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Sample records for high productivity area

  1. Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas

    E-print Network

    Cochlan, William P.

    Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas Charles G-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia

  2. High surface area calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  3. Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas

    PubMed Central

    Trick, Charles G.; Bill, Brian D.; Cochlan, William P.; Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Pickell, Lisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Oceanic high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll environments have been highlighted for potential large-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives, both in the degree of carbon removal and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. Previous open ocean enrichment experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia. Most Pseudonitzschia species in coastal waters produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), with their blooms causing detrimental marine ecosystem impacts, but oceanic Pseudonitzschia species are considered nontoxic. Here we demonstrate that the sparse oceanic Pseudonitzschia community at the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll Ocean Station PAPA (50° N, 145° W) produces approximately 200 pg DA L?1 in response to iron addition, that DA alters phytoplankton community structure to benefit Pseudonitzschia, and that oceanic cell isolates are toxic. Given the negative effects of DA in coastal food webs, these findings raise serious concern over the net benefit and sustainability of large-scale iron fertilizations. PMID:20231473

  4. Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the ability of this high resolution based methodology to forecast and hindecast cultivated area, which is particularly relevant in climate-sensitive East Africa.

  5. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area....

  6. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area....

  7. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area....

  8. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area....

  9. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.4 Production area and regulated area....

  10. HIGH SIERRA PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, James G.; Marks, Lawrence Y.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral-resource survey, the High Sierra Primitive Area, California was found to have an area of probable mineral-resource potential for tungsten. A small demonstrated tungsten resource is present on the Obelisk claims near the contact of limy metasedimentary rock and granitic rock in the northwest part of the area, and additional small deposits may be expected to occur to the south, in a similar geologic setting.

  11. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

  12. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

  13. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

  14. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

  15. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of...

  16. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

  17. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

  18. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

  19. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

  20. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

  1. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

  2. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means...

  3. Disinfection of food production areas.

    PubMed

    Holah, J T

    1995-06-01

    Disinfection, other than by heat, is ineffective unless all surfaces have previously been thoroughly cleaned to remove interfering materials. Cleaning is therefore extremely important as part of a two-stage cleaning and disinfection (sanitation) programme. The author describes the principles of sanitation, the chemicals and equipment involved, and the programme of events to be followed. For food products of 'low risk' (in terms of stable shelf life and safety), traditional sanitation programmes are adequate and in some cases disinfection may not be required. However, disinfection is essential for 'high-risk' food products, but this cannot be effectively undertaken without due consideration of hygienic design and possible cross-contamination. To ensure continued satisfactory performance of a sanitation programme, routine assessments should be undertaken. PMID:7579635

  4. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  5. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  6. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  7. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  8. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by...

  9. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  10. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  11. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  12. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  13. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  14. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  15. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  16. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  17. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  18. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  19. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  20. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  1. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  2. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  3. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  4. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  5. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  6. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by...

  7. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  8. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  9. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  10. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  11. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  12. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  13. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  14. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  15. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  16. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  17. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  18. 7 CFR 916.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 916.4 Section 916.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  19. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  20. 7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 924.4 Section 924.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means the Counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat...

  1. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  2. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  3. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County,...

  4. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  5. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  6. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  7. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  8. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  9. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by...

  10. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  11. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  12. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  13. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  14. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  15. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Production area. Production area means all territory included within Malheur County, Oregon, and the...

  16. 7 CFR 916.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 916.4 Section 916.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  17. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  18. 7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 924.4 Section 924.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Production area. Production area means the Counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat...

  19. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  20. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  1. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 915.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of...

  2. 7 CFR 953.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 953.4 Section 953.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 953.4 Production area. Production area means and...

  3. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  4. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.25 Production area. Production Area means the States...

  5. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  6. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  7. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area...

  8. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  9. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  10. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by...

  11. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area...

  12. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  13. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 927.10 Production area. Production area means and includes...

  14. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  15. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means the State...

  16. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  17. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  18. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 920.4 Production area. Production area means the State of California....

  19. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.4 Production area. Production area means all...

  20. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 930.14 Production area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York,...

  1. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Definitions § 955.4 Production area. Production area means that part of the State of Georgia enclosed by...

  2. 7 CFR 947.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 947.4 Section 947.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 947.4 Production area. Production area means and includes Modoc and Siskiyou Counties in...

  3. Peanut Profits and Irrigation Yield Response in the Northern Texas High Plains, A Non-Traditional Production Area

    E-print Network

    Harman, Wyatte L.; Regier, C.; Petr, F.; Lansford, V.D.

    1990-01-01

    ) averaged 5.96 in. Stages of economic production are also indicated in Figure 1. Stage I of economic production indicates the range of irrigation over which average physical prod uct (APP) increases to a maximum. Profits are not yet max imized over... this stage since APP increases as water increases. In Stage II, however, APP decreases as water increases and, at some point within Stage II, the in cr:mental value of added product (MPP multiplied by pnce) becomes less than the added cost of irrigation...

  4. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  5. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  6. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production...

  7. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production...

  8. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  9. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production...

  10. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production...

  11. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  12. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production...

  13. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 905.17 Production area. Production...

  14. High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

  15. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN...area. Production area means the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

  16. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

  17. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

  18. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

  19. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

  20. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5 Production area. Production...

  1. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area....

  2. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area....

  3. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area....

  4. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area....

  5. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area....

  6. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area....

  7. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area....

  8. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area....

  9. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area....

  10. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area....

  11. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.4 Production...

  12. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.4 Production...

  13. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.4 Production...

  14. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.4 Production...

  15. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...

  16. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...

  17. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.4 Production...

  18. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...

  19. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...

  20. 7 CFR 958.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 958.4 Section 958.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.4 Production...

  1. The Universal Area Product: An Heuristic Argument

    E-print Network

    Page, Don N

    2015-01-01

    We present an heuristic argument for the {\\em universal area product:} A_{+}A_{-}=(8\\pi J)^{2}+(4\\pi Q^{2})^{2} for a four-dimensional, stationary, axisymmetric, electrically charged black hole with an arbitrary stationary axisymmetric distribution of external matter (possibly charged), derived by Marcus Ansorg and Jorg Hennig. Here A_{+} and A_{-} are the areas of the event and Cauchy horizons, and J and Q are the angular momentum and electric charge. Based on this argument, we conjecture that a universal area product holds for higher-dimensional, stationary, multi-horizon black objects in the presence of an external stationary charged distribution of matter.

  2. The Universal Area Product: An Heuristic Argument

    E-print Network

    Don N. Page; Andrey A. Shoom

    2015-07-31

    We present an heuristic argument for the universal area product: A_{+}A_{-}=(8\\pi J)^{2}+(4\\pi Q^{2})^{2} for a four-dimensional, stationary, axisymmetric, electrically charged black hole with an arbitrary stationary axisymmetric distribution of external matter (possibly charged), derived by Marcus Ansorg and Jorg Hennig. Here A_{+} and A_{-} are the areas of the event and Cauchy horizons, and J and Q are the angular momentum and electric charge. Based on this argument, we conjecture that a universal area product holds for higher-dimensional, stationary, multi-horizon black objects in the presence of an external stationary charged distribution of matter.

  3. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  4. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5...

  5. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5...

  6. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5...

  7. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5...

  8. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.5...

  9. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  10. Guayule production on the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New production areas need to be identified for guayule in order to meet the expected world-wide shortage of natural rubber by 2020. One promising area is the Texas High Plains region. For guayule to be grown in this region, more cold tolerant lines need to be identified. The objective of our study w...

  11. Chapter 7 Areas of High Ecological Significance

    E-print Network

    such thing as land, among whom education and culture have become almost synonymous with landlessness. -- Aldo Leopold, 1949 KeyQuestions · Which areas have particularly high ecological significance and what makes

  12. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production...

  13. Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

  14. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  15. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of production means...

  16. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  17. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.11 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  18. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.11 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  19. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  20. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  1. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of production means...

  2. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.11 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  3. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.4 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  4. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of production means...

  5. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of production means...

  6. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.11 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  7. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.11 Area of production. Area of production means the State of California....

  8. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of production means...

  9. High Surface Area Dendrite Nanoelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, Nathan; Glover, Jennifer; Goyal, Saurabh; Simidjiysky, Svetoslav; Naughton, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Solution-based electrodeposition of metal using a low ion concentration, surface passivation agents, and/or electrochemical crystal conditioning has allowed for the formation of high surface area metal electrodes, useful for Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensors. Additionally, high frequency electrical oscillations have been used to electrically connect co-planar electrodes, a process called directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA). These approaches aim to control the crystal face that metal atoms in solution will nucleate onto, thus causing anisotropic growth of metal crystals. However, DENA has not been used to create high surface area electrodes, and no study has been conducted on the effect of micron-scale surface topography on the initial nucleation of metal crystals on the electrode surface. When DENA is used to create a high surface area electrode, such a texture has a strong impact on the subsequent topography of the three dimensional dendritic structures by limiting the areal density of crystals on the electrode surface. Such structures both demonstrate unique physics concerning the nucleation of metal dendrites, and offer a unique and highly facile fabrication method of high surface area electrodes, useful for chemical and biological sensing. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  10. The cascade high productivity language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

  11. 7 CFR 987.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 987.4 Section 987.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.4 Area of production. Area...

  12. 7 CFR 987.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 987.4 Section 987.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.4 Area of production. Area...

  13. 7 CFR 987.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 987.4 Section 987.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.4 Area of production. Area...

  14. 7 CFR 987.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 987.4 Section 987.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.4 Area of production. Area...

  15. 7 CFR 987.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 987.4 Section 987.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.4 Area of production. Area...

  16. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of...

  17. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of...

  18. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of...

  19. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of...

  20. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.5 Area of production. Area of...

  1. High Productivity Implantation ''PARTIAL IMPLANT''

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

    2008-11-03

    The patterned ion implantation 'PARTIAL IMPLANT' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is 'DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT', that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is 'RING PARTIAL IMPLANT' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

  2. Laser processing system development of large area and high precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeongchan; Ryu, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Taesang

    2013-03-01

    As industry of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and display growing, this industry requires an increasingly high-precision quality so current cutting process in industry is preferred laser machining than mechanical machining. Now, laser machining is used almost "step and repeat" method in large area, but this method has a problem such as cutting quality in the continuity of edge parts, cutting speed and low productivity. To solve these problems in large area, on-the-fly (stagescanner synchronized system) is gradually increasing. On-the-fly technology is able to process large area with high speed because of stage-scanner synchronized moving. We designed laser-based high precision system with on-the-fly. In this system, we used UV nano-second pulse laser, power controller and scanner with telecentric f-theta lens. The power controller is consisted of HWP(Half Wave Plate), thin film plate polarizer, photo diode, micro step motor and control board. Laser power is possible to monitor real-time and adjust precision power by using power controller. Using this machine, we tested cutting of large area coverlay and sheet type large area PCB by applying on-the-fly. As a result, our developed machine is possible to process large area without the problem of the continuity of edge parts and by high cutting speed than competitor about coverlay.

  3. High spatial variability of phytoplankton assessed by flow cytometry, in a dynamic productive coastal area, in spring: The eastern English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, Simon; Christaki, Urania; Lefebvre, Alain; Lizon, Fabrice; Thyssen, Melilotus; Artigas, Luis Felipe

    2015-03-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton (from pico-to microphytoplankton) was investigated, at single-cell level and at high spatial resolution, during an oceanographic cruise across the eastern English Channel (EEC) between April 27 and 29, 2012. Seawater was continuously collected from surface waters and analysed on board at high frequency (one sample every 10 min), by using a new generation of pulse-shape recording scanning flow cytometer (CytoSense, Cytobuoy©). A Bray-Curtis matrix analysis based on phytoplankton composition allowed the discrimination of 4 communities. Within these communities, abundance, cell size as well as single cell and total red fluorescence of 8 phytoplankton groups were measured. Picoeukaryotes and Synechococcus spp cells dominated the mid Channel and most of the English waters monitored, whereas waters off Eastbourne as well as French coastal waters (under remote and direct estuarine influence) were characterized by the dominance of Phaeocystis globosa haploid and diploid cells. Most of the total red fluorescence signal, which correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations, was attributable to P. globosa and, to a lesser extent, to diatoms. In addition to sub-mesoscale variation within phytoplankton communities, the single-cell features within each phytoplankton group gave information about the physiological status of individual phytoplankton cells.

  4. Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou Department model accounts for the inter-temporal and spatial dependencies of multi-area wind power production. Results are presented for a case study of the California power system. Keywords - Wind power generation

  5. High throughput protein production screening

    DOEpatents

    Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  6. Dry FGD with high surface area hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzkopf, F.; Morum, B.

    1995-06-01

    Hydrated lime powder is often used in dry FGD processes taking place at low temperatures (Post-Combustion Dry Technology) as well as in processes run at high temperatures (In-Furnace Dry Technology). Extremely high absorption rates for acidic gas compounds with low sorbent consumption were obtained by using High Surface Area Hydrate (HSH) instead of commercial lime hydrate. For example: (1) An industrial flue gas at low temperature - containing 5,200 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3} - is treated with HSH at a stoichiometric ratio < 3. The clean gas contains < 500 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3}. These results are not achievable with commercial hydrated lime at a stoichiometric ratio > 5. (2) The flue gas of a coal fired power plant (appr. 200 MW{sub th}) containing 1,800 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3} is treated at high temperature with HSH and conditioned downstream. With a stoichiometric ratio of appr. 1.3 the observed clean gas values are 400 mg SO{sub 2}/Nm{sup 3}; this is an absorption rate of appr. 75 %. Increasing the amount of HSH leads to higher absorption rates. Using commercial hydrated lime would double sorbent consumption and cause problems in the boiler. The results of comparisons between HSH and commercial hydrated limes from several industrial plants, coal fired power stations (capacity < 300 MW) and waste incinerators are described; typical plant data are presented.

  7. General view of the High Bay area of the Space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the High Bay area of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows the specially modified fork lift used for horizontal installation and removal of the SSMEs into and out of the Orbiters. SSME number 2059 is in the background and is in the process of being scanned with a high-definition laser scanner to acquire field documentation for the production of historic documentatin. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ?-HCH, and ?-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention. PMID:22777609

  9. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, R.M.

    1991-04-01

    Continental Shelf Associates was contracted to update and expand an earlier work on a comparison of primary productivity among Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) planning areas. The update consists of four general objectives. This report addresses the fourth objective, the potential to use measures of marine secondary productivity in determining relative rankings of the OCS planning area. Ideally, comparisons of secondary productivity among diverse geographic areas would take an ecosystem perspective. However, there is not enough ecosystem-level understanding to allow a comparison on that basis. The report focuses on individual species and group of species. Zooplankton and benthic communities represent major portions of the marine ecosystems and would be the preferred subjects for comparative studies. At this time comparisons of secondary productivity among planning areas would be difficult with existing databases. It is unlikely this situation will improve in the near future.

  10. Universal area product for black holes: A heuristic argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a heuristic argument for the universal area product: A+A-=(8 ? J )2+(4 ? Q2)2 for a four-dimensional, stationary, axisymmetric, electrically charged black hole with an arbitrary stationary axisymmetric distribution of external matter (possibly charged), derived by Marcus Ansorg and Jörg Hennig. Here A+ and A- are the areas of the event and Cauchy horizons, and J and Q are the angular momentum and electric charge. Based on this argument, we conjecture that a universal area product holds for higher-dimensional, stationary, multihorizon black objects in the presence of an external stationary charged distribution of matter.

  11. Global Topography of Mars from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-Orbit Data Products: the first Quadrangle (MC-11E) and the Landing Site Areas of ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Hauber, Ernst; Jaumann, Ralf; Michael, Gregory; Hoffmann, Harald; Heipke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    After more than 10 years of operation, the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital elevation models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. The new global mapping program is based on the USGS MC-30 quadrangle scheme, where quadrangles are split into eastern and western parts to limit data volumes. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic (grid spacing of 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively) for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), and highlight their use for characterizing the landing site areas of ESA's ExoMars landing mission to be launched in 2018. HRSC is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars and its satellites. As a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of derived 3D points allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. HRSC also bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. A quality assessment of the MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus) quadrangle products shows that, using bundle block adjustment, adjacent image strips can be co-registered with an accuracy of approximately one pixel at the highest image resolution available. We will discuss the resolution of topographic detail in these datasets, including improvements with respect to the case of single-strip data products and a comparison with external datasets. The quadrangle contains two of the four remaining landing sites for the ExoMars 2018 rover, and also the other two candidate sites are well covered by HRSC. HRSC data products are valuable to analyze large-scale topographic parameters (e.g., slopes over long baselengths) that are relevant for landing site safety assessments. Moreover, HRSC data enable investigating the geological context of landing sites, including the role of endogenic and exogenic processes. In particular, local and regional HRSC-derived topography serves as a basis for quantitative analyses of aqueous processes, e.g., discharge rates, sediment transport, and depositional geometries. We discuss the use of HRSC data products for landing site assessment and regional characterization of candidate landing site geology.

  12. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

  13. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  14. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following measures shall be implemented for each entry into a high radiation area: (1) The area shall...

  15. High Surface Area Stainless Steel Brushes as Cathodes in Microbial

    E-print Network

    High Surface Area Stainless Steel Brushes as Cathodes in Microbial Electrolysis Cells D O U G L show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2 /m3 , hydrogen was produced

  16. Prioritising Carbon Sequestration Areas in Southern Queensland using Time Series MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apan, A.; Suarez Cadavid, L. A.; Richardson, L.; Maraseni, T.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method that will use satellite imagery to identify areas of high forest growth and productivity, as a primary input in prioritising revegetation sites for carbon sequestration. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, this study analysed the annual net primary production (NPP) values (gC/m2) of images acquired from 2000 to 2013, covering the Condamine Catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia. With the analysis of annual rainfall data during the same period, three transitions of "normal to dry" years were identified to represent the future climate scenario considered in this study. The difference in the corresponding NPP values for each year was calculated, and subsequently averaged to the get the "Mean of Annual NPP Difference" (MAND) map. This layer identified the areas with increased net primary production despite the drought condition in those years. Combined with key thematic maps (i.e. regional ecosystems, land use, and tree canopy cover), the priority areas were mapped. The results have shown that there are over 42 regional ecosystem (RE) types in the study area that exhibited positive vegetation growth and productivity despite the decrease in annual rainfall. However, seven (7) of these RE types represents the majority (79 %) of the total high productivity area. A total of 10,736 ha were mapped as priority revegetation areas. This study demonstrated the use of MODIS-NPP imagery to map vegetation with high carbon sequestration rates necessary in prioritising revegetation sites.

