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1

Selectable resistance-area product by dilute highly charged ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Considerable effort worldwide has been invested in producing low resistance-area (RA) product magnetic tunnel junction sensors for future hard drive read heads. Here the authors present a method of producing tunnel barriers with a selectable RA value spanning orders of magnitude. A single process recipe is used with only the dose of highly charged ions (HCIs) varied. The HCIs reduce the tunnel barrier integrity, providing enhanced conduction that reduces the overall RA product. The final RA product is selected by appropriate choice of the HCI density; e.g., 100 HCIs/{mu}m{sup 2} typically results in the RA product being reduced by a factor of 100.

Pomeroy, J. M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A. C.; Gillaspy, J. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2007-08-13

2

High surface area calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

2013-05-01

3

Mid-level Providers Working in a Low-acuity Area are More Productive than in a High-acuity Area  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Mid-level providers (MLP) are extensively used in staffing emergency departments (ED). We sought to compare the productivity of MLPs staffing a low-acuity and high-acuity area of a community ED. Methods: This is a retrospective review of MLP productivity at a single center 42,000-volume community ED from July 2009 to September 2010. MLPs staffed day shifts (8AM–6PM or 10AM–10PM) in high- and low-acuity sections of the ED. We used two-tailed T-test to compare patients/hour, relative value units (RVUs)/hour, and RVUs/patient between the 2 MLP groups. Results: We included 49 low-acuity and 55 high-acuity shifts in this study. During the study period, MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts treated a mean of 2.7 patients/hour (confidence interval [CI] +/? 0.23), while those staffing high-acuity shifts treated a mean of 1.56 patients/hour (CI +/? 0.14, p<0.0001). MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts generated a mean of 4.45 RVUs/hour (CI +/? 0.34) compared to 3.19 RVUs/hour (CI +/? 0.29) for those staffing high-acuity shifts (p<0.0001). MLPs staffing low-acuity shifts generated a mean of 1.68 RVUs/patient (CI +/? 0.06) while those staffing high-acuity shifts generated a mean RVUs/patient of 2.05 (CI +/? 0.09, p<0.0001). Conclusion: MLPs staffing a low-acuity area treated more patients/hour and generated more RVUs/hour than when staffing a high-acuity area.

Silberman, Michael; Jeanmonod, Donald; Hamden, Khalief; Reiter, Mark; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

2013-01-01

4

Assessment of fission product content of high-level liquid waste supernate on E-Area vault package criteria  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the tank farm`s high level waste supernate to determine any potential impacts on waste certification for the E-Area vaults (EAV). The Waste Acceptance Criteria procedure (i.e., WAC 3.10 of the 1S manual) imposes administrative controls on radioactive material in waste packages sent to the EAV, specifically on six fission products. Waste tank supernates contain various fission products, so any waste package containing material contaminated with supernate will contain these radioactive isotopes. This report develops the process knowledge basis for characterizing the supernate composition for these isotopes, so that appropriate controls can be implemented to ensure that the EAV WAC is met. Six fission products are listed in the SRS 1S Manual WAC 3.10: Se-79, which decays to bromine; Sr-90, which decays to niobium; Tc-99, which decays to ruthenium; Sn-126, which decays to tellurium; I-129, which decays to xenon; and Cs-137, which decays to barium.

Brown, D.F.

1994-06-30

5

A comparison of primary production models in an area of high mesoscale variability (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of primary productivity (PP) models were evaluated in a mesoscale area around the South Shetland Islands (Antarctica). Input variables were: phytoplankton carbon biomass, Chlorophyll a, sea water temperature, daily irradiance, among others, collected in situ during an oceanographic cruise (COUPLING, January 2010). Models of the first type were based on Chl a measurements: the widely used model VGPM (Behrenfeld and Falkowski, 1997) and a derived version developed for the Western Antarctic Peninsula (Dierssen et al., 2000). The second type included two models based on phytoplankton carbon biomass: one developed for the whole Southern Ocean (Arrigo et al., 2008) and one based on the Metabolic Theory of Ecology developed by López-Urrutia et al. (2006), being the first time that a model with these features is used for Antarctic waters. The third type was an updated version of the carbon-based model CbPM (first described by Behrenfeld et al. (2005)) based on the Chl a/carbon biomass ratio modulation. The degree of agreement among the results between the different types of models turned out to be low (> 30% of difference), but high within models of the same type (< 10% of difference). Biomass-based model predictions differed the most from those estimated by the other two types. The differences in PP estimates were primarily attributed to the different ways these models treat the phytoplankton assemblage, along with the difference in input variables. Among the five models evaluated, the output from the modified version of the CbPM showed the lowest bias (0.55) being the most realistic. It made a special attempt to detect the factors controlling phytoplankton physiological state, showing a nutrient limitation towards the Drake area similar to the one observed for the in situ PP values.

García-Muñoz, Cristina; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Lubián, Luis M.; García, Carlos M.; Hernández-León, Santiago

2013-10-01

6

DDE, a Degradation Product of DDT, and Duration of Lactation in a Highly Exposed Area of Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Higher levels of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), the major degradation product of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), have been related to shorter duration of breast-feeding in previous studies. If DDE truly shortens lactation, this has public health importance regarding infant mortality and the use of DDT for malaria control. Objective Our aim was to assess the relationship of maternal DDE concentrations with length of subsequent lactation. Methods We conducted a relatively large study in a highly exposed area of Mexico. We followed 784 mother–son pairs to determine length of lactation. DDE and DDT were measured in maternal serum obtained within a day of delivery. We fit proportional hazard models with and without stratifying by previous breast-feeding, because an association of DDE with duration of lactation among those who breast-fed previously could be attributed to a noncausal mechanism. Results Compared with those with DDE concentrations ? 3.00 ?g/g, the adjusted hazard ratios of weaning according to DDE category were, for concentrations 3.01–6.00 ?g/g, 1.27 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.55]; for concentrations 6.01–9.00 ?g/g, 1.23 (95% CI, 0.92–1.63); and for concentrations > 9.00 ?g/g, 1.17 (95% CI, 0.92–1.49). The corresponding ratios for women who previously breast-fed were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.06–1.87); 1.91 (95% CI, 1.24–2.93); and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.22–2.53). Those for women who had not breast-fed previously were 1.14 (95% CI, 0.86–1.52); 0.90 (95% CI, 0.61–1.31); and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.66–1.26). Conclusions Data from our relatively large study in a highly exposed area of Mexico did not support the hypothesis that exposure to DDE shortens length of lactation. The association seen in women who previously breast-fed was likely attributed to a noncausal mechanism. Nonetheless, whether DDT has other important adverse effects on humans is still an open question.

Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Gladen, Beth C.; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2008-01-01

7

Hybrid gas-to-particle conversion and chemical vapor deposition for production of high-surface area films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid process, based upon gas-to-particle conversion and chemical vapor deposition, is presented as an alternative technique for producing porous films with the main advantages of solvent-free, low-substrate temperature operation. Starting from solid precursors, nanoparticles were produced in the vapor phase. Downstream of this reaction zone, these nanoparticles were collected via thermophoresis onto a cooled substrate forming a porous film. Initially, alumina (Al2O3) films were produced. Later, multi-component processing was explored by incorporating platinum (Pt) nanoparticles into the Al2O3 matrix leading to the production of Pt/Al 2O3 films by two routes: simultaneous precursor injection processing or by a layer-by-layer approach. In single component processing, the formation of nanoparticle aggregates was evident within the amorphous Al2O3 films. Aggregates, composed of these particles, are likely held together by relatively weak van der Waals forces leading to the observed poor physical cohesion. In multi-component processing, reasonable control of composition and distribution of species is possible with Pt nanoparticles appearing to be co-agglomerated with alumina. Deposited crystalline Pt nanoparticles may encourage the crystallization of the amorphous Al2O3. Finally, from chemisorption results, the produced sample appears to have potentially greater catalytic activity than a commercially available standard. A model is in development to study nanoparticle interactions with a gas and deposition occurring in stagnation flow onto the cooled horizontal substrate within the tubular reactor. Using velocity and temperature fields generated from numerical solutions to the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, particle trajectories were calculated from the summation of drag, gravitational, thermophoretic, and Brownian forces. In rectangular coordinates, cooling stage width to reactor diameter ratio, deposition stage temperature, and initial velocity were the primary parameters varied in this study. An optimum balance between thermophoretic and drag forces appears to be the key factor in obtaining high yield and surface uniformity in the films. The results also suggest that Brownian motion is not a significant contributor to deposition under conditions in this study.

Nguyen, Quynh Tan

8

High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek

2012-02-01

9

Advanced high area ratio nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Progress was made in two areas during the past year. First, performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the SSME nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. Second, the PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

1995-01-01

10

Advanced high area ratio nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. The PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP (Center for Advanced Space Propulsion) project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

1989-01-01

11

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

12

Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

2003-01-01

13

The global MODIS burned area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-observing satellite systems provide the potential for an accurate and timely mapping of burned areas, also known as fire-affected areas. Remote sensing algorithms developed to map burned areas are difficult to implement reliably over large areas however because of variations in both the surface state and those imposed by the sensing system. The availability of robustly calibrated, atmospherically corrected, cloud-screened,

David P. Roy; Luigi Boschetti; Christopher O. Justice

14

Cloudiness and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover maps provide an information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they allow to estimate the regional snow resource. Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. In this context, MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometeron on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloudiness can hide the ground, thus preventing snow detection. Here, we considered MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over Po river basin. Modeling the variability of snow cover duration, distribution and snow water equivalent is a first important step in investigating climate change impacts on the regime of the major Italian river. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analyzed and processed with the support of 500 m-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We firstly investigated the issue of cloudiness, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting season. Such a result is certainly related to satellite crossing times, since cloud coverage over mountains usually increases in the afternoon: however, in Aqua and Terra snow products it highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, on the basis of previous studies, we proposed a cloud removal procedure and its application to a wide area, characterized by high topographic and geomorphological heterogeneities such as northern Italy. While conceiving the new method, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there were not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we improved a temporal filter with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter. In the validation stage, the proposed procedure has been compared against others, showing improvements in the performance for our case study. At the same time it results quite handy both in terms of input data required and computational effort.

Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

2014-04-01

15

Accumulation of DOC in Low Phosphate Low Chlorophyll (LPLC) area: is it related to higher production under high N:P ratio?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemistry of carbon and nutrients (N, P) in the surface layer of the ocean strongly depends on the interaction between C, N and P at the cell level and at the population level where interaction between primary producers (phytoplankton) and remineralizers (heterotrophic bacteria) impact the overall stock and dynamics of organic carbon. To understand these interactions in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea, we implemented, using Eco3M, a multi-element, steady state, mechanistic model. This cell-based model intend to represent the growth of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria under various amount of nutrients. As a results, it displays the expected biogeochemical characteristics of the system and give us insight on the expected interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria both in term of competition for inorganic nutrients and in term of commensalism for organic carbon. In this study, we found a good quantitative agreement between model results and literrature data for stocks and fluxes of the western Mediterranean basin. In addition, for phytoplankton we show how the uncoupling between carbon production and growth could impact the overall DOC dynamic and based on these results, we proposed a new explanantion for the observed DOC accumulation in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea.

Mauriac, R.; Moutin, T.; Baklouti, M.

2010-09-01

16

The cascade high productivity language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

2004-01-01

17

Laser processing system development of large area and high precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As industry of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and display growing, this industry requires an increasingly high-precision quality so current cutting process in industry is preferred laser machining than mechanical machining. Now, laser machining is used almost "step and repeat" method in large area, but this method has a problem such as cutting quality in the continuity of edge parts, cutting speed and low productivity. To solve these problems in large area, on-the-fly (stagescanner synchronized system) is gradually increasing. On-the-fly technology is able to process large area with high speed because of stage-scanner synchronized moving. We designed laser-based high precision system with on-the-fly. In this system, we used UV nano-second pulse laser, power controller and scanner with telecentric f-theta lens. The power controller is consisted of HWP(Half Wave Plate), thin film plate polarizer, photo diode, micro step motor and control board. Laser power is possible to monitor real-time and adjust precision power by using power controller. Using this machine, we tested cutting of large area coverlay and sheet type large area PCB by applying on-the-fly. As a result, our developed machine is possible to process large area without the problem of the continuity of edge parts and by high cutting speed than competitor about coverlay.

Park, Hyeongchan; Ryu, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Taesang

2013-03-01

18

High Productivity Implantation ``PARTIAL IMPLANT''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterned ion implantation ``PARTIAL IMPLANT'' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is ``DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT,'' that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is ``RING PARTIAL IMPLANT'' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

2008-11-01

19

Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

Dusterhoft, R.G. (Halliburton Energy Services, Duncan, OK (United States)); Chapman, B.J. (Halliburton Energy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States))

1994-06-20

20

High throughput protein production screening  

DOEpatents

Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

2009-09-08

21

Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Estimates were provide of the relative productivity of each of the 26 OCS Planning Areas and information furnished on potential biases in the analysis. Daily production estimates ranged from 0.002 to 16.0 g/sq cm. D(+1). Annual production estimates ranged from 1 to 800 g/sq cm.yr(-1). Thirteen of the 26 Planning Areas exhibited high variability (where measurements on individual surveys were frequently 5 times 'background'.) These included the North, Mid-, and South Atlantic; Central Gulf of Mexico; Southern Central, and Northern California; Washington-Oregon; Cook Inlet; Kodiak; Shumagin; North Aleutian Basin; and Beaufort Sea Planning Areas.

Balcom, B.J.; Hayward, T.L.; McRoy, C.P.; Schell, D.M.; Sibley, T.H.

1990-09-01

22

Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

1991-01-01

23

Special Opportunities for Highly Sampled Areas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the coverage areas for the two instruments that are scheduled to be on board the HyspIRI mission, (i.e.,visible to short wave infrared (VSWIR) and a multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) imager.)

Knox, Robert G.

2010-01-01

24

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

25

High power broad area quantum cascade lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad area quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are studied with ridge widths up to 400 mum, in room temperature pulsed mode operation at an emission wavelength around 4.45 mum. The peak output power scales linearly with the ridge width. A maximum total peak output power of 120 W is obtained from a single 400-mum-wide device with a cavity length of 3

Y. Bai; S. Slivken; S. R. Darvish; A. Haddadi; B. Gokden; M. Razeghi

2009-01-01

26

Modeling biotic habitat high risk areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.

Despain, D. G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B. M.; Stephens, T.

2000-01-01

27

Appalachia High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, CY 2005 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Established in 1998, the Appalachia HIDTA consists of 68 counties spread across Southeastern Kentucky, Eastern Tennessee, and Southwestern West Virginia. These counties comprise the predominant marijuana production and trafficking areas of this tri-state ...

2006-01-01

28

Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

2010-01-01

29

Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

1997-01-01

30

A tandem calibration method for kerma area product meters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For measurements of the kerma-area product (KAP) in diagnostic x-ray imaging, a method for calibrating field KAP meters with a reference KAP meter is presented. In this tandem calibration method, the field KAP chamber is positioned similarly as in measurements with patients. The reference KAP chamber is placed at a specified distance and used in the x-ray beam simultaneously with the field KAP chamber. The tandem method provides a feasible and practical way for calibrating field KAP meters of any type in their clinical position. Accurate measurements of the irradiation geometry are not required, but comprehensive calibration for the reference KAP meter is needed.

Toroi, P.; Komppa, T.; Kosunen, A.

2008-09-01

31

A tandem calibration method for kerma-area product meters.  

PubMed

For measurements of the kerma-area product (KAP) in diagnostic x-ray imaging, a method for calibrating field KAP meters with a reference KAP meter is presented. In this tandem calibration method, the field KAP chamber is positioned similarly as in measurements with patients. The reference KAP chamber is placed at a specified distance and used in the x-ray beam simultaneously with the field KAP chamber. The tandem method provides a feasible and practical way for calibrating field KAP meters of any type in their clinical position. Accurate measurements of the irradiation geometry are not required, but comprehensive calibration for the reference KAP meter is needed. PMID:18711243

Toroi, P; Komppa, T; Kosunen, A

2008-09-21

32

Design-based validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. Product comparison with independent reference data is needed to determine product accuracy. Design-based accuracy assessment methods select the independent reference data using a probability sampling and are preferred as the reference data can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics that explicitly take into account the sampling probability. To date, no global burned area product has been validated using a design-based methodology due to the technical challenges of designing an appropriate independent reference data sampling strategy, and, until recently, due to the high cost of independent reference data collection. Burned area product errors are not randomly distributed in space and time and tend to be linked to seasonal phenomena that can be confused with burning. This paper describes the design-based sampling strategy developed for the validation of the MODIS Global Burned Area Products using more than 200 globally distributed multi-temporal pairs of Landsat scenes, processed following the recommendations of the CEOS Cal/Val Burned Area Validation Protocol. The sampling design is illustrated and the advantages of the design-based sampling discussed.

Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Stehman, S. V.

2012-12-01

33

Thermal stability of high surface area silicon carbide materials  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of mesoporous silicon carbide by chemical vapor infiltration of dimethyl dichlorosilane into mesoporous silica SBA-15 and subsequent dissolution of the silica matrix with HF was investigated. The influence of the synthesis parameters of the composite material (SiC/SBA-15) on the final product (mesoporous SiC) was determined. Depending on the preparation conditions, materials with specific surface areas from 410 to 830 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and pore sizes between 2 and 10 nm with high mesopore volume (0.31-0.96 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}) were prepared. Additionally, the thermal stability of mesoporous silicon carbide at 1573 K in an inert atmosphere (argon) was investigated, and compared to that of SBA-15 and ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-1). Mesoporous SiC has a much higher thermal textural stability as compared to SBA-15, but a lower stability than ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-1. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of mesoporous silicon carbide by chemical vapor infiltration of dimethyl dichlorosilane into mesoporous silica SBA-15 and subsequent dissolution of the silica matrix was used for the preparation of mesoporous SiC with high specific surface areas up to 830 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and pore sizes between 2 and 10 nm.

Krawiec, Piotr [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Technical University of Dresden, Mommsenstr. 6, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kaskel, Stefan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Technical University of Dresden, Mommsenstr. 6, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: Stefan.kaskel@chemie.tu-dresden.de

2006-08-15

34

Thermal stability of high surface area silicon carbide materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of mesoporous silicon carbide by chemical vapor infiltration of dimethyl dichlorosilane into mesoporous silica SBA-15 and subsequent dissolution of the silica matrix with HF was investigated. The influence of the synthesis parameters of the composite material (SiC/SBA-15) on the final product (mesoporous SiC) was determined. Depending on the preparation conditions, materials with specific surface areas from 410 to 830 m 2 g -1 and pore sizes between 2 and 10 nm with high mesopore volume (0.31-0.96 cm 3 g -1) were prepared. Additionally, the thermal stability of mesoporous silicon carbide at 1573 K in an inert atmosphere (argon) was investigated, and compared to that of SBA-15 and ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-1). Mesoporous SiC has a much higher thermal textural stability as compared to SBA-15, but a lower stability than ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-1.

Krawiec, Piotr; Kaskel, Stefan

2006-08-01

35

Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

Tobagi, F. A.

1986-02-01

36

Wolf population survival in an area of high road density  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wolf mortality in a high-road-density area of Minnesota exceeds that in an adjacent wilderness, and is primarily human-caused. The wolf population there is maintained primarily by ingress from the adjacent wilderness areas. A road density of 0.58 km/km2 can be exceeded and the area still support wolves if it is adjacent to extensive roadless areas.

Mech, L.D.

1989-01-01

37

Activation of Frontal Neocortical Areas by Vocal Production in Marmosets  

PubMed Central

Primates often rely on vocal communication to mediate social interactions. Although much is known about the acoustic structure of primate vocalizations and the social context in which they are usually uttered, our knowledge about the neocortical control of audio–vocal interactions in primates is still incipient, being mostly derived from lesion studies in squirrel monkeys and macaques. To map the neocortical areas related to vocal control in a New World primate species, the common marmoset, we employed a method previously used with success in other vertebrate species: Analysis of the expression of the immediate early gene Egr-1 in freely behaving animals. The neocortical distribution of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in three marmosets that were exposed to the playback of conspecific vocalizations and vocalized spontaneously (H/V group) was compared to data from three other marmosets that also heard the playback but did not vocalize (H/n group). The anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex presented a higher number of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in the H/V group than in H/n animals. Our results provide direct evidence that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the region that comprises Broca's area in humans and has been associated with auditory processing of species-specific vocalizations and orofacial control in macaques, is engaged during vocal output in marmosets. Altogether, our results support the notion that the network of neocortical areas related to vocal communication in marmosets is quite similar to that of Old world primates. The vocal production role played by these areas and their importance for the evolution of speech in primates are discussed.

Simoes, Cristiano S.; Vianney, Paulo V. R.; de Moura, Marco Marcondes; Freire, Marco A. M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Sameshima, Koichi; Araujo, John F.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Mello, Claudio V.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

2010-01-01

38

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

39

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

40

Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

2013-01-01

41

Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.  

PubMed

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R

2013-01-01

42

High resolution, large area, high energy x-ray tomography  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray tomography system is being developed for high resolution inspection of large objects. The goal is to achieve 25 micron resolution over object sizes that are tens of centimeters in extent. Typical objects will be metal in composition and therefore high energy, few MeV x-rays will be required. A proof-of-principle system with a limited field of view has been developed. Preliminary results are presented.

Trebes, J.E.; Dolan, K.W.; Haddad, W.S.; Haskins, J.J.; Lerche, R.A.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Rikard, R.D.

1997-08-01

43

Algorithms for High Performance, Wide-Area Distributed File Downloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores three algorithms for high-performance downloads of wide-area, replicated data. The storage model is based on the Network Storage Stack, which allows for flexible sharing and utilization of writable storage as a network resource. The algorithms assume that data is replicated in various storage depots in the wide area, and the data must be delivered to the client

James S. Plank; Scott Atchley; Ying Ding; Micah Beck

2003-01-01

44

Atlanta High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, 2005 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Annual Report presents measures of the effectiveness of the Atlanta HIDTA program during calendar year 2005. The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) has designated Atlanta as a High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA), ...

2006-01-01

45

Electrosynthesis at High Surface Area Carbon and Graphite Anodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The number of stable, inexpensive anode materials available for the electrosynthesis of chemicals is quite limited. A series of high surface area carbons and graphites were used as anode materials for a variety of electrochemical processes. The effectiven...

N. L. Weinberg

1988-01-01

46

6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

47

5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

48

High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

2014-04-01

49

43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137...participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any...participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on...

2010-10-01

50

43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137...participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any...participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on...

2009-10-01

51

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

1999-05-11

52

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-05-11

53

[Characteristic evaluation and clinical usefulness of dose area product meter at radiography].  

PubMed

Philips DigitalDiagnost, a digital radiographic system mounting flat panel detector (FPD), can display dose area data (DiDi dose) calculated by examination parameters. We evaluated its fundamental characteristics and compared the values of DiDi dose andactual measured data obtained by the area dose product meter (PD-4100L). Tendency of varied values of mAs, X-ray tube values and exposure area from both the area dose product meter and the DiDi dose were coincided. Further, in clinical images of chest PA 100 cases, chest lateral 50 cases and abdomen stand 25 cases, the determination coefficient was overly high as R(2)=0.99. Based on these results, it is clear that the DiDi dose can be treated the same as the area dose product meter. Under increasing of patient X-ray exposure dose is a concern in digital general radiography, this research indicates that maximum values of histogram obtained by DiDi dose contributes dose awareness for radiographer. PMID:22104238

Nakamae, Mitsuhiro; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Morioka, Shigeaki; Masuda, Seiichi; Kitanaka, Yasutomo

2011-01-01

54

LAUNCHING EFFORTS NEEDED FOR A HIGH-TECH PRODUCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims the difficult problem of creating new product concepts in the area of high-technology and innovation. Because of scientific discoveries and impressive development of technology, many companies compete for market supremacy on the technological innovations market. In a global market, which is currently in an economic and financial crisis, consumers make a new hierarchy of priorities in terms

Lavinia DOVLEAC

2011-01-01

55

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in...REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301...

2010-01-01

56

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in...REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301...

2009-01-01

57

Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

de Moura, Lourenço; de Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

2011-03-01

58

High volume production of nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or

Edward B. Ripley; Jonathan S. Morrell; Roland D. Seals; Gerard M. Ludtka

2009-01-01

59

The Cancer Mortality in High Natural Radiation Areas in Poland  

PubMed Central

The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed. Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927–2011)

Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzynski, Ludwik

2012-01-01

60

High volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-10-13

61

Sustaining Fracture Area and Conductivity of Gas shale Reservoirs for Enhancing Long-term Production and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas from organic rich shale formations has become an increasingly important energy resource worldwide over the past decade. Extensive hydraulic fracture networks with massive contact surface areas are frequently required to achieve satisfactory economic production in these highly heterogeneous reservoirs, with permeability in the nano-Darcy range. Current operational experience in gas shale plays indicates that the loss of productive

R. Suarez-Rivera; S. Marino; A. Ghassemi

2010-01-01

62

New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

Nelson, H. K.; Duebbert, H. F.

1974-01-01

63

Siderophore production in high iron environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up until recently, the geochemical cycling of Fe in deep sea hydrothermal plumes has assumed to be inorganically dominated, resulting in quantitative precipitation of all hydrothermally sourced Fe to the seafloor. Recent detection of organic Fe binding ligands within both the dissolved and particulate phase (Bennett et al., 2008; Toner et al., 2009), suggests that hydrothermally sourced Fe may be important on a global scale (Tagliabue et al., 2010). The source of these organic ligands is currently unknown; hypotheses include the possible entrainment of organic carbon from the biologically rich diffuse flow areas, or in-situ production from microbial processes. However, the microbial production of organic ligands is only expected when Fe is a limited micronutrient, which is not the case in the hydrothermal environment. The importance of Fe cycling microorganisms within hydrothermal systems was previously overlooked due to the poor energetics with regards to Fe oxidation and reduction. But their recent detection within the hydrothermal system, both around low temperature Fe rich mineral deposits and within hydrothermal plumes (Edwards et al., 2004; Sylvan et al., In prep) suggests that they may have an important role in the hydrothermal Fe cycle, potentially resulting in an interplay between Fe and organic carbon. Within the laboratory, we have carried out experiments to investigate an Fe oxidizing bacteria in a variety of high Fe environments. We have detected both the production of siderophores and an increase in reduced Fe when the Fe oxidizing bacteria is exposed to both Fe(III) and Fe(II) rich minerals. The role of these microbes in the mineral dissolution of Fe sulfides along the seafloor and within the hydrothermal plume, may have important implications on the speciation of Fe and the role of siderophores in the marine environment. Bennett, S.A. et al. 2008. EPSL, 270: 157-167. Edwards, K.J. et al. 2004. Geomicrobiology Journal, 21: 393-404. Sylvan, J.B. et al. In prep for Geobiology Tagliabue, A. et al. 2010. Nature Geoscience, 3: 252-256. Toner, B.M.,et al. 2009. Nature Geoscience, 2: 197 - 201.

Bennett, S. A.; Hoffman, C. L.; Moffett, J. W.; Edwards, K. J.

