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1

Pesticide occurrence in groundwater in areas of high-density row crop production in Alabama, 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-density row crop production occurs in three areas of Alabama that are underlain by productive aquifers, northern Alabama, southeastern Alabama, and Baldwin County in southwestern Alabama. The U.S. Geological Survey collected five groundwater samples from each of these three areas during 2009 for analysis of selected pesticides. Results of these analyses showed detections for 37 of 152 analytes. The three most frequently detected compounds were atrazine, 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-triazine (CIAT), and metolachlor. The highest concentration for any analyte was 4.08 micrograms per liter for metolachlor.

Moreland, Richard S.

2011-01-01

2

Dietary Exposure to PCDD\\/Fs through Animal Products in a Highly Polluted Area in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an estimation of dietary exposure to PCDD\\/Fs by animal products in Kocaeli, a highly polluted area in Turkey, based on current food data consumption. The calculation of the PCDD\\/F intakes by an exposure methodology concerning consumption habits of different receptor groups in Kocaeli was included. The data relate to the PCDD\\/F levels in food groups of animal origin

Aykan Karademir; Seda Aslan Kilavuz; Mahmut Kemal Korucu; Ertan Durmusoglu

2012-01-01

3

Ozone production rate and hydrocarbon reactivity in 5 urban areas: A cause of high ozone concentration in Houston  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of ozone (O3) and O3 precursors taken from aircraft flights over Houston, TX, Nashville, TN; New York, NY; Phoenix, AZ, and Philadelphia, PA show that high concentrations of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Houston atmosphere lead to calculated O3 production rates that are 2 to 5 times higher than in the other 4 cities even though NOx concentrations are comparable. Within the Houston metropolitan area, concentrations of VOCs and O3 production rates are highest in the Ship Channel region; the location of one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the world. As a consequence the concentration of O3 in the Houston metropolitan area has recently exceeded 250 ppb, the highest value observed in the U.S within the past 5 years.

Kleinman, L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Imre, D.; Lee, Y.-N.; Nunnermacker, L. J.; Springston, S. R.; Weinstein-Lloyd, J.; Rudolph, J.

2002-05-01

4

Sound production patterns from humpback whales in a high latitude foraging area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have been conducted on humpback whale song, but substantially fewer have focused on the acoustic properties of non-song sound production (i.e., feeding and social sounds). Non-invasive digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGS) were attached to humpback whales on the western North Atlantics Great South Channel feeding grounds during July 2004. Acoustic records totaling 48.4 data hours from four of these attachments were aurally analyzed for temporal trends in whale signal production. A custom automatic detection function was also used to identify occurrences of specific signals and evaluate their temporal consistency. Patterns in sound usage varied by stage of foraging dive and by time of day. Amount of time with signals present was greater at the bottom of dives than during surface periods, indicating that sounds are probably related to foraging at depth. For the two tags that recorded at night, signals were present during a greater proportion of daylight hours than night hours. These results will be compared with previously published trends describing diel patterns in male humpback whale song chorusing on the breeding grounds. Data from the continuation of this research during the summer of 2005 will also be included.

Stimpert, Alison K.; Wiley, David N.; Barton, Kira L.; Johnson, Mark P.; Lammers, Marc O.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2005-09-01

5

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas  

PubMed Central

Oceanic high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll environments have been highlighted for potential large-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives, both in the degree of carbon removal and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. Previous open ocean enrichment experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia. Most Pseudonitzschia species in coastal waters produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), with their blooms causing detrimental marine ecosystem impacts, but oceanic Pseudonitzschia species are considered nontoxic. Here we demonstrate that the sparse oceanic Pseudonitzschia community at the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll Ocean Station PAPA (50° N, 145° W) produces approximately 200 pg DA L?1 in response to iron addition, that DA alters phytoplankton community structure to benefit Pseudonitzschia, and that oceanic cell isolates are toxic. Given the negative effects of DA in coastal food webs, these findings raise serious concern over the net benefit and sustainability of large-scale iron fertilizations.

Trick, Charles G.; Bill, Brian D.; Cochlan, William P.; Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Pickell, Lisa D.

2010-01-01

6

Prospects for Agricultural Production and Food Deficits in West Asia and North Africa: The Role of High-Elevation Areas,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper explores sources of growth of agricultural production and draws attention to the rapidly shrinking potential for further 'horizontal' expansion of both rainfed and irrigated arable area. It stresses that future growth will have to depend heavily...

P. Oram

1988-01-01

7

7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States of California, Arizona, and New Mexico. [74 FR 56539, Nov. 2,...

2013-01-01

8

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

2013-01-01

9

Business Productivity and Area Productivity in Rural England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Webber D., Curry N. and Plumridge A. Business productivity and area productivity in rural England, Regional Studies. Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) definition of ‘rural’. Labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less

Don Webber; Nigel Curry; Anthony Plumridge

2009-01-01

10

High surface area carbon aerogels for supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of carbon aerogels as electrodes in supercapacitors require high surface area and simple production method. Carbon aerogels are derived via the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels. In order to simplify production, subcritical drying of the RF gels is favoured, which is possible for gels prepared with high molar resorcinol to catalyst (R\\/C) ratios, i.e. very low catalyst concentrations. Resulting

R. Saliger; U Fischer; C Herta; J Fricke

1998-01-01

11

Integration of high- and low-resolution satellite data to estimate pine forest productivity in a Mediterranean coastal area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of vegetation primary productivity is particularly important in fragile Mediterranean environments that are vulnerable to both natural and human-induced perturbations. The current work was aimed at using remotely sensed data taken by various sensors to infer information about a protected coastal pine forest in Tuscany (Central Italy), which could serve for driving a simplified model of carbon fluxes,

Fabio Maselli; Marta Chiesi

2005-01-01

12

7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [66 FR 58356, Nov. 21,...

2013-01-01

13

45. PRODUCTION AREA, GROUND FLOOR, EAST WING. GLAZE MIXING AREA ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. PRODUCTION AREA, GROUND FLOOR, EAST WING. GLAZE MIXING AREA IN THE RIGHT BACKGROUND, COURTYARD THROUGH THE DOORWAY TO THE LEFT. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

14

High surface area tin oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

High surface area tin oxides are desirable catalyst carriers for emissions control including CO oxidation, VOC removal\\/methane combustion and NOx abatement. We have optimized literature procedures as well as developed proprietary recipes for the synthesis of porous SnO2 carriers. Precipitation of SnCl4 from homogeneous solution by urea and by hydrazine, the dissolution of Sn metal powder in HNO3, sol–gel routes

Alfred Hagemeyer; Zach Hogan; Marco Schlichter; Birgit Smaka; Guido Streukens; Howard Turner; Anthony Volpe Jr.; Henry Weinberg; Karin Yaccato

2007-01-01

15

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating...Production area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2013-01-01

16

7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the counties of Adams, Valley, Lemhi, Clark, and Fremont in the State of Idaho, and all of the counties in Idaho lying south...

2013-01-01

17

Area products for stationary black hole horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Area products for multihorizon stationary black holes often have intriguing properties, and are often (though not always) independent of the mass of the black hole itself (depending only on various charges, angular momenta, and moduli). Such products are often formulated in terms of the areas of inner (Cauchy) horizons and outer (event) horizons, and sometimes include the effects of unphysical “virtual” horizons. But the conjectured mass independence sometimes fails. Specifically, for the Schwarzschild–de Sitter [Kottler] black hole in (3+1) dimensions it is shown by explicit exact calculation that the product of event horizon area and cosmological horizon area is not mass independent. (Including the effect of the third “virtual” horizon does not improve the situation.) Similarly, in the Reissner-Nordstrom–anti-de Sitter black hole in (3+1) dimensions the product of the inner (Cauchy) horizon area and event horizon area is calculated (perturbatively), and is shown to be not mass independent. That is, the mass independence of the product of physical horizon areas is not generic. In spherical symmetry, whenever the quasilocal mass m(r) is a Laurent polynomial in aerial radius, r=A/4?, there are significantly more complicated mass-independent quantities, the elementary symmetric polynomials built up from the complete set of horizon radii (physical and virtual). Sometimes it is possible to eliminate the unphysical virtual horizons, constructing combinations of physical horizon areas that are mass independent, but they tend to be considerably more complicated than the simple products and related constructions currently being mooted in the literature.

Visser, Matt

2013-08-01

18

High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

1994-12-31

19

Highly automated agricultural production system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a highly automated agricultural production system which comprises, as essential components: 1. A sensing subsystem comprising direct and indirect sensing means in an agricultural production area. The direct sensing means are generally ground or plant mounted. The indirect sensing means are remote from the area being sensed. The direct and indirect sensing means are adapted to jointly generate data on all important parameters in the homogeneous agricultural production area; 2. A data transmitting subsystem for forwarding data generated by the direct and indirect sensing means to computing means and for transmitting instructions from the computing means via interfacing means (controllers) to various devices (field effectors) in the agricultural area to perform various functions; 3. A computing subsystem linked by way of said data transmitting subsystem to said indirect and direct sensing means in a pattern of many feedback loops. The computing means is programmed to enable correlation of data received from the indirect and direct sensing means and to generate appropriate instructions to accomplish a substantive number of functions required for the operation of the automated agricultural production system of the present invention as will be later described in detail, including, but not limited to, the control of the following subsystems. 4. A fluid delivery subsystem which provides: means for delivering water, chemicals in liquid or gaseous form, air, and the like to various parts of the agricultural production area; and means for providing power to various peripheral devices which utilize the power of moving liquid and/or gases-for example, a water powered (hydromotor) platform. 5. A field operations subsystem which, in a highly preferred embodiment, comprises means to harvest agricultural products, convey the agricultural products, grade the agricultural products, store the agricultural products, and pack the agricultural products. In addition to the above means which are essentially concerned with presenting the agricultural products in a form amenable for marketing, additionally means are provided for plant care, e.g., pruning, thinning and the like. A field operations subsystem which accomplishes the functions of fruit harvesting, fruit conveying, fruit grading and fruit storage which, in a most preferred embodiment of the present invention, accomplishes the above functions utilizing fluid received from the fluid delivery subsystem of the present invention. It is also highly preferred that such fluid powered means be utilized in the agricultural system of the present invention for tree care, e.g., pruning of trees, thinning of trees and the like. The field operations can be accomplished, if desired, utilizing a vehicle which is powered by fluid, typically water, derived from the fluid delivery subsystem of the present invention by means of a water-to-mechanical torque converter (hereafter often called a hydromotor platform).

1982-09-07

20

Copper losses in surface runoff from flatwoods citrus production areas.  

PubMed

Crop production in areas with a high water table and poorly drained soils requires special drainage infrastructure to allow adequate rooting depth. In addition to facilitating drainage, this infrastructure also facilitates discharge of agrichemicals dissolved in drainage and runoff water. Copper export from bedded citrus production areas was evaluated using simulated rainfall events following application of copper. Copper concentrations in runoff water from individual water furrows ranged from 13 to 223 ?g/L during the staged events, while copper loadings ranged from 32 to 302 g/water furrow. PMID:22933171

Wilson, P Chris; Boman, Brian; Albano, Joseph P

2012-08-30

21

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

22

Guayule production on the southern high plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New production areas need to be identified for guayule in order to meet the expected world-wide shortage of natural rubber by 2020. One promising area is the Texas High Plains region. For guayule to be grown in this region, more cold tolerant lines need to be identified. The objective of our study w...

23

Future Climate Impacts on Bay Area Rangeland Forage Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The San Francisco Bay Area is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Downscaled projections of global climate models enable the fine-scale analysis necessary for conservation and climate adaptation planning across such a diverse area. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to the dominant non-urban land-use in the Bay Area: livestock grazing. Maintaining the viability of rangelands provides an economic incentive for the preservation of open space. Climate models suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability of rangelands in the Bay Area.

Chaplin-Kramer, R.

2011-12-01

24

Catalytic dry reforming of methane over high surface area ceria  

Microsoft Academic Search

High surface area ceria (CeO2 (HSA)), synthesized by a surfactant-assisted approach, was found to have useful dry reforming activity for H2 and CO production under solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) conditions. The catalyst provides significantly higher reforming reactivity and excellent resistance toward carbon deposition compared to Ni\\/Al2O3 and conventional low surface area ceria (CeO2 (LSA)) under dry reforming conditions. These

N. Laosiripojana; S. Assabumrungrat

2005-01-01

25

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2013-01-01

26

Analysis of the 1999–2000 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N1) epidemic in the main poultry-production area in northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of risk factors and control policies following the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic that struck northern Italy's poultry industry in the winter of 1999–2000. The epidemic was caused by a type-A influenza virus of the H7N1 subtype, that originated from a low-pathogenic AI virus which spread among poultry farms in northeastern Italy in 1999 and

A. Mannelli; N. Ferrè; S. Marangon

2006-01-01

27

Analysis of the 1999-2000 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N1) epidemic in the main poultry-production area in northern Italy.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of risk factors and control policies following the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epidemic that struck northern Italy's poultry industry in the winter of 1999-2000. The epidemic was caused by a type-A influenza virus of the H7N1 subtype, that originated from a low-pathogenic AI virus which spread among poultry farms in northeastern Italy in 1999 and eventually became virulent by mutation. Most infected premises (IP) were located in the regions of Lombardy and Veneto (382 out of 413, 92.5%), and the eradication measures provided for in the European legislation were enforced. In Veneto, where flock density was highest, infection-control was also accomplished by means of depopulation of susceptible flocks through a ban on restocking and pre-emptive slaughter of flocks that were in the vicinities of or that had dangerous contacts with IPs. In Lombardy, such control measures were applied to a lesser extent. Infection incidence rate (IR) was 2.6 cases per 1000 flocks per day in Lombardy and 1.1 in Veneto. After the implementation of infection-control measures, the at-risk population, the percentage of flocks < or =1.5 km from IPs, and the HPAI-IR underwent a greater reduction in Veneto than in Lombardy. Although the proximity (< or =1.5 km) to IPs in the temporal risk window (TRW) was a major risk factor for HPAI at the individual flock level, its effect at the population level (population-attributable fraction) did not exceed 31.3%. Viral transmission therefore also occurred among relatively distant flocks. Turkey flocks were characterised by greater IR of HPAI compared with other bird species such as layer hens, broilers, gamebirds, and waterfowl, even when located at distances >1.5 km from IPs. In Lombardy, IR for species other than turkeys was also relatively high. PMID:16243405

Mannelli, A; Ferrè, N; Marangon, S

2005-10-21

28

High Productivity Implantation ``PARTIAL IMPLANT''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterned ion implantation ``PARTIAL IMPLANT'' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is ``DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT,'' that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is ``RING PARTIAL IMPLANT'' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

2008-11-01

29

Land Use of Dredged Material Containment Areas. Productive Use Examples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study documents examples of productive land uses of dredged material containment areas. The examples were obtained from published literature and project descriptions and discussions with persons knowledgeable in the planning and execution of dredging ...

O. Beeman A. P. Benkendorf

1978-01-01

30

Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas  

SciTech Connect

Continental Shelf Associates was contracted to update and expand an earlier work on a comparison of primary productivity among Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) planning areas. The update consists of four general objectives. This report addresses the fourth objective, the potential to use measures of marine secondary productivity in determining relative rankings of the OCS planning area. Ideally, comparisons of secondary productivity among diverse geographic areas would take an ecosystem perspective. However, there is not enough ecosystem-level understanding to allow a comparison on that basis. The report focuses on individual species and group of species. Zooplankton and benthic communities represent major portions of the marine ecosystems and would be the preferred subjects for comparative studies. At this time comparisons of secondary productivity among planning areas would be difficult with existing databases. It is unlikely this situation will improve in the near future.

Darnell, R.M.

1991-04-01

31

Productivity in High Performance Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Productivity gains in development of software systems has been modest over the 45-50 years that I have been involved in writing\\u000a programs. Productivity gains in high performance computing in particular have been even more modest than across the industry\\u000a in general. This talk will rationalize the relative failure in HPC and sketch an approach which could enable orders of magnitude

James C. Browne

2005-01-01

32

Voros product, noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole and corrected area law  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show the importance of the Voros product in defining a noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole. The corrected entropy\\/area law is then computed in the tunneling formalism. Two types of corrections are considered; one, due to the effects of noncommutativity and the other, due to the effects of going beyond the semiclassical approximation. The leading correction to the semiclassical entropy\\/area-law is

Rabin Banerjee; Sunandan Gangopadhyay; Sujoy Kumar Modak

2010-01-01

33

Meshed high data rate personal area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless mesh networks have proven to be of great potential in providing new and innovative applications in many areas in the last few years. WMNs can address some limitations and optimize the performance of existing standardized networks in terms of cost, reliability, simplified network configuration, extended coverage and so on. This article is a tutorial on the technical aspects of

Sahibzada Ali Mahmud; Shahbaz Khan; Hamed Al-raweshidy; Kumarendra Sivarajah

2008-01-01

34

Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

1991-01-01

35

Characterisation of smallholder pig production systems in mountainous areas of North Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situation of farmers in Vietnam's mountainous areas is hampered by low and unsteady resource availabil- ity and less developed infrastructure. Smallholders seek to improve their livelihood by extending livestock husbandry with main focus on pig keeping. Local pig breeds are progressively replaced by genotypes with higher production potential. Keeping high-yielding genotypes may generate higher revenues from pig production but also

U. Lemke; L. T. Thuy; A. Valle Zárate; B. Kaufmann; N. D. Vang

2002-01-01

36

City Air or City Markets: Productivity Gains in Urban Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent productivity gains to rural-urban migrants have been documented by a number of researchers. One interpretation of this result is that individuals learn higher value skills in cities than they would have learned in less dense areas. Another explanation for this result, however, is that thicker urban labor markets allow for better matches, which are realized slowly through a process

Douglas J. Krupka

2007-01-01

37

Strategy For A\\/M Area Production Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A\\/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will

D. G. Jackson; B. B. Looney; C. L. Bergren; D. G. Wells; B. A. Beavers

1996-01-01

38

Technoeconomic Analysis of Area II Hydrogen Production. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NHj), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1)...

A. T-Raissi

2005-01-01

39

Alternate furrow irrigation for maize production in an arid area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new irrigation method for maize production was designed and tested for yield and water use efficiency (WUE). A field experiment was conducted in an arid area, with seasonal rainfall of 80mm, over 2 years (1997 and 1998). Irrigation was applied through furrows in three ways: alternate furrow irrigation (AFI), fixed furrow irrigation (FFI), and conventional furrow irrigation (CFI). AFI

Shaozhong Kang; Zongsuo Liang; Yinhua Pan; Peize Shi; Jianhua Zhang

2000-01-01

40

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

41

Appalachia High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, CY 2005 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Established in 1998, the Appalachia HIDTA consists of 68 counties spread across Southeastern Kentucky, Eastern Tennessee, and Southwestern West Virginia. These counties comprise the predominant marijuana production and trafficking areas of this tri-state ...

2006-01-01

42

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2013-01-01

43

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southwest - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

44

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Roof perspective of the penthouse, High Bay area windows, looking southeast - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Maintenance Building (M Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

45

The Geoland2 BioPar burned area product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Commission Geoland2 project intends to constitute a major step forward to the implementation of the GMES Land Monitoring Core Service (LMCS). The Bio-geophysical Parameters (BioPar) Core Monitoring Service aims at setting-up pre-operational infrastructures for providing regional, European, and global bio-geophysical variables, both in near real time and off-line mode, for describing the vegetation state, the radiation budget at the surface, and the water cycle. The burned area product is part of the BioPar portfolio. The burned area product further builds on the experience of the Global Burned Area (GBA2000) and L3JRC projects. In the GBA2000 project, several algorithms were developed for different geographical regions of the world, and applied to a 1-year time series (the year 2000) of SPOT-VEGETATION data. In the L3JRC project, a single algorithm was improved and applied to a 7-year global dataset of SPOT-VEGETATION data. Since the conception of the Geoland2 project, work has been undertaken to improve the L3JRC algorithm, mainly based on user comments and feedback. Furthermore, the Geoland2 burned area product specification has been developed to meet the requirements of the Core Information Service, specifically LandCarbon and Natural Resource Monitoring in Africa (Narma). The Geoland2 burned area product has the following improvements over the L3JRC product: • It resolves issues with users extracting statistics and burned area estimates for time periods considered to be outside the main seasons for burning. Specifically, this deals with issues in northern latitude winters. • The number of pre-processing steps has been shortened, reducing processing time. • An improved land-water mask has been used. This resolves a problem around the coastlines of land masses which were frequently being detected as being burned. • A season metric calculation is performed over a 1x1 degree grid. For each grid cell, a date is logged against the start of the fire season, peak of the fire season and then the end of the fire season. Once a fire season has been confirmed as being finished, the region effectively resets itself, which means that the land surface can burn again when the next fire season starts. This automated season reset feature enables multiple fire seasons to be analysed. • Provides easy to interpret seasonality tables every 10 days (the reporting period for the product). It is intended that the product will be validated using CEOS-approved protocols and data sets currently being developed through the European Space Agency Fire-CCI project. In this paper, initial results being produced operationally and will be presented along with examples highlighting the performance of the seasonality metric.

Tansey, K.; Bradley, A.; Smets, B.; van Best, C.; Lacaze, R.

2012-04-01

46

Geographic Identification of High Gonorrhea Transmission Areas in Baltimore, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic approaches to sexually transmitted infection (STI) research frequently seek to identify areas where outreach STI testing may most effectively interrupt continued transmission of STIs. Many of the studies are limited, however, in that they fail to control for racial\\/ethnic composition of the high prevalence areas. These studies thus may be merely identifying the broader sexual networks of the high

Jacky M. Jennings; Frank C. Curriero; David Celentano; Jonathan M. Ellen

47

Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

2010-01-01

48

Measuring Productivity on High Performance Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the high performance computing domain, the speed of execution of a program has typically been the prima ry performance metric. But productivity is also of con cern to high performance computing developers. In this pape r we will discuss the problems of defining and measuring productivity for these machines and we develop a mo del of productivity that includes

Marvin V. Zelkowitz; Victor R. Basili; Sima Asgari; Lorin Hochstein; Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Taiga Nakamura

2005-01-01

49

Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes work performed under a 3-y subcontract to advance Solarex's photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce its a-Si:H module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. During this period, Solarex focused on improving deposition of the front contact, investigating alternate feedstocks for the front contact, maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large areas, optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high potential test.

Oswald, R.; Morris, J.

1995-09-01

50

Preliminary studies for a high energy neutron area monitor  

SciTech Connect

Track etch detectors were exposed to neutrons produced by a spallation target struck by a beam of 800 MeV protons. The fields were filtered by 0, 10, and 40 centimeters of polyethylene. The track etch dosimeters were exposed on a polyethylene phantom. The dosimeters were exposed bare and behind lead filters of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 cm of lead with the face of the dosimeter perpendicular to the beam and bare and behind lead filters of 0.50, 1.0, and 1.5 cm of lead with angle of incidence 45{degree} and 75{degree}. Monte Carlo calculations of these experimental configurations were done using MCNP and LAHET with input from the calculated spectra. These results are compared with the experimental results to understand the basic processes involved in the production of tracks with high energy neutrons and develop a high energy neutron area monitor.

Devine, R.T.; Hsu, H.H.

1998-12-01

51

High impact technologies for natural products screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products have historically been a rich source of lead molecules in drug discovery. However, natural products have\\u000a been de-emphasized as high throughput screening resources in the recent past, in part because of difficulties in obtaining\\u000a high quality natural products screening libraries, or in applying modern screening assays to these libraries. In addition,\\u000a natural products programs based on screening of

Frank E. Koehn

52

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

53

Algorithms for High Performance, Wide-Area Distributed File Downloads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores three algorithms for high-performance downloads of wide-area, replicated data. The storage model is based on the Network Storage Stack, which allows for flexible sharing and utilization of writable storage as a network resource. The algorithms assume that data is replicated in various storage depots in the wide area, and the data must be delivered to the client

James S. Plank; Scott Atchley; Ying Ding; Micah Beck

2003-01-01

54

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

HCR, Washington, DC.

55

Atlanta: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Atlanta High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat in the Atlanta HIDTA region remained fairly consistent from 2009 through 2010. Cocaine distribution and abuse and methamphetamine produ...

2011-01-01

56

Appalachia: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Appalachia High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the HIDTA remained relatively consistent over the past year. The diversion, trafficking, and abuse of controlled prescription dru...

2011-01-01

57

Hawaii: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program enhances and coordinates drug control efforts among local, State, and Federal law enforcement agencies. The program provides agencies with coordination, equipment, technology, and additional resour...

2010-01-01

58

High Mountain Lake Research Natural Areas in Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High mountain lakes in Idaho total about 1800 and represent one of the most pristine type ecosystems in the country. Limnological characteristics are described for 27 lakes and 20 ponds in 32 established and proposed Research Natural Areas (RNA) represent...

F. W. Rabe

2001-01-01

59

Michigan High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Michigan High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall threat from drug trafficking and abuse in the Michigan HIDTA region has remained stable despite some strategic shifts for various drugs. For examp...

2011-01-01

60

6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

61

5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

62

High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

2013-09-01

63

High School Graduation Rates in the Metro-Detroit Area: What Really Affects Public Secondary Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education is essential to the future productivity of workers in the Metropolitan Detroit area, so determining what impacts high school graduation is vital to predicting the future success of our economy. This research investigates what key aspects in our society affect the high school graduation rate: poverty level, violent crime rate, student body, class size, local school taxes, and standardized

Thomas A. Wilk

2009-01-01

64

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

1999-05-11

65

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-05-11

66

Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the results of previous modeling work to more precisely define the extent and magnitude of this plume. SRS proposes incorporating depth discrete sampling during any future characterization effort to optimize any proposed remediation system. Finally, by using a full three-dimensional model rather than the traditional quasi-three dimensional methods an efficient remediation system can be developed.

Jackson, D.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

1996-02-29

67

Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.  

PubMed

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R

2013-03-05

68

Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

2013-01-01

69

Aqueous synthesis of high surface area metal oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying high throughput synthesis and characterization technologies, we have been optimizing common dry or aqueous synthetic routes for the preparation of high surface area metals and oxides, such as precipitation and modified Pechini methods. For wet combustion synthesis, we have been screening a variety of organic acids as dispersants and developed proprietary recipes for individual metals. By resorting to

Christian Bluthardt; Carola Fink; Klemens Flick; Alfred Hagemeyer; Marco Schlichter; Anthony Volpe

2008-01-01

70

43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating area? Allocation of production to each committed lease or tract within a...

2012-10-01

71

Radical Chemistry and Ozone Production in the Houston Industrial Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of radicals (HO2+RO2, NO3) were taken on board of the NOAA ship R/V Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS) 2006 field campaign. HO2+RO2 was measured by Chemical Amplification and NO3 (with N2O5) was measured by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. The R/V Brown cruised for a month (August-September 2006) off the coast of Texas and inside Galveston Bay and Houston industrial and shipping area, sampling air masses coming from the highly industrialized region of Southern United States. The data collected during the cruise were analyzed using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The model was constrained to the measurements of long-lived species and physical parameters and used to calculate the concentrations of radicals (OH, HO2, RO2, NO3) during the cruise of the R/V Brown. The modelled concentrations of HO2+RO2 and NO3 were compared with the measurements. The model and the measurements were used to study ozone formation and photochemistry in one of the most polluted areas of the United States.

Sommariva, R.; Brown, S. S.; Roberts, J. M.; Parker, A. E.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Osthoff, H. D.; Gilman, J. B.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Williams, E. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Trainer, M.

2007-12-01

72

The cancer mortality in high natural radiation areas in poland.  

PubMed

The cancer mortality ratios (CMRs) in Poland in high and low level radiation areas were analyzed based on information from national cancer registry. Presented ecological study concerned six regions, extending from the largest administration areas (a group of voivodeships), to the smallest regions (single counties). The data show that the relative risk of cancer deaths is lower in the higher radiation level areas. The decrease by 1.17%/mSv/year (p = 0.02) of all cancer deaths and by 0.82%/mSv/year (p = 0.2) of lung cancers only are observed.Tribute to Prof. Zbigniew Jaworowski (1927-2011). PMID:23304104

Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech; Dobrzy?ski, Ludwik

2012-01-12

73

Power reserve in interconnected systems with high wind power production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capacity of installed wind power of 40 GW in Europe, control areas with a wind power production exceeding the maximum load-these are serious plans that may come true in several years. Due to the high fluctuations and the limited predictability of wind power, this development will cause a severe change in the demands on the power reserve. Therefore, this

Gundolf Dany

2001-01-01

74

Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM  

SciTech Connect

CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo [CBMM-Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineracao, Fazenda Corrego da Mata, P.O. Box 838.183.903, Araxa, MG (Brazil)

2011-03-31

75

Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

de Moura, Lourenço; de Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

2011-03-01

76

High-Voltage CMOS ESD and the Safe Operating Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established methods for testing ESD robustness of high-voltage pins in smart power CMOS can lead to erroneous results. This paper investigates both LDNMOS and certain types of SCRLDMOS (SCRs embedded in LDNMOS) high-voltage clamps for safe-operating-area collapse due to trigger voltage (V t1) walk-in after transmission-line pulsing (TLP) corresponding to leakage-current increase below I t2. For the first time, the

Andrew J. Walker; Helmut Puchner; Sai Prashanth Dhanraj

2009-01-01

77

Nanoarchitectured metal film electrodes with high electroactive surface areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-defined nanoarchitectured metal film electrodes (NMFEs) with high electroactive surface areas relative to corresponding metal macroelectrode have been fabricated by direct evaporating metal onto porous anodic aluminum oxide films in a two-step route. The so-prepared metal electrodes have high dense hollow nanostructure arrays upstanding on their surfaces and thin thickness within several hundred nanometers, which endow them with enhanced electroactive

Yu-Guo Guo; Hui-Min Zhang; Jin-Song Hu; Li-Jun Wan; Chun-Li Bai

2005-01-01

78

Multicast group membership management in high speed wide area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multicast services, assisted by special hardware, are being considered as part of high-speed wide area networks in order to support new generations of multi-user applications. This paper describes an application multicast service for high-speed WANs which is capable of exploiting multicast hardware. Indeed, this research was con- ducted in context of the spanning tree hardware structure of IBM Networking Broad

Joshua S. Auerbach; Madan Gopal; Marc Kaplan; Shay Kutten

1991-01-01

79

High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Waste Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work relates to efforts made towards developing a high surface area, activated carbon from rubber wood sawdust by a two-stage activation process with phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Experiments are conducted in lab scale using muffle furnace under static conditions in a self-generated atmosphere covering process parameters such as impregnation ratio, carbonization time and temperature. The process

C. Srinivasakannan

80

67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

81

Northwest: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Northwest High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Northwest HIDTAregion in 2010 increased slightly from the threat posed in 2009. The HIDTA region remains a national-level tran...