  17. Focusing Resources on High-Priority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    The new Perkins provides more flexibility to encourage innovation and program improvement; one of these areas of flexibility is the state-level "reserve" fund. This article looks at how Tennessee is using its funds to improve programming within the framework set out in the law.

  18. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

  19. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

  20. Modeling biotic habitat high risk areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B.M.; Stephens, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.

  1. High speed Internet in sparsely populated areas

    E-print Network

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    Fi access points equipped with sectorial antennas on a high point in the village (bell tower, public. In practice, a, b and g standard WiFi equipment, and even equipment combining a, b and g technologies) the regulations do not permit 5 GHz 802.11a equipment to be deployed outdoors. Consequently, deployment must

  2. Acoustic Black Holes and Universal Aspects of Area Products

    E-print Network

    M. A. Anacleto; F. A. Brito; E. Passos

    2013-09-09

    In this Letter we derive acoustic metrics in the (3+1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model with higher derivative terms. We have found acoustic metrics that are conformally related to the Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr-Newman metrics. The universal aspects of area products which depend only on quantized quantifies such as conserved electric charge and angular momentum are also addressed. We relate these areas with microscopic entropy of acoustic black holes in BEC systems. We also have shown there is an equivalence between microscopic descriptions of axisymmetric acoustic black hole entropy in a BEC system in four and two dimensions.

  3. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  4. High power/large area PV systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Joseph; Baraona, Cosmo

    1987-01-01

    The major photovoltaic power system technology drivers for a wide variety of mission types were ranked. Each technology driver was ranked on a scale of high, medium, or low in terms of importance to each particular mission type. The rankings were then compiled to determine the overall importance of each driver over the entire range of space missions. In each case cost was ranked the highest.

  5. High and low surgical rates: risk factors for area residents.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, N P; Roos, L L

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of surgical practice, the type of operations performed, and risk characteristics of elderly patients brought to surgery are examined in areas with differing surgical rates. This population-based analysis covering Manitoba's 56 rural hospital areas uses discharge claims filed routinely with the provincial Health Services Commission. One and a half times as much surgery was performed in high rate areas (115.2 procedures per 1,000 elderly) as in low rate areas (74.7 procedures/1,000). Since surgical case mix varied little between high and low rate areas, the rate variation means that place of residence strongly influences exposure to major surgical procedures. In similar fashion, the proportion of surgical cases classified as high-risk does not vary with the surgical rate. High risk patients resident in high surgical rate areas are more likely to come to surgery than are their counterparts in low rate areas. Further analyses of nonsurgical hospitalization, of three common elective procedures, and of area characteristics were carried out. The surgical selection process, not characteristics of the population residing in the area, appears to determine the rate at which high and low risk patients come to surgery. Our research clearly suggests that high surgical rates carry with them the risk of excess surgical deaths. PMID:7235097

  6. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B to Part 194—High Volume Areas As of January 5, 1993 the following...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B to Part 194—High Volume Areas As of January 5, 1993 the following...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B to Part 194—High Volume Areas As of January 5, 1993 the following...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B to Part 194—High Volume Areas As of January 5, 1993 the following...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B to Part 194—High Volume Areas As of January 5, 1993 the following...

  11. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  12. Nanofiber adsorbents for high productivity downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Hardick, Oliver; Dods, Stewart; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2013-04-01

    Electrospun polymeric nanofiber adsorbents offer an alternative ligand support surface for bioseparations. Their non-woven fiber structure with diameters in the sub-micron range creates a remarkably high surface area. To improve the purification productivity of biological molecules by chromatography, cellulose nanofiber adsorbents were fabricated and assembled into a cartridge and filter holder format with a volume of 0.15 mL, a bed height of 0.3 mm and diameter of 25 mm. The present study investigated the performance of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) derivatized regenerated cellulose nanofiber adsorbents based on criteria including mass transfer and flow properties, binding capacity, and fouling effects. Our results show that nanofibers offer higher flow and mass transfer properties. The non-optimized DEAE-nanofiber adsorbents indicate a binding capacity of 10% that of packed bed systems with BSA as a single component system. However, they operate reproducibly at flowrates of a hundred times that of packed beds, resulting in a potential productivity increase of 10-fold. Lifetime studies showed that this novel adsorbent material operated reproducibly with complex feed material (centrifuged and 0.45 µm filtered yeast homogenate) and harsh cleaning-in-place conditions over multiple cycles. DEAE nanofibers showed superior operating performance in permeability and fouling over conventional adsorbents indicating their potential for bioseparation applications. PMID:23097054

  13. Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better targeting high conservation value areas. PMID:25502238

  14. Preliminary studies for a high energy neutron area monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, R.T.; Hsu, H.H.

    1998-12-01

    Track etch detectors were exposed to neutrons produced by a spallation target struck by a beam of 800 MeV protons. The fields were filtered by 0, 10, and 40 centimeters of polyethylene. The track etch dosimeters were exposed on a polyethylene phantom. The dosimeters were exposed bare and behind lead filters of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 cm of lead with the face of the dosimeter perpendicular to the beam and bare and behind lead filters of 0.50, 1.0, and 1.5 cm of lead with angle of incidence 45{degree} and 75{degree}. Monte Carlo calculations of these experimental configurations were done using MCNP and LAHET with input from the calculated spectra. These results are compared with the experimental results to understand the basic processes involved in the production of tracks with high energy neutrons and develop a high energy neutron area monitor.

  15. Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo

    2011-03-31

    CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

  16. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  17. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  18. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  19. Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

  20. Analysis of satellite precipitation products referred to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, L. V.; Lo Conti, F.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation measurement is a key factor for several scientific disciplines, research activities and management of human activities related to water resources. Climatology, meteorology and hydrology can be considered three main sectors in which precipitation estimation is carefully addressed although with different peculiarities. In order to retrieve precipitation information several products have been developed related to different information sources, methodologies and final products features. In this study we select a specific area in Sicily island (Italy) having high density rain gauges to evaluate of satellite precipitation products. Sicily has an area of 26,000 km2 and the gauge density of the network considered in this study is about 250 km2/gauge. It is an island in the Mediterranean sea with variegated climatology and morphology, which is considered as an interesting test site for satellite precipitation products on the European mid-latitude area. Four only satellite products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TMPA-RT, PERSIANN-CCS) along with two adjusted products (TMPA and PERSIANN Adjusted) have been selected for the study. Evaluation and comparisons between selected products is performed with reference to data provided by the gauge network of Sicily and using statistical and visualization tools. An interpolation procedure has been adopted to compare reference rain-gauge network data to satellite products. An effort to organize and characterize evaluation tools within a simplified application framework has been done. Then three evaluation index groups have been identified corresponding to related application groups. Results show that bias is considerable for all satellite products although adjusted products are effective reducing it. Climatic considerations are reported to address this issue along with an overall analysis of the PMW retrieval algorithm performances. A convective/stratiform classification procedure is used to relate precipitation features to satellite information and retrieval algorithms. A strong convective component is present probably due to the study area morphology. It results affecting PMW capability to retrieve information since most of the precipitation event are convective in nature.

  1. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells 

    E-print Network

    Tosic, Slavko

    2009-05-15

    gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

  2. COMPARISON OF PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTION BETWEEN NATURAL AND ALTERED AREAS IN WEST BAY, TEXAS'

    E-print Network

    COMPARISON OF PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTION BETWEEN NATURAL AND ALTERED AREAS IN WEST BAY, TEXAS' JANE CORLISS AND LEE TRENT" ABSTRACf Phytoplankton production was comparetl between an undredged marsh area gross productIOn (mg carbon/liter/day) in the altered area (canals) was 8% higher than in th~ marsh an

  3. High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

  4. Cotton Production on the Texas High Plains. 

    E-print Network

    Lane, H. C.; Owen, W. L. Jr.; Walker, H. J.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.; Ray, L. L.; Hudspeth, E. B. Jr.; Jones, D. L.

    1956-01-01

    cotton is practical if the cotton is dry and contains no green bolls. Cotton Prodiutwn on the Texas High Plains D. L. JONES, E. B. HUDSPETH, JR., L. L. RAY, E. L. THAXTON, JR., H. J. WALKER, W. L. OWEN, JR. and H. C. LANE* THE HIGH PLAINS AREA...), Extractors and Cleaners. Smith, H. P., Killough, D. T. and Jones, D. L. 1946. The Cleaning of Mechanically Harvested Cotton. Smith, H. P., Jones, D. L. and Miller, H. F., Jr. 1950. Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area...

  5. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

  6. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  7. Data Mining Middleware for Wide Area High Performance Networks

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Robert

    1 Data Mining Middleware for Wide Area High Performance Networks Robert L. Grossman*, Yunhong Gu, David Hanley, and Michal Sabala National Center for Data Mining, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA multiple high volume data streams. Both rely on newly developed data transport and data mining middleware

  8. 15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Siderophore production in high iron environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. A.; Hoffman, C. L.; Moffett, J. W.; Edwards, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    Up until recently, the geochemical cycling of Fe in deep sea hydrothermal plumes has assumed to be inorganically dominated, resulting in quantitative precipitation of all hydrothermally sourced Fe to the seafloor. Recent detection of organic Fe binding ligands within both the dissolved and particulate phase (Bennett et al., 2008; Toner et al., 2009), suggests that hydrothermally sourced Fe may be important on a global scale (Tagliabue et al., 2010). The source of these organic ligands is currently unknown; hypotheses include the possible entrainment of organic carbon from the biologically rich diffuse flow areas, or in-situ production from microbial processes. However, the microbial production of organic ligands is only expected when Fe is a limited micronutrient, which is not the case in the hydrothermal environment. The importance of Fe cycling microorganisms within hydrothermal systems was previously overlooked due to the poor energetics with regards to Fe oxidation and reduction. But their recent detection within the hydrothermal system, both around low temperature Fe rich mineral deposits and within hydrothermal plumes (Edwards et al., 2004; Sylvan et al., In prep) suggests that they may have an important role in the hydrothermal Fe cycle, potentially resulting in an interplay between Fe and organic carbon. Within the laboratory, we have carried out experiments to investigate an Fe oxidizing bacteria in a variety of high Fe environments. We have detected both the production of siderophores and an increase in reduced Fe when the Fe oxidizing bacteria is exposed to both Fe(III) and Fe(II) rich minerals. The role of these microbes in the mineral dissolution of Fe sulfides along the seafloor and within the hydrothermal plume, may have important implications on the speciation of Fe and the role of siderophores in the marine environment. Bennett, S.A. et al. 2008. EPSL, 270: 157-167. Edwards, K.J. et al. 2004. Geomicrobiology Journal, 21: 393-404. Sylvan, J.B. et al. In prep for Geobiology Tagliabue, A. et al. 2010. Nature Geoscience, 3: 252-256. Toner, B.M.,et al. 2009. Nature Geoscience, 2: 197 - 201.

  10. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  11. Novel fabrication technology for three-dimensional high surface area pyrolized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vinh; Shimada, Mark; Szeto, David; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Kang, Qinjun; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc J.

    2010-04-01

    High specific surface area structures are used in a variety of applications including production of highly sensitive biosensors, fabrication of separation membranes, manufacturing of high throughput catalytic microreactors, and development of efficient electrodes for batteries and fuel cells. In many electrochemical applications (i.e. sensors and batteries) it's also critical to have good conductive properties of the fabricated high surface area structures. For energy harvesting technologies such as batteries and fuel cells, careful design of surface-to-volume ratio of the electrode surface is important, because while high specific surface area facilitates electrochemical reaction rates, it also increases overall electrode resistance. Thus, it is desirable to construct electrodes with a range of hierarchical features (for example with fractal structures). We invented a novel fabrication technology for creating three-dimensional conductive high surface area structures based on the deposition and subsequent processing of the electroactive polymers (EAP). The proposed fabrication technique is capable of fast and inexpensive production of high surface area structures with the designed geometry, porosity, and conductivity.

  12. Identifying high production, low production and degraded rangelands in Senegal with normalized difference vegetation index data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Wood, Lynette; Moore, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal herbaceous vegetation production on Senegal's native rangelands exhibits high spatial and temporal variability. This variability can be monitored using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data computed from 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data. Although annual fluctuations in rainfall account for some of the variability, numerous long-term production patterns are evident in the AVHRR time-series data. Different n productivity reflect variations in the region's climate, topography, soils, and land use. Areas of overgrazing and intensive cultivation have caused long-term soil and vegetation degradation. Rangelands of high and low productivity, and degraded rangelands were identified using NDVI. Time-series image data from 1987 though 1992 were used to map relative rangeland productivity. The results were compared to detailed resource maps on soils, vegetation and land use. Much of the variation in rangeland productivity correlated well to the known distribution of resources. The study developed an approach that identified a number of areas of degraded soils and low vegetation production.

  13. High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1988-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

  14. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... source and in sufficient time to permit evacuation of the area or activation of a secondary...

  15. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... source and in sufficient time to permit evacuation of the area or activation of a secondary...

  16. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... source and in sufficient time to permit evacuation of the area or activation of a secondary...

  17. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... source and in sufficient time to permit evacuation of the area or activation of a secondary...

  18. Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G.; Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

    1996-02-29

    Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the results of previous modeling work to more precisely define the extent and magnitude of this plume. SRS proposes incorporating depth discrete sampling during any future characterization effort to optimize any proposed remediation system. Finally, by using a full three-dimensional model rather than the traditional quasi-three dimensional methods an efficient remediation system can be developed.

  19. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to begin looking for alternative practices that ca...

  20. High purity silane and silicon production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen and metallurgical silicon are reacted at about 400.degree.-600.degree. C. and at pressures in excess of 100 psi, and specifically from about 300 up to about 600 psi to form di- and trichlorosilane that is subjected to disproportionation in the presence of an anion exchange resin to form high purity silane. By-product and unreacted materials are recycled, with metallurgical silicon and hydrogen being essentially the only consumed feed materials. The silane product may be further purified, as by means of activated carbon or cryogenic distillation, and decomposed in a fluid bed or free space reactor to form high purity polycrystalline silicon and by-product hydrogen which can be recycled for further use. The process results in simplified waste disposal operations and enhances the overall conversion of metallurgical grade silicon to silane and high purity silicon for solar cell and semiconductor silicon applications.

  1. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  2. High energy product in Battenberg structured magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bance, S.; Oezelt, H.; Schrefl, T.; Winklhofer, M.; Hrkac, G.; Zimanyi, G.; Gutfleisch, O.; Evans, R. F. L.; Chantrell, R. W.; Shoji, T.; Yano, M.; Sakuma, N.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A.

    2014-11-01

    Multiphase nano-structured permanent magnets show a high thermal stability of remanence and a high energy product while the amount of rare-earth elements is reduced. Non-zero temperature micromagnetic simulations show that a temperature coefficient of remanence of -0.073%/K and that an energy product greater than 400 kJ/m3 can be achieved at a temperature of 450 K in a magnet containing around 40 volume percent Fe65Co35 embedded in a hard magnetic matrix.

  3. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  4. Resilience Strategies for New Teachers in High-Needs Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Antonio J.; Kelly, John; Shih, Minyi

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates strategies of resilience exhibited by fifteen novice teachers employed in high-needs areas, such as in urban and rural contexts and in special education. Findings indicated that teachers utilised a variety of strategies, including help-seeking, problem-solving, managing difficult relationships, and seeking…

  5. OXYANION SORPTION TO HIGH SURFACE AREA IRON AND ALUMINUM OXIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of selected oxyanions (Mo, As, and P) to high surface area iron and aluminum oxides was investigated using in situ Raman and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, batch sorption methods, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and surface complexation modeling. In situ ATR-FTIR and Raman spectra were coup...

  6. Compute and Storage Clouds Using Wide Area High Performance Networks

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Robert

    Compute and Storage Clouds Using Wide Area High Performance Networks Robert L. Grossman Yunhong Gu. The infrastructure consists of a storage cloud called Sector and a compute cloud called Sphere. We describe two (record- based, column-based or object-based services); and a compute cloud provides computational

  7. 67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. 1911 BOILER HOUSE LOOKING SOUTH. AREA FRAMED BY HIGH WINDOWS ON RIGHT IS FORMER EAST EXTERIOR WALL OF 1901 STEAM ENGINE HOUSE. BELOW RIGHT IS A TANK FOR HEATING OIL ENCLOSED IN CEMENT BLOCK CA. 1945. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  8. HIGH SPEED WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKING FOR FARM APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-speed wireless local area network (WLAN) was designed and implemented on a commercial farm in Macon County, MS, to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing such a network and to provide the basis for continuing development of software and hardware for farm applications. Since the farm was...

  9. Production system improvement : floor area reduction and inventory optimization

    E-print Network

    Yang, Tianying, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis shows improvements of a medical device production system. The demand at the Medical Device Manufacturing Company (MDMC¹) is low for the occlusion system product and there is a need to introduce other production ...

