality of the CPAP. The dataset for the period of 1900-1952 with only ~100 gauge reports available over mainland China is under consideration for development. Gauge network is an important element to determine the quality of the dataset, while the gauge distribution is very sparse over the northwestern China and the Tibetan Plateau, the effective tool to improve the quality of the dataset over these areas is to merge the gauge observations with the satellite precipitation products which is under way. Figure 1 Number of Chinese stations reporting hourly precipitation over a three-year period from January 2005 to December 2007

Shen, Y.; Xiong, A.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Precipitation Merge Team

2010-12-01

170

Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas (Arabian Gulf, South Africa)  

E-print Network

REPORT B. Riegl Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas other corals in 2002 at Sir Abu Nuair and recovered at Jebel Ali and Ras Hasyan. In South Africa, reef, the Arabian Gulf and South Africa, have rich coral faunas but little to no recent reef- framework production

171

High seas marine protected areas: Benthic environmental conservation priorities from a GIS analysis of global ocean biophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing a representative network of high seas marine protected areas (MPAs) requires an acceptable scheme to classify the benthic (as well as the pelagic) bioregions of the oceans. Given the lack of sufficient biological information to accomplish this task, we used a multivariate statistical method with 6 biophysical variables (depth, seabed slope, sediment thickness, primary production, bottom water dissolved oxygen

Peter T. Harris; Tanya Whiteway

2009-01-01

172

MEASUREMENT OF MIGRATION AREA AND INFINITE MULTIPLICATION IN HIGHLY ENRICHED, CRITICAL REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In principle it is possible to measure the migration area by critical ; measurements near zero buckling. If the product of the migration area and the ; buckling is less than 0.1, the true migration area can be obtained directly from ; the slope of the infinite multiplication factor plotted against the buckling. If ; M²B² is greater than 0.1,

S. W. Kitchen; D. R. Bach

1956-01-01

173

Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

2012-12-01

174

Mineral resources of the Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Humboldt and Washoe counties, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area consists of approximately 52,143 acres of flat-lying Tertiary volcanic rocks and associated sediments. No resources were identified in the study area, but three areas contain moderate potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The rest of the area has low potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The study area also contains three small areas of low potential for perlite, pozzolan, and uranium.

Keith, W.J.; Turner, R.L.; Plouff, D.

1987-01-01

175

High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

Hays, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

176

Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We developed,interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas (excluding Antarctica) at a spatial resolution of 30 arc s (often referred to as 1-km spatial resolution). The climate elements considered were monthly precipitation and mean, minimum, and maximum temperature. Input data were gathered from a variety of sources and, where possible, were restricted to records from the 1950–2000 period. We

Robert J. Hijmans; Susan E. Cameron; Juan L. Parra; Peter G. Jones; Andy Jarvis

2005-01-01

177

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

178

Optimizing Array Accesses in High Productivity Languages  

E-print Network

Sarkar Rice University, Houston TX. {mjoyner, zoran, vsarkar}@cs.rice.edu Abstract. One of the outcomes programmers to implement reusable high-level iteration abstractions to efficiently develop ar- ray

Budimliæ, Zoran

179

High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene  

PubMed Central

Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2012-01-01

180

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

SciTech Connect

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01

181

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOEpatents

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28

182

Quantitative approach of risk management strategies for hepatitis a virus-contaminated oyster production areas.  

PubMed

It is not yet known whether using the new molecular tools to monitor hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish production areas could be useful for improving food safety. HAV contamination can be acute in coastal areas, such as Brittany, France, where outbreaks of hepatitis A have already occurred and have been linked to the consumption of raw shellfish. A quantitative probabilistic approach was carried out to estimate the mean annual risk of hepatitis A in an adult population of raw oyster consumers. Two hypothetical scenarios of contamination were considered, the first for a rare and brief event and the second for regular and prolonged episodes of contamination. Fourteen monitoring and management strategies were simulated. Their effects were assessed by the relative risk reduction in mean annual risk. The duration of closure after abnormal detection in the shellfish area was also considered. Among the strategies tested, results show that monthly molecular reverse transcription PCR monitoring of HAV is more useful than bacterial surveys. In terms of management measures, early closure of the shellfish area without waiting for confirmatory analysis was shown to be the most efficient strategy. When contamination is very short-lived and homogeneous in the shellfish production area, waiting for three negative results before reopening the area for harvest is time wasting. When contamination is not well identified or if contamination is heterogeneous, it can be harmful not to wait for three negative results. In addition, any preventive measures, such as improving sewage treatment or producing shellfish in safer areas, that can reduce contamination by at least 2 log units are more efficient and less costly. Finally we show that controlling and managing transferred shellfish are useful and can play an important role in preventing cases. Qualitative results from HAV monitoring can advantageously supplement other measures that improve the safety of shellfish products in exposed areas. PMID:22980008

Thebault, A; Le Saux, J-C; Pommepuy, M; Le Guyader, S; Lailler, R; Denis, J-B

2012-07-01

183

Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

2001-01-01

184

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

2005-01-01

185

Correlation of patient skin doses in cardiac interventional radiology with dose-area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of X-rays in cardiac interventional radiology has the potential to induce deterministic radiation effects on the patient's skin. Guidelines published by official organizations encourage the recording of information to evaluate this risk, and the use of reference values in terms of the dose-area product (DAP). Skin dose measurements were made with thermo- luminescent dosemeters placed at eight different

S VAN DE PUTTE; F VERHAEGEN; Y TAEYMANS; H THIERENS

186

The effect of light availability and basal area on cone production in Abies balsamea and Picea  

E-print Network

sapin baumier (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) et l'épinette blanche (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) en 1998 et in the boreal forest, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) MillThe effect of light availability and basal area on cone production in Abies balsamea and Picea

Fortin, Marie Josee

187

Elevated Seedbed Technique for Improved Rice Production in Flood-and Salt-Affected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the interventions formulated to overcome saline water intrusion in Brgy. Sua, Masantol, Pampanga, Philippines was the staggered rice transplanting dates. However, field conditions in the area necessitated the use of an elevated seedbed technique to implement the trial to improve rice production. To fully understand the role of the technique, a study was conducted with the following objectives:

M. V. Lopez; E. R. Genio

2004-01-01

188

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities  

E-print Network

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

189

Opportunities to increasing dry season rice productivity in low temperature affected areas  

E-print Network

Opportunities to increasing dry season rice productivity in low temperature affected areas Sipaseuth a , J. Basnayake b,*, S. Fukai b , T.C. Farrell b , M. Senthonghae a , Sengkeo a , S. Phamixay March 2007 Abstract Rice is a major source of food for more than 2.7 billion people and planted

van Kessel, Chris

190

Major constraints for cattle productivity and managerial efficiency in communal areas of Omaheke Region, Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to analyse the major constraints for production and managerial practices among the four communal areas in the Omaheke Region. This study applied rapid rural appraisal techniques, including a questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 570 farmers who were registered as cattle producers with the Meat Board of Namibia at their villages. The data collection

G. N. Hangara; M. Y. Teweldemedhin; I. B. Groenewald

2011-01-01

191

Gender in urban food production in hazardous areas in Kampala, Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is an important development process that is linked to land access, food production, and food security. This chapter focuses on a gender-analysis study of urban agriculture, specifi cally of farmers growing food crops in hazardous areas in Kampala city, investigating the division of labour, relationships, constraints, and initiatives within urban farming households. Such a study is important to ensure

Grace Nabulo; Juliet Kiguli; Lilian N. Kiguli

192

Computing for Development A New High-Impact Research Area  

E-print Network

in India High cost of being Poor! 85% have a TV 50% have a pressure cooker 21% have a telephone that enable global social and economic development First world technology - a bad fit! Hardest Challenge

193

Storage Area Networks and the High Performance Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPS...

H. Hulen, O. Graf, K. Fitzgerald, R. W. Watson

2002-01-01

194

Primary productivity of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research Area and the Southern Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major objective of the Palmer Long Term Ecological Research (Palmer LTER) project is to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the various components of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. Phytoplankton production plays a key role in this so-called high nutrient, low chlorophyll environment, and factors that regulate production include those that control cell growth (light, temperature, and nutrients) and those that

R. C. Smith; K. S. Baker; M. L. Byers; S. E. Stammerjohn

1998-01-01

195

High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

2007-01-01

196

High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

1993-01-01

197

Production of high fidelity lunar agglutinate simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

As space faring nations consider manned and unmanned missions to the Moon, there is a growing need to develop high fidelity lunar regolith simulants that can accurately reproduce the properties and behavior of lunar regolith. Such simulants will be employed to verify the performance of equipment, mechanisms, structures and processes to be used on the lunar surface. One of the

S. Sen; D. Butts; C. S. Ray; G. B. Thompson; R. A. Morris; J. S. O'Dell

2011-01-01

198

FTIR investigation of adsorption and chemical decomposition of CCl4 by high surface-area aluminum oxide.  

PubMed

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are among the most recalcitrant pollutants for control by sorption or catalytic destruction. High surface-area alumina holds promise as a catalytic media as well as a component of other binary catalyst systems. We have prepared an alumina catalyst using the aerogel technique that has a very high surface area of 550 m2/g. This catalyst destroys carbon tetrachloride with an efficiency >99% at 400 degrees C. Its reactivity toward carbon tetrachloride is remarkably higher than that of commercial alumina, which has a surface area of 155 m2/g. Carbon dioxide is the major product. Minor products include hydrogen chloride and tetrachloroethylene along with traces of phosgene. Some of the carbon tetrachloride reacts with the alumina to form aluminum chloride, which vaporizes to reveal a fresh catalytic surface. A mechanism for adsorption and destruction has been developed that involves chemisorption followed by surface to adsorbate oxygen transfer and adsorbate to surface chlorine transfer. PMID:11999074

Khaleel, Abbas; Dellinger, Barry

2002-04-01

199

Adaptability and stability of conilon coffee in areas of high altitude.  

PubMed

In view of the predicted models of global climate change and differences in prices and production costs, there is increased interest in Coffea canephora cultivation in areas of high altitude. However, this species is sensitive to low temperatures, where genotypes vary regarding adaptation/tolerance mechanisms, demonstrating genotype x environment interaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and adaptability of C. canephora varieties in high-altitude areas. The experiments were carried out in February 2004, in Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, at an altitude of 725 m. Four clonal varieties (EMCAPA 8111, EMCAPA 8121, EMCAPA 8131, and EMCAPA 8151) and five harvests (2006 to 2010) were used. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments and six plots, with 12 plants in each plot and spaced 2.5 x 1.2 m. Adaptability and stability parameters were determined using methods based on nonparametric analysis and analysis of variance. The results showed that the EMCAPA 8131 had the best performance according to stability and adaptability parameters and may be promising for high-altitude regions. PMID:25299102

Barbosa, D H G S; Rodrigues, W P; Vieira, H D; Partelli, F L; Viana, A P

2014-01-01

200

Vehicle extraction from very high resolution satellite images ofcity areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current traffic research is mostly based on data from fixed-installed\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009sensors like induction loops, bridge sensors, and cameras. Thereby,\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009the traffic flow on main roads can partially be acquired, while data\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009from the major part of the entire road network are not available.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009Today's optical sensor systems on satellites provide large-area images\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009with 1-m resolution and better, which can deliver

Jens Leitloff; Stefan Hinz; Uwe Stilla

2010-01-01

201

Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis  

DOEpatents

Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

202

Area-efficient high-throughput MAP decoder architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iterative decoders such as turbo decoders have be- come integral components of modern broadband communication systems because of their ability to provide substantial coding gains. A key computational kernel in iterative decoders is the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder. The MAP decoder is re- cursive and complex, which makes high-speed implementations ex- tremely difficult to realize. In this paper,

Seok-jun Lee; Naresh R. Shanbhag; Andrew C. Singer

2005-01-01

203

Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.  

PubMed

Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

2013-12-01

204

Northern California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Northern California High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Northern California HIDTA region has intensified somewhat over the past year, resulting in several areas of growing ...

2011-01-01

205

Multi Jet Production at High Q2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-inelastic e+p scattering data, taken with the H1 detector at HERA, are used to investigate jet production over a range of four-momentum transfers 150 < Q2 < 15000 GeV2 and transverse jet energies 5 < ET < 50 GeV. The analysis is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of Lint = 65.4 pb-1 taken in the years 1999-2000 at a centre-of-mass energy ?s ? 319 GeV. Jets are defined by the inclusive kt algorithm in the Breit frame of reference. Dijet and trijet jet cross sections are measured with respect to the exchanged boson virtuality and in addition the ratio of the trijet to the dijet cross section R3/2 is investigated. The results are compared to the predictions of perturbative QCD calculations in next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant ?s. The value of ?s(mZ) determined from the study of R3/2 is ?s(mZ) = 0.1175 ± 0.0017(stat.) ± 0.0050(syst.)-0.0068+0.0054(theo.).

Kluge, Thomas

2005-10-01

206

High-speed switch scheduling for local-area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current technology trends make it possible to build communication networks that can support high-performance distributed computing. This paper describes issues in the design of a prototype switch for an arbitrary topology point-to-point network with link speeds of up to 1 Gbit\\/s. The switch deals in fixed-length ATM-style cells, which it can process at a rate of 37 million cells per

Thomas E. Anderson; Susan S. Owicki; James B. Saxe; Charles P. Thacker

1993-01-01

207

Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 1,612 adolescents from nine different high schools in the region of Québec city completed a questionnaire developed by Lesieur and Klein (1987) concerning their gambling behavior. Seventy-six percent had gambled once in their lifetime, 65% placed a bet in the last year and 24% gambled at least once a week. Of those who had gambled, 5.6% wanted

Robert Ladouceur; Chantal Mireault

1988-01-01

208

High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

2013-05-15

209

Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

None

2008-06-30

210

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2010-07-01

211

H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program  

E-print Network

H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program® Areas public high school. BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF TEXAS: SECTION 1. Subchapter A instruction in personal financial literacy in one or more courses required for high school graduation. (b

212

High and Far: Biases in the Location of Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Background About an eighth of the earth's land surface is in protected areas (hereafter “PAs”), most created during the 20th century. Natural landscapes are critical for species persistence and PAs can play a major role in conservation and in climate policy. Such contributions may be harder than expected to implement if new PAs are constrained to the same kinds of locations that PAs currently occupy. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitatively extending the perception that PAs occupy “rock and ice”, we show that across 147 nations PA networks are biased towards places that are unlikely to face land conversion pressures even in the absence of protection. We test each country's PA network for bias in elevation, slope, distances to roads and cities, and suitability for agriculture. Further, within each country's set of PAs, we also ask if the level of protection is biased in these ways. We find that the significant majority of national PA networks are biased to higher elevations, steeper slopes and greater distances to roads and cities. Also, within a country, PAs with higher protection status are more biased than are the PAs with lower protection statuses. Conclusions/Significance In sum, PAs are biased towards where they can least prevent land conversion (even if they offer perfect protection). These globally comprehensive results extend findings from nation-level analyses. They imply that siting rules such as the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target [to protect 10% of all ecoregions] might raise PA impacts if applied at the country level. In light of the potential for global carbon-based payments for avoided deforestation or REDD, these results suggest that attention to threat could improve outcomes from the creation and management of PAs. PMID:20011603

Joppa, Lucas N.; Pfaff, Alexander

2009-01-01

213

Spatial scale conversion approach for moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer leaf area index product validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new spatial scale conversion method, which validates moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) product when geometry information from the MODIS 1B product and classification result is combined. The in situ LAI data, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), and MODIS 1B product were utilized in this research. An object-oriented method was used to classify TM imaging, where each class was computed using an empirical model to achieve LAI respectively. The 30-m TM LAI image was aggregated into the MODIS 1B product based on the geometry information of MODIS 1B. The simulated MODIS 1B image was then converted into a MODIS LAI product and compared with the simulated LAI map pixel by pixel. The results showed a lower root mean square error and higher normalization of the absolute error with the new method. In addition, the field LAI was not significantly correlated with MODIS LAI, but it did show a strong correlation with TM LAI. The new method achieved a higher correlate coefficient with the MODIS product than the conventional methods. Using this validation method based on classification and image simulation can improve the accuracy of product certification.

Chen, Yun-ping; Wei, Wei; Patterson, Angelica E.; Tong, Ling

2013-01-01

214

Highly reliable detection and correction of pinched areas for high transmission phase shift mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTPSM (High-Transmission Phase Shift Mask) is one of the most promising mask technologies for photolithography resolution enhancement. However, it s well known that the use of HTPSM frequently results in unwanted patterns due to inevitable pinching effects, particularly in spacious areas. Although pinching effect can be effectively suppressed by the application of additional Cr patterns at the problematic locations, it is a critical challenge to systematically detect and automatically correct the complicated patterns in most of realistic cases. We demonstrated remarkable photolithography process window improvement by the use of HTPSM (A type and above) with the focus on the development of a systematic methodology for automatic detection and correction of abnormal patterns due to optical pinching effect. Regular optical rules check (ORC) with specific modifications was employed to precisely locate the potential pinched areas, whereas enhanced design rules check (DRC) was applied subsequently to generate the required additional Cr patterns for final mask fabrication. A variety of photolithography variables, such as wavelength and numerical aperture (NA) were extensively investigated against optical pinching effect to confirm the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed detection/correction methodology for HTPSM application.

Chen, Chih Li; Liao, Chun-Cheng; Chou, Pin-Jan; Shih, Chiang Lin; Shih, Steven

2008-03-01

215

Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the Fort Worth Basin. Oil and gas experts have suggested that it may be the largest onshore natural gas field in the US, containing not only natural gas but also condensate and light oil. Gas production wells in the Barnett Shale area number in the thousands and are spread over a large areas of North Texas. Emissions can occur during various stages in the life of any single well and along various points of the production stream from extraction of raw gas at the well to distribution of commercial grade natural gas at central gathering and processing plants. In the first phase of this study we characterized the emissions from major gas production facilities in the area. An initial survey was performed using a mobile sampling vehicle to identify facilities with measurable emissions. Source-oriented volatile organic compounds (VOC) samples were collected at several facilities with confirmed emissions measured with our continuous survey monitors. In the second phase we conducted saturation monitoring (multiple fixed-ambient sampling locations using passive sampling systems) downwind of gas production areas. One location was near a well with emissions from condensate tanks that were well characterized during Phase 1. A single private residence was located a short distance downwind of this well and was away from other emission sources that might interfere with the measured gradient of emissions from the well. The measurement at this site serves as a case study of the pollutant gradient from a well characterized emission source at various distances downwind of the source relative to the upwind pollutant concentrations. The second facility was a gas compressor station located near a small community. The spatial variations in pollutant concentrations were determined at various distances and directions from the source, sites adjacent to nearby roadways and a background site located upwind of the community. The measured volatile organic compounds were apportioned to sources using the Chemical Mass Balance receptor model. The study results are placed in context by comparing the measured pollutant concentrations to comparable data from elsewhere is the Barnett Shale area and from urban areas of the Dallas-Fort Worth.

Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Campbell, D.; Samburova, V.; Hendler, E.; Beskid, C. S.

2010-12-01

216

High surface area silicon materials: fundamentals and new technology.  