2011-01-01

82

Surface structure and chemistry of high surface area silica gels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Combined Raman and (sup 29)Si NMR investigations of high surface area silica gels indicate that dehydroxylation of the a-SiO(sub 2) surface results preferentially in the formation of cyclic trisiloxanes (3-membered rings). Estimates of the maximum experim...

C. J. Brinker R. K. Brow D. R. Tallant R. J. Kirkpatrick

1989-01-01

83

High Surface Area ThO sub 2 Catalyst.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A ThO sub 2 catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m exp 2 /g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO sub 3 (NO sub 3 ) sub 4 .4H sub 2 O with an aqueous solution of Na sub 2 CO sub 3...

C. A. Colmenares G. A. Somorjai J. J. Maj

1983-01-01

84

Sustaining Fracture Area and Conductivity of Gas shale Reservoirs for Enhancing Long-term Production and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas from organic rich shale formations has become an increasingly important energy resource worldwide over the past decade. Extensive hydraulic fracture networks with massive contact surface areas are frequently required to achieve satisfactory economic production in these highly heterogeneous reservoirs, with permeability in the nano-Darcy range. Current operational experience in gas shale plays indicates that the loss of productive

R. Suarez-Rivera; S. Marino; A. Ghassemi

2010-01-01

85

Large mode area photonic crystal fibers with high geometrical birefringence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of numerical analysis showing that high geometrical birefringence can be obtained in large mode area photonic crystal fibers. Simulations were carried out using Finite Element Method with Perfectly Matched Layer boundary conditions. To induce possibly high phase modal birefringence, we introduced a few small holes into the central region of the core, which breaks its hexagonal symmetry. Such modification of the fiber geometry is additionally responsible for increasing the effective area of the guided mode. For the optimized fiber design with a pitch distance ? = 8.8 ?m, the phase birefringence reaches B = 1.0×10-4 at wavelength ? = 1.3 ?m and B = 1.5×10-4 at ? = 1.5 ?m. In addition to high modal birefringence, an important advantage of the proposed fiber design is a single mode operation for wavelength greater than 1.3 ?m.

Golojuch, Grzegorz; Urba?czyk, Waclaw

2008-12-01

86

The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features in the MSG/SEVIRI images. The fractional snow cover area (H12) algorithm is based on a sub-pixel reflectance model applied on METOP-AVHRR data. Knowing the effects of topography on satellite-measured radiances for rough terrain, the sun zenith and azimuth angles, as well as direction of observation relative to these are taken into account in estimating the target reflectances from the satellite images. The values of SWE products (H13) were obtained using an assimilation process based on the Helsinki University of Technology model using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) daily brightness-temperature values. The validation studies for three products have been performed for the water years 2010 and 2011. Average values of 70% of probability of detection for snow recognition product, 60% of overall accuracy for the fractional snow cover product and 45 mm RMSE for the snow water equivalent product have been obtained from the validation studies. Final versions of these three products will be presented and discussed. Key words: snow, satellite images, mountain, HSAF, snow cover, snow water equivalent

Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

2012-04-01

87

Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report describes work performed under a three-year subcontract to advance Solarex's photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing technologies, reduce its hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. During the period covered by this report, Solarex focused on (1) improving deposition of the front contact, (2) investigating alternate feed stocks for the front contact, (3) maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, (4) optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large areas, (5) optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, (6) evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and (7) optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high-potential test.

Oswald, R.; Morris, J.

1995-03-01

88

The information content of external trade and survey country data to forecast euro area industrial production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using several factor-based models for the euro area, the paper investigates the role of country data regarding external trade and surveys to forecast euro area industrial production. Following Boivin and Ng (2006a), we put the emphasis on the dataset built to estimate the factors. Spectral analysis enables us to assess the information content for euro area industrial production of external

Laurent Maurin; Matthieu Darracq Paries

89

IMAGE PROCESSING METHOD TO DETERMINE SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF AXISYMMETRIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image processing based method was developed to measure volume and surface area of ellipsoidal agricultural products such as eggs, lemons, limes, and peaches. The method assumes that each product has an axi-symmetric geometry and is a sum of superimposed elementary frustums of right circular cones. The product volume and surface area are calculated as the sum of the volumes

C. M. Sabliov; D. Boldor; K. M. Keener; B. E. Farkas

2002-01-01

90

Highball: a high speed, reserved-access, wide area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes a network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk

D. L. Mills; C. G. Boncelet; J. G. Elias; P. A. Schragger; A. W. Jackson

1990-01-01

91

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-01-01

92

Broad area side emission LED for high power application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Larger chip size with higher injection current is used in high power and high brightness LEDs. Thermal management and good current spreading are critical issues in these high power applications, besides the requirement on higher internal and external quantum efficiency. The conventional top emitting configuration is not suitable because of the poor thermal conductivity of the sapphire substrate and poor light extraction efficiency. The substrate removal and flip-chip methods can provide much better heat dissipation but having concerns on the yield. In this paper, we reported a broad area side emission LEDs (BSLED) with a large length to width ratio of 5000um to 500um so as to have a comparable light emitting area with top/back emission LEDs in the same amount of GaN wafer area. Both top and backside of wafer are coated with metals as mirror reflectors and are attached to heat sinks for better heat dissipation. The L-I, I-V and polarization characteristics from fabricated BSLED showed it is more promising than conventional top emitting LED at the same size. The BSLED provides more flexibility in lighting device design and could be more suitable for certain application like LCD backlighting.

Teng, J. H.; Ang, N. S. S.; Chua, S. J.; Liu, W.

2010-08-01

93

Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of platinum nanoclusters with high surface area.  

PubMed

Synthesis of platinum nanoclusters (PNCs), with its advantages of high surface area and reduced materials costs, represents a greatly interesting class of nanomaterials. In this paper, a one-step, rapid and efficient aqueous-phase reaction to straightforwardly produce PNCs in high yield is proposed without the need for any organic solvent, template or ion replacement, which is carried out simply by microwave-assisted heat-treatment of an aqueous solution containing K2PtCl4 and 2-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethanesulfonicacid (HEPES) within 12 s. As-prepared platinum nanoclusters are porous interconnected nanostructures and possess very high surface area (41 m2 g(-1)). The combination of high surface area with the nanoarchitectures consisting of pores of the product is advantageous for catalytic applications. PMID:21137751

Wang, Hongjing; Wangl, Liang; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Yusuke

2010-10-01

94

Production of high-capacity adenovirus vectors.  

PubMed

High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ad), also known as "helper-dependent" (HD-Ad), "gutless", "gutted", or "third-generation" Ad vectors, are devoid of all viral coding sequences and have shown promising potential for a wide variety of different applications-from classic gene therapy to genetic vaccination and tumor treatment. However, compared to first-generation adenoviral vectors their production is more complex and requires specific in-depth knowledge. This chapter delivers a detailed protocol for the successful production of HC-Ad vectors to high titers. PMID:24132488

Kreppel, Florian

2014-01-01

95

Large-area, triple junction a-Si alloy production  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous silicon alloy based triple junction 0.1 m[sup 2] modules with initial efficiencies greater than 11% have been produced using manufacturing equipment. Scale-up of equipment to process substrates 0.56 m[sup 2] in area is nearly complete.

Oswald, R.; Jansen, K.; Johnson, B.; Willing, F.; Raquet, J.; Kloss, T.; Morris, J.; Weiss, P.; Yang, L.; Hainsworth, M.C.; Ashenfelter, W.; Stabinsky, B.; Twesme, E.; Chen, L.F.; O'Dowd, J. (Solarex Corporation, Thin Film Division, 826 Newtown-Yardley Road, Newtown, Pennsylvania 18940 (United States))

1994-06-30

96

49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operator must identify the high consequence areas. An operator...192.903 to identify a high consequence area. An...description must include the potential impact radius when utilized to establish a high consequence area....

2010-10-01

97

49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operator must identify the high consequence areas. An operator...192.903 to identify a high consequence area. An...description must include the potential impact radius when utilized to establish a high consequence area....

2009-10-01

98

Contemporary sediment production and transfer in high-altitude glaciers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of fine-grained sediment production and transfer in high-altitude debris-covered glaciers was studied by examining the Rakhiot and Chungphar glaciers in the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, Northern Pakistan. Transport pathways, from the source areas to the glacier snout, were mapped and samples collected for particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Positive down-glacier trends in sediment fining and increased weathering

Lewis A. Owen; Edward Derbyshire; Christine H. Scott

2003-01-01

99

Effect of surface area of substrates aiming the optimization of carbon nanotube production from ferrocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferrocene is widely used for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes due to its ability to act as catalyst and precursor of the synthesis. This paper proposes an optimization of the synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ferrocene, using a substrate with high surface area for their nucleation. Four different surface areas of silica powder were tested: 0.5, 50, 200 and 300 m2/g. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy were used to characterize the product obtained and X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis were also performed to evaluate the phases of the material. It was observed that the silica powder with the highest surface area allowed the synthesis of carbon nanotubes to occur at a lower temperature (600 °C), whereas substrates with a surface area lower than 50 m2/g will only form carbon nanotubes at temperatures higher than 750 °C. In order to evaluate the influence of chemical composition of the substrate, three different ceramic powders were analyzed: alumina, silica and zirconia. carbon black and previously synthesized carbon nanotubes were also used as substrate for the synthesis and the results showed that the chemical composition of the substrate does not play a relevant role in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, only the surface area showed an influence.

Osorio, A. G.; Bergmann, C. P.

2013-01-01

100

Production function relationships in Detroit area Catholic elementary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine production function relationships within the Catholic elementary schools in the Archdiocese of Detroit. A non-experimental, descriptive research design was used as a framework. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted, with the grade level composite score (seventh grade) as the dependent variable. The model used a weighted least squares regression, with each

Mary Houlihan Miller

2007-01-01

101

Surface structure and chemistry of high surface area silica gels  

SciTech Connect

Combined Raman and {sup 29}Si NMR investigations of high surface area silica gels indicate that dehydroxylation of the a-SiO{sub 2} surface results preferentially in the formation of cyclic trisiloxanes (3-membered rings). Estimates of the maximum experimentally observed concentration of 3-membered rings correspond to a surface coverage of about 28-58{percent}. Two consequences of 3-membered rings on the a-SiO{sub 2} surface are enhanced hydrolysis rates and increased skeletal densities. 29 refs., 6 figs.

Brinker, C.J.; Brow, R.K.; Tallant, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Kirkpatrick, R.J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA))

1989-01-01

102

USING OF HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE DATA FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD AREAS MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Czech Republic, there are many areas with ecological problems. Old contaminated areas, polluted areas or dumps are meant. In the case of old contaminated or polluted areas, there are old army bases used by the Soviet Army at the end of cold war, polluted by oil products, heavy polluted areas due to uranium mining, large deforested areas as

Karel Pavelka; Lena Halounová

103

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical

R. R. Lagasse; J. L. Schroeder

1999-01-01

104

High Surface Area Molybdenum Nitride Support for Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

Alternative supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells were synthesized and catalytic activity was explored using electrochemical analysis. High surface area, molybdenum nitride supports were synthesized by rapidly heating a gel of polyethyleneimine bound molybdenum in a tube furnace under a forming gas atmosphere. Subsequent disposition of platinum through an incipient wetness approach lead to dispersed crystallites of platinum on the conductive support. All the ceramic materials were characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM and electrochemical analysis. The supports without platinum are highly stable to acidic aqueous conditions and show no signs of oxygen reduction reactivity (ORR). However, once the 20 wt % platinum is added to the material, ORR activity comparable to XC72 based materials is observed.

Blackmore, Karen [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Elbaz, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brosha, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Mccleskey, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Burrell, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2011-01-01

105

High surface area tapes produced with functionalized graphene.  

PubMed

We describe a scalable method for producing continuous graphene networks by tape casting surfactant-stabilized aqueous suspensions of functionalized graphene sheets. Similar to all other highly connected graphene-containing networks, the degree of overlap between the sheets controls the tapes' electrical and mechanical properties. However, unlike other graphene-containing networks, the specific surface area of the cast tapes remains high (>400 m(2)·g(-1)). Exhibiting apparent densities between 0.15 and 0.51 g·cm(-3), with electrical conductivities up to 24 kS·m(-1) and tensile strengths over 10 MPa, these tapes exhibit the best combination of properties with respect to density heretofore observed for carbon-based papers, membranes, or films. PMID:21545115

Korkut, Sibel; Roy-Mayhew, Joseph D; Dabbs, Daniel M; Milius, David L; Aksay, Ilhan A

2011-05-10

106

Nitridation under ammonia of high surface area vanadium aerogels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanadium pentoxide gels have been obtained from decavanadic acid prepared by ion exchange on a resin from ammonium metavanadate solution. The progressive removal of water by solvent exchange in supercritical conditions led to the formation of high surface area V2O5, 1.6H2O aerogels. Heat treatment under ammonia has been performed on these aerogels in the 450 900 °C temperature range. The oxide precursors and oxynitrides have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TGA, BET. Nitridation leads to divided oxynitride powders in which the fibrous structure of the aerogel is maintained. The use of both very low heating rates and high surface area aerogel precursors allows a higher rate and a lower threshold of nitridation than those reported in previous works. By adjusting the nitridation temperature, it has been possible to prepare oxynitrides with various nitrogen enrichment and vanadium valency states. Whatever the V(O,N) composition, the oxidation of the oxynitrides in air starts between 250 and 300 °C. This determines their potential use as chemical gas sensors at a maximum working temperature of 250 °C.

Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; El Badraoui, Khadija; L'Haridon, Paul

2005-01-01

107

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOEpatents

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-12-03

108

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOEpatents

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-10-28

109

SURVEY OF THE TRADITIONAL POULTRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN THE BAMENDA AREA, CAMEROON  

Microsoft Academic Search

SURVEY OF THE TRADITIONAL POULTRY PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN THE BAMENDA AREA, CAMEROON. A study of the traditional poultry production system in the Bamenda area in Cameroon was conducted using a baseline survey covering the rainy and dry seasons from December, 1999-June, 2000. This survey focused mainly on the characterization of the flock size and structure, housing system, feeding, marketing of

F. N. EKUE; K. D. PONÉ; M. J. MAFENI; A. N. NFI; J. NJOYA

110

Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where pro- cess dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosys- tem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER WUN- DRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high moun- tain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation re- gions (JUNG et al. 1997, LÖFFLER WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differ- entiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been in- vestigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine al- titudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large-scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catch- ment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of 1 investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and function- ing (LÖFFLER WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖSSLER [in prep.]. 2

Löffler, J.; Rössler, O.

111

Monoclinic and Tetragonal High Surface Area Sulfated Zirconias in Butane Isomerization: CO Adsorption and Catalytic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study high surface area monoclinic and tetragonal sulfated zirconia samples both active in n-butane isomerization were prepared from the same hydroxide precursor in a novel one-step hydrothermal process. The process is studied via analysis of intermediate stages of the product formation. The monoclinic samples show a catalytic activity in n-butane isomerization lower by about a factor of

W Stichert; F Schüth; S Kuba; H Knözinger

2001-01-01

112

High nitrous oxide production from thawing permafrost  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost soils contain nearly twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. When these soils thaw, large quantities of carbon are lost, mainly in the form of methane and carbon dioxide. In contrast, thawing is thought to have little impact on nitrous oxide emissions, which remain minimal following the summer thaw. Here, we examined the impact of thawing on nitrous oxide production in permafrost cores collected from a heath site and a wetland site in Zackenberg, Greenland. Rates of nitrous oxide production in the heath soil were minimal, regardless of the hydrological conditions. Although rates of nitrous oxide production in the wetland soil were low following thawing, averaging 1.37?gNh-1kg-1, they were 18?gNh-1kg-1 for permafrost samples following thawing, drainage and rewetting with the original meltwater. We show that 31% of the nitrous oxide produced after thawing and rewetting a 10-cm permafrost core-equivalent to 34mgNm-2d-1-was released to the atmosphere; this is equivalent to daily nitrous oxide emissions from tropical forests on a mean annual basis . Measurements of nitrous oxide production in permafrost samples from five additional wetland sites in the high Arctic indicate that the rates of nitrous oxide production observed in the Zackenberg soils may be in the low range.

Elberling, Bo; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Hansen, Birger U.

2010-05-01

113

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2013-07-01

114

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2010-07-01

115

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2009-07-01

116

43 CFR 3282.10 - When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...participating area receive a production allocation? 3282.10 Section 3282.10 ...MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area...participating area receive a production allocation? Unleased Federal lands within...

2012-10-01

117

Turbulence and fluid-front area production in binary-species, supercritical, transitional mixing layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Databases of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of temporal, supercritical mixing layers for two species systems, O2-H2 and C7H16-N2, are analyzed to elucidate species-specific turbulence aspects and features of fluid disintegration. Although the evolution of all layers is characterized by the formation of high-density-gradient magnitude (HDGM) regions, due to the specified, smaller initial density stratification, the C7H16-N2 layers display higher growth and increased global molecular mixing as well as larger turbulence levels than comparable O2-H2 layers. However, smaller density gradients and lower mass-fraction gradients at the transitional state for the O2-H2 system indicate that on a local basis, the layer exhibits an enhanced mixing, this being attributed to the increased mixture solubility and to mixture near-ideality. These thermodynamic features are found responsible for a larger irreversible entropy production (dissipation) in the O2-H2 compared to the C7H16-N2 layers. The largest O2-H2 dissipation is primarily concentrated in HDGM regions that are distortions of the initial density stratification boundary, whereas the largest C7H16-N2 dissipation is located in HDGM regions resulting from the mixing of the two fluids. To understand fluid disintegration, the area production of a fluid front perpendicular to the mass fraction gradient is calculated in a coordinate system moving with the relative velocity between the front and the flow. On a cross-stream local basis, the C7H16-N2 layers produce more area, and area production increases with smaller perturbation wavelengths combined with larger initial Reynolds numbers. The most active area-producing layer also exhibits the largest probability of having perpendicular vorticity and mass-fraction-gradient vectors. Analysis of the terms in the area production equation shows a large pressure-gradient-term root mean square contribution for the C7H16-N2 layers, due to the coincidence of regions with large magnitudes of pressure gradient with HDGM regions. Such coincidence is attributed to real-gas behavior, which is species-system specific, as the alignment of the pressure gradient and density gradient is similar for both species systems. The alignment of the mass fraction gradient with the strain rate is also species-system dependent. Independent of species system and of the initial conditions, the vorticity is preferentially aligned with the intermediate strain-rate eigendirection, indicating that eddy-viscosity-type models are not adequate for turbulent supercritical mixing.

Okong'o, N.; Bellan, J.

2004-05-01

118

9xx high-power broad-area laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this communication we report on the performance characteristics of Bookham"s latest generation of 915-990 nm broad area single emitter (BASE) laser diodes with around 90 ?m wide aperture. Representative high power devices in the wavelength range of 950-960 nm, mounted p-side down onto expansion matched assemblies using our highly reliable AuSn-solder technology, reveal a high slope efficiency of around 1.05 W/A during CW operation at 25°C heat sink temperature. Coupling efficiency into multi-mode fiber with 0.15 or 0.22 numerical aperture exceeds 93% mainly due to the low vertical divergence of the laser beam. In addition, low laser threshold and series resistance enable more than 62% maximum wall plug efficiency of the present generation of the laser diodes. Preliminary tests of new prototypes reveal already excellent performance characteristics of the next generation device with up to 19.9 W light output power in pulsed operation and 16 W for thermally limited CW operation.

Schmidt, Berthold E.; Sverdlov, Boris; Pawlik, Susanne; Lichtenstein, Norbert; Mueller, Juergen; Valk, Bernd; Baettig, Rainer K.; Mayer, Bernd; Harder, Christoph S.

2005-03-01

119

High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas  

SciTech Connect

High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

1995-01-01

120

High-speed interconnection for storage area networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady and fast increase of data intensive application is violently driving the demand for more data storage capacity and new storage architecture. The server-attached storage approach is being replaced by storage area networks (SANs), whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements or among storage elements, allowing storage devices to be shared among multiple servers. In this paper, we mainly analyze the different characters of Fibre Channel, iSCSI and InfiniBand used within the SANs environment. This paper discusses the issues of protocol performance, protocol scalability, the security mechanism, the interoperability and adaptability with SAN environments, the cost of investment of each architecture and so on. Comparing the performance of traditional direct attached storage, the findings show that all Fibre Channel, InfiniBand and iSCSI are the competent gigabit networking technology for storage area networks. Each protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to the overwhelming benefits of economy, covenience and high performance/cost ratio, more enterprise can deploy iSCSI SAN based on mature and existing TCP/IP infrastructure.

Liu, ZhaoBin; Xie, Changsheng; Wu, Fei; Fu, Xianglin

2003-04-01

121

Iron oxide nanoparticle powders with high surface area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxide nanomaterials with desired properties synthesized in the form of nanoparticle powders can find attractive applicability, e.g. in catalysis. Hence it is necessary to thoroughly characterize the materials by several measuring techniques. Two selected samples of amorphous Fe2O3 nanoparticles with high specific surface area values were prepared by the thermal treatment of different iron-bearing precursors. In addition to Mössbauer and microscopy methods, the nitrogen sorption based surface analysis is discussed from the viewpoint of textural morphology characterization of mentioned nanomaterials. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms have been measured and indicate the presence of micro and mesoporosity. One can conclude that the porosity arises from intra-aggregate voids and spaces formed by inter-particle contacts. The state of agglomeration can be estimated and appropriate application chosen.

K?ížek, M.; Pechoušek, J.; Tu?ek, J.; Šafá?ová, K.; Med?ík, I.; Machala, L.

2012-10-01

122

High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst  

DOEpatents

A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21

123

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table...Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources As required...

2012-07-01

124

Occurrence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Pork and Poultry Products from a Cattle-Rearing Area of France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meat products were collected from public retail outlets and tested for the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in an area with a high prevalence of VRE reported in human fecal samples. VRE were detected in 66% of the samples, and a predominance of VanC strains was found, which is also true for human fecal samples. In a previous study we

KARINE GAMBAROTTO; MARIE-CECILE PLOY; FREDERIC DUPRON; MARIE GIANGIOBBE; FRANCOIS DENIS

2001-01-01

125

Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 37-86. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1999): Klei

Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

126

Production, Manufacturing and Logistics A joint optimisation model for inventory replenishment, product assortment, shelf space and display area allocation decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an optimisation model to determine the product assortment, inventory replenishment, display area and shelf space allocation decisions that jointly maximize the retailer's profit under shelf space and backroom storage constraints. The variety of products to be displayed in the retail store, their display locations within the store, their order- ing quantities, and the allocated shelf

Moncer A. Hariga; Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari; Abdel-Rahman A. Mohamed

127

Automatic area based registration method and its application to the surface inspection of steel industry products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the automated application of an area based registration method to the surface inspection of steel industry products as a tool to solve an intermediate mosaicing problem. The main problem of area based methods is that there is high probability that the results of a matching process will be incorrect if a region of interest without any relevant detail is used. The selection of a region of interest with relevant content continues to be a problem nowadays. We propose a method to select a salient area when using a zero mean normalised cross correlation metric and a block as a region of interest. The selection of the size and the position of the block is focused on ensuring a smooth unimodal similarity surface around the maximum similitude point. Experiments show a correlation between the surface kurtosis of the block autocovariance and the same coefficient measured over the correlation surface around the maximum similitude point for the three different steel products analysed. We check that the maximum correlation value is reached abruptly, in a small range of pixels around the maximum similitude point, in correlation surfaces obtained from blocks containing non-relevant information. On the other hand, salient blocks usually lead to unimodal smooth similarity surfaces with small sensitivity to noise in contrast with the ones obtained from non-remarkable blocks. Also, the method proposed allows the application of fast search algorithms based on the unimodality of the correlation surface, obtaining high computational time reduction in comparison with full search strategies using fast normalised cross correlation algorithms.

García Llenderrozos, Ricardo; Álvarez García, Ignacio; Enguita González, José M.; Rodríguez Jiménez, Silvia

2013-04-01

128

Dry-gel conversion synthesis of Cr-MIL-101 aided by grinding: high surface area and high yield synthesis with minimum purification.  

PubMed

A dry gel conversion synthesis aided by fine-grinding of the synthesis precursors produces a MIL-101 product with a high surface area greater than 4100 m(2) g(-1) and a product yield approaching 90% in a very reproducible manner after only simple water washing. PMID:23872979

Kim, Jun; Lee, Yu-Ri; Ahn, Wha-Seung

2013-07-22

129

Production of high intensity radioactive beams  

SciTech Connect

The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Nitschke, J.M.

1990-04-01

130

CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-08-01

131

Characteristics of the flux of isoprene and its oxidation products in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the mixing ratios and fluxes of isoprene and its oxidation products, methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) from a tall flux tower in metropolitan Houston, Texas, during summertime using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID instrument. We show that isoprene was affected dominantly by biogenic emission sources during daytime, but also that tail-pipe emission sources (alongside 2-pentenes) are contributing during the rush hours and at night. The observed daytime mixing ratios of isoprene were much lower than over forested areas due to a comparatively low density of isoprene emitting trees in the tower's footprint area. Daytime isoprene fluxes displayed the expected light and temperature driven emission characteristics, and a detailed isoprene emissions model explained average fluxes fairly well. Our investigation of isoprene's oxidation products MACR and MVK showed that both anthropogenic and isoprene oxidation sources exist for MACR, while MVK was strongly dominated by isoprene oxidation between its emission and sampling points due to presumably high local OH radical concentrations. While biogenic emission modeling appears to work well for this urban environment when supplied with accurate input data, emission inventories used for ozone modeling may need to consider tailpipe isoprene (and MACR) emissions to properly account for urban concentrations, particularly higher morning abundances.

Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W.; Boedeker, Ian

2011-11-01

132

Large-area triple-junction a-Si alloy production scaleup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this subcontract over its three-year duration is to advance Solarex's photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce its a-Si:H module production costs, increase module performance and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. Solarex shall meet these objectives by improving the deposition and quality of the transparent front contact, by optimizing the laser patterning process, scaling-up the semiconductor deposition process, improving the back contact deposition, scaling-up and improving the encapsulation and testing of its a-Si:H modules. In the Phase 2 portion of this subcontract, Solarex focused on improving deposition of the front contact, investigating alternate feed stocks for the front contact, maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large-areas, optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high potential test. Progress is reported on the following: Front contact development; Laser scribe process development; Amorphous silicon based semiconductor deposition; Rear contact deposition process; Frit/bus/wire/frame; Materials handling; and Environmental test, yield and performance analysis.

Oswald, R.; Morris, J.

1994-11-01

133

Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment of management opportunities and potentially adverse changes on adjacent lands. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Svancara, L. K.; Scott, J. M.; Loveland, T. R.; Pidgorna, A. B.

2009-01-01

134

High-power Colquiriite lasers with high slope efficiencies pumped by broad-area laser diodes.  

PubMed

Efficient high-power operation of Cr:LiSAF, Cr:LiSGAF, and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by broad-area laser diodes is demonstrated. A maximum slope efficiency of 51 % and output power of 0.55 W was reached at 1.2 W of absorbed pump power, which is the highest output power to date with broad-area laser diode pumping. With the laser design used the onset of thermal quenching in Cr:LiSAF due to high temperatures was pushed to higher pump powers and good mode matching was achieved. PMID:19461731

Isemann, Andreas; Fallnich, Carsten

2003-02-10

135

High-power Colquiriite lasers with high slope efficiencies pumped by broad-area laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient high-power operation of Cr:LiSAF, Cr:LiSGAF, and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by broad-area laser diodes is demonstrated. A maximum slope efficiency of 51 % and output power of 0.55 W was reached at 1.2 W of absorbed pump power, which is the highest output power to date with broad-area laser diode pumping. With the laser design used the onset of thermal quenching in Cr:LiSAF due to high temperatures was pushed to higher pump powers and good mode matching was achieved.

Isemann, Andreas; Fallnich, Carsten

2003-02-01

136

Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Claus, Robert; And Others

137

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

Phillips, D.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brzezinski, M.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Marine Biotechnology Center

1998-12-31

138

High surface area polypyrrole scaffolds for tunable drug delivery.  