  10. Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them <1 mmol C m-2 d-1). It appears that nitrate is assimilated in the upper part of the mixed layer (coinciding with the euphotic layer) and regenerated in the lower parts. We suggest that such high contribution of nitrification to nitrate assimilation is driven by (i) a deep mixed layer, extending well below the euphotic layer, allowing nitrifiers to compete with phytoplankton for the assimilation of ammonium, (ii) extremely high rates of primary production for the Southern Ocean, stimulating the release of dissolved organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

  11. Mangrove rehabilitation in high erosion areas: Assessment using bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Stephen Ryan; Johnstone, Ron William

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies a potentially effective rehabilitation technique for implementation in high erosion areas through the use of bioindicators. This is significant given that one third of mangroves have been cleared globally with clearing continuing at a rate of 1-2% per annum. There have been various attempts to rehabilitate degraded mangrove forests, however the success or failure of these is mostly unclear due to a lack of assessment. The two rehabilitation techniques assessed in this study were a basic fence system and another more elaborate fence technique designed by the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project (KGBRP), Vietnam. The assessment was conducted by comparing vegetation and faunal communities in rehabilitation areas to those in adjacent old-growth areas. The indicators included: tree and understory plant diversity and density; forest cover and the density of crabs, mudskippers and gastropods. The results show the KGBRP rehabilitation fence technique delivered tree diversity, plant diversity, tree density and forest cover that most closely resembled old-growth areas. This suggests that the additional protection provided by the KGBRP fence was instrumental in achieving these results. In terms of total mudskipper, Boleophthalmus spp., Periophthalmodon spp. and ocypodid crab density, the KGBRP rehabilitation was most similar to the old-growth areas. This similarity is thought to be related to the comparable forest cover at these sites. The density of large crab holes was much higher in old-growth areas than in basic or KGBRP rehabilitation areas. The disparity between large crab hole density at KGBRP rehabilitation and old-growth areas, despite similar levels of forest cover, is thought to be linked to the immaturity of the KGBRP rehabilitation sites. As the KGBRP rehabilitation is most similar in terms of vegetation and faunal communities to the old-growth areas, it appears to be the most successful rehabilitation.

  12. Forest Products: Achieving high performance through

    E-print Network

    Forest Products: Achieving high performance through merger and integration success By Ravi an increase in merger and acquisition (M&A) activity over the past several years. Although deal sizes have--as measured by the number of transactions in the industry--has increased as major companies have acquired

  13. A simple facile approach to large scale synthesis of high specific surface area silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Epur, Rigved; Minardi, Luke; Datta, Moni K.; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2013-12-15

    An inexpensive, facile, and high throughput synthesis of silicon nanoparticles was achieved by the mechano-chemical reduction reaction of magnesium silicide (Mg{sub 2}Si) and silicon monoxide (SiO) using a high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) technique followed by acid leaching. Characterization of the resultant product using X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analyses was performed at various stages of the synthesis process. XRD patterns show that the final product formed is single phase silicon and the nanocrystalline nature was confirmed by the shifted transverse optical (TO) band, characteristic of nc-Si determined by Raman analysis. SEM and TEM shows the presence of particles of different sizes in the range of few nanometers to agglomerates of few microns which is consistent with products obtained from mechanical milling. BET measurements show a very high specific surface area (SSA) of ?190 m{sup 2}/g obtained due to acid leaching which is also validated by the porous nature of the particles confirmed by the SEM images. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing the large scale production of nanosized silicon and BET surface area of the product formed at various stages.

  14. Hydroetching of high surface area ceramics using moist supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Fryxell, Glen; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2004-11-02

    Aerogels having a high density of hydroxyl groups and a more uniform pore size with fewer bottlenecks are described. The aerogel is exposed to a mixture of a supercritical fluid and water, whereupon the aerogel forms a high density of hydroxyl groups. The process also relaxes the aerogel into a more open uniform internal structure, in a process referred to as hydroetching. The hydroetching process removes bottlenecks from the aerogels, and forms the hydrogels into more standard pore sizes while preserving their high surface area.

  15. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

  16. Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United States, the use of existing fire perimeter data bases from various state and federal agencies as reference data is economical and enables the validation of different time periods and locations. Additionally, the incorporation of existing satellite-derived reference data used to validate other coarser resolution global burned area data sets such as the MCD45 (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, 500 m spatial resolution), GlobCarbon (Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor, 1 km spatial resolution), and L3JRC (SPOT-VEGETATION sensor, 1 km spatial resolution) is also being pursued. The validation the approach developed for the USGS ECV products and the challenges of using the vector polygons and raster layers from these reference datasets will be reported in the presentation.

  17. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features in the MSG/SEVIRI images. The fractional snow cover area (H12) algorithm is based on a sub-pixel reflectance model applied on METOP-AVHRR data. Knowing the effects of topography on satellite-measured radiances for rough terrain, the sun zenith and azimuth angles, as well as direction of observation relative to these are taken into account in estimating the target reflectances from the satellite images. The values of SWE products (H13) were obtained using an assimilation process based on the Helsinki University of Technology model using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) daily brightness-temperature values. The validation studies for three products have been performed for the water years 2010 and 2011. Average values of 70% of probability of detection for snow recognition product, 60% of overall accuracy for the fractional snow cover product and 45 mm RMSE for the snow water equivalent product have been obtained from the validation studies. Final versions of these three products will be presented and discussed. Key words: snow, satellite images, mountain, HSAF, snow cover, snow water equivalent

  18. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  19. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  20. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  1. Effective Area of the AXAF High Resolution Camera (HRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaude, Daniel; Pease, Deron; Donnelly, Hank; Juda, Mike; Jones, Christine; Murray, Steve; Zombeck, Martin; Kraft, Ralph; Kenter, Almus; Meehan, Gary; Meehan, Gary; Swartz, Doug; Elsner, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The AXAF High-Resolution Camera (HRC) was calibrated at NASA MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) during 1997 March and April. We have undertaken an analysis of the HRC effective area using all data presently available from the XRCF. We discuss our spectral fitting of the beam-normalization detectors (BNDs), our method of removing higher order contamination lines present in the spectra, and corrections for beam non-uniformities. We apply a model of photon absorption depth in order to fit a smooth curve to the quantum efficiency of the detector. This is then combined with the most recent model of the AXAF High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) to determine the ensemble effective area versus energy for the HRC. We also address future goals and concerns.

  2. 75 FR 51661 - Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California AGENCY...action modifies the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas to provide additional...by modifying the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas, by extending the...

  3. Wood Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a wood technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  4. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A possible technology which would allow the accomplishment of the proposed targets is the use of a Cross-Flow turbine, arranged according to the scheme of Fig.1, where: - the position of the rotating wall (rw) is set according to the pressure measured at its top, so that a small but constant falling discharge (Q2) is guaranteed. This falling discharge allows the transition of floating objects and hid the all machinery, with an obvious skyline improvement. - the average distance d is set in order to guarantee in the confined channel below the turbine an average velocity V similar to the original one existing in the river. PIC Fig.1 - Scheme of the river Cross-Flow turbine. Observe in Fig.2 the results of a CFX simulation, carried on with the following input data for a large rectangular section per unit width: ho (m) h1(m) h2 (m) d(m) 1.5314 1.99 0.082 0.1021 Q2(m2/s) Q3(m2/s)w (r.p.m.)V0(m/s) 0.04 0.267 27 2.61 Table 1. Input data for the CFD simulation. Simulation have been carried out using ANSYS code, with a computational domain divided using both tetrahedral and prismatic elements. The mechanical power estimated at the rotational shaft was of 4.84 KW/m and the hydraulic power of the water stream was of 7.25 KW/m. Thus the turbine efficiency was of about 49.97 %. PIC Fig.2 - Vectors velocity water field close to the Cross-Flow turbine domain. From the environmental point of view the turbine constitutes nonetheless a physical barrier that moving organisms will have to negotiate on their movements through the blades, particularly larger ones such as fish. Also, the hydraulic environment of the river will be modified, e.g. turbulence, shear stress, pressure and flow patterns, affecting as well the smaller organisms. While developing the turbine, a thorough appraisal of its environmental consequences for aquatic ecosystems has to be done, in order to develop an environmentally-friendly structure, embedding mitigation aspects. Furthermore, the structure itself will be subject to colonization on its surfaces by a biological matrix including microbial organisms but also

  5. High Temperature Thermoelectric Device Concept Using Large Area PN Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, R.; Angst, S.; Hall, J.; Stoetzel, J.; Kessler, V.; Bitzer, L.; Maculewicz, F.; Benson, N.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

    2014-06-01

    A new high temperature thermoelectric device concept using large area nanostructured silicon p-type and n-type ( PN) junctions is presented. In contrast to conventional thermoelectric generators, where the n-type and p-type semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept in which a large area PN junction made from highly doped densified silicon nanoparticles is subject to a temperature gradient parallel to the PN interface. In the proposed device concept, the electrical contacts are made at the cold side eliminating the hot side substrate and difficulties that go along with high temperature electrical contacts. This concept allows temperature gradients greater than 300 K to be experimentally applied with hot side temperatures larger than 800 K. Electronic properties of the PN junctions and power output characterizations are presented. A fundamental working principle is discussed using a particle network model with temperature and electric fields as variables, and which considers electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity according to Fourier's law, as well as Peltier and Seebeck effects.

  6. Production of high intensity radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    The production of radioactive nuclear beams world-wide is reviewed. The projectile fragmentation and the ISOL approaches are discussed in detail, and the luminosity parameter is used throughout to compare different production methods. In the ISOL approach a thin and a thick target option are distinguished. The role of storage rings in radioactive beam research is evaluated. It is concluded that radioactive beams produced by the projectile fragmentation and the ISOL methods have complementary characteristics and can serve to answer different scientific questions. The decision which kind of facility to build has to depend on the significance and breadth of these questions. Finally a facility for producing a high intensity radioactive beams near the Coulomb barrier is proposed, with an expected luminosity of {approximately}10{sup 39} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}, which would yield radioactive beams in excess of 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}. 9 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. High-surface-area hydrated lime for SO2 control

    SciTech Connect

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Moran, D.L. . Minerals Engineering Section)

    1993-03-01

    Since 1986, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), has been developing a process to produce high-surface-area hydrated lime (HSAHL) with more activity for adsorbing SO2 than commercially available hydrated lime. HSAHL prepared by the ISGS method as considerably higher surface area and porosity, and smaller mean particle diameter and crystallite size than commercial hydrated lime. The process has been optimized in a batch, bench-scale reactor and has been scaled-up to a 20--100 lb/hr process optimization unit (POU). Experiments have been conducted to optimize the ISGS hydration process and identify key parameters influencing hydrate properties for SO2 capture (surface area, porosity, particle size, and crystallite size). The known how is available to tailor properties of hydrated limes for specific SO2 removal applications. Pilot-scale tests conducted with the HSAHL under conditions typical of burning high-sulfur coals have achieved up to 90% SO2 capture in various DSI systems. The removal results are enough to bring most high-sulfur coals into compliance with acid rain legislation goals for the year 2000. The focus of the POU program is to generate critical engineering data necessary for the private sector to scale-up the process to a commercial level and provide estimates of the optimal cost of construction and operation of a commercial plant. ISGS is currently participating in a clean coal technology program (CCT-1) by providing 50 tons of HSAHL for a demonstration test at Illinois Power's Hennepin station in January 1993.

  8. Validating the EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Recognition Product over Mountainous Areas of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surer, S.; Akyurek, Z.; Sorman, A. U.

    2009-12-01

    An algorithm has been running in order to produce real-time snow cover maps from MSG-SEVIRI sensor imagery, covering whole Europe, for more than two years under the framework of EUMETSAT Hydrology-SAF (HSAF) Project. Hydrological processes and climate in the mountainous areas are highly affected by the seasonal snow cover. Due to lack of enough field observations because of the inaccessibility of high mountains, it is convenient to monitor the amount of snow with remote sensing satellite data besides setting up and managing ground weather stations. Developed algorithm is based on a multi-spectral thresholding method which uses visible, shortwave-infrared and near-infrared channels of MSG-SEVIRI. For a single day, 32 successive satellite images which have 15 minutes time interval between each of them are interpreted in order to produce a daily snow cover map. The algorithm uses Nowcasting-SAF (SAFNWC) cloud products in classifying the clouds. In this study 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 snow melting seasons are considered for the validation and evaluation purposes of the HSAF snow recognition product. The validation is performed for the mountainous region in the eastern part of Turkey on a daily basis by using the ground observations from 30 climate stations operated by Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS). The snow depth was recorded to the nearest 1 cm and reported in integer form. Besides the validation of snow product with ground data, the utility of the snow product in deriving the snow depletion curves (SDC) is evaluated. Other satellite snow products namely, MODIS 8-day snow cover data (MOD10C2) are also used in deriving the snow depletion curves. Results show high agreement between ground snow measurements and HSAF snow recognition product. The overall accuracies for 2008 and 2009 are calculated as 90.96 % and 80.59 % respectively. The commission error for 2008 is 8.12 % whereas for 2009 it is calculated as 17.03 %. The high cloud coverage percentage observed in 2009 caused a higher false alarm rate in the snow classification. Moreover, SDCs derived from HSAF and MOD10C2 snow recognition products display similar trends, especially in the melting period of snow. Refinement and enhancement of the HSAF snow recognition product with additional validation studies and inclusion of probable HSAF weekly snow recognition product are set as future goals during the extension period of HSAF Project.

  9. CLIC RF High Power Production Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Syratchev, I.; Riddone, G.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and generate RF power for the main linac accelerating structure. The demands on the high power production ({approx} 150 MW) and the needs to transport the 100 A drive beam for about 1 km without losses, makes the PETS design rather unique and the operation very challenging. In the coming year, an intense PETS testing program will be implemented. The target is to demonstrate the full performance of the PETS operation. The testing program overview and test results available to date are presented.

  10. Production system improvement : floor area reduction and cycle time analysis

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Jennifer J. (Jennifer Jeanne)

    2012-01-01

    A medical device company challenged a research team to reduce the manufacturing floor space required for an occlusion system product by one third. The team first cataloged equipment location and size, detailed the processes ...

  11. Adsorption of naphthenic acids on high surface area activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Sobhan; Harding, Thomas; Abedi, Jalal; Seyedeyn-Azad, Fakhry; Layzell, David B

    2014-01-01

    In oil sands mining extraction, water is an essential component; however, the processed water becomes contaminated through contact with the bitumen at high temperature, and a portion of it cannot be recycled and ends up in tailing ponds. The removal of naphthenic acids (NAs) from tailing pond water is crucial, as they are corrosive and toxic and provide a substrate for microbial activity that can give rise to methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, the conversion of sawdust into an activated carbon (AC) that could be used to remove NAs from tailings water was studied. After producing biochar from sawdust by a slow-pyrolysis process, the biochar was physically activated using carbon dioxide (CO2) over a range of temperatures or prior to producing biochar, and the sawdust was chemically activated using phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The physically activated carbon had a lower surface area per gram than the chemically activated carbon. The physically produced ACs had a lower surface area per gram than chemically produced AC. In the adsorption tests with NAs, up to 35 mg of NAs was removed from the water per gram of AC. The chemically treated ACs showed better uptake, which can be attributed to its higher surface area and increased mesopore size when compared with the physically treated AC. Both the chemically produced and physically produced AC provided better uptake than the commercially AC. PMID:24766592

  12. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  13. High Resolution Aerosol Retrievals from ETM+ Over Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapustin, A.

    2005-05-01

    Satellite monitoring of the main sources of the man-made pollutants is important to understand the climate forcing of anthropogenic aerosols. Over land, the aerosol retrievals are most accurate over dark dense vegetation (DDV). In the urban/industrial areas the DDV targets are small, often varying from a few tens of meters (clumps of trees) to several hundred meters (small fields and parks), and can only be captured by the high-resolution sensors. In this case, because of the high surface heterogeneity and focus on the dark pixels, the traditional aerosol retrievals based on 1D radiative transfer (RT) theory have a substantial bias. We developed a new dark target method for unbiased simultaneous retrieval of the aerosol model and optical thickness over land from Landsat ETM+ data, based on 3-D RT theory. The method automatically selects an aerosol model from a large set of candidate models using statistical approach of probability distribution function. The aerosols are retrieved in the blue and red bands relying on prediction of the surface reflectance in these bands from the shortwave infrared region (2.1-2.2 mkm). We will describe the developed method and its validation with AERONET measurements for a set of ETM+ images of the Washington-Baltimore area.

  14. High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Ryan Patrick

    The dissertation is divided into two main chapters, each focused on a different application for aerogel. The first chapter concerns the development of silica aerogel for thermal insulation. It begins with initial characterization of a silica aerogel insulation for a next-generation Advanced Radioisotope Stirling Generator for space vehicles. While the aerogel as made performs well, it is apparent that further improvements in mechanical strength and durability are necessary. The chapter then continues with the exploration of chlorotrimethysilane surface modification, which somewhat surprisingly provides a drastic increase in mechanical properties, allowing the inherently brittle silica network to deform plastically to >80% strain. It is hypothesized that the hydrophobic surface groups reduce capillary forces during drying, lowering the number of microcracks that may form and weaken the gel. This surface modification scheme is then implemented in a fiber-reinforced, opacified aerogel insulation for a prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. This is the first known report of aerogel insulation for thermoelectrics. The aerogel insulation is able to increase the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator by 40% compared with commercial high-temperature insulating wool. Unfortunately, the supercritical drying process adds significant cost to the aerogel insulation, limiting its commercial viability. The chapter then culminates in the development and characterization of an Ambiently Dried Aerogel Insulation (ADAI) that eliminates the need for expensive supercritical drying. It is believed that this report represents the first aerogel insulation that can be dried without undergoing a large volume change before "springing back" to near its original volume, which allows it to be cast into place into complex geometries and around rigid inclusions. This reduces a large barrier to the commercial viability of aerogel insulation. The advantages of ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  15. 78 FR 23949 - Sunkhaze Meadows National Wildlife Refuge and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area, Penobscot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... and Carlton Pond WPA. We started this process through a notice in the Federal Register (76 FR 14984... Production Area, Penobscot, Kennebec, and Waldo Counties, ME; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and... Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Carlton Pond Waterfowl Production Area (WPA), located...

  16. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

  2. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(14) Employment âwithin the Area of Productionâ § 780.720 “Area of...

  3. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(14) Employment âwithin the Area of Productionâ § 780.720 “Area of...

  4. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(14) Employment âwithin the Area of Productionâ § 780.720 “Area of...