2010-12-01

64

The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features in the MSG/SEVIRI images. The fractional snow cover area (H12) algorithm is based on a sub-pixel reflectance model applied on METOP-AVHRR data. Knowing the effects of topography on satellite-measured radiances for rough terrain, the sun zenith and azimuth angles, as well as direction of observation relative to these are taken into account in estimating the target reflectances from the satellite images. The values of SWE products (H13) were obtained using an assimilation process based on the Helsinki University of Technology model using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) daily brightness-temperature values. The validation studies for three products have been performed for the water years 2010 and 2011. Average values of 70% of probability of detection for snow recognition product, 60% of overall accuracy for the fractional snow cover product and 45 mm RMSE for the snow water equivalent product have been obtained from the validation studies. Final versions of these three products will be presented and discussed. Key words: snow, satellite images, mountain, HSAF, snow cover, snow water equivalent

Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

2012-04-01

65

Thermonuclear Pion Production and High Temperature Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

PIONS may be produced in thermonuclear interactions between nucleons in material at a temperature >~1010 K. Pion production followed by secondary interaction is among the many processes contributing to the statistical equilibrium of a high temperature astrophysical system. Charged pions do, however, undergo decay as an alternative to secondary interaction, producing mu-neutrinos (vmu) if these neutrinos have a high escape

D. F. Falla; R. G. Sale

1969-01-01

66

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-01-01

67

High-Voltage CMOS ESD and the Safe Operating Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established methods for testing ESD robustness of high-voltage pins in smart power CMOS can lead to erroneous results. This paper investigates both LDNMOS and certain types of SCRLDMOS (SCRs embedded in LDNMOS) high-voltage clamps for safe-operating-area collapse due to trigger voltage (V t1) walk-in after transmission-line pulsing (TLP) corresponding to leakage-current increase below I t2. For the first time, the

Andrew J. Walker; Helmut Puchner; Sai Prashanth Dhanraj

2009-01-01

68

Resilience Strategies for New Teachers in High-Needs Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study investigates strategies of resilience exhibited by fifteen novice teachers employed in high-needs areas, such as in urban and rural contexts and in special education. Findings indicated that teachers utilised a variety of strategies, including help-seeking, problem-solving, managing difficult relationships, and seeking…

Castro, Antonio J.; Kelly, John; Shih, Minyi

2010-01-01

69

The areas of high natural radioactivity and TENORM wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many areas of high natural radioactivity (HINAR) throughout the world. To mention a few, the monazite-bearing sands in the Kerala coast in India and in the coastal regions of the states Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil; the mineralized volcanic intrusives in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Goiás; the hot springs in Ramsar, Iran;

Anselmo S Paschoa; José M Godoy

2002-01-01

70

67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

71

Productivity of high-yielding- crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using high-yielding varieties (lines) of several crops or applying coated urea, which releases nitrogen slowly, it was possible to achieve a very high yield corresponding to that recorded in Hokkaido, Japan. In this report, the accumulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (Rubisco) and chlorophyll was investigated in leaves in relation to the productivity of high-yielding crops, including rice, winter wheat, maize,

Mitsuru Osaki; Kazuhiko Morikawa; Mika Matsumoto; Takuro Shinano; Makoto Iyoda; Toshiaki Tadano

1993-01-01

72

SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

2009-12-01

73

Projection of Favorable Gas-Producting Areas From Paleoenvironmental Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoenvironmental biofacies analysis of recent wells in dark Devonian shales in the Applachian Basin has shown that these facies can be projected to areas with no control points. In particular, the facies distribution in Perry County, Kentucky, were found to be precisely those that were predicted earlier from biofacies and organic geochemical data from the VA-1 well in Wise County,

R. E. Zielinski; J. A. Dixon; R. D. McIver; A. B. Reaugh

1979-01-01

74

Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area pr...

D. G. Jackson B. B. Looney C. L. Bergren D. G. Wells B. A. Beavers

1996-01-01

75

Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

Michaels, D.

1982-01-01

76

High intensity H- cyclotrons for radioisotope production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of Cyclone 30, a 30-MeV, H- cyclotron for radioscope production, designed for extremely high extracted beam intensity (500 ?A) and low power consumption (less than 100 kW with a 15-kW extracted beam). The Cyclone 30 prototype has now been operational for years at Louvain-La-Neuve and has achieved all design goals while demonstrating very high reliability. The

J. L. Bol; A. Chevalier; E. Conrad; Y. Jongen; M. Lacroix; G. Lannoye; T. Ledocte; A. Ninane; G. Rijckewaert; S. Zaremba

1989-01-01

77

NONPOINT SEDIMENT PRODUCTION IN THE COLUSA BASIN DRAINAGE AREA, CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

This investigation was carried out in two phases from October 1977 to March 1982. The details on field, laboratory, and computer simulation have been reported in four comprehensive annual reports. The production and transport of sediments from, through, and out of this basin are ...

78

PRODUCTION OF HIGH BRIGHTNESS PROTON BUNCHES.  

SciTech Connect

Strongly pulsed proton beams for secondary beam production are required for projects such as pulsed spallation neutron sources or neutrino factories where accurate time-of-flight information is required. To meet these demands techniques to produce multi-GeV proton bunches with very high longitudinal brightness are being developed. A review of the present status is presented.

ROSER,T.

2001-06-18

79

Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

Kanki, Barbara G.

1997-01-01

80

High Energy Product Developed from Cobalt Nanowires  

PubMed Central

Cobalt nanowires with high aspect ratio have been synthesized via a solvothermal chemical process. Based on the shape anisotropy and orientation of the nanowire assemblies, a record high room-temperature coercivity of 10.6?kOe has been measured in Co nanowires with a diameter of about 15?nm and a mean length of 200?nm. As a result, energy product of the wires reaches 44?MGOe. It is discovered that the morphology uniformity of the nanowires is the key to achieving the high coercivity and high energy density. Nanowires of this type are ideal building blocks for future bonded, consolidated and thin film magnets with high energy density and high thermal stability.

Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Liu, J. Ping

2014-01-01

81

High energy product developed from cobalt nanowires.  

PubMed

Cobalt nanowires with high aspect ratio have been synthesized via a solvothermal chemical process. Based on the shape anisotropy and orientation of the nanowire assemblies, a record high room-temperature coercivity of 10.6?kOe has been measured in Co nanowires with a diameter of about 15?nm and a mean length of 200?nm. As a result, energy product of the wires reaches 44?MGOe. It is discovered that the morphology uniformity of the nanowires is the key to achieving the high coercivity and high energy density. Nanowires of this type are ideal building blocks for future bonded, consolidated and thin film magnets with high energy density and high thermal stability. PMID:24939036

Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Liu, J Ping

2014-01-01

82

Validating the EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Recognition Product over Mountainous Areas of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An algorithm has been running in order to produce real-time snow cover maps from MSG-SEVIRI sensor imagery, covering whole Europe, for more than two years under the framework of EUMETSAT Hydrology-SAF (HSAF) Project. Hydrological processes and climate in the mountainous areas are highly affected by the seasonal snow cover. Due to lack of enough field observations because of the inaccessibility of high mountains, it is convenient to monitor the amount of snow with remote sensing satellite data besides setting up and managing ground weather stations. Developed algorithm is based on a multi-spectral thresholding method which uses visible, shortwave-infrared and near-infrared channels of MSG-SEVIRI. For a single day, 32 successive satellite images which have 15 minutes time interval between each of them are interpreted in order to produce a daily snow cover map. The algorithm uses Nowcasting-SAF (SAFNWC) cloud products in classifying the clouds. In this study 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 snow melting seasons are considered for the validation and evaluation purposes of the HSAF snow recognition product. The validation is performed for the mountainous region in the eastern part of Turkey on a daily basis by using the ground observations from 30 climate stations operated by Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS). The snow depth was recorded to the nearest 1 cm and reported in integer form. Besides the validation of snow product with ground data, the utility of the snow product in deriving the snow depletion curves (SDC) is evaluated. Other satellite snow products namely, MODIS 8-day snow cover data (MOD10C2) are also used in deriving the snow depletion curves. Results show high agreement between ground snow measurements and HSAF snow recognition product. The overall accuracies for 2008 and 2009 are calculated as 90.96 % and 80.59 % respectively. The commission error for 2008 is 8.12 % whereas for 2009 it is calculated as 17.03 %. The high cloud coverage percentage observed in 2009 caused a higher false alarm rate in the snow classification. Moreover, SDCs derived from HSAF and MOD10C2 snow recognition products display similar trends, especially in the melting period of snow. Refinement and enhancement of the HSAF snow recognition product with additional validation studies and inclusion of probable HSAF weekly snow recognition product are set as future goals during the extension period of HSAF Project.

Surer, S.; Akyurek, Z.; Sorman, A. U.

2009-12-01

83

SURVEY OF THE TRADITIONAL POULTRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN THE BAMENDA AREA, CAMEROON  

Microsoft Academic Search

SURVEY OF THE TRADITIONAL POULTRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN THE BAMENDA AREA, CAMEROON. A study of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area in Cameroon was conducted using a baseline survey covering the rainy and dry seasons from December, 1999-June, 2000. This survey focused mainly on the characterization of the flock size and structure, housing system, feeding, marketing of

F. N. EKUE; K. D. PONÉ; M. J. MAFENI; A. N. NFI; J. NJOYA

84

Discover areas of highest plant productivity in the ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science animation presents a series of monthly satellite images that track global levels of phytoplankton throughout a year. The introduction explains that the color-enhanced images indicate chlorophyll concentration in the oceans. In addition, the text briefly describes the significance of these concentration values. Students are encouraged to analyze changes in plant productivity that occur over the course of a year. Movie control buttons allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images.

Education, Terc. C.

2003-01-01

85

High-value products from transgenic maize.  

PubMed

Maize (also known as corn) is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as food and animal feed for tens of thousands of years. It is currently the most widely grown crop in the world, and is used not only for food/feed but also to produce ethanol, industrial starches and oils. Maize is now at the beginning of a new agricultural revolution, where the grains are used as factories to synthesize high-value molecules. In this article we look at the diversity of high-value products from maize, recent technological advances in the field and the emerging regulatory framework that governs how transgenic maize plants and their products are grown, used and traded. PMID:20816943

Naqvi, Shaista; Ramessar, Koreen; Farré, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

2011-01-01

86

High Temperature Thermoelectric Device Concept Using Large Area PN Junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature thermoelectric device concept using large area nanostructured silicon p-type and n-type ( PN) junctions is presented. In contrast to conventional thermoelectric generators, where the n-type and p-type semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept in which a large area PN junction made from highly doped densified silicon nanoparticles is subject to a temperature gradient parallel to the PN interface. In the proposed device concept, the electrical contacts are made at the cold side eliminating the hot side substrate and difficulties that go along with high temperature electrical contacts. This concept allows temperature gradients greater than 300 K to be experimentally applied with hot side temperatures larger than 800 K. Electronic properties of the PN junctions and power output characterizations are presented. A fundamental working principle is discussed using a particle network model with temperature and electric fields as variables, and which considers electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity according to Fourier's law, as well as Peltier and Seebeck effects.

Chavez, R.; Angst, S.; Hall, J.; Stoetzel, J.; Kessler, V.; Bitzer, L.; Maculewicz, F.; Benson, N.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

2014-06-01

87

Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

Boz, Ismail, E-mail: ismailb@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Kaluza, Stefan [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Boroglu, Mehtap Safak [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Muhler, Martin [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

2012-05-15

88

Quality in High-Tech Product Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality management (QM) emerged in the 20th century as a method to reduce errors and uncertainty in industrial mass production. The focus was on reducing variation in\\u000a repetitive industrial processes and on fulfilling the requirements of rational market actors. At the innovative end of the\\u000a modern high-tech environment, the basic assumptions of repetition and rationality will frequently not hold true.

Antti Ainamo; Pekka Järvinen; Timo O. Korhonen; Paul Lillrank

89

High-boiling benzene radiolysis products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-boiling (HB) radiolysis products are defined as a mixture of compounds whose boiling point exceeds that of a substance with double the molecular weight of the original molecule. We used cp benzene further purified to remove trace impurities and thoroughly dehydrated. The irradiation was provided by a ⁶°Co \\/gamma\\/ emitter with a dose rate of 4 Gy\\/sec at room temperature.

Zatonskii

1988-01-01

90

Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

1999-01-01

91

Aboveground Net Primary Production and Leaf-Area Index in Early Postfire Vegetation in Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) and leaf-area index (LAI) of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) saplings and aboveground productivity of herbaceous vegetation components were determined 9 years after\\u000a the 1988 fires in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Measurements were made in four sites representing a wide range of early\\u000a postfire vegetation present in YNP, including high-density lodgepole

Rebecca A. Reed; Mary Ellen Finley; William H. Romme; Monica G. Turner

1999-01-01

92

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table...Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources As required...

2013-07-01

93

Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.  

PubMed

In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

2014-07-01

94

High Surface Area Molybdenum Nitride Support for Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Alternative supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells were synthesized and catalytic activity was explored using electrochemical analysis. High surface area, molybdenum nitride supports were synthesized by rapidly heating a gel of polyethyleneimine bound molybdenum in a tube furnace under a forming gas atmosphere. Subsequent disposition of platinum through an incipient wetness approach lead to dispersed crystallites of platinum on the conductive support. All the ceramic materials were characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM and electrochemical analysis. The supports without platinum are highly stable to acidic aqueous conditions and show no signs of oxygen reduction reactivity (ORR). However, once the 20 wt % platinum is added to the material, ORR activity comparable to XC72 based materials is observed.

Blackmore, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Elbaz, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brosha, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Mccleskey, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Burrell, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2011-01-01

95

High surface area tapes produced with functionalized graphene.  

PubMed

We describe a scalable method for producing continuous graphene networks by tape casting surfactant-stabilized aqueous suspensions of functionalized graphene sheets. Similar to all other highly connected graphene-containing networks, the degree of overlap between the sheets controls the tapes' electrical and mechanical properties. However, unlike other graphene-containing networks, the specific surface area of the cast tapes remains high (>400 m(2)·g(-1)). Exhibiting apparent densities between 0.15 and 0.51 g·cm(-3), with electrical conductivities up to 24 kS·m(-1) and tensile strengths over 10 MPa, these tapes exhibit the best combination of properties with respect to density heretofore observed for carbon-based papers, membranes, or films. PMID:21545115

Korkut, Sibel; Roy-Mayhew, Joseph D; Dabbs, Daniel M; Milius, David L; Aksay, Ilhan A

2011-06-28

96

Persistent organic pollutants in snow from European high mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cores were collected in the catchment area of five remote mountain lakes in Europe. They were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and organochlorine pesticides, namely DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH). PAH are found in higher amounts in the Tatra and Caledonian mountains, PCB are higher in the Alps and HCH are highest in the Alps and Pyrenees. The qualitative PAH distributions are dominated by low molecular weight compounds, phenanthrene being the most abundant PAH in all but in one site. These compounds also occur predominantly in the gas phase in the atmosphere. Their high abundance in the snowpack witness the occurrence of effective transfer mechanisms from gas to snow flakes. In Starolesnianske (Tatra mountains), a higher contribution of high molecular weight compounds is found. This site exhibits the highest snow PAH and suspended particulate levels. Transformation of the concentration values of these compounds into annual deposition rates and correction for catchment/lake area indicates that in Scandinavia and the Alps a large proportion of PAH incorporation is mediated by snowfallout whereas in the Tatra mountains snow deposition only accounts for a small fraction of the compounds stored in the lake sediments. Among organochlorine compounds, only PCB and HCH have been found above method detection limit in most of the samples. The PCB congener distributions changes significantly between sites, although a predominance of the less chlorinated congeners have generally been observed.

Carrera, Guillem; Fernández, Pilar; Vilanova, Rosa M.; Grimalt, Joan O.

97

Nitridation under ammonia of high surface area vanadium aerogels  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium pentoxide gels have been obtained from decavanadic acid prepared by ion exchange on a resin from ammonium metavanadate solution. The progressive removal of water by solvent exchange in supercritical conditions led to the formation of high surface area V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 1.6H{sub 2}O aerogels. Heat treatment under ammonia has been performed on these aerogels in the 450-900 deg. C temperature range. The oxide precursors and oxynitrides have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA, BET. Nitridation leads to divided oxynitride powders in which the fibrous structure of the aerogel is maintained. The use of both very low heating rates and high surface area aerogel precursors allows a higher rate and a lower threshold of nitridation than those reported in previous works. By adjusting the nitridation temperature, it has been possible to prepare oxynitrides with various nitrogen enrichment and vanadium valency states. Whatever the V(O,N) composition, the oxidation of the oxynitrides in air starts between 250 and 300 deg. C. This determines their potential use as chemical gas sensors at a maximum working temperature of 250 deg. C.

Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)]. E-mail: odile.merdrignac@univ-rennes1.fr; El Badraoui, Khadija [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); L'Haridon, Paul [Laboratoire Verres et Ceramiques, UMR CNRS 6512, Institut de Chimie de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

2005-01-15

98

Software products and services are high tech? New product development strategy for software products and services  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-tech products and services are characterized as having short life cycles and being state-of-the-art. The life cycles of software products and services are affected by the changes in the hardware and software industries; and the changes in the needs and requirements of software users in variety of industries. To survive in the marketplace, software products and services ought to be

Majid Aramand

2008-01-01

99

Large-area high-density helicon plasma sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-density (1012-1013 cm-3) helicon plasmas produced using two different but similar devices whose diameters are very large, 40 cm and 74 cm, respectively, have been characterized. A scaling of the particle production efficiency has been investigated in detail into a low aspect ratio (the ratio of the diameter to the axial length) region down to 0.075. It has been found that reducing this ratio manifests the standing wave-like patterns of the excited radio frequency (rf) fields. Spatial profiles of the electron density and the rf wave fields are measured, showing the effectiveness of the control of these profiles by changing the magnetic field configurations near the excitation antenna. Finally, high-beta plasmas with up to ? ~ 0.8, that exhibit diamagnetic character, where ? is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure, have been produced with low magnetic fields.

Shinohara, S.; Motomura, T.; Tanaka, K.; Tanikawa, T.; Shamrai, K. P.

2010-06-01

100

Analysis of leaf area index products from combination of MODIS Terra and Aqua data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype product suite, containing the Terra 8-day, Aqua 8-day, Terra–Aqua combined 8- and 4-day products, was generated as part of testing for the next version (Collection 5) of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) products. These products were analyzed for consistency between Terra and Aqua retrievals over the following data subsets in North America: single

W. Yang; N. V. Shabanov; D. Huang; W. Wanga; R. E. Dickinson; R. R. Nemani; Y. Knyazikhin; R. B. Myneni

2006-01-01

101

CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-08-01

102

Characteristics of the flux of isoprene and its oxidation products in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the mixing ratios and fluxes of isoprene and its oxidation products, methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) from a tall flux tower in metropolitan Houston, Texas, during summertime using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID instrument. We show that isoprene was affected dominantly by biogenic emission sources during daytime, but also that tail-pipe emission sources (alongside 2-pentenes) are contributing during the rush hours and at night. The observed daytime mixing ratios of isoprene were much lower than over forested areas due to a comparatively low density of isoprene emitting trees in the tower's footprint area. Daytime isoprene fluxes displayed the expected light and temperature driven emission characteristics, and a detailed isoprene emissions model explained average fluxes fairly well. Our investigation of isoprene's oxidation products MACR and MVK showed that both anthropogenic and isoprene oxidation sources exist for MACR, while MVK was strongly dominated by isoprene oxidation between its emission and sampling points due to presumably high local OH radical concentrations. While biogenic emission modeling appears to work well for this urban environment when supplied with accurate input data, emission inventories used for ozone modeling may need to consider tailpipe isoprene (and MACR) emissions to properly account for urban concentrations, particularly higher morning abundances.

Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W.; Boedeker, Ian

2011-11-01

103

A general relation between zero-bias resistance - area product and perimeter-to-area ratio of the diodes in variable-area diode test structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is an attempt towards presenting a general analytical relation between the inverse of zero-bias resistance - area product and the perimeter-to-area ratio of the diodes in variable-area diode array test structures currently used in HgCdTe technology. Contributions from (i) surface leakage currents due to band bending at the HgCdTe surface (i.e. the HgCdTe - passivant interface), (ii) surface generation currents in the depletion region in the immediate proximity of the HgCdTe - passivant interface, (iii) surface leakage currents due to Zener tunnelling, (iv) leakage currents due to an imperfect HgCdTe epilayer - substrate interface and (v) bulk currents have all been taken into consideration in arriving at the relationship between the inverse of zero-bias resistance - area 0268-1242/11/7/018/img1 product and the perimeter-to-area (p/A) ratio of the diodes. The derived relation predicts in general a nonlinear behaviour of the data. It is shown by the detailed discussions that the general relation can be of great practical help in identifying the various possible mechanisms contributing to the surface leakage currents. Use of constant perimeter and variable-area (CPVA) test structures along with the usual variable perimeter and area (VPA) test structures to interpret the linear data, and additional experiments to distinguish the surface Zener tunnelling and surface generation - recombination mechanisms have been proposed. The previously reported data on variable-area test structures have been shown to fit very well with the presented model.

Gopal, Vishnu

1996-07-01

104

Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment of management opportunities and potentially adverse changes on adjacent lands. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Svancara, L. K.; Scott, J. M.; Loveland, T. R.; Pidgorna, A. B.

2009-01-01

105

High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas  

SciTech Connect

High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

1995-01-01

106

9xx high-power broad-area laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication we report on the performance characteristics of Bookham"s latest generation of 915-990 nm broad area single emitter (BASE) laser diodes with around 90 ?m wide aperture. Representative high power devices in the wavelength range of 950-960 nm, mounted p-side down onto expansion matched assemblies using our highly reliable AuSn-solder technology, reveal a high slope efficiency of around 1.05 W/A during CW operation at 25°C heat sink temperature. Coupling efficiency into multi-mode fiber with 0.15 or 0.22 numerical aperture exceeds 93% mainly due to the low vertical divergence of the laser beam. In addition, low laser threshold and series resistance enable more than 62% maximum wall plug efficiency of the present generation of the laser diodes. Preliminary tests of new prototypes reveal already excellent performance characteristics of the next generation device with up to 19.9 W light output power in pulsed operation and 16 W for thermally limited CW operation.

Schmidt, Berthold E.; Sverdlov, Boris; Pawlik, Susanne; Lichtenstein, Norbert; Mueller, Juergen; Valk, Bernd; Baettig, Rainer K.; Mayer, Bernd; Harder, Christoph S.

2005-03-01

107

Two photon absorption in high power broad area laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in thermal management and improvements in fabrication and facet passivation enabled extracting unprecedented optical powers from laser diodes (LDs). However, even in the absence of thermal roll-over or catastrophic optical damage (COD), the maximum achievable power is limited by optical non-linear effects. Due to its non-linear nature, two-photon absorption (TPA) becomes one of the dominant factors that limit efficient extraction of laser power from LDs. In this paper, theoretical and experimental analysis of TPA in high-power broad area laser diodes (BALD) is presented. A phenomenological optical extraction model that incorporates TPA explains the reduction in optical extraction efficiency at high intensities in BALD bars with 100?m-wide emitters. The model includes two contributions associated with TPA: the straightforward absorption of laser photons and the subsequent single photon absorption by the holes and electrons generated by the TPA process. TPA is a fundamental limitation since it is inherent to the LD semiconductor material. Therefore scaling the LDs to high power requires designs that reduce the optical intensity by increasing the mode size.

Dogan, Mehmet; Michael, Christopher P.; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Lin; Jacob, Jonah H.

2014-03-01

108

High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst  

DOEpatents

A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21

109

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

Phillips, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brzezinski, M.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Marine Biotechnology Center

1998-12-31

110

High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with reduced electrode spacing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical applications of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) require high hydrogen production rates and a compact reactor. These goals can be achieved by reducing electrode spacing but high surface area anodes are needed. The brush anode MEC with electrode spacing of 2cm had a higher hydrogen production rate and energy efficiency than an MEC with a flat cathode and a 1-cm

Shaoan Cheng; Bruce E. Logan

2011-01-01

111

LightWeight and Large-Area Solar Cell Production Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production technologies for light-weight, large-area and flexible solar cells are reviewed. Roll-to-roll processes including an originally developed stepping-roll deposition process are used to fabricate large-area hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar cells in succession on plastic film substrates. A unique monolithic device structure for the insulating film substrates having through-hole contacts was developed and applied to simplify the production processes and to

Akihiro Takano; Tomoyoshi Kamoshita

2004-01-01

112

Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Claus, Robert; And Others

113

Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Claus, Robert; And Others

114

Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 37-86. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1999): Klei

Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

115

Sonochemical preparation of high surface area MgAl2O4 spinel.  

PubMed

High surface area MgAl(2)O(4) has been synthesised by a sonochemical method. Two kinds of precursors were used, alkoxides and nitrates/acetates and in both cases nanostructured MgAl(2)O(4) was obtained. The effect of the addition of a surfactant during the sonication, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, was also investigated. In the case of alkoxides precursors the as-made product is a mixture of hydroxides of aluminium and magnesium, while with nitrates/acetates a gel is obtained after sonication, containing the metal hydroxides and ammonium nitrate. Heating at 500 degrees C transforms the as-made products into MgAl(2)O(4) spinel phase. The surface area is up to 267 m(2)/g after treatment at 500 degrees C and 138 m(2)/g at 800 degrees C. PMID:18658004

Troia, A; Pavese, M; Geobaldo, F

2009-01-01

116

Screening of high temperature adhesives for large area bonding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature-resistant adhesive systems were screened for processability, mechanical and physical properties, operational capability at 589 K (600 F), and the ability to produce large area bonds of high quality in fabricating Space Shuttle components. The adhesives consisted primarily of polyimide systems, including FM34B-18, NR-150B2 (DuPont), PMR-15, LARC-13, LARC-160, Thermid 600, and AI-1130L (AMOCA). The processing studies included preparation of polyimide resins, fabrication of film adhesives, development of lay-up and cure procedures, fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels, and fabrication of mid-plane bonded panels in joints up to 30.5 cm (12 in.) wide. The screening program included tests for tack and drape properties, reticulation and filleting characteristics, ability to produce void-free or low porosity bonds in mid-plane bonded panels, out-time stability, lap shear strength, climbing drum peel strength, and glass transition temperature (Tg). This paper describes the processing methods developed and the test results.

Stenersen, A. A.; Wykes, D. H.

1980-01-01

117

Seasonal ice area and volume production of the Arctic Ocean: November 1996 through April 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) produces estimates of sea ice motion, deformation, and thickness of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover from time-sequential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by RADARSAT. Based on these products, we summarize the evolution of a region of the Arctic Ocean ice cover in terms of its area change, ice volume production, and multiyear

R. Kwok; G. F. Cunningham

2002-01-01

118

Durable Goods and ICT: The Drivers of Euro Area Productivity growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the effect of durable goods and ICT on Euro Area economic growth and productivity change; when expenditure on consumer durables is recorded as capital investment. The capitalization of consumer durables impacts both the levels and growth rates of the capital stock, productivity and GDP. Our growth accounting computations demonstrated that the capital

Jukka Jalava; Ilja Kristian Kavonius

2008-01-01

119

Microbial production of itaconic acid: developing a stable platform for high product concentrations.  

PubMed

Biotechnologically produced itaconic acid (IA) is a promising organic acid with a wide range of applications and the potential to open up new application fields in the area of polymer chemistry, pharmacy, and agriculture. In this study, a systematic process optimization was performed with an own isolated strain of Aspergillus terreus and transferred from a 250-mL to a 15-L scale. An IA concentration of 86.2 g/L was achieved within 7 days with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/(L h), a maximum productivity of 1.2 g/(L h), and a yield of 86 mol%. A cultivation of other well-known A. terreus strains with the developed process showed no significant differences. Based on this, a process is developed providing a high final IA concentration independent of the used strain combined with high reproducibility. PMID:22752264

Kuenz, Anja; Gallenmüller, Yvonne; Willke, Thomas; Vorlop, Klaus-Dieter

2012-12-01

120

Calibration of a conceptual hydrological model using EUMETSAT snow covered area product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow is one of the main water resources, therefore monitoring and estimating the snow water equivalent play important role in predicting discharges during melting seasons. Spatial ground-based observations of snow are often limited at the watershed-scale, therefore the snow modeling component of a hydrologic modeling system is often calibrated along the rainfall-runoff model using watershed discharge observations. The objective of this study is to test the potential of snow cover data from MSG satellite sensor. The product has been developed in the framework of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The product is generated by using data from Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument making observations from a geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). The methodology is based on an indirect comparison of snow water equivalent simulated by hydrological model and the MSG snow cover data (SCA). The analysis is performed in the upper Euphrates basin in Turkey. The Euphrates basin is largely fed from snow precipitation whereby nearly two-thirds occur in winter and may remain in the form of snow for half of the year. The results indicate the cloud clearance capability of MSG-SEVIRI snow product would make the product usable in hydrological modeling, especially for the areas where high cloud coverage may be seen during snow season. The calibration against SCA in addition to runoff improved the simulated runoff considerably. The calibration is performed for the water years 2009,2010 and 2011, the validation is performed for 2012 and 2013 water years. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency is used as the model efficiency. The runoff model efficiencies for the validation period are 0.68 for calibration runoff only and 0.74 for the calibration that utilized runoff and MSG SEVIRI SCA data. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the magnitude of the model efficiency is sensitive to the choice of the threshold of snow covered area used in estimating the snow underestimation errors, and the cloud cover threshold used in deciding if a MSG snow cover product can be used for model analysis.

Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Parajka, J.; Bloeschl, G.

2013-12-01

121

Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

1990-01-01

122

The Dimensions of Romanian Consumers’ Interest in Adopting High-Tech Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is based on a quantitative marketing research conducted in Romania in 2010 about the attitude of consumers from\\u000a Brasov city regarding the acquisition of high technology products for personal consumption. High-tech products industry is\\u000a in a continuous process of development and the pace of developing new products in this area is very rapid. But it raises the\\u000a issue

Lavinia Dovleac; Marius Balasescu; Simona Balasescu; Carmen Anton

123

Production of high fidelity lunar agglutinate simulant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As space faring nations consider manned and unmanned missions to the Moon, there is a growing need to develop high fidelity lunar regolith simulants that can accurately reproduce the properties and behavior of lunar regolith. Such simulants will be employed to verify the performance of equipment, mechanisms, structures and processes to be used on the lunar surface. One of the significant limitations of current terrestrial-based simulants, such as the popular mare simulant, JSC-1A, is the lack of agglutinates. This paper investigates the production of a lunar mare agglutinate simulant based on JSC-1A. A modified plasma processing technique was used to expose the JSC-1A regolith simulant to high temperatures and transform it to predominantly a glassy phase. Detailed characterization results are presented to confirm that the agglutinate simulant material produced during this investigation reasonably satisfies the primary requirements of an agglutinate simulant such as amorphous/crystalline content, particle size, morphology, vesicular structure, chemistry, and presence of nanophase elemental Fe.

Sen, S.; Butts, D.; Ray, C. S.; Thompson, G. B.; Morris, R. A.; O'Dell, J. S.

2011-06-01

124

Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production  

PubMed Central

Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented.

Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R.; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B.; Hiott, Lari M.; Chambers, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

125

[The productive district of textile asbestos in the Lower Iseo Lake area].  

PubMed

In the Bergamo area of Basso Sebino (lower Lake Iseo), for decades there has been a large concentration of small firms (mostly family-run), specialised in the production of rubber gaskets. Within this production field, some companies used to manufacture textile asbestos exclusively or as part of their business. The asbestos goods were therefore marketed as they were or subsequently cut and transformed into gaskets. Among the 5 companies involved, "Manifattura Colombo & C" was the first one that started this production in the district, and the one that engaged the greatest number of employees (considering both the Sarnico and Predore factories). In the Predore factory, operating from the fifties to 1979, the asbestos thread production was carried out exclusively and to the complete technological cycle (i.e. from crashing the raw asbestos that was brought in from Balangero). The whole process was performed in an extremely dusty environment (according to the witness of former workers), expecially during the first production steps. In the Sarnico factory which operated from 1920 to 1993, they produced textile asbestos items (laces, ropes, etc.), as well as rubber and metal gaskets. The latter were coupled with asbestos by means of metal-plastics co-moulding operations, in order to obtain gaskets highly resistant to exhaust vapours, gases, oils, solvents and so on. The environmental data available (referred to the 1980-1992 period), supply evidence of severe exposure in the first years of activity, whilst a sharp reduction in the asbestos-fiber concentration rate was achieved along the years, thanks mainly to the completion and improvement of exhaust systems installed on winding and braiding machines. Finally we shortly describe the work of the four other factories and in more detail that of the "Manifattura Sebina srl" is mentioned herein because, although this is a "typical" textile mill and exclusively manufacturing cotton products, a considerable number of cases of mesothelioma has been detected among its workforce. This has been attributed to the presence of asbestos insulated piping, to maintenance and replacement interventions on looms brake pads, and above all to the nearly 50 asbestos blankets that were employed in the weekly fire-fighting exercises, and usually leaned against the walls of departments, with no protection whatsoever. PMID:18050852

Caironi, Massimo; Polini, Sandro; Storto, Teodorico; Bertoli, Mariarosa

2007-01-01

126

High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have foreseen: Samples of rocks and soils to determine the Uranium concentration; Collection of water samples for the determination of Radon concentrations; Measurements of the Radon concentration in soil air; The Lecce's area is divided into 4 sub-areas, each of them with the same geological features: subsoil structure with high/normal/low fracturing, cracking, permeability, porosity, ecc... The potential Radon risk increases with the alteration's degree of subsoil structure. Results show that the 4 Lecce's subareas are characterized by average Radon value between 1.000-2.000 Bq/m3, and that in 2 of the 4 zones, characterized by high fracturing and big permeability, the range is high, from 400 Bq/m3 to over the 60.000 Bq/m3. The distribution of anomalies isn't homogeneous in the study zone, but as Hot-Spot and these are present in all sub-areas; the greatest number is detected in areas with high fracturing and cracking and in areas with lithological changes at different permeability. The others determinants factors in these areas are those anthropogenic; in some little zones belonging to subareas there are industrial and commercial areas built removing soil and damaging and altering the subsoil structure; in this way create zones of Radon accumulation in the soil air with fast ascent of the gas to the surface, and this produce high Radon concentration indoor. In the soil around these areas, few meters from buildings, and in the indoor air the Radon concentration is higher than 60.000 Bq/m3.

Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

2010-05-01

127

Transhumance livestock production in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: Nutritional inputs and productive outputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northern Areas of Pakistan form a mountainous, semi-arid region in which subsistence mixed farming is the predominant economic activity for the majority of the population, which numbers around 1 million. Following a period of relative isolation, construction of the Karakoram Highway and the ensuing development activity have been catalysts for rapid infrastructural and social change over the last two

A. J. Duncan; Abdur Rahman; D. W. Miller; P. Frutos; I. J. Gordon; Atiq-ur Rehman; Ataullah Baig; Farman Ali; I. A. Wright

2006-01-01

128

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future.

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

129

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

2006-04-01

130

Comment on the ?+-PRODUCTION at High Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the cross sections of the ?+-pentaquark production in different processes decrease with energy faster than the cross sections of production of the conventional three-quark hyperons. Therefore, the threshold region with the initial energy of a few GeV or less seems to be more favorable for the production and experimental study of ?+-pentaquark.

Titov, A. I.; Hosaka, A.; Daté, S.; Ohashi, Y.

2005-04-01

131

Detection and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish from Italian production areas.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine microorganism, recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness particularly in Asia, South America and United States. Outbreaks are rarely reported in Europe, but they can occur unexpectedly in relation, among other reasons, to the spread of highly virulent strains. It is known that the risk is proportional to exposure levels to pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (i.e. carrying the tdh and/or the trh genes) but currently there is a lack of occurrence data for pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish production areas of the Member States. In this study a total of 147 samples of bivalve molluscs, from harvesting areas of two Italian regions (Sardinia and Veneto) were analyzed for Escherichia coli and salmonella, according to Reg 2073/2005, and for detection and enumeration of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus strains using a new DNA colony hybridization method. Environmental parameters (water temperature and salinity) were also recorded. Results of E. coli were consistently in agreement with the legislation limits for the harvesting class of origin and Salmonella was detected only in one sample. The average contamination levels for total V. parahaemolyticus were 84 and 73CFU/g respectively for Sardinia and Veneto, with the highest value reaching 8.7×10(3)CFU/g. Nineteen samples (12.9%) resulted positive for the presence of potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, with levels ranging between 10 and 120CFU/g and most of the positive samples (n=17) showing values equal or below 20CFU/g. A significant correlation (r=0.41) was found between water temperature and V. parahaemolyticus levels, as well as with isolation frequency. The data provided in this study on contamination levels of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, seasonal distribution and correlation with water temperature, will help in defining appropriate monitoring programs and post-harvest policies for this hazard, improving the management of the harvesting areas and the safety of bivalve molluscs. PMID:24810197

Suffredini, Elisabetta; Mioni, Renzo; Mazzette, Rina; Bordin, Paola; Serratore, Patrizia; Fois, Federica; Piano, Annamaria; Cozzi, Loredana; Croci, Luciana

2014-08-01

132

Canopy-cover thematic-map generation for Military Map products using remote sensing data in inaccessible areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy cover is one of the most important elements in concealing military structures and enemy reconnaissance. In this study,\\u000a we propose an algorithm for automatic generation of density measure of percent canopy cover, which is an attribute of the\\u000a digital Military Map product, using high-resolution satellite images of inaccessible areas. The thematic mapping process of\\u000a canopy cover can be divided

Anjin Chang; Yangdam Eo; Sunwoong Kim; Yongmin Kim; Yongil Kim

2011-01-01

133

The significance of fluvial erosion, channel storage and gravitational processes in sediment production in a small mountainous catchment area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an area with highly erodible Pleistocene loose sediments, investigations on the significance of different sediment production\\u000a processes were carried out. Data obtained during storm events show that channel storage and flushing dominate the sediment\\u000a loads of the 10.1 ha research basin. Only about 20% of sediments transported out of the basin are explicable by fluvial erosion\\u000a on bare erosional

Karl-Friedrich Wetzel

1994-01-01

134

Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (P<0.05) with livestock species and nature of causative agent. Out of the 36 diseases mentioned by farmers, 50%, 22.2%, 19.4%, 5.5% and 2.8% were diseases of cattle, sheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

2013-05-01

135

Photochemical production of atmospheric carbonyls in a rural area in southern china.  

PubMed

For the first time, ambient carbonyls were measured in a rural area in southern China from August 2012 to February 2013 to investigate their distribution characteristics and sources. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were the three most abundant carbonyls, which accounted for 83-95 % of total seven carbonyls identified. The O3 formation potential of carbonyls in summer (59.55 ?g/m(3)) was approximately ten times greater than that (6.37 ?g/m(3)) in winter, and calculated photolysis rates were significantly faster in summer than those in winter, suggesting intensive photochemical activities in summer. Seasonal and diurnal variations of carbonyls showed that (1) the concentration of total carbonyls in summer (12.62 ± 10.83 ?g/m(3)) was approximately five times greater than that in winter (2.33 ± 0.90 ?g/m(3)), and a similar trend applied to the three abundant carbonyls; (2) the average summer to winter (S/W) ratio of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was 10-13, and the S/W ratio of acetone was ~2.59; and (3) the highest concentrations of the three carbonyls and total carbonyls occurred at 14:00-16:00 with high temperature and intensive sunlight, especially in summer. These variations provided direct evidence for significant photochemical production of ambient carbonyls. Average C1/C2 ratios (3.07 ± 1.62) in summer were much greater than those (1.28 ± 0.25) in winter, and average C2/C3 ratios (35.09 ± 58.67) in summer were significantly greater than those (4.75 ± 2.12) in winter, both cases indirectly implying positive photochemical productions in summer. Especially, strong correlations (R (2) = 0.63-0.98) of temperature and sunlight intensity with the three abundant carbonyls and total carbonyls were observed, indicating a similar causal source such as significant photochemical production. PMID:24615341

Guo, Songjun; He, Xiaolang; Chen, Mei; Tan, Jihua; Wang, Yinghui

2014-05-01

136

What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?  

SciTech Connect

The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

Weiler, C.S. [comp.

1991-06-25

137

What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea  

SciTech Connect

The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

Weiler, C.S. (comp.)

1991-06-25

138

Negative ion production in cesium seeded high electron temperature plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In experiments on uniformity improvement in a large negative ion source, steep gradients have been observed in the profiles of electron temperature and H{sup -} ion beam intensity. It has been observed that the gradient in the H{sup -} ion beam intensity is altered by seeding cesium, though the electron temperature distribution is not affected by Cs. Thus in the Cs seeded condition, the H{sup -} ion beam intensity is enhanced in local area illuminated by high electron temperature plasmas. A brief analysis suggests possible advantages of high electron temperature plasmas for the negative ion surface production, by enhancement of dissociation to yield proton or atoms as parent particles of the negative ions.

Inoue, T.; Tobari, H.; Takado, N.; Hanada, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Hatayama, A.; Wada, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Doshisha University, Kyotanabe 610-0394 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

2008-02-15

139

Production of high power femtosecond terahertz radiation  

SciTech Connect

The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is attracting interest for a broad range of applications ranging from diagnosing electron beams to biological imaging. Most sources of short pulse THz radiation utilize excitation of biased semiconductors or electro-optic crystals by high peak power lasers. For example, this was done by using an un-doped InAs wafer irradiated by a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Microwatt levels of THz radiation were detected when excited with FEL pulses at 1.06 mm wavelength and 10W average power. Recently substantially higher powers of femtosecond THz pulses produced by synchrotron emission were extracted from the electron beamline. Calculations and measurements confirm the production of coherent broadband THz radiation from relativistic electrons with an average power of nearly 20W, a world record in this wavelength range by a factor of 10,000. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. Potential applications of this exciting new source include driving new non-linear phenomena, performing pump-probe studies of dynamical properties of novel materials, and studying molecular vibrations and rotations, low frequency protein motions, phonons, superconductor band gaps, electronic scattering, collective electronic excitations (e.g., charge density waves), and spintronics.

Neil, George R.; Carr, G.L.; Gubeli III, Joseph F.; Jordan, K.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Shinn, Michelle; Tani, Masahiko; Williams, G.P.; Zhang, X.-C.

2003-07-11

140

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas...Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas...1 mSv) per hour. (f) Control of entrance or access to rooms or other areas...

2011-01-01

141

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas...Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas...1 mSv) per hour. (f) Control of entrance or access to rooms or other areas...

2013-01-01

142

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas...Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas...1 mSv) per hour. (f) Control of entrance or access to rooms or other areas...

2014-01-01

143

Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

2010-12-01

144

Assessment of the Broadleaf Crops Leaf Area Index Product from the Terra MODIS Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first significant processing of Terra MODIS data, called Collection 3, covered the period from November 2000 to December 2002. The Collection 3 leaf area index (LAI) and fraction vegetation absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) products for broadleaf crops exhibited three anomalies (a) high LAI values during the peak growing season, (b) differences in LAI seasonality between the radiative transfer-based main algorithm and the vegetation index based back-up algorithm, and (c) too few retrievals from the main algorithm during the summer period when the crops are at full flush. The cause of these anomalies is a mismatch between reflectances modeled by the algorithm and MODIS measurements. Therefore, the Look-Up-Tables accompanying the algorithm were revised and implemented in Collection 4 processing. The main algorithm with the revised Look-Up-Tables generated retrievals for over 80% of the pixels with valid data. Retrievals from the back-up algorithm, although few, should be used with caution as they are generated from surface reflectances with high uncertainties.

Tan, Bin; Hu, Jiannan; Huang, Dong; Yang, Wenze; Zhang, Ping; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

2005-01-01

145

47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication...54.101 Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support....

2009-10-01

146

47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. 54.101 Section 54.101 Telecommunication...54.101 Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services designated for support....

2010-10-01

147

Uncertainties of global moderate resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) products derived from remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) products are derived from different satellite remote sensing data, for example the MODIS, CYCLOPES and GLOBCARBON projects. For an optimal use of these products, knowledge about the data consistency based on product intercomparison is necessary. The objective of this study is to quantitatively compare the global leaf area index (LAI) products derived from the TERRA and AQUA MODIS (2000-2007) and SPOT/VEGETATION (1999-2007), and GLOBCARBON projects. A global LAI field measurement database was created from literature review and major validation campaigns. Remote sensing LAI products agree very well with field data for grasses and cereal crops, shrubs and savannas. The Collection 5 MODIS LAI has improved over the earlier Collection 4 products, especially for needleleaf forest. While more field data are necessary, particularly for broadleaf crops and broadleaf forests, our study finds no significant discrepancies between Collection 5 MODIS and CYCLOPES LAI products for grasses and cereal crops, shrubs, savannas, and needleleaf forests. The CYCLOPES and the TERRA+AQUA main algorithm MODIS LAI products display the best overall fit with ground measurements (RMSE=1.23 and 1.25, respectively) in spite of sparse field points and scale differences. A triple collocation error model was introduced to compare the monthly 0.05° LAI products produced by MODIS, CYCLOPES and GLOBCARBON. The resultant uncertainty information for each product gives a good indication of using these products in global land surface, hydrological and climatic models. The uncertainty information can be used directly as quantitative evaluation of the LAI products as well as input to feed global models. Intercomparison of mean (+ 1 standard deviation) MODIS and CYCLOPES LAI with common field observations for each biome type. The number of LAI observations for each biome is also shown.

Fang, H.; Liang, S.; Wei, S.

2010-12-01

148

Radiation simulations for a pre-separator area for rare isotope production via projectile fragmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To support pre-conceptual research and development for rare isotope beam production via projectile fragmentation at the Rare-Isotope Accelerator facility or similar next-generation exotic beam facilities, the interactions between primary beams and beryllium and liquid-lithium production targets in the fragment pre- separator area were simulated using the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code PHITS. The purpose of this simulation is to determine the

I. Baek; R. M. Ronningen; M. Hausmann; D. Lawton; A. F. Zeller; G. Bollen

2007-01-01

149

Sustaining Fracture Area and Conductivity of Gas shale Reservoirs for Enhancing Long-term Production and Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas from organic rich shale formations has become an increasingly important energy resource worldwide over the past decade. Extensive hydraulic fracture networks with massive contact surface areas are frequently required to achieve satisfactory economic production in these highly heterogeneous reservoirs, with permeability in the nano-Darcy range. Current operational experience in gas shale plays indicates that the loss of productive fracture area and loss of fracture conductivity, both immediate and over time, are the major factors leading to reduced flow rates, marginal production, and poor gas recovery. This theoretical and experimental project, funded by a RPSEA (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) program, is aimed at understanding the multiple causes of loss of fracture surface area and fracture conductivity. The main objectives of the project are: understand the multiple causes of loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define solutions to mitigate the resulting loss of production. Define the types of fracture networks that are more prone to loosing fracture area and define critical parameters, for each reservoir type, (including proppant concentration, fluid interaction, relative shear displacement and others) to preserve fracture conductivity, and define an integrated methodology for evaluating reservoir properties that result in proneness to loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define adequate solutions for the various reservoir types Current results include the evaluation of reservoir geology, mineralogy, reservoir properties, mechanical properties, including surface hardness, and petrologic analysis on cores representative of Barnett, Haynesville and Marcellus reservoir shales. A comparison of these properties provides an initial reference frame for identifying differences in behavior between the various reservoirs, and for anticipating the potential for embedment and loss of fracture conductivity. Actual measurements of fracture conductivity as a function of stress will be measured and presented in the future.

Suarez-Rivera, R.; Marino, S.; Ghassemi, A.

2010-12-01

150

Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to ?-, ?- and ?-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied.

T. Evseeva; T. Majstrenko; S. Geras'kin; J. E. Brown; E. Belykh

2009-01-01

151

High photosynthetic productivity of green microalga Chlorella sorokiniana.  

PubMed

The batch culture of a newly isolated strain of a green microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana, was carried out using a conical helical tubular photobioreactor. The isolate was capable of good growth at 40 degrees C under an airstream enriched with 10% CO2. The maximum photosynthetic productivity was 34.4 g of dry biomass/(m2 of installation area x d) (12-h light/12-h dark cycle) when the cells were illuminated with an average photosynthetic photon flux density (photosynthetically active radiation ([PAR] 400-700 nm) simulating the outdoors in central Japan (0.980 mmol photons/[m2 x s]). This corresponded to a photosynthetic efficiency of 8.67% (PAR), which was defined as the percentage of the light energy recovered as biomass (394 kJ/[reactor x d]) to the total light energy received (4545 kJ/[reactor x d]). A similarly high photosynthetic efficiency (8.12% [PAR]) was also attained in the combined presence of 10% CO2, 100 ppm of NO, and 25 ppm of SO2. Moreover, good photosynthetic productivity was also obtained under high temperature and high light intensity conditions (maximum temperature, 46.5 degrees C; 1.737 mmol photons/[m2 x s]), when simulating the strong irradiance of the midday summer sun. This strain thus appears well suited for practical application for converting CO2 present in the stack gases emitted by thermal power plants and should be feasible even during the hot summer weather. PMID:10982230

Morita, M; Watanabe, Y; Saiki, H

2000-06-01

152

High-productivity continuous biofilm reactor for butanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn steep liquor (CSL), a byproduct of the corn wet-milling process, was used in an immobilized cell continuous biofilm reactor\\u000a to replace the expensive P2 medium ingredients. The use of CSL resulted in the production of 6.29 g\\/L of total acetone-butanol-ethanol\\u000a (ABE) as compared with 6.86 g\\/L in a control experiment. These studies were performed at a dilution rate of

Nasib Qureshi; Patrick Karcher; Michael Cotta; Hans P. Blaschek

2004-01-01

153

High-speed floating-point divider with reduced area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new implementation of a floating-point divider unit with a competitive performance and reduced area based on proposed modifications to the recursive equations of Goldschmidt algorithm. The Goldschmidt algorithm takes advantage of parallelism in the Newton-Raphson method with the same quadratic convergence. However, recursive equations in the Goldschmidt algorithm consist of a series of multiplications with full-precision operands, and it suffers from large area consumption. In this paper, the recursive equations in the algorithm are modified to replace full-precision multipliers with smaller multipliers and squarers. Implementations of floating-point reciprocal and divider using the modification are presented. Synthesis result shows around 20% to 40% area reduction when it is compared to the implementation based on the conventional Goldschmidt algorithm.

Han, Kyung-Nam; Tenca, Alexandre F.; Tran, David

2009-08-01

154

Milk production and calf rearing practices in the smallholder areas in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.  

PubMed

Farmer perceptions on milk production and calf rearing practices on communal rangelands in the smallholder areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were evaluated on a total of 218 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with key informants and personal observations. Nearly 70% of the households in the small-scale areas milked twice a day compared to 60% in the communal areas. About 62% of the interviewees weaned calves between 6 and 12 months of age. Milk yield/cow/day (7.5 +/- 0.5 litres), fresh milk consumption/household/day (3.2 +/- 0.5 litres) and sales/household/day (3.1 +/- 1.1 litres) were highest in the sour-veld, small-scale farms (P < 0.05). Sour milk consumption/household/day (2.6 +/- 0.2 litres) and sales/household/day (0.8 +/- 0.2 litres) were significantly high in communal farms with a sour-veld. It was concluded that, calf rearing practices were poor and milk yield, consumption and sales were generally low and varied with production system and rangeland type. Further research is required to improve calf management practices, cow nutrition, milk yield and quality and how milk production can be used as a toll for rural development in the smallholder areas of South Africa. PMID:19347665

Mapekula, M; Chimonyo, M; Mapiye, C; Dzama, K

2009-10-01

155

Mechanically robust 3D graphene macroassembly with high surface area.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of a three-dimensional (3D) macroassembly of graphene sheets with electrical conductivity (?10(2) S m(-1)) and Young's modulus (?50 MPa) orders of magnitude higher than those previously reported, super-compressive deformation behavior (?60% failure strain), and surface areas (>1300 m(2) g(-1)) approaching theoretically maximum values. PMID:22797515

Worsley, Marcus A; Kucheyev, Sergei O; Mason, Harris E; Merrill, Matthew D; Mayer, Brian P; Lewicki, James; Valdez, Carlos A; Suss, Matthew E; Stadermann, Michael; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Satcher, Joe H; Biener, Juergen; Baumann, Theodore F

2012-08-28

156

Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

Monk, David H.

2007-01-01

157

Major constraints for cattle productivity and managerial efficiency in communal areas of Omaheke Region, Namibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to analyse the major constraints for production and managerial practices among the four communal areas in the Omaheke Region. This study applied rapid rural appraisal techniques, including a questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 570 farmers who were registered as cattle producers with the Meat Board of Namibia at their villages. The data collection

G. N. Hangara; M. Y. Teweldemedhin; I. B. Groenewald

2011-01-01

158

Mode Identification of Electromagnetic Waves for Large-Area Planar RF Plasma Productions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine electromagnetic (EM) eigenmodes for radio-frequency (RF) plasma productions between a pair of large-area electrodes, normal EM modes propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed. Exact solutions are obtained by solving Maxwell's equations. It is concluded that plasmas higher than a critical value of electron plasma frequency

Shigehiko Nonaka

1992-01-01

159

Correlation of patient skin doses in cardiac interventional radiology with dose-area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of X-rays in cardiac interventional radiology has the potential to induce deterministic radiation effects on the patient's skin. Guidelines published by official organizations encourage the recording of information to evaluate this risk, and the use of reference values in terms of the dose-area product (DAP). Skin dose measurements were made with thermo- luminescent dosemeters placed at eight different

S VAN DE PUTTE; F VERHAEGEN; Y TAEYMANS; H THIERENS

160

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high- temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

161

Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

2001-01-01

162

Perspectives on High-tech Product Design for Better Supporting Product-service Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, product-service systems are seen as enhanced and optimal integrated solutions of products and services with the purpose of improving business sustainability, customer satisfaction, environmental impact and production-consumption balance. The ability to integrate various value added vectors characterizing the concept of product-service system within high-tech product design is still a complex task, requiring systematic and comprehensive innovation. This means high-tech

Stelian Brad

2009-01-01

163

Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

164

Effective area of a highly efficient random packing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective area of a metal Raschig Super-Ring with a nominal diameter of 20–70mm has been investigated. The liquid superficial velocity varies between 5 and 200m3\\/(m2h) but not higher than the one at the loading point. The initial gas velocity was kept constant, equal to 4000kg\\/(m2h). The absorption of CO2 in 1N NaOH solution was used as a model system.

Nikolai Kolev; Svetoslav Nakov; Ljutzkan Ljutzkanov; Dimitar Kolev

2006-01-01

165

EDGE PASSIVATION FOR SMAILL-AREA, HIGH EFFICIENCY SOLAR CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-area, laboratory solar cells usually suffer significant efficiency loss after being detached from their host wafer due to edge recombination at the cut-face. This problem has afflicted the n-type Interdigitated Backside Buried Contact (IBBC) solar cells developed at UNSW, limiting the fill factor to 0.77 and the efficiency to 19.2%. In this work, the edge recombination is reduced by introducing

Jiun-Hua Guo; Jeffrey E. Cotter; Keith R. McIntosh; Kate Fisher; Florence W. Chen; Anahita Karpour

2007-01-01

166

High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

Hays, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

167

Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We developed,interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas (excluding Antarctica) at a spatial resolution of 30 arc s (often referred to as 1-km spatial resolution). The climate elements considered were monthly precipitation and mean, minimum, and maximum temperature. Input data were gathered from a variety of sources and, where possible, were restricted to records from the 1950–2000 period. We

Robert J. Hijmans; Susan E. Cameron; Juan L. Parra; Peter G. Jones; Andy Jarvis

2005-01-01

168

High-efficiency, large-area CdTe panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This technical progress report on large-area CdTe solar panels cover work accomplished from June 1987 to May 1988. The highest-efficiency devices produced during this period measured 10.6 percent efficient on a 0.302-cm(2) cell. On 11-7/8 in. by 12 in. panels, the highest output obtained was 5.3 W over 847 cm(2), or 7.0 percent active-area efficiency. The aperture-area efficiency is presently about 12 percent lower, or 6.3 percent efficiency, because of interconnection losses. A 4-ft(2) panel was also produced. Resistivities of less than 100 ohm-cm have been observed consistently in phosphorus- or copper-doped CdTe. Surface analysis is presented for various CdTe treatments. Devices were characterized and analyzed using electron-beam-induced current, capacitance, spectral response, and I-V curves at various temperatures. A model for junction transport is presented. An encapsulation system is described, and lifetime test results are presented.

Albright, S. P.; Singh, V. P.; Ackerman, B.

1989-04-01

169

Cooperation Know-How in High-Tech Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The international cooperation of the German aerospace industry in the field of high-technology products is reviewed. The rationale for cooperation is explained. The technology targets for production, design, development, and basic research within Europe, ...

H. Prem

1987-01-01

170

Device Engineering of Large Area, High Performance Bi-Alkali Photocathodes for Fast-Timing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photo-cathodes are devices that convert a photon into free electrons, used in vacuum tubes for detecting photons. With its extremely low dark current and ultra-fast time response, alkali photo-cathodes have been widely used in high energy physics and astrophysics. However, until recently, fundamental understanding of the physics behind the variation of the photo-cathode performance was still limited, which prevents reliable and reproducible production of high performance photo-cathodes. This talk will discuss the development of large area bi-alkali photo-cathode for pico-second detector project. With thorough and careful investigation of several mature growth recipes, critical parameters which may affect the cathode performance were identified and subsequently studied. Optical and electrical measurements clearly reveal the affection of Sb thickness to the overall photo-cathode performance. Based on these studies, large area photo-cathode with high uniformity was achieved. The study also makes it possible for high performance photo-detector development.