PubMed

Crystalline silicon forms the basis of just about all computing technologies on the planet, in the form of microelectronics. An enormous amount of research infrastructure and knowledge has been developed over the past half-century to construct complex functional microelectronic structures in silicon. As a result, it is highly probable that silicon will remain central to computing and related technologies as a platform for integration of, for instance, molecular electronics, sensing elements and micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. Porous nanocrystalline silicon is a fascinating variant of the same single crystal silicon wafers used to make computer chips. Its synthesis, a straightforward electrochemical, chemical or photochemical etch, is compatible with existing silicon-based fabrication techniques. Porous silicon literally adds an entirely new dimension to the realm of silicon-based technologies as it has a complex, three-dimensional architecture made up of silicon nanoparticles, nanowires, and channel structures. The intrinsic material is photoluminescent at room temperature in the visible region due to quantum confinement effects, and thus provides an optical element to electronic applications. Our group has been developing new organic surface reactions on porous and nanocrystalline silicon to tailor it for a myriad of applications, including molecular electronics and sensing. Integration of organic and biological molecules with porous silicon is critical to harness the properties of this material. The construction and use of complex, hierarchical molecular synthetic strategies on porous silicon will be described. PMID:18272462

Buriak, Jillian M

2006-01-15

217

Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals From High-Resolution Commercial Satellite Imagery Over Areas of High Surface Reflectance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advancement and proliferation of high-resolution commercial imaging satellites presents a new opportunity for overland aerosol characterization. Current aerosol optical depth retrieval methods typically fail over areas with high surface reflectance, such as urban areas and deserts, since the upwelling radiance due to scattering by aerosols is small compared to the radiance resulting from surface reflection. The method proposed here

D. A. Vincent; K. E. Nielsen; P. A. Durkee; J. S. Reid

2005-01-01

218

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise. PMID:23635281

Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

2013-01-01

219

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., 39655 Eureka Drive, Newark, California 94560 (United States); Speidel, Michael A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2013-05-15

220

The strategy for assessing risks associated with remediation of the former production area at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

The strategy for assessing the risks associated with the remediation of the former Production Area at the Fernald Environmental Management Project is discussed. The general approach to risk assessment is strongly influenced by a number of factors related to the nature of the site and to management proposals that have been made concerning the site. How these factors affect the approach to assessing baseline risks, to assessing risks associated with remedial activity, and to establishing cleanup criteria are examined.

Davis, M.; Avci, H.; Picel, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Janke, R.J. [Dept. of Energy, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Field Office

1993-10-01

221

Product innovation and competitive advantage in an area of industrial decline: the Niagara region of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines similarities and differences between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with different levels of reported product innovation. These SMEs are located in an area (the Niagara region in southern Ontario) that has suffered industrial decline during the last three decades. Furthermore, SMEs in this region are in traditional or late-cycle manufacturing sectors (e.g., fabricated metal). The research findings

Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen

2001-01-01

222

Mycoflora of Argentinian corn harvested in the main production area in 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn (Zea mays) is the main cereal produced in and exported from Argentina. The risk of contamination by mycotoxins is related to the mycoflora\\u000a associated with the corn kernels. This paper reports on the identification of internal and external mycoflora of corn kernels\\u000a harvested in the main production area in Argentina in 1990. A mycological survey was carried out on

H. H. L. González; S. L. Resnik; R. T. Boca; W. F. O. Marasas

1995-01-01

223

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremely high surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

Martin, Jack

224

?^+ and ?(1520) production in pp reactions at high energies  

E-print Network

We estimate the cross sections for the inclusive production of $\\Theta^+$ and $\\Lambda(1520)$ in $pp$ collisions at high energy using the $K$ exchange diagrams. We find that inclusive $\\Theta^+$ production should be at the level of 1 $\\mu$b at energies~ $\\sqrt{s}~\\gtrsim~10~{\\rm GeV}$. The ratio of $\\Theta^+(1540)$ to $\\Lambda(1520)$ production cross-sections is $\\sim 1%$.

I. M. Narodetskii; M. A. Trusov

2005-12-29

225

ISSUES AND OPTIONS IN THE PRODUCTION OF HIGH VALUE CROPS IN COASTAL REGION OF PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary data from various stakeholders were collected to examine the issues and options in the production of high value crops in coastal region of Pakistan. During 2002, a list of betel leaf and muskmelon growers of Thatta District were developed and out of sampling frame, 160 growers were randomly selected. In the coastal area, growers are engaged in agriculture, fishing,

ALI MUHAMMAD KHUSHK; MUHAMMAD IBRAHIM LASHARI

2007-01-01

226

The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas. (GR)

Biehle, James T.

2000-01-01

227

Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

Dunstan, Peter

228

High lying N* studies in electromagnetic double charged pion production  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological model for double charged pion production is presented, aimed to exact N* electromagnetic form factors from measured observables (differential cross-sections, asymmetries). The preliminary results of CLAS data analysis on double charged pion production by virtual photons are discussed, focusing on high lying N* electromagnetic excitation and signals from possible ''missing'' baryon states.

V. I. Mokeev; M. Ripani; M. Anghinolfi; M. Battaglieri; R. De Vita; G. V. Fedotov; E. N. Golovach; B. S. Ishkhanov; M. V. Osipenko; G. Ricco; V. Sapunenko; M. Taiuti

2002-06-07

229

High biofuel production of Botryococcus braunii using optimized cultivation strategies.  

E-print Network

??This thesis describes how using a heterotrophy-recovery-autotrophy route (called the green cycle) for the cultivation of Botryococcus braunii results in high biofuel production. Our experiments… (more)

Yu, Wei

2014-01-01

230

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremelyhigh surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

Martin, Jack

231

Production of sophorolipids with enhanced volumetric productivity by means of high cell density fermentation.  

PubMed

To achieve high time-space efficiency for sophorolipid production with yeast Candida bombicola, a strategy of high cell density fermentation was employed. The approach consisted of two sequential stages: (1) the optimization of the carbon source and the nutrient concentration to achieve the maximal cell density and (2) the computer-aided adjustment of physical parameters and the controlled feeding of substrates for enhanced volumetric productivity. Both stages have been successfully implemented in a 10-L fermenter, where up to 80 g dry cell weight/L was obtained and a remarkably high volumetric productivity (> 200 g isolated sophorolipids/L/day) was achieved. Both the biomass and volumetric productivity were markedly higher than previously reported. Specifically, the high productivity of sophorolipids could be attained on a very short time scale (24 h), highlighting the industrial potential of the platform developed in this work. PMID:22987201

Gao, Renjun; Falkeborg, Mia; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

2013-02-01

232

Further analysis of infrared spectrophotometric observations of high area to mass ratio (HAMR) objects in GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical surveys have identified a class of high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects in the vicinity of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) ring?. The exact origin and nature of these objects are not well known, although their proximity to the GEO belt poses a hazard to active GEO satellites. The prevalent conjecture is that many of these objects may be thermal materials shed from derelict spacecraft in 'graveyard' orbits above the GEO ring. Due to their high area-to-mass ratios and unknown attitude dynamics and material characteristics, solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbs their orbits in ways that makes it difficult to predict their orbital trajectories over periods of time exceeding a week or less. To better understand and track these objects and infer their origins, we have made observations that allow us to determine physical characteristics that will improve the non-conservative force modeling used for orbit determination (OD) and prediction. Information on their temperatures, areas, emissivities, and albedos may be obtained from thermal infrared and visible measurements. Simultaneous observations in the thermal infrared and visible wavelengths may allow disentangling of projected area, albedo, and object emissivity. Further analysis and modeling of observational data on certain of the HAMR objects collected at the AMOS observatory 3.6 m AEOS telescope are presented. The thermal-IR spectra of these geosynchronous orbit objects acquired by the Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) span wavelengths 3 to 13 ?m and constitute a unique data set, providing a means of measuring object fluxes in the infrared and visible wavelengths. These, in turn, allow temperatures and emissivity-area products to be calculated, and in some cases provide information on rotation rates. We compare our observational results with the outputs of simple models, in terms of visible and infrared flux and orbital characteristics. The resulting temperatures and rotation rates are used in SRP acceleration models to demonstrate improvements in OD and prediction performance relative to models which assume default ambient temperature and static attitude dynamics. Additionally, we have the capability and plans to measure material properties with the same instrument in the lab as used at the telescope to facilitate direct comparisons.

Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Kelecy, Tom; Gregory, Steve; Rudy, Richard J.; Gutierrez, David J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk

2012-11-01

233

Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

2013-01-01

234

Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-03-22

235

Stabilizers: indispensable substances in dairy products of high rheology.  

PubMed

The functionality of stabilizers is apparent in many food applications including dairy products. The role of stabilizers like gelatin, pectins, alginates, carboxymethylcellulose, gums, ispghol, sago starch, and chitosan in the development of dairy products of high rheology, like yoghurt, ice cream, and flavored milk, is discussed in this review. Attention is also paid to comprehend on interactions among milk proteins, minerals, and other milk constituents with the reactive sites of stabilizers to get the desirable properties such as appearance, body and texture, mouthfeel, consistency. The role played by stabilizers in the control of syneresis and overrun problems in the high-rheology dairy products is also the topic of discussion. PMID:24499066

Tasneem, Madiha; Siddique, Farzana; Ahmad, Asif; Farooq, Umar

2014-01-01

236

Customer flexibility integration for order commitment process in high mix low volume production.  

E-print Network

??With increasing product variety and escalating demand volatility, manufacturing industry is moving towards high product mix and low order volume production. Consequently, achieving high service… (more)

Zhang, Qinli

2008-01-01

237

Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

Larson, Gary L.; Wones, A.; McIntire, C.D.; Samora, B.

1994-01-01

238

Synthesize and characterization of graphene nanosheets with high surface area and nano-porous structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few-layer graphene was obtained by the expansion and exfoliation of water-intercalated graphene oxide via heat treatment in nitrogen environment in the temperature range of 200-1000 °C. Graphene which was synthesized at 800 °C (GT800) had a higher quality than other temperatures. This graphene has a high specific surface area (560.6 m2 g-1) and nano-porous structure. However, as for the purpose of comparison, graphene was synthesized with a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate in various reaction times (12, 24 and 36 h). This method has obtained a six-layer graphene and graphene that was synthesized during 24 h reaction with hydrazine hydrate (GC24) had a higher quality in comparison with the other products. The GC24 had 195.97 m2 g-1 specific surface area and nano-porous structure. The as-synthesized graphene were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as BET measurements. The results demonstrated that this low-cost method for few-layer grapheme, e.g. three-layers, fabrication is reliable and promising.

Jabari Seresht, Razieh; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rashidi, Alimorad; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar

2013-07-01

239

Canopy leaf area constrains [CO2]-induced enhancement of productivity and partitioning among aboveground carbon pools.  

PubMed

Net primary productivity (NPP) is enhanced under future atmospheric [CO2] in temperate forests representing a broad range of productivity. Yet questions remain in regard to how elevated [CO2]-induced NPP enhancement may be affected by climatic variations and limiting nutrient resources, as well as how this additional production is distributed among carbon (C) pools of different longevities. Using 10 years of data from the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment (Duke FACE) site, we show that spatially, the major control of NPP was nitrogen (N) availability, through its control on canopy leaf area index (L). Elevated CO2 levels resulted in greater L, and thus greater NPP. After canopy closure had occurred, elevated [CO2] did not enhance NPP at a given L, regardless of soil water availability. Additionally, using published data from three other forest FACE sites and replacing L with leaf area duration (LD) to account for differences in growing season length, we show that aboveground NPP responded to [CO2] only through the enhancement of LD. For broadleaf forests, the fraction of aboveground NPP partitioned to wood biomass saturated with increasing LD and was not enhanced by [CO2], whereas it linearly decreased for the conifer forest but was enhanced by [CO2]. These results underscore the importance of resolving [CO2] effects on L to assess the response of NPP and C allocation. Further study is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that control the differential allocation of C among aboveground pools in different forest types. PMID:17159159

McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram; Finzi, Adrien C; Johnsen, Kurt H

2006-12-19

240

High speed intelligent handling robot for food and pharmaceutical products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanuc developed a high speed intelligent handling robot for food and pharmaceutical products. This robot is equipped with a vision sensor and able to pick up accurately work-pieces placed on a conveyor one by one without stopping. The performance of the motor is not adequate to continuously operate the arm at high speed. That is the reason why we developed

T. Tamura; H. Kurebayashi; Y. Tanaka; S. Sakakibara; R. Nihei; Y. Inaba

2009-01-01

241

REAL TIME ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL OUTPUT AND OUTPUT GAP FOR THE EURO-AREA : COMPARING PRODUCTION FUNCTION WITH  

E-print Network

REAL TIME ESTIMATION OF POTENTIAL OUTPUT AND OUTPUT GAP FOR THE EURO-AREA : COMPARING PRODUCTION2014 #12;1 Real time estimation of potential output and output gap for the euro- area : comparing) approach usually used for estimating the output gap of the euro area. Our version does not call for any

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.  

PubMed

Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. PMID:24467512

Marshall, K

2014-10-01

243

The role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in word production.  

PubMed

The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key structure for behavioral planning and execution. Recent research on motor control conducted with monkeys and humans has put to light an anatomical and functional distinction between pre-SMA and SMA-proper. According to this view, the pre-SMA would be involved in higher level processes while the SMA-proper would be more closely tied to motor output. We extended this general framework to the verbal domain, in order to investigate the role of the SMA in speech production. We conducted two speech production experiments with fMRI where we manipulated parameters such as familiarity, complexity or constraints on word selection. The results reveal a parcellation of the SMA into three distinct regions, according to their involvement in different aspects of word production. More specifically, following a rostrocaudal gradient, we observed differential activations related to lexical selection, linear sequence encoding and control of motor output. A parallel organization was observed in the dorsolateral frontal cortex. By refining its anatomical and functional parcellation, these results clarify the roles of the SMA in speech production. PMID:16480694

Alario, F-Xavier; Chainay, Hanna; Lehericy, Stéphane; Cohen, Laurent

2006-03-01

244

High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success  

PubMed Central

Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L?1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

2014-01-01

245

High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.  

PubMed

Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L-1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

2014-01-01

246

Direct and Indirect Estimation of Leaf Area Index, f APAR, and Net Primary Production of Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary objective of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is to develop and validate algorithms to estimate leaf area index (L), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), and net primary production (NPP) from remotely sensed products. These three products are important because they relate to or are components of the metabolism of the biosphere and can be determined for

Stith T. Gower; Chris J. Kucharik; John M. Norman

1999-01-01

247

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

248

High surface area electromigration damage for 3 V Li-cell cathodes  

SciTech Connect

A new electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) suitable for use as a cathode for primary or secondary Li-cells has been developed. The heat-treated product is a high surface area EMD (HSA EMD), which was prepared by anodic deposition from an MnSO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte at a high current density. It shows excellent electrochemical behavior as a cathode for Li cells. This electrode material discharges its theoretical capacity during the first discharge process and has satisfactory cycling behavior. Measurement indicates that HSA EMD has a quicker open-circuit-voltage (OCV) recovery than common EMD. This suggests that fast Li ion diffusion occurs in this material. A two or more phase reaction occurs during the first discharge in the Li/HSA EMD cell. In contrast, repeated discharge/charges are fundamentally a single phase reaction. The relationship between the OCV voltage plateau during the first discharge and structure of the HSA EMD is discussed.

Kurimoto, Hiroshi; Suzuoka, Kenji; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Xia, Yongyao; Nakamura, Hiroyoshi; Yoshio, Masaki [Saga Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

1995-07-01

249

Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.  

PubMed

While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today's fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment HRAPs has a much smaller environmental footprint compared to commercial algal production HRAPs which consume freshwater and fertilisers. In this paper the critical parameters that limit algal cultivation, production and harvest are reviewed and practical options that may enhance the net harvestable algal production from wastewater treatment HRAPs including CO(2) addition, species control, control of grazers and parasites and bioflocculation are discussed. PMID:20674341

Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

2011-01-01

250

Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world  

E-print Network

Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world Etienne Low-De´carie, Gregor F. Fussmann, and Graham-Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1, Canada Here, we provide a review of the direct effect of increas- ing CO2 on aquatic: the assessment of theories about limitation of productivity and the integration of CO2 into the co

Fussman, Gregor

251

High levels of ochratoxin A in licorice and derived products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ochratoxin A (OTA) content of 30 samples of licorice root and derived products (licorice-confectionery, licorice block, and licorice extract) was analyzed by a standard HPLC-fluorescence technique and confirmed by methyl-ester formation. All analyzed samples of licorice and derived products were found to contain ochratoxin A, and some of them showed extremely high concentrations up to 252.8 ng\\/g of OTA. Highest

A. Ariño; M. Herrera; G. Estopañan; T. Juan

2007-01-01

252

Meson production in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering  

E-print Network

Experimental studies of meson production through two-photon fusion in inelastic electron-nucleus scattering is now under way. A high-energy photon radiated by the incident electron is fused with a soft photon radiated by the nucleus. The process takes place in the small-angle-Coulomb region of nuclear scattering. We expound the theory for this production process as well as its interference with coherent-radiative-meson production. In particular, we investigate the distortion of the electron wave function due to multiple-Coulomb scattering.

Göran Fäldt

2010-06-09

253

Selection of oleaginous yeasts with high lipid productivity for practical biodiesel production.  

PubMed

The lipid-accumulating ability of 500 yeast strains isolated in Japan was evaluated. Primary screening revealed that 31 strains were identified as potential lipid producers, from which 12 strains were cultivated in a medium containing 3% glucose. It was found that JCM 24511 accumulated the highest lipid content, up to 61.53%, while JCM 24512 grew the fastest. They were tentatively identified as Cryptococcus sp. and Cryptococcus musci, respectively. The maximum lipid concentration of 1.49g/L was achieved by JCM 24512. Similarly, JCM 24511 also achieved a high lipid production of 1.37g/L. High lipid productivity is the most important characteristic of oleaginous yeasts from the viewpoint of practical production. Among the strains tested here, JCM 24512 had the best lipid productivity, 0.37g/L/day. The results show that the isolated yeasts could be promising candidates for biodiesel production. PMID:24368271

Tanimura, Ayumi; Takashima, Masako; Sugita, Takashi; Endoh, Rikiya; Kikukawa, Minako; Yamaguchi, Shino; Sakuradani, Eiji; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

2014-02-01

254

Nontarget deposition and losses of oxamyl in surface runoff from flatwoods citrus production areas.  

PubMed

Pesticide export from citrus production areas is a concern in the Indian River Lagoon drainage basin (Florida, USA). These studies evaluated nontarget deposition and losses of the insecticide oxamyl from typical flatwoods citrus production areas in South Florida. Deposition was estimated with the use of Teflon spray targets placed across nontarget water furrows during spray applications. After oxamyl applications, surface water runoff events were generated with an overhead irrigation system to simulate relatively low intensity rainfall. Results indicated that 0.3 to 20.0% of the applied active ingredient landed on nontarget water furrow surfaces and that the majority of oxamyl loss occurs in runoff events shortly following application. Mean concentrations were greater during the first runoff events, ranging from 34.7 to 47.0 microg/L. Total losses during the first several hours of each set of runoff events ranged from 0.1 to 3.8% of the total active ingredient applied. Similar losses can be expected when rainfall occurs shortly after application for other pesticides with similar chemical properties and application methods. PMID:17713205

Wilson, Patrick Chris; Boman, Brian; Foos, Jane Ferguson

2007-02-01

255

An Economic Study of Farm Organization and Operation in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

WITH THE BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE An Economic Study of Farm Organization and Operation in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President [Blank Page... to the area. This bulletin, the first of a series, contains a description of the agriculture and agricultural resources of the area and an analysis of variations in farm earnings during the period of the study. Later pl~blications will pertain to farm...

Bonnen, C.A.; Thibodeaux, B. H.; Magee, A.C.

1939-01-01

256

A regional Earth radiation budget product for the BALTEX area from ScaRaB  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to derive regional Earth radiation budget products with high spatial and temporal resolution by synergy of the well calibrated scanner for radiation budget (ScaRaB) data with auxiliary data from the operational meteorological satellites. The topic of a narrow-to-broadband conversion from NOAA 11 AVHRR channel 1 to the broadband shortwave channel of ScaRaB will be addressed.