  5. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of integrated files that can be subjected to further analysis type CAE / CAM / PDM software components by the same company. Additional advantages related files by the synthesis of integrated CAD / CAE / CAM / PDM.

  6. Large scale synthesis of nanoporous BN flake with high surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hui-Ling; Han, Qiu-Xia; Wu, Jie; Meng, Xiang-Lin; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous boron nitride (BN) flake was synthesized in large scale at temperatures between 550 and 600 °C for 10 h via the simple reaction between NaBH4 and CH5N3S. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the formation of hexagonal BN. Examination by high-resolution transmission electron microscope reveals that the product is comprised of nanoporous flake, which exhibits a high surface area of 214 m2 g-1 characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The nanoporous BN flake has good thermal stability and oxidation resistance up to 800 °C measured by thermogravimetric analysis.

  7. Cloud obstruction and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

    2014-11-01

    Snow cover maps provide information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they enable estimation of the regional snow resource. In this context, Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloud cover can hide the ground, thus obstructing snow detection. Here, we consider MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over the Po River basin. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analysed and processed with the support of a 500 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We first investigate the issue of cloud obstruction, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting period. Thus, cloud cover highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, starting from previous studies, we propose a cloud removal procedure and we apply it to a wide area, characterized by high geomorphological heterogeneity such as the Po River basin. In conceiving the new procedure, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there was not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we used temporal filters with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter. In the validation stage, the proposed procedure was compared against others, showing improvements in the performance for our case study. The accuracy is assessed by applying the procedure to clear-sky maps masked with additional cloud cover. The average value is higher than 95% considering 40 days chosen over all seasons. The procedure also has advantages in terms of input data and computational effort requirements.

  8. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  9. Two photon absorption in high power broad area laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mehmet; Michael, Christopher P.; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Lin; Jacob, Jonah H.

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in thermal management and improvements in fabrication and facet passivation enabled extracting unprecedented optical powers from laser diodes (LDs). However, even in the absence of thermal roll-over or catastrophic optical damage (COD), the maximum achievable power is limited by optical non-linear effects. Due to its non-linear nature, two-photon absorption (TPA) becomes one of the dominant factors that limit efficient extraction of laser power from LDs. In this paper, theoretical and experimental analysis of TPA in high-power broad area laser diodes (BALD) is presented. A phenomenological optical extraction model that incorporates TPA explains the reduction in optical extraction efficiency at high intensities in BALD bars with 100?m-wide emitters. The model includes two contributions associated with TPA: the straightforward absorption of laser photons and the subsequent single photon absorption by the holes and electrons generated by the TPA process. TPA is a fundamental limitation since it is inherent to the LD semiconductor material. Therefore scaling the LDs to high power requires designs that reduce the optical intensity by increasing the mode size.

  10. Experimental performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at high combustion chamber pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion area ratio of 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1, was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.

  11. High-speed interconnection for storage area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, ZhaoBin; Xie, Changsheng; Wu, Fei; Fu, Xianglin

    2003-04-01

    The steady and fast increase of data intensive application is violently driving the demand for more data storage capacity and new storage architecture. The server-attached storage approach is being replaced by storage area networks (SANs), whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements or among storage elements, allowing storage devices to be shared among multiple servers. In this paper, we mainly analyze the different characters of Fibre Channel, iSCSI and InfiniBand used within the SANs environment. This paper discusses the issues of protocol performance, protocol scalability, the security mechanism, the interoperability and adaptability with SAN environments, the cost of investment of each architecture and so on. Comparing the performance of traditional direct attached storage, the findings show that all Fibre Channel, InfiniBand and iSCSI are the competent gigabit networking technology for storage area networks. Each protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to the overwhelming benefits of economy, covenience and high performance/cost ratio, more enterprise can deploy iSCSI SAN based on mature and existing TCP/IP infrastructure.

  12. High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

  13. High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou

    E-print Network

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou CORE, UCL anthony of wind power production on power system operations over an entire year, it is necessary to account for the non-stationary (seasonal and diurnal) patterns of wind power production. This paper presents a multi

  15. High-productivity automatic GTAW process

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, H.; Kato, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has, since developed by AIRCO, spread globally as a weld process which assures a quality weld. However, the only drawback with GTAW is low productivity and we have challenged the subject in how we could improve that. To that end, we set the target of 3 times deposition rate as compared to conventional TIG. With conventional TIG arc, arc spread angle ranges 130{degrees} to 140{degrees}; to improve energy density, we have employed double flux TIG of SAF, France to converge the arc down to 80{degrees}. Consequently, energy density was upped to 4 times of conventional TIG, thus penetration depth and filler wire feed rated increased up to 2 to 4 times. We have succeeded in controlling cool-down in the molten pool, enabling the utilization of highly-converged TIG arc and preventing deposited metals burn-through for cleaner weld process, high-productivity GTAW. We find that: (1) The TIG arc spread angle is convergeable from 140{degrees} down to 80{degrees}; heat energy to be 3.5 times of that obtainable conventionally. (2) 65{emdash}80 g/min attained with 500A and C.S. in flat position, and 35{emdash}40 g/min., with all-position pipe weld. (3) 2{emdash}3 times efficiency improvement, obtained with work in C.S., S.S., and Inconel. (4) Excellent impact value obtainable despite heat-input increase. (5) Fume-less, spatterless, gouging-less and grindingless weld is obtainable; we were successful in improving the operational environment.

  16. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

  17. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 37-86. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1999): Klei

  18. Controlling Orientation, Edge Geometry and Thickness of High Quality Large-area CVD Adrian Murdock, Antal Koos, Benjamin Britton, Lothar Houben, Tim Batten, Tong Zhang,

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Controlling Orientation, Edge Geometry and Thickness of High Quality Large-area CVD Graphene Adrian substrates in conjunction with low-pressure CVD to generate high quality, tailored graphene with controlled provides a new avenue towards the controlled production of high quality large-area graphene sheets

  19. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  20. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

  1. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  2. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  3. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  4. 43 CFR 3137.88 - What happens when a well outside a participating area does not meet the productivity criteria?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? 3137.88 Section 3137.88 Public Lands: Interior... participating area does not meet the productivity criteria? If a well outside any of the established participating area(s) does not meet the productivity criteria, all operations on that well are...

  5. Characteristics of the flux of isoprene and its oxidation products in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W.; Boedeker, Ian

    2011-11-01

    We measured the mixing ratios and fluxes of isoprene and its oxidation products, methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) from a tall flux tower in metropolitan Houston, Texas, during summertime using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID instrument. We show that isoprene was affected dominantly by biogenic emission sources during daytime, but also that tail-pipe emission sources (alongside 2-pentenes) are contributing during the rush hours and at night. The observed daytime mixing ratios of isoprene were much lower than over forested areas due to a comparatively low density of isoprene emitting trees in the tower's footprint area. Daytime isoprene fluxes displayed the expected light and temperature driven emission characteristics, and a detailed isoprene emissions model explained average fluxes fairly well. Our investigation of isoprene's oxidation products MACR and MVK showed that both anthropogenic and isoprene oxidation sources exist for MACR, while MVK was strongly dominated by isoprene oxidation between its emission and sampling points due to presumably high local OH radical concentrations. While biogenic emission modeling appears to work well for this urban environment when supplied with accurate input data, emission inventories used for ozone modeling may need to consider tailpipe isoprene (and MACR) emissions to properly account for urban concentrations, particularly higher morning abundances.

  6. Manganese concentrations in soil and settled dust in an area with historic ferroalloy production.

    PubMed

    Pavilonis, Brian T; Lioy, Paul J; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bostick, Benjamin C; Donna, Filippo; Peli, Marco; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bertrand, Patrick; Lucas, Erika; Smith, Donald R; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Mi, Zhongyuan; Royce, Steven G; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2015-07-01

    Ferroalloy production can release a number of metals into the environment, of which manganese (Mn) is of major concern. Other elements include lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium. Mn exposure derived from settled dust and suspended aerosols can cause a variety of adverse neurological effects to chronically exposed individuals. To better estimate the current levels of exposure, this study quantified the metal levels in dust collected inside homes (n=85), outside homes (n=81), in attics (n=6), and in surface soil (n=252) in an area with historic ferroalloy production. Metals contained in indoor and outdoor dust samples were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, whereas attic and soil measurements were made with a X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean Mn concentrations in soil (4600??g/g) and indoor dust (870??g/g) collected within 0.5?km of a plant exceeded levels previously found in suburban and urban areas, but did decrease outside 1.0?km to the upper end of background concentrations. Mn concentrations in attic dust were ~120 times larger than other indoor dust levels, consistent with historical emissions that yielded high airborne concentrations in the region. Considering the potential health effects that are associated with chronic Mn inhalation and ingestion exposure, remediation of soil near the plants and frequent, on-going hygiene indoors may decrease residential exposure and the likelihood of adverse health effects. PMID:25335867

  7. CO[sub 2] and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerly, D.D.; Coleman, J.S.; Morse, S.R.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1992-08-01

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO[sub 2] influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38[degree], but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28[degree]. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18[degree] due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO[sub 2] concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28[degree], resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree]. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28[degree], and was increased by elevated CO[sub 2] at 28[degree] but decreased at 38[degree]. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO[sub 2], butt was greater at 38[degree]. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38[degree] relative to 28[degree], and elevated CO[sub 2] levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28[degree] but decreased leaf area at 38[degree].

  8. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment of management opportunities and potentially adverse changes on adjacent lands. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  9. High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have foreseen: Samples of rocks and soils to determine the Uranium concentration; Collection of water samples for the determination of Radon concentrations; Measurements of the Radon concentration in soil air; The Lecce's area is divided into 4 sub-areas, each of them with the same geological features: subsoil structure with high/normal/low fracturing, cracking, permeability, porosity, ecc... The potential Radon risk increases with the alteration's degree of subsoil structure. Results show that the 4 Lecce's subareas are characterized by average Radon value between 1.000-2.000 Bq/m3, and that in 2 of the 4 zones, characterized by high fracturing and big permeability, the range is high, from 400 Bq/m3 to over the 60.000 Bq/m3. The distribution of anomalies isn't homogeneous in the study zone, but as Hot-Spot and these are present in all sub-areas; the greatest number is detected in areas with high fracturing and cracking and in areas with lithological changes at different permeability. The others determinants factors in these areas are those anthropogenic; in some little zones belonging to subareas there are industrial and commercial areas built removing soil and damaging and altering the subsoil structure; in this way create zones of Radon accumulation in the soil air with fast ascent of the gas to the surface, and this produce high Radon concentration indoor. In the soil around these areas, few meters from buildings, and in the indoor air the Radon concentration is higher than 60.000 Bq/m3.

  10. Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

  11. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  12. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Husak, G.J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, Diego; Funk, Christopher C.; Galu, G.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  13. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  14. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  15. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

  18. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

  20. Secondary production of the fiddler crab Uca rapax from mangrove areas under anthropogenic eutrophication in the Western Atlantic, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de M M Costa, Tarso; Soares-Gomes, Abilio

    2015-12-30

    Fiddler crabs Uca rapax were analyzed in three mangrove areas located in both a lagoon and estuarine system in order to study the influence of eutrophication on their population dynamics and production. Populations at the three sites showed a biased sex ratio. Densities were similar at the three sites, but biomass was higher at the lagoon system. Despite biomass being higher at the most eutrophic site, this site exhibited the lowest production. Regarding age structure, the population inhabiting the less eutrophic site mainly comprised younger crabs. The lower production and smaller P/B ratio found in the more eutrophic site were most likely consequences of a high mortality rate and an aged population. Our study evidences the high plasticity of the fiddler crab U. rapax, and confirms secondary production and P/B ratio estimates as useful tools to assess the effects of environmental change. PMID:26549296

  1. The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

    2014-12-28

    Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors. PMID:25200960

  2. URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR , A. Villa ,

    E-print Network

    Plaza, Antonio J.

    URBAN AREA PRODUCT SIMULATION FOR THE ENMAP HYPERSPECTRAL SENSOR P. Gamba , A. Villa , , A. Plaza for remote sensing classification, especially in a urban environment. In this work, we will focus on the simulation of urban area environment at a low spatial resolution, comparable to the new hyperspectral sensors

  3. Nanofiber adsorbents for high productivity continuous downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Hardick, Oliver; Dods, Stewart; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2015-11-10

    An ever increasing focus is being placed on the manufacturing costs of biotherapeutics. The drive towards continuous processing offers one opportunity to address these costs through the advantages it offers. Continuous operation presents opportunities for real-time process monitoring and automated control with potential benefits including predictable product specification, reduced labour costs, and integration with other continuous processes. Specifically to chromatographic operations continuous processing presents an opportunity to use expensive media more efficiently while reducing their size and therefore cost. Here for the first time we show how a new adsorbent material (cellulosic nanofibers) having advantageous convective mass transfer properties can be combined with a high frequency simulated moving bed (SMB) design to provide superior productivity in a simple bioseparation. Electrospun polymeric nanofiber adsorbents offer an alternative ligand support surface for bioseparations. Their non-woven fiber structure with diameters in the sub-micron range creates a remarkably high surface area material that allows for rapid convective flow operations. A proof of concept study demonstrated the performance of an anion exchange nanofiber adsorbent based on criteria including flow and mass transfer properties, binding capacity, reproducibility and life-cycle performance. Binding capacities of the DEAE adsorbents were demonstrated to be 10mg/mL, this is indeed only a fraction of what is achievable from porous bead resins but in combination with a very high flowrate, the productivity of the nanofiber system is shown to be significant. Suitable packing into a flow distribution device has allowed for reproducible bind-elute operations at flowrates of 2,400 cm/h, many times greater than those used in typical beaded systems. These characteristics make them ideal candidates for operation in continuous chromatography systems. A SMB system was developed and optimised to demonstrate the productivity of nanofiber adsorbents through rapid bind-elute cycle times of 7s which resulted in a 15-fold increase in productivity compared with packed bed resins. Reproducible performance of BSA purification was demonstrated using a 2-component protein solution of BSA and cytochrome c. The SMB system exploits the advantageous convective mass transfer properties of nanofiber adsorbents to provide productivities much greater than those achievable with conventional chromatography media. PMID:25784156

  4. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...release could affect the high consequence area. This...act as a conduit to the high consequence area; ...pipeline segment such as by a cable suspension bridge; ...necessary, to protect the high consequence area. An operator's...ignition, proximity to power sources, location...

  5. Large-Area, Highly Ordered Array of Graphitic Carbon Materials Using Surface Active Chitosan Prepatterns.

    PubMed

    Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Dae Woo; Yang, Seung Bo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Kim, Young Kuk; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that chitosan prepatterns can generate not only highly periodic DNA pattern but also various types of graphitic carbon materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic results revealed that the graphitic carbon materials were selectively deposited on the surface of the periodic chitosan patterns by the electrostatic interaction between protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative charged carbon materials. One proof-of-concept application of the system to the fabrication of electrical devices based on the micropatterns of SWNTs and RGO was also demonstrated. The strategy to use highly surface active chitosan pattern that can easily fabricate highly periodic pattern via a variety of lithographic tools may pave the way for the production of periodic arrays of graphitic carbon materials for large area device integration. PMID:26353637

  6. A comparative study of ozone production in five U.S. metropolitan areas

    E-print Network

    A comparative study of ozone production in five U.S. metropolitan areas L. I. Kleinman, P. H. Daum measured at mid boundary layer altitude during field campaigns in Nashville, Tennessee (1995), New York (2000). Ozone production rates P(O3) and their sensitivity to NOx and volatile organic carbons (VOCs

  7. 29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT Employment by Small Country Elevators Within Area of Production; Exemption From Overtime Pay...)(14) requires that the employee employed by an establishment commonly recognized as a country elevator... production” within the meaning of section 13(b)(14) if the country elevator establishment by which he...

  8. High radon areas in the Walloon region of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Tondeur, F; Cinelli, G; Dehandschutter, B

    2015-06-01

    Indoor radon data from Southern Belgium are organised in 35 geological units (GUs), most of which are homogeneous with respect to the radon risk. The percentage of cases above the reference level (400 Bq m(-3); 300 Bq m(-3) in the future) is calculated for these GUs from the observations and from the log-normal distribution fitted to the data. Affected areas are defined as areas with more than 1 % of houses above the reference level. In the north of the region, the old Palaeozoic basement is generally covered by Silesian, Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks, which are unaffected. The affected areas here are hot spots associated with specific Palaeozoic outcrops. In the south, there is generally no cover above Palaeozoic formations, which are often radon affected. The affected areas of Ardenne and Condroz dominate this part, but unaffected areas occur like Famenne and Gaume. About 48 % of the Walloon region is expected to be radon affected. PMID:25969523

  9. Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas (Arabian Gulf, South Africa)

    E-print Network

    REPORT B. Riegl Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas other corals in 2002 at Sir Abu Nuair and recovered at Jebel Ali and Ras Hasyan. In South Africa, reef, the Arabian Gulf and South Africa, have rich coral faunas but little to no recent reef- framework production

  10. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  11. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  12. Hearing Lips and Seeing Voices: How Cortical Areas Supporting Speech Production Mediate Audiovisual Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Skipper, Jeremy I.; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Nusbaum, Howard C.; Small, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Observing a speaker’s mouth profoundly influences speech perception. For example, listeners perceive an “illusory” “ta” when the video of a face producing /ka/ is dubbed onto an audio /pa/. Here, we show how cortical areas supporting speech production mediate this illusory percept and audiovisual (AV) speech perception more generally. Specifically, cortical activity during AV speech perception occurs in many of the same areas that are active during speech production. We find that different perceptions of the same syllable and the perception of different syllables are associated with different distributions of activity in frontal motor areas involved in speech production. Activity patterns in these frontal motor areas resulting from the illusory “ta” percept are more similar to the activity patterns evoked by AV/ta/ than they are to patterns evoked by AV/pa/ or AV/ka/. In contrast to the activity in frontal motor areas, stimulus-evoked activity for the illusory “ta” in auditory and somatosensory areas and visual areas initially resembles activity evoked by AV/pa/ and AV/ka/, respectively. Ultimately, though, activity in these regions comes to resemble activity evoked by AV/ta/. Together, these results suggest that AV speech elicits in the listener a motor plan for the production of the phoneme that the speaker might have been attempting to produce, and that feedback in the form of efference copy from the motor system ultimately influences the phonetic interpretation. PMID:17218482

  13. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-07

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  14. Productivity Improvement for the SHX—SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  15. Area product and mass formula for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-09-01

    We derive area product, entropy product, area sum and entropy sum of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) black hole in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. We observe that these thermodynamic products are not universal (mass-independence) for this black hole (BH), whereas for Kerr-Newman (KN) BH such products are universal (mass-independence). We also examine the entropy sum and area sum. It is shown that they all depend on mass, charge and NUT parameter of the background spacetime. Thus, we can conclude that the universal (mass-independence) behavior of area product and entropy product, area sum and entropy sum for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (KNTN) BH fails and which is also quite different from KN BH. We further show that the KNTN BH do not possess first law of BH thermodynamics and Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem relations, and that such relations are unlikely in the KN case. The failure of these aforementioned features are due to presence of the nontrivial NUT charge which makes the spacetime to be asymptotically non-flat, in contrast with KN BH. The other reason of the failure is that Lorentzian KNTN geometry contains Dirac-Misner type singularity, which is a manifestation of a nontrivial topological twist of the manifold. The BH mass formula and Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula for KNTN BHs are also derived. Finally, we compute the area bound which is just Penrose like inequality for event horizon. From area bound we derive entropy bound. These thermodynamic products on the multi-horizon play a crucial role in BH thermodynamics to understand the microscopic nature of BH entropy.