Xie, Junqi; Demarteau, Marcel; Frisch, Henry; May, Edward; Paramonov, Alexander; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean

2013-04-01

171

High surface area stainless steel brushes as cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells.  

PubMed

Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are an efficient technology for generating hydrogen gas from organic matter, but alternatives to precious metals are needed for cathode catalysts. We show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates and efficiencies similar to those achieved with platinum-catalyzed carbon cloth cathodes in single-chamber MECs. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2/m3, hydrogen was produced at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.1 m3-H2/m3-d (current density of 188 +/- 10 A/m3) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V. The energy efficiency relative to the electrical energy input was 221 +/- 8%, and the overall energy efficiency was 78 +/- 5% based on both electrical energy and substrate utilization. These values compare well to previous results obtained using platinum on flat carbon cathodes in a similar system. Reducing the cathode surface area by 75% decreased performance from 91 +/- 3 A/m3 to 78 +/- 4 A/m3. A brush cathode with graphite instead of stainless steel and a specific surface area of 4600 m2/m3 generated substantially less current (1.7 +/- 0.0 A/m3), and a flat stainless steel cathode (25 m2/m3) produced 64 +/- 1 A/m3, demonstrating that both the stainless steel and the large surface area contributed to high current densities. Linear sweep voltammetry showed that the stainless steel brush cathodes both reduced the overpotential needed for hydrogen evolution and exhibited a decrease in overpotential over time as a result of activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that hydrogen production can be achieved at rates comparable to those with precious metal catalysts in MECs without the need for expensive cathodes. PMID:19368232

Call, Douglas F; Merrill, Matthew D; Logan, Bruce E

2009-03-15

172

Production of highly charged ions for ion–surface interaction studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give an overview of the production of highly charged ions in the room-temperature Dresden EBIT and its successors, the Dresden EBIS and Dresden EBIS-A, and their application in different areas. Due to their compact design they are favored for the study and use of the interaction of ions with surfaces. In particular, interaction processes with highly charged ions are

G. Zschornack; F. Großmann; R. Heller; U. Kentsch; M. Kreller; S. Landgraf; V. P. Ovsyannikov; M. Schmidt; F. Ullmann

2007-01-01

173

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

174

Self-assembly of boehmite nanopetals to form 3D high surface area nanoarchitectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flower-like boehmite nanostructure was prepared through a template-free chemical route by the self-assembly process of nanosize petals 800-1000 nm long, 200-250 nm wide, 20-50 nm thick and having an average crystallite size of about 2.21 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DTA/TGA analyses and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET-N2) analyses were used in order to characterize the product obtained. XRD results exhibited that the obtained nanostructures composed of pure orthorhombic AlOOH phase. The effects of Cl- ions and TEA on the growth of boehmite three-dimensional nanoarchitectures in the presence of NO3- ions were investigated. BET analyses of as-prepared material demonstrate that this nanostructure material has a high specific surface area, as high as 123 m2 g-1.

Zanganeh, Saeid; Kajbafvala, Amir; Zanganeh, Navid; Mohajerani, Matin Sadat; Lak, Aidin; Bayati, M. R.; Zargar, H. R.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

2010-04-01

175

High surface area tetragonal zirconia and processes for synthesizing same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A zirconia-containing composition and processes for synthesizing same. The composition comprises least about 99.9 percent tetragonal phase zirconia, based on the total crystalline zirconia in the zirconia-containing composition as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The composition also has a substantially spherical morphology and comprises less than 100 wppm chlorine, based on the total weight of the zirconia-containing composition. The zirconia-containing composition has an average surface area of at least 80 m.sup.2/g and an average particle size of less than about 10 microns.

2010-04-27

176

High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices  

SciTech Connect

In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

1999-11-01

177

High surface area sol–gel alumina–titania nanocatalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alumina–titania mixed oxide nanocatalysts with molar ratios = 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2, 1:5 have been synthesized by adopting a hybrid\\u000a sol–gel route using boehmite sol as the precursor for alumina and titanium isopropoxide as the precursor for titania. The\\u000a thermal properties, XRD phase analysis, specific surface area, adsorption isotherms and pore size details along with temperature\\u000a programmed desorption of ammonia are presented. A

P. Padmaja; K. G. K. Warrier; M. Padmanabhan; W. Wunderlich

2009-01-01

178

High surface area, low-weight composite nickel fiber electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy density and power density of lightweight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures have been intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages have been demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ˜28--32 ?m diameter. Work in our laboratory has investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 ?m diameter (available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures will be presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH) 2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties will be discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce T.

179

High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

2007-01-01

180

Storage Area Networks and the High Performance Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPS...

H. Hulen O. Graf K. Fitzgerald R. W. Watson

2002-01-01

181

High energy photons production in nuclear reactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hard photon production, in nucleus-nucleus collisions, were studied at beam energies between 10 and 125 MeV. The main characteristics of the photon emission are deduced. They suggest that the neutron-proton collisions in the early stage of the reaction ar...

H. Nifenecker J. A. Pinston

1990-01-01

182

Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

2012-05-01

183

Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter  

SciTech Connect

Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi [SEN Corporation, 1501, Imazaike, Saijo, Ehime, 799-1362 (Japan)

2011-01-07

184

Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis  

DOEpatents

Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

185

Improved chronic neural stimulation using high surface area platinum electrodes.  

PubMed

We report a novel nano-cluster platinum (NCPt) film that exhibits enhanced performance as an electrode material for neural stimulation applications. Nano-cluster films were deposited using a custom physical vapor deposition process and patterned on a flexible polyimide microelectrode array using semiconductor processing technology. Electrode performance was characterized in vitro using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared with sputtered thinfilm platinum (TFPt) electrodes. We characterized electrode impedance, charge storage capacity, voltage transient properties, and relative surface area enhancement in vitro. Preliminary lifetime testing of the electrode reveals that the NCPt electrodes degrade more slowly than TFPt electrodes. The combination of material biocompatibility, electrochemical performance, and preliminary lifetime results point to a promising new electrode material for neural interface devices. PMID:24109995

Shah, Kedar G; Tolosa, Vanessa M; Tooker, Angela C; Felix, Sarah H; Pannu, Satinderpall S

2013-01-01

186

Lithological influences on occurrence of high-fluoride groundwater in Nagar Parkar area, Thar Desert, Pakistan.  

PubMed

Factors regulating the occurrence of high fluoride (F(-)) concentrations in groundwater near Nagar Parkar Town, SE corner of Pakistan have been investigated considering lithological influences. F(-) ion concentrations in groundwater range up to 7.85 with mean value of 3.33 mg L(-1). Plots of major elements and their normative mineral composition reflect granitic composition of the rocks in the study area. Modal mineralogical analysis show high perthite, plagioclase feldspars and quartz, while micas, amphiboles and pyroxenes occur in minor quantities. Water-rock interactions, based on dissolved ions of F(-), SiO(2), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Li(+) and Sr(2+) suggest that fluoriferous groundwater originates from granitic rocks, typically from albite, biotite, hornblende and pyroxene and its alteration products such as kaolin and soil. The Log TDS, Na/Na+Ca ratio, Mg/Ca+Mg and Cl/Sigma anions are significant to review the impact of weathering processes which promote the availability of F(-) ions in the groundwater of study area. Principal component analysis (PCA) also renders close association among F(-) ions and other elements in the rocks and groundwater. Studies on F(-) estimation in the granite rock, china clay, soil and sand samples also indicate the presence of high F(-) concentration in these materials and average values have been found to be 1939, 710, 254 and 16 mg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:20149412

Naseem, Shahid; Rafique, Tahir; Bashir, Erum; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Laghari, Amanullah; Usmani, Tanzil Haider

2010-03-01

187

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National...Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium...

2013-07-01

188

High efficiency thin film silicon hybrid solar cell module on 1 m\\/sup 2\\/-class large area substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To realize both high performance and low cost, we have developed thin-film a-Si\\/poly-Si (\\/spl mu\\/c-Si) HYBRID solar cell on 1 m\\/sup 2\\/-class large area substrates. In mass production scale, the deposition rate of poly-Si has been increased up to 11 A\\/sec. An averaged initial efficiency of around 11% has been obtained for the large-sized module by using the high throughput

Masashi Yoshimi; Toshiaki Sasaki; Toru Sawada; Takashi Suezaki; Tomomi Meguro; Takahiro Matsuda; Koji Santo; Kazuya Wadano; Mitsuru Ichikawa; Akihiko Nakajima; Kenji Yamamoto

2003-01-01

189

Northern California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Northern California High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Northern California HIDTA region has intensified somewhat over the past year, resulting in several areas of growing ...

2011-01-01

190

High-efficiency large-area CdTe panels  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this three year effort has been to develop an improved materials technology and fabrication process for limited volume production of 1 ft{sup 2} and 4 ft{sup 2} CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. The module stability objective by the end of this three year subcontract was to develop techniques to provide ten year life exploration with no greater than 10% degradation. In order to achieve these efficiency and stability objectives, the research program has been separated into tasks including: (1) analysis and characterization of CdS/CdTe Devices; (2) performance optimization on small cells; (3) encapsulation and stability testing; and (4) module efficiency optimization. 27 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (USA))

1990-11-01

191

Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.  

PubMed

Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

2013-12-01

192

Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in a high lightning intensity area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive lightning strikes and high rainfall were assumed to increase atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in the southern and eastern coastal regions of Florida. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of lightning strikes on deposition of NO3-N. Bulk precipitation was collected and analyzed for NO3 ?N from September 1994 to August 1995. The lightning strikes significantly

Yuncong Li; Ashok Alva; David Calvert; Doug Banks

2002-01-01

193

High-Resolution, Large-Area, Nano Imprint Lithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains results from four different basic research projects under the Phase I of US-Korea NBIT Program (2007-2010). It is the 2nd year results covering research results from 2008-2009. It begins with the fourth report, 'High-resolution, Lar...

K. Kim, M. Jo S. Park, Y. Lee

2009-01-01

194

Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established restricting the Amazon and the Pantanal basin to sugarcane expansion. These eco-regions were, therefore, not considered by ZAECANA, which defined pasture lands as preferential for sugarcane crop expansion, since their majority is considered as degraded lands. ZAECANA results show that approximately 64 million ha, currently under pasture and agriculture, are suitable for sugarcane cropping in Brazil, located mainly at the Midwest and Southeast regions (35% of the national territory).Our results indicate that, if the ZAECANA instrument is implemented to drive investments for sugarcane expansion in Brazil, the projected demands for bioethanol could be met without significant impacts to food production, and environmental sustainability could be attained by the adoption of good crop, soil and water management practices.

Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

2012-12-01

195

GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (~ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and ? beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on the cosmic-ray background expected in the orbit. All subsystems of GLAST-LAT are scheduled to be completed and come to SLAC in 2005 for integration. The integrated instrument will go through a set of tests before being integrated onto the spacecraft. The spacecraft will be put into a Low Earth Orbit (altitude ~ 450-550km) in the fall of 2006 and the LAT will begin collecting data after the commissiong phase. The astronomical gamma-ray data collected in the observation will be processed by the LAT team and archived for public use GLAST Science Support Center at Goddard Space Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. For the GLAST-LAT collaboration.

Kamae, Tuneyoshi

2003-07-01

196

Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the Fort Worth Basin. Oil and gas experts have suggested that it may be the largest onshore natural gas field in the US, containing not only natural gas but also condensate and light oil. Gas production wells in the Barnett Shale area number in the thousands and are spread over a large areas of North Texas. Emissions can occur during various stages in the life of any single well and along various points of the production stream from extraction of raw gas at the well to distribution of commercial grade natural gas at central gathering and processing plants. In the first phase of this study we characterized the emissions from major gas production facilities in the area. An initial survey was performed using a mobile sampling vehicle to identify facilities with measurable emissions. Source-oriented volatile organic compounds (VOC) samples were collected at several facilities with confirmed emissions measured with our continuous survey monitors. In the second phase we conducted saturation monitoring (multiple fixed-ambient sampling locations using passive sampling systems) downwind of gas production areas. One location was near a well with emissions from condensate tanks that were well characterized during Phase 1. A single private residence was located a short distance downwind of this well and was away from other emission sources that might interfere with the measured gradient of emissions from the well. The measurement at this site serves as a case study of the pollutant gradient from a well characterized emission source at various distances downwind of the source relative to the upwind pollutant concentrations. The second facility was a gas compressor station located near a small community. The spatial variations in pollutant concentrations were determined at various distances and directions from the source, sites adjacent to nearby roadways and a background site located upwind of the community. The measured volatile organic compounds were apportioned to sources using the Chemical Mass Balance receptor model. The study results are placed in context by comparing the measured pollutant concentrations to comparable data from elsewhere is the Barnett Shale area and from urban areas of the Dallas-Fort Worth.

Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Campbell, D.; Samburova, V.; Hendler, E.; Beskid, C. S.

2010-12-01

197

Capacity decisions for high-tech products with obsolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern high-tech products experience rapid obsolescence. Capacity investments must be recouped during the brief product lifecycle, during which prices fall continuously. We employ a multiplicative demand model that incorporates price declines due to both market heterogeneity and product obsolescence, and study a monopolistic firm’s capacity decision. We investigate profit concavity, and characterize the structure of the optimal capacity solution. Moreover,

Michael S. Pangburn; Shankar Sundaresan

2009-01-01

198

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

2005-01-01

199

The strategy for assessing risks associated with remediation of the former production area at Fernald  

SciTech Connect

The strategy for assessing the risks associated with the remediation of the former Production Area at the Fernald Environmental Management Project is discussed. The general approach to risk assessment is strongly influenced by a number of factors related to the nature of the site and to management proposals that have been made concerning the site. How these factors affect the approach to assessing baseline risks, to assessing risks associated with remedial activity, and to establishing cleanup criteria are examined.

Davis, M.; Avci, H.; Picel, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Janke, R.J. [Dept. of Energy, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Field Office

1993-10-01

200

NILE: wide-area computing for high energy physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CLEO project [2], centered at Cornell University, is alarge-scale high energy physics project. The goals of the projectarise from an esoteric question---why is there apparently so littleantimatter in the universe?---and the computational problems thatarise in trying to answer this question are quite challenging.To answer this question, the CESR storage ring at Cornell isused to generate a beam of electrons

Keith Marzullo; Michael Ogg; Aleta Ricciardi; Alessandro Amoroso; F. Andrew Calkins; Eric Rothfus

1996-01-01

201

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., 39655 Eureka Drive, Newark, California 94560 (United States); Speidel, Michael A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2013-05-15

202

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

2013-01-01

203

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

SciTech Connect

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28

204

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

SciTech Connect

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01

205

High and Far: Biases in the Location of Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Background About an eighth of the earth's land surface is in protected areas (hereafter “PAs”), most created during the 20th century. Natural landscapes are critical for species persistence and PAs can play a major role in conservation and in climate policy. Such contributions may be harder than expected to implement if new PAs are constrained to the same kinds of locations that PAs currently occupy. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitatively extending the perception that PAs occupy “rock and ice”, we show that across 147 nations PA networks are biased towards places that are unlikely to face land conversion pressures even in the absence of protection. We test each country's PA network for bias in elevation, slope, distances to roads and cities, and suitability for agriculture. Further, within each country's set of PAs, we also ask if the level of protection is biased in these ways. We find that the significant majority of national PA networks are biased to higher elevations, steeper slopes and greater distances to roads and cities. Also, within a country, PAs with higher protection status are more biased than are the PAs with lower protection statuses. Conclusions/Significance In sum, PAs are biased towards where they can least prevent land conversion (even if they offer perfect protection). These globally comprehensive results extend findings from nation-level analyses. They imply that siting rules such as the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2010 Target [to protect 10% of all ecoregions] might raise PA impacts if applied at the country level. In light of the potential for global carbon-based payments for avoided deforestation or REDD, these results suggest that attention to threat could improve outcomes from the creation and management of PAs.

Joppa, Lucas N.; Pfaff, Alexander

2009-01-01

206

Investigation of the areas of high radon concentration in Gyeongju.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to survey the radon concentrations at 21 elementary schools in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to identify those schools with high radon concentrations. Considering their geological characteristics and the preliminary survey results, three schools were finally placed under close scrutiny. For these three schools, continuous measurements over 48 h were taken at the principal's and administration office. The radon concentrations at one school, Naenam, exceeded the action level (148 Bq/m(3)) established by the U.S. EPA, while those at the other two schools were below that level. PMID:23643113

Lee, Jung Min; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun

2013-11-01

207

The organizational adoption of high-technology products “for use”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research reports the results of a study on organizational adoption of high-technology products “for use” in contrast to “for manufacture.” Additionally, the study examines high-technology adoptions which often have different issues that are important to the decision process relative when compared to the adoption of less-technical products. For example, the level of compatibility or the availability of complementary products

Sean R McDade; Terence A Oliva; Julie A Pirsch

2002-01-01

208

Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl.  

PubMed

For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions. PMID:24652313

Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I; Newman, Scott H; Takekawa, John Y; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

2014-03-01

209

New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

210

Highly reliable detection and correction of pinched areas for high transmission phase shift mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HTPSM (High-Transmission Phase Shift Mask) is one of the most promising mask technologies for photolithography resolution enhancement. However, it s well known that the use of HTPSM frequently results in unwanted patterns due to inevitable pinching effects, particularly in spacious areas. Although pinching effect can be effectively suppressed by the application of additional Cr patterns at the problematic locations, it is a critical challenge to systematically detect and automatically correct the complicated patterns in most of realistic cases. We demonstrated remarkable photolithography process window improvement by the use of HTPSM (A type and above) with the focus on the development of a systematic methodology for automatic detection and correction of abnormal patterns due to optical pinching effect. Regular optical rules check (ORC) with specific modifications was employed to precisely locate the potential pinched areas, whereas enhanced design rules check (DRC) was applied subsequently to generate the required additional Cr patterns for final mask fabrication. A variety of photolithography variables, such as wavelength and numerical aperture (NA) were extensively investigated against optical pinching effect to confirm the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed detection/correction methodology for HTPSM application.

Chen, Chih Li; Liao, Chun-Cheng; Chou, Pin-Jan; Shih, Chiang Lin; Shih, Steven

2008-03-01

211

Production of repeating pulsed high magnetic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed high magnetic fields up to 20T with a duration of 1 ms are repeated 20 000 times with a duty cycle of 0.5 Hz. The magnet is a water cooled Bitter type composed of copper and FRP disks stacked in turn. This will be useful to increase the S\\/N ratio of physical experiments, expecially when used with other equipment

M. Motokawa; H. Nojiri; J. Ishihara; K. Ohnishi

1989-01-01

212

A global comparison between MODIS hotspot and high resolution burned area data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are an important environmental factor at a global scale, influencing vegetation dynamics, carbon stocks, land-use change and being an important emission source of CO2 and aerosols. However, large uncertainty exists on the distribution, extend and intensity of fire occurrence over the world. Satellite products are the only source of information on fire occurrence which gives a good spatial resolution at a global scale. Two types of satellite data products have been widely used to study fire occurrence, hotspots and burned area (BA) maps. Hotspots are temperature anomalies registered by the thermal channels of the satellites, while the BA is detected by the contrast between the unburned land and the black carbon, ashes,... and the change between these two states. Till now the existing datasets have been poorly validated, with the hotspot global datasets only been validated by other thermal anomaly detections at higher resolution. Here we studied the relationship between high resolution BA datasets and the global MODIS hotspot dataset (MOD14). The high resolution BA dataset was produced from Landsat-TM/ETM+ scenes covering 10 different areas distributed over the globe. These areas include boreal, temperate, Mediterranean and tropical areas with important fire activity. For each BA dataset a pre and post fire image was analysed and BA, non-burned land and no-data (clouds,...) detected using the ABAMS software. This database, >100 separate BA maps, was produced under the framework of the Fire_cci project (http://www.esa-fire-cci.org/). For each of these BA datasets the MODIS hotspots were extracted for the same spatial and temporal extend. The analysis performed consists in determining the number and size of the omitted fire scares and the commission errors of the hotpots, being those hotspots that could not be related to any fire polygon. Regression analysis was performed to study more in depth the relation between number of hotspots and BA/number of fires. These results were then related to the some characteristics of the fire regime and environmental factors such as fire size, fire number, ecozone and vegetation type.

Hantson, S.; Padilla, M.; Cardoso, R.; Corti, D.; Chuvieco, E.

2012-04-01

213

The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas. (GR)

Biehle, James T.

2000-01-01

214

High hydrogen production rate of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with reduced electrode spacing.  

PubMed

Practical applications of microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) require high hydrogen production rates and a compact reactor. These goals can be achieved by reducing electrode spacing but high surface area anodes are needed. The brush anode MEC with electrode spacing of 2 cm had a higher hydrogen production rate and energy efficiency than an MEC with a flat cathode and a 1-cm electrode spacing. The maximum hydrogen production rate with a 2 cm electrode spacing was 17.8 m(3)/m(3)d at an applied voltage of E(ap)=1 V. Reducing electrode spacing increased hydrogen production rates at the lower applied voltages, but not at the higher (>0.6 V) applied voltages. These results demonstrate that reducing electrode spacing can increase hydrogen production rate, but that the closest electrode spacing do not necessarily produce the highest possible hydrogen production rates. PMID:21036036

Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

2011-02-01

215

Rocky Mountain: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Rocky Mountain High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. Methamphetamine poses the greatest overall drug threat to the Rocky Mountain HIDTA region because of high levels of availability and abuse. It also cont...

2011-01-01

216

Permanent porous materials from discrete organic molecules-towards ultra-high surface areas.  

PubMed

In recent years, the development of porous materials derived from discrete organic molecules made a substantial progress towards high-surface-area materials with distinct properties. One major advantage in comparison to existing, well-established porous polymers is their solubility, making such compounds potential valuable precursors for "processing porosity". One important parameter of porous compounds is their specific surface area. The possibilities to reach ultra-high-surface-area materials from this new type of porous compounds are critically discussed. PMID:22806828

Mastalerz, Michael

2012-08-13

217

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources...Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

2014-01-01

218

A Generative Model of Speech Production in Broca's and Wernicke's Areas  

PubMed Central

Speech production involves the generation of an auditory signal from the articulators and vocal tract. When the intended auditory signal does not match the produced sounds, subsequent articulatory commands can be adjusted to reduce the difference between the intended and produced sounds. This requires an internal model of the intended speech output that can be compared to the produced speech. The aim of this functional imaging study was to identify brain activation related to the internal model of speech production after activation related to vocalization, auditory feedback, and movement in the articulators had been controlled. There were four conditions: silent articulation of speech, non-speech mouth movements, finger tapping, and visual fixation. In the speech conditions, participants produced the mouth movements associated with the words “one” and “three.” We eliminated auditory feedback from the spoken output by instructing participants to articulate these words without producing any sound. The non-speech mouth movement conditions involved lip pursing and tongue protrusions to control for movement in the articulators. The main difference between our speech and non-speech mouth movement conditions is that prior experience producing speech sounds leads to the automatic and covert generation of auditory and phonological associations that may play a role in predicting auditory feedback. We found that, relative to non-speech mouth movements, silent speech activated Broca’s area in the left dorsal pars opercularis and Wernicke’s area in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus. We discuss these results in the context of a generative model of speech production and propose that Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas may be involved in predicting the speech output that follows articulation. These predictions could provide a mechanism by which rapid movement of the articulators is precisely matched to the intended speech outputs during future articulations.

Price, Cathy J.; Crinion, Jenny T.; MacSweeney, Mairead

2011-01-01

219

Mode Identification of Electromagnetic Waves for Large-Area Planar RF Plasma Productions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine electromagnetic (EM) eigenmodes for radio-frequency (RF) plasma productions between a pair of large-area electrodes, normal EM modes propagating in a region between a planar waveguide with one plasma and two dielectric layers are analyzed. Exact solutions are obtained by solving Maxwell’s equations. It is concluded that plasmas higher than a critical value of electron plasma frequency will be produced by an odd surface wave SWo and less than the critical value, by two transverse-magnetic (TM) odd EM modes, TM01 and TM10.

Nonaka, Shigehiko

1992-05-01

220

The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.

Trouve, A.

1993-01-01

221

Production of extremely thin plastic films of large area for gas-filled detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and investigation of properties of 60 × 15 cm 2 Formvar foils with mass area densities from 1 to 150 ?gcm -2 is described. The foils are used both as entrance windows of a large ionization chamber and coated with a thin gold layer, as cathode foils of a parallel-plate avalanche counter. The production technique is based on the method of lacquering a surface of distilled water with a solution of Formvar in 1,2-dichlorethane. The thicknesses of the foils are determined with various methods. Their rupture strength and gas permeability are investigated. The differential energy loss as well as the energy-loss straggling in these foils are measured for 16O-ions using the 4 MV tandem accelerator in Bochum.

Gassel, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Freiesleben, H.; Kiesewetter, J.

1990-11-01

222

Facile preparation of monodispersed SiO 2\\/TiO 2 composite microspheres with high surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monodispersed nanoporous SiO2\\/TiO2 composite microspheres with high specific surface areas were prepared by depositing titania colloid particles on the surface of monodispersed microporous silica microspheres using a simple electrostatic attraction strategy, and then calcined at 600°C for 4h. The as-prepared products were characterized with differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric (DTA\\/TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption and

Jiaguo Yu; Li Zhao; Bei Cheng

2006-01-01

223

Assessing NO2 variability over urban areas at high spatial resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a short-lived species within the troposphere, contributing to the production of ozone and aerosols. It is concentrated in urban and industrial areas where an abundance of point and mobile sources exist. Due to its short lifetime, it is difficult to capture the variability of NO2 and represent it within atmospheric chemistry transport models. Understanding this variability is important for emission controls, health impacts, and photochemistry. This analysis uses in situ aircraft measurements collected during ARCTAS-CARB, ICARTT, TexAQS-2000, TexAQS-2006, and DISCOVER-AQ as well as high spatial resolution column measurements of NO2 from the NASA GSFC Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) instrument collected during the first DISCOVER-AQ deployment, to assess the variability over urban areas. First order structure functions are used to generate statistics over a range of spatial scales. Column density is calculated from the DISCOVER-AQ profiles to assess the variability of a column within the aircraft profile. Results show that spatial variability depends on the airmass being sampled, polluted versus background conditions.

Silverman, M. L.; Szykman, J.; Knepp, T. N.; Chen, G.; Crawford, J. H.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Fishman, J.

2013-12-01

224

Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

Larson, Gary L.; Wones, Andy; McIntire, C. David; Samora, Barbara

1994-11-01

225

Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

Larson, Gary L.; Wones, A.; McIntire, C. D.; Samora, B.

1994-01-01

226

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremely high surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

Martin, Jack

227

Direct and Indirect Estimation of Leaf Area Index, f APAR, and Net Primary Production of Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary objective of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is to develop and validate algorithms to estimate leaf area index (L), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), and net primary production (NPP) from remotely sensed products. These three products are important because they relate to or are components of the metabolism of the biosphere and can be determined for

Stith T. Gower; Chris J. Kucharik; John M. Norman

1999-01-01

228

The ultra high resolution QuikSCAT product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although QuikSCAT was originally designed to measure winds at a resolution of 25 km, higher resolution wind and rain products have been developed. The 2.5 km ultra high resolution (UHR) products allow QuikSCAT data to be used for applications involving rain, meso-scale phenomena, and in coastal applications. This paper overviews and unifies the various UHR products and discusses their advantages

Brent A. Williams; Michael P. Owen; David G. Long

2009-01-01

229

High-Tech Production: The Mechanism of Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downturn in industrial production, which at the beginning of 1996 was roughly 56 percent of the January 1992 level, primarily concerned the high-tech branches. It was 70-80 percent in electronic and electro-technical machine building, machine-tool manufacturing, communications production, flexible automation systems, and equipment for light industry and the food industry.