Rainer Hollmann; Johannes Mueller; Rolf Stuhlmann

1999-01-01

257

West Texas: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the West Texas High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) DrugMarket Analysis for 2011. The drug threat to the West Texas HIDTA regionhas changed somewhat over the past year, resulting in several areas of concern for law enforcement officials. A...

2011-01-01

258

Population growth in those rural areas which are characterised by high levels of natural amenities  

E-print Network

amenities, climate, authentical rural culture, recreation and affordable housing. The concept of "amenityPopulation growth in those rural areas which are characterised by high levels of natural amenities, downshifters, economic migrants and retirees is transforming rural mountain areas. With the new trend

Borsdorf, Axel

259

High production rate of IBAD-MgO buffered substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional IBAD (Ion Beam Assisted Deposition) process using fluorite materials yields low production rates, resulting in high production cost, which reduces the motivation for practical application in spite of its high quality. The IBAD process using rock salt materials, e.g. MgO, is well known as a strong candidate of practical application due to its potential of high production rate and high in-plane grain alignment. In this work, the IBAD-MgO process was investigated for a newly developed architecture of PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition)-CeO 2/sputter-LMO (LaMnO 3)/IBAD-MgO/sputter-GZO (Gd 2Zr 2O 7)/Hastelloy TM to make long buffered metal tapes with high properties and a high production rate. The 50 m-long IBAD-MgO substrates with about 4° of ? ?CeO 2 in an XRD ? scan could be fabricated repeatedly. A GdBCO (GdBa 2Cu 3O x) layer deposited on the buffered substrate showed the minimum Ic value of 325 A/cm-w in a 41 m-long tape. Almost of the tape showed 500-600 A/cm-w of Ic value. The deposition time for the IBAD-MgO layer was 60 s which was about 2 orders of magnitude shorter than the conventional IBAD process. The production rate of 24 m/h was realized at the IBAD-MgO process to fabricate the GdBCO coated conductor with high Jc and Ic properties.

Yoshizumi, M.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

2009-10-01

260

Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment  

PubMed Central

Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

2012-01-01

261

Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

Lawrence, G.P.

1995-07-01

262

Technique eliminates high voltage arcing at electrode-insulator contact area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coating the electrode-insulator contact area with silver epoxy conductive paint and forcing the electrode and insulator tightly together into a permanent connection, eliminates electrical arcing in high-voltage electrodes supplying electrical power to vacuum facilities.

Mealy, G.

1967-01-01

263

A CBD Application Integration Framework for High Productivity and Maintainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Under a rapidly evolving e-business environment with frequent employee turnover and limited resources, a large volume of web-based\\u000a software development projects require the CBD method for highly reusability and flexibility. This paper presents the architecture\\u000a of our CBD application integration framework that has been used for developing large-scale e-business applications to achieve\\u000a high development productivity and maintainability. This framework is

Yonghwan Lee; Eunmi Choi; Dugki Min

2005-01-01

264

Do High Technology Policies Work?: High Technology Industry Employment Growth in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1988-1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970s, federal, state and local governments have launched an array of new high technology development programs. Researchers and policy-makers disagree about the relative merits of these policies. We address the effects of seven of these policies on high tech industry employment growth in metropolitan statistical areas in the United…

Jenkins, J. Craig; Leicht, Kevin T.; Jaynes, Arthur

2006-01-01

265

High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones.

Puech, M.; Thevenoud, JM; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, JM

2006-04-01

266

High-productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS volume manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimized to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters have shown ultra high silicon etch rate, with unrivaled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process yields. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. A key factor for achieving the highest performances was the recognized expertise of Alcatel vacuum and plasma science technologies. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer head and Silicon microphones.

Puech, M.; Thevenoud, J. M.; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, J. M.

2006-12-01

267

High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory`s continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site.

Hoeberling, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rangel, M.J. III [Analysis Programming Processing Instrumentation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

268

High-throughput production of two disulphide-bridge toxins.  

PubMed

A quick and efficient production method compatible with high-throughput screening was developed using 36 toxins belonging to four different families of two disulphide-bridge toxins. Final toxins were characterized using HPLC co-elution, CD and pharmacological studies. PMID:24947561

Upert, Grégory; Mourier, Gilles; Pastor, Alexandra; Verdenaud, Marion; Alili, Doria; Servent, Denis; Gilles, Nicolas

2014-08-01

269

High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

Stegen, G.E.

1996-02-13

270

Production of heavy charged Higgs particles at very high energies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of heavy charged Higgs bosons at very high energies (LEP) is investigated. It turns out that, in favorable circumstances, charged scalars of mass 50-100 GeV could be detected and be even more copiously produced than the standard neutral Weinberg-Salam-type Higgs particle of the same mass.

J. A. Grifols; J. Solà

1981-01-01

271

Original article Biomass and nutrient cycling of a highly productive  

E-print Network

Original article Biomass and nutrient cycling of a highly productive Corsican pine stand on former 14 April; accepted 22 September 1997) Abstract - Biomass and nutrient cycling were examined in a 62 on a coarse and dry sandy soil with low exchangeable nutrient pools. Total aboveground biomass was estimated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Does High Product Market Competition Benefit Women and Immigrants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse whether high product market competition reduce problems caused by preference- based discrimination against women and immigrants. We use firm-level data to analyse the relationship between the sex and immigrant composition at the firm and firm profitability. The results show that among firms that hire and employ relatively more women, profits are higher, and this positive relationship is especially

Marianne Røed; Pål Schøne

2006-01-01

273

Innovation Generation A Product Development Challenge for High School Students  

E-print Network

Pearlstein 101 08:45 a.m. Introduction to Innovation and the Business Model Pearlstein 101 InteractInnovation Generation A Product Development Challenge for High School Students Sponsored by Drexel.m. Registration and Continental Breakfast Pearlstein Lobby 08:30 a.m. Dean's Welcome, LeBow College of Business

274

Original article The response of highly productive rabbits  

E-print Network

Original article The response of highly productive rabbits to dietary sulphur amino acid content August 1995; accepted 12 January 1996) Summary ― This study investigated the sulphur amino acid.72 and 0.58% (growing rab- bits). sulphur amino acid requirement / methionine digestibility / reproductive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production  

E-print Network

of fossil fuels is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the environment that have already exceeded the "dangerously high" threshold of 450 ppm CO2-e. To achieve environmental and economic sustainability, fuel production processes are required

Kudela, Raphael M.

276

Small area estimation for semicontinuous skewed spatial data: an application to the grape wine production in Tuscany.  

PubMed

Linear-mixed models are frequently used to obtain model-based estimators in small area estimation (SAE) problems. Such models, however, are not suitable when the target variable exhibits a point mass at zero, a highly skewed distribution of the nonzero values and a strong spatial structure. In this paper, a SAE approach for dealing with such variables is suggested. We propose a two-part random effects SAE model that includes a correlation structure on the area random effects that appears in the two parts and incorporates a bivariate smooth function of the geographical coordinates of units. To account for the skewness of the distribution of the positive values of the response variable, a Gamma model is adopted. To fit the model, to get small area estimates and to evaluate their precision, a hierarchical Bayesian approach is used. The study is motivated by a real SAE problem. We focus on estimation of the per-farm average grape wine production in Tuscany, at subregional level, using the Farm Structure Survey data. Results from this real data application and those obtained by a model-based simulation experiment show a satisfactory performance of the suggested SAE approach. PMID:24214421

Dreassi, Emanuela; Petrucci, Alessandra; Rocco, Emilia

2014-01-01

277

Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment.  

PubMed

Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg ) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g ), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (? = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg ), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg , particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

2014-10-01

278

Enhancement of lithium storage performance of carbon microflowers by achieving a high surface area.  

PubMed

High-surface-area, nitrogen-doped carbon microflowers (A-NCFs-4) assembled from porous nanosheets are prepared in a three-step process: soft-templating self-assembly, thermal decomposition, and KOH activation. The hydrazine hydrate used in our experiment serves not only as a structure-directing agent, but also as a nitrogen source. The resultant A-NCFs-4 has a hierarchical porous structure and its specific surface area is as high as 2309?m(2) ?g(-1). When used as anode, it exhibits a reversible capacity as high as 807?mAh?g(-1) at 300?mA?g(-1) after 100?cycles, and an excellent rate capability of 200?mAh?g(-1) at a high current density of 8?A?g(-1). Compared with unactivated counterpart, A-NCFs-4 exhibits a significantly improved lithium storage capacity and rate capability; this can be attributed to its unique structural characteristics and high surface area. The hierarchical micro-/mesopore structure, high surface area, and nitrogen doping of A-NCFs-4 could guarantee fast mass transport for lithium species, enhance the A-NCFs-4/electrolyte contact area, shorten the lithium-ion diffusion length, and accommodate strain induced by volume changes during the electrochemical reaction. The results indicate that the as-prepared A-NCFs-4 could be a promising candidate as a high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24850804

Li, Yao; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Cao, Minhua

2014-07-01

279

Lignocellulosic ethanol production at high-gravity: challenges and perspectives.  

PubMed

In brewing and ethanol-based biofuel industries, high-gravity fermentation produces 10-15% (v/v) ethanol, resulting in improved overall productivity, reduced capital cost, and reduced energy input compared to processing at normal gravity. High-gravity technology ensures a successful implementation of cellulose to ethanol conversion as a cost-competitive process. Implementation of such technologies is possible if all process steps can be performed at high biomass concentrations. This review focuses on challenges and technological efforts in processing at high-gravity conditions and how these conditions influence the physiology and metabolism of fermenting microorganisms, the action of enzymes, and other process-related factors. Lignocellulosic materials add challenges compared to implemented processes due to high inhibitors content and the physical properties of these materials at high gravity. PMID:24231155

Koppram, Rakesh; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Xiros, Charilaos; Olsson, Lisbeth

2014-01-01

280

Economics of electricity production and distribution in rural areas of Nepal  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in rural areas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))

1990-01-01

281

A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

Chitre, S. R.

1978-01-01

282

Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

Bilgin, Ö.

2012-04-01

283

Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.  

PubMed

Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce. PMID:25198606

Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

2014-08-01

284

Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.  

PubMed

Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e microA of Xe(37+), 1 e microA of Xe(43+), and 0.16 e microA of Ne-like Xe(44+). To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi(31+) beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e microA of Bi(31+), 22 e microA of Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of Bi(50+) have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL. PMID:20192339

Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Cao, Y; Guo, X H; Ma, H Y; Zhao, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Jin, T; Xie, D Z

2010-02-01

285

Hydrogen Production:. Ceramic Materials for High Temperature Water Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydogen, H2 is regarded as the main energy vector for the future. Today, the world production of hydrogen rises to 550 billion Nm3 (44 Mt) corresponding to 1,5% of the primary energy production. Contrary to fossil fuels, H2 does not exist in a native form and its use obviously requires its fabrication and storage. The future status of H2 as a fuel for electricity production (fuel cells) and for automobile transportation makes necessary a considerable increase of its production. Some H2 manufactoring processes are briefly described in the first part of this article : (i) steam methane reforming, (ii) water decomposition by thermochemical cycles, (iii) water decomposition by photoelectrochemistry, (iv) water or organic compounds decomposition in using bacteria or alguae. The second part concerns the H2 production by water electrolysis. This manufactoring process does not exceed 1% of the total production of hydrogen. It is expected that the electrolysers working at high temperature (700-900°C) using ceramic oxides based electrolytes are the more promising. Two groups are considered: electrolysers with proton conductors or oxide ion conductors as electrolytes. Proton conductors belong to the perovskite oxides family MCe1-xLnxO3 with M = Ba, Sr and Ln = Lanthanide. For these conductors, few results on water electrolysis at high temperature are available in the litterature and will be shown here. Electrolysers using oxide ion conductors are more promising. The selected materials are those developped for SOFCs : YSZ for the electrolyte, Ni based cermets for the cathode materials and La1-xSrxMO3±? with M = Mn, Co, Ni, Fe ... The electrochemical characteristics of the anodic and cathodic interfaces as well as the perfomances of electrolysers working at high temperature are presented.

Hammou, A.

2006-06-01

286

Synthesis and application of magnesium oxide nanospheres with high surface area  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? MgO nanospheres with high specific surface area synthesized by the polyol method. ? The BET specific surface area of nanopowders was 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. ? MgO nanospheres were applied to remove hexavalent chromium. -- Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanospheres with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the polyol method. The BET specific surface area of the nanopowders was ?90 m{sup 2}/g by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursor, the reaction time, and the washing solution. It was increased to 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the MgO nanospheres composed of highly folded flakes, which were responsible for the observed high surface area. The high BET characteristic of the MgO nanospheres can be applied to sintering of microwave ceramics at a reducing sintering temperature, uniformed grain size distribution, and high bulk density. Finally, their capacity to remove hexavalent chromium was presented.

Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Li, Wei-Min; Tung, Kuo-Shin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail: cfshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Dung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2012-11-15

287

Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free oil ranges from 17/sup 0/ API at Barton Ranch to over 49/sup 0/ API in the deeper reservoir rocks located at an unnamed oil field. Oil has been trapped in Lakota channel sandstones and Fall River nearshore sandstones on the Black Hills monocline within a catchment area located on the northeast side of the large northeast-southwest-trending Gillette arch. Currently, the oldest producible oil on or east of the central Black Hills monocline is Early Cretaceous in age. This oil is the highest structural, active, primary production along the west-central flank of the Black Hills uplift. Two Permian-Pennsylvanian fields are located structurally higher, but one is a thermal tertiary project and the other has been abandoned.

Randall, A.G.

1986-08-01

288

Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides and levels of fumonisins in corn from main production areas in Iran.  

PubMed

A total of 52 corn samples collected in 2000 from four main corn production provinces of Iran (Fars, Kermanshah, Khuzestan, and Mazandaran) were analyzed for contamination with Fusarium verticillioides and fumonisins (FB(1), FB(2), FB(3), and 3-epi-FB(3)). The mean incidence of F. verticillioides (percent of kernels infected) for these four areas was 26.7, 21.4, 24.9, and 59.0%, respectively. The incidence in Mazandaran was significantly (p < 0.05) above that of the other areas. All samples from Mazandaran were contaminated with fumonisins with a mean level of total fumonisins of 10674 microg/kg. In contrast, the incidence of fumonisin contamination above 10 microg/kg was 53 (8/15), 42 (5/12), and 57% (8/14) in the samples from Fars, Kermanshah, and Khuzestan, respectively, and the corresponding mean total fumonisin levels were 215, 71, and 174 microg/kg, respectively. No statistical differences (p > 0.05) were observed in the fumonisin levels of the corn samples from these three provinces, which were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than the fumonisin contamination in samples from Mazandaran. PMID:16881726

Ghiasian, Seyed Amir; Maghsood, Amir Hossein; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shephard, Gordon S; Van Der Westhuizen, Liana; Vismer, Hester F; Rheeder, John P; Marasas, Walter F O

2006-08-01

289

Biotechnological approach towards a highly efficient production of natural prostaglandins.  

PubMed

Prostaglandins (PGs) act as potent local hormones in nearly all tissues of the human body and are used for various medical applications. Heterologous expression of PG endoperoxide H-synthase from the alga, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, into E. coli and the application of this strain in biotransformation experiments resulted in a highly efficient conversion of arachidonic acid (ARA) yielding up to 130 mg natural PGs l(-1) in a laboratory scale approach. Detailed analyses of the products and production kinetics were performed, confirming a rapid conversion of ARA to PGs. PMID:25048234

Guder, J C; Buchhaupt, M; Huth, I; Hannappel, A; Ferreirós, N; Geisslinger, G; Schrader, J

2014-11-01

290

Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating temperature and pressure, and the air to product O{sub 2} ratio. In this study, the maximum system efficiency is 56.3%. (authors)

Ogawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kasai, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuya [Toshiba Corporation: 1 Toshiba-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8511 (Japan)

2007-07-01

291

Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package  

SciTech Connect

A matrix of 55 glasses was developed and tested with the aim to identify the impact of glass composition on the long-term corrosion behavior and to develop an acceptable low-activity waste glass composition region. Of the 55 glasses, 45 were designed to systematically vary the glass composition and 10 were selected because large and growing databases on their corrosion characteristics had accumulated. The performance of these 55 glasses in the vapor-phase hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) were characterized. VHT's were performed at temperatures between 150?C and 300?C for times up to 280 days; preliminary corrosion rates and type of alteration products were identified. PCTs were performed at 90?C with glass surface area's to solution volumes (S/V) of 2000 m-1 for 7 days and S/V of 20 000 m-1 for 10 h, 100 h, and 1000 h. The corrosion extents by PCT were determined as functions of time from solution composition analyses.

Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin; McGrail, B. Peter; Jorgensen, Benaiah M.; Smith, Donald E.; Allen, Benjamin R.; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Brown, Kevin G.; Reamer, I. A.; Ebert, W. L.

2000-02-08

292

HIGH SCHOOL Special Privilege Registration The High School Special Privileges card is available to area high school students whose research requires  

E-print Network

HIGH SCHOOL Special Privilege Registration The High School Special Privileges card is available to area high school students whose research requires access to the University Libraries' collection. Referral by the high school librarian is required and indicates that the student has exhausted

Dasgupta, Dipankar

293

Scaling properties of high p_T inclusive hadron production  

E-print Network

We analyze the scaling properties of inclusive hadron production in proton-proton and in heavy ion collisions from fixed target to collider energies. At large transverse momentum p_T, the invariant cross section exhibits a power-like behavior Ed^3\\sigma/d^3p\\propto p_T^{-n} at fixed transverse x, x_T=2p_T/\\sqrt{s}, and fixed center-of-mass scattering angle \\theta_{cm}. Knowledge of the exponent n allows one to draw conclusions about the production mechanisms of hadrons, which are poorly known, even at high p_T. We find that high-p_T hadrons are produced by different mechanisms at fixed-target and collider energies. For pions, higher-twist subprocesses where the pion is produced directly dominate at fixed target energy, while leading-twist partonic scattering plus fragmentation is the most important mechanism at collider energies. High-p_T baryons on the other hand appear to be produced by higher-twist mechanisms at all available energies. The higher-twist mechanism of direct proton production can be verified experimentally by testing whether high p_T protons are produced as single hadrons without accompanying secondaries. In addition, we find that medium-induced gluon radiation in heavy ion collisions can violate scaling.

S. J. Brodsky; H. J. Pirner; J. Raufeisen

2005-10-24

294

Automated process control optimization to control low volume products based on high volume products data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of an Automated Process Control (APC) depends highly on the amount of relevant measurement data points. The quality of APC for low volume products is lower than high volume products, since there is not enough data to respond to tool parameters drift or incoming variations. In order to improve low volume runners control it is proposed to use high volume runners data to generate feedback for low volume runners. Product to product differences can be minimized by applying bias. This bias does not remain stable due to tool parameters drift or incoming variations. The current paper addresses these issues and reviews different methods for bias control/change if needed. Intel Litho APC is using EWMA time based weighting for parameters like Overlay parameters, Focus and Dose control. The data for each set of feedback list is segmented by several partition variables (tool, operation, etc.) within a defined expiration period. For low volume runners it is possible to widen the partition by adding main runners data with applied bias. Historical data shows possible bias variability following process or tool drifts over time. Different cases of partition biases are reviewed based on Litho parameters examples. Various algorithms for bias control and bias calculation are reviewed. Simulation studies are performed to predict the impact of deploying this strategy in production.