PubMed

Intrinsically conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) are viable platforms for efficient drug delivery, where release rates can be tuned by external electrical stimulus. In this study, the successful fabrication of 3-dimensionally ordered macroporous PPy inverse opal thin films is described, and the viability of such films for controlled drug release evaluated in vitro. The PPy inverse opal thin films were obtained by electropolymerization of PPy through the interstitial voids of a colloidal crystal template composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) colloids of diameter ?430 nm. Chemical etching of the template yielded macroporous PPy inverse opal scaffolds. The model drug risperidone was loaded into the PPy inverse opal films, and then entrapped by electropolymerization of a non-porous PPy overlayer. The morphology and chemical composition of the PPy scaffolds were evaluated by SEM and FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The high surface area PPy inverse opal scaffolds exhibited enhanced drug loading and releasing capabilities compared to conventional non-porous PPy films. Drug release profiles could be modified by applying electrical stimulus, which caused actuation of the porous polypyrrole films. The proposed delivery system may find use as an implantable device where drug release can be electrically tuned according to patient requirements. PMID:23318368

Sharma, Manisha; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Loader, Samuel W C; Garg, Sanjay; Svirskis, Darren

2013-01-11

139

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

DOEpatents

A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

1994-01-01

140

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

SciTech Connect

A process for the preparation of silicon-32 is provided and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

1994-09-13

141

LightWeight and Large-Area Solar Cell Production Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production technologies for light-weight, large-area and flexible solar cells are reviewed. Roll-to-roll processes including an originally developed stepping-roll deposition process are used to fabricate large-area hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar cells in succession on plastic film substrates. A unique monolithic device structure for the insulating film substrates having through-hole contacts was developed and applied to simplify the production processes and to

Akihiro Takano; Tomoyoshi Kamoshita

2004-01-01

142

NDA measurement of the enrichment of uranium in the product header pipes in the cascade area  

SciTech Connect

The gamma rays measurements on product header pipes inside the cascade areas in a gas centrifuge enrichment plant have been performed with a high resolution Ge detector. The purpose of the present work is to investigate whether the NDA measurement can verify the declared enrichment level or not. The uranium deposit can be estimated from the difference in count rate of 185.7 keV gamma rays between with and without uranium gas in the product pipes. It was found that the amounts of deposit were less than those of gas phase uranium. 185.7 keV, 84.2 keV and 63.3 keV gamma rays intensities were measured to determine the enrichment. The obtained results of the count rate of 185.7 keV gamma rays were almost constant over several months. This means that the gas pressure is stable and the increasing rate of the uranium deposit is small enough. The measurement time required was at most 10 minutes. So the authors can conclude that the measurement of 185.7 keV gamma rays intensity gives quick indication of the no production of uranium higher than declared enrichment under the condition that the pressure of UF/sub 6/ gas is constant. The measurement of the 84.2 keV and 63.3 keV gamma rays intensity would also be effective measures in determining the enrichment of UF/sub 6/ gas.

Yokota, S.; Hori, M.; Iwamoto, T.; Akiba, M.; Omae, M.

1985-01-01

143

Compounds of molybdenum and tungsten with high specific surface area I. Nitrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-programmed reaction between MoO3 or WO3 with NH3 provides a new way to prepare Mo2N and W2N powders with specific surface areas as high as 220 and 91 m2 g-1, respectively, corresponding to 3- to 4-nm crystallites. The transformation of MoO3 platelets is topotactic in the sense that {100} planes of Mo2N are parallel to {010} planes of MoO3. As the MoO3 reacts with NH3, it passes through an oxynitride intermediate with changing bulk structure, increasing surface area, and decreasing oxidation state of the metal. The product consists of highly porous nitride platelets, pseudomorphous with the original MoO3.

Volpe, Leo; Boudart, M.

1985-10-01

144

High resolution tsunami modelling for the evaluation of potential risk areas in Setúbal (Portugal)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high resolution hydrodynamic modelling to simulate the potential effects of tsunami events can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas. Moreover, the consideration of complementary data such as the type of buildings, location of priority equipment, type of roads, enables mapping of the most vulnerable zones, computing of the expected damage on man-made structures, constrain of the definition of rescue areas and escape routes, adaptation of emergency plans and proper evaluation of the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipment. Such an approach was used to evaluate the specific risks associated with a potential occurrence of a tsunami event in the region of Setúbal (Portugal), which was one of the areas most seriously affected by the 1755 tsunami. In order to perform an evaluation of the hazard associated with the occurrence of a similar event, high resolution wave propagation simulations were performed considering different potential earthquake sources with different magnitudes. Based on these simulations, detailed inundation maps associated with the different events were produced. These results were combined with the available information on the vulnerability of the local infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, priority buildings) in order to impose restrictions in the production of high-scale potential damage maps, escape routes and emergency routes maps.

Ribeiro, J.; Silva, A.; Leitão, P.

2011-08-01

145

Comparison of L3JRC and MODIS global burned area products from 2000 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a significant source of trace gases and particulate matter to the atmosphere, biomass burning plays an important role in climate change and atmospheric chemistry at regional and global scales. The burned area is a critical parameter in estimating fire emissions. Recently, multiyear global burned area products with medium spatial resolution (1 km or 500 m) have been released, including

Di Chang; Yu Song

2009-01-01

146

Leaf area expansion and assimilate production in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growing under low phosphorus conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reductions in leaf area and plant growth as a consequence of phosphorus (P) limitations have been attributed both to direct effects of P shortage on leaf expansion rate and to a reduced production of assimilates required for growth. Canopy assimilation and leaf area expansion are closely interrelated processes. In this work we used experimental and simulation techniques to identify and

Daniel Rodríguez; M. M. Zubillaga; E. L. Ploschuk; W. G. Keltjens; J. Goudriaan; R. S. Lavado

1998-01-01

147

Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air

G. R. Hadder; S. M. Chin

1994-01-01

148

Distinct parietal and temporal connectivity profiles of ventrolateral frontal areas involved in language production.  

PubMed

Broca's region, which in the language-dominant hemisphere of the human brain plays a major role in language production, includes two distinct cytoarchitectonic areas: 44 and 45. The unique connectivity patterns of these two areas have not been well established. In a resting-state functional connectivity study, we tested predictions about these areas from invasive tract-tracing studies of the connectivity of their homologs in the macaque monkey. We demonstrated their distinct connectivity profiles as well as their differences from the caudally adjacent ventral parts of the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortical region that represent the orofacial musculature. Area 45 is strongly connected with the superior temporal sulcus and the cortex on the adjacent superior and middle temporal gyri. In the parietal region, area 45 is connected with the angular gyrus, whereas area 44 is connected with the supramarginal gyrus. The primary motor cortical region in the caudal precentral gyrus is not connected with the posterior parietal region, which lies outside the confines of the postcentral gyrus, whereas the ventrorostral premotor cortical area 6VR, in the most anterior part of the precentral gyrus, has strong connections with the rostral supramarginal gyrus. Thus, area 44, which has stronger connections to the posterior supramarginal gyrus, can be distinguished from both the adjacent area 6VR and area 45. These findings provide a major improvement in understanding the connectivity of the areas in the ventrolateral frontal region that are involved in language production. PMID:24133284

Margulies, Daniel S; Petrides, Michael

2013-10-16

149

High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have foreseen: Samples of rocks and soils to determine the Uranium concentration; Collection of water samples for the determination of Radon concentrations; Measurements of the Radon concentration in soil air; The Lecce's area is divided into 4 sub-areas, each of them with the same geological features: subsoil structure with high/normal/low fracturing, cracking, permeability, porosity, ecc... The potential Radon risk increases with the alteration's degree of subsoil structure. Results show that the 4 Lecce's subareas are characterized by average Radon value between 1.000-2.000 Bq/m3, and that in 2 of the 4 zones, characterized by high fracturing and big permeability, the range is high, from 400 Bq/m3 to over the 60.000 Bq/m3. The distribution of anomalies isn't homogeneous in the study zone, but as Hot-Spot and these are present in all sub-areas; the greatest number is detected in areas with high fracturing and cracking and in areas with lithological changes at different permeability. The others determinants factors in these areas are those anthropogenic; in some little zones belonging to subareas there are industrial and commercial areas built removing soil and damaging and altering the subsoil structure; in this way create zones of Radon accumulation in the soil air with fast ascent of the gas to the surface, and this produce high Radon concentration indoor. In the soil around these areas, few meters from buildings, and in the indoor air the Radon concentration is higher than 60.000 Bq/m3.

Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

2010-05-01

150

Common Marsh Plant Species of the Gulf Coast Area. Volume I. Productivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Dredged Material Research Program, a study of the productivity of marsh plants common to the Gulf Coast area was conducted. The study reports on the productivity of seven marsh plant species in coastal marshes ...

J. G. Gosselink R. T. Parrondo C. S. Hopkinson

1977-01-01

151

Particle characteristics in the reactor and pelletizing areas of carbon black production.  

PubMed

Physical and chemical characteristics of airborne particles (ultrafine, PM1, PM2.5, and PM10) in reactor and pelletizing areas during carbon black production were measured to assess process related sources of particles in work areas. Results from bagging areas within the same three facilities have been previously published. Particle number and mass concentration measurements were conducted in these work areas and at ambient comparison sites at each of the three carbon black plants. No elevated ultrafine particle number concentrations (UFP, <100 nm) with respect to ambient were determined in the work areas of Plant 1, intermittently elevated concentrations at Plant 2, and permanently elevated concentrations at Plant 3. The intermittently elevated UFP concentrations in the pelletizer and reactor areas of Plant 2 could be related to nearby traffic emissions. The ultrafine particle number concentrations at Plant 2 are comparable to those determined at urban traffic sites. Both work areas of Plant 3 showed elevated UFP concentrations in the pelletizer reactor and areas. In the case of the reactor, which was the only enclosed reactor area investigated among the three facilities, the source of the elevated UFP number concentration was most likely attributable to grease and oil fumes from maintenance activities, a conclusion supported by carbon fractionation analysis. The elevated UFP number concentrations in the pelletizing area in this same plant are related to leaks in the production line, which allowed particulate matter to escape to the surrounding areas. Absolute PM10 mass concentrations were all within normal ambient concentrations except for the pelletizing area in Plant 3, which showed continuous levels above ambient. One additional source contributing to peak level PM10 mass concentrations at Plant 2 was due to wind dispersion from a carbon black spill incident the day prior to measurements. It is concluded from these measurements that no carbon black is released in the reactor and pelletizing areas (as UFP or PM10) from the closed production lines under normal operating conditions. PMID:16998988

Kuhlbusch, T A J; Fissan, H

2006-10-01

152

Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices: How Cortical Areas Supporting Speech Production Mediate Audiovisual Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

Observing a speaker’s mouth profoundly influences speech perception. For example, listeners perceive an “illusory” “ta” when the video of a face producing /ka/ is dubbed onto an audio /pa/. Here, we show how cortical areas supporting speech production mediate this illusory percept and audiovisual (AV) speech perception more generally. Specifically, cortical activity during AV speech perception occurs in many of the same areas that are active during speech production. We find that different perceptions of the same syllable and the perception of different syllables are associated with different distributions of activity in frontal motor areas involved in speech production. Activity patterns in these frontal motor areas resulting from the illusory “ta” percept are more similar to the activity patterns evoked by AV/ta/ than they are to patterns evoked by AV/pa/ or AV/ka/. In contrast to the activity in frontal motor areas, stimulus-evoked activity for the illusory “ta” in auditory and somatosensory areas and visual areas initially resembles activity evoked by AV/pa/ and AV/ka/, respectively. Ultimately, though, activity in these regions comes to resemble activity evoked by AV/ta/. Together, these results suggest that AV speech elicits in the listener a motor plan for the production of the phoneme that the speaker might have been attempting to produce, and that feedback in the form of efference copy from the motor system ultimately influences the phonetic interpretation.

Skipper, Jeremy I.; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Small, Steven L.

2009-01-01

153

Arizona Region High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, 2005 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arizona Region HIDTA covers eight counties: Cochise, La Paz, Maricopa, Mohave, Pima, Pinal, Santa Cruz, and Yuma. Arizonas 372-mile border with Mexico consists of sparsely populated areas, vast expanses of rugged mountainous terrain aligned in north-s...

2006-01-01

154

75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Drug Control Policy Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice...Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

2010-08-27

155

76 FR 44613 - Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DRUG CONTROL POLICY Designation of Eight Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas AGENCY: Office of National...Policy has designated eight additional counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

2011-07-26

156

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2013-01-01

157

Wrapper: a surface optimization algorithm that preserves highly curved areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software to construct polygonal models of anatomical structures embedded as isosurfaces in 3D medical images has been available since the mid 1970s. Such models are used for visualization, simulation, measurements (single and multi-modality image registration), and statistics. When working with standard MR- or CT-scans, the surface obtained can contain several million triangles. These models contain data an order of magnitude larger than that which can be efficiently handled by current workstations or transmitted through networks. These algorithms generally ignore efficient combinations that would produce fewer, well shaped triangles. An efficient algorithm must not create a larger data structure than present in the raw data. Recently, much research has been done on the simplification and optimization of surfaces ([Moore and Warren, 1991]); [Schroeder et al., 1992]; [Turk, 1992]; [Hoppe et al., 1993]; [Kalvin and Taylor, 1994]). All of these algorithms satisfy two criteria, consistency and accuracy, to some degree. Consistent simplification occurs via predictable patterns. Accuracy is measured in terms of fidelity to the original surface, and is a prerequisite for collecting reliable measurements from the simplified surface. We describe the 'Wrapper' algorithm that simplifies triangulated surfaces while preserving the same topological characteristics. We employ the same simplification operation in all cases. However, simplification is restricted but not forbidden in high curvature areas. This hierarchy of operations results in homogeneous triangle aspect and size. Images undergoing compression ratios between 10 and 20:1 are visually identical to full resolution images. More importantly, the metric accuracy of the simplified surfaces appears to be unimpaired. Measurements based upon 'ridge curves; (sensu [Cutting et al., 1993]) extracted on polygonal models were recently introduced [Ayache et al., 1993]. We compared ridge curves digitized from full resolution, Wrapper, and volume subsampled CT-scan isosurfaces. [Dean, 1993] introduced a method for measuring distances between space curves. In the best case this method demonstrated that ridge curves digitized from the Wrapper simplified images were two orders of magnitude closer to the full resolution image than those taken from the volume subsampled images.

Gueziec, Andre; Dean, David

1994-09-01

158

Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.  

PubMed

Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

2013-03-12

159

Characterizing ozone production in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case study using a chemical transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An episodic simulation is conducted to characterize ozone (O3) photochemical production and investigate its sensitivity to emission changes of ozone precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). High Ox (O3+NO2) photochemical production rates of 10-80 ppb/h are predicted due to the high reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in which alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics exert comparable contributions. The predicted ozone production efficiency is between 4-10 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized, and increases with VOC-to-NO2 reactivity ratio. Process apportionment analyses indicate significant outflow of pollutants such as O3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from the urban area to the surrounding regional environment. PAN is not in chemical-thermal equilibrium during the photochemically active periods. Sensitivity studies of O3 production suggest that O3 formation in the MCMA urban region with less chemical aging (NOz/NOy<0.3) is VOC-limited. Both the simulated behavior of O3 production and its sensitivities to precursors suggest that midday O3 formation during this episode is VOC sensitive in the urban region on the basis of the current emissions inventory. More episodic studies are needed to construct a comprehensive and representative picture of the O3 production characteristics and its response to emission controls.

Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Zavala, M.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.

2006-08-01

160

Characterizing ozone production in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case study using a chemical transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An episodic simulation is conducted to characterize midday (12:00-17:00 CDT) ozone (O3) photochemical production and to investigate its sensitivity to emission changes of ozone precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during an "O3-South" meteorological episode using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). High Ox (O3+NO2) photochemical production rates of 10-80 ppb/h are predicted due to the high reactivity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in which alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics exert comparable contributions. The predicted ozone production efficiency is between 4-10 O3 molecules per NOx molecule oxidized, and increases with VOC-to-NO2 reactivity ratio. Process apportionment analyses indicate significant outflow of pollutants such as O3 and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) from the urban area to the surrounding regional environment. PAN is not in chemical-thermal equilibrium during the photochemically active periods. Sensitivity studies of O3 production suggest that O3 formation in the MCMA urban region with less chemical aging (NOz/NOy<0.3) is VOC-limited. Both the simulated behavior of O3 production and its sensitivities to precursors suggest that midday O3 formation during this episode is VOC-sensitive in the urban region on the basis of the current emissions inventory estimates, and current NOx levels depress the O3 production.

Lei, W.; de Foy, B.; Zavala, M.; Volkamer, R.; Molina, L. T.

2007-02-01

161

Large area high efficiency broad bandwidth 800 nm dielectric gratings for high energy laser pulse compression.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated broad bandwidth large area (229 mm x 114 mm) multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for the efficient compression of high energy 800 nm laser pulses at high average power. The gratings are etched in the top layers of an aperiodic (Nb0.5Ta0.5)2O5-SiO2 multilayer coating deposited by ion beam sputtering. The mean efficiency of the grating across the area is better than 97% at the center wavelength and remains above 96% at wavelengths between 820 nm and 780 nm. The gratings were used to compress 5.5 J pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser with an efficiency above 80 percent. PMID:20052091

Martz, D H; Nguyen, H T; Patel, D; Britten, J A; Alessi, D; Krous, E; Wang, Y; Larotonda, M A; George, J; Knollenberg, B; Luther, B M; Rocca, J J; Menoni, C S

2009-12-21

162

[Environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province].  

PubMed

To evaluate the environmental cost of rice production is of significance for the sustainable development of agriculture and the set-up of green GDP accounting system. In this paper, the environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area, one of the main bread baskets in China, was evaluated from the aspects of pesticide pollution, chemical fertilizer pollution, greenhouse gases emission, plastic film persistence, paddyfield gleyization, and polderization. The results showed that in 1999, the total environmental cost of rice production in this area was 41.91 billion yuan, equivalent to 26.8% of its total agricultural production value, or 28.5% of the gross output of its planting industry. For the sustainable production of rice, the strategies for decrease environmental cost intrinsically were put forward. PMID:16471365

Xiang, Ping'an; Huang, Huang; Yan, Huimin; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Huang, Xingguo

2005-11-01

163

Exploratory study on the land area required for global food supply and the potential global production of bioenergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The areas of agricultural land on this globe that in the future possibly are available for biomass production for energy use and the potential global production of biomass were calculated. These available land areas increased when the global potential for food production (dependent on agricultural system and available land areas for agriculture) became higher in comparison to the global food

J. Wolf; P. S. Bindraban; J. C. Luijten; L. M. Vleeshouwers

2003-01-01

164

[The productive district of textile asbestos in the Lower Iseo Lake area].  

PubMed

In the Bergamo area of Basso Sebino (lower Lake Iseo), for decades there has been a large concentration of small firms (mostly family-run), specialised in the production of rubber gaskets. Within this production field, some companies used to manufacture textile asbestos exclusively or as part of their business. The asbestos goods were therefore marketed as they were or subsequently cut and transformed into gaskets. Among the 5 companies involved, "Manifattura Colombo & C" was the first one that started this production in the district, and the one that engaged the greatest number of employees (considering both the Sarnico and Predore factories). In the Predore factory, operating from the fifties to 1979, the asbestos thread production was carried out exclusively and to the complete technological cycle (i.e. from crashing the raw asbestos that was brought in from Balangero). The whole process was performed in an extremely dusty environment (according to the witness of former workers), expecially during the first production steps. In the Sarnico factory which operated from 1920 to 1993, they produced textile asbestos items (laces, ropes, etc.), as well as rubber and metal gaskets. The latter were coupled with asbestos by means of metal-plastics co-moulding operations, in order to obtain gaskets highly resistant to exhaust vapours, gases, oils, solvents and so on. The environmental data available (referred to the 1980-1992 period), supply evidence of severe exposure in the first years of activity, whilst a sharp reduction in the asbestos-fiber concentration rate was achieved along the years, thanks mainly to the completion and improvement of exhaust systems installed on winding and braiding machines. Finally we shortly describe the work of the four other factories and in more detail that of the "Manifattura Sebina srl" is mentioned herein because, although this is a "typical" textile mill and exclusively manufacturing cotton products, a considerable number of cases of mesothelioma has been detected among its workforce. This has been attributed to the presence of asbestos insulated piping, to maintenance and replacement interventions on looms brake pads, and above all to the nearly 50 asbestos blankets that were employed in the weekly fire-fighting exercises, and usually leaned against the walls of departments, with no protection whatsoever. PMID:18050852

Caironi, Massimo; Polini, Sandro; Storto, Teodorico; Bertoli, Mariarosa

165

Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual

G. J. Husak; M. T. Marshall; J. Michaelsen; D. Pedreros; C. Funk; G. Galu

2008-01-01

166

High-frequency cortical subdural stimulation enhanced plasticity in surgery of a tumor in Broca's area.  

PubMed

Functional areas located near or within brain gliomas prevent the complete resection of these tumors. It has recently been described that slow tumor invasion promotes neural reorganization, and even topographic plasticity, allowing a staged resection of those tumors. Thus, our aim was to promote plasticity by mimicking the tumor's capability to displace brain function. This proceeded through the production of a 'virtual lesion' in eloquent areas within a tumor using continuous high-frequency cortical electrical stimulation (cHFCS). An anaplastic astrocytoma located in Broca's area progressed in a patient whose lateralization of language to the side of the lesion was demonstrated with functional MRI. After partial tumor resection using awake cortical monitoring, we implanted a subdural grid over the eloquent cortex located within residual tumor. We then applied cHFCS for 25 days, using a frequency of 130 Hz and a pulse width of 1 ms. Stimulus intensity was set to the threshold wherein mild speech disturbance was evident without any other neurological effects. This treatment successfully achieved the displacement of speech functions, and a more radical resection of the tumor was possible in a second surgery. Critically, a reorganization of motor language areas was demonstrated both with functional MRI and cortical stimulation. Furthermore, motor language areas were also identified in the right hemisphere, where previously they were absent. The patient's speech fluency improved both after stimulation and resection. We therefore demonstrate the first evidence of induced topographic plasticity using cHFCS in eloquent areas within a tumor, which allowed for increased tumor removal. Our results open the possibility to induce plasticity before the resection of brain tumors near eloquent areas, in order to increase the extent of resection. PMID:22336871

Barcia, Juan A; Sanz, Ana; Balugo, Paloma; Alonso-Lera, Pedro; Brin, Juan Raúl; Yus, Miguel; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Acedo, Victoria M; Oliviero, Antonio

2012-03-28

167

[Scientific productivity and Hirsch's h index of Spanish social psychology: convergence between productivity indexes and comparison with other areas].  

PubMed

This article describes Hirsch's h index as a measure of researchers' scientific productivity and quality, examining its convergent validity with other productivity and quality measures (total citations, maximum citation, sexennials, years since earning Ph.D., and years as a full professor). It shows the distribution of the index among Spanish Social Psychology professors, and a comparison is made among the ten professors with highest h index of the six knowledge areas into which academic Psychology is divided in Spain. The results show that the index largely correlates with the citations but only very modestly with the number of sexennial investigations. The distributions by areas show that Psychobiology and Basic Psychology, as a whole, have a higher h index than the other areas, with Social Psychology in fourth place. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these results and we offer some recommendations for using the index in academic and research decision making. PMID:17425885

Salgado, Jesús F; Páez, Darío

2007-05-01

168

Comment on the ?+-PRODUCTION at High Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the cross sections of the ?+-pentaquark production in different processes decrease with energy faster than the cross sections of production of the conventional three-quark hyperons. Therefore, the threshold region with the initial energy of a few GeV or less seems to be more favorable for the production and experimental study of ?+-pentaquark.

Titov, A. I.; Hosaka, A.; Daté, S.; Ohashi, Y.

2005-04-01

169

Chasing Ghosts?: Police Perception of High Crime Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there has been a move within police services towards a proactive and intelligence-led style of policing. This has coincided with a recognition of the value of local policing solutions and the importance of the intelligence function at the local area command level. This paper uses a combination of hotspot analysis within a geographical information system (GIS), a

J. H. Ratcliffe; M. J. MCCULLAGH

2001-01-01

170

Persistent organic pollutants in snow from European high mountain areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow cores were collected in the catchment area of five remote mountain lakes in Europe. They were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and organochlorine pesticides, namely DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH). PAH are found in higher amounts in the Tatra and Caledonian mountains, PCB are higher in the Alps and HCH are highest in the

Guillem Carrera; Pilar Fernández; Rosa M Vilanova; Joan O Grimalt

2001-01-01

171

Negative ion production in cesium seeded high electron temperature plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In experiments on uniformity improvement in a large negative ion source, steep gradients have been observed in the profiles of electron temperature and H{sup -} ion beam intensity. It has been observed that the gradient in the H{sup -} ion beam intensity is altered by seeding cesium, though the electron temperature distribution is not affected by Cs. Thus in the Cs seeded condition, the H{sup -} ion beam intensity is enhanced in local area illuminated by high electron temperature plasmas. A brief analysis suggests possible advantages of high electron temperature plasmas for the negative ion surface production, by enhancement of dissociation to yield proton or atoms as parent particles of the negative ions.

Inoue, T.; Tobari, H.; Takado, N.; Hanada, M.; Kashiwagi, M.; Hatayama, A.; Wada, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Doshisha University, Kyotanabe 610-0394 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka 311-0193 (Japan)

2008-02-15

172

Photosynthetic property and primary production of phytoplankton in sublittoral sand bank area in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the photosynthesis–light intensity (P–I) relationships of phytoplankton collected from a sublittoral sand\\u000a bank in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, under different temperature conditions. In spite of low chlorophyll a concentration (?3), phytoplankton had considerably high photosynthetic potential (>10 mg C (mg chl a)?1 h?1) in the study area. Based on the P–I relationships, we conducted numerical simulation of areal primary production using

Motomi Genkai-Kato; Miyuki Onishi; Hideyuki Doi; Kentaro Nozaki; Kenji Yoshino; Hitoshi Miyasaka; Koji Omori

2008-01-01

173

Production of high power femtosecond terahertz radiation  

SciTech Connect

The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is attracting interest for a broad range of applications ranging from diagnosing electron beams to biological imaging. Most sources of short pulse THz radiation utilize excitation of biased semiconductors or electro-optic crystals by high peak power lasers. For example, this was done by using an un-doped InAs wafer irradiated by a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Microwatt levels of THz radiation were detected when excited with FEL pulses at 1.06 mm wavelength and 10W average power. Recently substantially higher powers of femtosecond THz pulses produced by synchrotron emission were extracted from the electron beamline. Calculations and measurements confirm the production of coherent broadband THz radiation from relativistic electrons with an average power of nearly 20W, a world record in this wavelength range by a factor of 10,000. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. Potential applications of this exciting new source include driving new non-linear phenomena, performing pump-probe studies of dynamical properties of novel materials, and studying molecular vibrations and rotations, low frequency protein motions, phonons, superconductor band gaps, electronic scattering, collective electronic excitations (e.g., charge density waves), and spintronics.

Neil, George R.; Carr, G.L.; Gubeli III, Joseph F.; Jordan, K.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Shinn, Michelle; Tani, Masahiko; Williams, G.P.; Zhang, X.-C.

2003-07-11

174

Mineral resources of the Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Humboldt and Washoe counties, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area consists of approximately 52,143 acres of flat-lying Tertiary volcanic rocks and associated sediments. No resources were identified in the study area, but three areas contain moderate potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The rest of the area has low potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The study area also contains three small areas of low potential for perlite, pozzolan, and uranium.

Keith, W.J.; Turner, R.L.; Plouff, D.

1987-01-01

175

Product Delivery Expectations: Hanford LAW Product Performance and Acceptance Tanks Focus Area Task  

SciTech Connect

This task has several facets all aimed at providing technical products that will support the immobilization of Hanford's Low Activity Waste. Since this task breaks new ground in developing predictive capability, a review process external to the technical team is critical for acceptance by the technical community and is key to Hanford's Performance Assessment review process.

Holtzscheiter, E.W.

1999-04-29

176

Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

2008-01-01

177

Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

2010-12-01

178

Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2\\/g and 520 m.sup.2\\/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene

Alexander E. Gash; Joe Satcher; Thomas Tillotson; Lawrence Hrubesh; Randall Simpson

2007-01-01

179

Entrance skin dose estimates derived from dose-area product measurements in interventional radiological procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patient skin doses resulting from interventional radiological procedures have the potential to exceed threshold doses for deterministic eVects such as erythema and epilation. If the irradiation geometry is known, the entrance skin dose can be estimated from the measured dose-area product. For each of 10 non-coronary interventional procedures, a nominal geometry was identified. From a previous survey of patient dose-area

B J MCPARLAND; King Fahad

180

Geothermal systems in Iceland: Structure and conceptual models—I. High-temperature areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are 20 known high-temperature geothermal areas in Iceland and another eight potential areas. Surface manifestations are meagre in these eight areas and not conclusive, and no drilling has been carried out to prove or disprove the existence of high-temperature geothermal systems at depth. The high-temperature areas are located within the active volcanic belts or marginal to them. The heat

Stefán Arnórsson

1995-01-01

181

Device Engineering of Large Area, High Performance Bi-Alkali Photocathodes for Fast-Timing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photo-cathodes are devices that convert a photon into free electrons, used in vacuum tubes for detecting photons. With its extremely low dark current and ultra-fast time response, alkali photo-cathodes have been widely used in high energy physics and astrophysics. However, until recently, fundamental understanding of the physics behind the variation of the photo-cathode performance was still limited, which prevents reliable and reproducible production of high performance photo-cathodes. This talk will discuss the development of large area bi-alkali photo-cathode for pico-second detector project. With thorough and careful investigation of several mature growth recipes, critical parameters which may affect the cathode performance were identified and subsequently studied. Optical and electrical measurements clearly reveal the affection of Sb thickness to the overall photo-cathode performance. Based on these studies, large area photo-cathode with high uniformity was achieved. The study also makes it possible for high performance photo-detector development.