A. Nekhamkin

1997-01-01

230

High lying N* studies in electromagnetic double charged pion production  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological model for double charged pion production is presented, aimed to exact N* electromagnetic form factors from measured observables (differential cross-sections, asymmetries). The preliminary results of CLAS data analysis on double charged pion production by virtual photons are discussed, focusing on high lying N* electromagnetic excitation and signals from possible ''missing'' baryon states.

V. I. Mokeev; M. Ripani; M. Anghinolfi; M. Battaglieri; R. De Vita; G. V. Fedotov; E. N. Golovach; B. S. Ishkhanov; M. V. Osipenko; G. Ricco; V. Sapunenko; M. Taiuti

2002-06-07

231

Efficiency and Productivity Measures for High Contact Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measuring performance in high contact services has proven difficult largely due to the fact that production and sales occur simultaneously and because the services provided are heterogeneous. This article shows that the simultaneity and heterogeneity of services need not detract from the usefulness of performance indicators. A discussion summarizing desirable and undesirable components of service efficiency and productivity indicators is

Kenneth J Klassen; Randolph M Russell; James J Chrisman

1998-01-01

232

Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or

Edward B. Ripley; Jonathan S. Morrell; Roland D. Seals; Gerald M. Ludtka

2011-01-01

233

Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

Dunstan, Peter

234

Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today’s fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment

J. B. K. Park; R. J. Craggs; A. N. Shilton

2011-01-01

235

Dynamic capabilities and new product development in high technology ventures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In industries populated by entrepreneurial high technology firms, the rapid development of new products is viewed as a key determinant of success. Developing a portfolio of new products is necessary to gain early cash flows, external visibility and legitimacy, early market share, and increase the likelihood of survival (Schoonhoven, Eisenhardt, and Lymman 1990). In addition, recent research has shown that

David L Deeds; DONA Decarolis; Joseph Coombs

2000-01-01

236

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremelyhigh surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

Martin, Jack

237

High glucose impairs superoxide production from isolated blood neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Superoxide (O2m), a key antimicrobial agent in phagocytes, is produced by the activity of NADPH oxidase. High glucose concentrations may, however, impair the production of O2m through inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which catalyzes the formation of NADPH. This study measured the acute effects of high glucose or the G6PD inhibitor dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on the production of O2m from

A. Perner; S. E. Nielsen; J. Rask-Madsen

2003-01-01

238

Technological Intervention for Production of High Carbon Billets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial market exists for high carbon grades having 0.50–0.65 wt% C for agricultural, automobile, and wire drawing application. However, attributes of cast product in terms of internal and surface\\/subsurface quality have to be achieved for the required end applications. For production of high carbon grades, the process route followed at Durgapur Steel Plant is through BOF-LTS\\/LF-Billet Caster. In order to control total

K. Patwari; N. Pradhan; N. Banerjee; B. R. Pal; S. R. Sarkar; B. Mukhopadhyay; S. K. Ray; D. S. Basu

2010-01-01

239

Nontarget deposition and losses of oxamyl in surface runoff from flatwoods citrus production areas.  

PubMed

Pesticide export from citrus production areas is a concern in the Indian River Lagoon drainage basin (Florida, USA). These studies evaluated nontarget deposition and losses of the insecticide oxamyl from typical flatwoods citrus production areas in South Florida. Deposition was estimated with the use of Teflon spray targets placed across nontarget water furrows during spray applications. After oxamyl applications, surface water runoff events were generated with an overhead irrigation system to simulate relatively low intensity rainfall. Results indicated that 0.3 to 20.0% of the applied active ingredient landed on nontarget water furrow surfaces and that the majority of oxamyl loss occurs in runoff events shortly following application. Mean concentrations were greater during the first runoff events, ranging from 34.7 to 47.0 microg/L. Total losses during the first several hours of each set of runoff events ranged from 0.1 to 3.8% of the total active ingredient applied. Similar losses can be expected when rainfall occurs shortly after application for other pesticides with similar chemical properties and application methods. PMID:17713205

Wilson, Patrick Chris; Boman, Brian; Foos, Jane Ferguson

2007-02-01

240

Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.  

PubMed

China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

2011-10-15

241

A powerful approach to fabricate nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with high specific surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a powerful strategy for fabricating the nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with good crystallinity, high specific surface area, and high percentages of pyridinic\\/graphitic-nitrogen structures. Due to the specified N-doping structures and high specific surface area of 719m2 g?1, our N-doped graphene sheets show an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

Shin-Yi Yang; Kuo-Hsin Chang; Yuan-Li Huang; Ying-Feng Lee; Hsi-Wen Tien; Shin-Ming Li; Ying-Hui Lee; Chia-Hong Liu; Chen-Chi M. Ma; Chi-Chang Hu

242

Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up. Semiannual subcontract report, 17 March 1994--18 September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed under a 3-y subcontract to advance Solarex`s photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce its a-Si:H module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. During this period, Solarex focused on improving deposition of the front contact, investigating alternate feedstocks for the front contact, maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large areas, optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high potential test.

Oswald, R.; Morris, J. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

1995-09-01

243

Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-03-22

244

In situ cosmogenic radiocarbon production and 2-D ice flow line modeling for an Antarctic blue ice area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiocarbon measurements at ice margin sites and blue ice areas can potentially be used for ice dating, ablation rate estimates and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Part of the measured signal comes from in situ cosmogenic 14C production in ice, and this component must be well understood before useful information can be extracted from 14C data. We combine cosmic ray scaling and production estimates with a two-dimensional ice flow line model to study cosmogenic 14C production at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. We find (1) that 14C production through thermal neutron capture by nitrogen in air bubbles is negligible; (2) that including ice flow patterns caused by basal topography can lead to a surface 14C activity that differs by up to 25% from the activity calculated using an ablation-only approximation, which is used in all prior work; and (3) that at high ablation margin sites, solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux may change the strength of the dominant spallogenic production by up to 10%. As part of this effort we model two-dimensional ice flow along the central flow line of Taylor Glacier. We present two methods for parameterizing vertical strain rates, and assess which method is more reliable for Taylor Glacier. Finally, we present a sensitivity study from which we conclude that uncertainties in published cosmogenic production rates are the largest source of potential error. The results presented here can inform ongoing and future 14C and ice flow studies at ice margin sites, including important paleoclimatic applications such as the reconstruction of paleoatmospheric 14C content of methane.

Buizert, Christo; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey L.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Brook, Edward J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

2012-06-01

245

Increase in groundwater storage in discontinuous permafrost areas in Eurasia and impact on vegetation productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use monthly measurements of time-variable gravity from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission to determine the increase in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in Eurasia, during the period 2002-2011. We compare monthly TWS from GRACE with TWS from time series of precipitation (P) minus evapo-transpiration (ET) from ERA-Interim re-analysis and observational river discharge (R) in the Lena, Yenisei and Ob river basins. We find an excellent agreement between the two time series of TWS. If we account for a negative bias in the average annual precipitation during the analyzed period, we effectively close the terrestrial water budget. From this comparison, we attribute both the increase in R and in TWS to an increase in P. In the Lena river basin the TWS increase is dominated by a large signal in an area of discontinuous permafrost. We attribute the observed signal to an increase in groundwater storage of 68+/-19 cubic km or to surface water recharging the ground water through areas not underlain by permafrost, while changes in active layer thickness have likely less impact. These TWS changes will have a significant impact on the terrestrial hydrology of the region, including increased baseflow and alteration of seasonal runoff. We also analyze the temporal and spatial correlation between TWS and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Net Primary Production (NPP) from MODIS. We show how the correlation changes within water rich and water limited areas as well as in function of different land cover types. We find that vegetation productivity in the Lena river basin is mainly controlled by temperature constraints rather than moisture availability, while in the Ob river basin it is mainly controlled by water limitation.

Tong, J.; Velicogna, I.; Zhang, T.; Kimball, J. S.

2011-12-01

246

Marketing high-tech products: the emerging themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the marketing of high technology has attracted a number of writers over the 1980s and 1990s, there is, as yet, no shared agreement as to the critical issues marketing managers must address to be successful in this area. Based on observation and experience, suggests a framework of six emerging themes which regularly appear when examining marketing in the high-technology

M. J. Meldrum

1995-01-01

247

Stabilizers: indispensable substances in dairy products of high rheology.  

PubMed

The functionality of stabilizers is apparent in many food applications including dairy products. The role of stabilizers like gelatin, pectins, alginates, carboxymethylcellulose, gums, ispghol, sago starch, and chitosan in the development of dairy products of high rheology, like yoghurt, ice cream, and flavored milk, is discussed in this review. Attention is also paid to comprehend on interactions among milk proteins, minerals, and other milk constituents with the reactive sites of stabilizers to get the desirable properties such as appearance, body and texture, mouthfeel, consistency. The role played by stabilizers in the control of syneresis and overrun problems in the high-rheology dairy products is also the topic of discussion. PMID:24499066

Tasneem, Madiha; Siddique, Farzana; Ahmad, Asif; Farooq, Umar

2014-01-01

248

A regional Earth radiation budget product for the BALTEX area from ScaRaB  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to derive regional Earth radiation budget products with high spatial and temporal resolution by synergy of the well calibrated scanner for radiation budget (ScaRaB) data with auxiliary data from the operational meteorological satellites. The topic of a narrow-to-broadband conversion from NOAA 11 AVHRR channel 1 to the broadband shortwave channel of ScaRaB will be addressed.

Rainer Hollmann; Johannes Mueller; Rolf Stuhlmann

1999-01-01

249

OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O{sub 3} production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O{sub 3} production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O{sub 3} concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O{sub 3} concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city.

KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

2001-10-01

250

Anaerobic reactor/high rate pond combined technology for sewage treatment in the Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

Two high-rate, anaerobic/aerobic units were used to treat the sewage of the Institut Agronomique st Vétérinaire Hassan II (Morocco) campus in a 1,100 m2-plant designed for 1,500 e.p. and receiving 63 m3 per day. The anaerobic pre-treatment consisted of a two-step up-flow anaerobic reactor (TSUAR) comprising two reactors and one external settler all in series. The aerobic line, or post-treatment, consisted of a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) and one maturation pond in series. The system totalized a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 days. A gravel filter (GF) was constructed behind the TSUAR to trap low-density particles. The TSUAR removed 80% of COD and 90% of SS within 48 h. Solids retention time in the reactors averaged 32 d with a specific sludge production of 0.28 g SS g(-1) COD removed. Almost 93% of the sludge evacuated from the settler was stabilized. Specific biogas production from both reactors was 0.25m3 kg(-1) COD removed. Used in this configuration, the HRAP lost its BOD removal activity and increased its nutrients and pathogens removal capabilities (tertiary treatment). Results showed that 85% of total nitrogen and 48% of total phosphorus were removed by the HRAP. Land area requirement of this combination was less than 1 m2 per capita and filtered final effluent was of excellent quality (COD, 82 mg/l; TKN, 8.3 mg/l; total P, 2.7 mg/l, faecal coliforms, 2.4 10(3)/100 ml and zero helminths eggs). PMID:16114674

El Hafiane, F; El Hamouri, B

2005-01-01

251

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01

252

Bottom-up synthesis of high surface area mesoporous crystalline silicon and evaluation of its hydrogen evolution performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an important material for many practical and research applications, porous silicon has attracted interest for decades. Conventional preparations suffer from high mass loss because of their etching nature. A few alternative routes have been reported, including magnesiothermic reduction; however, pre-formed porous precursors are still necessary, leading to complicated syntheses. Here we demonstrate a bottom-up synthesis of mesoporous crystalline silicon materials with high surface area and tunable primary particle/pore size via a self-templating pore formation process. The chemical synthesis utilizes salt by-products as internal self-forming templates that can be easily removed without any etchants. The advantages of these materials, such as their nanosized crystalline primary particles and high surface areas, enable increased photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate and extended working life. These also make the mesoporous silicon a potential candidate for other applications, such as optoelectronics, drug delivery systems and even lithium-ion batteries.

Dai, Fang; Zai, Jiantao; Yi, Ran; Gordin, Mikhail L.; Sohn, Hiesang; Chen, Shuru; Wang, Donghai

2014-04-01

253

Simple Available Bandwidth Utilization Library for High-Speed Wide Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of high-speed wide area networks (WANs) has enabled the emergence of new classes of data intensive, wide area computing applications, such as the remote analysis and exploration of data and distributed data mining. The de facto standard for reliable data transfers is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Despite improvements in TCP over the years (to reduce overhead and

Robert L. Grossman; Marco Mazzucco; Harimath Sivakumar; Y. Pan; Q. Zhang

2005-01-01

254

Productivity aspects of three tropical seagrass species in areas of different nutrient levels in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work conducted in two seagrass areas of different nutrient status, along the Kenyan coast, has shown that the seagrasses were characterised by differences in the species composition and biomass of epiphytic algae. This study was undertaken to evaluate the productivity patterns of the seagrass species growing in these same sites. Studies were made on Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forskål) den Hartog, Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenberg) Aschers and Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenberg and Hempr. ex Ascherson growing in the lagoons of Nyali and Vipingo, along the Kenyan coast, during the South East (SE) and North East (NE) monsoon periods. The results of this study revealed differences in the levels of nitrate within the water column, with Vipingo having lower levels of around 4 ?M during the low tide period of the SE monsoon while nitrate levels in Nyali reached levels of 16 ?M during the same period. Of the three seagrass species studied, C. rotundata had the highest shoot densities in both sites. The shoot densities of C. rotundata reached levels of 1300 shoots m -2 compared to an average of 600 shoots m -2 for both T. ciliatum and T. hemprichii. The stems of T. ciliatum were found to be 200 mm long in Nyali whereas those in Vipingo were 80 mm in length. Of the three seagrasses T. ciliatum and T. hemprichii showed significant differences in total leaf growth between the two sites. However, of these two species, only T. hemprichii showed distinct differences in leaf production and biomass when the two sites were compared. Leaves of T. hemprichii showed growth rates of 0.008 g dw shoot -1?day -1 in Nyali while the growth rate in Vipingo was 0.004 g dw shoot -1?day -1. Leaf production rates were approximately 0.005 g dw shoot -1?day -1 for T. ciliatum in both Nyali and Vipingo and that of C. rotundata was approximately 0.0015 g dw shoot -1?day -1 in the two sites. This suggests that of the three species studied, T. hemprichii may have been influenced by the nutrient input in Nyali. The abundance of epiphytes on the stems of T. ciliatum was higher in Nyali during both seasons; therefore we suggest that although the composition of epiphytic species is the main indicator of nutrient enrichment in these areas the enhanced productivity of T. hemprichii may be another indicator of the nutrient status of these study sites.

Uku, J.; Björk, M.

2005-05-01

255

Purification of high strength wastewater originating from bioethanol production with simultaneous biogas production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, purification of the wastewater from corn stover-based bioethanol production process with simultaneous biogas\\u000a production was investigated in a combined system, which was based on thermophilic anaerobic digestion in a fluidized bed reactor\\u000a (AFBR), an aerobic airlift loop reactor (ALR), and a biological aerated filter (BAF). High strength distillery wastewater\\u000a and high ammonia nitrogen content pretreatment wastewater were

Chunsheng Qiu; Xiaoqiang Jia; Jianping Wen

256

Central Valley California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Central Valley California High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Central Valley California HIDTA region has remained fairly consistent over the past year. Mexican drug traffic...

2011-01-01

257

Large Area, High Speed Photodiode Using Metal-Semiconductor Metal (MSM) Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical objectives of Phase I were to develop the program specifications design the large area, high speed photodetector to these specifications, and completely characterize the MSM device optically for use in a prototype unit to be fabricated durin...

T. Yost R. Fischl P. Herczfeld

1998-01-01

258

High Resolution Measures of Polarization and Color of Selected Lunar Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High resolution observations of intensity, color (UBV) and polarization were obtained with scanning techniques for a number of lunar areas of special interest, including boundaries of some of the brightest and darkest lunar regions, certain Apollo landing...

J. S. Hall L. A. Riley

1972-01-01

259

National Drug Control Strategy. 2001 Annual Report. The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Porgram has enormous value to the United States. The HIDTA Program advances the National Drug Control Strategy by fostering coordination among local, state and federal law enforcement agencies on drug contr...

2001-01-01

260

Technique eliminates high voltage arcing at electrode-insulator contact area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coating the electrode-insulator contact area with silver epoxy conductive paint and forcing the electrode and insulator tightly together into a permanent connection, eliminates electrical arcing in high-voltage electrodes supplying electrical power to vacuum facilities.

Mealy, G.

1967-01-01

261

Central Valley California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program enhances and coordinates drug control efforts among local, State, and Federal law enforcement agencies. The program provides agencies with coordination, equipment, technology, and additional resour...

2010-01-01

262

Northern California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program enhances and coordinates drug control efforts among local, State, and Federal law enforcement agencies. The program provides agencies with coordination, equipment, technology, and additional resour...

2010-01-01

263

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

264

Economics of electricity production and distribution in rural areas of Nepal  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims at providing the comparative economics from a national perspective (economic analysis) and a users perspective (financial analysis) of low capacity (5-15 KW) electrical add-on systems and medium capacity (25-50 KW) electrical systems to provide electrical energy from various energy sources at three villages of Nepal, each from a different physiographic zone. In general, the increasing economic price of traditional energies coupled with deforestation in rural areas of developing countries and the increasing need for foreign exchange for import of fossil fuels, favors the judicial exploitation of renewable energy for electricity generation. The load factor is one of the most important factors that dictate the economic and financial supply price of electricity production and distribution. It is recommended that a detailed site-specific electricity demand analysis be carried out with appropriate end-use planning for decentralized rural electrification schemes.

Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. (Center for Energy Studies, Indian Inst. of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (IN))

1990-01-01

265

Modeled velopharyngeal orifice area prediction during simulated stop consonant production in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance.  

PubMed

This project examined modeled velopharyngeal orifice area estimation under conditions simulating voiceless stop consonant production in the presence of nasal airway obstruction. The results indicated that accurate estimates of velopharyngeal orifice area can be obtained using Warren's hydrokinetic equation during aerodynamic events like those known to exist during speech in the presence of increased nasal airway resistance. These findings provide support for clinical and research use of Warren's pressure-flow approach to investigate velopharyngeal function during speech production. PMID:3860307

Smith, B E; Maddox, C M; Kostinski, A B

1985-07-01

266

Spatial variability of Soil Nutrients and Influencing Factors in a Vegetable Production Area of Hebei Province in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine soil nutrient spatial variability and the factors influencing it in a vegetable production area using traditional statistics and geo-statistics. The study area encompassed 55 ha and consisted of 182 farmer's plots belonging to six production groups in the Yutian county of China. Two hundred and seventeen soil samples were collected on a 50×50-m grid at

Shao-Wen Huang; Ji-Yun Jin; Li-Ping Yang; You-Lu Bai

2006-01-01

267

Low-density, high surface area electromyography of the hamstring muscles during running and kicking  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSurface electromyography (sEMG) is used extensively in the assessment of hamstring muscle activity. Conventional sEMG techniques may not fully represent overall muscle activity, despite clinically standardised placement of electrodes. High density EMG provides more information about biopotential activity but it is limited to signal collection over a small surface area. Our work proposes a low density high surface area EMG

S Sakthibalan; R Twycross-Lewis; R Woledge; Y Hao; D Morrissey

2011-01-01

268

High Tc SQUID Detector for Magnetic Metallic Particles in Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor. After the discovery of the high-Tc superconducting materials, the performance of the high-Tc SQUID has been improved and stabilized. One strong candidate for application is a detection system of magnetic foreign matters in industrial products. There is a possibility that ultra-small metallic foreign matter has been accidentally mixed with

Saburo Tanaka; Tomonori Akai; Yoshimi Hatsukade; Shuichi Suzuki

2009-01-01

269

First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.  

SciTech Connect

On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

Normann, Randy Allen

2006-04-01

270

High Tc SQUID Detector for Magnetic Metallic Particles in Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is an ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor. After the discovery of the high-Tc superconducting materials, the performance of the high-Tc SQUID has been improved and stabilized. One strong candidate for application is a detection system of magnetic foreign matters in industrial products. There is a possibility that ultra-small metallic foreign matter has been accidentally mixed with industrial products such as lithium ion batteries. If this happens, the manufacturer of the product suffers a great loss recalling products. The outer dimension of metallic particles less than 100 micron cannot be detected using X-ray imaging, which is commonly used for the inspection. Therefore a highly sensitive system for small foreign matters is required. We developed detection systems based on high-Tc SQUID for industrial products. We could successfully detect small iron particles of less than 50 micron on a belt conveyer. These detection levels were hard to be achieved using conventional X-ray detection or other methods.

Tanaka, Saburo; Akai, Tomonori; Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Shuichi

271

High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory`s continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site.

Hoeberling, R.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rangel, M.J. III [Analysis Programming Processing Instrumentation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

272

Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free oil ranges from 17/sup 0/ API at Barton Ranch to over 49/sup 0/ API in the deeper reservoir rocks located at an unnamed oil field. Oil has been trapped in Lakota channel sandstones and Fall River nearshore sandstones on the Black Hills monocline within a catchment area located on the northeast side of the large northeast-southwest-trending Gillette arch. Currently, the oldest producible oil on or east of the central Black Hills monocline is Early Cretaceous in age. This oil is the highest structural, active, primary production along the west-central flank of the Black Hills uplift. Two Permian-Pennsylvanian fields are located structurally higher, but one is a thermal tertiary project and the other has been abandoned.

Randall, A.G.

1986-08-01

273

Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.  

PubMed

While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today's fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment HRAPs has a much smaller environmental footprint compared to commercial algal production HRAPs which consume freshwater and fertilisers. In this paper the critical parameters that limit algal cultivation, production and harvest are reviewed and practical options that may enhance the net harvestable algal production from wastewater treatment HRAPs including CO(2) addition, species control, control of grazers and parasites and bioflocculation are discussed. PMID:20674341

Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

2011-01-01

274

Production of hadrons and leptons at high p/sub t/ and pairs at high mass  

SciTech Connect

The experiment reported extends to higher beam energy the measurements of high-p/sub t/ particle production and high-mass pair production in N-N collisions, with improved resolution, particle identification, and luminosity. Besides addressing quantum chromodynamics issues, limits are set on the mass and lifetime of the axion. 25 refs., 19 figs. (LEW)

Kaplan, D.M.

1986-01-01

275

Composition of extraction products from alkylated high-sulphur coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products of reductive and non-reductive methylation of two high-sulphur coals (Mequinenza and Illinois No. 6) have been extracted\\u000a by dichloromethane. It has been established that the efficiency of the transformation of coal to the products soluble in CH2Cl2 is higher for coals subjected to non-reductive methylation by the Liotta method than for those after reduction in the potassium\\/liquid\\u000a ammonia system.

Mieczys?aw Koz?owski; Helena Wachowska; Jan Yperman

2003-01-01

276

Identification of potential areas for biomass production in China: Discussion of a recent approach and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A standard methodology is needed to recognize potentially suitable areas for sustainable bioenergy crop production. This facilitates better identification of promising crops and cropping systems, logistical and economic studies, and work needed to meet regulatory criteria. A possible approach is built upon three layers of internationally available spatial data: (1) degrading and abandoned areas, (2) potentially suitable land cover classes,

Wilko Schweers; Zhanguo Bai; Elliott Campbell; Klaus Hennenberg; Uwe Fritsche; Heinz-Peter Mang; Mario Lucas; Zifu Li; Andrew Scanlon; Haoran Chen; Qin Zhihao; Dianxiong Cai; Yunxiang Jin; Jun Zhang; Lili Tu; Marco Gemmer; Tong Jiang; Nannan Zhang

2011-01-01

277

Estimation of Relationship Between Hot Carcass Weight and Eye Muscle Area Which Effects on Meat Production of Black Bengal Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 16 castrated male goats were taken to measure hot carcass wt and eye muscle area to estimate meat production of goats. These goats were 12 months of age. In this experiment significant (0.1%) correlation was found between Hot carcass wt. and eye muscle area.

2007-01-01

278

Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package  

SciTech Connect

A matrix of 55 glasses was developed and tested with the aim to identify the impact of glass composition on the long-term corrosion behavior and to develop an acceptable low-activity waste glass composition region. Of the 55 glasses, 45 were designed to systematically vary the glass composition and 10 were selected because large and growing databases on their corrosion characteristics had accumulated. The performance of these 55 glasses in the vapor-phase hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) were characterized. VHT's were performed at temperatures between 150?C and 300?C for times up to 280 days; preliminary corrosion rates and type of alteration products were identified. PCTs were performed at 90?C with glass surface area's to solution volumes (S/V) of 2000 m-1 for 7 days and S/V of 20 000 m-1 for 10 h, 100 h, and 1000 h. The corrosion extents by PCT were determined as functions of time from solution composition analyses.

Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin; McGrail, B. Peter; Jorgensen, Benaiah M.; Smith, Donald E.; Allen, Benjamin R.; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Brown, Kevin G.; Reamer, I. A.; Ebert, W. L.

2000-02-08

279

Nature of Antiproton Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt here to deal with some of the important characteristics of secondary antiproton production in various high energy nuclear interactions on the basis of a model for production of particles in PP collisions. The results have, thereafter, been converted to those for AA collisions through an appropriate mechanism. The effect of rescattering and cascading in the production processes and on the chosen models has also been incorporated in a phenomenological manner. Comparison of the calculated results with data on the relevant observables leads to a striking agreement and this fair success is claimed here to obviously signal the strength of the basic models that are applied in the present work.

Guptaroy, P.; Bhattacharyya, D. P.; De, Bhaskar; Bhattacharyya, S.

280

Causality constraints on hadron production in high energy collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For hadron production in high energy collisions, causality requirements lead to the counterpart of the cosmological horizon problem: the production occurs in a number of causally disconnected regions of finite space-time size. As a result, globally conserved quantum numbers (charge, strangeness, baryon number) must be conserved locally in spatially restricted correlation clusters. This provides a theoretical basis for the observed suppression of strangeness production in elementary interactions (pp, e+e-). In contrast, the space-time superposition of many collisions in heavy ion interactions largely removes these causality constraints, resulting in an ideal hadronic resonance gas in full equilibrium.

Castorina, Paolo; Satz, Helmut

2014-04-01

281

Do High Technology Policies Work?: High Technology Industry Employment Growth in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1988-1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970s, federal, state and local governments have launched an array of new high technology development programs. Researchers and policy-makers disagree about the relative merits of these policies. We address the effects of seven of these policies on high tech industry employment growth in metropolitan statistical areas in the United…

Jenkins, J. Craig; Leicht, Kevin T.; Jaynes, Arthur

2006-01-01

282

Genetic population structure of cacao plantings within a young production area in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the Mayan, 'ancient Criollo' cacao. PMID:21264251

Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

2011-01-01

283

Scheme to Extract a Low Intensity Slow Spill Main Injector Beam to the Meson Area Without Compromising Antiproton Production Rate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose a scheme to extract a low intensity beam of 120 GeV Main Injector protons to the Meson Area while simultaneously fast extracting protons for antiproton production such that the total antiproton production rate is unaffected. We achieve this by ...

C. S. Mishra T. Murphy R. Raja

2000-01-01

284

Brilliant high-power diode lasers based on broad area lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the German national research project "Briolas" Osram Semiconductors and Laserline GmbH cooperated in the subproject "Brilasi" which focused mainly on Brilliant Laser Diodes for Industrial Applications. The project was finished in December 2007 and lasted more than three years. Laserline and Osram are investigating the performance of broad area diode lasers with a bar width from 1.0 to 10.0 mm in high brilliance diode laser beam sources. Within the program different fibre coupled laser sources are built up: 1. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a Beam Parameter Product (BBP) of 40 mmxmrad built from diode laser bars with 10 mm bar width. 2. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a BBP of 20 mmxmrad built from Mini-Bars with a bar width of 3.0 mm and 8 emitters. These Different solutions are characterized regarding the electro optical performance. The laser output characteristics are determined for the diode laser device as well as the complete beam source. Lifetime tests are conducted to determine the long term stability of the prototypes and the different chip material.

Krause, V.; Koesters, A.; Koenig, H.; Strauss, U.

2008-03-01

285

Enhancement of lithium storage performance of carbon microflowers by achieving a high surface area.  