  16. Area Products and Mass Formula for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT Space-time

    E-print Network

    Parthapratim Pradhan

    2015-07-16

    We derive area product, entropy product, area sum and entropy sum of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT(Newman-Unti-Tamburino) black hole in four dimensional \\emph{Lorentzian geometry}. We observe that these thermodynamic products are \\emph{not} universal(mass-independence) for this black hole(BH), whereas for Kerr-Newman(KN) BH such products are universal (mass-independence). We also examine the entropy sum and area sum. It is shown that they all are depends on mass, charge and NUT parameter of the back ground space-time. Thus we can conclude that the universal(mass-independence) behaviour of area product and entropy product, area sum and entropy sum for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT(KNTN) BH fails and which is also quite different from KN BH. We further show that the KNTN BH do not possess \\emph{first law of BH thermodynamics } and \\emph {Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem } relations, and that such relations are unlikely in the KN case. The failure of these aforementioned features are due to presence of the non-trivial NUT charge which makes the space-time to be asymptotically non-flat, in contrast with KN BH. The another reason of the failure is that Lorentzian KNTN geometry contains \\emph{Dirac-Misner type singularity}, which is a manifestation of a non-trivial topological twist of the manifold. The BH \\emph{mass formula} and \\emph{Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula} for KNTN black holes are also derived. Finally, we compute the area bound which is just Penrose like inequality for event horizon. From area bound we derive entropy bound. These thermodynamic products on the multi horizon playing a crucial role in BH thermodynamics to understand the microscopic nature of BH entropy.

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Environmental Samples in an Area of Intensive Poultry Production

    PubMed Central

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R.; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B.; Hiott, Lari M.; Chambers, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-01

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented. PMID:23481592

  19. Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

  20. Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

  1. CHANGES IN CROP PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY WITH HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in crop yield are due to changes in the genetic efficiency in the use of inputs. However, there are constraints on efficient use of resources, e.g., water, nitrogen, solar radiation, that limit consistent high yield response. The interactions of water, nitrogen, and light form a basis fo...

  2. 75 FR 32119 - Proposed Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California AGENCY...proposes to amend the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas by providing additional...conducted a comprehensive review of the offshore airspace in the ARTCC's area of...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. A Appendix A to Part 1580—High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) State Candidate... Phoenix Area * Chandler, Gilbert, Glendale, Mesa, Peoria, Phoenix, Scottsdale, Tempe, and a 10-mile...

  4. High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production 

    E-print Network

    Packer, Daniel

    2011-05-09

    High-biomass sorghums are being developed as a dedicated energy crop for biofuels. Their high biomass yields provide large quantities of structural carbohydrates (cellulose, lignin, etc.) for energy production. Sorghum improvement for applications...

  5. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  6. A Multi-satellite Remote Sensing Product of Reservoir Storage, Elevation, and Surface Area in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Gao, H.; Naz, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoir storage information is essential for accurate flood monitoring and prediction. South Asia, however, is dominated by international river basins where communications among neighboring countries about reservoir storage and management are extremely limited. A suite of satellite observations were combined to create a high quality reservoir storage product in South Asia from 2000 to 2012. The approach used water surface area estimations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices product and the area-elevation relationship to estimate reservoir storage. The surface elevation measurements were from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). In order to improve the accuracy of water surface area estimations for relatively small reservoirs, a novel classification algorithm was developed. This remotely sensed product contains time series of reservoir elevation, area, and storage for a total of 21 reservoirs, which represents 28% of the integrated reservoir capacity in South Asia. The remotely sensed results were validated comprehensively over five reservoirs through two steps. First, the MODIS surface water classification images were compared with Landsat high resolution (30 m) classifications. Second, the reservoir elevation and storage dataset from remote sensing was evaluated using gauge observations. . The storage estimates were highly correlated with observed values (i.e., the correlation coefficients were all larger than 0.9), with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) ranging from 9.51% to 25.20%. Uncertainty analysis was also conducted for the remotely sensed storage estimations. For the parameterization uncertainty associated with surface area retrieval, the storage mean relative uncertainty was 3.90%. With regard to the uncertainty introduced by ICESat/GLAS elevation measurements, the storage mean absolute uncertainty was 0.67%.

  7. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  8. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  9. High Yields for Enhanced Sustainable Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental, and social transitions since the industrial revolution as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable sources. The Billion Ton Report established a target for U.S. bioenergy feedstock production and throug...

  10. Assessment of the Broadleaf Crops Leaf Area Index Product from the Terra MODIS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Hu, Jiannan; Huang, Dong; Yang, Wenze; Zhang, Ping; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2005-01-01

    The first significant processing of Terra MODIS data, called Collection 3, covered the period from November 2000 to December 2002. The Collection 3 leaf area index (LAI) and fraction vegetation absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) products for broadleaf crops exhibited three anomalies (a) high LAI values during the peak growing season, (b) differences in LAI seasonality between the radiative transfer-based main algorithm and the vegetation index based back-up algorithm, and (c) too few retrievals from the main algorithm during the summer period when the crops are at full flush. The cause of these anomalies is a mismatch between reflectances modeled by the algorithm and MODIS measurements. Therefore, the Look-Up-Tables accompanying the algorithm were revised and implemented in Collection 4 processing. The main algorithm with the revised Look-Up-Tables generated retrievals for over 80% of the pixels with valid data. Retrievals from the back-up algorithm, although few, should be used with caution as they are generated from surface reflectances with high uncertainties.

  11. Modulation of Frontal Lobe Speech Areas Associated with the Production and Perception of Speech Movements

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Moser, Dana; Ryalls, Jack; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris; Baylis, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose It is unclear if the production and perception of speech movements are sub served by the same brain networks. The purpose of this study was to investigate neural recruitment in cortical areas commonly associated with speech production during the production and visual perception of speech. Method This study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain function while participants either imitated or observed speech movements. Results A common neural network was recruited by both tasks: greatest frontal lobe activity in Broca’s area was triggered not only when producing speech but also when watching speech movements. Relatively less activity was observed in the left anterior insula during both tasks. Conclusions These results support the emerging view that cortical areas involved in the execution of speech movements are also recruited in the perception of the same movements in other speakers. PMID:18978212

  12. High quality large area ELOG InP on silicon for photonic integration using conventional optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Himanshu; Metaferia, Wondwosen T.; Junesand, Carl; Zhang, Chong; Bowers, John E.; Lourdudoss, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    A simple method of growing large areas of InP on Si through Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) is presented. Isolated areas of high quality InP suitable for photonic integration are grown in deeply etched SiO2 mask fabricated using conventional optical lithography and reactive ion etching. This method is particularly attractive for monolithically integrating laser sources grown on InP with Si/SiO2 waveguide structure as the mask. The high optical quality of multi quantum well (MQW) layers grown on the ELOG layer is promisingly supportive of the feasibility of this method for mass production.

  13. High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium

    E-print Network

    Becker, Andreas

    High harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in dense medium v.v. Stre1kov1'2', V ABSTRACT We have studied the high harmonic generation and attosecond pulse production in a plasma or gas. The latter effect leads to a narrowing of the harmonic lines and a shortening of the attosecond pulses

  14. Medina Group geology and production tests indicate area worth further drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Pees, S.T.

    1983-05-30

    The Medina Group sandstones of the Lower Silurian area comprise the currently most active drilling objective for gas in northwestern Pennsylvania. This article discusses the stratigraphy and gives details on production tests of the area. The occurrence of exceptional Medina wells is clearly established in the region. These wells can economically offset average or marginal wells. In spite of the large number of wells, many of which have been drilled since 1979, the region has large undrilled tracts.

  15. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  16. High Surface Area Inorganic Membrane for Water Removal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to demonstrate the fabrication and performance advantages of minichannel planar membrane modules made of porous metallic supports of surface area packing density one order of magnitude higher than the conventional membrane tube. The new, transformational, ceramic/metallic, hybrid membrane technology will be used for water/ethanol separations and reduce energy consumption by >20% over distillation and adsorption.

  17. Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

  18. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  19. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  20. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  1. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  2. CM-SAF high-resolution radiation budget products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicula, Bogdan; Dewitte, Steven; Clerbaux, Nicolas

    2003-04-01

    In this paper the system employed at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) within the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM-SAF) for the production of Top Of the Atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget components is described. One of the goals of the CM-SAF is to provide consistent TOA and surface radiation budget components and cloud properties at high spatial resolution and on an approximate equal area grid for a region that covers at least Europe and part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The TOA radiation products will be based on data from polar orbiting satellites for northern latitudes, and on data from MSG (METEOSAT Second Generation) for mid latitudes. The instruments used for the reflected solar and emitted thermal flux estimates will be GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) and SEVIRI as the geostationary instruments and CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) for the non geostationary instruments. Daily means, monthly means and monthly mean diurnal cycles are to be provided. Until MSG fluxes will become available, fluxes from METEOSAT and CERES are used for development. At the TOA the three radiative flux components of incoming solar radiation, reflected solar radiation and emitted thermal radiation will be given. The daily mean GERB and CERES fluxes will be merged to produce a homogenized TOA flux product. The method used for the merging of the TOA fluxes and together with results using currently available input data are shown. The merging consists in the collocation of the two instruments, detection and the removal of the systematic dependencies of the flux estimates on scene type and viewing angles and regridding on a common grid.

  3. Application of Remote Sensors in Mapping Rice Area and Forecasting Its Production: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh, Mostafa K.; Hassan, Quazi K.; Chowdhury, Ehsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ?19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ?65 kg during 2010–2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

  4. Application of remote sensors in mapping rice area and forecasting its production: a review.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Mostafa K; Hassan, Quazi K; Chowdhury, Ehsan H

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ~19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ~65 kg during 2010-2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

  5. Validation of the 2008 Landsat Burned Area Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 Burned Area ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene areas overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference burned area polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic Burned Area Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic Burned Area Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.

  6. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

  7. Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

  8. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  9. High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

  10. Quantitative approach of risk management strategies for hepatitis a virus-contaminated oyster production areas.

    PubMed

    Thebault, A; Le Saux, J-C; Pommepuy, M; Le Guyader, S; Lailler, R; Denis, J-B

    2012-07-01

    It is not yet known whether using the new molecular tools to monitor hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish production areas could be useful for improving food safety. HAV contamination can be acute in coastal areas, such as Brittany, France, where outbreaks of hepatitis A have already occurred and have been linked to the consumption of raw shellfish. A quantitative probabilistic approach was carried out to estimate the mean annual risk of hepatitis A in an adult population of raw oyster consumers. Two hypothetical scenarios of contamination were considered, the first for a rare and brief event and the second for regular and prolonged episodes of contamination. Fourteen monitoring and management strategies were simulated. Their effects were assessed by the relative risk reduction in mean annual risk. The duration of closure after abnormal detection in the shellfish area was also considered. Among the strategies tested, results show that monthly molecular reverse transcription PCR monitoring of HAV is more useful than bacterial surveys. In terms of management measures, early closure of the shellfish area without waiting for confirmatory analysis was shown to be the most efficient strategy. When contamination is very short-lived and homogeneous in the shellfish production area, waiting for three negative results before reopening the area for harvest is time wasting. When contamination is not well identified or if contamination is heterogeneous, it can be harmful not to wait for three negative results. In addition, any preventive measures, such as improving sewage treatment or producing shellfish in safer areas, that can reduce contamination by at least 2 log units are more efficient and less costly. Finally we show that controlling and managing transferred shellfish are useful and can play an important role in preventing cases. Qualitative results from HAV monitoring can advantageously supplement other measures that improve the safety of shellfish products in exposed areas. PMID:22980008

  11. A Seasonal Survey of Click Beetles in a Potato Production Area Near Palmer, Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult elaterids associated with potato production were collected in the three major potato producing areas of Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, and from a subsistence farm above the arctic circle in Wiseman. Twelve species from ten genera were collected including three of the six most e...

  12. 75 FR 35829 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge), 7 miles south of... ``Bear Lake CCP EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Annette de Knijf, 208-847-1319....

  13. Estimating leaf area index from Landsat using MODIS LAI products and field measurements as reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical parameter used in most land surface models. Operationally, LAI products currently used typically come from coarse resolution sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While coarse resolution data at the kilometer scale are o...

  14. Characterizing the impacts of vertical transport and photochemical ozone production on an exceedance area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Austerberry, David; Pierce, R. Bradley; Roby, Matthew C.; Tadi?, Jovan M.; Loewenstein, Max; Gore, Warren

    2015-05-01

    Offshore and inland vertical profiles of ozone (O3) were measured from an aircraft during 16 flights from January 2012 to January 2013 over the northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and over the Pacific Ocean. Analysis of in situ measurements presents an assessment of the seasonality and magnitude of net O3 production and transport within the lower troposphere above the SJV. During the high O3 season (May-October), the Dobson Unit sum of O3 in the 0-2 km above sea level (km.a.s.l.) layer above the SJV exceeds that above the offshore profile by up to 20.5%, implying net O3 production over the SJV or vertical transport from above. During extreme events (e.g. Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport) vertical features (areas of enhanced or depleted O3 or water vapor) are observed in the offshore and SJV profiles at different altitudes, demonstrating the scale of vertical mixing during transport. Correlation analysis between offshore O3 profiles and O3 surface sites in the SJV lends further support the hypothesis of vertical mixing. Correlation analysis indicates that O3 mixing ratios at surface sites in the northern and middle SJV show significant correlations to the 1.5-2 km.a.s.l. offshore altitude range. Southern SJV O3 surface sites show a shift towards maximum correlations at increased time-offsets, and O3 surface sites at elevated altitudes show significant correlations with higher offshore altitudes (2.5-4 km.a.s.l.).

  15. Land Policy Measures Affecting Livestock Production and Forestry in Mountainous Areas and Worth-Living Integrated Development

    E-print Network

    Psarrakos, Panayiotis

    1 Land Policy Measures Affecting Livestock Production and Forestry in Mountainous Areas and Worth policies affecting the sectors of livestock production and forestry in Greece from the perspective of Worth for the Integrated Development of mountainous areas, particularly in the sectors of livestock production and forestry

  16. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  17. Area(or Entropy) Product Formula for a Regular Black Hole

    E-print Network

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-01-01

    We compute the area(or entropy) product formula for a regular black hole derived by Ay\\'on-Beato and Garc\\'ia in 1998\\cite{abg}. By explicit and exact calculation, it is shown that the entropy product formula of two physical horizons strictly \\emph{depends} upon the ADM mass parameter that means it is \\emph{not} an universal(mass-independent) quantity. But a slightly more complicated function of event horizon area and Cauchy horizon area is indeed a \\emph{mass-independent} quantity. We also compute other thermodynamic properties of the said black hole. We further study the stability of such black hole by computing the specific heat for both the horizons. It has been observed that under certain condition the black hole possesses second order phase transition. The pictorial diagram of the phase transition is given.

  18. High-efficiency large-area CdTe panels

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. )

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this three year effort has been to develop an improved materials technology and fabrication process for limited volume production of 1 ft{sup 2} and 4 ft{sup 2} CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. The module stability objective by the end of this three year subcontract was to develop techniques to provide ten year life exploration with no greater than 10% degradation. In order to achieve these efficiency and stability objectives, the research program has been separated into tasks including: (1) analysis and characterization of CdS/CdTe Devices; (2) performance optimization on small cells; (3) encapsulation and stability testing; and (4) module efficiency optimization. 27 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

    2013-12-01

    Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

  20. The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehle, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas. (GR)

  1. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  2. Hydrogen storage in high surface area graphene scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Klechikov, Alexey; Mercier, Guillaume; Sharifi, Tiva; Baburin, Igor A; Seifert, Gotthard; Talyzin, Alexandr V

    2015-10-25

    Using an optimized KOH activation procedure we prepared highly porous graphene scaffold materials with SSA values up to 3400 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume up to 2.2 cm(3) g(-1), which are among the highest for carbon materials. Hydrogen uptake of activated graphene samples was evaluated in a broad temperature interval (77-296 K). After additional activation by hydrogen annealing the maximal excess H2 uptake of 7.5 wt% was obtained at 77 K. A hydrogen storage value as high as 4 wt% was observed already at 193 K (120 bar H2), a temperature of solid CO2, which can be easily maintained using common industrial refrigeration methods. PMID:26335949

  3. Preparation and use of high surface area transition metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, G.B.

    1981-03-17

    Highly active catalysts, suitable for use in hydrogenation and other reactions, are prepared from an alloy of one or more of the group VIII transition metals with yttrium or a rare earth metal. The alloy is ground to the desired particle size and is thereafter reacted with a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen to form an intimate physical admixture of the group viii metal or its corresponding carbide with the oxide of yttrium or the rare earth metal.