Levin, Tatiana; Geier, Issi; Zhivotovsky, Alex; Aframiam, Nilufar; Friedlander-Klar, Hamutal

2005-05-01

295

Responses of primary productivity to current and climate changes in the mud area to the southwest of Cheju Island during the past 800 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and grain size were analyzed with a gravity core (3250-6) collected from the mud area in the north East China Sea. The average deposition rate of the upper core was about 0.078 cm yr-1 based on the results of 210Pbex. The mean grain size increased with depth in general. The frequency distribution of grain size showed that two marked changes of deposition environment occurred at 30 cm and 50 cm depths (about 1550 AD and 1300 AD, respectively). The variations of BSi and TOC indicated two distinct major periods of primary productivity over the past 800 years: a stage of low primary productivity corresponding to weak upwelling and low nutrient input below 30 cm depth (about 1200-1550 AD), and a stage of high primary productivity with strong currents and upwelling above 30 cm depth (about 1550-1950 AD). The stage with high primary productive appeared to be due to the northward-expanded muddy area caused by strong Asian Winter Monsoon and enhanced Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter. In conclusion, the BSi and TOC in the muddy sediments, the symbols of marine primary productivity, can be then used to investigate the evolution history of currents and relative climate change in the offshore areas.

Liu, Yi; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Wang, Yuhong; Jia, Nan; Ji, Haoyuan; Huang, Yiya; Sun, Liguang

2013-12-01

296

INNOVATIVE SATELLITE IMAGE MAP OF R.ALKHABRTA AREA, SAUDI ARABIA USING HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Satellite remote sensing can provide a variety of useful data for various type of research. Satellite image map,is one of the products that aim to promote remote sensing. In this study, a high resolution satellite image was used to create a high resolution satellite image map over AlKhabra, Saudi Arabia. The objective of this project is to produce a

Sultan AlSultan; K. Abdullah; N. Mohd

2002-01-01

297

Using high resolution QuickBird imagery for crop identification and area estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagery from recently launched high spatial resolution satellite sensors offers new opportunities for crop assessment and monitoring. A 2.8-m multispectral QuickBird image covering an intensively cropped area in south Texas was evaluated for crop identification and area estimation. Three reduced-resolution images with pixel sizes of 11.2 m, 19.6 m, and 30.8 m were also generated from the original image to simulate coarser resolution

Chenghai Yang; James H. Everitt; Reginald S. Fletcher; Dale Murden

2007-01-01

298

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030m2g-1 (ref. 2). Until recently, the

Hee K. Chae; Diana Y. Siberio-Pérez; Jaheon Kim; YongBok Go; Mohamed Eddaoudi; Adam J. Matzger; Michael O'Keeffe; Omar M. Yaghi

2004-01-01

299

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

300

Simultaneous production of trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice by an enzymatic process.  

PubMed

Rice is a starch-rich raw material that can be used for trehalose production. It can be hydrolyzed with alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to produce high-maltose content of rice saccharified solution for bioconversion of maltose into trehalose by trehalose synthase (TSase). For this purpose, an efficient enzymatic procedure has been successfully developed to simultaneously produce value-added trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice as substrate. The highest maltose yield produced from the liquefied rice starch hydrolysate was 82.4 +/- 2.8% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 21-22 h. The trehalose conversion rate can reach at least 50% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 20-24 h by a novel thermostable recombinant Picrophilus torridus trehalose synthase (PTTS). All residual sugar, except trehalose, can be fully hydrolyzed by glucoamylase into glucose for further bioethanol production. The insoluble byproduct containing high yields of protein (75.99%) and dietary fiber (14.01%) can be processed as breakfast cereal product, health food, animal forage, etc. The conversion yield of bioethanol was about 98% after 64 h of fermentation time by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any artificial culture solution addition. Ethanol can easily be separated from trehalose by distillation with a high recovery yield and purity of crystalline trehalose of 92.5 +/- 8.7% and 92.3%, respectively. PMID:20131789

Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Maw-Rong; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Yu, Nu-Yi; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Shaw, Jei-Fu

2010-03-10

301

Impact of Weather Analysis on Agricultural Production and Planning Decisions for the Semiarid Areas of Kenya.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kenya's current 4% rate of population growth requires cultivation of food crops by smallholder farmers in ever drier zones of semiarid lands. Rainfall is limited, variable and unpredictable, but maize, widely known for susceptibility to drought, remains the staple and favorite food crop.A case study is presented in which `effective rainfall' for Katumani Composite B-type maize, grown at Katumani, Machakos District, is evaluated for each of the 48 wet seasons in the 24-year record. The newly developed analysis takes into account rainfall, evaporation, soil depth and water holding capacity, and growth characteristics of the crop influencing water uptake and yield. Conclusions are:1) The analysis evaluates suitability of a given crop for production in any location where rainfall and evaporation records are available.2) Dates of onset of the rains at Katumani are sortable into periods termed `early' (implies expectation of high to medium water adequacy for maize production), `late' (medium to low expectation), and `too late' to recommend planting. These expectations determine recommendations for initial seed and fertilizer rates.3) Although unpredictable earlier, the rainfall pattern following onset soon sorts itself into one of three categories of water adequacy for maize (high, medium or low). Recommendations for thinning to final plant densities, and for adjusting nitrogen fertilizer rates through sidedressing are based on the perceived category.4) Approximately two months before harvest, total season effective rainfall can be estimated, and predictions of yield provided to farmers, economists, and other planners concerned with food supplies.5) An estimate is presented of the value of meteorological information to maize production in Machakos and Kitui Districts.

Stewart, J. Ian; Hash, Charles T.

1982-04-01

302

Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fossil fuels is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse\\u000a gases in the environment that have already exceeded the “dangerously high” threshold of 450 ppm CO2-e. To achieve environmental and economic sustainability, fuel production processes are required that are not only renewable,\\u000a but also capable of sequestering atmospheric CO2. Currently, nearly

Peer M. Schenk; Skye R. Thomas-Hall; Evan Stephens; Jan H. Mussgnug; Clemens Posten; Olaf Kruse; Ben Hankamer

2008-01-01

303

High-volume production stepper for x-ray lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prototype of a high volume production stepper for x-ray lithography, designed and built by Suss Advanced Lithography, Inc. (SAL), has been installed for beta testing at the Center for X-ray Lithography (CXrL) at the University of Wisconsin. SAL has put substantial efforts into the design and construction of this third generation x-ray stepper in order to meet industry requirements,

Klaus Simon; R. Macklin; Robert A. Selzer; Quinn T. Leonard; Franco Cerrina

1997-01-01

304

Double Pair Production by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Photons  

E-print Network

With use of CompHEP package we've made the detailed estimate of the influence of double e+e- pair production by photons (DPP) on the propagation of ultra high energy electromagnetic cascade. We show that in the models in which cosmic ray photons energy reaches few thousand EeV refined DPP analysis may lead to substantial difference in predicted photon spectrum compared to previous rough estimates.

S. V. Demidov; O. E. Kalashev

2008-12-04

305

High surface area nanocrystalline hausmannite synthesized by a solvent-free route  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? High surface area Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles obtained by a solvent-free low temperature route. ? 3,6,9-Trioxadecanoic acid allows to obtain nanocrystalline hausmannite. ? Tape casted electrodes show up to 300 mAh g{sup ?1} capacity after more than 40 cycles at a C/3 rate. ? Upper cut off voltage strongly influences capacity retention upon cycling at high C rates. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline high surface area Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder was obtained at low temperature by a solvent-free route. The precursor was a mixture of manganese (II) acetate, 3,6,9-trioxadecanoic acid (TODA) and ammonium acetate that were intimately mixed by grounding in an agate mortar. Nanocrystalline Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} was obtained by thermal treatment at 120 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared characterization confirmed the formation of the hausmannite phase. The as-prepared mesoporous material has high specific surface area (120 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}). The performances of tape casted Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanopowder electrodes were investigated as anode material for lithium ion batteries. High capacity values were achieved at diverse C rates. Capacity fading was found to be dependent on the upper cut off voltage, the presence of a plateau at 2.25 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li being detrimental for long term cyclability.

Herrera-Miranda, Daniel [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ponrouch, Alexandre [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Pons, Josefina [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Domingo, Concepción [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Palacín, M. Rosa, E-mail: rosa.palacin@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ayllón, José A., E-mail: joseantonio.ayllon@uab.es [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2012-09-15

306

High Yield Production Process for Shigella Outer Membrane Particles  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacteria naturally shed particles that consist of outer membrane lipids, outer membrane proteins, and soluble periplasmic components. These particles have been proposed for use as vaccines but the yield has been problematic. We developed a high yielding production process of genetically derived outer membrane particles from the human pathogen Shigella sonnei. Yields of approximately 100 milligrams of membrane-associated proteins per liter of fermentation were obtained from cultures of S. sonnei ?tolR ?galU at optical densities of 30–45 in a 5 L fermenter. Proteomic analysis of the purified particles showed the preparation to primarily contain predicted outer membrane and periplasmic proteins. These were highly immunogenic in mice. The production of these outer membrane particles from high density cultivation of bacteria supports the feasibility of scaling up this approach as an affordable manufacturing process. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of using this process with other genetic manipulations e.g. abolition of O antigen synthesis and modification of the lipopolysaccharide structure in order to modify the immunogenicity or reactogenicity of the particles. This work provides the basis for a large scale manufacturing process of Generalized Modules of Membrane Antigens (GMMA) for production of vaccines from Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22701551

Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Colucci, Anna Maria; Maggiore, Luana; Sanzone, Silvia; Rossi, Omar; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Pesce, Isabella; Caboni, Mariaelena; Norais, Nathalie; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

2012-01-01

307

High-Productivity and High-Performance Analysis of Filtered Semantic Graphs  

E-print Network

High-Productivity and High-Performance Analysis of Filtered Semantic Graphs Aydin Buluç1, Erika the graph through a filter that passes only those individual vertices and edges of interest. Knowledge Discovery Toolbox (KDT), a Python library for parallel graph computations, is customizable in two ways

308

A Box-Model Analysis of Ozone Production Potential as a Function of Source Region in the Houston/Galveston Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in ozone production rates and efficiencies are presented as a function of air mass history for an air quality monitoring site located on the west side of a major metropolitan area (Houston, Texas). This site was located at the top of a tall building (~ 832 ft AGL) to minimize effects from highly localized sources of NOx and VOCs. Under conditions of easterly flow, this elevated site sampled a mix of O3, NO, NOy (sum of all odd-nitrogen species), PAN, SO2, CO, CH2O, HNO3, HONO, H2O2 and volatile organic compounds associated with the city itself and with major petrochemical production facilities on the east side of the city. Air mass histories were calculated from hourly observations made by a radar wind profiler network set up over the Houston/Galveston area. The observations from this site were then used to initialize a photochemical box model that could, in turn, be used to evaluate such kinetic features as the instantaneous rates of NOx destruction, O3 production and various production efficiencies (e.g., ozone production efficiency, here defined as -? [O3]/? t([NO + NO2]/? t) ) as a function of source region. Preliminary results suggest a much richer mix of VOCs on days associated with rapid ozone formation events ('ROFE's) relative to days when high ozone levels formed more slowly, and that these ROFEs were associated with a sudden veering of the low level winds over the Houston/Galveston area. Passage of air over the rich source region of eastern Houston was, by itself, not enough to increase VOC levels high enough for rapid ozone formation; for maximum production rates, it appears that the air has to 'stall' over eastern Houston before moving to the monitoring site, resulting in chemical mixtures with distinct production rates and efficiencies.

Berkowitz, C. M.; Doskey, P. V.; Spicer, C. W.; Zaveri, R. A.

2002-12-01

309

Using high resolution CIR imagery in the classification of non-cropped areas in agricultural landscapes in the UK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With global food demand on course to double in the next 50 years the pressures of agricultural intensification on ecosystem services in highly managed landscapes are increasing. Within an agricultural landscape non-cropped areas are a key component of ecological heterogeneity and the sustainability of ecosystem services. Management of the landscape for both production of food and ecosystem services requires configuring the non-cropped areas in an optimal way, which, in turn requires large scale information on the distribution of non-cropped areas. In this study the Canny edge detection algorithm was used to delineate 93% of all boundaries within 422 ha of agricultural land in south east England. The resulting image was used in conjunction with vegetation indices derived from Color Infra Red (CIR) aerial photography and auxiliary landuse data in an Object Orientated (OO) Knowledge Based Classifier (KBC) to identify non-cropped areas. An overall accuracy of 94.27% (Kappa 0.91) for the KBC compared favorably with 63.04% (Kappa 0.55) for a pixel based hybrid classifier of the same area.

O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

2013-10-01

310

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2014-01-01

311

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2012-01-01

312

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2013-01-01

313

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2011-01-01

314

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2010-01-01

315

Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation is constructed on a 0.25° latitude/longitude grid over China for a 3 year period from 2005 to 2007 by interpolating gauge reports from ˜2000 stations collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration. Gauge-based precipitation analysis is applied to examine the performance of six high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates, including Joyce et al.'s (2004) Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and the arithmetic mean of the microwave estimates used in CMORPH; Huffman et al.'s (2007) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product 3B42 and its real-time version 3B42RT; Turk et al.'s (2004) Naval Research Laboratory blended product; and Hsu et al.'s (1997) Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN). Our results showed the following: (1) all six satellite products are capable of capturing the overall spatial distribution and temporal variations of precipitation reasonably well; (2) performance of the satellite products varies for different regions and different precipitation regimes, with better comparison statistics observed over wet regions and for warm seasons; (3) products based solely on satellite observations present regionally and seasonally varying biases, while the gauge-adjustment procedures applied in TRMM 3B42 remove the large-scale bias almost completely; (4) CMORPH exhibits the best performance in depicting the spatial pattern and temporal variations of precipitation; and (5) both the relative magnitude and the phase of the warm season precipitation over China are estimated quite well, but the early morning peak associated with the Mei-Yu rainfall over central eastern China is substantially under-estimated by all satellite products.

Shen, Yan; Xiong, Anyuan; Wang, Ying; Xie, Pingping

2010-01-01

316

Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total daily E was unaffected by position in the interrow. Under wet soil conditions, wind speed and direction affected soil evaporation. Row orientation interacted with wind direction in this study such that aerodynamic resistance to E usually increased when wind direction was perpendicular to row direction; but this interaction needs further study because it appeared to be lessened under higher wind speeds.

Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.

2012-12-01

317

Insecticide residues in soil and water in coastal areas of vegetable production in Togo.  

PubMed

Some common organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides were analysed in agricultural soil samples (n?=?35) and surface water and groundwater samples (n?=?25) collected from coastal areas of vegetable production in Togo. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the insecticide residues and their subsequent quantification using GC-ECD. ?-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, 4,4-DDE, endosulphan (?, ? and sulphate), lambda-cyalothrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the soil samples with concentrations that varied from non-detectable (ND) to 26.93 ?g kg(-1) dry weight. For water samples, heptachlor epoxide, 2,4-DDD, 4,4-DDD, 4,4-DDE and endosulphan (?, ?, and sulphate) were found at contamination levels that varied from ND to 0.116 ?g L(-1). The concentration of insecticide residues detected in the water samples was below the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and also by the European Union (EU), with the exception of the concentration of endosulphan sulphate at the Aného site, which was 0.116 ?g L(-1). PMID:25034236

Mawussi, Gbénonchi; Scorza Júnior, Rômulo P; Dossa, Ekwe L; Alaté, Koffi-Kouma Akouété

2014-11-01

318

Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

Peters, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

319

Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

Giulianetti, Demo J.

2001-01-01

320

Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

2011-01-01

321

Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

1998-01-01

322

Exclusive vector meson production at high energies and gluon saturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We systematically study exclusiv2 diffractive (photo)production of vector mesons (J/?, ?(2s), ?, and ?) off protons in high-energy collisions and investigate whether the production is a sensitive probe of gluon saturation. We confront saturation-based results for diffractive ?(2s) and ? production at HERA and J/? photoproduction with all available data, including recent work from HERA, ALICE, and LHCb, finding good agreement. In particular, we show that the t distribution of differential cross sections of photoproduction of vector mesons offers a unique opportunity to discriminate among saturation and nonsaturation models. This is due to the emergence of a pronounced dip (or multiple dips) in the t distribution of diffractive photoproduction of vector mesons at relatively large, but potentially accessible |t| that can be traced back to the unitarity features of color dipole amplitude in the saturation regime. We show that in saturation models the dips in t distribution recede towards lower |t| with decreasing mass of the vector meson, increasing energy or decreasing Bjorken-x, and decreasing virtuality Q. We provide various predictions for exclusive (photo)production of different vector mesons including the ratio of ?(2s)/J/? at HERA, the LHC, and future colliders.

Armesto, Néstor; Rezaeian, Amir H.

2014-09-01

323

Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

2000-03-08

324

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030m2g-1 (ref. 2). Until recently, the largest surface area of an ordered structure was that of zeolite Y, recorded at 904m2g-1 (ref. 3). But with the introduction of metal-organic framework materials, this has been exceeded, with values up to 3,000m2g-1 (refs 4-7). Despite this, no method of determining the upper limit in surface area for a material has yet been found. Here we present a general strategy that has allowed us to realize a structure having by far the highest surface area reported to date. We report the design, synthesis and properties of crystalline Zn4O(1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate)2, a new metal-organic framework with a surface area estimated at 4,500m2g-1. This framework, which we name MOF-177, combines this exceptional level of surface area with an ordered structure that has extra-large pores capable of binding polycyclic organic guest molecules-attributes not previously combined in one material.

Chae, Hee K.; Siberio-Pérez, Diana Y.; Kim, Jaheon; Go, YongBok; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Matzger, Adam J.; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

2004-02-01

325

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals.  

PubMed

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030 m2 g(-1) (ref. 2). Until recently, the largest surface area of an ordered structure was that of zeolite Y, recorded at 904 m2 g(-1) (ref. 3). But with the introduction of metal-organic framework materials, this has been exceeded, with values up to 3,000 m2 g(-1) (refs 4-7). Despite this, no method of determining the upper limit in surface area for a material has yet been found. Here we present a general strategy that has allowed us to realize a structure having by far the highest surface area reported to date. We report the design, synthesis and properties of crystalline Zn4O(1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate)2, a new metal-organic framework with a surface area estimated at 4,500 m2 g(-1). This framework, which we name MOF-177, combines this exceptional level of surface area with an ordered structure that has extra-large pores capable of binding polycyclic organic guest molecules--attributes not previously combined in one material. PMID:14765190

Chae, Hee K; Siberio-Pérez, Diana Y; Kim, Jaheon; Go, YongBok; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Matzger, Adam J; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

2004-02-01

326

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

1999-01-01

327

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

1999-03-16

328

ENTROPY PRODUCTION AT HIGH ENERGY AND mu B.  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on Ai-A, p + y and e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at high energies and large {mu}{sub B} is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities are different at low beam energies.

STEINBERG,P.

2006-07-03

329

Entropy Production at High Energy and mu_B  

E-print Network

The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on A+A, p+p and e+e- interactions at high energies and large mu_B is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e+e- multiplicities are different at low beam energies.

Peter Steinberg

2007-02-08

330

Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions  

SciTech Connect

Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year.

None

1999-09-02

331

Gulf Coast High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Gulf Coast High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat in the Gulf Coast HIDTA region remained fairly consistent from 2009 through 2010. Cocaine distribution and abuse are the principal d...