Xie, Junqi; Demarteau, Marcel; Frisch, Henry; May, Edward; Paramonov, Alexander; Wagner, Robert; Walters, Dean

2013-04-01

182

Sustaining Fracture Area and Conductivity of Gas shale Reservoirs for Enhancing Long-term Production and Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gas from organic rich shale formations has become an increasingly important energy resource worldwide over the past decade. Extensive hydraulic fracture networks with massive contact surface areas are frequently required to achieve satisfactory economic production in these highly heterogeneous reservoirs, with permeability in the nano-Darcy range. Current operational experience in gas shale plays indicates that the loss of productive fracture area and loss of fracture conductivity, both immediate and over time, are the major factors leading to reduced flow rates, marginal production, and poor gas recovery. This theoretical and experimental project, funded by a RPSEA (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) program, is aimed at understanding the multiple causes of loss of fracture surface area and fracture conductivity. The main objectives of the project are: understand the multiple causes of loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define solutions to mitigate the resulting loss of production. Define the types of fracture networks that are more prone to loosing fracture area and define critical parameters, for each reservoir type, (including proppant concentration, fluid interaction, relative shear displacement and others) to preserve fracture conductivity, and define an integrated methodology for evaluating reservoir properties that result in proneness to loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define adequate solutions for the various reservoir types Current results include the evaluation of reservoir geology, mineralogy, reservoir properties, mechanical properties, including surface hardness, and petrologic analysis on cores representative of Barnett, Haynesville and Marcellus reservoir shales. A comparison of these properties provides an initial reference frame for identifying differences in behavior between the various reservoirs, and for anticipating the potential for embedment and loss of fracture conductivity. Actual measurements of fracture conductivity as a function of stress will be measured and presented in the future.

Suarez-Rivera, R.; Marino, S.; Ghassemi, A.

2010-12-01

183

Uncertainties of global moderate resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) products derived from remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) products are derived from different satellite remote sensing data, for example the MODIS, CYCLOPES and GLOBCARBON projects. For an optimal use of these products, knowledge about the data consistency based on product intercomparison is necessary. The objective of this study is to quantitatively compare the global leaf area index (LAI) products derived from the TERRA and AQUA MODIS (2000-2007) and SPOT/VEGETATION (1999-2007), and GLOBCARBON projects. A global LAI field measurement database was created from literature review and major validation campaigns. Remote sensing LAI products agree very well with field data for grasses and cereal crops, shrubs and savannas. The Collection 5 MODIS LAI has improved over the earlier Collection 4 products, especially for needleleaf forest. While more field data are necessary, particularly for broadleaf crops and broadleaf forests, our study finds no significant discrepancies between Collection 5 MODIS and CYCLOPES LAI products for grasses and cereal crops, shrubs, savannas, and needleleaf forests. The CYCLOPES and the TERRA+AQUA main algorithm MODIS LAI products display the best overall fit with ground measurements (RMSE=1.23 and 1.25, respectively) in spite of sparse field points and scale differences. A triple collocation error model was introduced to compare the monthly 0.05° LAI products produced by MODIS, CYCLOPES and GLOBCARBON. The resultant uncertainty information for each product gives a good indication of using these products in global land surface, hydrological and climatic models. The uncertainty information can be used directly as quantitative evaluation of the LAI products as well as input to feed global models. Intercomparison of mean (+ 1 standard deviation) MODIS and CYCLOPES LAI with common field observations for each biome type. The number of LAI observations for each biome is also shown.

Fang, H.; Liang, S.; Wei, S.

2010-12-01

184

[Research groups in nursing education: research areas and scientific production in three regions of Brazil].  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify themes of research areas and scientific literature of Research Groups in Nursing Education (GPEE in Portuguese) of the North, Northeast and Midwest regions of Brazil. This is a descriptive and exploratory study. It was identified 12 GPEE, 45 fields of research and 448 scientific papers, of which 60% have appeared in magazines classified as A, B1 and B2. Even though 36% of the research areas were about education, only 25% of the papers covered this theme. Furthermore, 34% of the research areas were about care and 44% of the papers were about it. It's necessary to rethink the GPEE organization in regards to areas and research projects, to advance towards the consolidation of Nursing Education as an area of knowledge production. PMID:22911418

Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Prado, Marta Lenise do; Lino, Mônica Motta; Ferraz, Fabiane

185

High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene  

PubMed Central

Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene.

Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2012-01-01

186

Storage Area Networks and the High Performance Storage System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPS...

H. Hulen O. Graf K. Fitzgerald R. W. Watson

2002-01-01

187

Lut Desert (Iran): A High - Potential Area for Finding Meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trips to the Lut desert in recent years have led to the discovery of several fragments of meteorites. Climate and surface conditions in Lut desert makes it a high-potential region for preserving large concentrations of meteorites.

Pourkhorsandi, H.; Mirnejad, H.

2013-09-01

188

Managing emissions from highly industrialized areas: Regulatory compliance under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of regulatory and compliance-based modeling for air quality impact assessment is invariably relied upon to predict future air quality under various management scenarios particularly where air quality monitoring data are limited. This paper examines the dispersion from a multi-stack cement manufacturing complex with associated quarries and transport activities for regulatory compliance under uncertain emission and meteorological conditions. The concentrations of CO, NO x, SO 2 and PM at sensitive receptor locations were used as indicators in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidelines. Exceedance exposure areas were delineated under bounded uncertainties in input emission factors and meteorological parameters. Planning and management initiatives were tested to control/minimize potential exposure. Compared to the case of low emissions and actual meteorological conditions, the consideration of worst emissions coupled to worst meteorological conditions enlarged the boundaries of the exceedance exposure areas considerably. The implementation of best available technologies and enforcement of emission standards improved air quality in the region significantly and lowered the exposure at many population centers to below health standards. Uncertainty in the output of atmospheric dispersion models continues to play a significant role to be considered at the point where science is translated into political decision making.

El-Fadel, M.; Abi-Esber, L.; Ayash, T.

189

High-productivity continuous biofilm reactor for butanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn steep liquor (CSL), a byproduct of the corn wet-milling process, was used in an immobilized cell continuous biofilm reactor\\u000a to replace the expensive P2 medium ingredients. The use of CSL resulted in the production of 6.29 g\\/L of total acetone-butanol-ethanol\\u000a (ABE) as compared with 6.86 g\\/L in a control experiment. These studies were performed at a dilution rate of

Nasib Qureshi; Patrick Karcher; Michael Cotta; Hans P. Blaschek

2004-01-01

190

High-efficiency large-area CdTe panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this three year effort has been to develop an improved materials technology and fabrication process for limited volume production of 1 and 4 sq ft CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. The module stability objective by the end of this three year subcontract was to develop techniques to provide ten year life exploration with no greater than 10 percent degradation. In order to achieve these efficiency and stability objectives, the research program has been separated into tasks including: (1) analysis and characterization of CdS/CdTe devices; (2) performance optimization on small cells; (3) encapsulation and stability testing; and (4) module efficiency optimization.

Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.; Jordan, John F.

1990-11-01

191

Quantitative approach of risk management strategies for hepatitis a virus-contaminated oyster production areas.  

PubMed

It is not yet known whether using the new molecular tools to monitor hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish production areas could be useful for improving food safety. HAV contamination can be acute in coastal areas, such as Brittany, France, where outbreaks of hepatitis A have already occurred and have been linked to the consumption of raw shellfish. A quantitative probabilistic approach was carried out to estimate the mean annual risk of hepatitis A in an adult population of raw oyster consumers. Two hypothetical scenarios of contamination were considered, the first for a rare and brief event and the second for regular and prolonged episodes of contamination. Fourteen monitoring and management strategies were simulated. Their effects were assessed by the relative risk reduction in mean annual risk. The duration of closure after abnormal detection in the shellfish area was also considered. Among the strategies tested, results show that monthly molecular reverse transcription PCR monitoring of HAV is more useful than bacterial surveys. In terms of management measures, early closure of the shellfish area without waiting for confirmatory analysis was shown to be the most efficient strategy. When contamination is very short-lived and homogeneous in the shellfish production area, waiting for three negative results before reopening the area for harvest is time wasting. When contamination is not well identified or if contamination is heterogeneous, it can be harmful not to wait for three negative results. In addition, any preventive measures, such as improving sewage treatment or producing shellfish in safer areas, that can reduce contamination by at least 2 log units are more efficient and less costly. Finally we show that controlling and managing transferred shellfish are useful and can play an important role in preventing cases. Qualitative results from HAV monitoring can advantageously supplement other measures that improve the safety of shellfish products in exposed areas. PMID:22980008

Thebault, A; Le Saux, J-C; Pommepuy, M; Le Guyader, S; Lailler, R; Denis, J-B

2012-07-01

192

Advantages of high pressure sterilisation on quality of food products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure processing can be used for sterilisation of food products if applied at elevated temperatures and using the temperature increase due to adiabatic compression. By choosing the appropriate process conditions, it is possible to completely inactivate both vegetative cells and microbial spores resulting in food products that are shelf stable. The quality of high pressure sterilised products is usually

Ariette M Matser; Bregje Krebbers; Robert W van den Berg; Paul V Bartels

2004-01-01

193

Managing New Product Definition in Highly Dynamic Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In highly dynamic environments, characterized by changing customer preferences and uncertainty about competitive products, managing the development of a new product is a complex managerial task. The traditional practice, recommended in the literature, of reaching a sharp definition early in the new product development (NPD) process may not be optimal, desirable or even feasible in such dynamic situations. Under high

Shantanu Bhattacharya; Viswanathan Krishnan; Vijay Mahajan

1998-01-01

194

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high- temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

195

Impact of Agricultural Mechanization on Production and Employment in Rice Areas of West Java (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of farm mechanization on production and rural employment in the rice areas of West Java are analyzed, using a large data set and three different methods. First a t-test was conducted to compare input use, labor use, cropping intensity, farm si...

J. Lingard A. S. Bagyo

1983-01-01

196

Correlation of patient skin doses in cardiac interventional radiology with dose-area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of X-rays in cardiac interventional radiology has the potential to induce deterministic radiation effects on the patient's skin. Guidelines published by official organizations encourage the recording of information to evaluate this risk, and the use of reference values in terms of the dose-area product (DAP). Skin dose measurements were made with thermo- luminescent dosemeters placed at eight different

S VAN DE PUTTE; F VERHAEGEN; Y TAEYMANS; H THIERENS

197

Northern California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Northern California High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Northern California HIDTA region has intensified somewhat over the past year, resulting in several areas of growing ...

2011-01-01

198

High-Resolution, Large-Area, Nano Imprint Lithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains results from four different basic research projects under the Phase I of US-Korea NBIT Program (2007-2010). It is the 2nd year results covering research results from 2008-2009. It begins with the fourth report, 'High-resolution, Lar...

K. Kim M. Jo S. Park Y. Lee

2009-01-01

199

Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen in a high lightning intensity area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive lightning strikes and high rainfall were assumed to increase atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in the southern and eastern coastal regions of Florida. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of lightning strikes on deposition of NO3-N. Bulk precipitation was collected and analyzed for NO3 ?N from September 1994 to August 1995. The lightning strikes significantly

Yuncong Li; Ashok Alva; David Calvert; Doug Banks

2002-01-01

200

Preparation and use of high surface area transition metal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active catalysts, suitable for use in hydrogenation and other reactions, are prepared from an alloy of one or more of the group VIII transition metals with yttrium or a rare earth metal. The alloy is ground to the desired particle size and is thereafter reacted with a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen to form an intimate physical admixture

1981-01-01

201

Analysis, improvement and application of the MODIS leaf area index products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green leaf area governs the exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Therefore, leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (0.4-0.7 mum) absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FPAR) are widely used in vegetation monitoring and modeling. The launch of Terra and Aqua satellites with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard provided the first global products of LAI and FPAR, derived mainly from an algorithm based on radiative transfer. The objective of this research is to comprehensively evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS LAI/FPAR products. Large volumes of these products have been analyzed with the goal of understanding product quality with respect to version (Collection 3 versus 4), algorithm (main versus back-up), snow (snow-free versus snow on the ground) and cloud (cloud-free versus cloudy) conditions. Field validation efforts identified several key factors that influence the accuracy of algorithm retrievals. The strategy of validation efforts guiding algorithm refinements has led to progressively more accurate LAI/FPAR products. The combination of products derived from the Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors increases the success rate of the main radiative transfer algorithm by 10-20 percent over woody vegetation. The Terra Collection 4 LAI data reveal seasonal swings in green leaf area of about 25 percent in a majority of the Amazon rainforests caused by variability in cloud cover and light. The timing and the influence of this seasonal cycle are critical to understanding tropical plant adaptation patterns and ecological processes. The results presented in this dissertation suggest how the product quality has gradually improved largely through the efforts of validation activities. The Amazon case study highlights the utility of these data sets for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. Thus, these results can be seen as a benchmark for evaluation of future versions of similar products.

Yang, Wenze

202

Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.  

PubMed

Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200°C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200°C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

2013-09-26

203

Routing and flow control in high-speed wide-area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The routing and flow control techniques developed for wide-area, local-area, and metropolitan-area networks are surveyed. A classification that shows the characteristics that are desirable for high-speed wide-area networks is developed. On the basis of the classification, techniques that should and should not be considered for future high-speed networks are identified. In particular, an attempt is made to determine the effect

NICHOLAS F. MAXEMCHUK; MAGDA EL ZARKI

1990-01-01

204

Historical U.S. cropland areas and the potential for bioenergy production on abandoned croplands.  

PubMed

Agriculture is historically a dominant form of global environmental degradation, and the potential for increased future degradation may be driven by growing demand for food and biofuels. While these impacts have been explored using global gridded maps of croplands, such maps are based on relatively coarse spatial data. Here, we apply high-resolution cropland inventories for the conterminous U.S. with a land-use model to develop historical gridded cropland areas for the years 1850-2000 and year 2000 abandoned cropland maps. While the historical cropland maps are consistent with generally accepted land-use trends, our U.S. abandoned cropland estimates of 68 Mha are as much as 70% larger than previous gridded estimates due to a reduction in aggregation effects. Renewed cultivation on the subset of abandoned croplands that have not become forests or urban lands represents one approach to mitigating the future expansion of agriculture. Potential bioenergy production from these abandoned lands using a wide range of biomass yields and conversion efficiencies has an upper-limit of 5-30% of the current U.S. primary energy demand or 4-30% of the current U.S. liquid fuel demand. PMID:23506118

Zumkehr, A; Campbell, J E

2013-03-29

205

Time-resolved infrared spectrophotometric observations of high area to mass ratio (HAMR) objects in GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical surveys have identified a class of high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects in the vicinity of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) ring [1]. The exact origin and nature of these objects are not well known, although their proximity to the GEO ring poses a hazard to active GEO satellites. Due to their high area-to-mass ratios, solar radiation pressure perturbs their orbits in ways that makes it difficult to predict their orbital trajectories over periods of time exceeding a week. To better understand these objects and their origins, observations that allow us to derive physical characteristics are required in order to improve the non-conservative force modeling for orbit determination and prediction. Information on their temperatures, areas, emissivities, and albedos may be obtained from thermal infrared, mid-wave infrared (MWIR), and visible measurements. Spectral features may help to identify the composition of the material, and thus possible origins for these objects.We have collected observational data on various HAMR objects from the AMOS observatory 3.6 m AEOS telescope. The thermal-IR spectra of these low-earth orbit objects acquired by the Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) span wavelengths 3-13 ?m and constitute a unique data set, providing a means of measuring, as a function of time, object fluxes. These, in turn, allow temperatures and emissivity-area products to be calculated. In some instances we have also collected simultaneous filtered visible photometric data on the observed objects. The multi-wavelength observations of the objects provide possible clues as to the nature of the observed objects.We describe briefly the nature and status of the instrumental programs used to acquire the data, our data of record, our data analysis techniques, and our current results, as well as future plans.

Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Rudy, Richard J.; Gutierrez, David J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk; Gregory, Steve; Kelecy, Tom

2011-12-01

206

Performance of SCTP over high speed wide area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stream control transmission protocol (SCTP) is a reliable transport protocol to tackle the limitations of TCP and UDP, SCTP was originally designed to transport PSTN signaling messages over IP networks, but is also capable of serving as a general-purpose transport protocol. SCTP provides attractive features such as multi-streaming and multi-homing that may be helpful in high-mobility environment and additional

Dhinaharan Nagamalai; Jae-Kwang Lee

2004-01-01

207

Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

208

How can the poor benefit from the growing markets for high value agricultural products?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to identify critical areas for trade, marketing, capital market development and regulatory reforms that can facilitate the integration of small-scale farmers (small-scale farmers) in domestic, regional and global markets for high-value agricultural (HVA) products in particular high value crops, livestock, fish and non timber forest products in a sustainable manner and to increase and diversify the incomes

Junior R. Davis

2006-01-01

209

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2010-07-01

210

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2009-07-01

211

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2013-07-01

212

Investigation of the areas of high radon concentration in Gyeongju.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to survey the radon concentrations at 21 elementary schools in Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, to identify those schools with high radon concentrations. Considering their geological characteristics and the preliminary survey results, three schools were finally placed under close scrutiny. For these three schools, continuous measurements over 48h were taken at the principal's and administration office. The radon concentrations at one school, Naenam, exceeded the action level (148Bq/m(3)) established by the U.S. EPA, while those at the other two schools were below that level. PMID:23643113

Lee, Jung Min; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Shin Jae; Moon, Joo Hyun

2013-04-09

213

Automated sample area definition for high-throughput microscopy.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening platforms based on epifluorescence microscopy are powerful tools in a variety of scientific fields. Although some applications are based on imaging geometrically defined samples such as microtiter plates, multiwell slides, or spotted gene arrays, others need to cope with inhomogeneously located samples on glass slides. The analysis of microbial communities in aquatic systems by sample filtration on membrane filters followed by multiple fluorescent staining, or the investigation of tissue sections are examples. Therefore, we developed a strategy for flexible and fast definition of sample locations by the acquisition of whole slide overview images and automated sample recognition by image analysis. Our approach was tested on different microscopes and the computer programs are freely available (http://www.technobiology.ch). PMID:21412981

Zeder, M; Ellrott, A; Amann, R

2011-03-15

214

Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation is constructed on a 0.25°latitude/ longitude grid over China for a 3 year period from 2005 to 2007 by interpolating gauge reports from ~2000 stations (fig.1) collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration. Gauge-based precipitation analysis is applied to examine the performance of six high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates, including Joyce et al.’s (2004) Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and the arithmetic mean of the microwave estimates used in CMORPH; Huffman et al.’s (2007) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product 3B42 and its real-time version 3B42RT; Turk et al.’s (2004) Naval Research Laboratory blended product; and Hsu et al.’s (1997) Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN). Our results showed the following: (1) all six satellite products are capable of capturing the overall spatial distribution and temporal variations of precipitation reasonably well; (2) performance of the satellite products varies for different regions and different precipitation regimes, with better comparison statistics observed over wet regions and for warm seasons; (3) products based solely on satellite observations present regionally and seasonally varying biases, while the gauge-adjustment procedures applied in TRMM 3B42 remove the large-scale bias almost completely; (4) CMORPH exhibits the best performance in depicting the spatial pattern and temporal variations of precipitation; and (5) both the relative magnitude and the phase of the warm season precipitation over China are estimated quite well, but the early morning peak associated with the Mei-Yu rainfall over central eastern China is substantially under-estimated by all satellite products. The work reported in this paper is an integral part of our efforts to construct an analysis of hourly merged precipitation analysis in the future (Shen et al., 2010). Further work is to extend its temporal coverage and to improve the quality of the CPAP. The dataset for the period of 1900-1952 with only ~100 gauge reports available over mainland China is under consideration for development. Gauge network is an important element to determine the quality of the dataset, while the gauge distribution is very sparse over the northwestern China and the Tibetan Plateau, the effective tool to improve the quality of the dataset over these areas is to merge the gauge observations with the satellite precipitation products which is under way. Figure 1 Number of Chinese stations reporting hourly precipitation over a three-year period from January 2005 to December 2007

Shen, Y.; Xiong, A.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Precipitation Merge Team

2010-12-01

215

Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter  

SciTech Connect

Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi [SEN Corporation, 1501, Imazaike, Saijo, Ehime, 799-1362 (Japan)

2011-01-07

216

Large area (9 × 9 cm 2) electrostatically sprayed nanocrystalline zincite thin films for hydrogen production application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of single phase nanocrystalline zinc ferrite (zincite) thin films that provides high surface area for active redox reactions is reported. Electrostatic spray method is employed for obtaining these ferrite films onto a stainless steel substrate of 9×9cm2 area using zinc acetate and iron nitrate precursor solutions, mixed in 1:1.5 proportions in triply-distilled water. Single zinc ferrite phase in films,

Rajendra S. Gaikwad; Sang-youn Chae; Rajaram S. Mane; Cai-Gangri; Sung-Hwan Han; Oh-Shim Joo

2010-01-01

217

Two-area probabilistic production costing by the method of bi-variant cumulants  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic techniques for estimating the production cost of electric generation are developed for two areas using bi-variant cumulants and bivariant Gram-Charlier Series A approximations. Area energy supply by generation class is determined from the difference in expected unserved energy before and after each class is introduced. Transmission import limits and whole or partial foreign ownership of generation are modeled. A simplifying method for computing bi-variant cumulants of a generation class from univariant cumulants of an individual generator is described. Sample studies show favorable accuracy and efficiency results.

Noyes, L.R.

1983-02-01

218

Production of high bulk polyester filament yarn  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a method for producing high bulk polyethylene terephthalate (PET) filament yarns composed of shrink and nonshrink filament yarns. Normally, high bulk yarns are mainly made out of shrink and nonshrink staple fibers especially polyacrylonitrile through semi-worsted spinning process. The method described in this paper involves blending two PET filament yarns, one acting as shrink component and the

H. Tavanai; M. Morshed; A. Moghaddam

2012-01-01

219

Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

2012-12-01

220

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOEpatents

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01

221

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOEpatents

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28

222

Comparison of Permian basin giant oil fields with giant oil fields of other U. S. productive areas  

SciTech Connect

Covering over 40 million ac, the Permian basin is the fourth largest of the 28 productive areas containing giant fields. The 56 giant fields in the basin compare with the total of 264 giant oil fields in 27 other productive areas. Cumulative production figures of 18 billion bbl from the giant fields in the Permian basin are the largest cumulative production figures from giant fields in any of the productive areas. An estimated 1.9 billion bbl of remaining reserves in giant fields rank the basin third among these areas and the 19.9 billion bbl total reserves in giant fields in the basin are the largest total reserves in giant fields in any of the productive areas. The 1990 production figures from giant fields place the basin second in production among areas with giant fields. However, converting these figures to by-basin averages for the giant fields places the Permian basin 12th in field size among the areas with giant fields. Based on average reserves per well, the basin ranks 18th. Average 1990 production per giant field place the basin seventh and the average 1990 production per well in giant fields place the Permian basin 14th among the areas with giant fields.

Haeberle, F.R. (Consultant Geologist, Dallas, TX (United States))

1992-04-01

223

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low volume MEMS\\/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the

Jack Martin

2007-01-01

224

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low volume MEMS\\/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the

Jack Martin

2004-01-01

225

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

2005-01-01

226

Rocky Mountain: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Rocky Mountain High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. Methamphetamine poses the greatest overall drug threat to the Rocky Mountain HIDTA region because of high levels of availability and abuse. It also cont...

2011-01-01

227

Evaluation of dose area product vs. patient dose in diagnostic X-ray units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dose Area Product (DAP) meters which measure in units of [Gy*m2], are widely used in radiology, fluoroscopy and interventional cardiology X-ray units. However, assessment of the radiological hazard to the patient undergoing a given diagnostic procedure cannot be readily obtained from the measured value of DAP. We also developed simple relationships between Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and the DAP value

K. Kisielewicz; A. Truszkiewicz; S. Wach

2011-01-01

228

Universal area product formulas for rotating and charged black holes in four and higher dimensions.  

PubMed

We present explicit results for the product of all horizon areas for general rotating multicharge black holes, both in asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in four and higher dimensions. The expressions are universal, and depend only on the quantized charges, quantized angular momenta and the cosmological constant. If the latter is also quantized these universal results may provide a "looking glass" for probing the microscopics of general black holes. PMID:21517293

Cveti?, M; Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N

2011-03-21

229

Phytoremediative urban design: Transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.  

PubMed

Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. PMID:23452757

Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

2013-02-26

230

High sensitivity photonic crystal biosensor incorporating nanorod structures for enhanced surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface area of a photonic crystal biosensor is greatly enhanced through the incorporation of a porous TiO2 film possessing the structure of nanorods into the device. The film is deposited by the glancing angle deposition technique in an e-beam evaporation system. The sensitivity of high surface area sensors is compared with sensors without the high surface area coating. Results

Wei Zhang; Nikhil Ganesh; Ian D. Block; Brian T. Cunningham

2008-01-01

231

Protected areas of Borneo fail to protect forest landscapes with high habitat connectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the world, previously extensive areas of natural habitats have been degraded and fragmented, and improving habitat\\u000a connectivity may help the long-term persistence of species, and their ability to adapt to climate changes. We focused on Borneo,\\u000a where many remaining areas of tropical forest are highly fragmented, and we assessed the extent to which Protected Areas (PAs)\\u000a protect highly-connected forest

Sarah Proctor; Colin J. McClean; Jane K. Hill

232

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2013-01-01

233

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2009-01-01

234

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2010-01-01

235

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources...Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

2009-01-01

236

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas...PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources...Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

2010-01-01

237

Further analysis of infrared spectrophotometric observations of high area to mass ratio (HAMR) objects in GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical surveys have identified a class of high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects in the vicinity of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) ring?. The exact origin and nature of these objects are not well known, although their proximity to the GEO belt poses a hazard to active GEO satellites. The prevalent conjecture is that many of these objects may be thermal materials shed from derelict spacecraft in ‘graveyard’ orbits above the GEO ring. Due to their high area-to-mass ratios and unknown attitude dynamics and material characteristics, solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbs their orbits in ways that makes it difficult to predict their orbital trajectories over periods of time exceeding a week or less. To better understand and track these objects and infer their origins, we have made observations that allow us to determine physical characteristics that will improve the non-conservative force modeling used for orbit determination (OD) and prediction. Information on their temperatures, areas, emissivities, and albedos may be obtained from thermal infrared and visible measurements. Simultaneous observations in the thermal infrared and visible wavelengths may allow disentangling of projected area, albedo, and object emissivity.Further analysis and modeling of observational data on certain of the HAMR objects collected at the AMOS observatory 3.6 m AEOS telescope are presented. The thermal-IR spectra of these geosynchronous orbit objects acquired by the Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) span wavelengths 3 to 13 ?m and constitute a unique data set, providing a means of measuring object fluxes in the infrared and visible wavelengths. These, in turn, allow temperatures and emissivity-area products to be calculated, and in some cases provide information on rotation rates. We compare our observational results with the outputs of simple models, in terms of visible and infrared flux and orbital characteristics. The resulting temperatures and rotation rates are used in SRP acceleration models to demonstrate improvements in OD and prediction performance relative to models which assume default ambient temperature and static attitude dynamics. Additionally, we have the capability and plans to measure material properties with the same instrument in the lab as used at the telescope to facilitate direct comparisons.

Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Kelecy, Tom; Gregory, Steve; Rudy, Richard J.; Gutierrez, David J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk

2012-11-01

238

Enabling High Productivity Computing through Virtualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inherent complexity in utilizing and programming high performance computing (HPC) systems is the main obstacle to widespread exploitation of HPC resources and technologies in the Department of Defense (DoD). Consequently, there is the persistent need to simplify the interface for the generic user. This need is particularly acute in the Signal\\/Image Processing (SIP), Integrated Modeling and Test Environments (IMT),

J. C. Chaves

2008-01-01

239

New gasohol plan sets high production goal  

SciTech Connect

A major program to produce enough gasohol to replace 10% of the anticipated unleaded gasoline demand by the end of 1981 appears to be linked, at least by timing, to the embargo on grain exports to the Soviet Union. While the Administration denies a link between the two - and none of the embargoed grain has been earmarked for fuel production - it was necessary for the government to support the grain market against a collapse from dumping. A series of tax and loan incentives has been earmarked to stimulate the ethanol program, the most important being a permanent exemption of gasohol from present Federal excise taxes. Corn is expected to supply feedstocks until the mid-1980s, when other cellulosic materials should be available for distillation. Coal or biomass is recommended as the heat source for alcohol distillation in order to achieve a positive net energy gain. (DCK)

Ember, L.R.

1980-01-21

240

CM-SAF high-resolution radiation budget products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the system employed at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) within the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM-SAF) for the production of Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget components is described. One of the goals of the CM-SAF is to provide consistent TOA and surface radiation budget components and cloud properties at high spatial resolution and on an approximate equal area grid for a region that covers at least Europe and part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The TOA radiation products will be based on data from polar orbiting satellites for northern latitudes, and on data from MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) for mid latitudes. The instruments used for the reflected solar and emitted thermal flux estimates will be GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and SEVIRI as the geostationary instruments and CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) for the non geostationary instruments. Daily means, monthly means and monthly mean diurnal cycles are to be provided. Until MSG fluxes will become available, fluxes from METEOSAT and CERES are used for development. At the TOA the three radiative flux components of incoming solar radiation, reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal radiation will be given. The daily mean GERB and CERES fluxes will be merged to produce a homogenized TOA flux product. The method used for the merging of the TOA fluxes and together with results using currently available input data are shown. The merging consists in the collocation of the two instruments, detection and the removal of the systematic dependencies of the flux estimates on scene type and viewing angles and regridding on a common grid.