  4. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremely high surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

  5. Software Synthesis for High Productivity Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodik, Rastislav

    2010-09-01

    Over the three years of our project, we accomplished three key milestones: We demonstrated how ideas from generative programming and software synthesis can help support the development of bulk-synchronous distributed memory kernels. These ideas are realized in a new language called MSL, a C-like language that combines synthesis features with high level notations for array manipulation and bulk-synchronous parallelism to simplify the semantic analysis required for synthesis. We also demonstrated that these high level notations map easily to low level C code and show that the performance of this generated code matches that of handwritten Fortran. Second, we introduced the idea of solver-aided domain-specific languages (SDSLs), which are an emerging class of computer-aided programming systems. SDSLs ease the construction of programs by automating tasks such as verification, debugging, synthesis, and non-deterministic execution. SDSLs are implemented by translating the DSL program into logical constraints. Next, we developed a symbolic virtual machine called Rosette, which simplifies the construction of such SDSLs and their compilers. We have used Rosette to build SynthCL, a subset of OpenCL that supports synthesis. Third, we developed novel numeric algorithms that move as little data as possible, either between levels of a memory hierarchy or between parallel processors over a network. We achieved progress in three aspects of this problem. First we determined lower bounds on communication. Second, we compared these lower bounds to widely used versions of these algorithms, and noted that these widely used algorithms usually communicate asymptotically more than is necessary. Third, we identified or invented new algorithms for most linear algebra problems that do attain these lower bounds, and demonstrated large speed-ups in theory and practice.

  6. Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

    2013-01-01

    Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

  7. Glacier volume and area change by 2050 in high mountain Asia Liyun Zhao a

    E-print Network

    Moore, John

    Glacier volume and area change by 2050 in high mountain Asia Liyun Zhao a , Ran Ding a , John C change by 2050 of all 67,028 glaciers, with a total area of 122,969 km2 , delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory 2.0 of high mountain Asia (HMA). We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model Reg

  8. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

  13. Production Practices for Irrigated Crops on the High Plains. 

    E-print Network

    Bonnen, C. A.; McArthur, W. C.; Magee, A. C.; Hughes, W.F.

    1953-01-01

    of such crops as alfalfa, sugar beets and potatoes, which cannot be grown successfully without irrigation. Data concerning production and production requirements for the crops commonly grown under irrigation on the High Plains are shown and discussed... ...................................................... Labor and Power Requirements 23 ................................................................................................. Sugar Beets 24 ..................................................................... Usual Field Operations 25...

  14. High lying N* studies in electromagnetic double charged pion production

    SciTech Connect

    V. I. Mokeev; M. Ripani; M. Anghinolfi; M. Battaglieri; R. De Vita; G. V. Fedotov; E. N. Golovach; B. S. Ishkhanov; M. V. Osipenko; G. Ricco; V. Sapunenko; M. Taiuti

    2002-06-07

    A phenomenological model for double charged pion production is presented, aimed to exact N* electromagnetic form factors from measured observables (differential cross-sections, asymmetries). The preliminary results of CLAS data analysis on double charged pion production by virtual photons are discussed, focusing on high lying N* electromagnetic excitation and signals from possible ''missing'' baryon states.

  15. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  16. Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production

    E-print Network

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production Peer M. Schenk range of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane and biohydrogen. Biodiesel supply. In contrast, producing biodiesel from algae is widely regarded as one of the most efficient ways

  17. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremelyhigh surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

  18. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

  19. Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Kristian; Morken, John; Hanssen, Jon Fredrik; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the specific methane production and the energy balance at a small farm scaled mesophilic biogas plant in a cold climate area. The main substrate was dairy cow slurry. Fish silage was used as co-substrate for two of the three test periods. Energy production, substrate volumes and thermal and electric energy consumption was monitored. Methane production depended mainly on type and amount of substrates, while energy consumption depended mainly on the ambient temperature. During summer the main thermal energy consumption was caused by heating of new substrates, while covering for thermal energy losses from digester and pipes required most thermal energy during winter. Fish silage gave a total energy production of 1623 k Wh/m(3), while the dairy cow slurry produced 79 k Wh/m(3) slurry. Total energy demand at the plant varied between 26.9% and 88.2% of the energy produced. PMID:25033326

  20. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue endemic area in México

    PubMed Central

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N.; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue endemic area in México. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City or other communities in Yucatán State to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. Results Most (86.6%) households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. Among those households, the most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%), and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. During the part of the year when a given product type was used, the frequency of use was daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%), and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to ?31 $U.S. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $U.S.) for Mérida City alone. Conclusion Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. PMID:25040259

  1. Recurrent acute respiratory tract infections in areas with high nitrate concentrations in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S K; Gupta, R C; Gupta, A B; Seth, A K; Bassin, J K; Gupta, A

    2000-01-01

    A review of the literature indicated an association among high nitrate ingestion, methemoglobinemia, and pathologic changes in bronchi and lung parenchyma. The present study examined a possible correlation among drinking water nitrate concentration, methemoglobin levels, cytochrome b(5) reductase activity, and acute respiratory tract infection with a history of recurrence (RRTI). Our study was conducted in five village units in the state of Rajasthan, India, with nitrate concentrations of 26, 45, 95, 222, and 459 mg NO(3) ion/L. We randomly selected 88 children. The children were up to 8 years of age, age matched, and represented 10% of the total population of these areas. We obtained detailed RRTI histories and conducted medical examinations. Methemoglobin levels and cytochrome b(5) reductase activity were estimated biochemically. The data collected were statistically analyzed using spreadsheet software on a personal computer. We observed strong interdependence between methemoglobin levels and RRTI in children up to 8 years of age. Methemoglobin levels alone explained 80% of the variation in the RRTI cases. This study indicates that methemoglobinemia, secondary to high nitrate ingestion in drinking water, causes RRTI. Increased production of methemoglobin and free radicals of nitric oxide and oxygen due to nitrate metabolism in the body lead to alveolar damage and mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, which may be the reason for high mortality in children due to RRTI. Images Figure 1 PMID:10753096

  2. Risks of Avian Influenza Transmission in Areas of Intensive Free-ranging Duck Production with wild waterfowl

    PubMed Central

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions. PMID:24652313

  3. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  4. Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Wones, A.; McIntire, C.D.; Samora, B.

    1994-01-01

    A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

  5. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  6. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  7. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established restricting the Amazon and the Pantanal basin to sugarcane expansion. These eco-regions were, therefore, not considered by ZAECANA, which defined pasture lands as preferential for sugarcane crop expansion, since their majority is considered as degraded lands. ZAECANA results show that approximately 64 million ha, currently under pasture and agriculture, are suitable for sugarcane cropping in Brazil, located mainly at the Midwest and Southeast regions (35% of the national territory).Our results indicate that, if the ZAECANA instrument is implemented to drive investments for sugarcane expansion in Brazil, the projected demands for bioethanol could be met without significant impacts to food production, and environmental sustainability could be attained by the adoption of good crop, soil and water management practices.

  8. Universal area product formulas for rotating and charged black holes in four and higher dimensions.

    PubMed

    Cveti?, M; Gibbons, G W; Pope, C N

    2011-03-25

    We present explicit results for the product of all horizon areas for general rotating multicharge black holes, both in asymptotically flat and asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in four and higher dimensions. The expressions are universal, and depend only on the quantized charges, quantized angular momenta and the cosmological constant. If the latter is also quantized these universal results may provide a "looking glass" for probing the microscopics of general black holes. PMID:21517293

  9. [Radio-ecological situation in the area of JSC "Priargunsky Production Mining and Chemical Association"].

    PubMed

    Shandala, N K; Semenova, M P; Isaev, D V; Kiselev, S M; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Filonova, A A; Zhuravleva, L A; Marenny, A M

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the radioecological situation created in the area of the location of diversified uranium mining enterprise "Priargunsky Production Mining and Chemical Association" (PIMCU) there was investigated the radioactivity of a number of the compartments of environment, both at the industrial site and beyond it, as well as the volume activity of radon inside the ground and working premises. Radioecological situation in the vicinity of the uranium mines was performed in comparison with the background (fixed reference, control) district, where there is no uranium mining. Performed studies have shown the significant excess content of 226Ra, 232Th, 210Pb, 222Rn in soil, water open water bodies and local foods near uranium mines compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining that allows to make a conclusion about the significant technogenic pollution of local areas of the plant and adjoining territory. PMID:25842487

  10. Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

    2013-12-01

    Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. PMID:23452757

  11. Water - Food Nexus: Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Fishery Production in Jakarta Bay Area, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.; Martosuparno, S.; Bakti, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    An enormous land-use change is envisaged along the coastline of Jakarta Bay both housing, commercial and industrial zones. Housing and business projects in Jakarta coastal area started from late 1980s have had great impact on mangrove areas and coastal water quality. The next mega project will also be conducted, such as giant sea wall as a sea wall defence and reclamation the north coast of Jakarta as a waterfront city. These reclamation projects should ideally not marginalize fishery production and local fisher communities, but hopefully it will increase their welfare. Therefore, some policy concept base on water-food resilience at coastal area should be carried out before the next activities implemented.

  12. Vacuum-thermal-evaporation: the route for roll-to-roll production of large-area organic electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. M.

    2015-05-01

    Surprisingly little consideration is apparently being given to vacuum-evaporation as the route for the roll-to-roll (R2R) production of large-area organic electronic circuits. While considerable progress has been made by combining silicon lithographic approaches with solution processing, it is not obvious that these will be compatible with a low-cost, high-speed R2R process. Most efforts at achieving this ambition are directed at conventional solution printing approaches such as inkjet and gravure. This is surprising considering that vacuum-evaporation of organic semiconductors (OSCs) is already used commercially in the production of organic light emitting diode displays. Beginning from a discussion of the materials and geometrical parameters determining transistor performance and drawing on results from numerous publications, this review makes a case for vacuum-evaporation as an enabler of R2R organic circuit production. The potential of the vacuum route is benchmarked against solution approaches and found to be highly competitive. For example, evaporated small molecules tend to have higher mobility than printed OSCs. High resolution metal patterning on plastic films is already a low-cost commercial process for high-volume packaging applications. Similarly, solvent-free flash-evaporation and polymerization of thin films on plastic substrates is also a high-volume commercial process and has been shown capable of producing robust gate dielectrics. Reports of basic logic circuit elements produced in a vacuum R2R environment are reviewed and shown to be superior to all-solution printing approaches. Finally, the main issues that need to be resolved in order to fully develop the vacuum route to R2R circuit production are highlighted.

  13. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (?), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (?), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  14. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the potential for industrial application. To our knowledge, this represents the most effective engineered microbial system for propionate production with titers and yields comparable to those achieved by anaerobic batch cultivation of various native propionate-producing strains of Propionibacteria. PMID:25948049

  15. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  16. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) product (i.e., MODIS) involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM), which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., >1 km) allows for comparison and analysis with this ...

  17. Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. I - Plant development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, I.; Fujimaki, T.; Kajiwara, Y.; Yokoo, Y.

    The development of a test plant with a hydrogen-production capacity of 4 cu Nm/hour based on a high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolyzer is discussed, and results of corrosion tests on metallic materials for plant construction are presented. The test plant electrolyzer was designed and constructed on the basis of the construction and testing of a series of bench-scale electrolyzers operating at atmospheric pressure with single and bipolar cell capacities from 20 to 300 l/hr. The test plant, in turn, is intended to be used to provide data for the design of a 20-cu Nm/hour pilot plant in the areas of cell structures, electrode and diaphragm evaluation, energy efficiency and the gas-liquid separator and control system. In order to select materials for the pilot plant, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking tests were performed on various stainless steels and higher nickel alloys in 30 wt % KOH at 130 and 150 C in O2 and Ar atmospheres. Results of the tests have shown type 310 ELC austenitic stainless steel to be sufficiently resistant for use at operating temperatures up to 150 C, at which no corrosion is observed.

  18. A high natural radiation area in Khao-Than hot spring, Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bhongsuwan, T; Auisui, S A

    2015-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in Khao-Than hot spring area, Surat Thani Province, Thailand was investigated. Gamma dose survey indicated a possible high radiation risk for this area. Rock, soil and hot spring mud samples were collected and analysed by a low background gamma spectrometer. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples were 151-139 092 (mean = 13 794), 12-596 (127), 24-616 (215) Bq kg(-1), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that quartz and calcite (CaCO3) are the main constituents in mud samples with varying contents. In conclusion, this study area was reasonably classified as a high natural background radiation area. The source of radium in this area is supposed to be related to the fault fluids enriched in radium that precipitated with calcium in the carbonate terrain and partly absorbed by high cation exchange capacity clays. PMID:25956781

  19. Quantitative determination and sampling of azathioprine residues for cleaning validation in production area.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello

    2007-03-12

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, azathioprine and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in same production area. Carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of azathioprine will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for verification of residual azathioprine in equipments used in the production area and to confirm efficiency of cleaning procedure. The HPLC method was validated on a LC system using Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 4 microm) and methanol-water-acetic acid (20:80:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was made at 280 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 2.0 to 22.0 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.09 and 0.29 microg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of method was 99.19%. The mean extraction-recovery from manufacturing equipments was 83.5%. The developed UV spectrophotometric method could only be used as limit method to qualify or reject cleaning procedure in production area. Nevertheless, the simplicity of spectrophotometric method makes it useful for routine analysis of azathioprine residues on cleaned surface and as an alternative to proposed HPLC method. PMID:17118615

  20. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  1. High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success

    PubMed Central

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L?1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  2. Ecohydrology in semiarid urban ecosystems: Modeling the relationship between connected impervious area and ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Catherine; Tague, Christina

    2015-01-01

    In water-stressed, semiarid urban environments, connections between impervious surfaces and drainage networks may strongly impact the water use and ecosystem productivity of neighboring vegetated areas. We use an ecohydrologic model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), to quantify the sensitivity of vegetation water use and net primary productivity (NPP) to fine-scale impervious surface connectivity. We develop a set of very fine-scale (2 m2) scenarios that vary both the percentage of impervious surface and fraction of this impervious surface with direct hydrologic connections to urban drainage systems for a small hillslope. When driven by Mediterranean climate forcing, model estimates suggest that total vegetation water use declines with increasing impervious area. However, when impervious area is hydrologically disconnected from the urban drainage network, declines in water and carbon fluxes with decreased vegetated area can be partially, or in some cases even completely, offset by increased transpiration and NPP in the remaining vegetation. Relative increases in water use and NPP of remaining vegetation are much greater for deeply rooted shrubs and trees and negligible for shallow rooted grasses. We extrapolate our findings to the catchment scale by developing a first-order approximation of fine-scale impervious connection impacts on aggregate watershed water and carbon flux estimates. Our approach offers a computationally and data-efficient method for estimating the impact of impervious area connectivity on these ecohydrologic fluxes. For our only partially urbanized Santa Barbara watershed, estimates of water use and NPP that account for fine-scale impervious connection differed by more than 10% from those that did not.

  3. Mechanical exfoliation yields MoS2 flakes of high quality but small area,

    E-print Network

    several square centimeters. Right: Large Exfoliated Flake Deposition A crucial measure of film quality is how uniform the growth is over a large area. By probing the RamanMechanical exfoliation yields MoS2 flakes of high quality but small area, while CVD films cover

  4. High surface area diamond-like carbon electrodes grown on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    sur- face area have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) onto denselyHigh surface area diamond-like carbon electrodes grown on vertically aligned carbon nanotubes H over the CNT arrays. DLC:VACNT elec- trodes exhibit low background responses over a large potential

  5. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Antelope Valley of the California High Desert viticultural area in the Federal Register (75 FR 53877) on... area are climate, geology, geography, and soils, according to the petition. The Antelope Valley is..., geology, geography, and soils. These geographical features are distinct from the geographical features...

  6. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Antelope Valley of the California High Desert viticultural area in the Federal Register (75 FR 53877) on... surrounded by mountains on three sides and by a desert on the other side; it has an arid climate,...

  7. 76 FR 44834 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; Northern Area Trophy Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...0648-XA550 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Fisheries; Northern Area Trophy Fishery AGENCY: National...for large medium and giant (``trophy'') Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT) for the remainder of 2011. This action is...

  8. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (? = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg, particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

  9. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment.

    PubMed

    Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg ) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g ), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (? = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg ), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg , particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

  10. Gluon recombination in high parton density QCD: inclusive pion production

    E-print Network

    Yang Li; Kirill Tuchin

    2007-02-20

    We argue that the collinear factorization of the fragmentation functions in high energy hadron and nuclei collisions breaks down at transverse momenta kT < Qs/g due to high parton densities in the colliding hadrons and/or nuclei. We calculate, at next-to-leading order in projectile parton density and to all orders in target parton density, the double-inclusive cross section for production of a pair of gluons in the scalar J^(PC)=0^(++) channel. Using the low energy theorems of QCD we find the inclusive cross section for pi-meson production.

  11. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1995-07-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

  12. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  13. HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS: CONVERTING OATS TO HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS FOR USE IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new generation of soluble beta-glucan product, called Nutrim-OB (OB, oat bran), was developed that qualified for a FDA health claim. Nutrim-OB was prepared by heat-shearing oat flour or bran aqueous slurry in series of treatments that solubilises oat beta-glucans but maintains basic bran composit...

  14. Ozone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee, Linda J. Nunnermacker,

    E-print Network

    Ozone production efficiency in an urban area Lawrence I. Kleinman, Peter H. Daum, Yin-Nan Lee; accepted 1 August 2002; published 14 December 2002. [1] Ozone production efficiency can be defined and observational results on ozone production efficiency based on measurements made from aircraft flights

  15. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01... 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION...to permit evacuation of the area or activation of a secondary control device...