2011-01-01

332

Strategy for vaccination against hepatitis B in areas with high endemicity: focus on Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B vaccination strategies may vary from country to country depending on hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity, predominant modes of infection, age of infection, and health care resources. In areas with high endemicity like Korea, transmission of virus from carrier mothers to infants during the perinatal period, and from other horizontal sources to infants and children, account for most cases

Y O Ahn

1996-01-01

333

Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West Indies)  

E-print Network

1 Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West, France 3. BRGM, Department of Geothermal Energy 3, Av. Claude Guillemin - 45060 Orléans Cedex 2, France in the reservoir is composed of about 60% sea water and 40% fresh water of meteoric origin and has reached

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Casablanca, Morocco Loubna Tazi a,*, Ralf Reintjes b,c , Anne-Laure Ban in most developing countries, tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Morocco. This paper

335

IDENTIFICATION OF AUSTRALIAN POULTRY REARING AREAS AT HIGH RISK OF EXPOSURE TO AVIAN INFLUENZA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is most likely to enter Australia via migratory shorebirds returning from Asia and become established through transfer to native waterfowl in shared ecosystems. Analysis of the location of wild bird habitat and abundance of wild bird species identified areas of highest risk for HPAI introduction and establishment. The proximity of poultry farms to

I. J. East; S. A. Hamilton; M. G. Garner

336

High-Speed Non-Directional Infrared Communication for Wireless Local-Area Networks  

E-print Network

radio are the availabil- ity of a virtually unlimited, unregulated spectrum, and the fact that infrared- diodes, the wavelength band near 800 nm is probably the best choice for diffuse infrared communicationsHigh-Speed Non-Directional Infrared Communication for Wireless Local-Area Networks J. M. Kahn, J. R

Carruthers, Jeffrey

337

The Differentiation of High School Students in Vocational Education Areas by the Ohio Vocational Interest Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a preliminary validation and to determine whether the Ohio Vocational Interest Survey (OVIS) could discriminate among the interests of high school students in six vocational areas (agriculture, distributive education, home economics, health, office, and trade and industrial), the OVIS was administered to 2,387 seniors in 24 schools…

D'Costa, Ayres G. J. E.

338

High-Performance Wide-Area Optical Tracking: The HiBall Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, the Tracker Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been working on wide-area head tracking for virtual and augmented environments. Our long-term goal has been to achieve the high performance re- quired for accurate visual simulation throughout our entire laboratory, beyond into the hallways, and eventually even outdoors.

Greg Welch; Gary Bishop; Leandra Vicci; Stephen Brumback; Kurtis Keller; D'nardo Colucci

2001-01-01

339

ROAD EXTRACTION FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGE BY USING CIRCLE AREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers conducted efforts for improving the accuracy of road extraction from satellite images. Many studies have used optical spectrum information of each pixel for road extraction. By applying this method for high resolution satellite image, some problems occurred. This situation is remarkable for urban area. Most of the case, we need the information about land use. In this study,

Tsukasa HOSOMURA

340

Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

2012-01-01

341

Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically

Chad E Duty; Rob R Smith; Arpad Alexander Vass; Ralph H Ilgner; Gilbert M Brown

2008-01-01

342

Analysis of lung cancer gender differences and age structure in the high prevalence areas of Xiamen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence rate and mortality of lung cancer continuously rise, and lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death deaths. Detecting the high prevalence areas of lung cancer can effectively provide clue for detecting its influential factors. Taking the incidence rate of lung cancer in Xiamen as an example, this paper adopted Moran's I and Getis's G

Cuiping Wang; Xinhu Li; Long Dai; Guoqin Zhang; Liling Gao; Qianjun Zhao

2011-01-01

343

Impact on health care workers employed in high-risk areas during the Toronto SARS outbreak  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA number of publications focusing on health care workers (HCWs) during a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak have suggested that HCWs experienced psychological distress, particularly increased levels of posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS). Factors contributing to increased distress in HCWs working in high-risk areas treating patients with SARS have not been fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to

Rima Styra; Laura Hawryluck; Susan Robinson; Sonja Kasapinovic; Calvin Fones; Wayne L. Gold

2008-01-01

344

A large area, 2-D, high-pressure MWPC for wide angle X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi Wire Proportional Counters (MWPCs) possess all the required features for recording X-ray diffraction patterns: large area, high detective quantum efficiency (DQE), low dead time and simultaneous spatial and spectral information. However, their suitability as wide-angle diffraction is compromised by an effect known as parallax broadening. This phenomenon is due to the low density of the gas in the detector,

F. Ortuño-Prados; C. Hall; W. Helsby; A. Jones; R. Lewis; B. Parker; J. Sheldon; A. Bazzano; P. Ubertini

1997-01-01

345

A Bayesian Approach to Modeling Binary Data: The Case of High-Intensity Crime Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the fitting of a number of Bayesian logistic models with spatially structured or\\/and unstructured random effects to binary data with the purpose of explaining the distribution of high-intensity crime areas (HIAs) in the city of Sheffield, England. Bayesian approaches to spatial modeling are attracting considerable interest at the present time. This is because of the availability of

Jane Law; Robert P. Haining

2004-01-01

346

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New Orleans, Louisiana, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

347

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

348

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the New York City Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

349

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Houston, Texas, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

350

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Jackson, Mississippi, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

351

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Chicago, Illinois, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, has developed, with the generous support of State Farm[R], a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

352

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Atlanta, Georgia, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

353

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/  

E-print Network

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/ J.K. Dever, T.A. Wheeler, R.K. Boman, D. Kerns, M. Foster, D. Nesmith, L. Schoenhals, and V. Morgan2/ Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center Lubbock-Halfway-Pecos 1/ Tests were conducted by Texas AgriLife Research

Mukhtar, Saqib

354

Feasibility Study on Highly Value-added Cropping Systems in Snowy Cold Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the possibilities of maintaining good climate condition and high quality cropping in a greenhouse were discussed. Cost performance in various cropping conditions in a greenhouse of snowy cold area can be estimated using database of optimum temperature for growth of plant and database of expected yield. Moreover, database of unit price and maximum price of each crop

Shintaroh Ohashi; Kazuhiro Nakano; Yoshitaka Motonaga

355

Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ? 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. PMID:24929722

Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2014-09-01

356

Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

2012-06-01

357

Optimal Capacity Conversion for Product Transitions Under High Service Requirements  

E-print Network

We consider the capacity planning problem during a product transition in which demand for a new-generation product gradually replaces that for the old product. Capacity for the new product can be acquired both by purchasing ...

Li, Hongmin

358

Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated with Si isotopic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive diatom bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes (?Si and ?Diss, respectively) in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the plateau biogenic ?Si are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 on average), ?Diss were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (?Si : ?C and ?Si : ?N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution-to-production ratios (D : P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustain most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution of the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling of H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross Si : N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area, likely due to different diatom communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long timescales does not necessarily decrease Si : N uptake ratios as suggested by the silicic acid leakage hypothesis. Finally, we propose the first seasonal estimate of the Si biogeochemical budget above the Kerguelen Plateau based on direct measurements. This study points out that naturally iron-fertilized areas of the Southern Ocean could sustain very high regimes of biogenic silica production, similar to those observed in highly productive upwelling systems.

Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

2014-10-01

359

Nutritional profile and productivity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in different habitats of a protected area of the eastern Italian Alps.  

PubMed

Plant productivity and fruit quality in terms of occurrence of mineral elements and metabolites were determined on wild bilberry growing in open and forest stands in a protected area of N-Italy. Plant productivity was significantly higher in open stands (3 ± 2.5 compared with 0.03 ± 0.05 fruits per plant) suggesting that both collections in the wild and semi-wild cultivation should be planned in open habitats. Results obtained by ionomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that high quality fruits can be collected in the analyzed area and their nutritional profile did not differ between open and forest stands. Cyanidin and delphinidin proportion of bilberries from our study area was respectively 23.8% and 43.9% of total antocyanin and it is similar to that previously considered peculiar to bilberry fruits of high latitude regions of Europe and indicative of high quality food properties. A comparison between wild bilberry collected in the protected area and commercial blueberry was also performed and relevant differences between them detected, confirming the concept that wild bilberry has a better nutritional profile than blueberry. PMID:23573813

Elisabetta, Barizza; Flavia, Guzzo; Paolo, Fanton; Giorgio, Lucchini; Attilio, Sacchi G; Fiorella, Lo Schiavo; Juri, Nascimbene

2013-05-01

360

Combination of geophysical prospecting techniques into areas of high protection value: Identification of shallow volcanic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timanfaya National Park is a volcanic area located in the southwest of Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Several lava tubes have been found in the lava flows but many others remain unknown. Its location and identification are important to mitigate collapse hazards in this touristic area. We present a new study about the location of recent lava tubes by the analysis and joint interpretation of ground penetrating radar (GPR), microgravity and electromagnetic induction (EMI) data along the same profile over an area not previously surveyed. GPR data display a complex pattern of reflections up to ~ 10 m depth. The strongest hyperbolic reflections can be grouped in four different areas. Visual inspections carried out in the field allow confirming the occurrence of lava tubes at two of them. These reflections have been interpreted as the effect of the roof and bottom interfaces of several lava tubes. The microgravity survey defines a wide gravity low with several over-imposed minor highs and lows. Using the GPR data, a 2.5D gravity model has been obtained revealing four lava tubes. EMI data have been used to obtain an inverted resistivity model that displays four high resistivity areas that closely match the locations of the lava tubes derived from the previous methods. This resistivity model exhibits the lower resolution although reaches a deeper investigation depth (~ 20 m). The comparison of the results has revealed that joint interpretation of GPR, microgravity and EMI methods provides reliable models useful for the detection of unknown shallow lava tubes.

Gómez-Ortiz, David; Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Martín-Crespo, Tomás; Solla, Mercedes; Arnoso, José; Vélez, Emilio

2014-10-01

361

Video-rate structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput imaging of large tissue areas.  

PubMed

We report the development of a structured illumination microscopy instrument specifically designed for the requirements for high-area-throughput, optically-sectioned imaging of large, fluorescently-stained tissue specimens. The system achieves optical sectioning frame-rates of up to 33 Hz (and pixel sampling rates of up to 138.4 MHz), by combining a fast, ferroelectric spatial light modulator for pattern generation with the latest large-format, high frame-rate scientific CMOS camera technology. Using a 10X 0.45 NA objective and a 7 mm/sec scan stage, we demonstrate 4.4 cm(2)/min area-throughput rates in bright tissue-simulating phantoms, and 2 cm(2)/min area-throughput rates in thick, highly-absorbing, fluorescently-stained muscle tissue, with 1.3 ?m lateral resolution. We demonstrate high-contrast, high-resolution imaging of a fluorescently-stained 30.4 cm(2) bovine muscle specimen in 15 minutes comprising 7.55 gigapixels, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach for gigapixel imaging of large tissues in short timeframes, such as would be needed for intraoperative imaging of tumor resection specimens. PMID:24575333

Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C; Wang, Mei; Elfer, Katherine N; Brown, J Quincy

2014-02-01

362

Video-rate structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput imaging of large tissue areas  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a structured illumination microscopy instrument specifically designed for the requirements for high-area-throughput, optically-sectioned imaging of large, fluorescently-stained tissue specimens. The system achieves optical sectioning frame-rates of up to 33 Hz (and pixel sampling rates of up to 138.4 MHz), by combining a fast, ferroelectric spatial light modulator for pattern generation with the latest large-format, high frame-rate scientific CMOS camera technology. Using a 10X 0.45 NA objective and a 7 mm/sec scan stage, we demonstrate 4.4 cm2/min area-throughput rates in bright tissue-simulating phantoms, and 2 cm2/min area-throughput rates in thick, highly-absorbing, fluorescently-stained muscle tissue, with 1.3 ?m lateral resolution. We demonstrate high-contrast, high-resolution imaging of a fluorescently-stained 30.4 cm2 bovine muscle specimen in 15 minutes comprising 7.55 gigapixels, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach for gigapixel imaging of large tissues in short timeframes, such as would be needed for intraoperative imaging of tumor resection specimens. PMID:24575333

Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C.; Wang, Mei; Elfer, Katherine N.; Brown, J. Quincy

2014-01-01

363

Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households\\u000a and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly\\u000a on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed\\u000a (kitchen waste

A. Kumaresan; K. M. Bujarbaruah; K. A. Pathak; Anubrata Das; R. K. Bardoloi

2009-01-01

364

Calibration methodology application of kerma area product meters in situ: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kerma-area product (KAP) is a useful quantity to establish the reference levels of conventional X-ray examinations. It can be obtained by measurements carried out with a KAP meter on a plane parallel transmission ionization chamber mounted on the X-ray system. A KAP meter can be calibrated in laboratory or in situ, where it is used. It is important to use one reference KAP meter in order to obtain reliable quantity of doses on the patient. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) is a new equipment from Radcal that measures KAP. It was manufactured following the IEC 60580 recommendations, an international standard for KAP meters. This study had the aim to calibrate KAP meters using the PDC in situ. Previous studies and the quality control program of the PDC have shown that it has good function in characterization tests of dosimeters with ionization chamber and it also has low energy dependence. Three types of KAP meters were calibrated in four different diagnostic X-ray equipments. The voltages used in the two first calibrations were 50 kV, 70 kV, 100 kV and 120 kV. The other two used 50 kV, 70 kV and 90 kV. This was related to the equipments limitations. The field sizes used for the calibration were 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm. The calibrations were done in three different cities with the purpose to analyze the reproducibility of the PDC. The results gave the calibration coefficient for each KAP meter and showed that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument to calibrate clinical KAP meters.

Costa, N. A.; Potiens, M. P. A.

2014-11-01

365

Hydrogen production reaction with a metal oxide catalyst in high pressure high temperature water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen production from biomass was attempted in high pressure high temperature water at 573 K by adopting partial oxidation to increase the yield of H2 via CO production in the presence of ZnO. The results revealed that an addition of H2O2 as an oxidant to the reaction of glucose and sugarcane bagasse brought about the trend of increasing the yields of H2, CO, and CO2. However, the sensitivity of H2 yield on H2O2 amount was different from those of CO and CO2, namely the excess amount of H2O2 tends to decrease the H2 yield with giving a maximum at a certain H2O2 amount. These indicated that the controllability of partial oxidation would be a key factor for maximizing the H2 yield through biomass conversion by partial oxidative gasification in high pressure high temperature water

Watanabe, M.; Takahashi, M.; Inomata, H.

2008-07-01

366

Estimating potential output and the output gap for the euro area: a model-based production function approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an analysis of multivariate unobserved components models for the estimation of potential output and the\\u000a output gap in the euro area. Bivariate models of output and inflation and multivariate model-based implementations of the\\u000a production function approach are considered; according to the latter potential output is derived from the permanent components\\u000a of the factors of production consistent with

Tommaso Proietti; Alberto Musso; Thomas Westermann

2007-01-01

367

Quality assurance requirements for high-level waste form production  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Waste Management Plan has the objective of final disposal for high-level waste (HLW) generated from defense programs. The DOE sites that generate HLW are located at the Savannah River Operations Office in Aiken, South Carolina, the Hanford site in Richland, Washington, and the Idaho Operations Office in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The purpose in the development of a quality assurance (QA) specification for organizations involved in HLW production is to establish uniform requirements that ensure that radioactive waste is converted to a waste form and canistered in such a way that it is acceptable in a federal repository licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A QA specification has been developed that will be applied to those activities important to certification of the product. The basic requirements are defined in national consensus standards and DOE directives. The supplemental requirements identify the QA criteria associated with HLW production where additional guidance is needed to facilitate the DOE repository licensing process.

Chacey, K.A.; DeLannoy, C.R.; Campbell, M.H.

1988-01-01

368

A new metal-organic framework with ultra-high surface area.  

PubMed

A new mesoporous MOF, Zn4O(bpdc)(btctb)(4/3) (DUT-32), containing linear ditopic (bpdc(2-); 4,4'-biphenylenedicarboxylic acid) and tritopic (btctb(3-); 4,4',4''-[benzene-1,3,5-triyltris(carbonylimino)]tris-benzoate) linkers, was synthesised. The highly porous solid has a total pore volume of 3.16 cm(3) g(-1) and a specific BET surface area of 6411 m(2) g(-1), adding this compound to the top ten porous materials with the highest BET surface area. PMID:24549108

Grünker, Ronny; Bon, Volodymyr; Müller, Philipp; Stoeck, Ulrich; Krause, Simon; Mueller, Uwe; Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan

2014-04-01

369

High yield production of extracellular recombinant levansucrase by Bacillus megaterium.  

PubMed

In this study, a high yield production bioprocess with recombinant Bacillus megaterium for the production of the extracellular enzyme levansucrase (SacB) was developed. For basic optimization of culture parameters and nutrients, a recombinant B. megaterium reporter strain that produced green fluorescent protein under control of a vector-based xylose-inducible promoter was used. It enabled efficient microtiter plate-based screening via fluorescence analysis. A pH value of pH?6, 20 % of dissolved oxygen, 37 °C, and elevated levels of biotin (100 ?g?L(-1)) were found optimal with regard to high protein yield and reduced overflow metabolism. Among the different compounds tested, fructose and glycerol were identified as the preferred source of carbon. Subsequently, the settings were transferred to a B. megaterium strain recombinantly producing levansucrase SacB based on the plasmid-located xylose-inducible expression system. In shake flask culture under the optimized conditions, the novel strain already secreted the target enzyme in high amounts (14 U?mL(-1) on fructose and 17.2 U?mL(-1) on glycerol). This was further increased in high cell density fed-batch processes up to 55 U?mL(-1), reflecting a levansucrase concentration of 0.52 g?L(-1). This is 100-fold more than previous efforts for this enzyme in B. megaterium and more than 10-fold higher than reported values of other extracellular protein produced in this microorganism so far. The recombinant strain could also handle raw glycerol from biodiesel industry which provided the same amount and quality of the recombinant protein and suggests future implementation into existing biorefinery concepts. PMID:23179620

Korneli, Claudia; Biedendieck, Rebekka; David, Florian; Jahn, Dieter; Wittmann, Christoph

2013-04-01

370

A Production-Efficiency Oriented Approach for Evaluating The Performance of a Local Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network technology plays a vital role in integrating manufacturing facilities and controlling production information flows. A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) system with different production characteristics, e.g., production throughput rate and the amount of process infonnation, should be facilitated with a network protocol that meets the individual CIM system's requirements. PEO-NET, a Production-Efficiency-Oriented Network Evaluation Tool, is developed in this paper which

Chun-Wei Remen Lin

2000-01-01

371

Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

Bulko, J. B.

2003-10-23

372

Edge electrospinning for high throughput production of quality nanofibers.  

PubMed

A novel, simple geometry for high throughput electrospinning from a bowl edge is presented that utilizes a vessel filled with a polymer solution and a concentric cylindrical collector. Successful fiber formation is presented for two different polymer systems with differing solution viscosity and solvent volatility. The process of jet initiation, resultant fiber morphology and fiber production rate are discussed for this unconfined feed approach. Under high voltage initiation, the jets spontaneously form directly on the fluid surface and rearrange along the circumference of the bowl to provide approximately equal spacing between spinning sites. Nanofibers currently produced from bowl electrospinning are identical in quality to those fabricated by traditional needle electrospinning (TNE) with a demonstrated ? 40 times increase in the production rate for a single batch of solution due primarily to the presence of many simultaneous jets. In the bowl electrospinning geometry, the electric field pattern and subsequent effective feed rate are very similar to those parameters found under optimized TNE experiments. Consequently, the electrospinning process per jet is directly analogous to that in TNE and thereby results in the same quality of nanofibers. PMID:21799242

Thoppey, N M; Bochinski, J R; Clarke, L I; Gorga, R E

2011-08-26

373

Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas are defined as areas with reported or estimated incidence of 20 cases per 100,000  

E-print Network

Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas Niger Swaziland Source: World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory, Tuberculosis Incidence 2009. For future updates , refer to http://apps.who.int/ghodata/?vid=510 Tuberculosis Screening

Myers, Lawrence C.

374

Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.  

PubMed

Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations. PMID:19800783

Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

2009-12-01

375

Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High Park Fire.  

E-print Network

, including the area of the High Park Fire. For more information, go to http Park Fire area calls for mostly clear conditions, with lows in the mid-40s. Breezy, with southwestPage 1 Red Flag Warnings are in effect for much of Colorado today, including the area of the High

Stephens, Graeme L.

376

Identifying areas of high herpetofauna diversity that are threatened by planned infrastructure projects in Spain.  