Nicula, Bogdan; Dewitte, Steven; Clerbaux, Nicolas

2003-04-01

241

Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of the size of the contributing area to the city well field. However, increasing recharge and hydraulic conductivity values appreciably affected the shape of the contributing area and zone of contribution of reacharge. Simulation results indicate that the region immediately to the south and southeast of the well field is contributing water to the production wells. Detailed aquifer characterization would be needed to describe and simulate the heterogeneous glacial deposits in the watershed.

Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

2005-01-01

242

Synthesize and characterization of graphene nanosheets with high surface area and nano-porous structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few-layer graphene was obtained by the expansion and exfoliation of water-intercalated graphene oxide via heat treatment in nitrogen environment in the temperature range of 200-1000 °C. Graphene which was synthesized at 800 °C (GT800) had a higher quality than other temperatures. This graphene has a high specific surface area (560.6 m2 g-1) and nano-porous structure. However, as for the purpose of comparison, graphene was synthesized with a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate in various reaction times (12, 24 and 36 h). This method has obtained a six-layer graphene and graphene that was synthesized during 24 h reaction with hydrazine hydrate (GC24) had a higher quality in comparison with the other products. The GC24 had 195.97 m2 g-1 specific surface area and nano-porous structure. The as-synthesized graphene were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as BET measurements. The results demonstrated that this low-cost method for few-layer grapheme, e.g. three-layers, fabrication is reliable and promising.

Jabari Seresht, Razieh; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rashidi, Alimorad; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar

2013-07-01

243

Production of high power femtosecond terahertz radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is attracting interest for a broad range of applications ranging from diagnosing electron beams to biological imaging. Most sources of short pulse THz radiation utilize excitation of biased semiconductors or electro-optic crystals by high peak power lasers. For example, this was done by using an un-doped InAs wafer irradiated by a femtosecond

George R. Neil; G. L. Carr; Joseph F. Gubeli III; K. Jordan; Michael C. Martin; Wayne R. McKinney; Michelle Shinn; Masahiko Tani; G. P. Williams; X.-C. Zhang

2003-01-01

244

Validation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer leaf area index product in croplands of Alpilles, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents results of validating the Collection 4 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) product using LAI data collected in a 3 × 3 km agricultural (grasses and cereal crops) area near Avignon, France, and 30 m resolution Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) image. Estimates of the accuracy, precision, and uncertainty with which the ETM+ data convey information about LAI underlie the derivation of a 30 m resolution reference LAI map by accounting for both field measurement and satellite observation errors. The 30 m reference LAI was then extrapolated from sampling points to a 58 km2 area without loss in the quality and was degraded to a 1 km resolution LAI map. The latter was taken as a reference to assess the quality of the MODIS LAI product. Comparison of the reference and corresponding MODIS retrievals suggests that Collection 4 MODIS LAI is accurate to within an accuracy of 0.3 with a precision and uncertainty of 0.23 and 0.38, respectively. It was found that the Collection 3 MODIS land cover product, input to the Collection 4 operational LAI algorithm, misclassified the 58 km2 area as broadleaf crops. The use of correct biome type in the operational processing improves the accuracy in LAI by a factor of 2 with an almost unchanged precision and uncertainty. Our results also indicate that the retrieval of LAI from satellite data is an ill-posed problem; that is, small variations in input due to observation errors result in a very low precision of the desired parameter. Any retrieval technique based on a simple model inversion or empirical relationships is unable to generate stable retrievals. The use of information on input errors in the retrieval technique is necessary to generate solutions to the ill-posed problem. The MODIS operational LAI algorithm meets this requirement.

Tan, Bin; Hu, Jiannan; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Dong; Shabanov, Nikolay; Weiss, Marie; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

2005-01-01

245

Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

None

2008-06-30

246

Multi Jet Production at High Q2  

SciTech Connect

Deep-inelastic e+p scattering data, taken with the H1 detector at HERA, are used to investigate jet production over a range of four-momentum transfers 150 < Q2 < 15000 GeV2 and transverse jet energies 5 < ET < 50 GeV. The analysis is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of Lint = 65.4 pb-1 taken in the years 1999-2000 at a centre-of-mass energy {radical}(s) {approx_equal} 319 GeV. Jets are defined by the inclusive kt algorithm in the Breit frame of reference. Dijet and trijet jet cross sections are measured with respect to the exchanged boson virtuality and in addition the ratio of the trijet to the dijet cross section R3/2 is investigated. The results are compared to the predictions of perturbative QCD calculations in next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant {alpha}s. The value of {alpha}s(mZ) determined from the study of R3/2 is {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) = 0.1175 {+-} 0.0017(stat.) {+-} 0.0050(syst.){sub -0.0068}{sup +0.0054}(theo.)

Kluge, Thomas [DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2005-10-06

247

Multi Jet Production at High Q2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-inelastic e+p scattering data, taken with the H1 detector at HERA, are used to investigate jet production over a range of four-momentum transfers 150 < Q2 < 15000 GeV2 and transverse jet energies 5 < ET < 50 GeV. The analysis is based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of Lint = 65.4 pb-1 taken in the years 1999-2000 at a centre-of-mass energy s ~ 319 GeV. Jets are defined by the inclusive kt algorithm in the Breit frame of reference. Dijet and trijet jet cross sections are measured with respect to the exchanged boson virtuality and in addition the ratio of the trijet to the dijet cross section R3/2 is investigated. The results are compared to the predictions of perturbative QCD calculations in next-to-leading order in the strong coupling constant ?s. The value of ?s(mZ) determined from the study of R3/2 is ?s(mZ) = 0.1175 +/- 0.0017(stat.) +/- 0.0050(syst.)-0.0068+0.0054(theo.).

Kluge, Thomas

2005-10-01

248

Synthesis of high surface area perovskite catalysts by non-conventional routes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of rare earth-containing perovskite oxides as total oxidation catalysts faces to the difficulty of obtaining high surface area materials and the need of calcination at high temperatures for its synthesis. In this work, perovskite NdCoO3 catalysts with relatively high surface areas were synthesized at soft calcination conditions by two non-conventional routes: heteronuclear organic complexes and amorphous precursors obtained

A. González; E. Martínez Tamayo; A. Beltrán Porter; V. Cortés Corberán

1997-01-01

249

Investigation on liver function among population in high background of rare earth area in South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health effects of long-term ingestion of rare earth elements (REEs) on the villagers living in high-REE-background areas\\u000a in South Jangxi Province, China were studied. Major health complaints from the REE area population included indigestion, diarrhea,\\u000a abdominal distension, anorexia, weakness, and fatigue, especially after high-fat or high-protein intake. Liver function tests\\u000a were conducted for adult villagers. Among them, 45 live

Weifang Zhu; Suqin Xu; Pinpin Shao; Hui Zhang; Donseng Wu; Wenjia Yang; Jia Feng; Lei Feng

2005-01-01

250

High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities.

Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

2011-01-01

251

Vertical high-speed rotating disk reactors for production scale MOVPE of compound semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound semiconductors are at the heart of todays advanced digital and optoelectronic devices. As device production levels increase, so too does the need for high throughput deposition systems. The vertical rotating disk reactor (RDR) has been scaled to dimensions allowing metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on multiple substrates located on a 300 mm diameter platter. This symmetric large area

R. C. Walker; A. G. Thompson; Gary S. Tompa; Peter A. Zawadzki; Alexander Gurary

1994-01-01

252

First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500

David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; G. Ryan

2008-01-01

253

Productivity and technical change: US high-tech industries  

SciTech Connect

The slowdown in productivity growth has resulted in a steady erosion of US competitiveness and overall manufacturing strength over the past two decades. Several indicators reveal that high-technology products have been a source of strength in the US industrial trade balance. Though much hope is being placed on high-technology industries, no systematic study is available so far on the structure and pattern of growth in the industries comprising this sector; this is the first attempt toward such a study. It aims at an empirical analysis of the patterns of productivity growth in US high-technology sector during the period 1967-82. The specific objectives of the study are threefold: (1) measure and analyze labor productivity growth as well as multifactor productivity growth for high-technology sectors; (2) analyze the production structure of the sector concerned at its aggregate level; and (3) study the impact of RandD as an index of technology on the production structure of the high-technology industries. The issues include not only the rate of technological change, but also the extent to which it alters the optimal level and mix of inputs. The analysis of based on a translog specification of cost and production functions.

Vandyopadhyaya, C.

1987-01-01

254

High accuracy measurement of aperture area relative to a standard known aperture  

SciTech Connect

Precise knowledge of the area of apertures used in high precision radiometry is extremely important. A method is presented here for the determination of the area of round and irregularly shaped apertures by comparison to a standard aperture which has been measured by other means to high accuracy. The method presented here is quick and has no physical contact with the fragile edge of the aperture opening. Total flux transfer methods are used in the area determination with total relative standard uncertainty of 0.033% for 2 mm to 25 mm mean diameter apertures not including the area uncertainty of the standard aperture used. Currently the relative standard uncertainty in the area measurement for the standard aperture is 0.022%. The worst case relative standard uncertainty of the transfer measurement is 0.04% including the uncertainty of the standard aperture area.

Fowler, J.B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Dezsi, G. [National Office of Measures, Budapest (Hungary)

1995-05-01

255

Reducing microbial contamination in storm runoff from high use areas on California coastal dairies.  

PubMed

High use areas are a fundamental part of California coastal dairies and grazing livestock ranches as feeding areas, nurseries, and sick pens. High stocking densities and daily use in these areas lead to soil surfaces devoid of vegetation and covered in manure, with high potential for manure transport during winter rains to receiving waters regulated for shellfish harvesting and recreation. We characterized the association between California's Mediterranean climate and a series of existing and proposed management practices on fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) transport from high use areas on dairies and ranches. Results from 351 storm runoff samples collected below 35 high-use areas indicate that removal of cattle during winter, locating high use areas on level ground, application of straw and seeding, and vegetative buffer strip implementation were significantly associated with FCB concentration and load reductions. These results complement our findings for reductions of specific pathogens in runoff from these areas. These findings have practical significance because they document surface water quality benefits that the studied management practices provide in application on working farms and ranches. This direction is critical and timely for on-farm management efforts seeking to reduce microbial pollution in runoff and comply with indicator bacteria water quality criteria. PMID:19809136

Lewis, D J; Atwill, E R; Lennox, M S; Pereira, M D G; Miller, W A; Conrad, P A; Tate, K W

2009-01-01

256

Mass of weaned elephant seal pups in areas of low and high human presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

On sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, we examined pup weaning mass of southern elephant seals in relation to human presence. Pup weaning mass was previously found to be positively associated with 1st-year survivorship. Weaned pups were weighed in a remote area, Middle Beach, and in an area of relatively high human presence, Isthmus East. The areas were reasonably similar in beach topography,

Georg H. Engelhard; John van den Hoff; Martijn Broekman; Antonie N. J. Baarspul; Iain Field; Harry R. Burton; Peter J. H. Reijnders

2001-01-01

257

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremely high surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

Martin, Jack

258

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SHADOW EFFECTS IN HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGES OF URBAN AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadow effects have drawn much attention by researchers with increasing use of high-resolution remote sensing images of urban areas. For correction or compensation to pixels that falling in shadow areas due to the existence of vertically standing objects such as buildings and trees, quantitative analysis of shadow effects is essential. In this paper, we proposed an object-based approach for predicting,

Qingming Zhan; Wenzhong Shi; Yinghui Xiao

259

New Mexico: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the New Mexico High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the New Mexico HIDTA region has intensified somewhat over the past year, resulting in several areas of growing concern for law en...

2011-01-01

260

Potential use of Solanum melongena in agricultural areas with high mercury background concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) is a native culture from India, found throughout the world, and is one of the most popular vegetables in the Mediterranean area. This work evaluates the potential use of eggplant as an economic alternative in an area with high mercury background concentrations. This implies the study of several factors such as the mercury absorption capacity of

M. J. Sierra; R. Millán; E. Esteban

2008-01-01

261

Simple Available Bandwidth Utilization Library for High-Speed Wide Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of high-speed wide area networks (WANs) has enabled the emergence of new classes of data intensive, wide area computing applications, such as the remote analysis and exploration of data and distributed data mining. The de facto standard for reliable data transfers is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Despite improvements in TCP over the years (to reduce overhead and

Robert L. Grossman; Marco Mazzucco; Harimath Sivakumar; Y. Pan; Q. Zhang

2005-01-01

262

Preparation and Characterization of Porous Yttrium Oxide Powders with High Specific Surface Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The porous cubic yttrium oxides with high specific surface area were prepared by the explosive decomposition of yttrium nitrate and its complex formed with methyl salicylate. The specific surface area and properties of powders synthesized at various temperatures were characterized using BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectra (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the highest specific

Yongxiu Li; Xiaoyun Lin; Yizheng Wang; Junming Luo; Weili Sun

2006-01-01

263

Highly reliable silicon micromachined physical sensors in mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon micromachined physical sensors such as silicon pressure sensors and accelerometers are now in mass production in response to the strong market demands. In the design of such sensors, it is most important to guarantee high reliability as well as low cost. To respond to these demands for microsensors, the designs of device structure, production processes and packaging have been

Takao Sasayama; Seikoo Suzuki; Shigeki Tsuchitani; Akira Koide; Masayoshi Suzuki; Terumi Nakazawa; Norio Ichikawa

1996-01-01

264

High lying N* studies in electromagnetic double charged pion production  

SciTech Connect

A phenomenological model for double charged pion production is presented, aimed to exact N* electromagnetic form factors from measured observables (differential cross-sections, asymmetries). The preliminary results of CLAS data analysis on double charged pion production by virtual photons are discussed, focusing on high lying N* electromagnetic excitation and signals from possible ''missing'' baryon states.

V. I. Mokeev; M. Ripani; M. Anghinolfi; M. Battaglieri; R. De Vita; G. V. Fedotov; E. N. Golovach; B. S. Ishkhanov; M. V. Osipenko; G. Ricco; V. Sapunenko; M. Taiuti

2002-06-07

265

Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

Dunstan, Peter

266

Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

While research and development of algal biofuels are currently receiving much interest and funding, they are still not commercially viable at today’s fossil fuel prices. However, a niche opportunity may exist where algae are grown as a by-product of high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) operated for wastewater treatment. In addition to significantly better economics, algal biofuel production from wastewater treatment

J. B. K. Park; R. J. Craggs; A. N. Shilton

2011-01-01

267

Strangeness production in high energy proton-nucleus collision  

SciTech Connect

Results on strange particles produced by high energy protons on nuclear targets are reviewed. Topics included are inclusive cross- sections, A-dependence, particle ratios and production polarization of hyperons. 49 refs., 41 figs., 1 tab.

Luk, Kam-Biu

1989-02-01

268

National Drug Control Strategy. 2001 Annual Report. The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Porgram has enormous value to the United States. The HIDTA Program advances the National Drug Control Strategy by fostering coordination among local, state and federal law enforcement agencies on drug contr...

2001-01-01

269

High Resolution Measures of Polarization and Color of Selected Lunar Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High resolution observations of intensity, color (UBV) and polarization were obtained with scanning techniques for a number of lunar areas of special interest, including boundaries of some of the brightest and darkest lunar regions, certain Apollo landing...

J. S. Hall L. A. Riley

1972-01-01

270

Central Valley California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program enhances and coordinates drug control efforts among local, State, and Federal law enforcement agencies. The program provides agencies with coordination, equipment, technology, and additional resour...

2010-01-01

271

South Florida: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program enhances and coordinates drug control efforts among local, State, and Federal law enforcement agencies. The program provides agencies with coordination, equipment, technology, and additional resour...

2010-01-01

272

Rocky Mountain: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas (HIDTA) program enhances and coordinates drug control efforts among local, State, and Federal law enforcement agencies. The program provides agencies with coordination, equipment, technology, and additional resour...

2010-01-01

273

Central Valley California: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Central Valley California High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the Central Valley California HIDTA region has remained fairly consistent over the past year. Mexican drug traffic...

2011-01-01

274

High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremelyhigh surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

Martin, Jack

275

Monitoring the cluster of high-risk mortality areas in the southwest of Spain.  

PubMed

Inspired by a previous study showing a striking geographical mortality clustering, not attributable to chance, in the south-western region of Spain in 1987-1995, the authors have conducted an ecological study of time trends in all-cause mortality risk between 1987-1995 and 1996-2004 in 2,218 small areas of Spain. To identify high-risk areas, age-adjusted relative risks for each area, stratified by sex and time period, were computed using a Bayesian approach. Areas of high-risk in both periods, or in the second period only, were identified. Annual excess mortality and percentage of people living in these high-risk areas, again stratified by sex and time period, were estimated. The cluster of high mortality risk areas identified in the southwest of Spain during 1987-1995 persisted in the period 1996-2004 with an increase in the number of high-risk areas and in annual excess of mortality. These increases showed a gender difference, being more pronounced in women. PMID:23242682

Buxó-Pujolràs, Maria; Martínez, José Miguel; Yasui, Yutaka; Borrell, Carme; Martín, Juan Carlos; Vergara, Montserrat; Cervantes, Marta; Benach, Joan

2012-11-01

276

Technological Intervention for Production of High Carbon Billets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial market exists for high carbon grades having 0.50–0.65 wt% C for agricultural, automobile, and wire drawing application. However, attributes of cast product in terms of internal and surface\\/subsurface quality have to be achieved for the required end applications. For production of high carbon grades, the process route followed at Durgapur Steel Plant is through BOF-LTS\\/LF-Billet Caster. In order to control total

K. Patwari; N. Pradhan; N. Banerjee; B. R. Pal; S. R. Sarkar; B. Mukhopadhyay; S. K. Ray; D. S. Basu

2010-01-01

277

Population Genetic Screening for Alpha1Antitrypsin Deficiency in a High-Prevalence Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Current guidelines for ?1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) state that adult population screening should only be done in high-risk areas. Up-to-date genetic methods are always recommended. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of AATD in a suspected high-risk area by population screening, applying new genetic analyses and comparing the prevalence of liver and lung abnormalities in subjects with or without AATD. Methods:

Luciano Corda; Daniela Medicina; Giuseppe Emanuele La Piana; Enrica Bertella; Giovanni Moretti; Luca Bianchi; Valentina Pinelli; Gianfranco Savoldi; Paola Baiardi; Fabio Facchetti; Nuccia Gatta; Isabella Annesi-Maesano; Bruno Balbi

2011-01-01

278

Low-density, high surface area electromyography of the hamstring muscles during running and kicking  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSurface electromyography (sEMG) is used extensively in the assessment of hamstring muscle activity. Conventional sEMG techniques may not fully represent overall muscle activity, despite clinically standardised placement of electrodes. High density EMG provides more information about biopotential activity but it is limited to signal collection over a small surface area. Our work proposes a low density high surface area EMG

S Sakthibalan; R Twycross-Lewis; R Woledge; Y Hao; D Morrissey

2011-01-01

279

Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.  

PubMed

China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

2011-09-01

280

Nontarget deposition and losses of oxamyl in surface runoff from flatwoods citrus production areas.  

PubMed

Pesticide export from citrus production areas is a concern in the Indian River Lagoon drainage basin (Florida, USA). These studies evaluated nontarget deposition and losses of the insecticide oxamyl from typical flatwoods citrus production areas in South Florida. Deposition was estimated with the use of Teflon spray targets placed across nontarget water furrows during spray applications. After oxamyl applications, surface water runoff events were generated with an overhead irrigation system to simulate relatively low intensity rainfall. Results indicated that 0.3 to 20.0% of the applied active ingredient landed on nontarget water furrow surfaces and that the majority of oxamyl loss occurs in runoff events shortly following application. Mean concentrations were greater during the first runoff events, ranging from 34.7 to 47.0 microg/L. Total losses during the first several hours of each set of runoff events ranged from 0.1 to 3.8% of the total active ingredient applied. Similar losses can be expected when rainfall occurs shortly after application for other pesticides with similar chemical properties and application methods. PMID:17713205

Wilson, Patrick Chris; Boman, Brian; Foos, Jane Ferguson

2007-02-01

281

Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up. Semiannual subcontract report, 17 March 1994--18 September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed under a 3-y subcontract to advance Solarex`s photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce its a-Si:H module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. During this period, Solarex focused on improving deposition of the front contact, investigating alternate feedstocks for the front contact, maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large areas, optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high potential test.

Oswald, R.; Morris, J. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

1995-09-01

282

Factors affecting phytoplankton distribution and production in the Elephant Island area, Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

During the austral summer of four years, 1990 to 1993, studies on phytoplankton were performed in the Elephant Island area as one component of the US Antarctica Marine Living Resources program. In addition to continuous measurements (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, beam attenuation) made on ship's intake water, a profiling CTD-rosette unit was used to obtain water column characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, attenuation of solar radiation, beam attenuation) from the surface to 750m depth and also water samples from at least 10 depths for chemical and biological analyses. The sampling grid consisted of an average of 70 stations, all of which were occupied two times each year. The Elephant Island area is a transition zone between the rich coastal areas, where phytoplankton can develop dense blooms, and pelagic waters where the phytoplankton biomass is in general very low. A frontal zone was usually found to the north of Elephant Island and over the continental slope, and high phytoplankton biomass was in general associated with this frontal region. Although the location of this frontal system showed seasonal movement in a north-south direction, it seems to be a consistent feature from year to year. There seems to be considerable year-to-year variability in physical (water temperatures and salinity) and phytoplankton characteristics within the study area, in regard to both distributional patterns in surface waters and to profile characteristics in the upper 100m of the water column. With shallow upper mixed layer depths of less than 50 m, phytoplankton can attain relatively high concentrations. Optimum light conditions for growth occurred when the mixed layer was less than 55% of the euphotic zone. As the area around Elephant Island is characterized by relatively strong and frequent winds, the depth of the upper mixed layer at many stations approached the depth of the euphotic zone, with the result that growth of phytoplankton was light limited.

Helbling, E.W.

1993-01-01

283

Production of sophorolipids with enhanced volumetric productivity by means of high cell density fermentation.  

PubMed

To achieve high time-space efficiency for sophorolipid production with yeast Candida bombicola, a strategy of high cell density fermentation was employed. The approach consisted of two sequential stages: (1) the optimization of the carbon source and the nutrient concentration to achieve the maximal cell density and (2) the computer-aided adjustment of physical parameters and the controlled feeding of substrates for enhanced volumetric productivity. Both stages have been successfully implemented in a 10-L fermenter, where up to 80 g dry cell weight/L was obtained and a remarkably high volumetric productivity (> 200 g isolated sophorolipids/L/day) was achieved. Both the biomass and volumetric productivity were markedly higher than previously reported. Specifically, the high productivity of sophorolipids could be attained on a very short time scale (24 h), highlighting the industrial potential of the platform developed in this work. PMID:22987201

Gao, Renjun; Falkeborg, Mia; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

2012-09-18

284

Large-area lidar remote sensing of Amazonia in 2003; LVIS flight plans and data products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lidar measurements of the Earth's surface provide unprecedented views of the vertical and horizontal structure of the canopy and the topography beneath. Utilizing laser footprints approximately the size of the mean crown diameter (20-25 m) and recording the entire time history of interaction between a short-duration (10 ns) pulse of laser light and the surface of the Earth, we can directly measure the vertical structure of vegetation including canopy height, a profile of vegetation material down through the canopy, and sub-canopy topography. Using these measurements, important biophysical parameters such as above-ground biomass can be estimated with unprecedented accuracy. A major lidar mission is currently being planned as part of the NASA LBA Airborne campaign. NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) will be used to image ~15,000 km2 of Amazonia in July-August 2003. Imaging will focus on the LBA Tapajos, Manaus and Rondonia sites where core areas of 30 by 50 km will be mapped. Sites in other regions such as Belem, Mato Grosso, and Brasilia will also be imaged, as well as two, 2km-wide, 2000km-long transects from Porto Velho to Brasilia, and Brasilia to Santarem. Data products to be distributed will include footprint-level and gridded ground elevation and canopy height measurements, as well as other metrics derived from the laser return waveform. Waveforms for selected sites will also be available. Data will distributed online by July 2004. Above-ground biomass estimates and improved topography products for overflown areas will be available by July 2005. Further details of the mission, including the lidar system and the proposed mapping areas will be presented.

Hofton, M.; Blair, B.; Nelson, B.; Dos Santos, J. R.; Valeriano, D.; Houghton, R.; Luthcke, S.; Sun, Q.

2002-12-01

285

Increase in groundwater storage in discontinuous permafrost areas in Eurasia and impact on vegetation productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use monthly measurements of time-variable gravity from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission to determine the increase in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in Eurasia, during the period 2002-2011. We compare monthly TWS from GRACE with TWS from time series of precipitation (P) minus evapo-transpiration (ET) from ERA-Interim re-analysis and observational river discharge (R) in the Lena, Yenisei and Ob river basins. We find an excellent agreement between the two time series of TWS. If we account for a negative bias in the average annual precipitation during the analyzed period, we effectively close the terrestrial water budget. From this comparison, we attribute both the increase in R and in TWS to an increase in P. In the Lena river basin the TWS increase is dominated by a large signal in an area of discontinuous permafrost. We attribute the observed signal to an increase in groundwater storage of 68+/-19 cubic km or to surface water recharging the ground water through areas not underlain by permafrost, while changes in active layer thickness have likely less impact. These TWS changes will have a significant impact on the terrestrial hydrology of the region, including increased baseflow and alteration of seasonal runoff. We also analyze the temporal and spatial correlation between TWS and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Net Primary Production (NPP) from MODIS. We show how the correlation changes within water rich and water limited areas as well as in function of different land cover types. We find that vegetation productivity in the Lena river basin is mainly controlled by temperature constraints rather than moisture availability, while in the Ob river basin it is mainly controlled by water limitation.

Tong, J.; Velicogna, I.; Zhang, T.; Kimball, J. S.

2011-12-01

286

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01

287

OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O{sub 3} production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O{sub 3} production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O{sub 3} concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O{sub 3} concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city.

KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

2001-10-01

288

The dose-area product, a new parameter for the dosimetry of narrow photon beams.  

PubMed

In the dosimetry of narrow photon fields with side lengths of the order of 1 cm, the traditional parametrisation via the absolute dose on the beam axis and the relative lateral dose distribution has to deal with the difficulty to find sufficiently small detectors and to adjust them accurately on the narrow-beam axis. This can be avoided by reconsidering the parametrisation, using as normalization factor the surface integral of the dose in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis, abbreviated as the "dose-area product" (DAP). We investigated and confirmed the ability of a large-area parallel-plate ionisation chamber, with a sensitive volume shaped as a flat cylinder of 81.6 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness, to perform the integration over the full lateral dose profile of narrow photon beams with side lengths up to 5 cm. The lateral adjustment of this large-area detector relative to a narrow photon beam is not critical. The large-area ionisation chamber was calibrated in terms of the DAP by reference to a 0.3 cm3 ionisation chamber. A field-size dependent "modified output factor" was defined as the ratio of the DAP measured at 5 cm phantom depth for 100 cm SSD, and the monitor reading. A prominent phenomenon of narrow photon fields is the field-size and source-distance independence of the relative axial profile of the DAP as function of the thickness of a pre-absorber or of the depth in a phantom. For narrow-beam treatment planning in IMRT, the DAP is combined with the energy- and field size-dependent relative lateral dose distribution which is represented, for example, by a Gaussian convolution kernel. Another useful feature of the DAP is the possibility of its direct control during patient irradiation by means of an on-line monitor with spatial resolution, arranged in the accessory holder. PMID:16986461

Djouguela, Armand; Harder, Dietrich; Kollhoff, Ralf; Rühmann, Antje; Willborn, Kay C; Poppe, Björn

2006-01-01

289

Reading in the Content Areas for Junior High and High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting concern for the myriad problems resulting from the presence of poor readers in secondary schools today, this book shows content area teachers why they must and how they can improve students' reading deficiencies. The book provides an explanation of reading skills and learning difficulties in a quick and easy format; activities to…

Cochran, Judith A.

290

Primary production and plankton carbon biomass in a river-influenced upwelling area off Concepción, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined influence of freshwater inputs and wind-driven upwelling may generate contrasting environmental conditions over small spatial scales in the coastal ocean. Over two consecutive years (mid-2006 through to mid-2008), we compared the springtime and wintertime composition, biomass, and primary production of the main phytoplankton groups at two coastal stations (RV and UW) near the Itata River mouth in the upwelling area off central Chile. Hydrographic and nutrient profiles showed distinct seasonal features: a relatively weak surface thermocline and weak river influence at both stations in spring, and in winter a stronger surface halocline at station RV, located closer to the river mouth. At both stations, primary production (24-8000 mg C m-2 d-1) and chlorophyll-a concentrations (5-20 mg Chl-a m-3) were highest in the spring, with a dominance of microphytoplankton (Chaetoceros spp., Thalassiosira spp.). Total primary production and chlorophyll-a in the winter corresponded mostly to smaller size fractions (pico- and nanoplankton), which dominated the phytoplankton community (>50%) in terms of carbon biomass at station RV. At this river-influenced station, small autotrophic and heterotrophic groups (<20 ?m), including picophytoeukaryotes, photo- and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and ciliates, were two to four times more abundant than at station UW. We conclude that most of the integrated carbon biomass and production rates during winter months are accounted for by small cells in the microbial food web. This component of the phytoplankton community may be enhanced in response to the additional surface input of nutrients by river discharges into the nearshore environment.

Iriarte, Jose Luis; Vargas, Cristian A.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Bermúdez, Rafael; Urrutia, Roberto E.

2012-01-01

291

Mass balance and area changes of four High Arctic plateau ice caps, 1959-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small, stagnating ice caps at high lati- tudes are particularly sensitive to climatic fluctua- tions, especially with regard to changes in ablation season temperature. We conducted mass balance measurements and GPS area surveys on four small High Arctic plateau ice caps from 1999-2002. We compared these measurements with topographic maps and aerial photography from 1959, and with previously published data.