PubMed

High-surface-area, nitrogen-doped carbon microflowers (A-NCFs-4) assembled from porous nanosheets are prepared in a three-step process: soft-templating self-assembly, thermal decomposition, and KOH activation. The hydrazine hydrate used in our experiment serves not only as a structure-directing agent, but also as a nitrogen source. The resultant A-NCFs-4 has a hierarchical porous structure and its specific surface area is as high as 2309?m(2) ?g(-1) . When used as anode, it exhibits a reversible capacity as high as 807?mAh?g(-1) at 300?mA?g(-1) after 100?cycles, and an excellent rate capability of 200?mAh?g(-1) at a high current density of 8?A?g(-1) . Compared with unactivated counterpart, A-NCFs-4 exhibits a significantly improved lithium storage capacity and rate capability; this can be attributed to its unique structural characteristics and high surface area. The hierarchical micro-/mesopore structure, high surface area, and nitrogen doping of A-NCFs-4 could guarantee fast mass transport for lithium species, enhance the A-NCFs-4/electrolyte contact area, shorten the lithium-ion diffusion length, and accommodate strain induced by volume changes during the electrochemical reaction. The results indicate that the as-prepared A-NCFs-4 could be a promising candidate as a high-performance anode for lithium-ion batteries. PMID:24850804

Li, Yao; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Cao, Minhua

2014-07-01

286

Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy consumption.

Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

2012-04-01

287

Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. I - Plant development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a test plant with a hydrogen-production capacity of 4 cu Nm/hour based on a high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolyzer is discussed, and results of corrosion tests on metallic materials for plant construction are presented. The test plant electrolyzer was designed and constructed on the basis of the construction and testing of a series of bench-scale electrolyzers operating at atmospheric pressure with single and bipolar cell capacities from 20 to 300 l/hr. The test plant, in turn, is intended to be used to provide data for the design of a 20-cu Nm/hour pilot plant in the areas of cell structures, electrode and diaphragm evaluation, energy efficiency and the gas-liquid separator and control system. In order to select materials for the pilot plant, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking tests were performed on various stainless steels and higher nickel alloys in 30 wt % KOH at 130 and 150 C in O2 and Ar atmospheres. Results of the tests have shown type 310 ELC austenitic stainless steel to be sufficiently resistant for use at operating temperatures up to 150 C, at which no corrosion is observed.

Abe, I.; Fujimaki, T.; Kajiwara, Y.; Yokoo, Y.

288

Production technology for high efficiency ion implanted solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion implantation is being developed for high volume automated production of silicon solar cells. An implanter designed for solar cell processing and able to properly implant up to 300 4-inch wafers per hour is now operational. A machine to implant 180 sq m/hr of solar cell material has been designed. Implanted silicon solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16% AM1 are now being produced and higher efficiencies are expected. Ion implantation and transient processing by pulsed electron beams are being integrated with electrostatic bonding to accomplish a simple method for large scale, low cost production of high efficiency solar cell arrays.

Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.; Josephs, R. H.

1978-01-01

289

Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

Lawrence, G.P.

1995-07-01

290

Responses of primary productivity to current and climate changes in the mud area to the southwest of Cheju Island during the past 800 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and grain size were analyzed with a gravity core (3250-6) collected from the mud area in the north East China Sea. The average deposition rate of the upper core was about 0.078 cm yr-1 based on the results of 210Pbex. The mean grain size increased with depth in general. The frequency distribution of grain size showed that two marked changes of deposition environment occurred at 30 cm and 50 cm depths (about 1550 AD and 1300 AD, respectively). The variations of BSi and TOC indicated two distinct major periods of primary productivity over the past 800 years: a stage of low primary productivity corresponding to weak upwelling and low nutrient input below 30 cm depth (about 1200-1550 AD), and a stage of high primary productivity with strong currents and upwelling above 30 cm depth (about 1550-1950 AD). The stage with high primary productive appeared to be due to the northward-expanded muddy area caused by strong Asian Winter Monsoon and enhanced Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter. In conclusion, the BSi and TOC in the muddy sediments, the symbols of marine primary productivity, can be then used to investigate the evolution history of currents and relative climate change in the offshore areas.

Liu, Yi; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Wang, Yuhong; Jia, Nan; Ji, Haoyuan; Huang, Yiya; Sun, Liguang

2013-12-01

291

Synthesis and application of magnesium oxide nanospheres with high surface area  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? MgO nanospheres with high specific surface area synthesized by the polyol method. ? The BET specific surface area of nanopowders was 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. ? MgO nanospheres were applied to remove hexavalent chromium. -- Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanospheres with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the polyol method. The BET specific surface area of the nanopowders was ?90 m{sup 2}/g by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursor, the reaction time, and the washing solution. It was increased to 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the MgO nanospheres composed of highly folded flakes, which were responsible for the observed high surface area. The high BET characteristic of the MgO nanospheres can be applied to sintering of microwave ceramics at a reducing sintering temperature, uniformed grain size distribution, and high bulk density. Finally, their capacity to remove hexavalent chromium was presented.

Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Li, Wei-Min; Tung, Kuo-Shin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail: cfshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Dung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2012-11-15

292

Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  

PubMed

Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-06-01

293

A new statistical model for Markovian classification of urban areas in high-resolution SAR images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a classification method suitable for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images over urban areas. When processing SAR images, there is a strong need for statistical models of scattering to take into account multiplicative noise and high dynamics. For instance, the classification process needs to be based on the use of statistics. Our main contribution is the choice of

Céline Tison; Jean-Marie Nicolas; Florence Tupin; Henri Maître

2004-01-01

294

The nucleation and growth of large area, highly oriented diamond films on silicon substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly oriented diamond films can play an important role in replacing single crystal diamond for their use as substrates in active electronic devices. However, for practical applications, large, homogenous films with low defect densities are required. The focus of our investigations is the nucleation of highly oriented diamond on (001) silicon via Bias Enhanced Nucleation (BEN) over large areas. A

A. Flöter; H. Güttler; G. Schulz; D. Steinbach; C. Lutz-Elsner; R. Zachai; A. Bergmaier; G. Dollinger

1998-01-01

295

Transmutation of Fission Products and Transuranium by High Energy Neutron  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the feasibility of the system that incinerate radioactive fission products (FP) and transuranium (TRU) by using high energy neutrons. As high energy neutron sources, pCF reaction, fusion reaction, and spallation reaction were investigated. In the system that utilizes pCF reaction, a subcritical core made of FP and TRU is bombarded by 14 MeV neutron generated via pCF reaction.

Hideo Haradal; Hiroshi Takahashil Arnold Aronsonl; Kenji Konashi; Takeshi Kase; Nobuyuki Sasao

296

Process development of high performance CIGS modules for mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-based solar modules is close to commercialisation. However, the high cost-reduction potential can only be realised with mass production. ZSW has developed all process steps for a 30 cm×30 cm CIGS line. Very high performance CIGS modules with an efficiency close to 13% and smaller mini-modules close to 15% were prepared with this line. Critical process

M. Powalla; B Dimmler

2001-01-01

297

Presence of plant protection products in three agricultural areas of Regione Lazio.  

PubMed

Aim of the research was to verify the impact of plant protection products on three significant agricultural areas of Regione Lazio: Maccarese, Cisterna di Latina, Sabaudia-Terracina. This research studied the presence of some active ingredients, indicated by technicians as distributed, on soil, water, crop and air samples, the last one in greenhouse; the analysis, carried out by multi-residue methods, allowed to investigate also on a large amount of active ingredients not indicated by technicians. The determinations have been obtained, using internal standards, by GC-NPD, GC-ECD, HPLC-UV, HPLC-DAD, with different columns, conditions and wavelength of adsorption. Taking into account the results we could to assert that only a small part of the molecules searched were found in the samples and that they are typical for the crops and the environment treated. In greenhouse, more persistence was founded in wood greenhouse, treated from the outside, probably for the release of a.i. in time from wood and for a better distribution. The active ingredients more frequently founded must be controlled to avoid possible accumulation or leaching, especially for herbicides in the areas of Maccarese and Cisterna di Latina. Furthermore, the molecule on which more attention must be done when applied, are: linuron on carrots, penconazole on zucchini and cymoxanil, often used inappropriately, particularly on minor crops, like red-radish. Although the number of sampling was limited, it has been possible to outline the situation in the three zones considered, for directing choices, that could be more sensible at sanitary spin-off and at the environment. PMID:15151325

Conte, E; Rossi, E; Spera, G; Pompi, V; Carfi', F; Spadoni, A R; Rosati, M; Montereali, M R; Donnarumma, L; Perconti, W

2003-01-01

298

Global marketing strategy modeling of high tech products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the role of global marketing strategy and its relation to market orientation, international experience, and performance in the high tech products context. Knowledge of this important domain of global marketing strategy and performance remains limited. In this respect, the study raises a number of important questions concerning how market orientation, international experience and global marketing strategy impact

Chih-Wen Wu

2011-01-01

299

Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating

Takashi Ogawa; Seiji Fujiwara; Shigeo Kasai; Kazuya Yamada

2007-01-01

300

High-throughput production of two disulphide-bridge toxins.  

PubMed

A quick and efficient production method compatible with high-throughput screening was developed using 36 toxins belonging to four different families of two disulphide-bridge toxins. Final toxins were characterized using HPLC co-elution, CD and pharmacological studies. PMID:24947561

Upert, Grégory; Mourier, Gilles; Pastor, Alexandra; Verdenaud, Marion; Alili, Doria; Servent, Denis; Gilles, Nicolas

2014-07-01

301

CM-SAF high-resolution radiation budget products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the system employed at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) within the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM-SAF) for the production of Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget components is described. One of the goals of the CM-SAF is to provide consistent TOA and surface radiation budget components and cloud properties at high spatial resolution

Bogdan Nicula; Steven Dewitte; Nicolas Clerbaux

2003-01-01

302

Injection molding of optics for high volume consumer products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For high volume consumer products using optical technology, plastics injection molding is a very suitable technology. In optical component fabrication, astonishing results are be booked. However, to achieve success, excellent performance is needed in mastering different technologies such as polymer processing, evaporated coatings, tool making, ultra-precision turning of metals and optical metrology.

de Schipper, Rien

2012-03-01

303

Production Engineering Measure for Mechanization of High Reliability Capacitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work on the production design engineering and design of pilot line equipment continues. Of the 29 major subassemblies to be used in the mechanized high-reliability capacitor assembly operation, 14 are complete, and another 14 are in various stages of prod...

J. H. D. Folster P. M. Kennedy G. E. Walters

1965-01-01

304

Production Engineering Measure for Mechanization of High-Reliability Capacitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work on the production design engineering and design of pilot line equipment continues. Of the 28 major subassemblies to be used in the mechanized high--reliability capacitor assembly operation, 10 are complete, and another 14 are in various stages of pro...

J. H. D. Folster P. M. Kennedy G. E. Walters

1964-01-01

305

High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical predictions show good agreement for the first 0.5 in. from the nozzle wall; but the further into the core flow that measurements were taken, the more that TDK overpredicted the boundary layer thickness.

Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

1999-01-01

306

Effect of High Receiver Thermal Loss Per Unit Area on the Performance of Solar Central Receiver Systems Having Optimum Heliostat Fields and Optimum Receiver Aperture Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts in solar central receiver research have been directed toward high temperature applications. Associated with high temperature processes are greater receiver thermal losses due to reradiation and convection. This dissertation examines the performance of central receiver systems having optimum heliostate fields and receiver aperture areas as a function of receiver thermal loss per unit area of receiver aperture. The

Charles L. Pitman

1983-01-01

307

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030m2g-1 (ref. 2). Until recently, the

Hee K. Chae; Diana Y. Siberio-Pérez; Jaheon Kim; YongBok Go; Mohamed Eddaoudi; Adam J. Matzger; Michael O'Keeffe; Omar M. Yaghi

2004-01-01

308

Polarized diffuse emission at 2.3 GHz in a high Galactic latitude area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized diffuse emission observations at 2.3 GHz in a high Galactic latitude area are presented. The 2°× 2° field, centred at (alpha= 5h, delta=-49°), is located in the region observed by the BOOMERanG experiment. Our observations were carried out with the Parkes radio telescope, and represent the highest frequency detection to date in a low-emission area. Because of the weaker

E. Carretti; D. McConnell; N. M. McClure-Griffiths; G. Bernardi; S. Cortiglioni; S. Poppi

2005-01-01

309

Study on catalyst carrier nano- ? -alumina with high specific surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nano-alumina with high specific area was prepared using a homogeneous precipitation method with titanium dioxide and barium\\u000a oxide as modifying additives. Results showed that 5 wt% TiO2 or BaO added in the alumina gels can decrease the particle size and increase the specific area, but excessive TiO2 or BaO could deteriorate the properties of ?-Al2O3.

Fang Li; Kejing Xu; Cheng Dong; Juan Chen

2008-01-01

310

High correlation between winter precipitation and air temperature in heavy-snowfall areas in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term data of winter air temperature and precipitation were analyzed and the correlation between them investigated in order to identify the factors influencing snow reduction during the recent warmer winters in the heavy-snowfall areas in Japan. A high negative correlation between winter precipitation and air temperature was identified in the heavy-snowfall areas on the Sea of Japan side in the

Yukari Takeuchi; Yasoichi Endo; Shigeki Murakami

2008-01-01

311

Large-area production of yttria-stabilized zirconia by pulsed laser deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small size of most of the present-day films produced by PLD (up to few cm2) is not only a general limiting factor for applications in many scientific and technical fields, but is also problematic for studies of samples for which edge effects may play an important role. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films with a uniform thickness have been deposited at different distances from the target and at different oxygen background pressure in the largearea PLD facility at Risø National Laboratory. Films of uniform thickness up to 300 nm and 1200 nm over an area with a diameter of more than 90 mm were achieved. Depending on the oxygen background pressure the YSZ films were found to grow in a highly oriented manner on the Si wafer.

Pryds, N.; Schou, J.; Linderoth, S.

2007-04-01

312

Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of china.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046

Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Fei-Fei; Chen, Shi-Wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-Peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-Mei

2014-07-01

313

Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

1998-01-01

314

Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

Giulianetti, Demo J.

2001-01-01

315

Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V. V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

2011-01-01

316

High surface area nanocrystalline hausmannite synthesized by a solvent-free route  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? High surface area Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles obtained by a solvent-free low temperature route. ? 3,6,9-Trioxadecanoic acid allows to obtain nanocrystalline hausmannite. ? Tape casted electrodes show up to 300 mAh g{sup ?1} capacity after more than 40 cycles at a C/3 rate. ? Upper cut off voltage strongly influences capacity retention upon cycling at high C rates. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline high surface area Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder was obtained at low temperature by a solvent-free route. The precursor was a mixture of manganese (II) acetate, 3,6,9-trioxadecanoic acid (TODA) and ammonium acetate that were intimately mixed by grounding in an agate mortar. Nanocrystalline Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} was obtained by thermal treatment at 120 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared characterization confirmed the formation of the hausmannite phase. The as-prepared mesoporous material has high specific surface area (120 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}). The performances of tape casted Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanopowder electrodes were investigated as anode material for lithium ion batteries. High capacity values were achieved at diverse C rates. Capacity fading was found to be dependent on the upper cut off voltage, the presence of a plateau at 2.25 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li being detrimental for long term cyclability.

Herrera-Miranda, Daniel [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ponrouch, Alexandre [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Pons, Josefina [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Domingo, Concepción [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)] [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Palacín, M. Rosa, E-mail: rosa.palacin@icmab.es [Institut de Ciència dels Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Ayllón, José A., E-mail: joseantonio.ayllon@uab.es [Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

2012-09-15

317

Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e ?A of Xe37+, 1 e ?A of Xe43+, and 0.16 e ?A of Ne-like Xe44+. To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e ?A of Bi31+, 22 e ?A of Bi41+, and 1.5 e ?A of Bi50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Cao, Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.

2010-02-01

318

New findings: a very high natural radiation area in Afra hot springs, Jordan.  

PubMed

A high natural radiation zone was investigated for the first time in Afra hot springs of Jordan. The radiation levels were measured using a portable Geiger-Muller counter and an Na(Tl) detector. The measured absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 10 to 1800 nGy h(-1), suggesting that the concentration of natural radioactive materials is very high compared with their normal abundance in crustal rocks. A single high-radiation zone was also found in a nearby area where a gamma radiation dose rate of 4.0 mGy h(-1) was measured. On the basis of this measurement, the area was marked as a high-radiation zone. This region is far from tourist areas and not easily reached. No intervention measures are needed to protect people because the spa area is not well inhabited, having only daily visitors (average frequency of 10 days per year per individual). The dose received by workers in the spa area should be considered and the worker should be monitored by personal radiation dosimeters, such as thermoluminescent dosimeters. PMID:19297533

Ajlouni, Abdul-Wali; Abdelsalam, Manal; Abu-Haija, Osama; Joudeh, Bassam

2009-01-01

319

Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

2000-03-08

320

Conceptual Analytical Production of High Power Fuel and High Fiber Protein through Sensible Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural material (corn, wheat, barley, oat, rye and molasses) was subjected to fermentation to produce high fiber protein (HFP). The product could be suitable for human consumption. Plus the liquid protein by-product could be used for animal feed...

M. Arshad

1990-01-01

321

Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating temperature and pressure, and the air to product O{sub 2} ratio. In this study, the maximum system efficiency is 56.3%. (authors)

Ogawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kasai, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuya [Toshiba Corporation: 1 Toshiba-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8511 (Japan)

2007-07-01

322

Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: Prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.  

PubMed

We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ? 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice. PMID:24929722

Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

2014-09-01

323

Trypanotolerance, an option for sustainable livestock production in areas at risk from trypanosomosis.  

PubMed

Trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints on animal production in areas of Africa which have the greatest potential for significant increases in domestic livestock populations and livestock productivity. While the eradication of trypanosomosis from the entire continent is an unrealistic goal, considerable effort has been invested in the control of this disease through the use of trypanocidal drugs, management of the vector and exploitation of the genetic resistance exhibited by indigenous breeds. There is little hope that a conventional, anti-infection vaccine will be produced in the near future. Drug resistance is developing faster than generally thought. The control of the tsetse fly has been attempted over many decades. The decreasing efficacy of available trypanocidal drugs and the difficulties of sustaining tsetse control increase the imperative need to enhance trypanotolerance through selective breeding, either within breeds or through cross-breeding. Trypanotolerance has been defined as the relative capacity of an animal to control the development of the parasites and to limit their pathological effects, the most prominent of which is anaemia. A major constraint on selection for trypanotolerance in cattle, for both within-breed and cross-breeding programmes, has been the absence of practical reliable markers of resistance or susceptibility. Distinct humoral immune response to trypanosome infection is the major feature of bovine trypanotolerance. The role that these responses play in the control of infection or disease is being addressed by ongoing research, but remains a matter of speculation at present. Results in recent years have shown that packed cell volume (PCV) in particular and parasitaemia, the two principal indicators of trypanotolerance, are strongly correlated to animal performance. However, although direct effects of trypanosome infections on PCV and growth are obvious, more sensitive diagnostic methods for reflecting parasite control are required so that individual animals can be categorised reliably for their parasite control capability. One key finding is the major contribution made by each of the indicators evaluated to the overall trypanotolerance variance. Preliminary genetic parameters for PCV provide evidence that trypanotolerance is not only a breed characteristic but is also a heritable trait within the N'Dama population; this brings new opportunities for improved productivity through selection for trypanotolerance. More reliable estimation of genetic parameters of the indicators may well show that these parameters must be handled simultaneously for optimal progress. This would require diagnostics for assessing parasite control capability that identify trypanosome species more accurately, especially in mixed infections. A major advantage of trypanotolerant livestock, particularly N'Dama cattle, is the resistance or adaptation of this breed to many of the important pathogenes which prevail in the sub-humid and humid tropics. Research on practical indicators of resistance to these conditions will be required to establish relevant integrated strategies based on disease-resistant livestock. Selective breeding will require the integration of the traits that farmers hold important for their production systems. PMID:9638808

d'Ieteren, G D; Authié, E; Wissocq, N; Murray, M

1998-04-01

324

The investigation of ground temperatures in high mountain areas using IButtons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain areas are characterized by extreme variability in elevation, exposure to solar radiation and ground material. Many physical processes, that control ground temperatures and thereby permafrost, are highly affected by this variability. An improved understanding of permafrost and related processes in mountain areas therefore requires investigation at high spatial resolutions. The aim of this project is to investigate ground surface temperatures in high mountain areas. We focus on the effects of topography and local ground properties on surface temperatures at high spatial and temporal resolutions. We distributed 390 mini temperature logger IButtons (www.maxim-ic.com) at Corvatsch in the Upper Engadin (Switzerland) logging surface temperatures at a 3 hour time step. This distributed network of temperature loggers is planned to operate for 3 years. The programming, distribution and recovery of many IButton devices in high mountain areas is very time-consuming. It requires a systematic recording and storage of relevant metadata such as the geographic coordinates of each IButton as well as other topographic characteristics. To easily handle these requirements and to stream-line field work, we developed an effective working procedure and supporting software to program and read-out IButtons (precision, time resolution, etc.) and to store the temperature measurements in a database together with the relevant metadata. The possibility to connect a GPS device and digital camera to this system makes the recording of meta-data and the reclamation of loggers very efficient. We present the project together with the main tools of the developed software.

Fiddes, Joel; Gubler, Stefanie; Gruber, Stephan; Hungerbühler, Guido; Knecht, Oliver; Sheikh, Suhel; Keller, Matthias; Beutel, Jan

2010-05-01

325

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

2005-10-01

326

Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522  

SciTech Connect

'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 ?Sv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 ?Sv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 ?Sv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The seasonal dependence of radon activity concentration is observed in the air of workshops (radon levels are lower in winter in comparison with spring-summer period). - in drinking water, intervention levels by gross alpha activity and by some radionuclides, in particular by Rn-222, are in excess. Annual effective dose of internal exposure due to ingestion of such water will be 0.14-0.28 mSv. (authors)

Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)] [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

327

Running coupling corrections to high energy inclusive gluon production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate running coupling corrections for the lowest-order gluon production cross section in high energy hadronic and nuclear scattering using the BLM scale-setting prescription. In the final answer for the cross section the three powers of fixed coupling are replaced by seven factors of running coupling, five in the numerator and two in the denominator, forming a 'septumvirate' of running couplings, analogous to the 'triumvirate' of running couplings found earlier for the small- x BFKL/BK/JIMWLK evolution equations. It is interesting to note that the two running couplings in the denominator of the 'septumvirate' run with complex-valued momentum scales, which are complex conjugates of each other, such that the production cross section is indeed real. We use our lowest-order result to conjecture how running coupling corrections may enter the full fixed-coupling k-factorization formula for gluon production which includes nonlinear small- x evolution.

Horowitz, W. A.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.

2011-01-01

328

Dilepton production phenomena in high energy hadronic collisions  

SciTech Connect

Experiments over the last few years have given rise to a blizzard of new and interesting results with regard to the production of various dileptons in high energy hadronic collisions. An attempt has here been made on the basis of some new ideas about the structure of hadrons and thus on a newly proposed version of the multiple production model to explain some of the crucial features in connection with the various multiplicity--ratios, cross--section ratios and the average values of the transverse momenta of the produced dileptons. In the backdrop of the hadron--hadron and lepton--hadron collisions, the model for dilopton production proposed here has some degree of generality which is one of its main features.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

1984-03-01

329

Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated from Si isotopic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive diatom-bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the Plateau biogenic silica production fluxes are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 in average), silica dissolution rates were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (Si:C and Si:N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate the primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution to production ratios (D:P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustained most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS-expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution on the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to a higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling between H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross-Si:N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the HNLC area, likely due to different diatoms communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long time scales does not necessarily decrease Si:N uptake ratios as suggested by the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis. Finally, we propose the first seasonal estimate of Si-biogeochemical budget above the Kerguelen Plateau based on direct measurements. This study points out that naturally iron fertilized areas of the Southern Ocean could sustain very high regimes of biogenic silica production, similar to those observed in highly productive upwelling systems.

Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

2014-05-01

330

Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total daily E was unaffected by position in the interrow. Under wet soil conditions, wind speed and direction affected soil evaporation. Row orientation interacted with wind direction in this study such that aerodynamic resistance to E usually increased when wind direction was perpendicular to row direction; but this interaction needs further study because it appeared to be lessened under higher wind speeds.

Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.

2012-12-01

331

Presence of arsenic in agricultural products from arsenic-endemic areas and strategies to reduce arsenic intake in rural villages.  

PubMed

About 100 million rural people in Asia are exposed to arsenic (As)-polluted drinking water and agricultural products. Total and inorganic arsenic (t-As and i-As) intake mainly depend on the quality of drinking and cooking waters, and amounts of seafood and rice consumed. The main problems occur in countries with poor water quality where the population depends on rice for their diet, and their t-As and i-As intake is high as a result of growing and cooking rice in contaminated water. Workable solutions to remove As from water and breeding rice cultivars with low As accumulation are being sought. In the meantime, simple recommendations for processing and cooking foods will help to reduce As intake. For instance, cooking using high volumes of As-free water may be a cheap way of reducing As exposure in rural populations. It is necessary to consider the effects of cooking and processing on t-As and i-As to obtain a realistic view of the risks associated with intake of As in As-endemic areas. PMID:19382147

Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Vázquez-Araújo, Laura; Burló, Francisco; Sengupta, Bhaskar

2009-05-01

332

Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa, India.  

PubMed

This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa, India. This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m(-3) and the below detection level to 77 Bq m(-3), respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m(-3), preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. PMID:20833682

Ramola, R C; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Choubey, V M; Sagar, D Vidya; Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Sahoo, S K; Janik, M; Ishikawa, T

2010-10-01

333

Use of Guar By-Products in High-Production Laying Hen Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A5 × 5 Latin square experiment was con- ductedtoevaluatetheeffectoffeedinglowconcentrations of guar germ or a combination of guar germ and hull (guar meal) in high-production laying hen diets. A total of 125 Lohmann laying hens (21 wk old) of similar BW were randomly assigned to 5 blocks. Each block was di- vided into 5 experimental units, consisting of 5 hens per

O. Gutierrez; C. Zhang; A. L. Cartwright; J. B. Care; C. A. Bailey

334

[Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].  

PubMed

A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections. PMID:7447587

Chávez, J F

1980-03-01

335

Passive sampling of atmospheric organochlorine compounds by SPMDs in a remote high mountain area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been deployed in high mountain areas (Central Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) over a period of 1.5 years. These devices were filled with triolein and have been deployed at three altitudes, 1600, 2240 and 2600 m above sea level. Performance reference compounds were used to calibrate their sampling rates. The SPMD results were validated by comparison to active air sampling with high-volume systems. Sampling rates between 0.55 and 1.3 m 3 d -1 were estimated from the dissipation of PCB155. Atmospheric concentrations measured by SPMDs were in good agreement with the levels obtained by high-volume sampling. These findings suggest that SPMDs can be useful monitoring systems for the atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine compounds in remote high mountain areas.

Van drooge, Barend L.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Booij, Kees; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi

336

Detailed f1, f2 Area Study of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions in the Frog  

PubMed Central

Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are weak sounds emitted from the ear when it is stimulated with two tones. They are a manifestation of the nonlinear mechanics of the inner ear. As such, they provide a noninvasive tool for the study of the inner ear mechanics involved in the transduction of sound into nerve fiber activity. Based on the DPOAE phase behavior as a function of frequency, it is currently believed that mammalian DPOAEs are the combination of two components, each generated by a different mechanism located at a different location in the cochlea. In frogs, instead of a cochlea, two separate hearing papillae are present. Of these, the basilar papilla (BP) is a relatively simple structure that essentially functions as a single auditory filter. A two-mechanism model of DPOAE generation is not expected to apply to the BP. In contrast, the other hearing organ, the amphibian papilla (AP), exhibits a tonotopic organization. In the past it has been suggested that this papilla supports a traveling wave in its tectorial membrane. Therefore, a two-mechanism model of DPOAE generation may be applicable for DPOAEs from the AP. In the present study we report on the amplitude and phase of DPOAEs in the frog ear in a detailed f1, f2 area study. The result is markedly different from that in the mammalian cochlea. It indicates that DPOAEs generated by neither papilla agree with the two-mechanism traveling wave model. This confirms our expectation for the BP and does not support the hypothesized presence of a mechanical traveling wave in the AP.