PubMed

A major task related to conservation is to predict if planned infrastructure projects are likely to threaten biodiversity. In this study we investigated the potential impact of planned infrastructure in Spain on amphibian and reptile species, two highly vulnerable groups given their limited dispersal and current situation of population decline. We used distribution data of both groups to identify areas of high herpetofauna diversity, and compared the locations of these areas with the locations of the planned road, high-speed train railway and water reservoir network. Four criteria were used for this identification: species richness, rarity, vulnerability, and a combined index of the three criteria. From a total of 1441 cells of 20 x 20 km, areas of high diversity were defined as those cells whose ranked values for the different criteria included either all species or all threatened species. The combined index provided the smallest number of cells needed to retain all threatened species (1.7 and 2.6% of the cells for amphibian and reptile species, respectively). Coincidences between these high diversity areas and cells including planned infrastructures-denominated 'alert planning units'-were 35.4% for amphibians and 31.2% for reptiles. Mitigation of the potential impacts would include actions such as barriers to animal access to roads and railways and ecoducts under these constructions. Our approach provides conservation authorities information that can be used to make decisions on habitat protection. A technique that identifies threats to herpetofauna before they occur is also likely to improve the chance of herpetofauna being protected. PMID:16253418

Benayas, José M Rey; Montaña, Enrique De La; Belliure, Josabel; Eekhout, Xavier R

2006-05-01

377

Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China  

SciTech Connect

Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage.

Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.; Beebe, G.W.; Zha, Y.R.; Kaplan, M.M.; Tao, Z.F.; Maxon, H.R. III; Zhang, S.Z.; Schneider, A.B. (Ministry of Public Health, Beijing (China))

1990-03-21

378

Experimental thrust performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust performance attainable from high-area-ratio rocket nozzles. A modified Rao-contoured nozzle with an expansion area of 1030 was test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants at altitude conditions. The nozzle was also tested as a truncated nozzle, at an expansion area ratio of 428. Thrust coefficient and thrust coefficient efficiency values are presented for each configuration at various propellant mixture ratios (oxygen/fuel). Several procedural techniques were developed permitting improved measurement of nozzle performance. The more significant of these were correcting the thrust for the aneroid effects, determining the effective chamber pressure, and referencing differential pressure transducers to a vacuum reference tank.

Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Smith, Tamara A.

1987-01-01

379

Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System.  

SciTech Connect

Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically decompose CB agents over large areas (12 m2). Preliminary tests indicate that more than 5 decades (99.999%) of an Anthrax spore simulant (Bacillus globigii) were killed in less than 7 seconds of exposure to the HEAL system. When combined with a catalyst material (TiO2) the HEAL system was also effective against a chemical agent simulant, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP). These results demonstrate the feasibility of a rapid, large-area chemical and biological decontamination method that does not require toxic or corrosive reagents or generate hazardous wastes.

Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

2008-01-01

380

Use of guar by-products in high-production laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A 5x5 Latin square experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding low concentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was divided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per unit. Hens were fed either a nonguar control diet, or 1 of 4 diets containing either 2.5 or 5% guar germ, or 2.5 or 5% guar meal over a 20-wk trial period (five 4-wk periods). No significant differences were observed when feeding either 2.5 or 5% guar germ or meal (P>0.05) on hen-day egg production or feed consumption. Significant differences in egg weight, total egg mass per hen, and feed conversion ratio were detected in hens fed 2.5% guar meal, whereas they remained unchanged for diets containing either level of guar germ or 5% guar meal. Feeding either level of guar germ or guar meal did not affect shell quality (shell thickness, egg breaking force, and specific gravity), Haugh units, or egg yolk color (L*, a*, b*). The results showed that both guar germ and guar meal can be fed to high-production laying hens at up to 5% without adverse effects on laying hen performance. PMID:17495081

Gutierrez, O; Zhang, C; Cartwright, A L; Carey, J B; Bailey, C A

2007-06-01

381

1025:1 Area Ratio Nozzle Evaluated at High Combustion Chamber Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently completed experimental test program obtained performance data on an optimally contoured nozzle with an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 mPa (1800 to 2400 psia). Testing was conducted in the altitude test capsule at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Rocket Engine Test Facility (RETF), and results were compared with analytical performance predictions. This testing builds on previous work with this nozzle at Lewis, where testing was completed at nominal chamber pressure of 350 psia. High-area-ratio nozzles have long been sought as a means to increase the performance of spacebased rocket engines. However, as the area ratio increases, the physical size and weight of the nozzle also increase. As a result, engine and vehicle designers must make tradeoffs between nozzle size and performance enhancement. Until this test program, very little experimental data existed on the performance of the high-area-ratio nozzles used in rocket engine designs. The computer codes being used by rocket engine designers rely on data extrapolated from tests of low-area-ratio nozzles, and these extrapolations do not always provide the accuracy needed for a reliable design assessment. Therefore, we conducted this high-area-ratio nozzle testing program to provide performance data for use in rocket engine design and analysis computer codes. The nozzle had a nominal 2.54-cm- (1-in.-) diameter throat, an exit diameter of 81.3-cm (32.0-in.) at an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1025, and a length of 128.6 cm (50.6 in.). Testing was conducted in an altitude test capsule to simulate the static pressure at altitude by vacuum pumping. Data such as propellant mass flow, oxidizer-to-fuel mixture, and thrust were measured. These measurements were then used to calculate performance factors such as the thrust coefficient, the characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency, and the vacuum specific impulse. In addition, the nozzle temperature was measured to calculate the amount of heat transferred from the combustion gases to the nozzle.

1995-01-01

382

Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

2011-01-01

383

Large area selective emitters/absorbers based on 2D tantalum photonic crystals for high-temperature energy applications  

E-print Network

We report highly selective emitters based on high-aspect ratio 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) fabricated on large area (2 inch diameter) polycrystalline tantalum substrates, suitable for high-temperature operation. As an ...

Rinnerbauer, V.

384

Simple room-temperature preparation of high-yield large-area graphene oxide  

PubMed Central

Graphene has attracted much attention from researchers due to its interesting mechanical, electrochemical, and electronic properties. It has many potential applications such as polymer filler, sensor, energy conversion, and energy storage devices. Graphene-based nanocomposites are under an intense spotlight amongst researchers. A large amount of graphene is required for preparation of such samples. Lately, graphene-based materials have been the target for fundamental life science investigations. Despite graphene being a much sought-after raw material, the drawbacks in the preparation of graphene are that it is a challenge amongst researchers to produce this material in a scalable quantity and that there is a concern about its safety. Thus, a simple and efficient method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is greatly desired to address these problems. In this work, one-pot chemical oxidation of graphite was carried out at room temperature for the preparation of large-area GO with ~100% conversion. This high-conversion preparation of large-area GO was achieved using a simplified Hummer’s method from large graphite flakes (an average flake size of 500 ?m). It was found that a high degree of oxidation of graphite could be realized by stirring graphite in a mixture of acids and potassium permanganate, resulting in GO with large lateral dimension and area, which could reach up to 120 ?m and ~8000 ?m2, respectively. The simplified Hummer’s method provides a facile approach for the preparation of large-area GO. PMID:22267928

Huang, NM; Lim, HN; Chia, CH; Yarmo, MA; Muhamad, MR

2011-01-01

385

Toward New Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: High Surface Area Carbon Aerogels  

SciTech Connect

We report the hydrogen surface excess sorption saturation value of 5.3 wt% at 30 bar pressure at 77 K, from an activated carbon aerogel with a surface area of 3200 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. This sorption value is one of the highest we have measured in a material of this type, comparable to values obtained in high surface area activated carbons. We also report, for the first time, the surface area dependence of hydrogen surface excess sorption isotherms of carbon aerogels at 77 K. Activated carbon aerogels with surface areas ranging from 1460 to 3200 m{sup 2}/g are evaluated and we find a linear dependence of the saturation of the gravimetric density with BET surface area for carbon aerogels up to 2550 m{sup 2}/g, in agreement with data from other types of carbons reported in the literature. Our measurements show these materials to have a differential enthalpy of adsorption at zero coverage of {approx}5 to 7 kJ/mole. We also show that the introduction of metal nanoparticles of nickel improves the sorption capacity while cobalt additions have no effect.

Kabbour, H; Baumann, T F; Satcher, J H; Saulnier, A; Ahn, C C

2007-02-05

386

Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area amorphous silicon based modules -- Task B  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress in developing a stable, high- efficiency, four-terminal hybrid tandem module. The module consists of a semi-transparent, thin-film silicon:hydrogen alloy (TFS) top circuit and a copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) bottom circuit. Film deposition and patterning processes were successfully extended to 0.4-m{sup 2} substrates. A 33.2-W (8.4% efficient) module with a 3970-cm{sup 2} aperture area and a white back reflector was demonstrated; without the back reflector, the module produced 30.2 W (7.6% efficient). Placing a laminated, 31.6-W, 8.1%-efficient CuInSe{sub 2} module underneath this TFS module, with an air gap between the two, produces 11.2 W (2.9% efficient) over a 3883-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Therefore, the four-terminal tandem power output is 41.4 W, translating to a 10.5% aperture-area efficiency. Subsequently, a 37.8-W (9.7% aperture-area efficiency) CuInSe{sub 2} module was demonstrated with a 3905-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Future performances of single-junction and tandem modules of this size were modeled, and predicted power outputs exceed 50 W (13% efficient) for CuInSe{sub 2} and 65 W (17% efficient) for TFS/CuInSe{sub 2} tandem modules.

Mitchell, K.W.; Willet, D.R. (Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

387

Heavy flavour production in high-energy ep collisions  

E-print Network

A selection of recent results on heavy quark production at the HERA collider by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations are presented with a focus on charmonium production in DIS, charm fragmentation and beauty production.

I. Katkov; for the H1; ZEUS Collaborations

2005-11-02

388

When Do Local Land-Tenure Arrangements Matter? Lessons from Two Marginal Productive Areas in Argentina and Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of local land-tenure arrangements in managing common resources are examined in two different marginal productive areas: (1) vicuña management by five indigenous communities in the arid highlands of South Bolivia, and (2) rangeland management by eight rural families in a wetland basin of Northeast Argentina. Methods focused on qualitative enquiry including household interviews, participative observation, maps, diagrams and

Nadine Renaudeau d'Arc

389

MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH-EATING BIRDS FROM THE PINCHI LAKE AREA IN RELATION TO PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bald eagles and red-necked grebes were monitored from 2000 - 2002 on several lakes along the Pinchi fault, an area with a known source of geologic mercury and previous Hg mining (on Pinchi Lake), in an effort to discern whether increased Hg concentrations were affecting reproductive success and productivity. To determine whether or not Hg levels were elevated, fish tissues

Shari A. Weech; R. P. Bio; Tony M. Scheuhammer

390

A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to environmental impacts that occur, and (3) the accuracy of an

Bart Durlinger; Angèle Reinders; Marten Toxopeus

391

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

392

Investigations concerning nuclear energy in the combined production of electricity and heat in the Helsinki metropolitan area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of producing the base load of both electricity and district heat for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) utilizing nuclear energy has been investigated since 1968. At every stage of the study, it has been concluded that district heating utilizing nuclear power in combined electricity and heat productions is the most economical way of heating the main part of

M. Aho; H. Hiidenpalo; M. Seppae; O. J. A. Tiainen

1978-01-01

393

Selectivity mechanism of all ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy based selective area growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a selective area growth based on ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-scanning-tunneling-microscopy (STM) lithography. After nitridation of GaAs surfaces and selective depassivation by UHV-STM, an array of uniform 6.4±0.8-nm high GaAs dots was successfully grown on the depassivated areas (50 nm×50 nm) using trimethylgallium (TMG) and tertiarybutylarsine. On the side walls of dots, (114) or (117) facets appeared. It was found that unintentional growth on the nitrided mask surface is due to TMG decomposition on the nitrided surface. The unintentional growth can be suppressed by using an amorphous-like nitrided surface and by increasing the thickness of the nitrided surface layer, and consequently the selectivity is improved.

Kasu, Makoto; Makimoto, Toshiki; Kobayashi, Naoki

1998-06-01

394

Synthesis of high-surface-area titanium dioxide by sol-gel process for DSSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous TiO2 material was synthesized from dissolution ilmenite as well as from titanium chloride precursor via a sol-gel process in acidic aqueous solution. The properties of these materials were characterized with several analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis. The mesoporous TiO2 materials calcinated at various temperatures were found to have high value surface areas. The photovoltaic of photo-anode build from the mesoporous TiO2 was characterized with I-V Keitley Multimeter, and it was found that photovoltaics fabricated using the mesoporous TiO2 have a good performance. Such a high photovoltaic activity is explained with large surface area and small crystal size.

Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Juliana, G.; Khoirunisa, A. R.; Rahardjo, S. B.; Pramono, E.; Suharyana, S.; Suryana, R.; Supriyanto, A.

2014-05-01

395

Soil biochar amendment in a nature restoration area: effects on plant productivity and community composition.  

PubMed

Biochar (pyrolyzed biomass) amendment to soils has been shown to have a multitude of positive effects, e.g., on crop yield, soil quality, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestration. So far the majority of studies have focused on agricultural systems, typically with relatively low species diversity and annual cropping schemes. How biochar amendment affects plant communities in more complex and diverse ecosystems that can evolve over time is largely unknown. We investigated such effects in a field experiment at a Dutch nature restoration area. In April 2011, we set up an experiment using biochar produced from cuttings collected from a local natural grassland. The material was pyrolyzed at 400 degrees C or at 600 degrees C. After biochar or residue (non-pyrolyzed cuttings) application (10 Mg/ha), all plots, including control (0 Mg/ ha) plots, were sown with an 18-species grassland mixture. In August 2011, we determined characteristics of the developed plant community, as well as soil nutrient status. Biochar amendment did not alter total plant productivity, but it had a strong and significant effect on plant community composition. Legumes were three times as abundant and individual legume plants increased four times in biomass in plots that received biochar as compared to the control treatment. Biomass of the most abundant forb (Plantago lanceolata) was not affected by biochar addition. Available phosphorous, potassium, and pH were significantly higher in soils that received biochar than in Control soils. The rate of biological nitrogen fixation and seed germination were not altered by biochar amendment, but the total amount of biological N fixed per Trifolium pratense (red clover) plant was more than four times greater in biochar-amended soil. This study demonstrates that biochar amendment has a strong and rapid effect on plant communities and soil nutrients. Over time these changes may cascade up to other trophic groups, including above- and belowground organisms. Our results emphasize the need for long-term studies that examine not only the short-term effects of biochar amendment, but also follow how these effects evolve over time and affect ecosystem functioning. PMID:25154104

van de Voorde, Tess F J; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jeffery, Simon; Mommer, Liesje

2014-07-01

396

Synthetic process for preparation of high surface area electroactive compounds for battery applications  

DOEpatents

A process is disclosed for the preparation of electroactive cathode compounds useful in lithium-ion batteries, comprising exothermic mixing of low-cost precursors and calcination under appropriate conditions. The exothermic step may be a spontaneous flameless combustion reaction. The disclosed process can be used to prepare any lithium metal phosphate or lithium mixed metal phosphate as a high surface area single phase compound.

Evenson, Carl; Mackay, Richard

2013-07-23

397

High-speed quantum key distribution systems for optical fiber networks in campus and metro areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD) systems over fiber networks for campus and metro areas have been developed at NIST. The systems include an 850-nm QKD system for a campus network, a 1310-nm QKD system for metro networks, and a 3-user QKD network and network manager. In this paper we describe the key techniques used to implement these systems, including

Xiao Tang; Lijun Ma; Alan Mink; Tiejun Chang; Hai Xu; Oliver Slattery; Anastase Nakassis; Barry Hershman; David Su; Ronald F. Boisvert

2008-01-01

398

USE OF VERY HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE DATA FOR CHANGE DETECTION IN URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on s ome results obtained by using the QuickBird high resolution imagery for the analysis of urban changes. QuickBird satellite provides the highest-resolution multi-spectral and panchromatic commercial imagery. If suitable data processing is applied, very useful information can be derived for urban area monitoring such as the detection of new buildings or the discovery of

F. Del Frate; G. Schiavon; C. Solimini

399

Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000nGyh-1. Soil

A. C. Paul; P. M. B. Pillai; P. P. Haridasan; Sujatha Radhakrishnan; S. Krishnamony

1998-01-01

400

Elevation Dependent Shadowing Model for Mobile Communications via High Altitude Platforms in Built-Up Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical propagation prediction model is described for mobile communications from high altitude platforms (HAPs) in different types of built-up areas. The model introduced here is defined as a function of the angle of elevation. The target frequencies are selected from the 2 to 6 GHz frequency band prospective for 3G and 4G mobile systems, namely at 2.0,3.5, and 5.5

Jaroslav Holis; Pavel Pechac

2008-01-01

401

New York\\/New Jersey High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Terrorist Financing & Drug Trafficking Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

My Masters Project focuses around the New York\\/New Jersey High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (NY\\/NJ HIDTA). Narco-terrorism has become a significant issue for the safety and security of the United States. Terrorist financing also plays a significant role in the war on terror. I chose to create a three part strategy for the NY\\/NJ HIDTA that will combat both narco-terrorism

Danielle Morita OMara

2012-01-01

402

Fabrication of mesoporous and high specific surface area lanthanum carbide–carbon nanotube composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesoporous lanthanum carbide–carbon nanotube composites were produced by means of carbothermal reaction of lanthanum oxide, graphite and multi-walled carbon nanotube mixtures under high vacuum. Residual gas analysis revealed the higher reactivity of lanthanum oxide towards carbon nanotubes compared to graphite. After sintering, the composites revealed a specific surface area increasing with the amount of carbon nanotubes introduced. The meso-porosity of

L. Biasetto; S. Carturan; G. Maggioni; P. Zanonato; P. Di Bernardo; P. Colombo; A. Andrighetto; G. Prete

2009-01-01

403

Development of Low Cost, High Energy-Per-Unit-Area Solar Cell Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on the development of low cost, high energy per unit area solar cell modules was conducted. Hexagonal solar cell and module efficiencies, module packing ratio, and solar cell design calculations were made. The cell grid structure and interconnection pattern was designed and the module substrates were fabricated for the three modules to be used. It was demonstrated that surface macrostructures significantly improve cell power output and photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency.

Jones, G. T.; Chitre, S.

1977-01-01

404

Versatile, High Quality and Scalable Continuous Flow Production of Metal-Organic Frameworks  

PubMed Central

Further deployment of Metal-Organic Frameworks in applied settings requires their ready preparation at scale. Expansion of typical batch processes can lead to unsuccessful or low quality synthesis for some systems. Here we report how continuous flow chemistry can be adapted as a versatile route to a range of MOFs, by emulating conditions of lab-scale batch synthesis. This delivers ready synthesis of three different MOFs, with surface areas that closely match theoretical maxima, with production rates of 60?g/h at extremely high space-time yields. PMID:24962145

Rubio-Martinez, Marta; Batten, Michael P.; Polyzos, Anastasios; Carey, Keri-Constanti; Mardel, James I.; Lim, Kok-Seng; Hill, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

405

Versatile, High Quality and Scalable Continuous Flow Production of Metal-Organic Frameworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further deployment of Metal-Organic Frameworks in applied settings requires their ready preparation at scale. Expansion of typical batch processes can lead to unsuccessful or low quality synthesis for some systems. Here we report how continuous flow chemistry can be adapted as a versatile route to a range of MOFs, by emulating conditions of lab-scale batch synthesis. This delivers ready synthesis of three different MOFs, with surface areas that closely match theoretical maxima, with production rates of 60 g/h at extremely high space-time yields.

Rubio-Martinez, Marta; Batten, Michael P.; Polyzos, Anastasios; Carey, Keri-Constanti; Mardel, James I.; Lim, Kok-Seng; Hill, Matthew R.