Carsten Braun; D. R. Hardy; R. S. Bradley

2004-01-01

292

FOODS FREQUENTLY EATEN BY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN A DENSITY AREA IN ZIMBABWE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to a convenience sample of students attending a high school located in a high density area in Harare. The FFQ contains a list of 82 foods based on the compilation of traditional and common foods in Zimbabwe (Chitsiku, 1991; Gomez, 2000). Food i...

293

UDT: UDP-based data transfer for high-speed wide area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we summarize our work on the UDT high performance data transport protocol over the past four years. UDT was designed to effectively utilize the rapidly emerging high-speed wide area optical networks. It is built on top of UDP with reliability control and congestion control, which makes it quite easy to install. The congestion control algorithm is the

Yunhong Gu; Robert L. Grossman

2007-01-01

294

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

295

Production of pharmaceutical-grade plasmids at high concentration and high supercoiled percentage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased use of plasmid-based vaccines to replace their more challenging viral counterparts has increased the demand for high purity and high concentration plasmids. Here we report the production of plasmids encoding different transgenes for DNA vaccine candidates at gram scale with an integrated process consisting of batch fermentation and limited steps of purification. Plasmid products encoding for eight smallpox

Ying Cai; Stephen Rodriguez; Ramu Rameswaran; Ruxandra Draghia-Akli; Robert J. Juba Jr.; Henry Hebel

2010-01-01

296

First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.  

SciTech Connect

On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

Normann, Randy Allen

2006-04-01

297

A comparison of methods for converting rhizotron root length measurements into estimates of root mass production per unit ground area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizotrons provide valuable information about plant root production, but measurements are usually made in units of root length\\u000a per unit surface area of observation window surface. These measurement units are not easily comparable to above-ground plant\\u000a growth. To address this deficiency, several techniques have been developed to convert rhizotron measurement units into root\\u000a mass production per unit ground area. In

D. B. Metcalfe; P. Meir; M. Williams

2007-01-01

298

Neutral Strange Particle Production in High Energy Neutrino Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a high energy neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering experiment in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber filled with a Neon-Hydrogen mixture, production of the neutral strange particles K, Lambda, and anti-Lambda is observed. Global rates of neutral strange particle production, rates versus event kinematical variables, and strange particle kinematical distributions are presented. Absorbtion, rescattering, etc. of Lambda particles by the Ne

Elliott Jay Wolin

1984-01-01

299

Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane production from llama and cow manures from the Bolivian high plateau (The “Altiplano”) was studied using a parallel reactor set-up consisting of 10 lab-scale biogasifiers. The effects of pressure (495 and 760mmHg), temperature (11 and 35?C), hydraulic retention time (20 and 50 days), and manure content in the slurry (10%, 20% and 50%) were evaluated with respect to productivity

René Alvarez; Saul Villca; Gunnar Lidén

2006-01-01

300

High levels of ochratoxin A in licorice and derived products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ochratoxin A (OTA) content of 30 samples of licorice root and derived products (licorice-confectionery, licorice block, and licorice extract) was analyzed by a standard HPLC-fluorescence technique and confirmed by methyl-ester formation. All analyzed samples of licorice and derived products were found to contain ochratoxin A, and some of them showed extremely high concentrations up to 252.8 ng\\/g of OTA. Highest

A. Ariño; M. Herrera; G. Estopañan; T. Juan

2007-01-01

301

A comparative study of ozone production in five U.S. metropolitan areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of O3 and O3 precursors measured at mid boundary layer altitude during field campaigns in Nashville, Tennessee (1995), New York City, New York (1996), Phoenix, Arizona (1998), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1999), and Houston, Texas (2000). Ozone production rates P(O3) and their sensitivity to NOx and volatile organic carbons (VOCs) are calculated using observed concentrations as inputs to a steady state box model. City to city comparisons are made to illustrate common features of urban photochemistry and features that are unique to specific cities. Ozone production rates vary from nearly zero to 155 ppb h-1. Differences in P(O3) depend on precursor concentrations, namely, radical sources, NOx and VOCs. Under conditions where P(O3) is greater than 25 ppb h-1, there is a potential to produce enough same-day O3 to transform a typical regional background into a severe O3 episode. Six such cases were observed, in Nashville, Philadelphia, and Houston, with elevated O3 concentrations in the afternoon (130-211 ppb) following a morning in which P(O3) was 25-140 ppb h-1. High P(O3) occurs when NOx concentrations are 5-25 ppb and OH-VOC reactivity is above 5 s-1. These conditions are infrequent, and aside from a common dependence on calm winds, reasons vary from city to city. In Nashville, high P(O3) was observed during a stagnation event over downtown and under the circumstance that an air mass with a high concentration of isoprene encountered a NOx source. In Houston, NOx and light olefins are coemitted from petrochemical facilities leading to the highest P(O3)s of the five cities studied. High values of P(O3) did not occur in Phoenix because of low radical production, caused mainly by a dry atmosphere, and a low VOC to NOx ratio. The sensitivity of P(O3) to its precursors varied from NOx limited in rural samples to VOC limited near emission sources. In Philadelphia, and especially Phoenix, the highest O3 production rates occurred under VOC-limited conditions. In Nashville, New York City, and Houston the high-P(O3) samples were near the ridge line where P(O3) responds somewhat to VOC reductions but is insensitive to NOx changes.

Kleinman, L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Nunnermacker, L. J.; Springston, S. R.; Weinstein-Lloyd, J.; Rudolph, J.

2005-01-01

302

Spatially-explicit bioenergetics of Pacific sardine in the Southern California Bight: are mesoscale eddies areas of exceptional prerecruit production?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research shows that offshore mesoscale eddies in the Southern California Bight region are areas where sardine larval abundance is significantly increased relative to inshore, slope and surrounding offshore waters. In order for mesoscale eddies to be a mechanism linking climate and sardine population variability they must be areas of exceptional prerecruit production. Temperature and prey data from various Southern

Elizabeth A Logerwell; Bertha Lavaniegos; Paul E Smith

2001-01-01

303

ROLE OF WOMEN FARMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at examining the role of Women farmers’ cooperative Societies in Agricultural Production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State Nigeria. A total of eighty (80) women farmers were randomly selected from eight Cooperative societies which represent 50% of all registered and viable Cooperative Societies in the study area. Data were collected using well-structured pre-tested interview

B. O. Emefesi; B. M. Hamidu; U. Haruna

2004-01-01

304

Effect of High Receiver Thermal Loss Per Unit Area on the Performance of Solar Central Receiver Systems Having Optimum Heliostat Fields and Optimum Receiver Aperture Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts in solar central receiver research have been directed toward high temperature applications. Associated with high temperature processes are greater receiver thermal losses due to reradiation and convection. This dissertation examines the performance of central receiver systems having optimum heliostate fields and receiver aperture areas as a function of receiver thermal loss per unit area of receiver aperture. The

Charles L. Pitman

1983-01-01

305

Direct sonochemical preparation of high-surface-area nanoporous ceria and ceria-zirconia solid solutions.  

PubMed

For the first time, nanoporous ceria and ceria-zirconia solid solutions with high surface area have been successfully synthesized directly via high-intensity ultrasound irradiation without thermal post-treatment. The ceria and the solid solutions were characterized by XRD, TEM, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the nanoporous structures of the materials obtained were formed by the agglomeration of monodispersed nanoparticles under high-intensity ultrasound irradiation. PMID:12742056

Yu, Jimmy C; Zhang, Lizhi; Lin, Jun

2003-04-01

306

Hemodialyzer mass transfer-area coefficients for urea increase at high dialysate flow rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemodialyzer mass transfer-area coefficients for urea increase at high dialysate flow rates. The dialyzer mass transfer-area coefficient (KoA) for urea is an important determinant of urea removal during hemodialysis and is considered to be constant for a given dialyzer. We determined urea clearance for 22 different models of commercial hollow fiber dialyzers (N = ?5\\/model, total N = 107) in

John K Leypoldt; Alfred K Cheung; Lawrence Y Agodoa; John T Daugirdas; Tom Greene; Prakash R Keshaviah; Gerald J Beck

1997-01-01

307

Preparation and characterization of thermally stable high surface area mesoporous vanadium oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadium oxides with high surface areas are desirable for the applications in catalysis and lithium batteries. A new method has been developed in this work for the preparation of mesoporous VO2 with the surface area of about 180m2\\/g and slit-shaped mesopores. In this simple method, V2O5 was first dissolved in aqueous solution of H2O2 and the solution was evaporated at

Mingwei Xue; Hui Chen; Jiazhen Ge; Jianyi Shen

2010-01-01

308

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030m2g-1 (ref. 2). Until recently, the

Hee K. Chae; Diana Y. Siberio-Pérez; Jaheon Kim; YongBok Go; Mohamed Eddaoudi; Adam J. Matzger; Michael O'Keeffe; Omar M. Yaghi

2004-01-01

309

Molecular hydrogen and spiltover hydrogen storage on high surface area carbon sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of templated carbons with various high surface areas (2033–3798m2\\/g) have been prepared using various microporous zeolites as hard templates. Molecular hydrogen storage and spiltover hydrogen storage on these templated carbons were investigated and compared with superactivated carbon AX-21 and other reported porous carbon sorbents at 298K and 100atm. Two relationships between the surface areas of these carbons and

Lifeng Wang; Ralph T. Yang

310

High-efficiency finishing process for metal mold by large-area electron beam irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new finishing process for metal molds by large-area electron beam (EB) irradiation is proposed in this study. In the large-area EB irradiation equipment used here, an EB with high-energy density is irradiated without focusing the beam, and so the EB with a maximum diameter of 60mm can be used for melting or evaporating metal surface instantly. Experimental results show

Yoshiyuki Uno; Akira Okada; Kensuke Uemura; Purwadi Raharjo; Toshihiko Furukawa; Kosaku Karato

2005-01-01

311

Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package  

SciTech Connect

A matrix of 55 glasses was developed and tested with the aim to identify the impact of glass composition on the long-term corrosion behavior and to develop an acceptable low-activity waste glass composition region. Of the 55 glasses, 45 were designed to systematically vary the glass composition and 10 were selected because large and growing databases on their corrosion characteristics had accumulated. The performance of these 55 glasses in the vapor-phase hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) were characterized. VHT's were performed at temperatures between 150?C and 300?C for times up to 280 days; preliminary corrosion rates and type of alteration products were identified. PCTs were performed at 90?C with glass surface area's to solution volumes (S/V) of 2000 m-1 for 7 days and S/V of 20 000 m-1 for 10 h, 100 h, and 1000 h. The corrosion extents by PCT were determined as functions of time from solution composition analyses.

Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin; McGrail, B. Peter; Jorgensen, Benaiah M.; Smith, Donald E.; Allen, Benjamin R.; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Brown, Kevin G.; Reamer, I. A.; Ebert, W. L.

2000-02-08

312

Levels of thoron and progeny in high background radiation area of southeastern coast of Odisha, India.  

PubMed

Exposure to radon, (222)Rn, is assumed to be the most significant source of natural radiation to human beings in most cases. It is thought that radon and its progeny are major factors that cause cancer. The presence of thoron, (220)Rn, was often neglected because it was considered that the quantity of thoron in the environment is less than that of radon. However, recent studies have shown that a high thoron concentration was found in some regions and the exposure to (220)Rn and its progeny can equal or several time exceed that of (220)Rn and its progeny. The results of thoron and its progeny measurements in the houses of high background radiation area (HBRA) of the southeastern coast of Odisha, India presented here. This area is one of the high background radiation areas in India with a large deposit of monazite sand which is the probable source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurement of thoron and its progeny in cement, brick and mud houses in the study area. Thoron concentration was measured using RAD-7 and Raduet. A CR-39 track detector was employed for the measurement of environmental thoron progeny, both in active and passive modes. Thoron and its progeny concentrations were found to be comparatively high in the area. A comparison between the results obtained with various techniques is presented in this paper. PMID:22908359

Ramola, R C; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S; Sagar, D V; Prasad, G; Shahoo, S K; Ishikawa, T; Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

2012-08-19

313

Identifying high-risk areas for sporadic measles outbreaks: lessons from South Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To develop a model for identifying areas at high risk for sporadic measles outbreaks based on an analysis of factors associated with a national outbreak in South Africa between 2009 and 2011. Methods Data on cases occurring before and during the national outbreak were obtained from the South African measles surveillance programme, and data on measles immunization and population size, from the District Health Information System. A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model was used to investigate the association between the risk of measles in infants in a district and first-dose vaccination coverage, population density, background prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and expected failure of seroconversion. Model projections were used to identify emerging high-risk areas in 2012. Findings A clear spatial pattern of high-risk areas was noted, with many interconnected (i.e. neighbouring) areas. An increased risk of measles outbreak was significantly associated with both the preceding build-up of a susceptible population and population density. The risk was also elevated when more than 20% of infants in a populous area had missed a first vaccine dose. The model was able to identify areas at high risk of experiencing a measles outbreak in 2012 and where additional preventive measures could be undertaken. Conclusion The South African measles outbreak was associated with the build-up of a susceptible population (owing to poor vaccine coverage), high prevalence of HIV infection and high population density. The predictive model developed could be applied to other settings susceptible to sporadic outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases.

Cohen, C; Chirwa, T; Ntshoe, G; Puren, A; Hofman, K

2013-01-01

314

Strategies for the production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds: production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds.  

PubMed

Bioethanol has attracted attention as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel. Seaweeds have been proposed as some of the most promising raw materials for bioethanol production because they have several advantages over lignocellulosic biomass. However, because seaweeds contain low contents of glucans, i.e., polysaccharides composed of glucose, the conversion of only the glucans from seaweed is not sufficient to produce high concentrations of ethanol. Therefore, it is also necessary to produce ethanol from other specific carbohydrate components of seaweeds, including sulfated polysaccharides, mannitol, alginate, agar and carrageenan. This review summarizes the current state of research on the production of ethanol from seaweed carbohydrates for which the conversion of carbohydrates to sugars is a key step and makes comparisons with the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. This review provides valuable information necessary for the production of high concentrations of ethanol from seaweeds. PMID:23314751

Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

2013-01-11

315

High-productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS volume manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimized to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters have shown ultra high silicon etch rate, with unrivaled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process yields. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. A key factor for achieving the highest performances was the recognized expertise of Alcatel vacuum and plasma science technologies. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer head and Silicon microphones.

Puech, M.; Thevenoud, J. M.; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, J. M.

2007-01-01

316

High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones.

Puech, M.; Thevenoud, JM; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, JM

2006-04-01

317

The investigation of ground temperatures in high mountain areas using IButtons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mountain areas are characterized by extreme variability in elevation, exposure to solar radiation and ground material. Many physical processes, that control ground temperatures and thereby permafrost, are highly affected by this variability. An improved understanding of permafrost and related processes in mountain areas therefore requires investigation at high spatial resolutions. The aim of this project is to investigate ground surface temperatures in high mountain areas. We focus on the effects of topography and local ground properties on surface temperatures at high spatial and temporal resolutions. We distributed 390 mini temperature logger IButtons (www.maxim-ic.com) at Corvatsch in the Upper Engadin (Switzerland) logging surface temperatures at a 3 hour time step. This distributed network of temperature loggers is planned to operate for 3 years. The programming, distribution and recovery of many IButton devices in high mountain areas is very time-consuming. It requires a systematic recording and storage of relevant metadata such as the geographic coordinates of each IButton as well as other topographic characteristics. To easily handle these requirements and to stream-line field work, we developed an effective working procedure and supporting software to program and read-out IButtons (precision, time resolution, etc.) and to store the temperature measurements in a database together with the relevant metadata. The possibility to connect a GPS device and digital camera to this system makes the recording of meta-data and the reclamation of loggers very efficient. We present the project together with the main tools of the developed software.

Fiddes, Joel; Gubler, Stefanie; Gruber, Stephan; Hungerbühler, Guido; Knecht, Oliver; Sheikh, Suhel; Keller, Matthias; Beutel, Jan

2010-05-01

318

[Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].  

PubMed

This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the traditional economy into the cash system. But by 1960 in the Bamileke plateau and Mont Mandaras and after 1970 in the Lekie country population no longer appeared as a consequence but as the main cause of rural structural changes. Containing the demographic pressure on the land and maintaining food self-sufficiency will require combatting poverty in general, through a series of actions aimed at both the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. PMID:12178536

Kelodjoue, S

1989-06-01

319

FOODS FREQUENTLY EATEN BY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN A HIGH DENSITY AREA IN ZIMBABWE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the eating habits of high school students (N=94) in Zimbabwe. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used which contained 83 foods categorized as grains; meat; legumes; milk; fruits and vegetables; snacks, fats and oils; and beverages. Food items were also listed in three different languages (English, Shona, Ndebele). Differences were found between

Alice Nkungula; Ellen W. Harris

2005-01-01

320

[High Risk Federal Program Areas]: An Overview. High-Risk Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report reviews the status of government agencies and operations that have been identified as at "high risk" for waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement; describes successful progress in some agencies; and looks at recent reform legislation. Six categories being targeted include accountability of defense programs, ensuring that all revenues…

Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

321

Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for ``natural'' foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and

Margarita Garriga; Teresa Aymerich

2009-01-01

322

Heat management for hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research and development projects throughout the world are devoted to sustainable hydrogen production processes. Low-temperature electrolysis, when consuming electricity produced without greenhouse gas emissions, is a sustainable process, though having limited efficiency.The performance of electrolysis processes can be improved by functioning at high temperature (high-temperature electrolysis, HTE). This leads to a reduction in energy consumption but requires some of

Christine Mansilla; Jon Sigurvinsson; André Bontemps; Alain Maréchal; François Werkoff

2007-01-01

323

Process development of high performance CIGS modules for mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-based solar modules is close to commercialisation. However, the high cost-reduction potential can only be realised with mass production. ZSW has developed all process steps for a 30 cm×30 cm CIGS line. Very high performance CIGS modules with an efficiency close to 13% and smaller mini-modules close to 15% were prepared with this line. Critical process

M. Powalla; B Dimmler

2001-01-01

324

Impact of Weather Analysis on Agricultural Production and Planning Decisions for the Semiarid Areas of Kenya.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kenya's current 4% rate of population growth requires cultivation of food crops by smallholder farmers in ever drier zones of semiarid lands. Rainfall is limited, variable and unpredictable, but maize, widely known for susceptibility to drought, remains the staple and favorite food crop.A case study is presented in which `effective rainfall' for Katumani Composite B-type maize, grown at Katumani, Machakos District, is evaluated for each of the 48 wet seasons in the 24-year record. The newly developed analysis takes into account rainfall, evaporation, soil depth and water holding capacity, and growth characteristics of the crop influencing water uptake and yield. Conclusions are:1) The analysis evaluates suitability of a given crop for production in any location where rainfall and evaporation records are available.2) Dates of onset of the rains at Katumani are sortable into periods termed `early' (implies expectation of high to medium water adequacy for maize production), `late' (medium to low expectation), and `too late' to recommend planting. These expectations determine recommendations for initial seed and fertilizer rates.3) Although unpredictable earlier, the rainfall pattern following onset soon sorts itself into one of three categories of water adequacy for maize (high, medium or low). Recommendations for thinning to final plant densities, and for adjusting nitrogen fertilizer rates through sidedressing are based on the perceived category.4) Approximately two months before harvest, total season effective rainfall can be estimated, and predictions of yield provided to farmers, economists, and other planners concerned with food supplies.5) An estimate is presented of the value of meteorological information to maize production in Machakos and Kitui Districts.

Stewart, J. Ian; Hash, Charles T.

1982-04-01

325

Preparation of monodispersed microporous SiO2 microspheres with high specific surface area using dodecylamine as a hydrolysis catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and simple method for the synthesis of monodispersed microporous SiO2 microspheres with high specific surface area was developed by hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in a water ethanol mixed solution and using dodecylamine (DDA) as hydrolysis catalyst and template. The as-prepared products were characterized with differential thermal analysis thermogravimetry, scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, small angle X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption. The effects of experimental conditions including hydrolysis temperatures, calcination temperature and concentrations of TEOS and DDA on the morphology and pore parameters of the as-prepared SiO2 microspheres were investigated and discussed. The results showed that hydrolysis temperature and concentrations of TEOS and DDA are important parameters for the control of size and morphology of particles. The specific surface area and specific pore volume of the as-prepared SiO2 microspheres increased with increasing DDA concentration and calcination temperature. DDA may act not only as a good hydrolysis catalyst but also as a template for the formation of monodispersed SiO2 microspheres with high specific surface area. This research may provide new insight into the synthesis of monodispersed microporous SiO2 microspheres.

Yu, Jiaguo; Zhao, Li; Cheng, Bei

2006-01-01

326

Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  

PubMed

Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-02-09

327

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030m2g-1 (ref. 2). Until recently, the largest surface area of an ordered structure was that of zeolite Y, recorded at 904m2g-1 (ref. 3). But with the introduction of metal-organic framework materials, this has been exceeded, with values up to 3,000m2g-1 (refs 4-7). Despite this, no method of determining the upper limit in surface area for a material has yet been found. Here we present a general strategy that has allowed us to realize a structure having by far the highest surface area reported to date. We report the design, synthesis and properties of crystalline Zn4O(1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate)2, a new metal-organic framework with a surface area estimated at 4,500m2g-1. This framework, which we name MOF-177, combines this exceptional level of surface area with an ordered structure that has extra-large pores capable of binding polycyclic organic guest molecules-attributes not previously combined in one material.

Chae, Hee K.; Siberio-Pérez, Diana Y.; Kim, Jaheon; Go, YongBok; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Matzger, Adam J.; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

2004-02-01

328

Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in a high arsenicism area in Taiwan: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Arsenic contamination of drinking water is noticeably linked to the occurrence of skin, bladder, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Blackfoot disease (BFD) caused by arsenicosis is endemic in southwestern Taiwan, where artesian well water contains high concentrations of arsenic, and mortality from HCC shows a dose-response increase by concentration of arsenic in the well water. This case-control study was conducted to examine the clinical characteristics of HCC patients of BFD-endemic area. A total of 65 HCC cases (54 men and 11 women) were recruited from the BFD-endemic areas. The clinicopathological features were compared with 130 age- and sex-matched HCC control patients from non-BFD-endemic areas. Characteristics analyzed included hepatitis viral infection status, hepatitis activity, liver function, histological findings, computed tomography scan characteristics, and patient survival. No differences were observed between HCC patients or their tumors, from study and control areas. PMID:15167390

Lu, Sheng-Nan; Chow, Nan-Haw; Wu, Wen-Chih; Chang, Ting-Tsung; Huang, Wu-Shuang; Chen, Shinn-Cherng; Lin, Chien-Hung; Carr, Brian I

2004-05-01

329

A Box-Model Analysis of Ozone Production Potential as a Function of Source Region in the Houston/Galveston Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in ozone production rates and efficiencies are presented as a function of air mass history for an air quality monitoring site located on the west side of a major metropolitan area (Houston, Texas). This site was located at the top of a tall building (~ 832 ft AGL) to minimize effects from highly localized sources of NOx and VOCs. Under conditions of easterly flow, this elevated site sampled a mix of O3, NO, NOy (sum of all odd-nitrogen species), PAN, SO2, CO, CH2O, HNO3, HONO, H2O2 and volatile organic compounds associated with the city itself and with major petrochemical production facilities on the east side of the city. Air mass histories were calculated from hourly observations made by a radar wind profiler network set up over the Houston/Galveston area. The observations from this site were then used to initialize a photochemical box model that could, in turn, be used to evaluate such kinetic features as the instantaneous rates of NOx destruction, O3 production and various production efficiencies (e.g., ozone production efficiency, here defined as -? [O3]/? t([NO + NO2]/? t) ) as a function of source region. Preliminary results suggest a much richer mix of VOCs on days associated with rapid ozone formation events ('ROFE's) relative to days when high ozone levels formed more slowly, and that these ROFEs were associated with a sudden veering of the low level winds over the Houston/Galveston area. Passage of air over the rich source region of eastern Houston was, by itself, not enough to increase VOC levels high enough for rapid ozone formation; for maximum production rates, it appears that the air has to 'stall' over eastern Houston before moving to the monitoring site, resulting in chemical mixtures with distinct production rates and efficiencies.

Berkowitz, C. M.; Doskey, P. V.; Spicer, C. W.; Zaveri, R. A.

2002-12-01

330

Production of heavy charged Higgs particles at very high energies  

SciTech Connect

The production of heavy charged Higgs bosons at very high energies (LEP) is investigated. It turns out that, in favorable circumstances, charged scalars of mass 50-100 GeV could be detected and be even more copiously produced than the standard neutral Weinberg-Salam-type Higgs particle of the same mass.

Grifols, J.A.; Sola, J.

1981-01-01

331

The Tacit Knowledge of Highly Productive Professors of Educational Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the tacit knowledge of highly productive and influential scholars in educational administration. Tacit knowledge is personal knowledge so thoroughly grounded in experience that it cannot be fully expressed. Some researchers suggest it is a marker of practical intelligence. Individual, indepth, semistructured interviews…

Nestor-Baker, Nancy; Lippa, Amy; Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Floyd, Loury

332

CALIFORNIUM PRODUCTION IN THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Californium-252 and other isotope production rates resulting from ; irradiating Pu-242 in the proposed High Flux Isotope Reactor were estimated. The ; effect of curium recycle was investigated and optimum irradiation cycles ; determined. Approximately 60 mg of Cf-252 would be available from the HFIR ; installation about 11\\/4 years after exposure of 200 g of Pu-242 is started. The

H. C. Claiborne; M. P. Lietzke

1959-01-01

333

TROLL HIGH RATE PRODUCTION TEST, PLANNING AND EXECUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high rate production test performed by Norsk Hydro on the Troll East structure during the summer of 1985 with the semi submersible drilling rig Treasure Seeker required that a large number of specially designed, modified or adapted equipment items were used in order to fulfil the objectives and maintain safe operations. These were: Jetting tool for casing cleaning; Gravel

B. H. Nilssen

1987-01-01

334

High-yield ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation conditions were optimized for the production of ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to use high-concentration juice and undiluted pulp. Yields (95 to 125 g ethanol\\/l=85 to 98% of the theoretical value) exceeded those obtained with strain of Kluyveromyces used classically.

C. Barthomeuf; F. Regerat; H. Pourrat

1991-01-01

335

Production test IP229-A evaluation of the uranium-Al-Si bond at high temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this production test is to determine the changes that occur in the uranium-Al-Si bond during irradiation at bond temperatures between 255 and 285 C. Twenty-five M-388 jacketed dip canned depleted uranium solid fuel elements will be irradiated to an exposure of 500 MWD\\/T in high temperature water. The location and size of unbonded areas on the fuel

1959-01-01

336

Production of large area low-energy electron beams by extraction from a multidipolar plasma (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

The production of large area low-energy electron beams by extraction from a low-pressure plasma is investigated. In order to extract electron beams of given energy from a plasma, the plasma potential, as referred to wall potential, must be stationary and independent of the extraction potential. The macroscopic neutrality of the plasma therefore requires that reactor walls are metallic and that extraction to reactor wall area ratio is less than the square root of the electron to ion mass ratio. These specifications are fulfilled in the source presented in this study where the plasma is produced in a cylindrical chamber by seven elementary dipolar sources distributed over the end flange of a cylindrical chamber opposite to the extraction grid. The plasma is sustained at electron cyclotron resonance by microwaves at 2.45 GHz in the chamber whose wall potential (extraction potential) can be varied from 0 to -200 V with respect to the ground potential. The electron beam extracted from the plasma through the grid then expands in a second chamber whose walls are set at the ground potential. The details of the experimental arrangement built on the above specifications are presented and the characteristics of argon plasmas measured by using cylindrical Langmuir probes as a function of the extraction voltage. In the same way, electron beam characteristics in the ground potential chamber are also measured using both planar and cylindrical Langmuir probes. In particular, variations in plasma and beam potentials are simultaneously determined as a function of extraction voltage. Current-voltage extraction characteristics are also reported, which show that electron beams in the ampere range can be extracted between 0 and -200 V. The experimental results are in good agreement with the expected electron source behavior.

Lacoste, A.; Bechu, S.; Maulat, O.; Pelletier, J.; Arnal, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie - UJF, CNRS IN2P3 et ST2I, INPG, Centre de Recherche Plasmas-Materiaux-Nanostructures, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble, Cedex (France)

2008-02-15

337

Presence of plant protection products in three agricultural areas of Regione Lazio.  

PubMed

Aim of the research was to verify the impact of plant protection products on three significant agricultural areas of Regione Lazio: Maccarese, Cisterna di Latina, Sabaudia-Terracina. This research studied the presence of some active ingredients, indicated by technicians as distributed, on soil, water, crop and air samples, the last one in greenhouse; the analysis, carried out by multi-residue methods, allowed to investigate also on a large amount of active ingredients not indicated by technicians. The determinations have been obtained, using internal standards, by GC-NPD, GC-ECD, HPLC-UV, HPLC-DAD, with different columns, conditions and wavelength of adsorption. Taking into account the results we could to assert that only a small part of the molecules searched were found in the samples and that they are typical for the crops and the environment treated. In greenhouse, more persistence was founded in wood greenhouse, treated from the outside, probably for the release of a.i. in time from wood and for a better distribution. The active ingredients more frequently founded must be controlled to avoid possible accumulation or leaching, especially for herbicides in the areas of Maccarese and Cisterna di Latina. Furthermore, the molecule on which more attention must be done when applied, are: linuron on carrots, penconazole on zucchini and cymoxanil, often used inappropriately, particularly on minor crops, like red-radish. Although the number of sampling was limited, it has been possible to outline the situation in the three zones considered, for directing choices, that could be more sensible at sanitary spin-off and at the environment. PMID:15151325

Conte, E; Rossi, E; Spera, G; Pompi, V; Carfi', F; Spadoni, A R; Rosati, M; Montereali, M R; Donnarumma, L; Perconti, W

2003-01-01

338

Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total daily E was unaffected by position in the interrow. Under wet soil conditions, wind speed and direction affected soil evaporation. Row orientation interacted with wind direction in this study such that aerodynamic resistance to E usually increased when wind direction was perpendicular to row direction; but this interaction needs further study because it appeared to be lessened under higher wind speeds.

Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.

2012-12-01

339

Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

2009-12-01

340

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

1999-03-16

341

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

1999-01-01

342

Large area detector based computed tomography system for production nondestructive evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

We present a system for industrial x-ray computed tomography that has been optimized for all phases of nondestructive component inspection. Data acquisition is greatly enhanced by the use of high resolution, large area, flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors. The detectors have proven, over several years, to be a robust alternative to CCD-optics and image intensifier CT systems. In addition to robustness, these detectors provide the advantage of area detection as compared with the single slice geometry of linear array systems. Parallel processing provides significant speed improvements for data reconstruction, and is implemented for parallel-beam, fan-beam and Feldkamp conebeam reconstruction algorithms. By clustering ten or more equal-speed computers, reconstruction times are reduced by an order of magnitude. We have also developed interactive software for visualization and interrogation of the full three-dimensional dataset. Inspection examples presented in this paper include an electro-mechanical device, nonliving biological specimens and a turbo-machinery component. We also present examples of everyday items for the benefit of the layperson.

Keating, S. C. (Scott C.); Davis, A. A. (Anthony A.); Claytor, T. N. (Thomas N.)

2001-01-01

343

Phytoplankton and light limitation in the Southern Ocean: Learning from high-nutrient, high-chlorophyll areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the Southern Ocean is a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area. There are exceptions to this situation downstream of some of the islands, where iron from the islands or surrounding shallow plateau fertilizes the mixed layer and causes a phytoplankton bloom in spring and summer. The main locations where this occurs are downstream of the South Georgia, Crozet, and Kerguelen islands. Data on mixed layer depths from Argo float profiles together with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor chlorophyll a (chl a) and photosynthetically available radiation from these high-nutrient, high-chlorophyll (HNHC) areas are combined to study the effects of mixed layer-averaged light availability on phytoplankton concentrations in areas where iron limitation has been lifted. The results of this analysis are then transferred to HNLC areas to assess the potential importance of light limitation through the year. We conclude that light limitation does not significantly constrain the annual integrated standing stock of chl a in the HNLC Southern Ocean.

Venables, Hugh; Moore, C. Mark

2010-02-01

344

?-MnO2 nanotubes: high surface area and enhanced lithium battery properties.  

PubMed

A simple one-step route for preparing ?-MnO(2) nanotubes is reported. The ?-MnO(2) nanotubes exhibit a high surface area of 226 m(2) g(-1) and reversible capacity of 512 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 800 mA g(-1) after 300 cycles, as well as cycling stability when measured as an anode in lithium batteries. PMID:22674121

Li, Lihong; Nan, Caiyun; Lu, Jun; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

2012-06-07

345

Manipulating large-area, heavy metal ion beams with a high-current electrostatic plasma lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe some experimental investigations of the manipulation of high-current, large-area beams of heavy metal ions using a high-current electrostatic plasma lens. Beams of carbon, copper, zinc, and tantalum ions (separately) were formed by a repetitively pulsed vacuum arc ion source, with energy in the range about 10-140 keV, beam current up to 0.5 A, initial beam diameter 10 cm,

Alexey A. Goncharov; Ivan M. Protsenko; Gera Y. Yushkov; Ian G. Brown

2000-01-01

346

Research on stable high-efficiency, large area, amorphous silicon-based solar cells, phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photovoltaic research conducted in four areas is described: semiconductor materials, high-efficiency cells, nonsemiconductor materials, and submodules. The major focus of semiconductor materials research was on improving the quality of wide-band-gap a-SiC:H alloys and narrow-band-gap a-SiGe:H alloys. Raman spectroscopy suggested that the alloys are inhomogeneous, showing a higher concentration of Ge-Ge bonds than expected from a random mixing model. In high-efficiency

A. W. Catalano; R. R. Ayra; M. S. Bennett; C. R. Dickson; B. Fieselmann; B. Goldstein; J. Morris; E. Twesme; J. G. Odowd; R. S. Oswald

1989-01-01

347

Direct sonochemical preparation of high-surface-area nanoporous ceria and ceria–zirconia solid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, nanoporous ceria and ceria–zirconia solid solutions with high surface area have been successfully synthesized directly via high-intensity ultrasound irradiation without thermal post-treatment. The ceria and the solid solutions were characterized by XRD, TEM, and nitrogen adsorption. It was found that the nanoporous structures of the materials obtained were formed by the agglomeration of monodispersed nanoparticles under

Jimmy C. Yu; Lizhi Zhang; Jun Lin

2003-01-01

348

Large-area production of yttria-stabilized zirconia by pulsed laser deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small size of most of the present-day films produced by PLD (up to few cm2) is not only a general limiting factor for applications in many scientific and technical fields, but is also problematic for studies of samples for which edge effects may play an important role. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films with a uniform thickness have been deposited at different distances from the target and at different oxygen background pressure in the largearea PLD facility at Risø National Laboratory. Films of uniform thickness up to 300 nm and 1200 nm over an area with a diameter of more than 90 mm were achieved. Depending on the oxygen background pressure the YSZ films were found to grow in a highly oriented manner on the Si wafer.

Pryds, N.; Schou, J.; Linderoth, S.

2007-04-01

349

Earthquake effects on low-rise steel buildings in high seismicity areas: a designer's view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern seismic design codes impose severe ductility requirements for the design of steel structures in high seismicity areas, such as Greece. However, in practice, the design of low-rise and especially single storey steel buildings, which cover the majority of cases, is usually governed by loading combinations other than the seismic-load combination, even if seismic forces are determined for nondissipative behaviour.

Anthony S. Karamanos; Spyros A. Karamanos

1997-01-01

350

Mitigation of indoor radon in an area with unusually high radon concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an area of unusually high indoor radon concentrations of up to 270,000 Bq m⁻³, four houses were selected for mitigation of indoor radon. Methods used were basement sealing, soil depressurization, a mechanical intake and outlet ventilation system with heat exchanger in the basement, and a multilayer floor construction using a fan to such radon from a layer between bottom

O. Ennemoser; E. Oberdorfer; W. Ambach; P. Schneider; F. Purtscheller; V. Stingl

1995-01-01

351

Middle- and High-School Content Area Teachers' Perceptions about Literacy Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Middle- and high-school content area teachers' beliefs about literacy teaching and learning were investigated during the initial implementation phase of a year-long content literacy professional development project. Teacher interview data were used to examine factors that contribute to and/or inhibit teachers' successful implementation of content…

Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Burns, Leslie David; Callaway, Patricia

2009-01-01

352

Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically

Chad E Duty; Rob R Smith; Arpad Alexander Vass; Ralph H Ilgner; Gilbert M Brown

2008-01-01

353

Recurrent Diarrhea in Children Living in Areas with High Levels of Nitrate in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that there was documented evidence of an association between diarrhea and high nitrate ingestion, the authors examined drinking water nitrate concentration and its possible correlation(s) with methemoglobin levels, cytochrome b5 reductase activity, and recurrent diarrhea. In addition, the authors studied histopathological changes in the intestines of rabbits in an animal model. Five village areas were studied, and nitrate concentrations

Sunil Kumar Gupta; Ramesh C. Gupta; Akhilendra B. Gupta; Asmok K. Seth; Jagdegsh K. Bassin; Alka Gupta; Mohan L. Sharma

2001-01-01

354

Methods for identifying high radon areas of the US: The case of Minnesota  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been developing methods for identifying high radon areas, based on the correlation of indoor monitoring data with information on housing structure, soil or geological, and meteorological parameters. Examination of short-term data in Minnesota using ordinary regression analysis indicates that surficial radium concentrations alone account for about 60% of the variance in county geometric-mean (GM) concentrations, but such analyses

A. V. Nero; M. G. Apte; J. Fridlyand; P. R. Price; K. L. Revzan

1996-01-01

355

Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts' ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater

C. M. Biradar; P. H. Gowda; J. E. Hernandez; T. A. Howell; T. H. Marek; X. Xiao

2009-01-01

356

Study of the Porous Solids Obtained by Acid Treatment of a High Surface Area Saponite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new deposit of saponite, Vicálvaro (Madrid, Spain), has recently been described in the Madrid Basin (provinces of Madrid and Toledo, Central Spain). The acid treatment of such material and the characterization of the solids obtained are reported in the present paper. The surface area of the natural saponite is rather high, 197 m2\\/g, related to the very small size

Olga Prieto; Miguel Angel Vicente; Miguel Angel Bañares-Muñoz

1999-01-01

357

Strategy for vaccination against hepatitis B in areas with high endemicity: focus on Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B vaccination strategies may vary from country to country depending on hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity, predominant modes of infection, age of infection, and health care resources. In areas with high endemicity like Korea, transmission of virus from carrier mothers to infants during the perinatal period, and from other horizontal sources to infants and children, account for most cases

Y O Ahn

1996-01-01

358

Analysis of hazard areas associated with high-pressure natural-gas pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rupture of a high-pressure natural-gas pipeline can lead to outcomes that can pose a significant threat to people and property in the immediate vicinity of the failure location. The dominant hazards are thermal radiation from sustained fire and collapse of buildings from explosion inside or in a partially confined area enclosed by buildings. A simplified equation has been developed

Y.-D. Jo; B. J. Ahn

2002-01-01

359

High Peak/Moon Creek Research Natural Area, Guidebook Supplement 30.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidebook describes the High Peak/Moon Creek Research Natural Area, a 617.5-ha (1,526-ac) tract of coniferous forest containing stands dominated by 100- to 150-year-old Douglas-fir, a small old-growth (500+ years) Douglas-fir stand, and riparian vege...

R. Schuller

2006-01-01

360

Profiles of doses to the population living in the high background radiation areas in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample study of the profiles of radiation exposures to the populations living in the high background radiation areas (HBRAs) of the monazite-bearing region in Kerala, India, has been conducted by monitoring 200 dwellings selected from two villages in this region. Each of these dwellings was monitored for 1 year and the study lasted for a period of 2 years.

M. P Chougaonkar; K. P Eappen; T. V Ramachandran; P. G Shetty; Y. S Mayya; S Sadasivan; V Venkat Raj

2004-01-01

361

Concept for a bioclimatic evaluation of an expedition and trekking area at moderate and high altitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper presents a concept which is built up on climate data with a long period of observation (temperature, wind conditions, precipitation, irradiation, and the frequency of low-pressure weather situations with unfavorable biotropy stages). It therefore allows an evaluation of the bioclimate of a high mountain area. With the help of this relatively simple method, the risk of problems

Reinhold Lazar; Wien Med Wochenschr

2005-01-01

362

Residential Radon and Lung Cancer Risk in a High-exposure Area of Gansu Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general population, evaluation of lung cancer risk from radon in houses is hampered by low levels of exposure and by dosimetric uncertainties due to residential mobility. To address these limitations, the authors conducted a case-control study in a predominantly rural area of China with low mobility and high radon levels. Included were all lung cancer cases diagnosed between

Zuoyuan Wang; Jay H. Lubin; Longde Wang; Shouzhi Zhang; John D. Boice; Hongxing Cui; Shurong Zhang; Susan Conrath; Ying Xia; Bing Shang; Alina Brenner; Suwen Lei; Catherine Metayer; Jisheng Cao; Katherine W. Chen; Shujie Lei; Ruth A. Kleinerman

363

Racial differences in high school dropout rates: An analysis of U.S. Metropolitan areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the differences in high school dropout rates among white, black and Hispanic students in 275 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in 2000. Our analysis focuses on the impact of community and labor market conditions, in hopes of providing insight into the relationship between place and educational outcomes. The explanatory power of our regression models is

Rachel Leventhal-Weiner; Michael Wallace

2011-01-01

364

Area Fish and Game Ecology [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course entitled "Area Fish and Game Ecology" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. It consists of nine units of study, and 18 behavioral objectives relating to these units are stated. The topics covered include map projections, map symbols and…

Esser, Robert

365

Gulf Coast High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Gulf Coast High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat in the Gulf Coast HIDTA region remained fairly consistent from 2009 through 2010. Cocaine distribution and abuse are the principal d...

2011-01-01

366

Los Angeles (California) High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Los Angeles (California) High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The drug threat to the Los Angeles HIDTA region has changed little over the past year. Wholesale quantities of most illicit drugs are widely a...

2011-01-01

367

New England: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the New England High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The overall drug threat to the New England (NE) HIDTA region remained fairly consistent during the past year. Opioid abuse - primarily of South American he...

2011-01-01

368

Quantitative Assessment Of Building Damage In Urban Area Using Very High Resolution Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very high resolution images are particularly well adapted to damage assessment methodology in urban area because on one hand it allows an analysis focused on the buildings solely through an object-oriented analysis, and on the other hand it permits a quantitative evaluation of this damage assessment using a visually established ground truth. We propose in this paper a method of

Anne-Lise Chesnel; Renaud Binet; Lucien Wald

2007-01-01

369

High area rate reconnaissance (HARR) and mine reconnaissance\\/hunter (MR\\/H) exploratory development programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the sea mine countermeasures developmental context, technology goals, and progress to date of the two principal Office of Naval Research exploratory development programs addressing sea mine reconnaissance and minehunting technology development. The first of these programs, High Area Rate Reconnaissance, is developing toroidal volume search sonar technology, sidelooking sonar technology, and associated signal processing technologies (motion compensation,

John D. Lathrop

1995-01-01

370

South Texas: High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area. Drug Market Analysis, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the South Texas High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area (HIDTA) Drug Market Analysis for 2011. The South Texas HIDTA region has a growing influence on domestic drug availability as evidenced by the large and increasing quantities of marijuana and her...

2011-01-01

371

High-Speed Quantum Key Distribution Systems for Optical Fiber Networks in Campus and Metro Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Complete high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD) systems over fiber networks for campus and metro areas have been developed at NIST. The systems include an 850-nm QKD system for a campus network, a 1310-nm QKD system for metro networks, and a 3-user QKD...

A. Mink H. Xu L. Ma T. Chang X. Tank

2008-01-01

372

Research on high-efficiency, large area amorphous silicon based solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document presents the results of studies in three areas: materials research, non-semiconductor materials research, and submodule research. In materials research, hydrogen dilution of a SiGe:H alloys improved alloys homogeneity and reduced light-induced degradation. Performance improvements were made in both microcrystalline and amorphous doped films, and a method was demonstrated that appears to overcome nucleation and film growth problems by recrystallizing the amorphous n-layer. In non-semiconductor materials research, ITO/Ag production was scaled up to successfully coat 1000-cm(sup 2) submodules. Work on atmospheric chemical vapor deposition of zinc oxide produced 2-micron thick films with 50 to 80 (Omega)/sq. sheet resistance. In submodule research, all processes were scaled up and single-junction submodules were prepared with 9.9 percent aperture-area conversion efficiencies. Triple-junction submodules were produced with 8.98 percent aperture-area efficiencies, and laser scribing was improved to allow only a 2 percent loss in area. Modeling was used to optimize module performance by predicting parasitic losses given the material constraints of a given device design. Modules were laser patterned to define an array of small-area devices, and topographic maps were produced to alloy visualization of both isolated defects and performance gradients.

Arya, R. R.; Bennett, M.; Fleselmann, B.; Morris, J.; Newton, J.; Podlesny, R.; Twesme, E.; Wiedeman, S.; Yang, L.; Rothwarf, A.

1990-09-01

373

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2013-01-01

374

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-04-21

375

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-09-22

376

Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

Bilgin, Ö.

2012-04-01

377

Parallel production and verification of protein products using a novel high-throughput screening method.  

PubMed

Protein production and analysis in a parallel fashion is today applied in laboratories worldwide and there is a great need to improve the techniques and systems used for this purpose. In order to save time and money, a fast and reliable screening method for analysis of protein production and also verification of the protein product is desired. Here, a micro-scale protocol for the parallel production and screening of 96 proteins in plate format is described. Protein capture was achieved using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the product was verified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS. In order to obtain sufficiently high cell densities and product yield in the small-volume cultivations, the EnBase® cultivation technology was applied, which enables cultivation in as small volumes as 150 ?L. Here, the efficiency of the method is demonstrated by producing 96 human, recombinant proteins, both in micro-scale and using a standard full-scale protocol and comparing the results in regard to both protein identity and sample purity. The results obtained are highly comparable to those acquired through employing standard full-scale purification protocols, thus validating this method as a successful initial screening step before protein production at a larger scale. PMID:21681961

Tegel, Hanna; Yderland, Louise; Boström, Tove; Eriksson, Cecilia; Ukkonen, Kaisa; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter; Ottosson, Jenny; Hober, Sophia

2011-06-16

378

Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner.  

PubMed

Gafchromic XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP. PMID:17110757

Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

2006-10-30

379

Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

Peters, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

380

Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V. V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

2011-01-01

381

Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL  

SciTech Connect

Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 37+}, 1 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 43+}, and 0.16 e {mu}A of Ne-like Xe{sup 44+}. To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi{sup 31+} beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 31+}, 22 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 41+}, and 1.5 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 50+} have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

2010-02-15

382

Hydrogen Production:. Ceramic Materials for High Temperature Water Electrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydogen, H2 is regarded as the main energy vector for the future. Today, the world production of hydrogen rises to 550 billion Nm3 (44 Mt) corresponding to 1,5% of the primary energy production. Contrary to fossil fuels, H2 does not exist in a native form and its use obviously requires its fabrication and storage. The future status of H2 as a fuel for electricity production (fuel cells) and for automobile transportation makes necessary a considerable increase of its production. Some H2 manufactoring processes are briefly described in the first part of this article : (i) steam methane reforming, (ii) water decomposition by thermochemical cycles, (iii) water decomposition by photoelectrochemistry, (iv) water or organic compounds decomposition in using bacteria or alguae. The second part concerns the H2 production by water electrolysis. This manufactoring process does not exceed 1% of the total production of hydrogen. It is expected that the electrolysers working at high temperature (700-900°C) using ceramic oxides based electrolytes are the more promising. Two groups are considered: electrolysers with proton conductors or oxide ion conductors as electrolytes. Proton conductors belong to the perovskite oxides family MCe1-xLnxO3 with M = Ba, Sr and Ln = Lanthanide. For these conductors, few results on water electrolysis at high temperature are available in the litterature and will be shown here. Electrolysers using oxide ion conductors are more promising. The selected materials are those developped for SOFCs : YSZ for the electrolyte, Ni based cermets for the cathode materials and La1-xSrxMO3±? with M = Mn, Co, Ni, Fe ... The electrochemical characteristics of the anodic and cathodic interfaces as well as the perfomances of electrolysers working at high temperature are presented.

Hammou, A.

2006-06-01

383

Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating temperature and pressure, and the air to product O{sub 2} ratio. In this study, the maximum system efficiency is 56.3%. (authors)

Ogawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kasai, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuya [Toshiba Corporation: 1 Toshiba-cho, Fuchu, Tokyo, 183-8511 (Japan)

2007-07-01

384

Hanford immobilized LAW product acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area testing data package  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site's mission has been to produce nuclear materials for the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during plutonium production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The total volume of LAW requiring immobilization will include the LAW separated from the tank waste, as well as new wastes generated by the retrieval, pretreatment, and immobilization processes. Per the Tri-Party Agreement (1994), both the LAW and HLW will be vitrified. It has been estimated that vitrification of the LAW waste will result in over 500,000 metric tons or 200,000 m{sup 3} of immobilized LAW (ILAW) glass. The ILAW glass is to be disposed of onsite in a near-surface burial facility. It must be demonstrated that the disposal system will adequately retain the radionuclides and prevent contamination of the surrounding environment. This report describes a study of the impacts of systematic glass-composition variation on the responses from accelerated laboratory corrosion tests of representative LAW glasses. A combination of two tests, the product consistency test and vapor-hydration test, is being used to give indictations of the relative rate at which a glass could be expected to corrode in the burial scenario.

JD Vienna; A Jiricka; BP McGrail; BM Jorgensen; DE Smith; BR Allen; JC Marra; DK Peeler; KG Brown; IA Reamer; WL Ebert

2000-03-08

385

Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. (Univ. of Lagos (Nigeria))

1991-11-01

386

High-performance large-area InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication and characteristics of high-performance large-area InP:Fe\\/InGaAs:Fe\\/InP:Fe metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors are reported. With a 350-?m×350-?m active area, the detectors offer 900-MHz electrical bandwidth and 1.7-pF capacitance at 10-V bias. The respective dark current density is 20 pA\\/?m2, an the CW responsivity is 0.4 A\\/W at 1.3-?m wavelength. The detectors are therefore ideally suited for applications in the long-wavelength range

F. Hieronymi; E. H. Bottcher; E. Droege; D. Kuhl; D. Bimberg

1993-01-01

387

Scaling Properties of High $p_T$ Inclusive Hadron Production  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the scaling properties of inclusive hadron production in proton-proton and in heavy ion collisions from fixed target to collider energies. At large transverse momentum p{sub T}, the invariant cross section exhibits a power-like behavior Ed{sup 3}{sigma}/d{sup 3}p {proportional_to} p{sub T}{sup -n} at fixed transverse x, x{sub T} = 2|{bar p}{sub T}|/{radical}s, and fixed center-of-mass scattering angle {theta}{sub cm}. Knowledge of the exponent n allows one to draw conclusions about the production mechanisms of hadrons, which are poorly known, even at high p{sub T}. We find that high-p{sub T} hadrons are produced by different mechanisms at fixed-target and collider energies. For pions, higher-twist subprocesses where the pion is produced directly dominate at fixed target energy, while leading-twist partonic scattering plus fragmentation is the most important mechanism at collider energies. High-p{sub T} baryons on the other hand appear to be produced by higher-twist mechanisms at all available energies. The higher-twist mechanism of direct proton production can be verified experimentally by testing whether high p{sub T} protons are produced as single hadrons without accompanying secondaries. In addition, we find that medium-induced gluon radiation in heavy ion collisions can violate scaling.

Brodsky, S.J.; /SLAC; Pirner, H.J.; Raufeisen, J.; /Heidelberg U.

2005-10-26

388

Dilepton production phenomena in high energy hadronic collisions  

SciTech Connect

Experiments over the last few years have given rise to a blizzard of new and interesting results with regard to the production of various dileptons in high energy hadronic collisions. An attempt has here been made on the basis of some new ideas about the structure of hadrons and thus on a newly proposed version of the multiple production model to explain some of the crucial features in connection with the various multiplicity--ratios, cross--section ratios and the average values of the transverse momenta of the produced dileptons. In the backdrop of the hadron--hadron and lepton--hadron collisions, the model for dilopton production proposed here has some degree of generality which is one of its main features.

Bhattacharyya, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

1984-03-01

389

Nutritional profile and productivity of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) in different habitats of a protected area of the eastern Italian Alps.  

PubMed

Plant productivity and fruit quality in terms of occurrence of mineral elements and metabolites were determined on wild bilberry growing in open and forest stands in a protected area of N-Italy. Plant productivity was significantly higher in open stands (3 ± 2.5 compared with 0.03 ± 0.05 fruits per plant) suggesting that both collections in the wild and semi-wild cultivation should be planned in open habitats. Results obtained by ionomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that high quality fruits can be collected in the analyzed area and their nutritional profile did not differ between open and forest stands. Cyanidin and delphinidin proportion of bilberries from our study area was respectively 23.8% and 43.9% of total antocyanin and it is similar to that previously considered peculiar to bilberry fruits of high latitude regions of Europe and indicative of high quality food properties. A comparison between wild bilberry collected in the protected area and commercial blueberry was also performed and relevant differences between them detected, confirming the concept that wild bilberry has a better nutritional profile than blueberry. PMID:23573813

Elisabetta, Barizza; Flavia, Guzzo; Paolo, Fanton; Giorgio, Lucchini; Attilio, Sacchi G; Fiorella, Lo Schiavo; Juri, Nascimbene

2013-04-09

390

Production of Fumonisin B(inf1) and Moniliformin by Gibberella fujikuroi from Rice from Various Geographic Areas  

PubMed Central

Gibberella fujikuroi strains isolated from rice in the United States, Asia, and other geographic areas were tested for sexual fertility with members of mating population D and for production of fumonisin B(inf1) and moniliformin in culture. Of the 59 field strains tested, 32 (54%) were able to cross with tester strains of mating population D, but only a few ascospores were produced in most of these crosses. Thirty-four strains produced more than 10 (mu)g of fumonisin B(inf1) per g, but only three strains produced more than 1000 (mu)g/g. Twenty-five strains produced more than 100 (mu)g of moniliformin per g, and 15 produced more than 1,000 (mu)g/g. Seven field strains produced both fumonisin B(inf1) and moniliformin, but none of these strains produced a high level of fumonisin B(inf1) (>1,000 (mu)g/g). However, a genetic cross between a strain that produced fumonisin B(inf1) but no moniliformin and a strain that produced moniliformin but no fumonisin B(inf1) yielded progeny that produced high levels of both toxins. Strains of G. fujikuroi isolated from rice infected with bakanae disease are similar to strains of mating population D isolated from maize in their ability to produce both fumonisins and moniliformin. This finding suggests a potential for contamination of rice with both fumonisins and moniliformin.

Desjardins, A. E.; Plattner, R. D.; Nelson, P. E.

1997-01-01

391

Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.  

PubMed

Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations. PMID:19800783

Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

2009-10-01

392

CORNPLANTER ROADLESS AREA, PENNSYLVANIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cornplanter Roadless Area is on the west shore of Allegheny Reservoir, Pennsylvania, in an area containing flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Devonian and Mississippian age. Based on mineral-resource studies, these rocks have a substantiated potential for natural gas and a probable potential for oil in the roadless area. Other identified mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, conglomeratic sandstone suitable for high silica uses, and shale suitable for production of clay products.

Lesure, Frank, G.; Welsh, Jr. , Robert, A.

1984-01-01

393

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

394

STUDIES CONCERNING ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SWEET SORGHUM EXTRACT USING A Z. MOBILIS HIGH PRODUCTIVE MUTANT STRAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel ethanol is currently made by large-scale yeast fermentation of sugars, that are extracted or prepared from crops, followed by distillation. Traditionally, sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice or beet (Beta vulgaris) molasses are used in ethanol production. The use of sweet sorghum to provide liquid fuels for the transport sector represent a new challenge, mainly due to its high yield

G. Stoian; G. Leurzeanu; V. Zaharescu; I. Iorgulescu

395

Meson production in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudoscalar mesons can be produced and studied in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering. We review and extend our previous theoretical analysis of meson production in the nuclear Coulomb field. The P??? decay rates are most directly determined for mesons produced in the double-Coulomb region where both photons are nearly real, and provided the hadronic-background contributions remain small. The larger the mass of the meson the higher the electron energy needed to assure such favorable conditions.

Fäldt, Göran

2012-08-01

396

High temperature gas desulfurization with elemental sulfur production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results on the use of cerium oxide as a high-temperature desulfurization sorbent are presented. The primary advantage of cerium over current zinc-based sorbents is the potential to produce elemental sulfur during the regeneration phase of the process. Although CeO2 is less effective for H2S removal during sulfidation, the sulfided product, Ce2O2S, will react with SO2 to produce elemental sulfur

Y. Zeng; S. Zhang; F. R. Groves; D. P. Harrison

1999-01-01

397

The value drivers of high-tech consumer products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influence of the customer-value hierarchy model and social network on the perceived economic value of high-tech consumer products. This quantitative empirical study was conducted among Finnish households in early 2008 using the form interview method. The non-probability quota sampling method was applied. The data consisted of 453 completed questionnaires. Hypothesis testing was conducted by linear multiple

Juha Munnukka; Pentti Järvi

2011-01-01

398

Nanofiltration of highly colored raw water for drinking water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water purification with membrane technology was investigated as one of the alternatives for the future drinking water production (6,000 m3\\/d) in Nynäshamn community. The selected raw water source was surface water from Lake Muskan rather than brackish water from the Baltic Sea. The lake water, without need for desalination, has a high color number (up to 100 mg\\/l Pt) due

Bernt Ericsson; Magnus Hallberg; Jan Wachenfeldt

1997-01-01

399

Production of high-purity water by membrane processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane processes, especially reverse osmosis, have played a major role since the early 1990s in the production of high-purity water for power, pharmaceutical, beverage and semi-conductor industries, and will continue to play a critical role in the growth of this water sector to meet everincreasing demands of water purity, especially in microelectronics applications. Power plants are the single largest user

Rajindar Singh

2009-01-01

400

An automatic sampler for viscous and highly-crystallizable products  

SciTech Connect

The automatic sampler for selecting viscous and highly-crystallizable products (naphthalene, coal-tar enamel) was developed and introduced at the Nizhnii Tagil Group of Metallurgical Works, is simple to use and does not require special devices to heat it. The drive mechanisms of the samplers make it possible to use them in setting of any class as far as fire- and explosion safety are concerned.

Sapegin, A.N.; Kalinich, V.A.; Koblov, P.A.; Tkachenko, L.V.; Ustinov, N.P.