  16. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01... 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION...to permit evacuation of the area or activation of a secondary control device...

  17. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01... 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION...to permit evacuation of the area or activation of a secondary control device...

  18. Production of entanglement with highly-mixed states

    E-print Network

    Kang, Minsu; Jeong, Hyunseok; 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.044301

    2012-01-01

    We study production of entanglement with highly-mixed states. We find that entanglement between highly mixed states can be generated via a direct unitary interaction even when both states have purities arbitrarily close to zero. This indicates that purity of a subsystem is not required for entanglement generation. Our result is in contrast to previous studies where the importance of the subsystem purity was emphasized.

  19. The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trouve, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.

  20. Multi-core fiber technology for highly reliable optical network in access areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi; Lee, Yong; Nomoto, Etsuko; Arimoto, Hideo; Sugawara, Toshiki

    2015-03-01

    A failure recovery system utilizing a multi-core fiber (MCF) link with field programmable gate array-based optical switch units was developed to achieve high capacity and highly reliable optical networks in access areas. We describe the novel MCF link based on a multi-ring structure and a protection scheme to prevent link failures. Fan-in/ -out devices and connectors are also presented to demonstrate the development status of the MCF connection technology for the link. We demonstrated path recovery by switching operation within a sufficiently short time, which is required by ITU-T. The selection of a protecting path as a failure working path was also optimized as the minimum passage of units for low loss transmission. The results we obtained indicate that our proposed link has potential for the network design of highly reliable network topologies in access areas such as data centers, systems in business areas, and fiber to the home systems in residential areas.

  1. In situ cosmogenic radiocarbon production and 2-D ice flow line modeling for an Antarctic blue ice area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizert, Christo; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey L.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Brook, Edward J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2012-06-01

    Radiocarbon measurements at ice margin sites and blue ice areas can potentially be used for ice dating, ablation rate estimates and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Part of the measured signal comes from in situ cosmogenic 14C production in ice, and this component must be well understood before useful information can be extracted from 14C data. We combine cosmic ray scaling and production estimates with a two-dimensional ice flow line model to study cosmogenic 14C production at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. We find (1) that 14C production through thermal neutron capture by nitrogen in air bubbles is negligible; (2) that including ice flow patterns caused by basal topography can lead to a surface 14C activity that differs by up to 25% from the activity calculated using an ablation-only approximation, which is used in all prior work; and (3) that at high ablation margin sites, solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux may change the strength of the dominant spallogenic production by up to 10%. As part of this effort we model two-dimensional ice flow along the central flow line of Taylor Glacier. We present two methods for parameterizing vertical strain rates, and assess which method is more reliable for Taylor Glacier. Finally, we present a sensitivity study from which we conclude that uncertainties in published cosmogenic production rates are the largest source of potential error. The results presented here can inform ongoing and future 14C and ice flow studies at ice margin sites, including important paleoclimatic applications such as the reconstruction of paleoatmospheric 14C content of methane.

  2. Computer Study of Isotope Production in High Power Accelerators

    E-print Network

    K. A. Van Riper; S. G. Mashnik; W. B. Wilson

    1999-01-25

    Methods for radionuclide production calculation in a high power proton accelerator have been developed and applied to study production of 22 isotopes by high-energy protons and neutrons. These methods are readily applicable to accelerator, and reactor, environments other than the particular model we considered and to the production of other radioactive and stable isotopes. We have also developed methods for evaluating cross sections from a wide variety of sources into a single cross section set and have produced an evaluated library covering about a third of all natural elements. These methods also are applicable to an expanded set of reactions. A 684 page detailed report on this study, with 37 tables and 264 color figures is available on the Web at http://t2.lanl.gov/publications/publications.html, or, if not accessible, in hard copy from the authors.

  3. Generating Testable Hypotheses from Tacit Knowledge for High Productivity Computing

    E-print Network

    Basili, Victor R.

    Generating Testable Hypotheses from Tacit Knowledge for High Productivity Computing Sima Asgari1 Experimental Studies, Tribal Lore, Folklore, Tacit Knowledge Solicitation, Testable Hypotheses, Focus Groups 1://www.highproductivity.org in a suitable format. Unfortunately, since it currently exists only as tacit knowledge, it is not obvious how

  4. The Tacit Knowledge of Highly Productive Professors of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestor-Baker, Nancy; Lippa, Amy; Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Floyd, Loury

    This study investigated the tacit knowledge of highly productive and influential scholars in educational administration. Tacit knowledge is personal knowledge so thoroughly grounded in experience that it cannot be fully expressed. Some researchers suggest it is a marker of practical intelligence. Individual, indepth, semistructured interviews were…

  5. Gross Primary Productivity of a High Elevation Tropical Montane Cloud

    E-print Network

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    Gross Primary Productivity of a High Elevation Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Martine Janet van de HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2 School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK; 3 Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200

  6. Fuel Cell Assembly Process Flow for High Productivity

    E-print Network

    Edwards, David A.

    Fuel Cell Assembly Process Flow for High Productivity Problem Presenter Ram Ramanan Bloom Energy: Introduction Bloom Energy manufactures power modules based on fuel cell technology. These are built up their possible placement within a cell assembly. Currently, these rules for assembling the basic components

  7. Highly Fault-Tolerant Routings in Some Cartesian Product Digraphs

    E-print Network

    Xu, Jun-Ming

    Highly Fault-Tolerant Routings in Some Cartesian Product Digraphs Xiang-Feng Pana , Meijie Mab faults F might occur. A routing , i.e. a fixed path between each pair of vertices, for the network must minimal routing when the number of faults is less than some integer. This result is also useful

  8. Calculates Neutron Production in Canisters of High-level Waste

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-01-15

    ALPHN calculates the (alpha,n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (alpha,n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (alpha,n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass andmore »do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister.« less

  9. Characterization, distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil and products around mining and smelting areas of Hezhang, China.

    PubMed

    Briki, Meryem; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Ding, Huaijian; Gao, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Mining and smelting have been releasing huge amount of toxic substances into the environment. In the present study, agricultural soil and different agricultural products (potato, Chinese cabbage, garlic bolt, corn) were analyzed to examine the source, spatial distribution, and risk of 12 elements (As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in agricultural soil near mine fields, smelting fields, and mountain field around Hezhang County, west of Guizhou Province, China. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that in mining area, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn were generated from anthropogenic sources; in smelting area, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were derived from anthropogenic sources through zinc smelting ceased in 2004. The enrichment factors (EFs) and ecological risk index (RI) of soil in mining area are the most harmful, showing extremely high enrichment and very high ecological risk of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn. Zinc is the most significant enriched in the smelting area; however, mountain area has a moderate enrichment and ecological risk and do not present any ecological risk. According to spatial distribution, the concentrations depend on the nearby mining and smelting activities. Transfer factors (TFs) in the smelting area and mountain are high, implying a threat for human consumption. Therefore, further studies should be carried out taking into account the harm of those heavy metals and potential negative health effects from the consumption of agricultural products in these circumstances. PMID:26590987

  10. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... notification required by this section by: (1) Entering the information directly on the Integrity Management... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipeline integrity management in high consequence... Management § 195.452 Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas. (a) Which pipelines are...

  11. Roadmap for High School Feedback Reports: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    High school feedback reports let school and district leaders know where their students go after graduation and how well they are prepared for college and beyond. This roadmap discusses the seven key focus areas the Data Quality Campaign (DQC) recommends states work on to ensure quality implementation of high school feedback reports.

  12. Using ASTER and SRTM DEMs for studying geomorphology and glaciation in high mountain areas

    E-print Network

    Bolch, Tobias

    Using ASTER and SRTM DEMs for studying geomorphology and glaciation in high mountain areas Tobias, SRTM, geomorphology, glaciation, Andes, Hindu Kush, Tien Shan ABSTRACT: For selected peaks in high identifying debris-covered glaciers and geomorphologic forms and processes. Results show that ASTER/SRTM DEMs

  13. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipeline integrity management in high consequence... Management § 195.452 Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas. (a) Which pipelines are covered... by this section must: (1) Develop a written integrity management program that addresses the risks...

  14. Liquid hot water pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production accompanying with high valuable products.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Wen; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Zhou, Guixiong; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance of biomass and enhance the ethanol conversion efficiency of polysaccharides. Compared with other pretreatment methods, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment not only reduces the downstream pressure by making cellulose more accessible to the enzymes but minimizes the formation of degradation products that inhibit the growth of fermentative microorganisms. Herein, this review summarized the improved LHW process for different biomass feedstocks, the decomposition behavior of biomass in the LHW process, the enzymatic hydrolysis of LHW-treated substrates, and production of high value-added products and ethanol. Moreover, a combined process producing ethanol and high value-added products was proposed basing on the works of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion to make LHW pretreatment acceptable in the biorefinery of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26403722

  15. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  16. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  17. Enhancing microalgal photosynthesis and productivity in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Donna L; Howard-Williams, Clive; Turnbull, Matthew H; Broady, Paul A; Craggs, Rupert J

    2015-05-01

    With microalgal biofuels currently receiving much attention, there has been renewed interest in the combined use of high rate algal ponds (HRAP) for wastewater treatment and biofuel production. This combined use of HRAPs is considered to be an economically feasible option for biofuel production, however, increased microalgal productivity and nutrient removal together with reduced capital costs are needed before it can be commercially viable. Despite HRAPs being an established technology, microalgal photosynthesis and productivity is still limited in these ponds and is well below the theoretical maximum. This paper critically evaluates the parameters that limit microalgal light absorption and photosynthesis in wastewater HRAPs and examines biological, chemical and physical options for improving light absorption and utilisation, with the view of enhancing biomass production and nutrient removal. PMID:25453429

  18. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

  19. Parallel production and verification of protein products using a novel high-throughput screening method.

    PubMed

    Tegel, Hanna; Yderland, Louise; Boström, Tove; Eriksson, Cecilia; Ukkonen, Kaisa; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter; Ottosson, Jenny; Hober, Sophia

    2011-08-01

    Protein production and analysis in a parallel fashion is today applied in laboratories worldwide and there is a great need to improve the techniques and systems used for this purpose. In order to save time and money, a fast and reliable screening method for analysis of protein production and also verification of the protein product is desired. Here, a micro-scale protocol for the parallel production and screening of 96 proteins in plate format is described. Protein capture was achieved using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the product was verified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS. In order to obtain sufficiently high cell densities and product yield in the small-volume cultivations, the EnBase® cultivation technology was applied, which enables cultivation in as small volumes as 150 ?L. Here, the efficiency of the method is demonstrated by producing 96 human, recombinant proteins, both in micro-scale and using a standard full-scale protocol and comparing the results in regard to both protein identity and sample purity. The results obtained are highly comparable to those acquired through employing standard full-scale purification protocols, thus validating this method as a successful initial screening step before protein production at a larger scale. PMID:21681961

  20. High production of bacteriorhodopsin from wild type Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Seyedkarimi, Mansooreh-Sadat; Aramvash, Asieh; Ramezani, Rohollah

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a trans-membrane proton pump found in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. This protein has high photochemical and photoelectric conversion efficiency and thermal stability, allowing it to withstand high temperatures, high salinity, and nutritionally-limited environments. The ability of this protein to convert light energy into chemical energy has applications that are mainly therapeutic/diagnostic and research-oriented. There is increasing demand for bacteriorhodopsin production in different fields. The present study maximized bacteriorhodopsin production using H. salinarum. The physical parameters of illumination, agitation speed, temperature, and nitrogen source were studied using a fractional factorial design to determine the optimal levels of each. The most suitable nitrogen source was determined to be peptone from meat. The optimal temperature was 39 °C, agitation speed was 150 rpm, and light intensity was 6300 lux for bR production. Under these conditions, the maximum bR yield was 196 mg/l, which is about 4.23 fold greater than those obtained with basal medium. The proposed strategies could be used for bR production using this archaeobacterium; the results are the highest reported thus far from a batch culture of H. salinarum. PMID:26254806

  1. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production. PMID:25562933

  2. Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

  3. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform monolayer WS2 on reusable Au foils.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Sun, Dong-Ming; Huang, Le; Ma, Lai-Peng; Yin, Li-Chang; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-01-01

    Large-area monolayer WS2 is a desirable material for applications in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with rigid and inert substrates for large-area sample growth suffers from a non-uniform number of layers, small domain size and many defects, and is not compatible with the fabrication process of flexible devices. Here we report the self-limited catalytic surface growth of uniform monolayer WS2 single crystals of millimetre size and large-area films by ambient-pressure CVD on Au. The weak interaction between the WS2 and Au enables the intact transfer of the monolayers to arbitrary substrates using the electrochemical bubbling method without sacrificing Au. The WS2 shows high crystal quality and optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to mechanically exfoliated samples. We also demonstrate the roll-to-roll/bubbling production of large-area flexible films of uniform monolayer, double-layer WS2 and WS2/graphene heterostructures, and batch fabrication of large-area flexible monolayer WS2 film transistor arrays. PMID:26450174

  4. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform monolayer WS2 on reusable Au foils

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Sun, Dong-Ming; Huang, Le; Ma, Lai-Peng; Yin, Li-Chang; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-01-01

    Large-area monolayer WS2 is a desirable material for applications in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with rigid and inert substrates for large-area sample growth suffers from a non-uniform number of layers, small domain size and many defects, and is not compatible with the fabrication process of flexible devices. Here we report the self-limited catalytic surface growth of uniform monolayer WS2 single crystals of millimetre size and large-area films by ambient-pressure CVD on Au. The weak interaction between the WS2 and Au enables the intact transfer of the monolayers to arbitrary substrates using the electrochemical bubbling method without sacrificing Au. The WS2 shows high crystal quality and optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to mechanically exfoliated samples. We also demonstrate the roll-to-roll/bubbling production of large-area flexible films of uniform monolayer, double-layer WS2 and WS2/graphene heterostructures, and batch fabrication of large-area flexible monolayer WS2 film transistor arrays. PMID:26450174

  5. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform monolayer WS2 on reusable Au foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Sun, Dong-Ming; Huang, Le; Ma, Lai-Peng; Yin, Li-Chang; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Peng, Lian-Mao; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-10-01

    Large-area monolayer WS2 is a desirable material for applications in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with rigid and inert substrates for large-area sample growth suffers from a non-uniform number of layers, small domain size and many defects, and is not compatible with the fabrication process of flexible devices. Here we report the self-limited catalytic surface growth of uniform monolayer WS2 single crystals of millimetre size and large-area films by ambient-pressure CVD on Au. The weak interaction between the WS2 and Au enables the intact transfer of the monolayers to arbitrary substrates using the electrochemical bubbling method without sacrificing Au. The WS2 shows high crystal quality and optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to mechanically exfoliated samples. We also demonstrate the roll-to-roll/bubbling production of large-area flexible films of uniform monolayer, double-layer WS2 and WS2/graphene heterostructures, and batch fabrication of large-area flexible monolayer WS2 film transistor arrays.

  6. Using high resolution CIR imagery in the classification of non-cropped areas in agricultural landscapes in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2013-10-01

    With global food demand on course to double in the next 50 years the pressures of agricultural intensification on ecosystem services in highly managed landscapes are increasing. Within an agricultural landscape non-cropped areas are a key component of ecological heterogeneity and the sustainability of ecosystem services. Management of the landscape for both production of food and ecosystem services requires configuring the non-cropped areas in an optimal way, which, in turn requires large scale information on the distribution of non-cropped areas. In this study the Canny edge detection algorithm was used to delineate 93% of all boundaries within 422 ha of agricultural land in south east England. The resulting image was used in conjunction with vegetation indices derived from Color Infra Red (CIR) aerial photography and auxiliary landuse data in an Object Orientated (OO) Knowledge Based Classifier (KBC) to identify non-cropped areas. An overall accuracy of 94.27% (Kappa 0.91) for the KBC compared favorably with 63.04% (Kappa 0.55) for a pixel based hybrid classifier of the same area.

  7. 78 FR 45181 - Foreign-Trade Zone 230-Piedmont Triad Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...Area, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., (Foil-Backed Paperboard...activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Oracle Flexible Packaging, Inc., within Site 28, in...

  8. Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Linyue Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong; Ouyang, Xiaoping Zhang, Jianfu; Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049

    2014-01-15

    Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

  9. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical predictions show good agreement for the first 0.5 in. from the nozzle wall; but the further into the core flow that measurements were taken, the more that TDK overpredicted the boundary layer thickness.

  10. Numerical simulation and optimization of microstructured high brightness broad area laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckstein, Hans-Christoph; Zeitner, Uwe; Tünnermann, Andreas; Lauer, Christian; Strauß, U.

    2015-03-01

    The development of broad area laser diodes towards higher output power, efficiency and brightness is essential to gain progress in almost all laser applications because those devices provide the basis for high power laser sources. To systematically improve the characteristics of high power broad area laser diodes through a design process, it is necessary to have an accurate and efficient computation model self-consistently taking into account optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this publication we present numerical techniques to compute the optical properties of the multimode beam generated by high power AlGaAs broad area laser diodes with an operating wavelength of 970 nm. This simulation considers fluctuations of the carrier and power density as well as the temperature distribution. The numerical results show an excellent agreement to measured data of conventional and microstructured high power broad area lasers. The high computation speed of the model allows optimizing microstructures inside the laser resonator with the use of a genetic optimization algorithm. We show that this design approach potentially leads to a substantial performance gain of the device. In particular degradation of the beam quality due to thermal effects at high injection currents can be controlled.

  11. Dilepton production phenomena in high energy hadronic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    1984-03-01

    Experiments over the last few years have given rise to a blizzard of new and interesting results with regard to the production of various dileptons in high energy hadronic collisions. An attempt has here been made on the basis of some new ideas about the structure of hadrons and thus on a newly proposed version of the multiple production model to explain some of the crucial features in connection with the various multiplicity--ratios, cross--section ratios and the average values of the transverse momenta of the produced dileptons. In the backdrop of the hadron--hadron and lepton--hadron collisions, the model for dilopton production proposed here has some degree of generality which is one of its main features.

  12. Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe < or = 3.5 dSm(-1), but areas 5 and 6 exceeded this concentration and reached maximum values of 5.5 and 7.0 dS m(-1), respectively. Higher values in area 6 were probably due to the presence of a rocky layer at 0.3 m depth, leaving a thin soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area. PMID:22439570

  13. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2005-10-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

  14. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  15. Method of preparing a high heating value fuel product

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R.; Fan, L.T.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a method of preparing a high heating value fuel product. The method comprising the steps of: blending a high heating value waste material with a cellulosic material; mixing an organic reagent to the blended mixture of the waste material and the cellulosic material, the organic reagent being a mixture having a 4-15 weight percent of a chemical selected from the group consisting of: triethylene, glycol, diethylene glycol, and glycerin propylene glycol; introducing a pozzolanic agent to the blended mixture for controlling the rate of solidification; and forming the blended mixture into a form suitable for handling. Also described is the same method with the mixture of the organic reagent further comprising: a 20-32 weight percent calcium chloride solution. Another method of preparing a fuel product is also described.

  16. Double Pair Production by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Photons

    E-print Network

    S. V. Demidov; O. E. Kalashev

    2008-12-22

    With use of CompHEP package we've made the detailed estimate of the influence of double e+e- pair production by photons (DPP) on the propagation of ultra high energy electromagnetic cascade. We show that in the models in which cosmic ray photons energy reaches few thousand EeV refined DPP analysis may lead to substantial difference in predicted photon spectrum compared to previous rough estimates.

  17. Production of high-resolution small-sized holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, Ardeshir

    2011-09-01

    Color reflection multiplex holography is an obvious target for display applications. The aim of this project is to revisit the technique of multiplex holography using modern recording and developing methods and materials. In particular, exploiting techniques of color holography that have been developed in recent years and it should be possible to extend these to high resolution multiplex holography for small and creditcard sized holograms. The current generation of holographic laser printers is not suitable for such applications as they typically employ a pixel size of around 1 mm. This report outlines progress on the production of high- resolution small-sized holographic stereograms.

  18. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  19. Comparative study of high-linoleic acid vegetable oils for the production of conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gammill, Whitney; Proctor, Andrew; Jain, Vishal

    2010-03-10

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found in small quantities in dairy and beef products. Obtaining optimum dietary CLA levels from these sources requires an increased intake of saturated fat. A 20% CLA soy oil was produced by UV photoisomerization of soy oil linoleic acid (LA), which is naturally low in saturated fat, but no other high-LA vegetable oils have been studied for their potential as CLA-rich oils. The objectives of this research were to (1) compare flax, sunflower, corn, soy, and high-LA safflower oils as sources of CLA-rich vegetable oils using laboratory-scale equipment, (2) compare CLA yields obtained by laboratory-scale and pilot-scale equipment, and (3) compare the oxidative stabilities of laboratory-scale processed oils. High-LA safflower oil produced the most CLA; soy oil produced slightly less, followed by corn, with flax producing very little and sunflower none at all. Minor oil components and turbidity reduced CLA yields, suggesting that oils should be highly refined before CLA production. The pilot-scale system was more effective than the laboratory-scale system due to greater light exposure and larger surface area to volume ratio of the oil samples. The oxidative stabilities of high-LA safflower oil and soy oil were similar before or after irradiation, indicating that these oils are the most suitable for high-CLA production. PMID:20136082

  20. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy consumption.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of a Conceptual HBV Ra?nfall-Runoff MODEL Using Eumetsat Snow Covered Area Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Parajka, J.

    2014-12-01

    HBV is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in operational hydrological forecasting and water balance studies. In this study, we apply the HBV model on the upper Euphrates basin in Turkey, which has 10 624 km2 area. The Euphrates basin is largely fed from snow precipitation whereby nearly two-thirds occur in winter and may remain in the form of snow for half of the year. We analyze individual sensitivity of the parameters by calibrating the model using the Multi-Objective Shuffled Complex Evolution (MOSCEM) algorithm. The calibration is performed against snow cover area (SCA) in addition to runoff data for the water years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. The SCA product has been developed in the framework of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The product is generated by using data from Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument making observations from a geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In the previous study evaluation of the model was done with commonly used statistical performance metrics (Nash-Sutcliffe) for high and low flows, volume error and root mean square error (RMSE). In this study signature metrics, which are based on the flow duration curve (FDC) are used to see the performance of the model for low flows. In order to consider a fairly balanced evaluation between high and low flow phases we divided the flow duration curve into segments of high, medium and low flow phases, and additionally into very high and very low phases. Root mean square error (RMSE) is used to evaluate the performance in these segments. The sensitivity analysis of the parameters around the calibrated optimum points showed that parameters of the soil moisture and evapotranspiration (FC, beta and LPrat) have a strong effect in the total volume error of the model. The parameters from the response and transformation routines (LSUZ, K1, K0 and bmax) have a significant influence on the peak flows. It is observed that the parameters of snow routine (Tmelt, CSF and DDF) have strong effect in high flows and total volume. The parameters FC, K0, K1 And K2 are found to have effect on low flows from the signature metrics.

  2. Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

    2009-10-06

    General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will apply our programming model to more large scale applications. In particular, we plan to classify and formalize more high level abstractions and semantics which are relevant to high performance computing. We will also investigate better ways to allow language designers, library developers and programmers to communicate abstraction and semantics information with each other.

  3. Synthesis of Large Area Graphene for High Performance in Flexible Optoelectronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Polat, Emre O; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Uzlu, Hasan Burkay; Kocabas, Coskun; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates an attractive low-cost route to obtain large area and high-quality graphene films by using the ultra-smooth copper foils which are typically used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. We first compared the electronic transport properties of our new graphene film with the one synthesized by using commonly used standard copper foils in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We observed a stark improvement in the electrical performance of the transistors realized on our graphene films. To study the optical properties on large area, we transferred CVD based graphene to transparent flexible substrates using hot lamination method and performed large area optical scanning. We demonstrate the promise of our high quality graphene films for large areas with ~400?cm(2) flexible optical modulators. We obtained a profound light modulation over a broad spectrum by using the fabricated large area transparent graphene supercapacitors and we compared the performance of our devices with the one based on graphene from standard copper. We propose that the copper foils used in the lithium-ion batteries could be used to obtain high-quality graphene at much lower-cost, with the improved performance of electrical transport and optical properties in the devices made from them. PMID:26578425

  4. Synthesis of Large Area Graphene for High Performance in Flexible Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Emre O.; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Uzlu, Hasan Burkay; Kocabas, Coskun; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2015-11-01

    This work demonstrates an attractive low-cost route to obtain large area and high-quality graphene films by using the ultra-smooth copper foils which are typically used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. We first compared the electronic transport properties of our new graphene film with the one synthesized by using commonly used standard copper foils in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We observed a stark improvement in the electrical performance of the transistors realized on our graphene films. To study the optical properties on large area, we transferred CVD based graphene to transparent flexible substrates using hot lamination method and performed large area optical scanning. We demonstrate the promise of our high quality graphene films for large areas with ~400?cm2 flexible optical modulators. We obtained a profound light modulation over a broad spectrum by using the fabricated large area transparent graphene supercapacitors and we compared the performance of our devices with the one based on graphene from standard copper. We propose that the copper foils used in the lithium-ion batteries could be used to obtain high-quality graphene at much lower-cost, with the improved performance of electrical transport and optical properties in the devices made from them.

  5. Synthesis of Large Area Graphene for High Performance in Flexible Optoelectronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Emre O.; Balci, Osman; Kakenov, Nurbek; Uzlu, Hasan Burkay; Kocabas, Coskun; Dahiya, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates an attractive low-cost route to obtain large area and high-quality graphene films by using the ultra-smooth copper foils which are typically used as the negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. We first compared the electronic transport properties of our new graphene film with the one synthesized by using commonly used standard copper foils in chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We observed a stark improvement in the electrical performance of the transistors realized on our graphene films. To study the optical properties on large area, we transferred CVD based graphene to transparent flexible substrates using hot lamination method and performed large area optical scanning. We demonstrate the promise of our high quality graphene films for large areas with ~400?cm2 flexible optical modulators. We obtained a profound light modulation over a broad spectrum by using the fabricated large area transparent graphene supercapacitors and we compared the performance of our devices with the one based on graphene from standard copper. We propose that the copper foils used in the lithium-ion batteries could be used to obtain high-quality graphene at much lower-cost, with the improved performance of electrical transport and optical properties in the devices made from them. PMID:26578425

  6. 1 Updated: 9/30/13 High Cost and Special High Cost Areas

    E-print Network

    ISLAND SOUTH CAROLINA TENNESSEE TEXAS UTAH WASHINGTON WASHINGTON, DC Alaska Anchorage Barrow Fairbanks within King County Washington, DC Special High Cost--Includes the cities of Alexandria, Fairfax Houston San Antonio South Padre Island Utah Salt Lake City Washington Seattle including all locations

  7. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, Nurit; Evett, Steven R.; Tolk, Judy A.; Kustas, William P.; Colaizzi, Paul D.; Alfieri, Joseph G.; McKee, Lynn G.; Copeland, Karen S.; Howell, Terry A.; Chávez, Jose L.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to seek alternative practices that can increase water use efficiency (WUE) through more careful management of water. One potential way of improving WUE is by reducing soil evaporation (E), thus reducing overall evapotranspiration (ET). Before searching for ways to reduce E, it is first important to quantify E and understand the factors that determine its magnitude. The objectives of this study were (1) to quantify E throughout part of the growing season for irrigated cotton in a strongly advective semi-arid region; (2) to study the effects of LAI, days after irrigation, and measurement location within the row on the E/ET fraction; and (3) to study the ability of microlysimeter (ML) measures of E combined with sap flow gage measures of transpiration (T) to accurately estimate ET when compared with weighing lysimeter ET data and to assess the E/T ratio. The research was conducted in an irrigated cotton field at the Conservation & Production Research Laboratory of the USDA-ARS, Bushland, TX. ET was measured by a large weighing lysimeter, and E was measured by 10 microlysimeters that were deployed in two sets of 5 across the interrow. In addition, 10 heat balance sap flow gages were used to determine T. A moderately good agreement was found between the sum E + T and ET (SE = 1 mm or ˜10% of ET). It was found that E may account for >50% of ET during early stages of the growing season (LAI < 0.2), significantly decreasing with increase in LAI to values near 20% at peak LAI of three. Measurement location within the north-south interrows had a distinct effect on the diurnal pattern of E, with a shift in time of peak E from west to east, a pattern that was governed by the solar radiation reaching the soil surface. However, total daily E was unaffected by position in the interrow. Under wet soil conditions, wind speed and direction affected soil evaporation. Row orientation interacted with wind direction in this study such that aerodynamic resistance to E usually increased when wind direction was perpendicular to row direction; but this interaction needs further study because it appeared to be lessened under higher wind speeds.

  8. Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin; McGrail, B. Peter; Jorgensen, Benaiah M.; Smith, Donald E.; Allen, Benjamin R.; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Brown, Kevin G.; Reamer, I. A.; Ebert, W. L.

    2000-02-08

    A matrix of 55 glasses was developed and tested with the aim to identify the impact of glass composition on the long-term corrosion behavior and to develop an acceptable low-activity waste glass composition region. Of the 55 glasses, 45 were designed to systematically vary the glass composition and 10 were selected because large and growing databases on their corrosion characteristics had accumulated. The performance of these 55 glasses in the vapor-phase hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) were characterized. VHT's were performed at temperatures between 150?C and 300?C for times up to 280 days; preliminary corrosion rates and type of alteration products were identified. PCTs were performed at 90?C with glass surface area's to solution volumes (S/V) of 2000 m-1 for 7 days and S/V of 20 000 m-1 for 10 h, 100 h, and 1000 h. The corrosion extents by PCT were determined as functions of time from solution composition analyses.

  9. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

  10. Environmental risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis among cattle in high-risk areas.

    PubMed

    Winkler, B; Mathews, F

    2015-11-01

    Our research shows that environmental features are important predictors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle herds in high-prevalence regions. Data from 503 case and 808 control farms included in the randomized badger culling trial (RBCT) were analysed. bTB risk increased in larger herds and on farms with greater areas of maize, deciduous woodland and marsh, whereas a higher percentage of boundaries composed of hedgerows decreased the risk. The model was tested on another case-control study outside RBCT areas, and here it had a much smaller predictive power. This suggests that different infection dynamics operate outside high-risk areas, although it is possible that unknown confounding factors may also have played a role. PMID:26559511

  11. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    DOEpatents

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  12. 49 CFR 195.452 - Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipeline integrity management in high consequence areas. 195.452 Section 195.452 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  13. Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    Number of honeybee colonies in areas with high and low beekeeping activity in Southern Mexico Robin ­ The number of colonies in feral and managed honeybee populations (Apis mellifera) was determined for various sampling locations in Chiapas and Yucatan (Mexico) to assess the impact of apiculture on feral honeybee

  14. An Investigation of Southwestern Area Principals and the Enactment of Crisis Plans in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify what southwestern area high school principals reported as the enactment of school crisis plans as described in the Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA (CMHS, 2008), "Resource Aid: Responding to a Crisis at School." The conceptual framework guiding the study was an adaptation of the Crisis…

  15. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  16. Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Kirkland, O.L.; Towns, R.L.

    1980-02-01

    A series of experiments was conducted with highly irradiated light-water reactor fuel rod segments to investigate fission products released in steam in the temperature range 500 to 1200/sup 0/C. (Two additional release tests were conducted in dry air.) The primary objectives were to quantify and characterize fission product release under conditions postulated for a spent-fuel transportation accident and for a successfully terminated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). In simulated, controlled LOCA-type tests, release at the time of rupture proved to be more significant than the diffusional release that followed. Comparison of the release data for the dry-air tests with the release data of similarly conducted tests in steam indicated significant increases in the releases of iodine, ruthenium, and cesium in air. Various parameters that affect fission product release are discussed, and experimental observations and analysis of the chemical behavior of releasable fission products in inert, steam, and dry-air atmospheres are examined.

  17. Synthetic microfluidic paper: high surface area and high porosity polymer micropillar arrays.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Jonas; Yasuga, Hiroki; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Synthetic Microfluidic Paper, a novel porous material for microfluidic applications that consists of an OSTE polymer that is photostructured in a well-controlled geometry of slanted and interlocked micropillars. We demonstrate the distinct benefits of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper over other porous microfluidic materials, such as nitrocellulose, traditional paper and straight micropillar arrays: in contrast to straight micropillar arrays, the geometry of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper was miniaturized without suffering capillary collapse during manufacturing and fluidic operation, resulting in a six-fold increased internal surface area and a three-fold increased porous fraction. Compared to commercial nitrocellulose materials for capillary assays, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper shows a wider range of capillary pumping speed and four times lower device-to-device variation. Compared to the surfaces of the other porous microfluidic materials that are modified by adsorption, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper contains free thiol groups and has been shown to be suitable for covalent surface chemistry, demonstrated here for increasing the material hydrophilicity. These results illustrate the potential of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper as a porous microfluidic material with improved performance characteristics, especially for bioassay applications such as diagnostic tests. PMID:26646057

  18. Comparison and evaluation of high resolution precipitation estimation products in Urmia Basin-Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghajarnia, N.; Liaghat, A.; Daneshkar Arasteh, P.

    2015-05-01

    This study focuses on the comparison and evaluation of six daily 0.25° × 0.25° high resolution precipitation data sets (PERSIANN, CMORPH-RAW, CMORPH-CRT, TMPA-RT, TMPA-V7 and APHRODITE). The comparison is performed during years 2000 till 2011 in Urmia basin of Iran and the local daily rainfall gauge observations are considered as the reference data set. Several statistical, categorical and graphical evaluation techniques are used to compare and evaluate the product performances and quantify their biases from reference data. APHRODITE and TMPA-V7, by benefiting from gauge observations during their adjustment procedures present better estimations while among near real-time products, PERSIANN is able to remarkably outperform other estimations. Both CMORPH products has shown to have great overestimation (more than 200%) over the observations while PERSIANN and TMPA-RT tend to underestimate rainfall on average about 26% and 78% respectively. TMPA-V7 and APHRODITE also overestimate observations about 26 and 3 percentages. Compared to near real-time version of products, TMPA-V7 has succeeded to significantly improve TMPA-RT performance while CMORPH-CRT has completely unsuccessful in its mission. Although all rainfall estimation products are characterized by considerable biases in comparison to the gauge observations, detailed analysis indicate that some of them have the capability of becoming a valuable source of high resolution precipitation estimation data set, especially over purely gauged areas.

  19. The 2GCHAS: A high productivity software development environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, Larry

    1986-01-01

    To the user, the most visible feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is its very powerful user interface. To the programmer, TAE's user interface, proc concept, standardized interface definitions, and hierarchy search provide a set of tools for rapidly prototyping or developing production software. The 2GCHAS (Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System) project has extended and enhanced these mechanisms, creating a powerful and high productivity programming environment where the 2GCHAS development environment is 2GCHAS itself and where a sustained rate for certified, documented, and tested software above 30 delivered source instructions per programmer day has been achieved. The 2GCHAS environment is not limited to helicopter analysis, but is applicable to other disciplines where software development is important.

  20. ENTROPY PRODUCTION AT HIGH ENERGY AND mu B.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.

    2006-07-03

    The systematics of bulk entropy production in experimental data on Ai-A, p + y and e{sup +}e{sup -} interactions at high energies and large {mu}{sub B} is discussed. It is proposed that scenarios with very early thermalization, such as Landau's hydrodynamical model, capture several essential features of the experimental results. It is also pointed out that the dynamics of systems which reach the hydrodynamic regime give similar multiplicities and angular distributions as those calculated in weak-coupling approximations (e.g. pQCD) over a wide range of beam energies. Finally, it is shown that the dynamics of baryon stopping are relevant to the physics of total entropy production, explaining why A+A and e{sup +}e{sup -} multiplicities are different at low beam energies.