2014-06-01

406

Production of carbon stripper foils for high-power cyclotrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics operates three industrial negative ion cyclotrons for commercial radioisotope production. Two of these cyclotrons (TR30 and TR30-2) can deliver 30 MeV protons at beam currents in excess of 1000 ?A and are designed for optional dual beam extraction and continuous operation. High-power negative ion accelerators use stripper foils as thick as 500 ?g/cm 2. It has been found that very smooth films with nanocrystalline microstructure perform the best in high-current applications. However, high-quality thick foils with good uniformity are difficult to manufacture. To meet our specific requirements, we have developed a carbon arc deposition system capable of producing durable, homogeneous carbon stripper foils. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of carbon foils with a thickness of 100-200 ?g/cm 2. The manufacturing equipment capable of producing ˜600 cm 2 of foil in a single run and the process details are described. Properties of these foils and their performance in the cyclotron are discussed.

Jaggi, V.; Pavan, R. A.; Zeisler, S. K.

2006-05-01

407

Progress in BazookaSPECT: high-resolution dynamic scintigraphy with large-area imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent progress in BazookaSPECT, a high-resolution, photon-counting gamma-ray detector. It is a new class of scintillation detector that combines columnar scintillators, image intensifiers, and CCD (charge- coupled device) or CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductors) sensors for high-resolution imaging. A key feature of the BazookaSPECT paradigm is the capability to easily design custom detectors in terms of the desired intrinsic detector resolution and event detection rate. This capability is possible because scintillation light is optically amplfied by the image intensifier prior to being imaging onto the CCD/CMOS sensor, thereby allowing practically any consumer-grade CCD/CMOS sensor to be used for gamma-ray imaging. Recent efforts have been made to increase the detector area by incorporating fiber-optic tapers between the scintillator and image intensi_er, resulting in a 16x increase in detector area. These large-area BazookaSPECT detectors can be used for full-body imaging and we present preliminary results of their use as dynamic scintigraphy imagers for mice and rats. Also, we discuss ongoing and future developments in BazookaSPECT and the improved event- detection rate capability that is achieved using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), multi-core processors, and new high-speed, USB 3.0 CMOS cameras.

Miller, Brian W.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.; Liu, Zhonglin; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Furenlid, Lars R.

2012-10-01

408

Large area event counting detectors with high spatial and temporal resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel large area microchannel plates (MCPs) constructed using micro-capillary arrays functionalized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been successfully demonstrated in large format detectors (10 cm and 20 cm) with cross delay line and cross strip readouts. Borosilicate micro-capillary substrates allow robust MCPs to be made in sizes to 20 cm, the intrinsic background rates are low ( < 0.06 events cm-2 sec-1), the channel open area can be made as high as 85%, and the gain after preconditioning (vacuum bake and burn-in) shows virtually no change over > 7 C cm-2 extracted charge. We have constructed a number of detectors with these novel MCPs, including a 10 × 10 cm cross strip readout device and 20 × 20 cm delay line readout sensors. The cross strip detector has very high spatial resolution (the 20 ?m MCP pores can be resolved, thus obtaining ~ 5k × 5k resolution elements), good time resolution ( < 1 ns), and high event rate ( > 5 million counts/s at 20% dead time), while operating at relatively low gain ( ~ 106). The 20 × 20 cm delay line detectors have achieved spatial resolutions of ~ 50 ?m and event rates of several MHz, with good gain and background uniformity and < 200 ps event time tagging. Progress has also been made in construction of a 20 × 20 cm sealed tube optical imager, and we have achieved > 20% quantum efficiency and good uniformity for large area (20 cm) bialkali photocathodes.

Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Tremsin, A. S.; Frisch, H. E.; Elam, J. W.; Mane, A. U.; Wagner, R. G.

2014-04-01

409

Ground-high altitude joint detection of ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban areas of Beijing.  

PubMed

Based on observational data of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) mixing ratios on the ground and at high altitude in urban areas of Beijing during a period of six days in November 2011, the temporal and spatial characteristics of mixing ratios were analyzed. The major findings include: urban O3 mixing ratios are low and NO(x) mixing ratios are always high near the road in November. Vertical variations of the gases are significantly different in and above the planetary boundary layer. The mixing ratio of O3 is negatively correlated with that of NO(x) and they are positively correlated with air temperature, which is the main factor directly causing vertical variation of O3 and NO(x) mixing ratios at 600-2100 m altitude. The NO(x) mixing ratios elevated during the heating period, while the O3 mixing ratios decreased: these phenomena are more significant at high altitudes compared to lower altitudes. During November, air masses in the urban areas of Beijing are brought by northwesterly winds, which transport O3 and NO(x) at low mixing ratios. Due to Beijing's natural geographical location, northwest air currents are beneficial to the dilution and dispersion of pollutants, which can result in lower O3 and NO(x) background values in the Beijing urban area. PMID:23923785

Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Jiannong; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong; Meng, Junwang

2013-04-01

410

Seattle Area High School Astronomy Projects: 4 local teachers present their work with students.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4 Seattle area high school teachers will present work with students as part of the opening session of High School Teacher Day. Vince San Pietro of Shorecrest HS will discuss a project involving teachers and students in characterizing RR Lyrae candidate stars using the University of Washington’s Manastash Ridge Observatory. Rebecca Fowler of Skyline HS will present her work with student teams in the Team America rocketry contest. Phil Cooper, also of Skyline, will talk about a telescope making project. And Eric Muhs of Roosevelt HS, will show a student-built, free-floating, self-orienting robot that flew aboard NASA’s zero gravity airplane last May.

Muhs, Eric C.

2006-12-01

411

Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect

A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2008-08-01

412

High resolution ISAR imaging in receiver centered region area in bistatic radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim at overcoming limitations from a single fixed aspect in monostatic inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) system, bistatic radar system becomes a hot research topic in ISAR imaging. However, it is become more difficult to obtain a high resolution ISAR image of maneuvering target in receiver centered region area of bistatic radar for time varying bistastic angle and equivalent line of sight (LOS) aspect. In this paper, a super-resolution imaging method based on Radon transform combined with time chirp distribution search (TCDS) procedure is proposed. This method attempts to estimate the chirp rate and its changing rate corresponding to high-order phase terms in cross range. After compensating the phase error of high order, more scattering centers of target are extracted and high resolution imaging is generated by Radon-TCDS-Relax algorithm. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

Zhang, Long; Su, Tao; Liu, Zheng; He, Xuehui

2013-12-01

413

Large scan area high-speed atomic force microscopy using a resonant scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large scan area high-speed scan stage for atomic force microscopy using the resonant oscillation of a quartz bar has been constructed. The sample scanner can be used for high-speed imaging in both air and liquid environments. The well-defined time-position response of the scan stage due to the use of resonance allows highly linearized images to be obtained with a scan size up to 37.5 ?m in 0.7 s. The scanner is demonstrated for imaging highly topographic silicon test samples and a semicrystalline polymer undergoing crystallization in air, while images of a polymer and a living bacteria, S. aureus, are obtained in liquid.

Zhao, B.; Howard-Knight, J. P.; Humphris, A. D. L.; Kailas, L.; Ratcliffe, E. C.; Foster, S. J.; Hobbs, J. K.

2009-09-01

414

Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift  

E-print Network

Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

2007-07-13

415

High Precision $J/?$ and $?$-production data and the Nuclear Glue  

E-print Network

We use the high statistics E-772 data on the nuclear dependence of the production of quarkonia $(J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon)$ and dimuons at large transverse momentum $(p_T)$ in $p$-$A$ collisions to get information about the gluonic EMC effect. We find a satisfactory quantitative agreement of the theoretical predictions with the data although none of the models of the EMC effect we consider could account for the entire data. Since all the qualitative features are understood none the less in terms of perturbative QCD with nuclear dependent parton densities, our results suggest that these data can now be used for a better determination of the nuclear parton densities. Our conslusions are shown to be insensitive to the hadronisation mechanism for the quarkonia.

R. V. Gavai; R. M. Godbole

1994-02-24

416

High-Energy Neutrino Production through Photopion Processes in Blazars  

E-print Network

The measured spectral energy distribution and variability time scale are used to determine the radiation and magnetic-field energy densities in the relativistic plasma that forms the gamma-ray emitting jet in the blazar 3C 279. Assuming that protons are accelerated as efficiently as electrons to a maximum energy determined by the size and magnetic field of the emitting region, we calculate the emissivity of neutrinos produced by protons that interact with the external radiation field intercepted by the jet. The external radiation field provides the most important target photons for photomeson production of high-energy neutrinos in flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Because of photomeson interactions with this field, km^2 neutrino telescopes are predicted to detect > 0.1-1 neutrinos per year from blazars such as 3C 279. BL Lac objects are weaker neutrino sources if, as widely thought, their gamma-ray emission is due to Compton-scattered synchrotron (SSC) radiation.

C. D. Dermer; A. Atoyan

2001-07-11

417

Glacier volume and area change by 2050 in high mountain Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate individual area and volume change by 2050 of all 67,028 glaciers, with a total area of 122,969 km2, delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory 2.0 of high mountain Asia (HMA). We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model RegCM 3.0 temperature and precipitation change projections forced by the IPCC A1B scenario. Glacier simulations were based on a novel surface mass balance-altitude parameterization fitted to observational data, and various volume-area scaling approaches using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission surface topography of each individual glacier. We generate mass balance-altitude relations for all the glaciers by region using nearest available glacier measurements. Equilibrium line altitude (ELA) sensitivities to temperature and precipitation change vary by region based on the relative importance of sublimation and melting processes. We also made simulations with mass balance tuned to match satellite observations of glacier thickness changes in HMA from 2003 to 2009. Net mass loss is half as much using the tuned model than using just glaciological calibration data, suggesting the representativity of benchmark glaciers is a larger source of uncertainty in future HMA contributions to sea level rise than errors in glacier inventories or volume-area scaling. Both models predict that about 35% of the glaciers in Karakoram and the northwestern Himalaya are advancing, which is consistent with the observed slight mass gain of glaciers in these regions in recent years. However, we find that 76% of all the glaciers will retreat, most of which are of the maritime type. We project total glacier area loss in high mountain Asia in 2050 to be 22% (in the tuned model) or 35% (un-tuned) of their extent in 2000, and they will contribute 5 mm (tuned model) to global sea level rise.

Zhao, Liyun; Ding, Ran; Moore, John C.

2014-11-01

418

Observation of vertical motion above a subduction zone using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Wide Area Product, SW Crete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) is a powerful tool to quantify vertical motion of the Earth's surface with millimeter accuracy at a wide spatial coverage of hundreds of square km. Persistent Scatterers (PS) are phase stable point targets with a consistent and strong reflectivity observed over a long time (Ferretti et al., 2001, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing). These PS originate from man-made features, or natural features like rocks. This technique, which was originally developed for urban areas (Ferretti et al., 2001, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing), is now enhanced and applied for the detection of PS in rural areas by the operational PSI system Wide Area Product (PSI-GENESIS) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The detection is possible over large areas (100 km by 100 km). A problem with the wide-area approach is to cope with inhomogeneous PS densities within an area and variable topography. Difficulties arise from uncompensated atmospheric effects and spatial error propagation. The number of available scenes per stack is limited but the amount of data to be processed is large (about 1 Gigabyte per stack). We tested the PSI technique for the island of Crete. Therefore, we used data of the ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites of the European Space Agency (ESA) for the PSI analysis. The western part of the island is covered by 39 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired between 1992 and 2000 of the ERS Track 193. We chose the island of Crete as test site due to its close location to the Hellenic subduction zone, which allows the observation of vertical surface motion. Crete is bounded by seismogenic faults that produced large and destructive earthquakes in the past, such as the MS > 8 earthquake in 365 AD. Vertical surface motion in the vicinity of a subduction zone may imply locking of the plate interface. Our preliminary findings of the W part of the island show an inhomogeneous distribution of PS over the whole scene. The northern part of Crete is more flat than the southern part, which leads to a more homogenous PS distribution in the North. The southern part consists of high mountain ranges, therefore the detection of PS is only possible outside the radar shadows. The northern part shows no significant vertical motion pattern. The southern coast shows uplift in the range of 3 mm/yr. The SW corner of the island shows a strong uplift of up to 5 mm/yr. Further analysis is still in progress and additional atmospheric corrections are necessary to validate our results. We interpret the observed vertical motion in Crete as interseismic strain accumulation. This implies that the subduction zone interface is at least partly locked and hence, may produce another large earthquake in the future.

Rieger, S. M.; Adam, N.; Friedrich, A. M.

2011-12-01

419

Socioeconomic predictors of high allergen levels in homes in the greater Boston area.  

PubMed Central

In the United States, childhood asthma morbidity and prevalence rates are the highest in less affluent urban minority communities. More than 80% of childhood asthmatics are allergic to one or more inhalant allergens. We evaluated whether socioeconomic status was associated with a differential in the levels and types of indoor home allergens. Dust samples for an ELISA allergen assay were collected from the homes of 499 families as part of a metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, longitudinal birth cohort study of home allergens and asthma in children with a parental history of asthma or allergy. The proportion of homes with maximum home allergen levels in the highest category was 42% for dust mite allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Der p 1 or Der f 1), 13% for cockroach allergen (> or = 2 U/g Bla g 1 or Bla g 2), 26% for cat allergen (> or = 8 microg/g Fel d 1), and 20% for dog allergen (> or = 10 microg/g Can f 1). Homes in the high-poverty area (> 20% of the population below the poverty level) were more likely to have high cockroach allergen levels than homes in the low-poverty area [51 vs. 3%; OR, 33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 12-90], but less likely to have high levels of dust mite allergen (16 vs. 53%; OR, 0.2; CI, 0.1-0.4). Lower family income, less maternal education, and race/ethnicity (black or Hispanic vs. white) were also associated with a lower risk of high dust mite levels and a greater risk of high cockroach allergen levels. Within a single U.S. metropolitan area we found marked between-community differences in the types of allergens present in the home, but not necessarily in the overall burden of allergen exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753087

Kitch, B T; Chew, G; Burge, H A; Muilenberg, M L; Weiss, S T; Platts-Mills, T A; O'Connor, G; Gold, D R

2000-01-01

420

Production and Distribution of Organic Food - Opportunity for Development of Rural Areas in Macedonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most consumers are more interested in consuming organic produced food. Demand for organic produced food is increasing as a result of increased environmental awareness and growing concern of consumers for personal health. Market and production of organic products in the Republic of Macedonia is in the first stage of development. Worldwide, it is present trend of increasing agricultural land used

Marija Magdinceva-Sopova

2011-01-01

421

High-resolution rainfall estimation for Helsinki urban area using Helsinki radar network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution precipitation data is a crucial factor for hydrological applications in urban areas. Small fluctuations in precipitation fields are of great importance considering the fast response of urban catchments due to the dominance of impervious surfaces. High resolution precipitation observations are needed in order to characterize these fluctuations. Weather radar provides high spatial resolution precipitation estimations. However, the quality of its observations in an urban environment is significantly degraded, among other things, by ground clutter and beam-blockage. A solution for this problem is to use a radar network, where the data gaps of one radar will be filled by using observations from the others. Very few cities have dedicated weather radar networks. In some cities, like Helsinki, there are several weather radars covering the metropolitan area, but they are operated by different organizations. In this study, we show how such systems can be used to build a network and what is the advantage of using radarnetworks for estimating precipitation in urban catchments. The urban Helsinki area is covered by observations from three individual-purpose C-band weather radars (Helsinki University's Kumpula (KUM), Vaisala Oy's Kerava (KER) and Finnish Meteorological Institute's Vantaa (VAN)). We used the data from these radars to form a network and we design a similar task which runs at the same time in each radar couple of times per day. Nonetheless, it is challenging to make them observe at the same area at exactly the same time, which could lead to fast changing, short precipitation events being missed. Hence, synchronization and temporal resolution are the main concerns when building a network. Consequently, to decrease the impact of these restrictions in the Helsinki radar network we propose the use of the optic flow interpolation algorithm to retrieve information in between two radar observations and use the retrieved dataset from the three radars to estimate rainfall. The accuracy of this method is studied by comparing the composite rainfall estimation with both single radar observations and ground measurements.

Rojas, Laura; Nordling, Kalle; Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

2014-05-01

422

Discriminant Analysis of Undaria pinnatifida Production Areas Using Trace Elemental Analysis  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, attention is being paid to declaring the origin of agricultural and marine products after the advent of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; commonly known as mad-cow disease). The display of the production centers on U. pinnatifida has been required in Japan since 2006. As an example of testing in another marine product, near-infrared spectra (NIR) and trace elemental analysis of U. pinnatifida are proven effective methods for discriminating production centers by us and Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center (FAMIC). In the present study, we found that X-ray fluorescence analysis of Br was also effective for the discrimination of production centers. The results of our study suggest that a combination of NIR and X-ray fluorescence analysis is a convenient and efficient method for determination due simple sampling procedures and increased effectiveness. PMID:20490259

Kaihara, Mikio

2010-01-01

423

Preparation and Evaluation of Carbon Coated Alumina as a High Surface Area Packing Material for High Performance Liquid Chromatography  

PubMed Central

The retention of polar compounds, the separation of structural isomers and thermal stability make carbonaceous materials very attractive stationary phases for Liquid Chromatography (LC). Carbon clad zirconia (C/ZrO2), one of the most interesting, exhibits unparalleled chemical and thermal stability, but its characteristically low surface area (20 – 30 m2/g) limits broader application as a second dimension separation in two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2DLC) where high retentivity and therefore high stationary phase surface area are required. In this work, we used a high surface area commercial HPLC alumina (153 m2/g) as a support material to develop a carbon phase by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at elevated temperature using hexane vapor as the carbon source. The loading of carbon was varied by changing the CVD time and temperature, and the carbon coated alumina (C/Al2O3) was characterized both physically and chromatographically. The resulting carbon phases behaved as a reversed phase similar to C/ZrO2. At all carbon loadings, C/Al2O3 closely matched the unique chromatographic selectivity of carbon phases, and as expected the retentivity was increased over C/ZrO2. Excess carbon – the amount equivalent to 5 monolayers - was required to fully cover the oxide support in C/Al2O3, but this was less excess than needed with C/ZrO2. Plate counts were 60,000 – 76,000/meter for 5 ?m particles. Spectroscopic studies (XPS and FT-IR) were also conducted; they showed that the two materials were chemically very similar. PMID:20850126

Paek, Changyub; McCormick, Alon V.; Carr, Peter W.

2010-01-01

424

9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. 314.7 Section 314...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock...through rooms or compartments in which an edible product is prepared, handled, or...

2013-01-01

425

9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.  

...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. 314.7 Section 314...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock...through rooms or compartments in which an edible product is prepared, handled, or...

2014-01-01

426

9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. 314.7 Section 314...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock...through rooms or compartments in which an edible product is prepared, handled, or...

2011-01-01

427

9 CFR 314.7 - Carcasses of livestock condemned on ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. 314.7 Section 314...ante-mortem inspection not to pass through edible product areas. Carcasses of livestock...through rooms or compartments in which an edible product is prepared, handled, or...

2012-01-01

428

Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments.  

PubMed

A very large area (7.5 mm(2)) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 10(14) W/cm(2) illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ?4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles. PMID:25273720

Flippo, K A; Kline, J L; Doss, F W; Loomis, E N; Emerich, M; Devolder, B; Murphy, T J; Fournier, K B; Kalantar, D H; Regan, S P; Barrios, M A; Merritt, E C; Perry, T S; Tregillis, I L; Welser-Sherrill, L; Fincke, J R

2014-09-01

429

Development of a Big Area BackLighter for high energy density experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very large area (7.5 mm2) laser-driven x-ray backlighter, termed the Big Area BackLighter (BABL) has been developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to support high energy density experiments. The BABL provides an alternative to Pinhole-Apertured point-projection Backlighting (PABL) for a large field of view. This bypasses the challenges for PABL in the equatorial plane of the NIF target chamber where space is limited because of the unconverted laser light that threatens the diagnostic aperture, the backlighter foil, and the pinhole substrate. A transmission experiment using 132 kJ of NIF laser energy at a maximum intensity of 8.52 × 1014 W/cm2 illuminating the BABL demonstrated good conversion efficiency of >3.5% into K-shell emission producing ˜4.6 kJ of high energy x rays, while yielding high contrast images with a highly uniform background that agree well with 2D simulated spectra and spatial profiles.

Flippo, K. A.; Kline, J. L.; Doss, F. W.; Loomis, E. N.; Emerich, M.; Devolder, B.; Murphy, T. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Kalantar, D. H.; Regan, S. P.; Barrios, M. A.; Merritt, E. C.; Perry, T. S.; Tregillis, I. L.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Fincke, J. R.

2014-09-01

430

Biotemplated synthesis of high specific surface area copper-doped hollow spherical titania and its photocatalytic research for degradating chlorotetracycline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper-doped titania (Cu/TiO2) hollow microspheres were fabricated using the rape pollen as biotemplates via an improved sol-gel method and a followed calcinations process. In the fabricated process, a titanium(IV)-isopropoxide-based sol directly coated onto the surface of rape pollen. Subsequently, after calcinations, rape pollen was removed by high temperature and the hollow microsphere structure was retained. The average diameter of as-obtained hollow microspheres is 15-20 ?m and the thickness of shell is approximately 0.6 ?m. Knowing from XRD results, the main crystal phase of microspheres is anatase, coupled with rutile. The specific surface area varied between 141.80 m2/g and 172.51 m2/g. This hollow sphere photocatalysts with high specific surface area exhibited stronger absorption ability and higher photoactivity, stimulated by visible light. The degradation process of chlortetracycline (CTC) solution had been studied. The degradated results indicate that CTC could be effective degradated by fabricated hollow spherical materials. And the intermediate products formed in the photocatalytic process had been identified.

Bu, Dan; Zhuang, Huisheng

2013-01-01

431

A comparative study of thorium activity in NORM and high background radiation area.  

PubMed

Several industrial processes are known to enrich naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). To assess such processes with respect to their radiological relevance, characteristic parameters describing this enrichment will lead to interesting information useful to UNSCEAR. In case of mineral treatment plants, the high temperatures used in smelting and refining processes lead to high concentrations of (238)U and (232)Th. Also due to thermal power combustion, concentration of U and Th in the fly ash increases manifold. NORM samples were collected from a Thailand mineral treatment plant and Philippine coal-fired thermal power plants for investigation. Some studies are initiated from a high background radiation area near Gopalpur of Orissa state in India. These NORM samples were analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry as well as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The radioactivity in case of Orissa soil samples is found to be mainly contributed from thorium. This study attempts to evaluate levels of thorium activity in NORM samples. PMID:20846972

Sahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Kranrod, C; Janik, M; Hosoda, M; Hassan, N M; Chanyotha, S; Parami, V K; Yonehara, H; Ramola, R C

2010-10-01

432

CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area  

E-print Network

and can enter houses, flowing along cracks. Keywords: Noxious gas production ; Water ; Pyrite ; Marcasite: they are constituted by conglomerates, shales and sandstones whose thickness reaches 200 m. Permian is constituted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

1990-08-01

434

Undesirable side effects of selection for high production efficiency in farm animals: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic selection has increased production levels of livestock species considerably. However, apart from a favourable increase in production, animals in a population that have been selected for high production efficiency seem to be more at risk for behavioural, physiological and immunological problems. Examples are presented of over 100 references on undesirable (cor)related effects of selection for high production efficiency, with

W. M. Rauw; E. Kanis; E. N. Noordhuizen-Stassen; F. J. Grommers

1998-01-01

435

Reconstruction of the volcanic history of the Tacámbaro-Puruarán area (Michoacán, México) reveals high frequency of Holocene monogenetic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 690 km2 Tacámbaro-Puruarán area located at the arc-front part of the Michoácan-Guanajuato volcanic field in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) records a protracted history of volcanism that culminated with intense monogenetic activity in the Holocene. Geologic mapping, 40Ar/39Ar and 14C radiometric dating, and whole-rock chemical analyses of volcanic products provide insights to that history. Eocene volcanics (55-40 Ma) exposed at uplifted blocks are related to a magmatic arc that preceded the TMVB. Early TMVB products are represented by poorly exposed Pliocene silicic domes (5-2 Ma). Quaternary (<2 Ma) volcanoes (114 mapped) are mainly scoria cones with lavas (49 vol.%), viscous lava flows (22 vol.%), and lava shields (22 vol.%). Erupted products are dominantly either basaltic andesites (37 vol. %), or andesites (17 vol.%), or span across both compositions (28 vol.%). Basalts (9 vol.%), dacites (4 vol.%), shoshonites (2 vol.%), and other alkali-rich rocks (<3 vol.%) occur subordinately. Early-Pleistocene volcanism was bimodal (dacites and basalts) and voluminous while since 1 Ma small-volume eruptions of intermediate magmas have dominated. Higher rates of lithospheric extension in the Quaternary may have allowed a larger number of small, poorly evolved dikes to reach the surface during this period. Eruptive centers as old as 1.7 Ma are aligned in a NE direction parallel to both, basement faults and the direction of regional compressive stress, implying structural control on volcanic activity. Data suggest that volcanism was strongly pulsatory and fed by localized low-degree partial melting of mantle sources. In the Holocene, at least 13 eruptions occurred (average recurrence interval of 800 years). These produced ~3.8 km3 of basaltic andesitic to andesitic magma and included four eruptions dated at ~1,000; 4,000; 8,000; and 11,000 years bc (calibrated 14C ages). To date, this is one of the highest monogenetic eruption frequencies detected within such a small area in a subduction-related arc-setting. These anomalous rates of monogenetic activity in an area with thick crust (>30 km) may be related to high rates of magma production at depth and a favorable tectonic setting.

Guilbaud, Marie-Noëlle; Siebe, Claus; Layer, Paul; Salinas, Sergio

2012-07-01

436

Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation in the Arctic is unclear and the sources of MeHg to arctic freshwater ecosystems are still largely unidentified. Our research is demonstrating that some shallow and warm wetland ponds on the Arctic landscape contain high MeHg concentrations compared to nearby deep and cold lakes. We used a mass-balance approach to measure the net in-pond production of MeHg in two warm wetland ponds (Ponds 1 and 2) near Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (81° N latitude). We quantified external inputs and outputs of MeHg to and from the ponds, as well as the accumulation of MeHg in the water column during the summers of 2005 and 2008. Any changes in water column MeHg concentrations that could not be accounted for by external inputs or sinks were attributed to in-pond production. The principal external input and sink of MeHg was, respectively, wet atmospheric deposition and water-column MeHg photodemethylation. For 2005, we estimate that the net flux of MeHg from sediments into the water column was 0.015 ?g m-2 d-1 in Pond 1 and 0.0016 ?g m-2 d-1 in Pond 2. Compared to sediment-water MeHg fluxes measured in Alaskan tundra lakes (0.0015-0.0045 ?g m-2 d-1), Pond 1 sediments are a greater source of MeHg while Pond 2 is similar to the Alaskan lakes. Furthermore, the accumulation of MeHg in the water column of Pond 1 (0.0061 ?g m-2 d-1) was similar to the net yield of MeHg from temperate boreal wetlands (0.0005-0.006 ?g m-2 d-1), demonstrating that these Arctic wetlands are important sites of MeHg production. In addition, we used mercury stable-isotope tracers to quantify methylation and demethylation rates in intact sediment cores collected in 2007 from 8 sites encompassing a range of physico-chemical parameters to investigate why concentrations of MeHg measured in wetland ponds vary greatly among sites, despite superficial similarities in site characteristics. Our presentation will explore spatial and temporal variability in MeHg dynamics in Arctic wetlands in an attempt to determine the biogeochemical factors controlling MeHg cycling and abundance in Arctic freshwater systems.

Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.

2010-12-01

437

Soil production rates on silicate parent material in high-mountains: different approaches - different results?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-mountain soils develop in particularly sensitive environments. Consequently, deciphering and predicting what drives the rates of soil formation in such environments is a major challenge. In terms of soil production from chemical weathering, the predominating perception for high-mountain soils and cold environments often is that the chemical weathering 'portion' of soil development is temperature-inhibited, often to the point of non-occurrence. Several concepts exist to determine long-term rates of soil formation and development. We present three different approaches: (1) quantification of soil formation from minimally eroded soils of known age using chronosequences (known surface age and soil thickness - SAST), (2) determination of soil residence times (SRT) and production rates through chemical weathering using (un)stable isotopes (e.g. 230Th / 234U activity ratios), and (3) a steady state approach using cosmogenic isotopes (e.g. 10Be). Data form different climate zones, and particularly from high-mountains (alpine environment), were compared. The SAST and steady state approach gave quite similar results for alpine environments (European Alps and the Wind River Range (Rocky Mountains USA)). Soil formation rates in mountain areas (but having a temperate climate) using the SRT approach, did not differ greatly from the SAST and Steady State approaches. Independent of the chosen approach, the results seem moderately comparable. Soil formation rates in high-mountain areas (alpine climate) ranged from very low to extremely high values and showed a clear decreasing tendency with time. Very young soils have up to 3 - 4 orders of magnitude higher rates of development than old soils (105 to 106 years). This is due to the fact that weathering is kinetically limited in regions having young surfaces and supply limited on old surfaces. Soil production rates cannot be infinitely high. Consequently, a speed limit must exist. In the literature, this limit has been set at about 320 to 450 t km-2 yr-1. Our results show, however, that in alpine areas soil formation easily reaches rates of up to 1000 - 3000 t km-2 yr-1 using the SAST approach. These data are consistent with previous studies in mountain regions demonstrating that soils continue to develop with time, even under continuous seasonal snowpack and, thus, that the concept of 'temperature-controlled' soil development (soil-forming intervals) is spurious.

Egli, Markus; Dahms, Dennis; Norton, Kevin

2013-04-01

438

Increasing Evidence Links High Glycemic Index Foods and Dairy Products to Acne  

MedlinePLUS

... Evidence Links High Glycemic Index Foods and Dairy Products to Acne 2013-02-20 Medical Nutrition Therapy ... particularly from high glycemic load diets and dairy products, and that medical nutrition therapy (MNT) can play ...

439

PREFACE: International Workshop: Meson Production at Intermediate and High Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Workshop 'Meson Production at Intermediate and High Energies' was held in the 'Capo Peloro Resort' Hotel in Messina, Italy on November 10-11, 2011. The workshop was organized by the University of Messina and 'Fondazione Bonino-Pulejo', in the wonderful setting of the confluence between the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas, the center of the ancient historical and mythological civilizations of the Mediterranean countries. The main purpose of this workshop was to deal with aspects of electromagnetic and strong forces by meson photoproduction and the electron-positron collider, and to search for dark energy. The subjects covered at the workshop in Messina involved the main activities of the laboratories of Europe and countries overseas. The topics included: Baryon spectroscopy and 'missing resonances' Polarization observables Pseudoscalar and vector meson production through e.m. and hadronic reactions Hadron cross section measurements Measurements with polarized target and/or beam Editors: Giorgio GiardinaUniversity of Messina Fabio BossiINFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Paolo Levi SandriINFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Paolo PedroniINFN - Sezione di Pavia Hartmut SchmiedenUniversity of Bonn Organizing Committee: Chairman:G GiardinaMessina, Italy Co-Chairman:F BossiFrascati, Italy Co-Chairman:P Levi SandriFrascati, Italy Co-Chairman:P PedroniPavia, Italy Co-Chairman:H SchmiedenBonn, Germany Scientific Secretary:G MandaglioUniversity of Messina, Italy Local Organizing Committee: F Curciarello, V De Leo, G Fazio, G Giardina, G Mandaglio and M Romaniuk Organizing Institutions: Messina logoFBP logo University of MessinaFondazione Bonino-Pulejo (Messina) Sponsored by: University of Messina, Fondazione Bonino-Pulejo (Messina) and INFN Sezione di Catania http://newcleo.unime.it/workshop2011/ Group Photo 1 Group Photo 2

Giardina, Giorgio; Bossi, Fabio; Levi Sandri, Paolo; Pedroni, Paolo; Schmieden, Hartmut

2012-03-01

440

Highly variable phenology across the driest inhabited continent characterized by the Australian Phenology Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work for the first time quantified inter- and intra-annual variabilities in phenological cycles across Australia for 2000-2013 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data as input for the Australian Phenology Product. The Australian Phenology Product was designed to accommodate the complexity of Australian conditions featuring vast areas covered by arid and semi arid ecosystems. The product was developed under the Australian Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and is disseminated by the AusCover TERN Sydney node. It provides an internally consistent quantification of phenological cycles of vegetation greening and browning that can inform, agricultural applications, wildfire fuel accumulation, land surface modeling, ecosystem research and climate change studies. Based on the Australian Phenology Product we were able to characterize high inter- and intra-annual variabilites of phenological cycles across large areas of arid and semi-arid Australia between 2000 and 2013 and linked these spatial-temporal variability patterns with atmospheric circulation indices such as SOI. This resulted in a spatially explicit representation of extreme vegetation productivity response to regional climatic variability highlighting the effect of the transition between El Nino drought to La Nina floods in 2011 (Fig 1: average and standard anomalies of annual EVI integrated over the phenological cycle [iEVI]). This first characterization of the inter-annual variability in vegetation phenology across the driest inhabited continent is of special interest to vegetation and ecosystem monitoring and modeling as Australia's rainfall has been described as more variable and the vegetation as different from equivalent climatic zone around the world.

Broich, M.; Huete, A. R.; Held, A. A.; Ma, X.; Davies, K.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Devadas, R.

2013-12-01

441

High Touch – an innovative scheme for new product development: case studies 1994–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many product developers may have high hopes for developing a new product in their respective domains, most product development efforts focus on incremental innovations. Accordingly, most research on the product development process focuses on the development of evolutionary products. In a project seeking the means for achieving breakthrough innovations, the fundamental question is: How do we integrate the innovative

Myun W. Lee; Myung Hwan Yun; Sung H. Han

2001-01-01

442

High spatial resolution Land Surface Temperature estimation over urban areas with uncertainty indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key variable for studying land surface processes and interactions with the atmosphere and it is listed in the Earth System Data Records (ESDRs) identified by international organizations like Global Climate Observing System. It is a valuable source of information for a range of topics in earth sciences and essential for urban climatology studies. Detailed, frequent and accurate LST mapping may support various urban applications, like the monitoring of urban heat island. Currently, no spaceborne instruments provide frequent thermal imagery at high spatial resolution, thus there is a need for synergistic algorithms that combine different kinds of data for LST retrieval. Moreover, knowing the confidence level of any satellite-derived product is highly important to the users, especially when referred to the urban environment, which is extremely heterogenic. The developed method employs spatial-spectral unmixing techniques for improving the spatial resolution of thermal measurements, combines spectral library information for emissivity estimation and applies a split-window algorithm to estimate LST with an uncertainty estimation inserted in the final product. A synergistic algorithm that utilizes the spatial information provided by visible and near-infrared measurements with more frequent low resolution thermal measurements provides excellent means for high spatial resolution LST estimation. Given the low spatial resolution of thermal infrared sensors, the measured radiation is a combination of radiances of different surface types. High spatial resolution information is used to quantify the different surface types in each pixel and then the measured radiance of each pixel is decomposed. The several difficulties in retrieving LST from space measurements, mainly related to the temperature-emissivity coupling and the atmospheric contribution to the thermal measurements, and the measurements themselves, introduce uncertainties in the final product, which are quantified here.

Mitraka, Zina; Lazzarini, Michele; Doxani, Georgia; Del Frate, Fabio; Ghedira, Hosni

2014-05-01

443

High biofuel production of Botryococcus braunii using optimized cultivation strategies  

E-print Network

and algae biomass increases rapidly as well as the biofuelbiofuel obtained from microalgae right now, scientists are searching for other valuable products from algaeand biofuel productivity. Currently all the culture media use a single source of nitrogen to feed algae,

Yu, Wei

2014-01-01

444

Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600?C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form? process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

2010-01-01

445

Development and Testing of High Surface Area Iridium Anodes for Molten Oxide Electrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing of lunar regolith into oxygen for habitat and propulsion is needed to support future space missions. Direct electrochemical reduction of molten regolith is an attractive method of processing, because no additional chemical reagents are needed. The electrochemical processing of molten oxides requires high surface area, inert anodes. Such electrodes need to be structurally robust at elevated temperatures (1400-1600 C), be resistant to thermal shock, have good electrical conductivity, be resistant to attack by molten oxide (silicate), be electrochemically stable and support high current density. Iridium with its high melting point, good oxidation resistance, superior high temperature strength and ductility is the most promising candidate for anodes in high temperature electrochemical processes. Several innovative concepts for manufacturing such anodes by electrodeposition of iridium from molten salt electrolyte (EL-Form process) were evaluated. Iridium electrodeposition to form of complex shape components and coating was investigated. Iridium coated graphite, porous iridium structure and solid iridium anodes were fabricated. Testing of electroformed iridium anodes shows no visible degradation. The result of development, manufacturing and testing of high surface, inert iridium anodes will be presented.

Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; McKechnie, Timothy; Sadoway, Donald R.; Paramore, James; Melendez, Orlando; Curreri, Peter A.

2010-01-01

446

Dynamical evolution of high area-to-mass ratio debris released into GPS orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large set of simulations, including all the relevant perturbations, was carried out to investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of fictitious high area-to-mass ratio ( A/ M) objects released, with a negligible velocity variation, in each of the six orbital planes used by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. As with similar objects discovered in near synchronous trajectories, long lifetime orbits, with mean motions of about 2 revolutions per day, were found possible for debris characterized by extremely high area-to-mass ratios. Often the lifetime exceeds 100 years up to A/ M ˜ 45 m 2/kg, decreasing rapidly to a few months above such a threshold. However, the details of the evolution, which are conditioned by the complex interplay of solar radiation pressure and geopotential plus luni-solar resonances, depend on the initial conditions. Different behaviors are thus possible. In any case, objects like those discovered in synchronous orbits, with A/ M as high as 20-40 m 2/kg, could also survive in this orbital regime, with semi-major axes close to the semi-synchronous values, with maximum eccentricities between 0.3 and 0.7, and with significant orbit pole precessions (faster and wider for increasing values of A/ M), leading to inclinations between 30° and more than 90°.

Anselmo, L.; Pardini, C.

2009-05-01

447

Geosynphytosociological analysis of the plant landscape of an area with high geomorphology variability on the central Italian Adriatic coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the plant landscape of a sub-coastal hilly area in southern Marche, Italy, has allowed the proposal of two main models that are highly correlated with the geomorphological and bioclimate variations of the area. This study area is very complex from a geological point of view. The synphytosociological analysis reveals the changes that occur locally within each lithological

Edoardo Biondi; Marina Allegrezza; Marino Mentoni

2012-01-01

448

Experience from practice: compound storm surge and high precipitation in a coastal area in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Januari 2012 a near-flooding occurred in Northern Netherlands by compound occurrence of a high soil moisture saturation degree due to past long term precipitation, a strong 1/10 year precipitation event and a coinciding storm surge that prevented the area to drain water to the Northsea for 5 days. The situation was nearly critical: reserved floodplains were used to reduce the water level in the populated areas, and evacuation plans were standby. After 5 days, the end of the storm surge allowed to discharge large water volumes, restoring the situation to normal conditions. The event has triggered the awareness in both the arenas of water management and science. Are the current standards adequate when these compound events occur more frequently than expected from random correlation? And do weather and climate modellers pay adequate attention to the output of their models that is truly meaningful to society, like combinations of strong winds over sea an