Narins, Peter M.; van Dijk, Pim

2005-01-01

337

Multiparticle production and thermalization in high-energy QCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that multiparticle production in high energy hadron and nuclear collisions can be considered as proceeding through the production of gluons in the background classical field. In this approach we derive the gluon spectrum immediately after the collision and find that at high energies it is parametrically enhanced by ln(1/x) with respect to the quasiclassical result (x is the Bjorken variable). We show that the produced gluon spectrum becomes thermal (in three dimensions) with an effective temperature determined by the saturation momentum Qs,T=cQs/2? during the time ˜1/T; we estimate c=2?/2?1.2. Although this result by itself does not imply that the gluon spectrum will remain thermal at later times, it has an interesting applications to heavy ion collisions. In particular, we discuss the possibility of Bose-Einstein condensation of the produced gluon pairs and estimate the viscosity of the produced gluon system.

Kharzeev, Dmitri; Levin, Eugene; Tuchin, Kirill

2007-04-01

338

Heavy-resonance production in high-energy nuclear collisions  

SciTech Connect

We estimate freezeout conditions for [ital s], [ital c], and [ital b] quarks in high energy nuclear collisions. Freezeout is due either to loss of thermal contact, or to particles wandering'' out of the region of hot matter. We then develop a thermal recombination model in which both single-particle (quark and antiquark) and two-particle (quark-antiquark) densities are conserved. Conservation of two-particle densities is necessary because quarks and antiquarks are always produced in coincidence, so that the local two-particle density can be much larger than the product of the single-particle densities. We use the freezeout conditions and recombination model to discuss heavy resonance production at zero baryon density in high energy nuclear collisions.

Seibert, D.; Fai, G. (Center for Nuclear Research, Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States))

1994-11-01

339

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

340

Study on the performance of large area MRPC with high position resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), which is mostly developed in high energy physics domain with excellent time resolution, is also highlighted in imaging applications. A set of 50cm×50cm large area MRPC with high position resolution was successfully developed by our group and different experiments have been done to test its performances. Cosmic ray muons were used to do the test

Yue Qian; Wu Yucheng; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

341

Large area high temperature hard X-ray spectroscopy detectors for space experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quantum efficiency, good energy resolution and room temperature operation make Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) pixel detector an unique advantage for space experiments. We present here the results of two large area CZT detector systems; one with external ADC (Analog-to-Digital Converter) and high power Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs)(Ideas) having faster parallel readout system and the other with on-pixel ADC and

Mayukh Pahari; J. S. Yadav; Suprabha A. Mishra; Amishkumar Pandya

2010-01-01

342

Probing Higgs couplings with high p T Higgs production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible extensions of the Standard Model predict modifications of the Higgs couplings to gluons and to the SM top quark. The values of these two couplings can, in general, be independent. We discuss a way to measure these interactions by studying the Higgs production at high p T within an effective field theory formalism. We also propose an observable r ± with reduced theoretical errors and suggest its experimental interpretation.

Azatov, Aleksandr; Paul, Ayan

2014-01-01

343

Bioequivalence Approaches for Highly Variable Drugs and Drug Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, concerns have been expressed increasingly regarding the difficulty for highly variable drugs and drug\\u000a products (%CV greater than 30) to meet the standard bioequivalence (BE) criteria using a reasonable number of study subjects.\\u000a The topic has been discussed on numerous occasions at national and international meetings. Despite the lack of a universally\\u000a accepted solution for the

Sam H. Haidar; Barbara Davit; Mei-Ling Chen; Dale Conner; LaiMing Lee; Qian H. Li; Robert Lionberger; Fairouz Makhlouf; Devvrat Patel; Donald J. Schuirmann; Lawrence X. Yu

2008-01-01

344

Production of high density proton currents for colliding beam accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A head-on collision of two 15 GeV protons produces an energy in the centre of mass equivalent to about 500 GeV with the target at rest. To achieve significant production of secondaries, intense beams of particles are required, and this is obtained by `stacking' successive pulses of particles at high energy. Limitations imposed by the accelerating system are examined and

J. W. Burren; D. Morgan; W. Walkinshaw

1959-01-01

345

Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. Objective To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Methods Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. Results The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. Conclusion The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents.

de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; Mejia, Jorge; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine; Fazan, Rubens; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius

2013-01-01

346

New England: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the New England High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the New England (NE) HIDTA region remained fairly consistent during the past year. Opioid abuse - primarily of South American he...

2011-01-01

347

Los Angeles (California) High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Los Angeles (California) High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The drug threat to the Los Angeles HIDTA region has changed little over the past year. Wholesale quantities of most illicit drugs are widely a...

2011-01-01

348

Selection of insulation level of HVAC power lines operating in high altitude polluted area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a method for choosing the insulation level of power lines operating in a high-altitude polluted area on the basis of an artificial pollution test. The test was carried out in a pressure chamber in which the air pressure could be controlled. The chamber was used to simulate air pressure for different altitudes. It was found

X. Liu; J. Bai

1988-01-01

349

The Economic Benefits of Reducing High School Dropout Rates in the Detroit, Michigan, Metro Area  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to better understand the various economic benefits that a particular urban area could expect were it to reduce its number of high school dropouts, the Alliance for Excellent Education, with the generous support of State Farm[R], has developed a sophisticated economic model in partnership with Economic Modeling Specialists Inc. The…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

2009-01-01

350

Adsorption of bentazon and propanil from aqueous solutions at the high area activated carbon-cloth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Removal of the pesticides bentazon and propanil from single and bisolute solutions by adsorption at the high area activated carbon-cloth was investigated. Kinetics of adsorption was followed and adsorption isotherms of the two pesticides were determined. A special V-shaped cell with an UV cuvette attached to it was used for adsorption studies. With this cell it was possible to follow

Erol Ayranci; Numan Hoda

2004-01-01

351

Analysis of lung cancer gender differences and age structure in the high prevalence areas of Xiamen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence rate and mortality of lung cancer continuously rise, and lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death deaths. Detecting the high prevalence areas of lung cancer can effectively provide clue for detecting its influential factors. Taking the incidence rate of lung cancer in Xiamen as an example, this paper adopted Moran's I and Getis's G

Cuiping Wang; Xinhu Li; Long Dai; Guoqin Zhang; Liling Gao; Qianjun Zhao

2011-01-01

352

Voltage unbalance vulnerability areas in power systems supplying high speed railway  

Microsoft Academic Search

High speed railway loads fed by the three phase power system represent an important source of unbalance perturbation in the grid. The degree of voltage and current unbalances depends on the train motion, load condition and power system supply configuration. The present paper deals with the identification procedure of a vulnerability area in which the voltage unbalance presents values that

N. Golovanov; G. C. Lazaroiu; M. Roscia; D. Zaninelli

2005-01-01

353

Strong and tough cellulose nanopaper with high specific surface area and porosity.  

PubMed

In order to better understand nanostructured fiber networks, effects from high specific surface area of nanofibers are important to explore. For cellulose networks, this has so far only been achieved in nonfibrous regenerated cellulose aerogels. Here, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used to prepare high surface area nanopaper structures, and the mechanical properties are measured in tensile tests. The water in NFC hydrogels is exchanged to liquid CO2, supercritical CO2, and tert-butanol, followed by evaporation, supercritical drying, and sublimation, respectively. The porosity range is 40-86%. The nanofiber network structure in nanopaper is characterized by FE-SEM and nitrogen adsorption, and specific surface area is determined. High-porosity TEMPO-oxidized NFC nanopaper (56% porosity) prepared by critical point drying has a specific surface area as high as 482 m(2) g(-1). The mechanical properties of this nanopaper structure are better than for many thermoplastics, but at a significantly lower density of only 640 kg m(-3). The modulus is 1.4 GPa, tensile strength 84 MPa, and strain-to-failure 17%. Compared with water-dried nanopaper, the material is softer with substantiallly different deformation behavior. PMID:21888417

Sehaqui, Houssine; Zhou, Qi; Ikkala, Olli; Berglund, Lars A

2011-10-10

354

Fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems via the integration of high surface area glancing angle deposition thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) coated with a high surface area thin film are fabricated. Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is used to uniformly deposit high surface area, nanostructured SiO2 films on top of released NEMS. The resonance frequencies and quality factors are measured to assess the potential of the high surface area NEMS for sensing experiments. Resonance frequencies of coated cantilevers, although reduced by mass loading, can be predicted accurately using our derived model. Compressive stress makes the resonance frequencies of coated doubly-clamped beams difficult to predict. The quality factors of the coated NEMS are reduced by one order of magnitude by a quasi-continuous layer at the base of the GLAD film, which also introduces an estimated compressive stress of 5.3–9.3 MPa. The limit of detection is demonstrated to be ?2 pg cm?2. With this successful proof-of-concept demonstration, we anticipate the future use of these devices as high surface area gravimetric mass sensors for applications such as gas chromatography.

Westwood, J. N.; Sauer, V. T. K.; Kwan, J. K.; Hiebert, W. K.; Sit, J. C.

2014-06-01

355

Analysis of hazard areas associated with high-pressure natural-gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rupture of a high-pressure natural-gas pipeline can lead to outcomes that can pose a significant threat to people and property in the immediate vicinity of the failure location. The dominant hazards are thermal radiation from sustained fire and collapse of buildings from explosion inside or in a partially confined area enclosed by buildings. A simplified equation has been developed

Y.-D. Jo; B. J. Ahn

2002-01-01

356

Adaptive Algorithms for Feedback-Based Flow Control in High Speed, Wide-Area ATM Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a class of flow control algorithms for the adaptive allocation ofbandwidths to virtual connections (VC) in high speed, wide area ATM networks. Thefeedback rate to the source from the network is parsimonious, with each feedback bit indicatingwhether the buffer at a distant switch is above or below a threshold. The servicediscipline at the switch is First-Come-First-Served. The

Flavio Bonomi; Debasis Mitra; Judith B. Seery

1995-01-01

357

Criticality safety evaluation for Portsmouth X-345 High-Enriched-Uranium storage area  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for the High-Enriched Uranium storage area of the X-345 building of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The effects of loss of moderation or mass control are examined for storage units in or out of the storage receptacles. Recommendations are made for decreasing criticality hazards under some conditions of storage or handling considered to be hazardous.

Koponen, B.L.

1993-09-20

358

Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

2012-01-01

359

Lake County (Illinois) High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Lake County (Illinois) High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The drug threat in the Lake County HIDTA region has increased over the past year because of rising levels of cocaine, heroin, and ice methamphet...

2011-01-01

360

Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Puerto Rico/U.S. Islands High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Puerto Rico/U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/USVI) HIDTA has remained relatively consistent over the past year. Drug tra...

2011-01-01

361

Middle- and High-School Content Area Teachers' Perceptions about Literacy Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle- and high-school content area teachers' beliefs about literacy teaching and learning were investigated during the initial implementation phase of a year-long content literacy professional development project. Teacher interview data were used to examine factors that contribute to and/or inhibit teachers' successful implementation of content…

Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Burns, Leslie David; Callaway, Patricia

2009-01-01

362

Power scaling of cw high power fiber lasers based on large-mode-area fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on a power scaling of stable cw ytterbium-doped high power fiber laser with 170 W output power based on large-mode-area fibers. Single transverse mode output is obtained from a 28 ?m core diameter low-numerical aperture fiber.

J. Limpert; A. Liem; T. Schreiber; H. Zellmer; A. Tunnermann

2003-01-01

363

A Study of Economic Education in St. Paul [Minnesota] and Area High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Economic Education Center of the College of St. Thomas conducted this survey of social studies and business education programs in the St. Paul area high schools to procure information for determining (1) the types of services needed by classroom teachers in the field of economics and (2) the nature of programs which should be offered by the…

Selim, M.A.

364

Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

Esser, Robert

365

A Seminar Report on Implementing Distributive Education Project Laboratories in High Schools and Area Vocational Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help high school and area vocational center distributive education teacher-coordinators carry out methods of project-oriented and project laboratory instruction, Western Michigan University conducted three one-day seminars for 40 distributive educators. Presentations were: (1) "Implementation of Project Laboratories" by J.A. Daenzer, (2)…

Trimpe, Adrian, Ed.; Dannenberg, Raymond A., Ed.

366

Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

367

PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping  

SciTech Connect

Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D. [Ion Beam Services, ZI Peynier-Rousset, Rue Gaston Imbert prolongee, 13790 Peynier (France)

2011-01-07

368

High Yield Production Process for Shigella Outer Membrane Particles  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacteria naturally shed particles that consist of outer membrane lipids, outer membrane proteins, and soluble periplasmic components. These particles have been proposed for use as vaccines but the yield has been problematic. We developed a high yielding production process of genetically derived outer membrane particles from the human pathogen Shigella sonnei. Yields of approximately 100 milligrams of membrane-associated proteins per liter of fermentation were obtained from cultures of S. sonnei ?tolR ?galU at optical densities of 30–45 in a 5 L fermenter. Proteomic analysis of the purified particles showed the preparation to primarily contain predicted outer membrane and periplasmic proteins. These were highly immunogenic in mice. The production of these outer membrane particles from high density cultivation of bacteria supports the feasibility of scaling up this approach as an affordable manufacturing process. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of using this process with other genetic manipulations e.g. abolition of O antigen synthesis and modification of the lipopolysaccharide structure in order to modify the immunogenicity or reactogenicity of the particles. This work provides the basis for a large scale manufacturing process of Generalized Modules of Membrane Antigens (GMMA) for production of vaccines from Gram-negative bacteria.

Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Colucci, Anna Maria; Maggiore, Luana; Sanzone, Silvia; Rossi, Omar; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Pesce, Isabella; Caboni, Mariaelena; Norais, Nathalie; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

2012-01-01

369

Production of activated carbon from organic by-products from the alcoholic beverage industry: Surface area and hardness optimization by using the response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of activated carbon to remove pollutants from water in packed column systems is dependent on granular material with mechanical strength sufficient to avoid attrition caused by stream flow. Therefore, an appropriate balance between surface area and hardness is essential when using activated carbon in real systems. The purpose of this research is to determine the optimal production conditions

Cesar Nieto-Delgado; Jose Rene Rangel-Mendez

2011-01-01

370

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-04-21

371

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag.

Hubble, David H. (Export, PA); Ulrich, Klaus H. (Duisburg, DE)

1998-01-01

372

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-09-22

373

Status and research of highly efficient hydrogen production through high temperature steam electrolysis at INET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen generation through high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) has recently received increasingly international interest in the large-scale, highly efficient nuclear hydrogen production field. The research and development of HTSE technology was initiated in INET of Tsinghua University from 2005 as one of the approaches in National Key Special Projects for HTGR which aims at

Yu Bo; Zhang Wenqiang; Xu Jingming; Chen Jing

2010-01-01

374

[Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].  

PubMed

Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840

Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

2008-11-01

375

Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in highly endemic areas.  

PubMed Central

This paper uses meta-analysis of published data and a deterministic mathematical model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission to describe the patterns of HBV infection in high endemicity areas. We describe the association between the prevalence of carriers and a simple measure of the rate of infection, the age at which half the population have been infected (A50), and assess the contribution of horizontal and perinatal transmission to this association. We found that the two main hyper-endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have similar prevalences of carriers and values of A50, and that there is a negative nonlinear relationship between A50 and the prevalence of carriers in high endemicity areas (Spearman's Rank, P = 0.0086). We quantified the risk of perinatal transmission and the age-dependent of infection to allow a comparison between the main hyper-endemic areas. East Asia was found to have higher prevalences of HBeAg positive mothers and a greater risk of perinatal transmission from HBeAg positive mothers than sub-Saharan Africa, though the differences were not statistically significant. However, the two areas have similar magnitudes and age-dependent rates of horizontal transmission. Results of a simple compartmental model suggest that similar rates of horizontal transmission are sufficient to generate the similar patterns between A50 and the prevalences of carriers. Interrupting horizontal transmission by mass immunization is expected to have a significant, nonlinear impact on the rate of acquisition of new carriers.

Edmunds, W. J.; Medley, G. F.; Nokes, D. J.; O'Callaghan, C. J.; Whittle, H. C.; Hall, A. J.

1996-01-01

376

CORNPLANTER ROADLESS AREA, PENNSYLVANIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cornplanter Roadless Area is on the west shore of Allegheny Reservoir, Pennsylvania, in an area containing flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Devonian and Mississippian age. Based on mineral-resource studies, these rocks have a substantiated potential for natural gas and a probable potential for oil in the roadless area. Other identified mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, conglomeratic sandstone suitable for high silica uses, and shale suitable for production of clay products.

Lesure, Frank, G.; Welsh, Jr. , Robert, A.

1984-01-01

377

Diffusion-weighted imaging-based probabilistic segmentation of high- and low-proliferative areas in high-grade gliomas  

PubMed Central

Abstract The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) correlates inversely with tumor proliferation rates. High-grade gliomas are typically heterogeneous and the delineation of areas of high and low proliferation is impeded by partial volume effects and blurred borders. Commonly used manual delineation is further impeded by potential overlap with cerebrospinal fluid and necrosis. Here we present an algorithm to reproducibly delineate and probabilistically quantify the ADC in areas of high and low proliferation in heterogeneous gliomas, resulting in a reproducible quantification in regions of tissue inhomogeneity. We used an expectation maximization (EM) clustering algorithm, applied on a Gaussian mixture model, consisting of pure superpositions of Gaussian distributions. Soundness and reproducibility of this approach were evaluated in 10 patients with glioma. High- and low-proliferating areas found using the clustering correspond well with conservative regions of interest drawn using all available imaging data. Systematic placement of model initialization seeds shows good reproducibility of the method. Moreover, we illustrate an automatic initialization approach that completely removes user-induced variability. In conclusion, we present a rapid, reproducible and automatic method to separate and quantify heterogeneous regions in gliomas.

Fritzsche, Klaus H.; Thieke, Christian; Klein, Jan; Parzer, Peter; Weber, Marc-Andre; Stieltjes, Bram

2012-01-01

378

Video-rate structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput imaging of large tissue areas.  

PubMed

We report the development of a structured illumination microscopy instrument specifically designed for the requirements for high-area-throughput, optically-sectioned imaging of large, fluorescently-stained tissue specimens. The system achieves optical sectioning frame-rates of up to 33 Hz (and pixel sampling rates of up to 138.4 MHz), by combining a fast, ferroelectric spatial light modulator for pattern generation with the latest large-format, high frame-rate scientific CMOS camera technology. Using a 10X 0.45 NA objective and a 7 mm/sec scan stage, we demonstrate 4.4 cm(2)/min area-throughput rates in bright tissue-simulating phantoms, and 2 cm(2)/min area-throughput rates in thick, highly-absorbing, fluorescently-stained muscle tissue, with 1.3 ?m lateral resolution. We demonstrate high-contrast, high-resolution imaging of a fluorescently-stained 30.4 cm(2) bovine muscle specimen in 15 minutes comprising 7.55 gigapixels, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach for gigapixel imaging of large tissues in short timeframes, such as would be needed for intraoperative imaging of tumor resection specimens. PMID:24575333

Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C; Wang, Mei; Elfer, Katherine N; Brown, J Quincy

2014-02-01

379

Video-rate structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput imaging of large tissue areas  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a structured illumination microscopy instrument specifically designed for the requirements for high-area-throughput, optically-sectioned imaging of large, fluorescently-stained tissue specimens. The system achieves optical sectioning frame-rates of up to 33 Hz (and pixel sampling rates of up to 138.4 MHz), by combining a fast, ferroelectric spatial light modulator for pattern generation with the latest large-format, high frame-rate scientific CMOS camera technology. Using a 10X 0.45 NA objective and a 7 mm/sec scan stage, we demonstrate 4.4 cm2/min area-throughput rates in bright tissue-simulating phantoms, and 2 cm2/min area-throughput rates in thick, highly-absorbing, fluorescently-stained muscle tissue, with 1.3 ?m lateral resolution. We demonstrate high-contrast, high-resolution imaging of a fluorescently-stained 30.4 cm2 bovine muscle specimen in 15 minutes comprising 7.55 gigapixels, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach for gigapixel imaging of large tissues in short timeframes, such as would be needed for intraoperative imaging of tumor resection specimens.

Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C.; Wang, Mei; Elfer, Katherine N.; Brown, J. Quincy

2014-01-01

380

Assembly of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals into Macroscopic Aerogel Monoliths with High Surface Area.  

PubMed

Aerogels with their low density and high surface area are fascinating materials. However, their advantageous morphology is still far from being fully exploited owing to their limited compositional variety and low crystallinity. Replacing the sol-gel process by a particle-based assembly route is a powerful alternative to expand the accessible functionalities of aerogels. A strategy is presented for the controlled destabilization of concentrated dispersions of BaTiO3 nanoparticles, resulting in the assembly of the fully crystalline building blocks into cylindrically shaped monolithic gels, thereby combining the inherent properties of ternary oxides with the highly porous microstructure of aerogels. The obtained aerogels showed an unprecedentedly high surface area of over 300?m(2) ?g(-1) . PMID:24853124

Rechberger, Felix; Heiligtag, Florian J; Süess, Martin J; Niederberger, Markus

2014-06-23

381

Development of low-cost, high energy-per-unit-area solar cell modules. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of two hexagonal solar cell process sequences, a laser-scribing process technique for scribing hexagonal and modified hexagonal solar cells, a large throughput diffusion process, and two surface macrostructure processes suitable for large scale production are described. Experimental analysis was made on automated spin-on antireflective coating equipment and high pressure wafer cleaning equipment. Six hexagonal solar cell modules were

G. T. Jones; S. Chitre; S. S. Rhee

1978-01-01

382

Investigation of Relationships Between Linears, Total and Hazy Areas, and Petroleum Production in the Williston Basin: An ERTS Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery in a variety of formats was used to locate linear, tonal, and hazy features and to relate them to areas of hydrocarbon production in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, eastern M...

J. M. Erickson J. S. Street C. J. Munsell D. E. O'Brien

1975-01-01

383

Validation of a dust production model from measurements performed in semi-arid agricultural areas of Spain and Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of two processes (saltation and sandblasting) that lead to fine dust release in arid areas have recently been combined to form a dust production model (DPM), the physical bases of which are summarized. In order to validate DPM at field scale, its predictions in terms of horizontal and vertical mass fluxes are compared to direct measurements made in natural

L Gomes; J. L Rajot; S. C Alfaro; A Gaudichet

2003-01-01

384

Specific gravity — dry matter relationship and reducing sugar changes affected by potato variety, production area and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of the specific gravity-dry matter relationship in potato tubers is affected by factors such as variety, area of production and storage conditions. Previous work reported by Woodbury and Weinheimer (10) showed that regression coefficients for percent dry matter on specific gravity increased with storage length. Ross and co-workers (8) reported an increase in percent dry matter for a

William M. Agle; G. W. Woodbury

1968-01-01

385

Study on the performance of large area MRPC with high position resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC), which is mostly developed in high energy physics domain with excellent time resolution, is also highlighted in imaging applications. A set of 50 cm×50 cm large area MRPC with high position resolution was successfully developed by our group and different experiments have been done to test its performances. Cosmic ray muons were used to do the test and proper high voltage and working gas were chosen. Data analysis indicates its good detection efficiency and good position resolution, which encourages further study of its application in RPC-PET and muon tomography.

Qian, Yue; Yucheng, Wu; Yuanjing, Li; Jin, Ye; Jianping, Cheng; Yi, Wang; Jin, Li

2012-01-01

386

Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up. Semiannual subcontract report, 17 March 1994--18 September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed under a 3-year subcontract to advance Solarex`s photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing technologies, reduce its hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. During the period covered by this report, Solarex focused on (1) improving deposition of the front contact, (2) investigating alternate feed stocks for the front contact, (3) maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, (4) optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large areas, (5) optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, (6) evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and (7) optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high-potential test.

Oswald, R.; Morris, J. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

1995-03-01

387

Integrated resource-driven pig production systems in a mountainous area of Northeast India: production practices and pig performance.  

PubMed

Data on pig production system was derived through structured household interviews from a total number of 320 rural households and performance of pigs was assessed. Results revealed that the pig production system represented mixed farming based mainly on the common property resources. Majority of the pigs were reared in intensive system and fed with home made cooked feed (kitchen waste and locally available plants). The body weight of crossbred, Burmese and local pigs were 67, 65.4 and 45.6 kg, respectively at 12 months of age with average daily body weight of 184, 179 and 125 g, respectively. The overall mortality among the pigs was 17.96%. The major causes of mortality in pigs were Swine fever, Swine erysipelas, digestive disorders, nephritis and respiratory disorders. The body weight gain in pigs subjected to deworming and mineral mixture supplementation (218 g/day) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control group (178 g/day). The input output ratio was 1:1.7 for both crossbred and Burmese pigs, while the corresponding ratio for local pigs was 1:1.2. It is inferred that the smallholder resource driven pig production system is economically viable and sustainable at household level and there is enough scope to improve the smallholder resource driven pig production system. PMID:19101816

Kumaresan, A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Pathak, K A; Das, Anubrata; Bardoloi, R K

2009-10-01

388

Design and implementation of a high yield production system for recombinant expression of peptides  

PubMed Central

Background Making peptide pharmaceuticals involves challenging processes where many barriers, which include production and manufacture, need to be overcome. A non common but interesting research area is related to peptides with intracellular targets, which opens up new possibilities, allowing the modulation of processes occurring within the cell or interference with signaling pathways. However, if the bioactive sequence requires fusion to a carrier peptide to allow access into the cell, the resulting peptide could be such a length that traditional production could be difficult. The goal of the present study was the development of a flexible recombinant expression and purification system for peptides, as a contribution to the discovery and development of these potentially new drugs. Results In this work, a high throughput recombinant expression and purification system for production of cell penetrating peptides in Escherichia coli has been designed and implemented. The system designed produces target peptides in an insoluble form by fusion to a hexahistidine tagged ketosteroid isomerase which is then separated by a highly efficient thrombin cleavage reaction procedure. The expression system was tested on the anticancer peptides p53pAnt and PNC27. These peptides comprise the C-terminal region and the N-terminal region of the protein p53, respectively, fused by its carboxyl terminal extreme to the cell penetrating peptide Penetratin. High yields of purified recombinant fused peptides were obtained in both cases; nevertheless, thrombin cleavage reaction was successful only for p53pAnt peptide release. The features of the system, together with the procedure developed, allow achievement of high production yields of over 30 mg of highly pure p53pAnt peptide per g of dry cell mass. It is proposed that the system could be used for production of other peptides at a similar yield. Conclusions This study provides a system suitable for recombinant production of peptides for scientific research, including biological assays.

2014-01-01

389

Synthesis of rose-like boron nitride particles with a high specific surface area  

SciTech Connect

Novel rose-like BN nanostructures were synthesized on a large scale via a two-step procedure. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and nitrogen porosimetry. The results show that the obtained rose-like nanostructures are composed of a large amount of h-BN crystalline flakes and have a surface area of 90.31 m{sup 2}/g. A mechanism was proposed to explain the formation process of the rose-like BN nanostructures.

Yu, Hongming; Huang, Xiaoxiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wen, Guangwu, E-mail: wgw@hitwh.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai 264209 (China); Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Hongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2010-08-15

390

Superheavy Elements Production in High Intensive Neutron Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of superheavy elements production in high intensive neutron fluxes is being studied. A model of the transuranium isotopes production under conditions of pulse nucleosynthesis in a neutron flux with densities of up to ~1025 neutron/cm2 is considered. The pulse process allows us to divide it in time into two stages: the process of multiple neutron captures (with t < 10-6 s) and the subsequent ?-decay of neutron-rich nuclei. The modeling of the transuranium yields takes into account the adiabatic character of the process, the probability of delayed fission, and the emission of delayed neutrons. A target with a binary composition of 238U and 239Pu, 248Cm, and 251Cf isotopes is used to predict the yields of heavy and superheavy isotopes.

Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Lyashuk, V. I.; Panov, I. V.

2013-06-01

391

ENTROPY PRODUCTION AT HIGH ENERGY AND mu B.  

SciTech Connect

The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on Ai-A, p + y and e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at high energies and large {mu}{sub B} is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities are different at low beam energies.

STEINBERG,P.

2006-07-03

392

The 2GCHAS: A high productivity software development environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To the user, the most visible feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is its very powerful user interface. To the programmer, TAE's user interface, proc concept, standardized interface definitions, and hierarchy search provide a set of tools for rapidly prototyping or developing production software. The 2GCHAS (Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System) project has extended and enhanced these mechanisms, creating a powerful and high productivity programming environment where the 2GCHAS development environment is 2GCHAS itself and where a sustained rate for certified, documented, and tested software above 30 delivered source instructions per programmer day has been achieved. The 2GCHAS environment is not limited to helicopter analysis, but is applicable to other disciplines where software development is important.

Babb, Larry

1986-01-01

393

High-productivity alcohol fermentations using Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

A process is under development at the University of New South Wales to produce fermentation ethanol faster and more efficiently. The process is based on the micro-organism Zymomonas mobilis, which has higher specific rates of ethanol production and higher yields when compared with the traditionally used yeasts. By using hollow fibre membranes for cell recycle, high productivity continuous processes have been studied at laboratory-scale. Pilot scale evaluations (500 litres) are now in progress through Licence Agreements between the University and industry. Genetic manipulation and recombinant DNA techniques are being used to increase the ethanol tolerance and broaden the substrate range. Most recently glucoamylase genes from Aspergillus niger have been cloned into Escherichia coli K12 as part of a programme to enable direct fermentation of starch to ethanol by Z. mobilis. PMID:6100832

Skotnicki, M L; Warr, R G; Goodman, A E; Lee, K J; Rogers, P L

1983-01-01

394

Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System.  

SciTech Connect

Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically decompose CB agents over large areas (12 m2). Preliminary tests indicate that more than 5 decades (99.999%) of an Anthrax spore simulant (Bacillus globigii) were killed in less than 7 seconds of exposure to the HEAL system. When combined with a catalyst material (TiO2) the HEAL system was also effective against a chemical agent simulant, diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP). These results demonstrate the feasibility of a rapid, large-area chemical and biological decontamination method that does not require toxic or corrosive reagents or generate hazardous wastes.

Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Smith, Rob R [ORNL; Vass, Arpad Alexander [ORNL; Ilgner, Ralph H [ORNL; Brown, Gilbert M [ORNL

2008-01-01

395

Construction of high-energy-density supercapacitors from pine-cone-derived high-surface-area carbons.  

PubMed

Very high surface area activated carbons (AC) are synthesized from pine cone petals by a chemical activation process and subsequently evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications in a nonaqueous medium. The maximum specific surface area of ?3950?m(2) ?g(-1) is noted for the material treated with a 1:5 ratio of KOH to pine cone petals (PCC5), which is much higher than that reported for carbonaceous materials derived from various other biomass precursors. A symmetric supercapacitor is fabricated with PCC5 electrodes, and the results showed enhanced supercapacitive behavior with the highest energy density of ?61?Wh?kg(-1). Furthermore, outstanding cycling ability is evidenced for such a configuration, and ?90?% of the initial specific capacitance after 20,000?cycles under harsh conditions was observed. This result revealed that the pine-cone-derived high-surface-area AC can be used effectively as a promising electrode material to construct high-energy-density supercapacitors. PMID:24648276

Karthikeyan, Kaliyappan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandiyan; Lee, Sol Nip; Sun, Xueliang; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Yun Sung

2014-05-01

396

Oxygen enrichment and its application to life support systems for workers in high-altitude areas.  

PubMed

Background: Workers coming from lowland regions are at risk of developing acute mountain sickness (AMS) when working in low oxygen high-altitude areas. Objectives: The aim of this study was to improve the conditions that lead to hypoxia and ensure the safety of the high-altitude workers. We analyzed the influence of low atmospheric pressure on the oxygen enrichment process in high-altitude areas using an engineering method called low-pressure swing adsorption (LPSA). Methods: Fourteen male subjects were screened and divided into three groups by type of oxygen supply system used: (1) oxygen cylinder group; (2) LPSA oxygen dispersal group; and (3) control group. These tests included arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), pulse rate (PR), breaths per minute (BPM), and blood pressure (BP). Results: The results showed that after supplying oxygen using the LPSA method at the tunnel face, the SaO2 of workers increased; the incidence of acute mountain sickness, PR, and BPM significantly decreased. Conclusions: The LPSA life support system was found to be a simple, convenient, efficient, reliable, and applicable approach to ensure proper working conditions at construction sites in high-altitude areas. PMID:25000108

Li, Yongling; Liu, Yingshu

2014-07-01

397

1025:1 Area Ratio Nozzle Evaluated at High Combustion Chamber Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently completed experimental test program obtained performance data on an optimally contoured nozzle with an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 mPa (1800 to 2400 psia). Testing was conducted in the altitude test capsule at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Rocket Engine Test Facility (RETF), and results were compared with analytical performance predictions. This testing builds on previous work with this nozzle at Lewis, where testing was completed at nominal chamber pressure of 350 psia. High-area-ratio nozzles have long been sought as a means to increase the performance of spacebased rocket engines. However, as the area ratio increases, the physical size and weight of the nozzle also increase. As a result, engine and vehicle designers must make tradeoffs between nozzle size and performance enhancement. Until this test program, very little experimental data existed on the performance of the high-area-ratio nozzles used in rocket engine designs. The computer codes being used by rocket engine designers rely on data extrapolated from tests of low-area-ratio nozzles, and these extrapolations do not always provide the accuracy needed for a reliable design assessment. Therefore, we conducted this high-area-ratio nozzle testing program to provide performance data for use in rocket engine design and analysis computer codes. The nozzle had a nominal 2.54-cm- (1-in.-) diameter throat, an exit diameter of 81.3-cm (32.0-in.) at an exit-to-throat area ratio of 1025, and a length of 128.6 cm (50.6 in.). Testing was conducted in an altitude test capsule to simulate the static pressure at altitude by vacuum pumping. Data such as propellant mass flow, oxidizer-to-fuel mixture, and thrust were measured. These measurements were then used to calculate performance factors such as the thrust coefficient, the characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency, and the vacuum specific impulse. In addition, the nozzle temperature was measured to calculate the amount of heat transferred from the combustion gases to the nozzle.

1995-01-01

398

A preliminary study to determine the diagnostic reference level using dose-area product for limited-area cone beam CT  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the dose–area product (DAP) of limited-area cone beam CT (CBCT) units used by dental offices, and to evaluate the rationale of the DAP with an aid of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter in measuring radiation dose. Method: The DAPs of 21 CBCT units used in the dental offices of Tokyo and the surrounding areas from five different manufacturers were measured using OSL nanoDot dosemeter. An assembly of OSL dosemeters with an X-ray film was exposed by CBCT units at exposure parameters commonly used in each dental office. DAP values were then calculated as expressed in mGy?cm2. Results: DAP values ranged from 126.7?mGy?cm2 to 1476.9?mGy?cm2, depending on the units used. Conclusion: OSL dosemeter coupled with film can be utilized for a large-scale study to measure DAP. The DAP values for individual CBCT units depend not only on the field of view, but also on the exposure parameters adapted by the dental offices.

Endo, A; Katoh, T; Vasudeva, SB; Kobayashi, I; Okano, T

2013-01-01

399

Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

2012-06-01

400

Research on stable, high-efficiency, large-area amorphous silicon based modules -- Task B  

SciTech Connect

This report documents progress in developing a stable, high- efficiency, four-terminal hybrid tandem module. The module consists of a semi-transparent, thin-film silicon:hydrogen alloy (TFS) top circuit and a copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) bottom circuit. Film deposition and patterning processes were successfully extended to 0.4-m{sup 2} substrates. A 33.2-W (8.4% efficient) module with a 3970-cm{sup 2} aperture area and a white back reflector was demonstrated; without the back reflector, the module produced 30.2 W (7.6% efficient). Placing a laminated, 31.6-W, 8.1%-efficient CuInSe{sub 2} module underneath this TFS module, with an air gap between the two, produces 11.2 W (2.9% efficient) over a 3883-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Therefore, the four-terminal tandem power output is 41.4 W, translating to a 10.5% aperture-area efficiency. Subsequently, a 37.8-W (9.7% aperture-area efficiency) CuInSe{sub 2} module was demonstrated with a 3905-cm{sup 2} aperture area. Future performances of single-junction and tandem modules of this size were modeled, and predicted power outputs exceed 50 W (13% efficient) for CuInSe{sub 2} and 65 W (17% efficient) for TFS/CuInSe{sub 2} tandem modules.

Mitchell, K.W.; Willet, D.R. (Siemens Solar Industries, Camarillo, CA (USA))

1990-10-01

401

Toward New Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: High Surface Area Carbon Aerogels  

SciTech Connect

We report the hydrogen surface excess sorption saturation value of 5.3 wt% at 30 bar pressure at 77 K, from an activated carbon aerogel with a surface area of 3200 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. This sorption value is one of the highest we have measured in a material of this type, comparable to values obtained in high surface area activated carbons. We also report, for the first time, the surface area dependence of hydrogen surface excess sorption isotherms of carbon aerogels at 77 K. Activated carbon aerogels with surface areas ranging from 1460 to 3200 m{sup 2}/g are evaluated and we find a linear dependence of the saturation of the gravimetric density with BET surface area for carbon aerogels up to 2550 m{sup 2}/g, in agreement with data from other types of carbons reported in the literature. Our measurements show these materials to have a differential enthalpy of adsorption at zero coverage of {approx}5 to 7 kJ/mole. We also show that the introduction of metal nanoparticles of nickel improves the sorption capacity while cobalt additions have no effect.

Kabbour, H; Baumann, T F; Satcher, J H; Saulnier, A; Ahn, C C

2007-02-05

402

Visitor evaluations of management actions at a highly impacted Appalachian Trail camping area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors? reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area?s natural resources and improving social conditions.

Daniels, M. L.; Marion, J.L.

2006-01-01

403

Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data  

PubMed Central

Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed.

2014-01-01

404

Communication and Research Productivity in an Interdisciplinary Behavioral Science Research Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of the relationship between communication behavior and research productivity is examined in this report. The purpose of the study was to attempt to explain variance in scientists' and scholars' research productivity using a variety of predictors. Data for the study were collected on questionnaires sent to 662 persons selected from…

Parker, Edwin B.,; And Others

405

Mineral formation during production of highly saline geothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal solutions produced from deep wells are often highly saline and of complex composition impeding exact predictions of fluid-mineral interactions. At constant (high) temperature and flow conditions during plant operation, only little precipitation would be expected. However, during the initial phase of the operation of a geothermal plant, the testing of equipment components such as pumps and valves prevents these constant fluid flow conditions. Moreover, fluid temperatures are still relatively low and vary strongly at this stage. These inhomogeneous conditions result in the precipitation of a wide range of minerals. The analysis of solutions composition as well as of the mineral precipitates during this initial testing phase represents a unique in-situ experiment allowing understanding the mineral formation from complex solutions under a wide range of temperatures. This experiment was possible at the geothermal in-situ laboratory in Groß Schönebeck (North German Basin). At this site, hot fluid (150 °C at 4400 m depth) is pumped out of a production well to the surface where it passes the above ground installation (e.g. 1 µm filter bags) before it would be re-injected into a second (injection) well. The temperature of the produced fluid varied between 10 and 100°C due to numerous turning on and shutdown phases. Fluid and filter residues have been analyzed during several cycles. In the solid phase, almost no minerals of the reservoir sandstone have been identified. Instead, several compunds have been found which precipitated directly from the solution. One group, dominated mainly by barite (BaSO4), formed as consequence of the cooling effect, which affects strongly the solubility product and results in mineral precipitation. The other group of minerals (such as magnetite or several lead minerals) form due to changes in redox conditions. These changes occur possibly in the region close to the production pump, where a strong magnetic field and highly variable flow conditions exist.

Regenspurg, S.; Naumann, R.; Feldbusch, E.; Wagner, S.; Saadat, A.

2012-04-01

406

Multiple vacancy production by high energy heavy ions  

SciTech Connect

The theory of atomic collisions has two ingredients: collision theory and atomic structure theory. The collision theories differ with respect to (A) the collision dynamics and (B) the treatment of the relative motion of the projectile and target nuclei. With regard to the dynamics multiple vacancy production is of fundamental interest because it is a signature for and probe of strong interactions between the projectile and the target electrons. For projectiles of large nuclear charge, Z/sub p/, especially for those which are highly stripped so as to have a large ionic charge, q, the interaction becomes strong enough to give a high probability of multiple vacancy production and a breakdown of perturbation theory. The familiar first and second Born approximations and their off-shoots cease to be adequate. Not even the recent strong-potential Born approximation (see Taulbjerg 1984) is sufficient, because the weaker of the potentials generated by the projectile and the target nuclei, respectively, is treated in first order. One needs a unitary, non-perturbative collision theory. At present this is generally available for multiple vacancy production only in the form of the highly numerical coupled channels theory (Becker et al. 1983, 1984b). For special problems analytically tractable models have been devised. For example, a simple, unitary, geometrical encounter probability model for the calculation of p/sub L/(0), the inclusive L-shell vacancy probability per electron in collisions with impact parameter B = 0, has been introduced by Sulik et al. (1984) and further developed by Sulik and Hock (1984). Along with earlier coupled-channels calculations (Becker et al. 1984ab) and first Magnus calculations (Becker et al. 1984b), this model is able to describe the saturation of p/sub L/(0) with Z/sub p/ at fixed impact speed, v, whereas all the first-order theories predict p/sub L/ proportional to Z/sub p//sup 2/, which eventually exceeds unity.

Becker, R.L.; Ford, A.L.; Reading, J.F.

1984-01-01

407

New Understanding of the Diffractive Scattering of Hadrons at High Energies:. the Blackening and Increasing Effective Interaction Area of the Proton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new structure for the high-energy diffractive scattering amplitude is derived in two complementary ways (one of them recently revealed as due to Richard Feynman). Total cross-sections increase, due to a blackening of the interaction and also due to an effect which leads to an increase in the effective interaction area at fixed opacity. These features are dynamically related to the dominant high-energy process of multiparticle production.

Barshay, Saul; Heiliger, Patrick; Rein, Dieter

408

New understanding of the diffractive scattering of hadrons at high energies; The blackening and increasing effective interaction area of the proton  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a new structure for the high-energy diffractive scattering amplitude is derived in two complementary ways (one of them recently revealed as due to Richard Feynman). Total cross-sections increase, due to a blackening of the interaction and also due to an effect which leads to an increase in the effective interaction area at fixed opacity. These features are dynamically related to the dominant high-energy process of multiparticle production.

Barshay, S.; Heiliger, P.; Rein, D. (III. Physikalisches Inst., Technische Hochschule Aachen, D-5100 Aachen (Germany))

1992-09-14

409

Discriminant Analysis of Undaria pinnatifida Production Areas Using Trace Elemental Analysis  

PubMed Central

Increasingly, attention is being paid to declaring the origin of agricultural and marine products after the advent of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; commonly known as mad-cow disease). The display of the production centers on U. pinnatifida has been required in Japan since 2006. As an example of testing in another marine product, near-infrared spectra (NIR) and trace elemental analysis of U. pinnatifida are proven effective methods for discriminating production centers by us and Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center (FAMIC). In the present study, we found that X-ray fluorescence analysis of Br was also effective for the discrimination of production centers. The results of our study suggest that a combination of NIR and X-ray fluorescence analysis is a convenient and efficient method for determination due simple sampling procedures and increased effectiveness.

Kaihara, Mikio

2010-01-01

410

Urinary iodine concentrations in the high background radiation areas of Kanyakumari district, Tamilnadu, India.  

PubMed

We screened urinary iodine (UI) concentrations in high background radiation areas of the Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu, India. We collected 331 urine samples from three villages in the district: Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar. The median UI concentrations were 257, 262, and 454 microg/L in Chinna-Villai, Kadiyapatinam, and Pallam-Annai nagar, respectively. Only 27 samples showed mild or moderate iodine deficiency (<100 microg/L) and none showed severe deficiency (<20 microg/L). These findings indicate that iodine supplementation in the villages is sufficient, probably as a result of appropriate fortification of iodized salt in the region. Further screening, including morphological and functional analysis of the thyroid gland, will be needed to clarify the health effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure attributable to residing in a high background radiation area. PMID:19789421

Brahmanandhan, Gopalganapathi M; Hayashida, Naomi; Taira, Yasuyuki; Malathi, Jeyapandian; Khnna, David; Selvasekarapandian, Subramaniyan; Matsuda, Naoki; Takamura, Noboru

2010-01-01

411

Reconstruction of high frame rate image sequences in biomechanical related areas.  

PubMed

Regular video cameras shoot normally at 25/30 frames per second (fps). Actually there are available in the market equipments that allow us to acquire video at 1.000.000 fps. When we observe a video sequence it becomes noticeable that great part of the information remains unchanged regardless of the bit rate or frame rate used. One origin of discontinuity in video signals is directly related to movement. Several areas use high frame rate images to analyze and comprehend certain events or effects, biomechanical engineering is one of them. Biomechanics engineering studies the mechanics of a living body, especially the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on the skeletal structure. Some examples are athlete assessment, were images are capture and then the acquired parameters are analyzed. This article describes a new methodology to decrease the space needed to store high frame rate image sequences in the specific case of biomechanical related areas. PMID:21095875

Costa, Monica; Soares, Salviano; Barroso, Joao

2010-01-01

412

High energy femtosecond supercontinuum light generation in large mode area photonic crystal fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large mode area photonic crystal fiber (LMA PCF) with an effective area of 180 ?m 2 is used to generate a high energy, micro-joule range, flat, octave spanning supercontinuum (SC) extending from ~ 600 nm to ~ 1720 nm. A train of femtosecond pulses from a widely-tunable parametric amplifier pumped by a Ti:Sapphire regenerative amplifier system are coupled into a 20 cm length of LMA PCF generating a SC of 1.4 ?J energy. We present an experimental study of the high energy SC as a function of the input power and the pumping wavelength. The spectrum obtained at a pump wavelength of 1260 nm presents spectral flatness variation less than 12 dB over more than 1.1 octave bandwidth. The physical processes behind the SC formation are described in the normal and the anomalous dispersion regions. Our experimental results are successfully compared with the numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

Cherif, Rim; Zghal, Mourad; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Danailov, Miltcho

2010-11-01

413

Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields  

DOEpatents

A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Wham, Robert M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01

414

Synthesis of high-surface-area titanium dioxide by sol-gel process for DSSC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous TiO2 material was synthesized from dissolution ilmenite as well as from titanium chloride precursor via a sol-gel process in acidic aqueous solution. The properties of these materials were characterized with several analytical techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analysis. The mesoporous TiO2 materials calcinated at various temperatures were found to have high value surface areas. The photovoltaic of photo-anode build from the mesoporous TiO2 was characterized with I-V Keitley Multimeter, and it was found that photovoltaics fabricated using the mesoporous TiO2 have a good performance. Such a high photovoltaic activity is explained with large surface area and small crystal size.

Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Juliana, G.; Khoirunisa, A. R.; Rahardjo, S. B.; Pramono, E.; Suharyana, S.; Suryana, R.; Supriyanto, A.

2014-05-01

415

Preparation and Characterization of Single Ion Conductors from High Surface Area Fumed Silica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anions that can form dissociative salts with Li(+) have been prepared and covalently attached to high surface area fumed silica. When blended with polyethylene oxide (PEO), the functionalized fumed silica suppresses the crystallization of the PEO, provides dimensional stability, and serves as a single ion conductor. Since functionalized fumed silica is easily dispersed in common polar solvents, it can be incorporated in both the polymer electrolyte and the electrodes.

Zhang, H.; Maitra, P.; Liu, B.; Wunder, S. L.; Lin, H.-P.; Salomon, M.; Hagedorn, Norman H. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

416

Adsorption of benzoic acid onto high specific area activated carbon cloth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of benzoic acid from aqueous solution onto high area carbon cloth at different pH values has been studied. Over a period of 125 min the adsorption process was found to follow a first-order kinetics and the rate constants were determined for the adsorption of benzoic acid at pH 2.0, 3.7, 5.3, 9.1, and 11.0. The extents of adsorption

Erol Ayranci; Numan Hoda; Edip Bayram

2005-01-01

417

Development of KOH activated high surface area carbon and its application to drinking water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-surface-area (over 3000 m2 g ?1) active carbon (MAXSORB) was developed from a mixture of petroleum coke and an excess amount of potassium hydroxide. A considerable number (0.9–1.6 meq g?1) of surface functional groups were found compared to that of typical steam activated carbons (0.1–0.2 meq g?1). Breakthrough of sodium hypochlorite or chloroform was studied using model drinking water at

T. Otowa; Y. Nojima; T. Miyazaki

1997-01-01

418

Nondestructive characterization of RBSOA of high-power bipolar transistors. [Reverse-bias safe operating area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reverse-bias safe operating area (RBSOA) of high-power Darlington transistors is characterized using a 120 A/1000 V nondestructive reverse-bias second breakdown tester designed and fabricated at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Elaborate RBSOA characteristics are generated with different forward/reverse base drives and collector current levels. The effects of elevated case temperature and second-base drive on RBSOA of four-terminal Darlington devices are also discussed.

Jovanovic, M. M.; Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.

1986-01-01

419

Aerosol Gelation: Synthesis of a Novel, Lightweight, High Specific Surface Area Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that an aerosol can gel. This gelation is then used for a one-step method to produce an ultralow density porous carbon material. This material is named an aerosol gel because it is made via gelation of particles in the aerosol phase. The carbon aerosol gels have high specific surface area (200–350 m\\/g), an extremely low density (2.5–5.0 mg\\/cc)

Rajan Dhaubhadel; Corey S. Gerving; Amitabha Chakrabarti; Christopher M. Sorensen

2007-01-01

420

Growth Standards for Urban Infants in a High Altitude Area of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to establish up-to-date growth standards for use in assessing the adequacy of children's growth in every population, especially those with peculiar environmental chal- lenges. The purpose of this study is to update growth reference values for the normal population of urban infants (0-24 months) from the high altitude area of Southwestern Saudi Arabia, and to compare

Mohammed A. Al-Shehri; Mostafa A. Abolfotouh; Mohammed Yunis Khan; Luke O. Nwoye

2005-01-01

421

Low-density areas on high-resolution computed tomograms in chronic pediatric asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In children with chronic persistent asthma, we evaluated whether the presence of increased residual volume (RV) after anti-inflammatory treatment correlates with the detection of low-density areas on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), similar to those in emphysema. Methods: Children with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma (n = 32) were enrolled in a prospective study. All patients had reduction of airflow

Massimo Pifferi; Davide Caramella; Vincenzo Ragazzo; Angelo Pietrobelli; Attilio L. Boner

2002-01-01

422

Systems for hazards identification in high mountain areas: An example from the Kullu District, western Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated\\u000a and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some\\u000a of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been

James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

2004-01-01

423

Enhanced DSSC performance with high surface area thin anatase TiO 2 nanoleaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin anatase TiO2 nanoleaves (NLs) with high surface area (?93m2\\/g) are synthesized by hydrothermal route and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) made using such NLs are compared with those made with hydro-thermally synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and the Degussa P25 powder. The NLs-based DSSCs show increment of 16% and 24% in the total conversion efficiency over the cells made with NPs and

Vivek Dhas; Subas Muduli; Shruti Agarkar; Abhimanyu Rana; Beatrice Hannoyer; Rahul Banerjee; Satishchandra Ogale

2011-01-01

424

Novel synthesis of high surface area MgAl 2O 4 spinel as catalyst support  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified sol–gel route, by combining gelation and coprecipitation processes, was developed for the synthesis of high surface area MgAl2O4 spinel precursors. The obtained precursors were then calcined in flowing air at temperatures ranging from 500 to 900 °C. The formation of new phases upon calcinations was investigated using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

Jianjun Guo; Hui Lou; Hong Zhao; Xiaoge Wang; Xiaoming Zheng

2004-01-01

425

Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000nGyh-1. Soil

A. C. Paul; P. M. B. Pillai; P. P. Haridasan; Sujatha Radhakrishnan; S. Krishnamony

1998-01-01

426

High-Speed and Reduced-Area Modular Adder Structures for RNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular adder is a very instrumental arithmetic component in implementing online residue-based computations for many digital signal processing applications. It is also a basic component in realizing modular multipliers and residue to binary converters. Thus, the design of a high-speed and reduced-area modular adder is an important issue. In this paper, we introduce a new modular adder design. It

Ahmad A. Hiasat

2002-01-01

427

Highly magnetic Upper Miocene sandstones of the San Francisco Bay area, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the San Francisco Bay area shows prominent positive anomalies over distinctive blue sandstones of Late Miocene age. The total-field survey was measured at a nominal height of 300 m above the land surface along flight lines spaced 0.5 km apart. Anomalies with amplitudes up to 200 nT correlate with sandstones of the San Pablo Group,

John W. Hillhouse; Robert C. Jachens

2005-01-01

428

Development of Low Cost, High Energy-Per-Unit-Area Solar Cell Modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on the development of low cost, high energy per unit area solar cell modules was conducted. Hexagonal solar cell and module efficiencies, module packing ratio, and solar cell design calculations were made. The cell grid structure and interconnection pattern was designed and the module substrates were fabricated for the three modules to be used. It was demonstrated that surface macrostructures significantly improve cell power output and photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency.

Jones, G. T.; Chitre, S.

1977-01-01

429

Variation of radiation level and radionuclide enrichment in high background area.  

PubMed

Significantly high radiation level and radionuclide concentration along Quilon beach area of coastal Kerala have been reported by several investigators. Detailed gamma radiation level survey was carried out using a portable scintillometer. Detailed studies on radionuclides concentration in different environmental matrices of high background areas were undertaken in the coastal areas of Karunagapalli, Kayankulam, Chavara, Neendakara and Kollam to study the distribution and enrichment of the radionuclides in the region. The absorbed gamma dose rates in air in high background area are in the range 43-17,400nGyh?¹. Gamma radiation level is found to be maximum at a distance of 20m from the sea waterline in all beaches. The soil samples collected from different locations were analysed for primordial radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The activity of primordial radionuclides was determined for the different size fractions of soil to study the enrichment pattern. The highest activity of (232)Th and (226)Ra was found to be enriched in 125-63? size fraction. The preferential accumulation of (40)K was found in <63? fraction. The minimum (232)Th activity was 30.2Bqkg?¹, found in 1000-500? particle size fraction at Kollam and maximum activity of 3250.4Bqkg?¹ was observed in grains of size 125-63? at Neendakara. The lowest (226)Ra activity observed was 33.9Bqkg?¹ at Neendakara in grains of size 1000-500? and the highest activity observed was 482.6Bqkg?¹ in grains of size 125-63? in Neendakara. The highest (40)K activity found was 1923Bqkg?¹ in grains of size <63? for a sample collected from Neendakara. A good correlation was observed between computed dose and measured dose in air. The correlation between (232)Th and (226)Ra was also moderately high. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed in this paper. PMID:20833457

Shetty, P K; Narayana, Y

2010-12-01

430

New York\\/New Jersey High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Terrorist Financing & Drug Trafficking Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

My Masters Project focuses around the New York\\/New Jersey High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (NY\\/NJ HIDTA). Narco-terrorism has become a significant issue for the safety and security of the United States. Terrorist financing also plays a significant role in the war on terror. I chose to create a three part strategy for the NY\\/NJ HIDTA that will combat both narco-terrorism

Danielle Morita OMara

2012-01-01

431

Positioning and tracking construction vehicles in highly dense urban areas and building construction sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review previous radio frequency (RF)-related research in construction and further evaluate the pros and cons of several RF-based technologies including GPS, RFID, and Bluetooth. Particularly, we show the limitations of applying GPS for tracking construction vehicles in a highly dense urban area by conducting extensive field tests in Hong Kong. We then propose a continuous, all-location,

Ming Lu; Wu Chen; Xuesong Shen; Hoi-Ching Lam; Jianye Liu

2007-01-01

432

Large-scale leaf area index inversion algorithms from high-resolution airborne imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale leaf area index (LAI) inversion algorithms were developed to determine the LAI of a forest located in Gatineau Park, Canada, using high-resolution colour and colour infrared (CIR) digital airborne imagery. The algorithms are parameter-independent and developed based on the principles of optical field instruments for gap fraction measurements. Cloud-free colour and CIR images were acquired on 21 August 2007

Alemu Gonsamo; P. Pellikka; D. J. King

2011-01-01