1984-01-01

401

Congestion control for high bandwidth-delay product networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and experiments show that as the per-flow product of bandwidth and latency increases, TCP becomes inefficient and prone to instability, regardless of the queuing scheme. This failing becomes increasingly important as the Internet evolves to incorporate very high-bandwidth optical links and more large-delay satellite links.To address this problem, we develop a novel approach to Internet congestion control that outperforms

Dina Katabi; Mark Handley; Charles E. Rohrs

2002-01-01

402

Production and Cycling of Methylmercury in High Arctic Wetland Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some species of freshwater fish in the Canadian high Arctic contain levels of methylmercury (MeHg) that pose health risks to the northern Inuit peoples that harvest these species as a traditional food source. In temperate regions, wetlands are known natural sites of MeHg production and hence significant MeHg sources to downstream ecosystems. However, the importance of wetlands to Hg methylation

I. Lehnherr; V. L. St. Louis

2010-01-01

403

Massive-muon-pair production at high energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed analysis of the inclusive massive-mu-pair production process in high-energy proton-proton collisions is presented based on the combined assumptions of light-cone (LC) expansions and multi-Regge theory. The scaling limit is LC dominated and the assumed strongly convergent Regge theory leads to dominance by the leading LC singularities. The resulting amplitude is expressed as a sum of two distinct contributions,

R. A. Brandt; A. Kaufman; G. Preparata

1974-01-01

404

Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H. E.; Finkelman, R. B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

2001-01-01

405

Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

406

Ecology and technological capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated during Grillo grape vinification in the Marsala production area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grapes of the “Grillo” variety, used to produce Marsala wine, were harvested from five vineyards with different climatic and\\u000a agronomic parameters, in order to obtain a first mapping of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inhabiting the production area. Marsala\\u000a base wine production was followed at a large-scale, and also two experimental vinifications, with different lysozyme and SO2 concentrations and in combination,

Nicola Francesca; Luca Settanni; Ciro Sannino; Maria Aponte; Giancarlo Moschetti

2011-01-01

407

Hydrogen storage in high surface area carbons: experimental demonstration of the effects of nitrogen doping.  

PubMed

The influence of nitrogen doping on the hydrogen uptake and storage capacity of high surface area carbon materials is presented in this report. To generate suitable study materials, we have exploited the relationship between synthesis conditions and textural properties of zeolite-templated carbons to generate a range of high surface area carbons with similar pore size distribution but which are either N-doped or N-free. For N-doped carbons, the nitrogen content was kept within a narrow range of between 4.7 and 7.7 wt %. The carbon materials, irrespective of whether they were doped or not, exhibited high surface area (1900-3700 m(2)/g) and pore volume (0.99 and 1.88 cm(3)/g), a micropore surface area of 1500-2800 m(2)/g, and a micropore volume of 0.65-1.24 cm(3)/g. The hydrogen uptake varied between 4.1 and 6.9 wt %. We present experimental data that indicates that the effect of N-doping on hydrogen uptake is only apparent when related to the surface area and pore volume associated with micropores rather than total porosity. Furthermore, by considering the isosteric heat of hydrogen adsorption and excess hydrogen uptake on N-free or N-doped carbons, it is shown that N-doping can be beneficial at lower coverage (low hydrogen uptake) but is detrimental at higher coverage (higher hydrogen uptake). The findings are consistent with previous theoretical predictions on the effect of N-doping of carbon on hydrogen uptake. The findings, therefore, add new insights that are useful for the development of carbon materials with enhanced hydrogen storage capacity. PMID:19852461

Xia, Yongde; Walker, Gavin S; Grant, David M; Mokaya, Robert

2009-11-18

408

Large-area Ice Sheet and Sea Ice mapping from High-altitude Aircraft: Examples from the LVIS Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High altitude airborne surveys of remote polar regions is a relatively recent addition to the remote sensing capabilities serving the Cryospheric science community. The NASA/GSFC-developed airborne sensor, LVIS (Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor) is a wide-swath, full-waveform laser altimeter system that produces large-area topographic maps with the highest levels of accuracy and precision. Recent data collections in support of NASA's Operation IceBridge over Antarctica and Greenland have demonstrated the extraordinary mapping capability of the LVIS sensor. Areal coverage is accumulated at a rate of > 1,000 sq. km/hr with repeatability of the surface elevation measurements at the decimeter level. With this new capability come new applications, new insights, the ability to fully capture the spatial extent and variability of changes occurring in highly dynamic areas, and enhanced input into ice sheet models. One example is over 7,000 sq. km collected over the Antarctic Peninsula in just 7 hours from 40,000 ft on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. The wide swath and dense coverage enabled by the LVIS sensor results in significant overlap with legacy ICESat data permitting statistically powerful comparisons and eliminate the need for interpolation or slope corrections. Several examples of ICESat comparisons and change detection between LVIS data takes and other topographic data sets will be presented . Further, a description of the LVIS waveform vector data product and examples of advanced data products and analysis techniques with be shown. A fully-autonomous version of LVIS is now under development (LVIS-GH) for use in the Global Hawk aircraft. Long duration flights over remote areas will be possible with this sensor. Testing on the Global Hawk UAV is scheduled for the Summer of 2011. The LVIS data are freely available from the NSIDC website (http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/) and the LVIS website (https://lvis.gsfc.nasa.gov).

Blair, J. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Rabine, D. L.

2010-12-01

409

Toward New Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: High Surface Area Carbon Aerogels  

SciTech Connect

We report the hydrogen surface excess sorption saturation value of 5.3 wt% at 30 bar pressure at 77 K, from an activated carbon aerogel with a surface area of 3200 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. This sorption value is one of the highest we have measured in a material of this type, comparable to values obtained in high surface area activated carbons. We also report, for the first time, the surface area dependence of hydrogen surface excess sorption isotherms of carbon aerogels at 77 K. Activated carbon aerogels with surface areas ranging from 1460 to 3200 m{sup 2}/g are evaluated and we find a linear dependence of the saturation of the gravimetric density with BET surface area for carbon aerogels up to 2550 m{sup 2}/g, in agreement with data from other types of carbons reported in the literature. Our measurements show these materials to have a differential enthalpy of adsorption at zero coverage of {approx}5 to 7 kJ/mole. We also show that the introduction of metal nanoparticles of nickel improves the sorption capacity while cobalt additions have no effect.

Kabbour, H; Baumann, T F; Satcher, J H; Saulnier, A; Ahn, C C

2007-02-05

410

Hydrogen Adsorption by High Surface Area Micro- porous Carbon Synthesized from Phenol-Formaldehyde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high surface area microporous carbon material can be synthesized by mixing the activation reagent potassium hydroxide into a carbon precursor solution of phenol-formaldehyde oligomers. Some polymerization of the carbon precursor occurs during the initial mixing, and further polymerization is completed by heating to 160^oC. Carbonization and activation is accomplished by heating to 500^oC - 900^oC in an inert atmosphere. The porosity and surface area of the resulting carbon material depends predominantly on the amount of activation reagent added to the carbon precursor solution and on the carbonization/activation temperature and time. Optimized synthesis conditions yield a microporous carbon with a very high BET specific surface area of nearly 3000 m^2/g and a narrow pore size distribution. This new synthesis approach yields surface areas dramatically larger than those typically obtained by traditional chemical activation methods for porous carbon where solid carbon precursors are soaked in activation reagent solutions. Hydrogen absorption up to 5.75 wt% at 77 K and above 20 bars hydrogen pressure is observed for this new microporous carbon material.

Hu, Qingyuan; Meisner, Gregory P.

2009-03-01

411

[Light competition and productivity of agroforestry system in loess area of Weibei in Shaanxi].  

PubMed

Agroforestry is the most effective way for the restoration of disturbed land on Loess Plateau and the development of poorly local economy. Taking the tree-based intercropping systems of walnut or plum with soybean or pepper in the loess area of Weibei as test objects, the photosynthesis, growth, and yield of soybean (Qindou 8) and pepper (Shanjiao 981) in the systems were studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), growth, and yield of individual soybean or pepper plants were significantly decreased, with the effects increased with decreasing distance from tree rows. Leaf water potential was not significantly or poorly correlated with the Pn, growth, and yield of the two crops. However, there were significant positive correlations between the soil moisture content in 10-20 cm layer and the biomass and yield of soybean, and the above-ground biomass of pepper. PAR was highly correlated with the yield of both crops, which indicated that light competition was one of the key factors leading to the decrease of crop yield. PMID:19238840

Peng, Xiao-bang; Cai, Jing; Jiang, Zai-min; Zhang, Yuan-ying; Zhang, Shuo-xin

2008-11-01

412

Study of LiFePO 4 cathode materials coated with high surface area carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

LiFePO4 is a potential cathode material for 4V lithium-ion batteries. Carbon-coated lithium iron phosphates were prepared using a high surface area carbon to react precursors through a solid-state process, during which LiFePO4 particles were embedded in amorphous carbon. The carbonaceous materials were synthesized by the pyrolysis of peanut shells under argon, where they were carbonized in a two-step process that

Cheng-Zhang Lu; George Ting-Kuo Fey; Hsien-Ming Kao

2009-01-01

413

Locating areas of high wind-energy potential by remote observation of eolian geomorphology and topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of research under ERDA contract EY-76-S-06-2343 is to develop an efficient procedure for inferring wind characteristics through interpretation of eolian landforms. An area in central Wyoming was chosen as the test site. The site contains many well-developed eolian landforms and is noted for its high winds. While some members of the research team interpreted satellite imagery and aerial

R. W. Marrs; J. Marwitz

1977-01-01

414

High-speed short-range systems for wireless personal area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advance in wireless technology, latest generation of wireless personal area networks (WPANs) can provide a data rate of hundreds (or even thousands) of Mbps at a distance of less than 10 meters. This paper reports the latest development of high-speed WPANs. Systems like Certified Wireless USB, Bluetooth 3.0, WirelessHD, and TransferJet will be reported in this paper. Since

H. K. Lau

2009-01-01

415

Large-area and high-density silicon nanocone arrays by Ar + sputtering at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-area, high-density of ?1–2×109\\/cm2 silicon nanocone arrays by ion-irradiation with incident angle of 75° have been achieved by using carbon-cone-mask. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the width of silicon nanocones is ?150nm and the height is ?400nm. The investigation of SEM shows that the formation of the silicon nanocones proceeds through three periods, carbon nanocones–nanocones with

Qintao Li; Zhichun Ni; Shumin Yang; Jinlong Gong; Dezhang Zhu; Zhiyuan Zhu

2008-01-01

416

High-Speed and Reduced-Area Modular Adder Structures for RNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modular adder is a very instrumental arithmetic component in implementing online residue-based computations for many digital signal processing applications. It is also a basic component in realizing modular multipliers and residue to binary converters. Thus, the design of a high-speed and reduced-area modular adder is an important issue. In this paper, we introduce a new modular adder design. It

Ahmad A. Hiasat

2002-01-01

417

Development of KOH activated high surface area carbon and its application to drinking water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-surface-area (over 3000 m2 g ?1) active carbon (MAXSORB) was developed from a mixture of petroleum coke and an excess amount of potassium hydroxide. A considerable number (0.9–1.6 meq g?1) of surface functional groups were found compared to that of typical steam activated carbons (0.1–0.2 meq g?1). Breakthrough of sodium hypochlorite or chloroform was studied using model drinking water at

T. Otowa; Y. Nojima; T. Miyazaki

1997-01-01

418

Synthesis and characterization of ruthenium-containing ordered mesoporous carbon with high specific surface area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Ru-containing ordered mesoporous carbon with a high specific surface area of 2186m2\\/g was synthesized through evaporation-induced multi-constituent co-assembly method, wherein soluble resol polymer is used as the carbon precursor, silicate oligomers as the inorganic precursor, triblock copolymer as the template, and RuCl3·3H2O as the Ru precursor. The resultant sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, transmission electron microscopy

Zhihong Ji; Shuguang Liang; Yanbin Jiang; Hao Li; Zhimin Liu; Tong Zhao

2009-01-01

419

Synthesis of high surface area silica by solvent exchange in alkoxy derived silica gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica gels have been prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate at pH 9.5 with a high water: TEOS ratio. The gels were exchanged with different solvents such as ethanol, methanol, isopropanol and acetone. The resultant gels were calcined at 500°C for 3 h at heating rate of 3°C min?1. The surface area and total pore volume of the calcined

S. Rajesh Kumar; P. Krishna Pillai; K. G. K. Warrier

1998-01-01

420

Task B: Research on stable high-efficiency, large area, amorphous silicon-based solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes photovoltaic research conducted in four areas: semiconductor materials, high-efficiency cells, nonsemiconductor materials, and submodules. The major focus of semiconductor materials research was on improving the quality of wide-band-gap a-SiC:H alloys and narrow-band-gap a-SiGe:H alloys. Raman spectroscopy suggested that the alloys are inhomogeneous, showing a higher concentration of Ge-Ge bonds than expected from a random mixing model. In

A. W. Catalano; R. R. Ayra; M. S. Bennett; C. R. Dickson; B. Fieselmann; B. Goldstein; J. Morris; J. L. Newton; J. G. ODowd; R. S. Oswald; E. Twesme; S. Wiedeman; L. Yang

1989-01-01

421

Location of Irrigated Land Classified from Satellite Imagery - High Plains Area, Nominal Date 1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

2002-01-01

422

Positioning and tracking construction vehicles in highly dense urban areas and building construction sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review previous radio frequency (RF)-related research in construction and further evaluate the pros and cons of several RF-based technologies including GPS, RFID, and Bluetooth. Particularly, we show the limitations of applying GPS for tracking construction vehicles in a highly dense urban area by conducting extensive field tests in Hong Kong. We then propose a continuous, all-location,

Ming Lu; Wu Chen; Xuesong Shen; Hoi-Ching Lam; Jianye Liu

2007-01-01

423

High-surface-area microporous carbon as the efficient photocathode of dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the application of cornstalks-derived high-surface-area microporous carbon (MC) as the efficient photocathode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The photocathode, which contains MC active material, Vulcan XC–72 carbon black conductive agent, and TiO2 binder, was obtained by a doctor blade method. Electronic impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the MC film uniformly coated on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) glass

Shengjie Peng; Fangyi Cheng; Jifu Shi; Jing Liang; Zhanliang Tao; Jun Chen

2009-01-01

424

Protein arrays on high-surface-area plasma-nanotextured poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated glass slides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces with SF6 plasma results in the creation of high-surface-area nanotextured surfaces that considerably favour protein adsorption with respect to untreated ones. In order to employ such nanotextured surfaces as substrates for microarrays to be created and analysed using standard instrumentation, we fabricated thin PDMS films on top of standard low-cost microscope glass slides. The properties

Maria-Elena Vlachopoulou; Angeliki Tserepi; Panagiota S. Petrou; Evangelos Gogolides; Sotirios E. Kakabakos

2011-01-01

425

Systems for hazards identification in high mountain areas: An example from the Kullu District, western Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated\\u000a and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some\\u000a of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been

James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

2004-01-01

426

A framework of flow control in high-speed ATM wide area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a two-layer framework of flow control in high-speed ATM wide area networks. At the upper layer of the network level, we classify traffic into two categories, delay-sensitive and delay-insensitive. With the advancement of per-VC queueing in ATM switch design, we propose peak-rate allocation and therefore no flow control for delay-sensitive traffic, and hop-by-hop, credit-based flow

Peifang Zhou; Oliver W. W. Yang

1998-01-01

427

Packet recovery and error correction in high-speed wide-area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents a novel technique for reducing packet loss rate in high-speed wide-area networks in which the BER (bit-error rate) is low. Grouping packets into blocks and adding a packet that computes parity over bits of all packets in a block allow a data recipient to reconstruct any single packet in a block, using the other packets and the

Nachum Shacham

1989-01-01

428

Analysis of adaptive rate-based congestion control for high-speed wide-area networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers an approach to controlling congestion in high-speed wide-area networks which combines open-loop rate-based controls and feedback. In rate-based controls the allowable traffic characteristics of a connection are determined during the call set-up process based on the currently available resources, and are monitored and enforced in real-time using access regulators. To utilize resources that might become available during the connection

Anwar I. Elwalid; Kew Jersey

1995-01-01

429

Fast and Highly-Available Stream Processing over Wide Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—We,present a replication-based approach,that realizes both fast and,highly-available stream,processing,over wide area networks. In our approach, multiple operator replicas send outputs to each downstream,replica so that it can use whichever data arrives first. To further expedite the data flow, replicas run independently, possibly processing data in different orders. Despite this complication, our approach always delivers what non-replicated processing would produce without

Jeong-hyon Hwang; Ugur Çetintemel

2008-01-01

430

Hollow shells of high surface area graphitic N-doped carbon composites nanocast using zeolite templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hollow shells of porous nitrogen-doped carbon materials with high surface area have been prepared using zeolite templates (zeolite ? or silicalite-I) and acetonitrile as carbon source via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) performed at between 800 and 1000°C. The nitrogen content varies between 3.0 and 7.9wt.% depending on the zeolite template and CVD temperature. The carbon materials generally retain the particle

Zhuxian Yang; Yongde Xia; Robert Mokaya

2005-01-01

431

Adsorption of benzoic acid onto high specific area activated carbon cloth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of benzoic acid from aqueous solution onto high area carbon cloth at different pH values has been studied. Over a period of 125 min the adsorption process was found to follow a first-order kinetics and the rate constants were determined for the adsorption of benzoic acid at pH 2.0, 3.7, 5.3, 9.1, and 11.0. The extents of adsorption

Erol Ayranci; Numan Hoda; Edip Bayram

2005-01-01

432

Effects of integrated watershed management on livestock water productivity in water scarce areas in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the water scarce Lenche Dima watershed in the northern Ethiopian highlands community based integrated watershed management was implemented to fight land degradation, raise agricultural productivity and improve farmers’ livelihoods. The effects of two interventions, namely exclosures and water harvesting structures, were assessed based on data from farmers’ interviews, measurements of feed biomass production, and estimates of energy production and

Katrien Descheemaeker; Everisto Mapedza; Tilahun Amede; Wagnew Ayalneh

2010-01-01

433

Ground-high altitude joint detection of ozone and nitrogen oxides in urban areas of Beijing.  

PubMed

Based on observational data of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) mixing ratios on the ground and at high altitude in urban areas of Beijing during a period of six days in November 2011, the temporal and spatial characteristics of mixing ratios were analyzed. The major findings include: urban O3 mixing ratios are low and NO(x) mixing ratios are always high near the road in November. Vertical variations of the gases are significantly different in and above the planetary boundary layer. The mixing ratio of O3 is negatively correlated with that of NO(x) and they are positively correlated with air temperature, which is the main factor directly causing vertical variation of O3 and NO(x) mixing ratios at 600-2100 m altitude. The NO(x) mixing ratios elevated during the heating period, while the O3 mixing ratios decreased: these phenomena are more significant at high altitudes compared to lower altitudes. During November, air masses in the urban areas of Beijing are brought by northwesterly winds, which transport O3 and NO(x) at low mixing ratios. Due to Beijing's natural geographical location, northwest air currents are beneficial to the dilution and dispersion of pollutants, which can result in lower O3 and NO(x) background values in the Beijing urban area. PMID:23923785

Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Qiang; Quan, Jiannong; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Delong; Meng, Junwang

2013-04-01

434

Porous boron nitride with a high surface area: hydrogen storage and water treatment.  

PubMed

We report on the synthesis of high-quality microporous/mesoporous BN material via a facile two-step approach. An extremely high surface area of 1687 m(2) g(-1) and a large pore volume of 0.99 cm(3) g(-1) have been observed in the synthesized BN porous whiskers. The formation of the porous structure was attributed to the group elimination of organic species in a BN precursor, melamine diborate molecular crystal. This elimination method maintained the ordered pore structure and numerous structural defects. The features including high surface area, pore volume and structural defects make the BN whiskers highly suitable for hydrogen storage and wastewater treatment applications. We demonstrate excellent hydrogen uptake capacity of the BN whiskers with high weight adsorption up to 5.6% at room temperature and at the relatively low pressure of 3 MPa. Furthermore, the BN whiskers also exhibit excellent adsorption capacity of methyl orange and copper ions, with the maximum removal capacity of 298.3 and 373 mg g(-1) at 298 K, respectively. PMID:23518673

Li, Jie; Lin, Jing; Xu, Xuewen; Zhang, Xinghua; Xue, Yanming; Mi, Jiao; Mo, Zhaojun; Fan, Ying; Hu, Long; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jun; Meng, Fanbin; Yuan, Songdong; Tang, Chengchun

2013-03-22

435

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High-Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature electrolytic water-splitting supported by nuclear process heat and electricity has the potential to produce H{sub 2} with an overall system efficiency near those of the hydrocarbon and thermochemical processes, but without the corrosive conditions of thermochemical processes and without the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with hydrocarbon processes. Specifically, a high-temperature advanced nuclear reactor coupled with a high-efficiency high-temperature electrolyzer could achieve a competitive thermal-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 45 to 55%. A research program is under way at INEEL to develop a conceptual design for large-scale nuclear production of hydrogen via planar solid oxide electrolysis technology. The design effort is addressing solid oxide cell materials and configuration, performance, durability, operating conditions, economics, and safety. Single and multiple cell experimental studies are being conducted. Interim results indicate that this technology performs close to theoretical predictions and remains a viable means for hydrogen production using nuclear energy. (authors)

Herring, J.S.; O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2004-07-01

436

Investigation of Relationships Between Linears, Total and Hazy Areas, and Petroleum Production in the Williston Basin: An ERTS Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery in a variety of formats was used to locate linear, tonal, and hazy features and to relate them to areas of hydrocarbon production in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, eastern M...

J. M. Erickson J. S. Street C. J. Munsell D. E. O'Brien

1975-01-01

437

AQUAPEAT 95. Uusia menetelmiae turvetuotannon vesienkaesittelyyn. (AQUAPEAT 95. New methods for purifying the run-offs of peat production areas).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of Aqua Peat 95-project was to develop new methods for purifying the runoff coming from the peat production areas. The national water protection program for the year 1995 (Ympaeristoeministerioe 1988) as well as the level of the requirements and i...

P. Selin J. Marja-aho O. Madekivi

1994-01-01

438

MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH-EATING BIRDS FROM THE PINCHI LAKE AREA IN RELATION TO PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bald eagles and red-necked grebes were monitored from 2000 - 2002 on several lakes along the Pinchi fault, an area with a known source of geologic mercury and previous Hg mining (on Pinchi Lake), in an effort to discern whether increased Hg concentrations were affecting reproductive success and productivity. To determine whether or not Hg levels were elevated, fish tissues

Shari A. Weech; R. P. Bio; Tony M. Scheuhammer

439

Investigation of soilborne mosaic virus diseases transmitted by Polymyxa graminis in cereal production areas of the Anatolian part of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymyxa graminis is the vector of several important viruses, including Soilborne cereal mosaic virus, Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus, Barley yellow mosaic virus and Barley mild mosaic virus, of winter cereals worldwide. Surveys were carried out to detect these viruses and their vector P. graminis in 300 soil samples from the main wheat and barley production areas of the Anatolian

Nazli D. Kutluk Yilmaz; Rebecca L. Lyons; Madeleine J. Smith; Kostya Kanyuka

2011-01-01

440

A comparative life cycle analysis of low power PV lighting products for rural areas in South East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the environmental effects of low power PV lighting products, which are increasingly used in rural areas in South East Asia, by means of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The main goals of the project are to determine (1) the environmental impacts, (2) which parts are contributing to environmental impacts that occur, and (3) the accuracy of an

Bart Durlinger; Angèle Reinders; Marten Toxopeus

441

Comparison of effective doses obtained from dose-area product and air kerma measurements in interventional radiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, measurements of dose-area product (DAP) and entrance dose were carried out simultaneously in a sample of 162 adult patients who underwent different interventional examinations. Effective doses for each measurement technique were estimated using the conversion factors that have been determined for specific X-ray views in a mathematical phantom. Exposure conditions used in clinical practice never match these

D Bor; T SANCAK; T OLGAR; Y ELCIM; A ADANALI; S AKYAR

2004-01-01

442

Studies of the Depth and Duration of Ground Frost of Peat Production Areas in Sweden and Finland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A careful registration of the depth of the ground frost, snow, water level, and soil temperature, was done during the winter 1985/86, at eight different peat production areas in Sweden. At one of the places, Traeskmyran, a larger registration was carried ...

K. Dryler P. Frilander H. Niittylae A. Leinonen

1988-01-01

443

SocioEconomic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women's participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total

I. Ogunlade; S. A. Adebayo

2009-01-01

444

Fipronil and Degradation Products in the Rice-Producing Areas of the Mermentau River Basin, Louisiana, February-September 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents a study of the analyses of fipronil and three of its degradation products in water, suspended sediment, and bed sediment. Samples were collected from 17 sites in the rice-pudding areas of the Mermenatu River Basin from February to Sep...

2003-01-01

445

Overview of water-saving potato production research for the semi-arid areas of Northern China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China, potato makes a greater contribution to solve food problems, even though,frequent droughts, general water shortages and poor irrigation management often lead to low yields and poor tuber quality. Therefore, water-saving potato production plays an imp...

446

Electrophysiological study of the basal temporal language area: A convergence zone between language perception and production networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveRegions involved in language processing have been observed in the inferior part of the left temporal lobe. Although collectively labelled ‘the Basal Temporal Language Area’ (BTLA), these territories are functionally heterogeneous and are involved in language perception (i.e. reading or semantic task) or language production (speech arrest after stimulation). The objective of this study was to clarify the role of

Agnès Trébuchon-Da Fonseca; Christian-G. Bénar; Fabrice Bartoloméi; Jean Régis; Jean-François Démonet; Patrick Chauvel; Catherine Liégeois-Chauvel

2009-01-01

447

Mining manufacturing data for discovery of high productivity process characteristics.  

PubMed

Modern manufacturing facilities for bioproducts are highly automated with advanced process monitoring and data archiving systems. The time dynamics of hundreds of process parameters and outcome variables over a large number of production runs are archived in the data warehouse. This vast amount of data is a vital resource to comprehend the complex characteristics of bioprocesses and enhance production robustness. Cell culture process data from 108 'trains' comprising production as well as inoculum bioreactors from Genentech's manufacturing facility were investigated. Each run constitutes over one-hundred on-line and off-line temporal parameters. A kernel-based approach combined with a maximum margin-based support vector regression algorithm was used to integrate all the process parameters and develop predictive models for a key cell culture performance parameter. The model was also used to identify and rank process parameters according to their relevance in predicting process outcome. Evaluation of cell culture stage-specific models indicates that production performance can be reliably predicted days prior to harvest. Strong associations between several temporal parameters at various manufacturing stages and final process outcome were uncovered. This model-based data mining represents an important step forward in establishing a process data-driven knowledge discovery in bioprocesses. Implementation of this methodology on the manufacturing floor can facilitate a real-time decision making process and thereby improve the robustness of large scale bioprocesses. PMID:20416347

Charaniya, Salim; Le, Huong; Rangwala, Huzefa; Mills, Keri; Johnson, Kevin; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

2010-04-21

448

Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted with highly irradiated light-water reactor fuel rod segments to investigate fission products released in steam in the temperature range 500 to 1200/sup 0/C. (Two additional release tests were conducted in dry air.) The primary objectives were to quantify and characterize fission product release under conditions postulated for a spent-fuel transportation accident and for a successfully terminated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). In simulated, controlled LOCA-type tests, release at the time of rupture proved to be more significant than the diffusional release that followed. Comparison of the release data for the dry-air tests with the release data of similarly conducted tests in steam indicated significant increases in the releases of iodine, ruthenium, and cesium in air. Various parameters that affect fission product release are discussed, and experimental observations and analysis of the chemical behavior of releasable fission products in inert, steam, and dry-air atmospheres are examined.

Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Kirkland, O.L.; Towns, R.L.

1980-02-01

449

Norovirus, hepatitis A virus and enterovirus presence in shellfish from high quality harvesting areas in Portugal.  

PubMed

This is the first report on the screening of shellfish from Portugal for the presence of human enteropathogenic viruses. Approximately 2000 shellfish (Curbicula fluminea, Ruditapes decussatus, Tellina crassa, Spisula solida, Dosinia exoleta, Ensis spp., Mytilus spp., Ostrea edulis and Cerastoderma edule), organized in 49 batches, were collected between March 2008 and February 2009. They were tested for norovirus (NoV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enterovirus (EV) by RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing. Bacterial contamination was also evaluated by Escherichia coli counts. Viral contamination was detected throughout the year in all shellfish species and in all collection areas, independently of their harvesting areas classification. Overall, 67% of all analyzed batches were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses while the simultaneous presence of two and three viruses was detected in 22% and 6% batches, respectively. Of the three viruses, NoV was detected in 37% of the batches, followed by EV in 35%, and HAV in 33%. Nucleotide sequencing of the NoV and HAV RT-PCR products demonstrated that all strains belonged to NoV genotype GII.4 and HAV subgenotype 1B. The presence of NoV and HAV in shellfish from "A class" harvesting areas of Portugal can represent a potential health risk. PMID:21569936

Mesquita, João R; Vaz, Lisa; Cerqueira, Sónia; Castilho, Fernanda; Santos, Ricardo; Monteiro, Sílvia; Manso, Carmen F; Romalde, Jesus L; Nascimento, Maria São José

2011-01-25

450

Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up. Semiannual subcontract report, 17 March 1994--18 September 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed under a 3-year subcontract to advance Solarex`s photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing technologies, reduce its hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. During the period covered by this report, Solarex focused on (1) improving deposition of the front contact, (2) investigating alternate feed stocks for the front contact, (3) maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, (4) optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large areas, (5) optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, (6) evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and (7) optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high-potential test.

Oswald, R.; Morris, J. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin Film Div.

1995-03-01

451

Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelit