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Sample records for high productivity area

  1. Pesticide occurrence in groundwater in areas of high-density row crop production in Alabama, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreland, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    High-density row crop production occurs in three areas of Alabama that are underlain by productive aquifers, northern Alabama, southeastern Alabama, and Baldwin County in southwestern Alabama. The U.S. Geological Survey collected five groundwater samples from each of these three areas during 2009 for analysis of selected pesticides. Results of these analyses showed detections for 37 of 152 analytes. The three most frequently detected compounds were atrazine, 2-Chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-triazine (CIAT), and metolachlor. The highest concentration for any analyte was 4.08 micrograms per liter for metolachlor.

  2. Production and comparison of high surface area bamboo derived active carbons.

    PubMed

    Ip, A W M; Barford, J P; McKay, G

    2008-12-01

    High surface area activated carbons have been produced from the natural biomaterial bamboo, using phosphoric acid as the activating agent. The effects of phosphoric acid impregnation ratio, activation temperature, heating rate on the carbon surface area, porosity and mass yield are presented. Three of these bamboo derived active carbons, surface areas 1337, 1628 and 2123m(2)/g were assessed for their ability to adsorb Acid Red 18 dye from aqueous solution; these results were compared with three conventional adsorbents: activated carbon F400, bone char and peat. Isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms. Different isotherms provided the best fit correlations to the adsorption experimental data but the Langmuir-Freundlich equation provided the best overall correlation of data. The adsorption capacities of two of the selected bamboo derived carbons were much greater than the capacities of the other three adsorbents. PMID:18572403

  3. High surface area calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2013-05-01

    Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

  4. Inexpensive approach for production of high-surface-area silica nanoparticles from rice hulls biomass.

    PubMed

    Palanivelu, Rajagounder; Padmanaban, Periasamy; Sutha, Sadhasivam; Rajendran, Venkatachalam

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we prepared amorphous and crystalline silica nanoparticles from rice hulls biomass using pyrolysis technique at different processing temperatures such as 923, 973, 1023, 1073, 1123 and 1173 K. X-ray fluorescence studies show that the purity of all the synthesised silica nanoparticles is in the range of 98-99.7%. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that amorphous silica nanoparticles are formed at 923-1023 K, whereas crystalline particles at 1073-1173 K. Morphology and microstructure of silica nanoparticles are studied by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. Silica nanoparticles obtained at different processing temperatures yield particle size in the range of 6-100 nm. Chemical composition and surface functionalities of the particles are examined by energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies. The developed method effectively uses rice hulls biomass as a green natural source in the synthesis of amorphous and crystalline silica nanoparticles with high-specific surface area. The optimised processing temperature (1023 K) enables amorphous silica nanoparticles to have high-specific surface area of 538 m(2)g(-1). PMID:25429510

  5. Sound production patterns from humpback whales in a high latitude foraging area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimpert, Alison K.; Wiley, David N.; Barton, Kira L.; Johnson, Mark P.; Lammers, Marc O.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2005-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted on humpback whale song, but substantially fewer have focused on the acoustic properties of non-song sound production (i.e., feeding and social sounds). Non-invasive digital acoustic recording tags (DTAGS) were attached to humpback whales on the western North Atlantics Great South Channel feeding grounds during July 2004. Acoustic records totaling 48.4 data hours from four of these attachments were aurally analyzed for temporal trends in whale signal production. A custom automatic detection function was also used to identify occurrences of specific signals and evaluate their temporal consistency. Patterns in sound usage varied by stage of foraging dive and by time of day. Amount of time with signals present was greater at the bottom of dives than during surface periods, indicating that sounds are probably related to foraging at depth. For the two tags that recorded at night, signals were present during a greater proportion of daylight hours than night hours. These results will be compared with previously published trends describing diel patterns in male humpback whale song chorusing on the breeding grounds. Data from the continuation of this research during the summer of 2005 will also be included.

  6. Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas

    PubMed Central

    Trick, Charles G.; Bill, Brian D.; Cochlan, William P.; Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Pickell, Lisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Oceanic high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll environments have been highlighted for potential large-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives, both in the degree of carbon removal and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. Previous open ocean enrichment experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia. Most Pseudonitzschia species in coastal waters produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), with their blooms causing detrimental marine ecosystem impacts, but oceanic Pseudonitzschia species are considered nontoxic. Here we demonstrate that the sparse oceanic Pseudonitzschia community at the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll Ocean Station PAPA (50 N, 145 W) produces approximately 200 pg DA L?1 in response to iron addition, that DA alters phytoplankton community structure to benefit Pseudonitzschia, and that oceanic cell isolates are toxic. Given the negative effects of DA in coastal food webs, these findings raise serious concern over the net benefit and sustainability of large-scale iron fertilizations. PMID:20231473

  7. Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

    2013-12-01

    Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the ability of this high resolution based methodology to forecast and hindecast cultivated area, which is particularly relevant in climate-sensitive East Africa.

  8. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  9. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  10. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  11. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production area. Production area means all territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of Texas....

  12. 7 CFR 959.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 959.4 Section 959.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Val...

  13. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater underlying areas of high-density row-crop production in Alabama, 2009-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of metolachlor and atrazine have substantially decreased in the northern Alabama wells since 2000. A decline in use of metolachlor and atrazine from a high in the late-1990s and a high in 2004, respectively, in northern Alabama could account for the lower concentrations. Fluometuron use has also declined since 1998, but the relation between time and concentrations differed in the five northern Alabama wells. Fluometuron concentrations in three of the five wells have been decreasing over time, while concentrations in the remaining two wells have been increasing.

  14. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND.... Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

  15. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  16. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  17. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  18. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR 966.4 - Production area and regulated area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area and regulated area. 966.4 Section 966.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grezes, C.; Ebrahimi, F.; Alzate, J. G.; Cai, X.; Katine, J. A.; Langer, J.; Ocker, B.; Khalili Amiri, P.; Wang, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    We report electric-field-induced switching with write energies down to 6 fJ/bit for switching times of 0.5 ns, in nanoscale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with high resistance-area product and diameters down to 50 nm. The ultra-low switching energy is made possible by a thick MgO barrier that ensures negligible spin-transfer torque contributions, along with a reduction of the Ohmic dissipation. We find that the switching voltage and time are insensitive to the junction diameter for high-resistance MTJs, a result accounted for by a macrospin model of purely voltage-induced switching. The measured performance enables integration with same-size CMOS transistors in compact memory and logic integrated circuits.

  1. High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

  2. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  3. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  4. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  5. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  6. 7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 925.5 Section 925.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA...

  7. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  8. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  10. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  11. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 920.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 920.4 Section 920.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  18. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  19. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  20. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  3. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  5. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  6. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 955.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 955.4 Section 955.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  9. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  10. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  11. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  12. 7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 922.4 Section 922.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  13. 7 CFR 983.25 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 983.25 Section 983.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  14. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  15. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  16. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  17. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  18. 7 CFR 905.17 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 905.17 Section 905.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES, GRAPEFRUIT, TANGERINES,...

  19. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  20. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  2. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  4. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  5. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  6. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  7. 7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 923.4 Section 923.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 930.14 Section 930.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  9. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  10. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  11. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  12. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  13. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  14. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 929.4 Section 929.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES...

  15. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  16. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  17. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  18. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  19. 7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 917.11 Section 917.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN...

  20. 7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 906.4 Section 906.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS...

  1. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  2. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  3. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  4. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  5. 7 CFR 915.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 915.4 Section 915.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  6. 7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, OREGON, WASHINGTON, AND LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.4 Production area..., Minnesota, Oregon, Washington, and Long Island in the State of New York....

  7. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  8. 7 CFR 946.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 946.4 Section 946.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  9. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  10. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  11. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  12. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  13. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  14. 7 CFR 985.5 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 985.5 Section 985.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE...

  15. 7 CFR 945.4 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production area. 945.4 Section 945.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  16. 7 CFR 927.10 - Production area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production area. 927.10 Section 927.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND...

  17. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  18. Guayule production on the southern high plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New production areas need to be identified for guayule in order to meet the expected world-wide shortage of natural rubber by 2020. One promising area is the Texas High Plains region. For guayule to be grown in this region, more cold tolerant lines need to be identified. The objective of our study w...

  19. Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

  20. Future Climate Impacts on Bay Area Rangeland Forage Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin-Kramer, R.

    2011-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Downscaled projections of global climate models enable the fine-scale analysis necessary for conservation and climate adaptation planning across such a diverse area. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to the dominant non-urban land-use in the Bay Area: livestock grazing. Maintaining the viability of rangelands provides an economic incentive for the preservation of open space. Climate models suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability of rangelands in the Bay Area.

  1. High Surface Area Dendrite Nanoelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, Nathan; Glover, Jennifer; Goyal, Saurabh; Simidjiysky, Svetoslav; Naughton, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Solution-based electrodeposition of metal using a low ion concentration, surface passivation agents, and/or electrochemical crystal conditioning has allowed for the formation of high surface area metal electrodes, useful for Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical sensors. Additionally, high frequency electrical oscillations have been used to electrically connect co-planar electrodes, a process called directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA). These approaches aim to control the crystal face that metal atoms in solution will nucleate onto, thus causing anisotropic growth of metal crystals. However, DENA has not been used to create high surface area electrodes, and no study has been conducted on the effect of micron-scale surface topography on the initial nucleation of metal crystals on the electrode surface. When DENA is used to create a high surface area electrode, such a texture has a strong impact on the subsequent topography of the three dimensional dendritic structures by limiting the areal density of crystals on the electrode surface. Such structures both demonstrate unique physics concerning the nucleation of metal dendrites, and offer a unique and highly facile fabrication method of high surface area electrodes, useful for chemical and biological sensing. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  2. The cascade high productivity language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

  3. High Productivity Implantation ''PARTIAL IMPLANT''

    SciTech Connect

    Hino, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Naoki; Sakai, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Takao

    2008-11-03

    The patterned ion implantation 'PARTIAL IMPLANT' has been developed as a productivity improvement tool. The Partial Implant can form several different ion dose areas on the wafer surface by controlling the speed of wafer moving and the stepwise rotation of twist axis. The Partial Implant system contains two implant methods. One method is 'DIVIDE PARTIAL IMPLANT', that is aimed at reducing the consumption of the wafer. The Divide Partial Implant evenly divides dose area on one wafer surface into two or three different dose part. Any dose can be selected in each area. So the consumption of the wafer for experimental implantation can be reduced. The second method is 'RING PARTIAL IMPLANT' that is aimed at improving yield by correcting electrical characteristic of devices. The Ring Partial Implant can form concentric ion dose areas. The dose of wafer external area can be selected to be within plus or minus 30% of dose of wafer central area. So the electrical characteristic of devices can be corrected by controlling dose at edge side on the wafer.

  4. Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dusterhoft, R.G. ); Chapman, B.J. )

    1994-06-20

    Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

  5. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser. PMID:27212262

  6. High throughput protein production screening

    DOEpatents

    Beernink, Peter T.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Segelke, Brent W.

    2009-09-08

    Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

  7. Production of high strength concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, M.B.; Carrasquillo, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The criteria for selection of concrete materials and their proportions to producer uniform, economical, high strength concrete are presented in this book. The recommendations provided are based on a study of the interactions among components of plain concrete and mix proportions, and of their contribution to the compressive strength of high strength concrete. These recommendations will serve as guidelines to practicing engineers, in the selection of materials and their proportions for the production of high strength concrete. Increasing demands for improved efficiency and reduced construction costs have resulted in engineers beginning to design large structures using higher strength concrete at higher stress levels. There are definite advantages, both technical and economical, in using high strength concrete. For example, for a given cross section, prestresses concrete bridge girders can carry greater service loads across longer spans if made using high strength concrete. In addition, cost comparisons have shown that the savings obtained are significantly greater than the added cost of the higher quality concrete.

  8. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), ?-HCH, and ?-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention. PMID:22777609

  9. Effectiveness of protected areas in maintaining plant production.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiyao; Fang, Jingyun; Sun, Jinyu; Gaston, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Given the central importance of protected area systems in local, regional and global conservation strategies, it is vital that there is a good understanding of their effectiveness in maintaining ecological functioning. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first such global analysis, focusing on plant production, a "supporting" ecosystem function necessary for multiple other ecosystem services. We use data on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of variation in plant production in the core, boundary and surroundings of more than 1000 large protected areas over a 25 year period. Forested protected areas were higher (or similar), and those non-forested were lower (or similar), in NDVI than their surrounding areas, and these differences have been sustained. The differences from surrounding areas have increased for evergreen broadleaf forests and barren grounds, decreased for grasslands, and remained similar for deciduous forests, woodlands, and shrublands, reflecting different pressures on those surroundings. These results are consistent with protected areas being effective both in the representation and maintenance of plant production. However, widespread overall increases in NDVI during the study period suggest that plant production within the core of non-forested protected areas has become higher than it was in the surroundings of those areas in 1982, highlighting that whilst the distinctiveness of protected areas from their surroundings has persisted the nature of that difference has changed. PMID:21552560

  10. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, R.M.

    1991-04-01

    Continental Shelf Associates was contracted to update and expand an earlier work on a comparison of primary productivity among Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) planning areas. The update consists of four general objectives. This report addresses the fourth objective, the potential to use measures of marine secondary productivity in determining relative rankings of the OCS planning area. Ideally, comparisons of secondary productivity among diverse geographic areas would take an ecosystem perspective. However, there is not enough ecosystem-level understanding to allow a comparison on that basis. The report focuses on individual species and group of species. Zooplankton and benthic communities represent major portions of the marine ecosystems and would be the preferred subjects for comparative studies. At this time comparisons of secondary productivity among planning areas would be difficult with existing databases. It is unlikely this situation will improve in the near future.

  11. High Yielding Microbubble Production Method

    PubMed Central

    Fiabane, Joe; Prentice, Paul; Pancholi, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic approaches to microbubble production are generally disadvantaged by low yield and high susceptibility to (micro)channel blockages. This paper presents an alternative method of producing microbubbles of 2.6 μm mean diameter at concentrations in excess of 30 × 106 mL−1. In this method, the nitrogen gas flowing inside the liquid jet is disintegrated into spray of microbubble when air surrounding this coflowing nitrogen gas-liquid jet passes through a 100 μm orifice at high velocity. Resulting microbubble foam has the polydispersity index of 16%. Moreover, a ratio of mean microbubble diameter to channel width ratio was found to be less than 0.025, which substantially alleviates the occurrence of blockages during production. PMID:27034935

  12. High Yielding Microbubble Production Method.

    PubMed

    Fiabane, Joe; Prentice, Paul; Pancholi, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic approaches to microbubble production are generally disadvantaged by low yield and high susceptibility to (micro)channel blockages. This paper presents an alternative method of producing microbubbles of 2.6 μm mean diameter at concentrations in excess of 30 × 10(6) mL(-1). In this method, the nitrogen gas flowing inside the liquid jet is disintegrated into spray of microbubble when air surrounding this coflowing nitrogen gas-liquid jet passes through a 100 μm orifice at high velocity. Resulting microbubble foam has the polydispersity index of 16%. Moreover, a ratio of mean microbubble diameter to channel width ratio was found to be less than 0.025, which substantially alleviates the occurrence of blockages during production. PMID:27034935

  13. Universal area product for black holes: A heuristic argument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Don N.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a heuristic argument for the universal area product: A+A-=(8 ? J )2+(4 ? Q2)2 for a four-dimensional, stationary, axisymmetric, electrically charged black hole with an arbitrary stationary axisymmetric distribution of external matter (possibly charged), derived by Marcus Ansorg and Jrg Hennig. Here A+ and A- are the areas of the event and Cauchy horizons, and J and Q are the angular momentum and electric charge. Based on this argument, we conjecture that a universal area product holds for higher-dimensional, stationary, multihorizon black objects in the presence of an external stationary charged distribution of matter.

  14. General view of the High Bay area of the Space ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the High Bay area of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows the specially modified fork lift used for horizontal installation and removal of the SSMEs into and out of the Orbiters. SSME number 2059 is in the background and is in the process of being scanned with a high-definition laser scanner to acquire field documentation for the production of historic documentatin. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  16. Global Topography of Mars from High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Multi-Orbit Data Products: the first Quadrangle (MC-11E) and the Landing Site Areas of ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinner, Klaus; Hauber, Ernst; Jaumann, Ralf; Michael, Gregory; Hoffmann, Harald; Heipke, Christian

    2015-04-01

    After more than 10 years of operation, the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express mission covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, the HRSC team has recently started a coordinated effort for the systematic mapping of Mars by multi-orbit digital elevation models (DTMs) and image mosaics, using the complete HRSC mission data record. The new global mapping program is based on the USGS MC-30 quadrangle scheme, where quadrangles are split into eastern and western parts to limit data volumes. We present the DTM and orthoimage mosaic (grid spacing of 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively) for the first half-tile, MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus), and highlight their use for characterizing the landing site areas of ESA's ExoMars landing mission to be launched in 2018. HRSC is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars and its satellites. As a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of derived 3D points allows producing DTMs with grid sizes of up to 50 m and a height accuracy on the order of one pixel on the ground and better. Such data products have been produced for individual HRSC strips covering approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far. HRSC also bridges the gap between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of stereo and non-stereo datasets. A quality assessment of the MC-11E (Eastern Oxia Palus) quadrangle products shows that, using bundle block adjustment, adjacent image strips can be co-registered with an accuracy of approximately one pixel at the highest image resolution available. We will discuss the resolution of topographic detail in these datasets, including improvements with respect to the case of single-strip data products and a comparison with external datasets. The quadrangle contains two of the four remaining landing sites for the ExoMars 2018 rover, and also the other two candidate sites are well covered by HRSC. HRSC data products are valuable to analyze large-scale topographic parameters (e.g., slopes over long baselengths) that are relevant for landing site safety assessments. Moreover, HRSC data enable investigating the geological context of landing sites, including the role of endogenic and exogenic processes. In particular, local and regional HRSC-derived topography serves as a basis for quantitative analyses of aqueous processes, e.g., discharge rates, sediment transport, and depositional geometries. We discuss the use of HRSC data products for landing site assessment and regional characterization of candidate landing site geology.

  17. [Prediction of landfill leachate production in cold area conversion].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-liang; Liu, Xue-yan; Liu, Zhi-gang; Qiu, Wei; Qi, Xu-dong

    2005-11-01

    Leachate production is evidently discontinuous in the chilly northeast areas because of the distinct 4-seasons conversion and long frozen time. In order to investigate into the leachate production variability and the impact of leachate recirculation on sanitary landfill, two simulated landfill reactors were constructed outdoors, which were filled with the same municipal solid waste. One reactor was provided with leachate recirculation and the other without as a control. On the basis of the obtained leachate production data and evaluation of the available leachate predictive models, the empirical model was recommended and the parameters within the formula were determined through linear regression analysis, which was proved to be reliable and practical. The results provided a scientific basis for the prediction of leachate production, design of leachate collection and treatment system. Besides, this study indicated that leachate recirculation was feasible for leachate treatment in the cold areas. PMID:16447457

  18. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

  19. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  20. 7 CFR 982.5 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 982.5 Section 982.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  1. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  3. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  4. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 981.11 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 981.11 Section 981.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  8. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  9. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 984.4 - Area of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Area of production. 984.4 Section 984.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. LACIE area, yield, and production estimate characteristics: Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conte, D.; Houston, A. G.; Lovfald, L. O. (principal investigators)

    1979-01-01

    Sampling segment allocation for Canada placed 283 segments within three provinces: Saskatchewan (170), Alberta (75), and Manitoba (38). The data base was comprised of five data sets: allocation, historical, ratio, LANDSAT, and yield. In-season area, yield, and production estimates were generated only during phase 2. These data are presented and analyzed.

  12. Crop Area Estimation Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Imagery and Area Frame Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, M. T.; Husak, G. J.; Pedreros, D.; Alcaraz v., G.

    2006-12-01

    The amount and extent of cropped area are essential parameters for determining food production and ultimately the state of food security in developing countries. Crop area estimation endeavors at the national- level are limited especially in remote areas of the world, due in part to the cost and time of making ground observations. Approximation of crop area using satellite imagery is a viable alternative though few studies have made use of this technique. In previous studies, misclassification of pure pixels and the presence of mixed pixels in relatively coarse Landsat images led to considerable errors in crop area estimates. This is particularly the case in developing countries where small subsistence farms are more prominent than larger mechanized farms. The aim of this study was to develop regression estimators from interpretation of 0.61 and 1 m resolution Quickbird and Ikonos panchromatic imagery respectively, to reduce bias in the crop area assessment from 30 m Landsat ETM+ images taken during the 2005 growing season of Niger. Eighty-five Ikonos and Quickbird scenes randomly stratified along the six primary livelihood zones of Niger and 30 Landsat ETM+ scenes were used to meet three objectives: 1) comprehensive dot-grid (2 km interval) classification of Landsat data for all potential cropped areas, 2) dot-grid (500 m interval) classification of Ikonos and Quickbird data for subsets of Landsat scenes, 3) area frame bias-estimation for each livelihood zone, and 4) validation of model design and process. Percent cropped area from Quickbird and Ikonos images showed high and significant correlations with percent cropped area from Landsat ETM+ for each livelihood zone. A split sample validation of the regression estimators and relative efficiency of the process shows potential to be used in other developing countries. Future studies should attempt to develop regression estimators involving automated textural-based classification techniques (e.g. image segmentation). Operational use of area frame sampling with remote sensing is easier and cheaper than ground-based techniques, and provides accurate national-level crop area estimates important to the decision-making process.

  13. Area (or entropy) product formula for a regular black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-02-01

    We compute the area (or entropy) product formula for a regular black hole derived by Ayón-Beato and García (Phys Rev Lett 80:5056, 1998). By explicit and exact calculation, it is shown that the entropy product formula of two physical horizons strictly depends upon the ADM mass parameter that means it is not an universal (mass-independent) quantity. But a slightly more complicated function of event horizon area and Cauchy horizon area is indeed a mass-independent quantity. We also compute other thermodynamic properties of the said black hole. We further study the stability of such black hole by computing the specific heat for both the horizons. It has been observed that under certain condition the black hole possesses second order phase transition. The pictorial diagram of the phase transition is given.

  14. High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

    2013-10-01

    Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

  15. Focusing Resources on High-Priority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    The new Perkins provides more flexibility to encourage innovation and program improvement; one of these areas of flexibility is the state-level "reserve" fund. This article looks at how Tennessee is using its funds to improve programming within the framework set out in the law.

  16. Modeling biotic habitat high risk areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Despain, D.G.; Beier, P.; Tate, C.; Durtsche, B.M.; Stephens, T.

    2000-01-01

    Fire, especially stand replacing fire, poses a threat to many threatened and endangered species as well as their habitat. On the other hand, fire is important in maintaining a variety of successional stages that can be important for approach risk assessment to assist in prioritizing areas for allocation of fire mitigation funds. One example looks at assessing risk to the species and biotic communities of concern followed by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. One looks at the risk to Mexican spottled owls. Another looks at the risk to cutthroat trout, and a fourth considers the general effects of fire and elk.

  17. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  18. Catalyst with high geometric surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, C. J.; Hegedus, L.; Maselli, J. M.

    1985-04-09

    An extrudate catalyst suitable for auto emission control is made from a solid, transitional alumina. It has a partially hollow interior and one or more platinum group metals deposited on the extrudate. The cylindrical extrudate has internal reinforcing vanes or ribs extending from the inner wall to the center of the extrudate particle. This configuration permits the catalyst to have the large geometric surface area per reactor volume yet, because of the openings inside the extrudate, the catalyst particles do not exhibit a large pressure drop when packed in a deep bed. These catalysts provide greater hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide conversions than do similar size spherical particles and they have improved light-off characteristics.

  19. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  20. Acoustic black holes and universal aspects of area products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anacleto, M. A.; Brito, F. A.; Passos, E.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we derive acoustic metrics in the (3 + 1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model with higher derivative terms. We have found acoustic metrics that are conformally related to the Reissner-Nordström and Kerr-Newman metrics. The universal aspects of area products which depend only on quantized quantities such as conserved electric charge and angular momentum are also addressed. We relate these areas with entanglement entropy of acoustic black holes in BEC systems. We also have shown there is an equivalence between microscopic descriptions of axisymmetric acoustic black hole entropy in a BEC system in four and two dimensions. Particularly, the system seems to develop an analogue of the Kerr/CFT correspondence.

  1. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  2. Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

  3. Smoke production from multiple nuclear explosions in nonurban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Small, R.D.; Bush, B.W.

    1985-08-02

    The amount of smoke that may be produced by wildland or rural fires as a consequence of a large-scale nuclear exchange is estimated. The calculation is based on a compilation of rural military facilities, identified from a wide variety of unclassified sources, together with data on their geographic positions, surrounding vegetation (fuel), and weather conditions. The ignition area (corrected for fuel moisture) and the amount of fire spread are used to calculate the smoke production. The results show a substantially lower estimated smoke production (from wildland fires) than in earlier nuclear winter studies. The amount varies seasonally and at its peak is less by an order of magnitude than the estimated threshold level necessary for a major attenuation of solar radiation. 32 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-02-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  5. Research in high speed fiber optics local area networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, F. A.

    1986-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: the network medium and its topology, the medium access control, and the network interface. Considerable progress was already made in the first two areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given.

  6. Production of high purity radiothallium

    DOEpatents

    Lebowitz, Elliot; Greene, Margaret W.

    1976-11-23

    The method of producing high purity thallium-201 for use as a myocardial scanning agent comprising the steps of irradiating a thallium target with protons to give the reaction .sup.203 Tl(p,3n) .sup.201.sub.Pb, separating in ion exchange columns the lead from the thallium isotopes, permitting the lead to decay, and then purifying the thallium solution and converting the thallium present to thallous form in which it can be used.

  7. Wolf population survival in an area of high road density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    1989-01-01

    Wolf mortality in a high-road-density area of Minnesota exceeds that in an adjacent wilderness, and is primarily human-caused. The wolf population there is maintained primarily by ingress from the adjacent wilderness areas. A road density of 0.58 km/km2 can be exceeded and the area still support wolves if it is adjacent to extensive roadless areas.

  8. Activation of Frontal Neocortical Areas by Vocal Production in Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Cristiano S.; Vianney, Paulo V. R.; de Moura, Marco Marcondes; Freire, Marco A. M.; Mello, Luiz E.; Sameshima, Koichi; Araújo, John F.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Mello, Claudio V.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2010-01-01

    Primates often rely on vocal communication to mediate social interactions. Although much is known about the acoustic structure of primate vocalizations and the social context in which they are usually uttered, our knowledge about the neocortical control of audio–vocal interactions in primates is still incipient, being mostly derived from lesion studies in squirrel monkeys and macaques. To map the neocortical areas related to vocal control in a New World primate species, the common marmoset, we employed a method previously used with success in other vertebrate species: Analysis of the expression of the immediate early gene Egr-1 in freely behaving animals. The neocortical distribution of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in three marmosets that were exposed to the playback of conspecific vocalizations and vocalized spontaneously (H/V group) was compared to data from three other marmosets that also heard the playback but did not vocalize (H/n group). The anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex presented a higher number of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in the H/V group than in H/n animals. Our results provide direct evidence that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the region that comprises Broca's area in humans and has been associated with auditory processing of species-specific vocalizations and orofacial control in macaques, is engaged during vocal output in marmosets. Altogether, our results support the notion that the network of neocortical areas related to vocal communication in marmosets is quite similar to that of Old world primates. The vocal production role played by these areas and their importance for the evolution of speech in primates are discussed. PMID:20953246

  9. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

  10. Productivity of Premodern Agriculture in the Cucuteni-Trypillia Area.

    PubMed

    Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme; Videiko, Mykhailo; Henderson, Kate; Shiel, Robert; Dolukhanov, Pavel; Pashkevich, Galina

    2015-07-01

    We present paleoeconomy reconstructions for premodern agriculture, selecting, wherever required, features and parameter values specific for the Cucuteni-Trypillia cultural unity (CTU; 5,400-2,700 BC, mostly the territory of modern Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania). We verify the self-consistency and viability of the archaeological evidence related to all major elements of the agricultural production cycle within the constraints provided by environmental and technological considerations. The starting point of our analysis is the paleodiet structure suggested by archaeological data, stable isotope analyses of human remains, and palynology studies in the CTU area. We allow for the archeologically attested contributions of domesticated and wild animal products to the diet, develop plausible estimates of the yield of ancient cereal varieties cultivated with ancient techniques, and quantify the yield dependence on the time after initial planting and on rainfall (as a climate proxy). Our conclusions involve analysis of the labor costs of various seasonal parts of the agricultural cycle of both an individual and a family with a majority of members that do not engage in productive activities that require physical fitness, such as tillage. Finally, we put our results into the context of the exploitation territory and catchment analysis, to project various subsistence strategies into the exploitation territory of a farming settlement. The simplest economic complex based on cereals and domestic and wild animal products, with fallow cropping, appears to be capable of supporting an isolated, relatively small farming settlement of 50-300 people (2-10 ha in area) even without recourse to technological improvements such as the use of manure fertilizer. Our results strongly suggest that dairy products played a significant role in the dietary and labor balance. The smaller settlements are typical of the earliest Trypillia A stage but remain predominant at the later stages. A larger settlement of several hundred people could function in isolation, perhaps with a larger fraction of cereals in the diet, only with technological innovations, such as manure fertilizer and, most important, ard tillage. The ard radically relieves the extreme time pressure associated with soil preparation for sowing. It appears that very large settlements of a few hundred hectares in area, found in the CTU region, could function only if supported by satellite farming villages and stable exchange networks. In turn, this implies social division of labor and occupation, sufficiently complex social relations, stable exchange channels, and so on: altogether, a proto-urban character of such settlements. A model is proposed for the lifetime of a farming settlement, assuming that it is limited by the soil fertility (the depleted resources model), that provides a lifetime estimate consistent with the archaeological evidence available (100-150 years). The model shows that the lifetime strongly depends on the fraction of the arable land area kept fallow. We also discuss, quantify, and assess some strategies to mitigate the risks of arable agriculture associated with strong temporal fluctuations in the cereal yield, such as manure fertilization, and increased fraction of cereals in the diet combined with producing grain surplus for emergency storage. PMID:26932572

  11. Analysis of satellite precipitation products referred to a local area in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, L. V.; Lo Conti, F.; Hsu, K.; Sorooshian, S.

    2011-12-01

    Precipitation measurement is a key factor for several scientific disciplines, research activities and management of human activities related to water resources. Climatology, meteorology and hydrology can be considered three main sectors in which precipitation estimation is carefully addressed although with different peculiarities. In order to retrieve precipitation information several products have been developed related to different information sources, methodologies and final products features. In this study we select a specific area in Sicily island (Italy) having high density rain gauges to evaluate of satellite precipitation products. Sicily has an area of 26,000 km2 and the gauge density of the network considered in this study is about 250 km2/gauge. It is an island in the Mediterranean sea with variegated climatology and morphology, which is considered as an interesting test site for satellite precipitation products on the European mid-latitude area. Four only satellite products (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TMPA-RT, PERSIANN-CCS) along with two adjusted products (TMPA and PERSIANN Adjusted) have been selected for the study. Evaluation and comparisons between selected products is performed with reference to data provided by the gauge network of Sicily and using statistical and visualization tools. An interpolation procedure has been adopted to compare reference rain-gauge network data to satellite products. An effort to organize and characterize evaluation tools within a simplified application framework has been done. Then three evaluation index groups have been identified corresponding to related application groups. Results show that bias is considerable for all satellite products although adjusted products are effective reducing it. Climatic considerations are reported to address this issue along with an overall analysis of the PMW retrieval algorithm performances. A convective/stratiform classification procedure is used to relate precipitation features to satellite information and retrieval algorithms. A strong convective component is present probably due to the study area morphology. It results affecting PMW capability to retrieve information since most of the precipitation event are convective in nature.

  12. Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.G.; Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

    1996-02-29

    Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the results of previous modeling work to more precisely define the extent and magnitude of this plume. SRS proposes incorporating depth discrete sampling during any future characterization effort to optimize any proposed remediation system. Finally, by using a full three-dimensional model rather than the traditional quasi-three dimensional methods an efficient remediation system can be developed.

  13. Effects of climate change on range forage production in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California's annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

  14. Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

    2013-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

  15. Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HCR, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

  16. 5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WEST MEZZANINE, LOOKING NORTH, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, AREA PREVIOUSLY CONTAINED HIGH TENSION BUS AND SWITCHING EQUIPMENT FOR BUILDINGS L1 AND L2 - Portland General Electric Company, Lincoln Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  18. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  19. Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM

    SciTech Connect

    Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo

    2011-03-31

    CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

  20. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  1. Radical Chemistry and Ozone Production in the Houston Industrial Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Brown, S. S.; Roberts, J. M.; Parker, A. E.; Brookes, D. M.; Monks, P. S.; Osthoff, H. D.; Gilman, J. B.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Welsh-Bon, D.; Williams, E. J.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Trainer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of radicals (HO2+RO2, NO3) were taken on board of the NOAA ship R/V Brown during the Texas Air Quality Study/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (TexAQS/GoMACCS) 2006 field campaign. HO2+RO2 was measured by Chemical Amplification and NO3 (with N2O5) was measured by Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy. The R/V Brown cruised for a month (August-September 2006) off the coast of Texas and inside Galveston Bay and Houston industrial and shipping area, sampling air masses coming from the highly industrialized region of Southern United States. The data collected during the cruise were analyzed using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Leeds Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). The model was constrained to the measurements of long-lived species and physical parameters and used to calculate the concentrations of radicals (OH, HO2, RO2, NO3) during the cruise of the R/V Brown. The modelled concentrations of HO2+RO2 and NO3 were compared with the measurements. The model and the measurements were used to study ozone formation and photochemistry in one of the most polluted areas of the United States.

  2. Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better targeting high conservation value areas. PMID:25502238

  3. High-resolution sea wind hindcasts over the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, M.; García-Díez, M.; Fita, L.; Fernández, J.; Méndez, F. J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a high-resolution atmospheric hindcast over the Mediterranean area using the WRF-ARW model, focusing on offshore surface wind fields. In order to choose the most adequate model configuration, the study provides details on the calibration of the experimental saet-up through a sensitivity test considering the October-December 2001 period (the 2001 super-storm event in the West Mediterranean). A daily forecast outperforms the spectral technique of previous products and the boundary data from ERA-Interim reanalysis produces the most accurate estimates in terms of wind variability and hour-to-hour correspondence. According to the sensitivity test, two data sets of wind hindcast are produced: the SeaWind I (30-km horizontal resolution for a period of 60 years) and the SeaWind II (15-km horizontal resolution for 20 years). The validation of the resulting surface winds is undertaken considering two offshore observational datasets. On the one hand, hourly surface buoy stations are used to validate wind time series at specific locations; on the other hand, wind altimeter satellite observations are considered for spatial validation in the whole Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained from this validation process show a very good agreement with observations for the southern Europe region. Finally, SeaWind I and II are used to characterize offshore wind fields in the Mediterranean Sea. The statistical structure of sea surface wind is analyzed and the agreement with Weibull probability distribution is discussed. In addition, wind persistence and extreme wind speed (50 year return period) are characterized and relevant areas of wind power generation are described by estimating wind energy quantities.

  4. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  5. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Robert R.; Schroeder, John L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  6. Facile synthesis of high surface area molybdenum nitride and carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Aaron; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Brosha, Eric L.; Atanassov, Plamen; Ward, Tim L.

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of high surface area γ-Mo2N and α-Mo2C is reported (116 and 120 m2/g) without the temperature programmed reduction of MoO3. γ-Mo2N was prepared in an NH3-free synthesis using forming gas (7 at% H2, N2-balance) as the reactive atmosphere. Three precursors were studied ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O, (NH4)2 Mg(MoO4)2, and MgMoO4) along with the sacrificial support method (SSM) as a means of reducing the particle size of Mo2N and Mo2C. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to identify reaction intermediates, the temperature at which various intermediates form, and the average domain size of the Mo2N products. Materials were synthesized in bulk and further characterized by XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and BET.

  7. High quality videoconferencing system for wide area IP networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ruibiao; Kuhns, Fred; Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Horn, Craig

    2002-12-01

    High quality video conferencing is an efficient tool for interactive scientific collaboration in the research community, especially for researchers separated by substantial distance. With the wide deployment of broadband wide area IP networks such as the Internet2, there is an increasing demand for improved remote collaboration with these networks. In order to make the high quality video-conferencing toolkits for local high-speed networks available over wide area IP networks, issues that are usually insignificant on local area networks must be considered. To this end, we have developed called Adaptation Layer Translator (ALX) in order to address these issues and solve the problems associated with real-time video and audio transmission over wide area IP networks. A conference control protocol is developed to coordinate the participants in an ALX-based conference. The ALX is also designed to be able to adapt to heterogeneous network environments at different deployment sites.

  8. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United...

  9. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United...

  10. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United...

  11. 15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  13. High purity silane and silicon production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen and metallurgical silicon are reacted at about 400.degree.-600.degree. C. and at pressures in excess of 100 psi, and specifically from about 300 up to about 600 psi to form di- and trichlorosilane that is subjected to disproportionation in the presence of an anion exchange resin to form high purity silane. By-product and unreacted materials are recycled, with metallurgical silicon and hydrogen being essentially the only consumed feed materials. The silane product may be further purified, as by means of activated carbon or cryogenic distillation, and decomposed in a fluid bed or free space reactor to form high purity polycrystalline silicon and by-product hydrogen which can be recycled for further use. The process results in simplified waste disposal operations and enhances the overall conversion of metallurgical grade silicon to silane and high purity silicon for solar cell and semiconductor silicon applications.

  14. High speed fiber optics local area networks: Design and implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.

    1988-01-01

    The design of high speed local area networks (HSLAN) for communication among distributed devices requires solving problems in three areas: (1) the network medium and its topology; (2) the medium access control; and (3) the network interface. Considerable progress has been made in all areas. Accomplishments are divided into two groups according to their theoretical or experimental nature. A brief summary is given in Section 2, including references to papers which appeared in the literature, as well as to Ph.D. dissertations and technical reports published at Stanford University.

  15. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following measures shall be implemented for each entry into...

  16. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following measures shall be implemented for each entry into...

  17. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following measures shall be implemented for each entry into...

  18. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following measures shall be implemented for each entry into...

  19. Identifying high production, low production and degraded rangelands in Senegal with normalized difference vegetation index data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappan, G. Gray; Wood, Lynette; Moore, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal herbaceous vegetation production on Senegal's native rangelands exhibits high spatial and temporal variability. This variability can be monitored using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data computed from 1-km resolution Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data. Although annual fluctuations in rainfall account for some of the variability, numerous long-term production patterns are evident in the AVHRR time-series data. Different n productivity reflect variations in the region's climate, topography, soils, and land use. Areas of overgrazing and intensive cultivation have caused long-term soil and vegetation degradation. Rangelands of high and low productivity, and degraded rangelands were identified using NDVI. Time-series image data from 1987 though 1992 were used to map relative rangeland productivity. The results were compared to detailed resource maps on soils, vegetation and land use. Much of the variation in rangeland productivity correlated well to the known distribution of resources. The study developed an approach that identified a number of areas of degraded soils and low vegetation production.

  20. Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

    2014-12-01

    Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them <1 mmol C m-2 d-1). It appears that nitrate is assimilated in the upper part of the mixed layer (coinciding with the euphotic layer) and regenerated in the lower parts. We suggest that such high contribution of nitrification to nitrate assimilation is driven by (i) a deep mixed layer, extending well below the euphotic layer, allowing nitrifiers to compete with phytoplankton for the assimilation of ammonium, (ii) extremely high rates of primary production for the Southern Ocean, stimulating the release of dissolved organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

  1. New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

    1974-01-01

    Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

  2. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A possible technology which would allow the accomplishment of the proposed targets is the use of a Cross-Flow turbine, arranged according to the scheme of Fig.1, where: - the position of the rotating wall (rw) is set according to the pressure measured at its top, so that a small but constant falling discharge (Q2) is guaranteed. This falling discharge allows the transition of floating objects and hid the all machinery, with an obvious skyline improvement. - the average distance d is set in order to guarantee in the confined channel below the turbine an average velocity V similar to the original one existing in the river. PIC Fig.1 - Scheme of the river Cross-Flow turbine. Observe in Fig.2 the results of a CFX simulation, carried on with the following input data for a large rectangular section per unit width: ho (m) h1(m) h2 (m) d(m) 1.5314 1.99 0.082 0.1021 Q2(m2/s) Q3(m2/s)w (r.p.m.)V0(m/s) 0.04 0.267 27 2.61 Table 1. Input data for the CFD simulation. Simulation have been carried out using ANSYS code, with a computational domain divided using both tetrahedral and prismatic elements. The mechanical power estimated at the rotational shaft was of 4.84 KW/m and the hydraulic power of the water stream was of 7.25 KW/m. Thus the turbine efficiency was of about 49.97 %. PIC Fig.2 - Vectors velocity water field close to the Cross-Flow turbine domain. From the environmental point of view the turbine constitutes nonetheless a physical barrier that moving organisms will have to negotiate on their movements through the blades, particularly larger ones such as fish. Also, the hydraulic environment of the river will be modified, e.g. turbulence, shear stress, pressure and flow patterns, affecting as well the smaller organisms. While developing the turbine, a thorough appraisal of its environmental consequences for aquatic ecosystems has to be done, in order to develop an environmentally-friendly structure, embedding mitigation aspects. Furthermore, the structure itself will be subject to colonization on its surfaces by a biological matrix including microbial organisms but also filamentous algae and aquatic macrophytes, either anchored of clogging to the structure while drifting downstream. When developing the turbine, the side-effects of such epibiosis have to be evaluated, given the evidence already existing in rivers and canals, of harmful vegetation interfering with irrigation and transport structures.

  3. Large area high-speed metrology SPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

  4. Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

  5. Electroforming for High-Performance Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Report describes development of processes and procedures for preparation of specifications for electroforming nickel and copper outer shells on cooled rocket thrust-chamber liners. Specifications represent merging of technical contributions from many sources into guide for producers of electroformed, high-performance products. Raw materials, conducting solutions and deposition rates are evaluated.

  6. Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United States, the use of existing fire perimeter data bases from various state and federal agencies as reference data is economical and enables the validation of different time periods and locations. Additionally, the incorporation of existing satellite-derived reference data used to validate other coarser resolution global burned area data sets such as the MCD45 (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, 500 m spatial resolution), GlobCarbon (Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor, 1 km spatial resolution), and L3JRC (SPOT-VEGETATION sensor, 1 km spatial resolution) is also being pursued. The validation the approach developed for the USGS ECV products and the challenges of using the vector polygons and raster layers from these reference datasets will be reported in the presentation.

  7. The assessment of EUMETSAT HSAF Snow Products for mountainuos areas in the eastern part of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Beser, O.; Bolat, K.; Erturk, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    Monitoring the snow parameters (e.g. snow cover area, snow water equivalent) is a challenging work. Because of its natural physical properties, snow highly affects the evolution of weather from daily basis to climate on a longer time scale. The derivation of snow products over mountainous regions has been considered very challenging. This can be done by periodic and precise mapping of the snow cover. However inaccessibility and scarcity of the ground observations limit the snow cover mapping in the mountainous areas. Today, it is carried out operationally by means of optical satellite imagery and microwave radiometry. In retrieving the snow cover area from satellite images bring the problem of topographical variations within the footprint of satellite sensors and spatial and temporal variation of snow characteristics in the mountainous areas. Most of the global and regional operational snow products use generic algorithms for flat and mountainous areas. However the non-uniformity of the snow characteristics can only be modeled with different algorithms for mountain and flat areas. In this study the early findings of Satellite Application Facilities on Hydrology (H-SAF) project, which is financially supported by EUMETSAT, will be presented. Turkey is a part of the H-SAF project, both in product generation (eg. snow recognition, fractional snow cover and snow water equivalent) for mountainous regions for whole Europe, cal/val of satellite-derived snow products with ground observations and cal/val studies with hydrological modeling in the mountainous terrain of Europe. All the snow products are operational on a daily basis. For the snow recognition product (H10) for mountainous areas, spectral thresholding methods were applied on sub pixel scale of MSG-SEVIRI images. The different spectral characteristics of cloud, snow and land determined the structure of the algorithm and these characteristics were obtained from subjective classification of known snow cover features in the MSG/SEVIRI images. The fractional snow cover area (H12) algorithm is based on a sub-pixel reflectance model applied on METOP-AVHRR data. Knowing the effects of topography on satellite-measured radiances for rough terrain, the sun zenith and azimuth angles, as well as direction of observation relative to these are taken into account in estimating the target reflectances from the satellite images. The values of SWE products (H13) were obtained using an assimilation process based on the Helsinki University of Technology model using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) daily brightness-temperature values. The validation studies for three products have been performed for the water years 2010 and 2011. Average values of 70% of probability of detection for snow recognition product, 60% of overall accuracy for the fractional snow cover product and 45 mm RMSE for the snow water equivalent product have been obtained from the validation studies. Final versions of these three products will be presented and discussed. Key words: snow, satellite images, mountain, HSAF, snow cover, snow water equivalent

  8. OXYANION SORPTION TO HIGH SURFACE AREA IRON AND ALUMINUM OXIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of selected oxyanions (Mo, As, and P) to high surface area iron and aluminum oxides was investigated using in situ Raman and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, batch sorption methods, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and surface complexation modeling. In situ ATR-FTIR and Raman spectra were coup...

  9. Resilience Strategies for New Teachers in High-Needs Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Antonio J.; Kelly, John; Shih, Minyi

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates strategies of resilience exhibited by fifteen novice teachers employed in high-needs areas, such as in urban and rural contexts and in special education. Findings indicated that teachers utilised a variety of strategies, including help-seeking, problem-solving, managing difficult relationships, and seeking…

  10. HIGH SPEED WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKING FOR FARM APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-speed wireless local area network (WLAN) was designed and implemented on a commercial farm in Macon County, MS, to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing such a network and to provide the basis for continuing development of software and hardware for farm applications. Since the farm was...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 194 - High Volume Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High Volume Areas B Appendix B to Part 194 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY RESPONSE PLANS FOR ONSHORE OIL PIPELINES Pt. 194, App. B Appendix B...

  13. High Energy Product Developed from Cobalt Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Liu, J. Ping

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt nanowires with high aspect ratio have been synthesized via a solvothermal chemical process. Based on the shape anisotropy and orientation of the nanowire assemblies, a record high room-temperature coercivity of 10.6 kOe has been measured in Co nanowires with a diameter of about 15 nm and a mean length of 200 nm. As a result, energy product of the wires reaches 44 MGOe. It is discovered that the morphology uniformity of the nanowires is the key to achieving the high coercivity and high energy density. Nanowires of this type are ideal building blocks for future bonded, consolidated and thin film magnets with high energy density and high thermal stability. PMID:24939036

  14. Mangrove rehabilitation in high erosion areas: Assessment using bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Stephen Ryan; Johnstone, Ron William

    2015-11-01

    This study identifies a potentially effective rehabilitation technique for implementation in high erosion areas through the use of bioindicators. This is significant given that one third of mangroves have been cleared globally with clearing continuing at a rate of 1-2% per annum. There have been various attempts to rehabilitate degraded mangrove forests, however the success or failure of these is mostly unclear due to a lack of assessment. The two rehabilitation techniques assessed in this study were a basic fence system and another more elaborate fence technique designed by the Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve Project (KGBRP), Vietnam. The assessment was conducted by comparing vegetation and faunal communities in rehabilitation areas to those in adjacent old-growth areas. The indicators included: tree and understory plant diversity and density; forest cover and the density of crabs, mudskippers and gastropods. The results show the KGBRP rehabilitation fence technique delivered tree diversity, plant diversity, tree density and forest cover that most closely resembled old-growth areas. This suggests that the additional protection provided by the KGBRP fence was instrumental in achieving these results. In terms of total mudskipper, Boleophthalmus spp., Periophthalmodon spp. and ocypodid crab density, the KGBRP rehabilitation was most similar to the old-growth areas. This similarity is thought to be related to the comparable forest cover at these sites. The density of large crab holes was much higher in old-growth areas than in basic or KGBRP rehabilitation areas. The disparity between large crab hole density at KGBRP rehabilitation and old-growth areas, despite similar levels of forest cover, is thought to be linked to the immaturity of the KGBRP rehabilitation sites. As the KGBRP rehabilitation is most similar in terms of vegetation and faunal communities to the old-growth areas, it appears to be the most successful rehabilitation.

  15. Novel fabrication technology for three-dimensional high surface area pyrolized structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Vinh; Shimada, Mark; Szeto, David; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Kang, Qinjun; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc J.

    2010-04-01

    High specific surface area structures are used in a variety of applications including production of highly sensitive biosensors, fabrication of separation membranes, manufacturing of high throughput catalytic microreactors, and development of efficient electrodes for batteries and fuel cells. In many electrochemical applications (i.e. sensors and batteries) it's also critical to have good conductive properties of the fabricated high surface area structures. For energy harvesting technologies such as batteries and fuel cells, careful design of surface-to-volume ratio of the electrode surface is important, because while high specific surface area facilitates electrochemical reaction rates, it also increases overall electrode resistance. Thus, it is desirable to construct electrodes with a range of hierarchical features (for example with fractal structures). We invented a novel fabrication technology for creating three-dimensional conductive high surface area structures based on the deposition and subsequent processing of the electroactive polymers (EAP). The proposed fabrication technique is capable of fast and inexpensive production of high surface area structures with the designed geometry, porosity, and conductivity.

  16. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  17. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2002-12-03

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  18. Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67

    DOEpatents

    Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.; Ott, Martin A.; Fowler, Malcolm; Heaton, Richard C.

    2003-10-28

    A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

  19. High frequency ocean acoustic tomography observation at coastal estuary areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zongxi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wuyi; Chen, Dongsheng

    2012-11-01

    The ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) technique can obtain oceanographic information and has received much interest. High frequency OAT (in a narrow kHz range) can be used for small and confined areas, such as estuaries and bays, with complicated hydrological conditions. In this study, we investigate the application of high-frequency reciprocal transmission OAT to assess the sound speed, temperature, and current field in the Xiamen sea area using computer simulations and sea experiments. Based on the temperature data obtained from remote sensing and the predefined stream function, high frequency OAT is employed to reconstruct the two-dimensional sound speed, temperature, and current fields of a 1.2km×1.2km small-scale region. The correlation coefficient of the computer inversion result and the original data is higher than 0.8. The result shows that increasing the number of acoustic stations decreases the influence of the travel-time errors in high frequency OAT; however, excessively increasing the number of stations could not significantly improve the inversion accuracy. Furthermore, this method has been tested by a sea experiment on monitoring the shallow water temperature of Wuyuan Bay. High frequency OAT might provide an effective method for temperature and current observation at coastal estuary areas.

  20. Large mode area photonic crystal fibers with high geometrical birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golojuch, Grzegorz; Urbańczyk, Waclaw

    2008-12-01

    We present the results of numerical analysis showing that high geometrical birefringence can be obtained in large mode area photonic crystal fibers. Simulations were carried out using Finite Element Method with Perfectly Matched Layer boundary conditions. To induce possibly high phase modal birefringence, we introduced a few small holes into the central region of the core, which breaks its hexagonal symmetry. Such modification of the fiber geometry is additionally responsible for increasing the effective area of the guided mode. For the optimized fiber design with a pitch distance Λ = 8.8 μm, the phase birefringence reaches B = 1.0×10-4 at wavelength λ = 1.3 μm and B = 1.5×10-4 at λ = 1.5 μm. In addition to high modal birefringence, an important advantage of the proposed fiber design is a single mode operation for wavelength greater than 1.3 μm.

  1. Evaporative loss from irrigated interrows in a highly advective semi-arid agricultural area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural productivity has increased in the Texas High Plains at the cost of declining water tables, putting at risk the sustainability of the Ogallala Aquifer as a principal source of water for irrigated agriculture. This has led area producers to begin looking for alternative practices that ca...

  2. Hydroetching of high surface area ceramics using moist supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Fryxell, Glen; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2004-11-02

    Aerogels having a high density of hydroxyl groups and a more uniform pore size with fewer bottlenecks are described. The aerogel is exposed to a mixture of a supercritical fluid and water, whereupon the aerogel forms a high density of hydroxyl groups. The process also relaxes the aerogel into a more open uniform internal structure, in a process referred to as hydroetching. The hydroetching process removes bottlenecks from the aerogels, and forms the hydrogels into more standard pore sizes while preserving their high surface area.

  3. SANITARY VULNERABILITY OF A TERRITORIAL SYSTEM IN HIGH SEISMIC AREAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teramo, A.; Termini, D.; de Domenico, D.; Marino, A.; Marullo, A.; Saccà, C.; Teramo, M.

    2009-12-01

    An evaluation procedure of sanitary vulnerability of a territorial system falling within a high seismic risk area, related to casualty treatment capability of hospitals after an earthquake, is proposed. The goal of the study is aimed at highlighting hospital criticalities for the arrangement of a prevention policy on the basis of territorial, demographic and sanitary type specific analyses of a given area. This is the first step of a procedure of territorial context reading within a damage scenario, addressed to a verification of preparedness level of the territorial system to a sanitary emergency referable both to a natural disaster and anthropic one. The results of carried out surveys are shown, at a different scale, on several sample areas of Messina Province (Italy) territory, evaluating the consistency of damage scenario with the number of casualties, medical doctors, available beds for the implementation of a emergency sanitary circuit.

  4. Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, D.

    1982-01-01

    A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

  5. High-value products from transgenic maize.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Shaista; Ramessar, Koreen; Farré, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Maize (also known as corn) is a domesticated cereal grain that has been grown as food and animal feed for tens of thousands of years. It is currently the most widely grown crop in the world, and is used not only for food/feed but also to produce ethanol, industrial starches and oils. Maize is now at the beginning of a new agricultural revolution, where the grains are used as factories to synthesize high-value molecules. In this article we look at the diversity of high-value products from maize, recent technological advances in the field and the emerging regulatory framework that governs how transgenic maize plants and their products are grown, used and traded. PMID:20816943

  6. NONPOINT SEDIMENT PRODUCTION IN THE COLUSA BASIN DRAINAGE AREA, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation was carried out in two phases from October 1977 to March 1982. The details on field, laboratory, and computer simulation have been reported in four comprehensive annual reports. The production and transport of sediments from, through, and out of this basin are ...

  7. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  8. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of integrated files that can be subjected to further analysis type CAE / CAM / PDM software components by the same company. Additional advantages related files by the synthesis of integrated CAD / CAE / CAM / PDM.

  9. Effective Area of the AXAF High Resolution Camera (HRC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaude, Daniel; Pease, Deron; Donnelly, Hank; Juda, Mike; Jones, Christine; Murray, Steve; Zombeck, Martin; Kraft, Ralph; Kenter, Almus; Meehan, Gary; Meehan, Gary; Swartz, Doug; Elsner, Ron

    1998-01-01

    The AXAF High-Resolution Camera (HRC) was calibrated at NASA MSFC's X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) during 1997 March and April. We have undertaken an analysis of the HRC effective area using all data presently available from the XRCF. We discuss our spectral fitting of the beam-normalization detectors (BNDs), our method of removing higher order contamination lines present in the spectra, and corrections for beam non-uniformities. We apply a model of photon absorption depth in order to fit a smooth curve to the quantum efficiency of the detector. This is then combined with the most recent model of the AXAF High-Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) to determine the ensemble effective area versus energy for the HRC. We also address future goals and concerns.

  10. 10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High... penetrates: (1) A control device that prevents entry to the area when high radiation levels exist or upon... individuals are in the area; (3) A control device that energizes a conspicuous visible or audible alarm...

  11. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR,ARCHITECTURAL NORTH ELEVATION AND MISC. DETAILS. Sheet 78 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING MODIFICATIONS, HIGH BAY AREA. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K05424, Seelye Stevenson Value & Knecht, March 1975. TRANSFER AISLE NORTH DOOR, ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS AND DETAILS. Sheet 79 of 207 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  14. Broad area side emission LED for high power application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J. H.; Ang, N. S. S.; Chua, S. J.; Liu, W.

    2010-08-01

    Larger chip size with higher injection current is used in high power and high brightness LEDs. Thermal management and good current spreading are critical issues in these high power applications, besides the requirement on higher internal and external quantum efficiency. The conventional top emitting configuration is not suitable because of the poor thermal conductivity of the sapphire substrate and poor light extraction efficiency. The substrate removal and flip-chip methods can provide much better heat dissipation but having concerns on the yield. In this paper, we reported a broad area side emission LEDs (BSLED) with a large length to width ratio of 5000um to 500um so as to have a comparable light emitting area with top/back emission LEDs in the same amount of GaN wafer area. Both top and backside of wafer are coated with metals as mirror reflectors and are attached to heat sinks for better heat dissipation. The L-I, I-V and polarization characteristics from fabricated BSLED showed it is more promising than conventional top emitting LED at the same size. The BSLED provides more flexibility in lighting device design and could be more suitable for certain application like LCD backlighting.

  15. 43 CFR 3282.11 - May a participating area continue if there is intermittent unit production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is intermittent unit production? 3282.11 Section 3282.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... continue if there is intermittent unit production? A participating area may continue if there is intermittent unit production only if BLM determines that intermittent production is in the public interest....

  16. 43 CFR 3282.11 - May a participating area continue if there is intermittent unit production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is intermittent unit production? 3282.11 Section 3282.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... continue if there is intermittent unit production? A participating area may continue if there is intermittent unit production only if BLM determines that intermittent production is in the public interest....

  17. 43 CFR 3282.11 - May a participating area continue if there is intermittent unit production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is intermittent unit production? 3282.11 Section 3282.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... continue if there is intermittent unit production? A participating area may continue if there is intermittent unit production only if BLM determines that intermittent production is in the public interest....

  18. 43 CFR 3282.11 - May a participating area continue if there is intermittent unit production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is intermittent unit production? 3282.11 Section 3282.11 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating... continue if there is intermittent unit production? A participating area may continue if there is intermittent unit production only if BLM determines that intermittent production is in the public interest....

  19. A simple facile approach to large scale synthesis of high specific surface area silicon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Epur, Rigved; Minardi, Luke; Datta, Moni K.; Chung, Sung Jae; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2013-12-15

    An inexpensive, facile, and high throughput synthesis of silicon nanoparticles was achieved by the mechano-chemical reduction reaction of magnesium silicide (Mg{sub 2}Si) and silicon monoxide (SiO) using a high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) technique followed by acid leaching. Characterization of the resultant product using X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analyses was performed at various stages of the synthesis process. XRD patterns show that the final product formed is single phase silicon and the nanocrystalline nature was confirmed by the shifted transverse optical (TO) band, characteristic of nc-Si determined by Raman analysis. SEM and TEM shows the presence of particles of different sizes in the range of few nanometers to agglomerates of few microns which is consistent with products obtained from mechanical milling. BET measurements show a very high specific surface area (SSA) of ∼190 m{sup 2}/g obtained due to acid leaching which is also validated by the porous nature of the particles confirmed by the SEM images. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing the large scale production of nanosized silicon and BET surface area of the product formed at various stages.

  20. [Measurement of area of surplus X-ray radiation by dose-area product meter at image intensifier in angiography X-ray units].

    PubMed

    Seguchi, Shigenobu; Saijou, Takaya; Nagao, Tatsuji; Ishikawa, Yoshinobu; Mizuno, Shouta; Nakamura, Akirou

    2006-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the area of surplus X-ray radiation (surplus area) of three image intensifiers (I.I.) of two angiography X-ray units. Surplus area refers to an area surrounded with a circular collimator and effective field of view (FOV). Dose-area product (DAP) was used to measure surplus X-rays. A ratio of surplus area when based on each FOV showed an 8% to 39.3% increase with expansion of FOV, surplus area showed an 18 cm(2) to 95 cm(2) decrease with FOV. When the circular collimator was narrowed to a degree that could be confirmed partially in effective FOV, the rate of surplus area was decreased almost as much as the rate of scattered radiation. Surface dose was almost unchanged. The radiation exposure of the physician as well as that of the patient was reduced by the reduction of surplus area. The DAP meter, while a tool for patient radiation exposure management, is also highly useful for machinery management such as the measurement of surplus area at the I.I. system. PMID:16874288

  1. A highly attennuative zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The intensities of seismic waves observed at the dense seismic array of the Tokyo Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) inside the Kanto basin, display unusual distribution patterns. In several occasions, the highest intensities are not observed in the area above an earthquakes hypocenter but appear sifted more than 20 km away. In order to understand the source of this unusual intensity distribution pattern, it is crucial to understand how the waves attenuate before they reach the surface. The attenuation of seismic waves along their path is represented by the t? attenuation operator that can be obtained by fitting the observed seismic wave spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ?2 model. In order to create a high quality dataset, only 1449 earthquakes that are recorded with intensity greater than 0 in the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) intensity scale are selected from the JMA unified earthquake list from April 1st 2008 to October 2nd 2013. A grid search method is applied to determine the t? values by matching the observed and theoretical spectra. The t? data where then inverted to estimate a 3D Q structure with grid points set at a 10 km spacing. We implemented the 3D velocity model estimated by Nakagawa et al., 2012 and in addition we set the initial Q values at 100 for the 0 km grids and to 400 for the grids below them. The obtained model suggests average Q values of 50100 inside the Kanto basin. Furthermore, a low Q zone is observed in the area where the Philippine Sea plate meets the upper part of the Pacific sea plate. This area is located at approximately 40 km depth, beneath the north-east Tokyo and west Chiba prefectures and is represented by Q values < 300. Earthquakes occurring on the Pacific plate pass through this low Q area inside the Philippine sea plate and are attenuated significantly. The estimated attenuation distribution at the MeSO-net station for these earthquakes implementing our 3D Q model greatly coincides with the observed seismic wave intensity distribution. Stations where our model predicts high attenuation display low intensity values whereas stations where our model predicts low attenuation display high intensities. The implementation of our findings could help towards a better understanding of the damage area of future earthquakes and mitigate the disaster of the affected areas.

  2. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

  3. High Surface Area Nanoporous Polymers for Reversible HydrogenStorage

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Jonathan; Hradil, Jiri; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Svec,Frantisek

    2006-06-29

    Hydrogen adsorption using a series of nanoporous synthetic polymers has been studied. Promising results were obtained during the screening of commercially available porous polymer beads; of the polymers considered, hypercrosslinked Hypersol-Macronet MN200 resin exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for hydrogen. This initial success triggered the development of our own high surface area hypercrosslinked materials. Subjecting gel-type and macroporous vinylbenzyl chloride-based precursors swollen in dichloroethane to a Friedel-Crafts reaction catalyzed by iron trichloride afforded beads with surface areas of 1 930 and 1 300 m{sup 2}/g, respectively, as calculated using the BET equation. The former polymer reversibly stores up to 1.5 wt % H{sub 2} at a pressure of 0.12 MPa and a temperature of 77.3 K. The initial heat of adsorption of hydrogen molecules onto this polymer is 6.6 kJ/mol.

  4. CLIC RF High Power Production Testing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Syratchev, I.; Riddone, G.; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and generate RF power for the main linac accelerating structure. The demands on the high power production ({approx} 150 MW) and the needs to transport the 100 A drive beam for about 1 km without losses, makes the PETS design rather unique and the operation very challenging. In the coming year, an intense PETS testing program will be implemented. The target is to demonstrate the full performance of the PETS operation. The testing program overview and test results available to date are presented.

  5. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, D.R.; Brzezinski, M.A.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project (LDRD) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). There were two primary objectives for the work performed under this project. The first was to take advantage of capabilities and facilities at Los Alamos to produce the radionuclide {sup 32}Si in unusually high specific activity. The second was to combine the radioanalytical expertise at Los Alamos with the expertise at the University of California to develop methods for the application of {sup 32}Si in biological oceanographic research related to global climate modeling. The first objective was met by developing targetry for proton spallation production of {sup 32}Si in KCl targets and chemistry for its recovery in very high specific activity. The second objective was met by developing a validated field-useable, radioanalytical technique, based upon gas-flow proportional counting, to measure the dynamics of silicon uptake by naturally occurring diatoms.

  6. Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

  7. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua; Orme, Christine A.

    2016-04-19

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported assembly, which comprises a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on said graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of said metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the graphene-supported assembly, including graphene-supported MoS.sub.2. Monoliths with high surface area and conductivity can be achieved. Lower operating temperatures in some applications can be achieved. Pore size and volume can be tuned.

  8. Production of high specific activity silicon-32

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Dennis R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

  9. Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Boz, Ismail; Kaluza, Stefan; Boroglu, Mehtap Safak; Muhler, Martin

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

  10. High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Ryan Patrick

    The dissertation is divided into two main chapters, each focused on a different application for aerogel. The first chapter concerns the development of silica aerogel for thermal insulation. It begins with initial characterization of a silica aerogel insulation for a next-generation Advanced Radioisotope Stirling Generator for space vehicles. While the aerogel as made performs well, it is apparent that further improvements in mechanical strength and durability are necessary. The chapter then continues with the exploration of chlorotrimethysilane surface modification, which somewhat surprisingly provides a drastic increase in mechanical properties, allowing the inherently brittle silica network to deform plastically to >80% strain. It is hypothesized that the hydrophobic surface groups reduce capillary forces during drying, lowering the number of microcracks that may form and weaken the gel. This surface modification scheme is then implemented in a fiber-reinforced, opacified aerogel insulation for a prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. This is the first known report of aerogel insulation for thermoelectrics. The aerogel insulation is able to increase the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator by 40% compared with commercial high-temperature insulating wool. Unfortunately, the supercritical drying process adds significant cost to the aerogel insulation, limiting its commercial viability. The chapter then culminates in the development and characterization of an Ambiently Dried Aerogel Insulation (ADAI) that eliminates the need for expensive supercritical drying. It is believed that this report represents the first aerogel insulation that can be dried without undergoing a large volume change before "springing back" to near its original volume, which allows it to be cast into place into complex geometries and around rigid inclusions. This reduces a large barrier to the commercial viability of aerogel insulation. The advantages of ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  11. High-productivity automatic GTAW process

    SciTech Connect

    Imaizumi, H.; Kato, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1994-12-31

    Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has, since developed by AIRCO, spread globally as a weld process which assures a quality weld. However, the only drawback with GTAW is low productivity and we have challenged the subject in how we could improve that. To that end, we set the target of 3 times deposition rate as compared to conventional TIG. With conventional TIG arc, arc spread angle ranges 130{degrees} to 140{degrees}; to improve energy density, we have employed double flux TIG of SAF, France to converge the arc down to 80{degrees}. Consequently, energy density was upped to 4 times of conventional TIG, thus penetration depth and filler wire feed rated increased up to 2 to 4 times. We have succeeded in controlling cool-down in the molten pool, enabling the utilization of highly-converged TIG arc and preventing deposited metals burn-through for cleaner weld process, high-productivity GTAW. We find that: (1) The TIG arc spread angle is convergeable from 140{degrees} down to 80{degrees}; heat energy to be 3.5 times of that obtainable conventionally. (2) 65{emdash}80 g/min attained with 500A and C.S. in flat position, and 35{emdash}40 g/min., with all-position pipe weld. (3) 2{emdash}3 times efficiency improvement, obtained with work in C.S., S.S., and Inconel. (4) Excellent impact value obtainable despite heat-input increase. (5) Fume-less, spatterless, gouging-less and grindingless weld is obtainable; we were successful in improving the operational environment.

  12. Automatic area based registration method and its application to the surface inspection of steel industry products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Llenderrozos, Ricardo; Álvarez García, Ignacio; Enguita González, José M.; Rodríguez Jiménez, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    We describe the automated application of an area based registration method to the surface inspection of steel industry products as a tool to solve an intermediate mosaicing problem. The main problem of area based methods is that there is high probability that the results of a matching process will be incorrect if a region of interest without any relevant detail is used. The selection of a region of interest with relevant content continues to be a problem nowadays. We propose a method to select a salient area when using a zero mean normalised cross correlation metric and a block as a region of interest. The selection of the size and the position of the block is focused on ensuring a smooth unimodal similarity surface around the maximum similitude point. Experiments show a correlation between the surface kurtosis of the block autocovariance and the same coefficient measured over the correlation surface around the maximum similitude point for the three different steel products analysed. We check that the maximum correlation value is reached abruptly, in a small range of pixels around the maximum similitude point, in correlation surfaces obtained from blocks containing non-relevant information. On the other hand, salient blocks usually lead to unimodal smooth similarity surfaces with small sensitivity to noise in contrast with the ones obtained from non-remarkable blocks. Also, the method proposed allows the application of fast search algorithms based on the unimodality of the correlation surface, obtaining high computational time reduction in comparison with full search strategies using fast normalised cross correlation algorithms.

  13. Detailed and Highly Accurate 3d Models of High Mountain Areas by the Macs-Himalaya Aerial Camera Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauchle, J.; Hein, D.; Berger, R.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing in areas with extreme altitude differences is particularly challenging. In high mountain areas specifically, steep slopes result in reduced ground pixel resolution and degraded quality in the DEM. Exceptionally high brightness differences can in part no longer be imaged by the sensors. Nevertheless, detailed information about mountainous regions is highly relevant: time and again glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and debris avalanches claim dozens of victims. Glaciers are sensitive to climate change and must be carefully monitored. Very detailed and accurate 3D maps provide a basic tool for the analysis of natural hazards and the monitoring of glacier surfaces in high mountain areas. There is a gap here, because the desired accuracies are often not achieved. It is for this reason that the DLR Institute of Optical Sensor Systems has developed a new aerial camera, the MACS-Himalaya. The measuring unit comprises four camera modules with an overall aperture angle of 116° perpendicular to the direction of flight. A High Dynamic Range (HDR) mode was introduced so that within a scene, bright areas such as sun-flooded snow and dark areas such as shaded stone can be imaged. In 2014, a measuring survey was performed on the Nepalese side of the Himalayas. The remote sensing system was carried by a Stemme S10 motor glider. Amongst other targets, the Seti Valley, Kali-Gandaki Valley and the Mt. Everest/Khumbu Region were imaged at heights up to 9,200 m. Products such as dense point clouds, DSMs and true orthomosaics with a ground pixel resolution of up to 15 cm were produced. Special challenges and gaps in the investigation of high mountain areas, approaches for resolution of these problems, the camera system and the state of evaluation are presented with examples.

  14. Two photon absorption in high power broad area laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mehmet; Michael, Christopher P.; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Lin; Jacob, Jonah H.

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in thermal management and improvements in fabrication and facet passivation enabled extracting unprecedented optical powers from laser diodes (LDs). However, even in the absence of thermal roll-over or catastrophic optical damage (COD), the maximum achievable power is limited by optical non-linear effects. Due to its non-linear nature, two-photon absorption (TPA) becomes one of the dominant factors that limit efficient extraction of laser power from LDs. In this paper, theoretical and experimental analysis of TPA in high-power broad area laser diodes (BALD) is presented. A phenomenological optical extraction model that incorporates TPA explains the reduction in optical extraction efficiency at high intensities in BALD bars with 100μm-wide emitters. The model includes two contributions associated with TPA: the straightforward absorption of laser photons and the subsequent single photon absorption by the holes and electrons generated by the TPA process. TPA is a fundamental limitation since it is inherent to the LD semiconductor material. Therefore scaling the LDs to high power requires designs that reduce the optical intensity by increasing the mode size.

  15. Bicontinuous ceramics with high surface area from block copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Han-Yu; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2012-06-01

    Mesoporous polymers with gyroid nanochannels can be fabricated from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by hydrolysis of PLLA block. Well-defined polymer/ceramic nanohybrid materials with inorganic gyroid nanostructures in a PS matrix can be obtained by using the mesoporous PS as a template for sol-gel reaction. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) is used as a precursor to give a model system for the fabrication of metal oxide nanostructures from reactive transition metal alkoxides. By controlling the rates of capillary-driven pore filling and sol-gel reaction, the templated synthesis can be well-developed. Also, by taking advantage of calcination, bicontinuous TiO(2) with controlled crystalline phase (i.e., anatase phase) can be fabricated after removal of the PS template and crystallization of TiO(2) by calcination leading to high photocatalytic efficiency. This new approach provides an easy way to fabricate high-surface-area and high-porosity ceramics with self-supporting structure and controlled crystalline phase for practical applications. As a result, a platform technology to fabricate precisely controlled polymer/ceramic nanohybrids and mesoporous ceramic materials can be established. PMID:22530553

  16. High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

  17. High-speed interconnection for storage area networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, ZhaoBin; Xie, Changsheng; Wu, Fei; Fu, Xianglin

    2003-04-01

    The steady and fast increase of data intensive application is violently driving the demand for more data storage capacity and new storage architecture. The server-attached storage approach is being replaced by storage area networks (SANs), whose primary purpose is the transfer of data between computer systems and storage elements or among storage elements, allowing storage devices to be shared among multiple servers. In this paper, we mainly analyze the different characters of Fibre Channel, iSCSI and InfiniBand used within the SANs environment. This paper discusses the issues of protocol performance, protocol scalability, the security mechanism, the interoperability and adaptability with SAN environments, the cost of investment of each architecture and so on. Comparing the performance of traditional direct attached storage, the findings show that all Fibre Channel, InfiniBand and iSCSI are the competent gigabit networking technology for storage area networks. Each protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages. Due to the overwhelming benefits of economy, covenience and high performance/cost ratio, more enterprise can deploy iSCSI SAN based on mature and existing TCP/IP infrastructure.

  18. High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

  19. Plastic Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for a plastic technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  20. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and

  1. Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Robert; And Others

    This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  2. High Power Microwave Production by Gyroharmonic Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapointe, M. A.; Ganguly, A. K.; Yoder, R. B.; Wang, Changbiao; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1996-11-01

    Recent progress on the production of third and fourth harmonic microwave radiation from a high power, axis-encircling beam will be presented. The 4--10 MW beam is produced by cyclotron autoresonance acceleration (CARA) which is described in detail elsewhere.(M. A. LaPointe, R. B. Yoder, C. Wang, A. K. Ganguly and J. L. Hirshfield, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76), 2718 (1996); J. L. Hirshfield, M. A. LaPointe, A. K. Ganguly, R. B. Yoder and C. Wang, Phys. Plasmas 3, 2163 (1996). The output section consists of an open cylindrical cavity whose radius is beyond cutoff at the third harmonic of the drive frequency in the TE_31 mode but resonant in the TE_41 mode. Results to date have shown strong third harmonic but only weak fourth harmonic output. One explanation for the presence of the third harmonic could be reactive pulling of the TE_31 cutoff by the high current (25--30 A) beam. Descriptions of the output cavities as well as frequency spectra and calorimetric power measurements will be presented.

  3. Quantifying impact of seasonal variations in backscatter on soil moisture retrieval in high latitude permafrost areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högström, Elin; Bartsch, Annett; Gouttevin, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of surface hydrology has important implications for many application areas, including those aiming to improve our understanding of permafrost response and feedback in a changing climate. Validation of global hydrological land-surface models in high latitude permafrost regions is challenging due to e.g. scarcity of observation based data and spatial variability of hydrological properties. Today, advances in remote sensing techniques and retrieval algorithms can provide a range of landsurface parameters, including soil moisture products. Comparisons of remotely sensed soil moisture with large scale model output, as well as reanalyzes between Metop ASCAT and ENVISAT ASAR GM data, were recently done, recognizing that pond rich areas show low correlation. However, it has previously been pointed out that soil moisture retrieval, by the remote sensing technique referred to in this study, can be challenging in high latitudes due to e.g. frozen ground conditions, landscape heterogeneity and seasonal variations in landcover type. This study investigates whether low correlation can be linked to issues in the remote sensing product rather than model output or reanalyzes data. Effects of issues specific for the arctic, with focus on seasonal variations in water bodies, are investigated and the effects on backscatter quantified over relevant areas in high latitudes. Lake ice cover is identified as one mayor contributor to backscatter differences in these areas.

  4. Seasonal predator removal relative to hatch rate of duck nests in waterfowl production areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

    1995-01-01

    These authors report that hatch rates of duck nests were related to removal of predators from waterfowl production areas. Cost effectiveness of such efforts is questioned. The prairie pothole region (PPR) is the primary breeding ground of several species of North American ducks (Bellrose 1980). Much habitat of breeding ducks in the PPR has been destroyed or degraded by intensive agriculture (e.g., Kiel et al. 1972, Bellrose 1980, Sugden and Beyersbergen 1984, Boyd 1985), resulting in high predation rates on duck nests (Sargeant and Raveling 1992). Because of predation, hatch rate (HR) of duck nests in Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA's) in the PPR is often less than the 15-20% suggested for stability of populations of the 5 most common species of dabbling ducks (e.g., Cowardin et al. 1985, Greenwood 1986, Klett et al. 1988, Greenwood et al. 1990). Managers seek ways to reduce depredations of duck clutches in WPA's, but little information is available concerning effects of predator removal. We evaluated seasonal (spring and early summer) removal of predators from WPA's in Minnesota and North Dakota. Our objectives were to compare HR in uplands of WPA's with and without predators removed and to determine functional aspects of conducting predator removal.

  5. Microbial production of itaconic acid: developing a stable platform for high product concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuenz, Anja; Gallenmüller, Yvonne; Willke, Thomas; Vorlop, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-12-01

    Biotechnologically produced itaconic acid (IA) is a promising organic acid with a wide range of applications and the potential to open up new application fields in the area of polymer chemistry, pharmacy, and agriculture. In this study, a systematic process optimization was performed with an own isolated strain of Aspergillus terreus and transferred from a 250-mL to a 15-L scale. An IA concentration of 86.2 g/L was achieved within 7 days with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/(L h), a maximum productivity of 1.2 g/(L h), and a yield of 86 mol%. A cultivation of other well-known A. terreus strains with the developed process showed no significant differences. Based on this, a process is developed providing a high final IA concentration independent of the used strain combined with high reproducibility. PMID:22752264

  6. Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment of management opportunities and potentially adverse changes on adjacent lands. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Screening of high temperature adhesives for large area bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenersen, A. A.; Wykes, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    High temperature-resistant adhesive systems were screened for processability, mechanical and physical properties, operational capability at 589 K (600 F), and the ability to produce large area bonds of high quality in fabricating Space Shuttle components. The adhesives consisted primarily of polyimide systems, including FM34B-18, NR-150B2 (DuPont), PMR-15, LARC-13, LARC-160, Thermid 600, and AI-1130L (AMOCA). The processing studies included preparation of polyimide resins, fabrication of film adhesives, development of lay-up and cure procedures, fabrication of honeycomb sandwich panels, and fabrication of mid-plane bonded panels in joints up to 30.5 cm (12 in.) wide. The screening program included tests for tack and drape properties, reticulation and filleting characteristics, ability to produce void-free or low porosity bonds in mid-plane bonded panels, out-time stability, lap shear strength, climbing drum peel strength, and glass transition temperature (Tg). This paper describes the processing methods developed and the test results.

  8. Productivity of Angora goats in the communal rangelands of Molimo-Nthuse area in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Matebesi, P A; Khitsane, L

    2006-01-01

    Production parameters were determined for kidding, offtake and mortality rates, and milk production and composition of Angora goats in two communal agro-ecological zones, Mountains and Lowlands, of Molimo-nthuse area in Lesotho. True incidence rates and risk rates as used in dynamic populations were used to calculate the different production parameters. A completely randomized design was used to compare the differences between the two agro-ecological zones. Angora goats in the two agro-ecological zones produced milk similarly (p > 0.05) in amounts and composition. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in annual kidding, mortality and offtake rates between Angora goats kept in the Lowlands and those in the Mountains. However, high mortality rates and mortality risk rates were observed in both zones. Thus, the risk rates that suckling Angora goats would die within their first 6 months after birth were 28% and 34% for the Mountains and Lowlands, respectively. It is suggested that future emphasis should be on reducing kid mortality through better herding of the goats and improvement of pre- and post-partum nutrition of the doe in this communal livestock farming system. PMID:17265776

  9. GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L.

    2008-05-15

    The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

  10. Production of high power femtosecond terahertz radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, George R.; Carr, G.L.; Gubeli III, Joseph F.; Jordan, K.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Shinn, Michelle; Tani, Masahiko; Williams, G.P.; Zhang, X.-C.

    2003-07-11

    The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is attracting interest for a broad range of applications ranging from diagnosing electron beams to biological imaging. Most sources of short pulse THz radiation utilize excitation of biased semiconductors or electro-optic crystals by high peak power lasers. For example, this was done by using an un-doped InAs wafer irradiated by a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Microwatt levels of THz radiation were detected when excited with FEL pulses at 1.06 mm wavelength and 10W average power. Recently substantially higher powers of femtosecond THz pulses produced by synchrotron emission were extracted from the electron beamline. Calculations and measurements confirm the production of coherent broadband THz radiation from relativistic electrons with an average power of nearly 20W, a world record in this wavelength range by a factor of 10,000. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. Potential applications of this exciting new source include driving new non-linear phenomena, performing pump-probe studies of dynamical properties of novel materials, and studying molecular vibrations and rotations, low frequency protein motions, phonons, superconductor band gaps, electronic scattering, collective electronic excitations (e.g., charge density waves), and spintronics.

  11. Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Husak, G.J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, Diego; Funk, Christopher C.; Galu, G.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

  12. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

  13. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the different altitudinal belts. The local differences of temperature dynamics are illustrated in a map as an example of the low alpine altitudinal belt showing a 4-dimensional characterization (in space and time) of high mountain ecosystem functioning. Hydrological aspects derived from those results are presented showing the large- scaled hydrological dynamics of high mountain catchment basins in central Norway. The results of the process analysis of hydrological dynamics in the central Norwegian high mountains are discussed within the frame of investigations on altitudinal changes of mountain ecosystem structure and functioning (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM [in print]). The poster illustrates the theoretical and methodological conception, methods and techniques, examples from complex data material as well as general outcomes of the project (RÖßLER [in prep.]. JUNG, G., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Untersuchungen zur Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Forschungsansatz. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 4-36. Oldenburg. KÖHLER, B., J. LÖFFLER &D. WUNDRAM (1994): Probleme der kleinräumigen Geoökovarianz im mittelnorwegischen Gebirge. Norsk geogr. Tidsskr. 48: 99- 111. LÖFFLER, J. (1997): Großmaßstäbige geoökologische Kartierungen in den Höhenstufen des mittelnorwegischen Gebirges. NORDEN 12: 205-228. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. (1998): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Struktur mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 1. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J., O.-D. FINCH, J. NAUJOK &R. PAPE (2001): Möglichkeiten der Integration zoologischer Aspekte in die landschaftsökologische Untersuchung von Hochgebirgen. Methodendiskussion am Beispiel ökologischer Prozesssysteme und Biozönosen. Naturschutz u. Landschaftsplanung 33 (11): 351-357. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1997): Klimatische Phänomene in mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgslandschaften und ihre ökosystemare Bedeutung. Oldenburger Geoökologisches Kolloquium 3: 37-86. Oldenburg. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (1999): Kleinräumige Klimavarianz im mittelnorwegischen Hochgebirgsraum Vågå/Oppland. NORDEN 13: 267 -276. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (2000) : Temperature Dynamics of Ecotopes in small Catchment Areas. In: C. BEIERKUHNLEIN et al. (Hrsg.): Zukunft mitteleuropäischer Kulturlandschaft. Analyse - Planung - Management. Tagungsband mit Kurzfassungen der Beiträge zur 1. Jahrestagung der IALE- Region Deutschland: 76, Nürtingen. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (2001): Räumliche und zeitliche Differenzierung des Temperaturhaushalts von Hochgebirgsökosystemen. NORDEN 14: 85 -102. Bremen. LÖFFLER, J. &D. WUNDRAM (in print): Geoökologische Untersuchungen zur Prozessdynamik mittelnorwegischer Hochgebirgsökosysteme. Oldenburger Geoökologische Studien 2. Oldenburg. MOSIMANN, T. (1984): Landschaftsökologische Komplexanalyse. Wiesbaden. MOSIMANN, T. (1985): Untersuchungen zur Funktion subarktischer und alpiner Geoökosysteme (Finnmark [Norwegen] und Schweizer Alpen). Physiogeographica 7. Basel. RÖßLER, O. (in prep.): Modelling the Water Balance of Central Norwegian High Mountain Ecosystems. University of Oldenburg.

  14. Large scale synthesis of nanoporous BN flake with high surface areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hui-Ling; Han, Qiu-Xia; Wu, Jie; Meng, Xiang-Lin; Cui, Hong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous boron nitride (BN) flake was synthesized in large scale at temperatures between 550 and 600 °C for 10 h via the simple reaction between NaBH4 and CH5N3S. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra confirm the formation of hexagonal BN. Examination by high-resolution transmission electron microscope reveals that the product is comprised of nanoporous flake, which exhibits a high surface area of 214 m2 g-1 characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The nanoporous BN flake has good thermal stability and oxidation resistance up to 800 °C measured by thermogravimetric analysis.

  15. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How is production allocated within a...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating...

  16. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How is production allocated within a...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating...

  17. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How is production allocated within a...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating...

  18. 43 CFR 3282.9 - How is production allocated within a participating area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How is production allocated within a...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.9 How is production allocated within a participating...

  19. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    The present day society needs to adjust to the effects of climate change. More extreme weather conditions are expected, which can lead to longer periods of drought, but also to more extreme precipitation events. Urban water systems are not designed for such extreme events. Most sewer systems are not able to drain the excessive storm water, causing urban flooding. This leads to high economic damage. In order to take appropriate measures against extreme urban storms, detailed knowledge about the behaviour of the urban water system above and below the streets is required. To investigate the behaviour of urban water systems during extreme precipitation events new assessment tools are necessary. These tools should provide a detailed and integral description of the flow in the full domain of overland runoff, sewer flow, surface water flow and groundwater flow. We developed a new assessment tool, called 3Di, which provides detailed insight in the urban water system. This tool is based on a new numerical methodology that can accurately deal with the interaction between overland runoff, sewer flow and surface water flow. A one-dimensional model for the sewer system and open channel flow is fully coupled to a two-dimensional depth-averaged model that simulates the overland flow. The tool uses a subgrid-based approach in order to take high resolution information of the sewer system and of the terrain into account [1, 2]. The combination of using the high resolution information and the subgrid based approach results in an accurate and efficient modelling tool. It is now possible to simulate entire urban water systems using extreme high resolution (0.5m x 0.5m) terrain data in combination with a detailed sewer and surface water network representation. The new tool has been tested in several Dutch cities, such as Rotterdam, Amsterdam and The Hague. We will present the results of an extreme precipitation event in the city of Schiedam (The Netherlands). This city deals with significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 1580 - High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) A Appendix A to... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Pt. 1580, App. A Appendix A to Part 1580—High Threat Urban Areas (HTUAs) State Candidate urban area Geographic area captured in the data count Previously designated urban areas included...

  1. Calibration of a conceptual hydrological model using EUMETSAT snow covered area product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Parajka, J.; Bloeschl, G.

    2013-12-01

    Snow is one of the main water resources, therefore monitoring and estimating the snow water equivalent play important role in predicting discharges during melting seasons. Spatial ground-based observations of snow are often limited at the watershed-scale, therefore the snow modeling component of a hydrologic modeling system is often calibrated along the rainfall-runoff model using watershed discharge observations. The objective of this study is to test the potential of snow cover data from MSG satellite sensor. The product has been developed in the framework of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The product is generated by using data from Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument making observations from a geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). The methodology is based on an indirect comparison of snow water equivalent simulated by hydrological model and the MSG snow cover data (SCA). The analysis is performed in the upper Euphrates basin in Turkey. The Euphrates basin is largely fed from snow precipitation whereby nearly two-thirds occur in winter and may remain in the form of snow for half of the year. The results indicate the cloud clearance capability of MSG-SEVIRI snow product would make the product usable in hydrological modeling, especially for the areas where high cloud coverage may be seen during snow season. The calibration against SCA in addition to runoff improved the simulated runoff considerably. The calibration is performed for the water years 2009,2010 and 2011, the validation is performed for 2012 and 2013 water years. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency is used as the model efficiency. The runoff model efficiencies for the validation period are 0.68 for calibration runoff only and 0.74 for the calibration that utilized runoff and MSG SEVIRI SCA data. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the magnitude of the model efficiency is sensitive to the choice of the threshold of snow covered area used in estimating the snow underestimation errors, and the cloud cover threshold used in deciding if a MSG snow cover product can be used for model analysis.

  2. Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

    1990-01-01

    A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

  3. An intercomparison of burnt area estimates derived from key operational products: the Greek wildland fires of 2005-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, D. P.; Petropoulos, G. P.; Athanasiou, I. M.; Kollias, V. J.

    2013-06-01

    With the support of new technologies such as of remote sensing, today's societies have been able to map and analyse wildland fires at large observational scales. With regards to burnt area mapping in particular, two of the most widely used operational products are offered today by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Forest Fires Information System (EFFIS) of the European Commission. In this study, a rigorous intercomparison of the burnt area estimates derived by these two products is performed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment for the Greek fires that occurred from 2005 to 2007. For the same temporal interval, the relationships of the burnt area estimates by each product are examined with respect to land use/cover and elevation derived from CORINE 2000 and the ASTER global digital elevation model (GDEM), respectively. Generally, noticeable differences were found in the burnt area estimates by the two products both spatially and in absolute numbers. The main findings are described and the differences in the burnt area estimates between the two operational datasets are discussed. The lack of precise agreement between the two products which was found does not necessarily mean that one or the other product is inaccurate. Rather, it underlines the requirement for their calibration and validation using high-resolution remote sensing data in future studies. Our work not only builds upon a series of analogous studies evaluating the accuracy of the same or similar operational products worldwide, but also contributes towards the development of standardised validation methodologies required in objectively evaluating such datasets.

  4. Area product and mass formula for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-09-01

    We derive area product, entropy product, area sum and entropy sum of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) black hole in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. We observe that these thermodynamic products are not universal (mass-independence) for this black hole (BH), whereas for Kerr-Newman (KN) BH such products are universal (mass-independence). We also examine the entropy sum and area sum. It is shown that they all depend on mass, charge and NUT parameter of the background spacetime. Thus, we can conclude that the universal (mass-independence) behavior of area product and entropy product, area sum and entropy sum for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (KNTN) BH fails and which is also quite different from KN BH. We further show that the KNTN BH do not possess first law of BH thermodynamics and Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem relations, and that such relations are unlikely in the KN case. The failure of these aforementioned features are due to presence of the nontrivial NUT charge which makes the spacetime to be asymptotically non-flat, in contrast with KN BH. The other reason of the failure is that Lorentzian KNTN geometry contains Dirac-Misner type singularity, which is a manifestation of a nontrivial topological twist of the manifold. The BH mass formula and Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula for KNTN BHs are also derived. Finally, we compute the area bound which is just Penrose like inequality for event horizon. From area bound we derive entropy bound. These thermodynamic products on the multi-horizon play a crucial role in BH thermodynamics to understand the microscopic nature of BH entropy.

  5. Secondary production of the fiddler crab Uca rapax from mangrove areas under anthropogenic eutrophication in the Western Atlantic, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de M M Costa, Tarso; Soares-Gomes, Abilio

    2015-12-30

    Fiddler crabs Uca rapax were analyzed in three mangrove areas located in both a lagoon and estuarine system in order to study the influence of eutrophication on their population dynamics and production. Populations at the three sites showed a biased sex ratio. Densities were similar at the three sites, but biomass was higher at the lagoon system. Despite biomass being higher at the most eutrophic site, this site exhibited the lowest production. Regarding age structure, the population inhabiting the less eutrophic site mainly comprised younger crabs. The lower production and smaller P/B ratio found in the more eutrophic site were most likely consequences of a high mortality rate and an aged population. Our study evidences the high plasticity of the fiddler crab U. rapax, and confirms secondary production and P/B ratio estimates as useful tools to assess the effects of environmental change. PMID:26549296

  6. High radon areas in the Walloon region of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Tondeur, F; Cinelli, G; Dehandschutter, B

    2015-06-01

    Indoor radon data from Southern Belgium are organised in 35 geological units (GUs), most of which are homogeneous with respect to the radon risk. The percentage of cases above the reference level (400 Bq m(-3); 300 Bq m(-3) in the future) is calculated for these GUs from the observations and from the log-normal distribution fitted to the data. Affected areas are defined as areas with more than 1 % of houses above the reference level. In the north of the region, the old Palaeozoic basement is generally covered by Silesian, Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks, which are unaffected. The affected areas here are hot spots associated with specific Palaeozoic outcrops. In the south, there is generally no cover above Palaeozoic formations, which are often radon affected. The affected areas of Ardenne and Condroz dominate this part, but unaffected areas occur like Famenne and Gaume. About 48 % of the Walloon region is expected to be radon affected. PMID:25969523

  7. High resolution tsunami modelling for the evaluation of potential risk areas in Setúbal (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, J.; Silva, A.; Leitão, P.

    2011-08-01

    The use of high resolution hydrodynamic modelling to simulate the potential effects of tsunami events can provide relevant information about the most probable inundation areas. Moreover, the consideration of complementary data such as the type of buildings, location of priority equipment, type of roads, enables mapping of the most vulnerable zones, computing of the expected damage on man-made structures, constrain of the definition of rescue areas and escape routes, adaptation of emergency plans and proper evaluation of the vulnerability associated with different areas and/or equipment. Such an approach was used to evaluate the specific risks associated with a potential occurrence of a tsunami event in the region of Setúbal (Portugal), which was one of the areas most seriously affected by the 1755 tsunami. In order to perform an evaluation of the hazard associated with the occurrence of a similar event, high resolution wave propagation simulations were performed considering different potential earthquake sources with different magnitudes. Based on these simulations, detailed inundation maps associated with the different events were produced. These results were combined with the available information on the vulnerability of the local infrastructures (building types, roads and streets characteristics, priority buildings) in order to impose restrictions in the production of high-scale potential damage maps, escape routes and emergency routes maps.

  8. Projecting crop yield in northern high latitude area.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kanichiro

    2014-01-01

    Changing climatic conditions on seasonal and longer time scales influence agricultural production. Improvement of soil and fertilizer is a strong factor in agricultural production, but agricultural production is influenced by climate conditions even in highly developed countries. It is valuable if fewer predictors make it possible to conduct future projections. Monthly temperature and precipitation, wintertime 500hPa geopotential height, and the previous year's yield are used as predictors to forecast spring wheat yield in advance. Canadian small agricultural divisions (SAD) are used for analysis. Each SAD is composed of a collection of Canadian Agricultural Regions (CAR) of similar weather and growing conditions. Spring wheat yields in each CAR are forecast from the following variables: (a) the previous year's yield, (b) earlier stages of the growing season's climate conditions and, (c) the previous year's wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height field. Arctic outflow events in the Okanagan Valley in Canada are associated with episodes of extremely low temperatures during wintertime. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied for wintertime northern hemisphere 500hPa geopotential height anomalies. The spatial PCA mode1 is defined as Arctic Oscillation and it influences prevailing westerlies. The prevailing westerlies meanders and influences climatic conditions. The spatial similarity between wintertime top 5 Arctic outflow event year's composites of 500hPa geopotential height anomalies and mode 3's spatial pattern is found. Mode 3's spatial pattern looks like the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern which describes the variation of atmospheric circulation pattern over the Pacific Ocean and North America. Climate conditions from April to June, May to July, mode 3's time coefficients, and previous year's yield are used for forecasting spring wheat yield in each SAD. Cross-validation procedure which generates eight sets of models for the eight validation periods is used. To show the reproducing projection between observed and calculated values, the root mean squared error for skill score (RMSE SS) with the persistence model serving as the reference model is used. The persistence model is used as a benchmark. The results show that SADs near USA border show better RMSE SS values and mode 3's time coefficients can be a useful predictor especially for inland province such as Manitoba. Among 27 Canadian Prairie's SADs with perfect yield data, 67% of Alberta's SADs, 86% of Manitoba's SADs, and 77% of Saskatchewan's SADs can get positive skill scores. In each SAD, future yield projection is calculated applying predictors in 2013 for the obtained eight sets of models and eight sets of forecasted values in 2013 are averaged and a near future projection result is obtained. Series of outputs including calculated forecasted yield value in each SAD is provided by smart phone application. A system for providing climatic condition for a point with a permission of Climatic Research Unit - University of East Anglia and for obtaining patent is proposed. There are several patented systems similar to the system proposed in this paper. However, these patents are different in essence. The system proposed in this paper consists of two parts. First part is to estimate equations using time series data. The second part is to acquire and apply latest climatic conditions for obtained equations and calculate future projection. If the procedure is refined and devices are originally developed, series of idea can be patented. For future work, crop index, Hokkaido is also introduced. PMID:25733071

  9. Surface area and chemical reactivity characteristics of uranium metal corrosion products.

    SciTech Connect

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-02-17

    The results of an initial characterization of hydride-containing corrosion products from uranium metal Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) fuel plates are presented. Sorption analyses using the BET method with a Kr adsorbate were performed to measure the specific areas of corrosion product samples. The specific surface areas of the corrosion products varied from 0.66 to 1.01 m{sup 2}/g. The reactivity of the products in Ar-9%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were measured at temperatures between 35 C and 150 C using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer. Ignition of the products occurred at temperatures of 150 C and above. The oxidation rates below ignition were comparable to rates observed for uranium metal.

  10. [Environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping'an; Huang, Huang; Yan, Huimin; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Huang, Xingguo

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the environmental cost of rice production is of significance for the sustainable development of agriculture and the set-up of green GDP accounting system. In this paper, the environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area, one of the main bread baskets in China, was evaluated from the aspects of pesticide pollution, chemical fertilizer pollution, greenhouse gases emission, plastic film persistence, paddyfield gleyization, and polderization. The results showed that in 1999, the total environmental cost of rice production in this area was 41.91 billion yuan, equivalent to 26.8% of its total agricultural production value, or 28.5% of the gross output of its planting industry. For the sustainable production of rice, the strategies for decrease environmental cost intrinsically were put forward. PMID:16471365

  11. Using High Fluoride Concentration Products in Public Policy: A Rapid Review of Current Guidelines for High Fluoride Concentration Products.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Gail V A; Ramsdale, Martin P; Vinall-Collier, Karen; Csikar, Julia I

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in dental caries levels since the widespread introduction of fluoride toothpastes, it is still a disease which is considered to be a priority in many countries around the world. Individuals at higher risk of caries can be targeted with products with a high fluoride concentration to help reduce the amount and severity of the disease. This paper compares guidance from around the world on the use of products with a high fluoride concentration and gives examples of how guidance has been translated into activity in primary care dental practice. A rapid review of electronic databases was conducted to identify the volume and variation of guidance from national or professional bodies on the use of products with a high fluoride concentration. Fifteen guidelines published within the past 10 years and in English were identified and compared. The majority of these guidelines included recommendations for fluoride varnish use as well as for fluoride gels, while a smaller number offered guidance on high fluoride strength toothpaste and other vehicles. Whilst there was good consistency in recommendations for fluoride varnish in particular, there was sometimes a lack of detail in other areas of recommendation for other vehicles with a high fluoride concentration. There are good examples within the UK, such as the Childsmile project and Delivering Better Oral Health, which highlight that the provision of evidence-based guidance can be influential in directing scarce resources towards oral health improvements. Policy can be influenced by evidence-based national recommendations and used to help encourage dental professionals and commissioners and third-party payers to adopt higher levels of practices aimed at oral health improvement. PMID:27100106

  12. Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

  13. [The productive district of textile asbestos in the Lower Iseo Lake area].

    PubMed

    Caironi, Massimo; Polini, Sandro; Storto, Teodorico; Bertoli, Mariarosa

    2007-01-01

    In the Bergamo area of Basso Sebino (lower Lake Iseo), for decades there has been a large concentration of small firms (mostly family-run), specialised in the production of rubber gaskets. Within this production field, some companies used to manufacture textile asbestos exclusively or as part of their business. The asbestos goods were therefore marketed as they were or subsequently cut and transformed into gaskets. Among the 5 companies involved, "Manifattura Colombo & C" was the first one that started this production in the district, and the one that engaged the greatest number of employees (considering both the Sarnico and Predore factories). In the Predore factory, operating from the fifties to 1979, the asbestos thread production was carried out exclusively and to the complete technological cycle (i.e. from crashing the raw asbestos that was brought in from Balangero). The whole process was performed in an extremely dusty environment (according to the witness of former workers), expecially during the first production steps. In the Sarnico factory which operated from 1920 to 1993, they produced textile asbestos items (laces, ropes, etc.), as well as rubber and metal gaskets. The latter were coupled with asbestos by means of metal-plastics co-moulding operations, in order to obtain gaskets highly resistant to exhaust vapours, gases, oils, solvents and so on. The environmental data available (referred to the 1980-1992 period), supply evidence of severe exposure in the first years of activity, whilst a sharp reduction in the asbestos-fiber concentration rate was achieved along the years, thanks mainly to the completion and improvement of exhaust systems installed on winding and braiding machines. Finally we shortly describe the work of the four other factories and in more detail that of the "Manifattura Sebina srl" is mentioned herein because, although this is a "typical" textile mill and exclusively manufacturing cotton products, a considerable number of cases of mesothelioma has been detected among its workforce. This has been attributed to the presence of asbestos insulated piping, to maintenance and replacement interventions on looms brake pads, and above all to the nearly 50 asbestos blankets that were employed in the weekly fire-fighting exercises, and usually leaned against the walls of departments, with no protection whatsoever. PMID:18050852

  14. CHANGES IN CROP PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY WITH HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in crop yield are due to changes in the genetic efficiency in the use of inputs. However, there are constraints on efficient use of resources, e.g., water, nitrogen, solar radiation, that limit consistent high yield response. The interactions of water, nitrogen, and light form a basis fo...

  15. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative

  16. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  17. High B-field, large area ratio MHD duct experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.; Wang, S. Y.; Morgan, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the effect of area ratio variation on the performance of a supersonic Hall MHD duct were extended up to area ratios of 6.25/1. It is shown that for a given area ratio there is a combustion pressure above which the power generating region of the duct is shock free and the power output increases linearly with the square of the magnetic field. Below this pressure a shock forms in the duct which moves upstream with increasing magnetic field strength and results in a less rapid rise in power output.

  18. Detection and quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shellfish from Italian production areas.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, Elisabetta; Mioni, Renzo; Mazzette, Rina; Bordin, Paola; Serratore, Patrizia; Fois, Federica; Piano, Annamaria; Cozzi, Loredana; Croci, Luciana

    2014-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine microorganism, recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness particularly in Asia, South America and United States. Outbreaks are rarely reported in Europe, but they can occur unexpectedly in relation, among other reasons, to the spread of highly virulent strains. It is known that the risk is proportional to exposure levels to pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus (i.e. carrying the tdh and/or the trh genes) but currently there is a lack of occurrence data for pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus in shellfish production areas of the Member States. In this study a total of 147 samples of bivalve molluscs, from harvesting areas of two Italian regions (Sardinia and Veneto) were analyzed for Escherichia coli and salmonella, according to Reg 2073/2005, and for detection and enumeration of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus strains using a new DNA colony hybridization method. Environmental parameters (water temperature and salinity) were also recorded. Results of E. coli were consistently in agreement with the legislation limits for the harvesting class of origin and Salmonella was detected only in one sample. The average contamination levels for total V. parahaemolyticus were 84 and 73 CFU/g respectively for Sardinia and Veneto, with the highest value reaching 8.7 × 10(3)CFU/g. Nineteen samples (12.9%) resulted positive for the presence of potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains, with levels ranging between 10 and 120 CFU/g and most of the positive samples (n=17) showing values equal or below 20 CFU/g. A significant correlation (r=0.41) was found between water temperature and V. parahaemolyticus levels, as well as with isolation frequency. The data provided in this study on contamination levels of total and potentially pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus, seasonal distribution and correlation with water temperature, will help in defining appropriate monitoring programs and post-harvest policies for this hazard, improving the management of the harvesting areas and the safety of bivalve molluscs. PMID:24810197

  19. Nanofiber adsorbents for high productivity continuous downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Hardick, Oliver; Dods, Stewart; Stevens, Bob; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2015-11-10

    An ever increasing focus is being placed on the manufacturing costs of biotherapeutics. The drive towards continuous processing offers one opportunity to address these costs through the advantages it offers. Continuous operation presents opportunities for real-time process monitoring and automated control with potential benefits including predictable product specification, reduced labour costs, and integration with other continuous processes. Specifically to chromatographic operations continuous processing presents an opportunity to use expensive media more efficiently while reducing their size and therefore cost. Here for the first time we show how a new adsorbent material (cellulosic nanofibers) having advantageous convective mass transfer properties can be combined with a high frequency simulated moving bed (SMB) design to provide superior productivity in a simple bioseparation. Electrospun polymeric nanofiber adsorbents offer an alternative ligand support surface for bioseparations. Their non-woven fiber structure with diameters in the sub-micron range creates a remarkably high surface area material that allows for rapid convective flow operations. A proof of concept study demonstrated the performance of an anion exchange nanofiber adsorbent based on criteria including flow and mass transfer properties, binding capacity, reproducibility and life-cycle performance. Binding capacities of the DEAE adsorbents were demonstrated to be 10mg/mL, this is indeed only a fraction of what is achievable from porous bead resins but in combination with a very high flowrate, the productivity of the nanofiber system is shown to be significant. Suitable packing into a flow distribution device has allowed for reproducible bind-elute operations at flowrates of 2,400 cm/h, many times greater than those used in typical beaded systems. These characteristics make them ideal candidates for operation in continuous chromatography systems. A SMB system was developed and optimised to demonstrate the productivity of nanofiber adsorbents through rapid bind-elute cycle times of 7s which resulted in a 15-fold increase in productivity compared with packed bed resins. Reproducible performance of BSA purification was demonstrated using a 2-component protein solution of BSA and cytochrome c. The SMB system exploits the advantageous convective mass transfer properties of nanofiber adsorbents to provide productivities much greater than those achievable with conventional chromatography media. PMID:25784156

  20. Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  1. Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Devendra, C.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

  2. Highly Productive Tools For Turning And Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilko, Karol

    2015-12-01

    Beside cutting speed, shift is another important parameter of machining. Its considerable influence is shown mainly in the workpiece machined surface microgeometry. In practice, mainly its combination with the radius of cutting tool tip rounding is used. Options to further increase machining productivity and machined surface quality are hidden in this approach. The paper presents variations of the design of productive cutting tools for lathe work and milling on the base of the use of the laws of the relationship among the highest reached uneveness of machined surface, tool tip radius and shift.

  3. Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

    1981-08-01

    Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

  4. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  5. What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, C.S.

    1991-06-25

    The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

  6. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  7. High Yields for Enhanced Sustainable Feedstock Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, humankind is in the midst of one of the greatest technological, environmental, and social transitions since the industrial revolution as we strive to replace fossil energy with renewable sources. The Billion Ton Report established a target for U.S. bioenergy feedstock production and throug...

  8. The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

    2014-12-28

    Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors. PMID:25200960

  9. Assessment of the Broadleaf Crops Leaf Area Index Product from the Terra MODIS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Bin; Hu, Jiannan; Huang, Dong; Yang, Wenze; Zhang, Ping; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2005-01-01

    The first significant processing of Terra MODIS data, called Collection 3, covered the period from November 2000 to December 2002. The Collection 3 leaf area index (LAI) and fraction vegetation absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) products for broadleaf crops exhibited three anomalies (a) high LAI values during the peak growing season, (b) differences in LAI seasonality between the radiative transfer-based main algorithm and the vegetation index based back-up algorithm, and (c) too few retrievals from the main algorithm during the summer period when the crops are at full flush. The cause of these anomalies is a mismatch between reflectances modeled by the algorithm and MODIS measurements. Therefore, the Look-Up-Tables accompanying the algorithm were revised and implemented in Collection 4 processing. The main algorithm with the revised Look-Up-Tables generated retrievals for over 80% of the pixels with valid data. Retrievals from the back-up algorithm, although few, should be used with caution as they are generated from surface reflectances with high uncertainties.

  10. Medina Group geology and production tests indicate area worth further drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Pees, S.T.

    1983-05-30

    The Medina Group sandstones of the Lower Silurian area comprise the currently most active drilling objective for gas in northwestern Pennsylvania. This article discusses the stratigraphy and gives details on production tests of the area. The occurrence of exceptional Medina wells is clearly established in the region. These wells can economically offset average or marginal wells. In spite of the large number of wells, many of which have been drilled since 1979, the region has large undrilled tracts.

  11. Special report. New products that improve security of parking and perimeter areas.

    PubMed

    1992-11-01

    An estimated 20 to 30% of crimes involving hospital security take place in parking lots and garages, as well as other outside areas. In this special report, we'll bring you up-to-date on a number of products that have been introduced to improve access control of such areas, as well as reduce or prevent theft or mismanagement by cashiers or parking attendants. PMID:10126880

  12. An Analysis of Post-Stimulation Production Response in the Madison: Elk Area, ND

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, D.D.

    1984-05-01

    Madison carbonates in the Williston Basin vary widely in productive capacity. Often, wells achieving low oil production rates after acid stimulation respond favorably to a proppant fracturing treatment. This has occurred most frequently in fractured reservoirs with limited matrix permeability (less than 0.1 md). The study area consists of nine contiguous fields 10-15 miles south of the town of Williston, North Dakota. Madison reservoir development was initiated in 1980 and has proceeded steadily. A variety of stimulation techniques have been implemented with proppant fracturing emerging as a frequently used method. This paper reviews and evaluates area reservoir characteristics and completion and stimulation practices. Also included is an analysis of the reservoir behavior during proppant fracturing treatments and of the ensuing production response. In most cases, proppant fracturing techniques have provided better productivity increases than large-scale acidizing and lower than normal decline rates.

  13. Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

    2010-12-01

    Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

  14. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  15. How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

  16. Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

  17. Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

  18. HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS BY TELEVISION--THE HOUSTON AREA PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STREVELL, WALLACE H.

    THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TELEVISION TEACHING WAS INVESTIGATED UNDER VARIED CONDITIONS OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION SUCH AS URBAN-RURAL, SEGREGATED SCHOOLS, AND HOMOGENEOUS GROUPING. ADDITIONAL OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT WERE TO (1) INTRODUCE TEACHING BY OPEN-CIRCUIT TELEVISION AMONG INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN THE HOUSTON AREA, (2) DEVELOP PRACTICAL…

  19. Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, David H.

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

  20. Sustaining Fracture Area and Conductivity of Gas shale Reservoirs for Enhancing Long-term Production and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Rivera, R.; Marino, S.; Ghassemi, A.

    2010-12-01

    Natural gas from organic rich shale formations has become an increasingly important energy resource worldwide over the past decade. Extensive hydraulic fracture networks with massive contact surface areas are frequently required to achieve satisfactory economic production in these highly heterogeneous reservoirs, with permeability in the nano-Darcy range. Current operational experience in gas shale plays indicates that the loss of productive fracture area and loss of fracture conductivity, both immediate and over time, are the major factors leading to reduced flow rates, marginal production, and poor gas recovery. This theoretical and experimental project, funded by a RPSEA (Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America) program, is aimed at understanding the multiple causes of loss of fracture surface area and fracture conductivity. The main objectives of the project are: understand the multiple causes of loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define solutions to mitigate the resulting loss of production. Define the types of fracture networks that are more prone to loosing fracture area and define critical parameters, for each reservoir type, (including proppant concentration, fluid interaction, relative shear displacement and others) to preserve fracture conductivity, and define an integrated methodology for evaluating reservoir properties that result in proneness to loss of fracture area and fracture conductivity, and define adequate solutions for the various reservoir types Current results include the evaluation of reservoir geology, mineralogy, reservoir properties, mechanical properties, including surface hardness, and petrologic analysis on cores representative of Barnett, Haynesville and Marcellus reservoir shales. A comparison of these properties provides an initial reference frame for identifying differences in behavior between the various reservoirs, and for anticipating the potential for embedment and loss of fracture conductivity. Actual measurements of fracture conductivity as a function of stress will be measured and presented in the future.

  1. Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Xiong, A.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Precipitation Merge Team

    2010-12-01

    A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation is constructed on a 0.25°latitude/ longitude grid over China for a 3 year period from 2005 to 2007 by interpolating gauge reports from ~2000 stations (fig.1) collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration. Gauge-based precipitation analysis is applied to examine the performance of six high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates, including Joyce et al.’s (2004) Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and the arithmetic mean of the microwave estimates used in CMORPH; Huffman et al.’s (2007) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product 3B42 and its real-time version 3B42RT; Turk et al.’s (2004) Naval Research Laboratory blended product; and Hsu et al.’s (1997) Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN). Our results showed the following: (1) all six satellite products are capable of capturing the overall spatial distribution and temporal variations of precipitation reasonably well; (2) performance of the satellite products varies for different regions and different precipitation regimes, with better comparison statistics observed over wet regions and for warm seasons; (3) products based solely on satellite observations present regionally and seasonally varying biases, while the gauge-adjustment procedures applied in TRMM 3B42 remove the large-scale bias almost completely; (4) CMORPH exhibits the best performance in depicting the spatial pattern and temporal variations of precipitation; and (5) both the relative magnitude and the phase of the warm season precipitation over China are estimated quite well, but the early morning peak associated with the Mei-Yu rainfall over central eastern China is substantially under-estimated by all satellite products. The work reported in this paper is an integral part of our efforts to construct an analysis of hourly merged precipitation analysis in the future (Shen et al., 2010). Further work is to extend its temporal coverage and to improve the quality of the CPAP. The dataset for the period of 1900-1952 with only ~100 gauge reports available over mainland China is under consideration for development. Gauge network is an important element to determine the quality of the dataset, while the gauge distribution is very sparse over the northwestern China and the Tibetan Plateau, the effective tool to improve the quality of the dataset over these areas is to merge the gauge observations with the satellite precipitation products which is under way. Figure 1 Number of Chinese stations reporting hourly precipitation over a three-year period from January 2005 to December 2007

  2. Validation of the 2008 Landsat Burned Area Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 Burned Area ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene areas overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference burned area polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic Burned Area Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic Burned Area Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.

  3. Application of remote sensors in mapping rice area and forecasting its production: a review.

    PubMed

    Mosleh, Mostafa K; Hassan, Quazi K; Chowdhury, Ehsan H

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ~19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ~65 kg during 2010-2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

  4. 76 FR 30002 - Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Antelope Valley of the California High Desert viticultural area in the Federal Register (75 FR 53877) on... area--businesses, health care providers, a school, a church, and a hospital--with ``High Desert'' in... of the California High Desert Viticultural Area AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade...

  5. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  6. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  7. A Multi-satellite Remote Sensing Product of Reservoir Storage, Elevation, and Surface Area in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Gao, H.; Naz, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoir storage information is essential for accurate flood monitoring and prediction. South Asia, however, is dominated by international river basins where communications among neighboring countries about reservoir storage and management are extremely limited. A suite of satellite observations were combined to create a high quality reservoir storage product in South Asia from 2000 to 2012. The approach used water surface area estimations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indices product and the area-elevation relationship to estimate reservoir storage. The surface elevation measurements were from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on board the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). In order to improve the accuracy of water surface area estimations for relatively small reservoirs, a novel classification algorithm was developed. This remotely sensed product contains time series of reservoir elevation, area, and storage for a total of 21 reservoirs, which represents 28% of the integrated reservoir capacity in South Asia. The remotely sensed results were validated comprehensively over five reservoirs through two steps. First, the MODIS surface water classification images were compared with Landsat high resolution (30 m) classifications. Second, the reservoir elevation and storage dataset from remote sensing was evaluated using gauge observations. . The storage estimates were highly correlated with observed values (i.e., the correlation coefficients were all larger than 0.9), with normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) ranging from 9.51% to 25.20%. Uncertainty analysis was also conducted for the remotely sensed storage estimations. For the parameterization uncertainty associated with surface area retrieval, the storage mean relative uncertainty was 3.90%. With regard to the uncertainty introduced by ICESat/GLAS elevation measurements, the storage mean absolute uncertainty was 0.67%.

  8. High Surface Area Inorganic Membrane for Water Removal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to demonstrate the fabrication and performance advantages of minichannel planar membrane modules made of porous metallic supports of surface area packing density one order of magnitude higher than the conventional membrane tube. The new, transformational, ceramic/metallic, hybrid membrane technology will be used for water/ethanol separations and reduce energy consumption by >20% over distillation and adsorption.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

  10. LOTEM data processing for areas with high cultural noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K.-M.; Hanstein, T. H.; Eilenz, H. N.

    1989-03-01

    Long Offset Transient Electromagnetic (LOTEM) soundings conducted in industrialized areas demand complex approaches to data processing for the removal of unwanted cultural noise. When sporadic, aperiodic noise (from pumps, electric fences, etc.) or periodic noise from power lines is present, as is the case in the F.R.G., standard data processing commonly outputs averaged transients which are contaminated by the noise influence(s), and any processing done after stacking usually fails to improve the data resolution. A new approach to the problem of periodic noise is to process each individual transient before averaging, which greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratios and provides a more detailed geoelectric image of the subsurface. An improved prestack, digital-recursive, true-amplitude notch filter is applied to synthetic and real data. Sporadic noise is best handled with either a symmetric or an area-defined rejection selective stack, whereby the signal amplitudes are selectively kept and the noise is statistically rejected. Data show that for LOTEM soundings the symmetric rejection algorithm improves the signal-to-noise ratios significantly. After selective stacking, the system response is deconvolved and the data smoothed with digital recursive filters. The output transients are then converted to apparent resistivities and inverted to a horizontally layered Earth model. A comparison of prestack and poststack data processing for one profile shows that with prestack data processing the section correlates well with the known geology of the area, whereas poststack processing outputs an interpreted geoelectric section that is inconsistent with the geology.

  11. A Seasonal Survey of Click Beetles in a Potato Production Area Near Palmer, Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult elaterids associated with potato production were collected in the three major potato producing areas of Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, and from a subsistence farm above the arctic circle in Wiseman. Twelve species from ten genera were collected including three of the six most e...

  12. Estimating leaf area index from Landsat using MODIS LAI products and field measurements as reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key biophysical parameter used in most land surface models. Operationally, LAI products currently used typically come from coarse resolution sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). While coarse resolution data at the kilometer scale are o...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  14. 75 FR 35829 - Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Oxford Slough Waterfowl Production Area... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents for Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge), 7 miles south of... ``Bear Lake CCP EA'' in the subject line of the message. Fax: Attn: Annette de Knijf, 208-847-1319....

  15. Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

  16. Milk production and calf rearing practices in the smallholder areas in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mapekula, M; Chimonyo, M; Mapiye, C; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Farmer perceptions on milk production and calf rearing practices on communal rangelands in the smallholder areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were evaluated on a total of 218 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires, semi-structured interviews with key informants and personal observations. Nearly 70% of the households in the small-scale areas milked twice a day compared to 60% in the communal areas. About 62% of the interviewees weaned calves between 6 and 12 months of age. Milk yield/cow/day (7.5 +/- 0.5 litres), fresh milk consumption/household/day (3.2 +/- 0.5 litres) and sales/household/day (3.1 +/- 1.1 litres) were highest in the sour-veld, small-scale farms (P < 0.05). Sour milk consumption/household/day (2.6 +/- 0.2 litres) and sales/household/day (0.8 +/- 0.2 litres) were significantly high in communal farms with a sour-veld. It was concluded that, calf rearing practices were poor and milk yield, consumption and sales were generally low and varied with production system and rangeland type. Further research is required to improve calf management practices, cow nutrition, milk yield and quality and how milk production can be used as a toll for rural development in the smallholder areas of South Africa. PMID:19347665

  17. Analysis, improvement and application of the MODIS leaf area index products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenze

    Green leaf area governs the exchanges of energy, mass and momentum between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. Therefore, leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation (0.4-0.7 mum) absorbed by the vegetation canopy (FPAR) are widely used in vegetation monitoring and modeling. The launch of Terra and Aqua satellites with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard provided the first global products of LAI and FPAR, derived mainly from an algorithm based on radiative transfer. The objective of this research is to comprehensively evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS LAI/FPAR products. Large volumes of these products have been analyzed with the goal of understanding product quality with respect to version (Collection 3 versus 4), algorithm (main versus back-up), snow (snow-free versus snow on the ground) and cloud (cloud-free versus cloudy) conditions. Field validation efforts identified several key factors that influence the accuracy of algorithm retrievals. The strategy of validation efforts guiding algorithm refinements has led to progressively more accurate LAI/FPAR products. The combination of products derived from the Terra and Aqua MODIS sensors increases the success rate of the main radiative transfer algorithm by 10-20 percent over woody vegetation. The Terra Collection 4 LAI data reveal seasonal swings in green leaf area of about 25 percent in a majority of the Amazon rainforests caused by variability in cloud cover and light. The timing and the influence of this seasonal cycle are critical to understanding tropical plant adaptation patterns and ecological processes. The results presented in this dissertation suggest how the product quality has gradually improved largely through the efforts of validation activities. The Amazon case study highlights the utility of these data sets for monitoring global vegetation dynamics. Thus, these results can be seen as a benchmark for evaluation of future versions of similar products.

  18. Characterizing the impacts of vertical transport and photochemical ozone production on an exceedance area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T.; Austerberry, David; Pierce, R. Bradley; Roby, Matthew C.; Tadić, Jovan M.; Loewenstein, Max; Gore, Warren

    2015-05-01

    Offshore and inland vertical profiles of ozone (O3) were measured from an aircraft during 16 flights from January 2012 to January 2013 over the northern San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and over the Pacific Ocean. Analysis of in situ measurements presents an assessment of the seasonality and magnitude of net O3 production and transport within the lower troposphere above the SJV. During the high O3 season (May-October), the Dobson Unit sum of O3 in the 0-2 km above sea level (km.a.s.l.) layer above the SJV exceeds that above the offshore profile by up to 20.5%, implying net O3 production over the SJV or vertical transport from above. During extreme events (e.g. Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport) vertical features (areas of enhanced or depleted O3 or water vapor) are observed in the offshore and SJV profiles at different altitudes, demonstrating the scale of vertical mixing during transport. Correlation analysis between offshore O3 profiles and O3 surface sites in the SJV lends further support the hypothesis of vertical mixing. Correlation analysis indicates that O3 mixing ratios at surface sites in the northern and middle SJV show significant correlations to the 1.5-2 km.a.s.l. offshore altitude range. Southern SJV O3 surface sites show a shift towards maximum correlations at increased time-offsets, and O3 surface sites at elevated altitudes show significant correlations with higher offshore altitudes (2.5-4 km.a.s.l.).

  19. New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

  20. Mineral resources of the Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area, Humboldt and Washoe counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, W.J.; Turner, R.L.; Plouff, D.

    1987-01-01

    The Little High Rock Canyon Wilderness Study Area consists of approximately 52,143 acres of flat-lying Tertiary volcanic rocks and associated sediments. No resources were identified in the study area, but three areas contain moderate potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The rest of the area has low potential for epithermal gold and silver resources. The study area also contains three small areas of low potential for perlite, pozzolan, and uranium.

  1. A study of the correlation between dose area product and effective dose in vascular radiology.

    PubMed

    Smans, K; Struelens, L; Hoornaert, M-T; Bleeser, F; Buls, N; Berus, D; Clerinx, P; Malchair, F; Vanhavere, F; Bosmans, H

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the multi-centre study was to assess dose area product (DAP) and effective dose of patients undergoing angiography of the lower limbs in Belgium and to investigate the correlation between DAP and effective dose. DAP values were measured in 12 centres and compared with the national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The effective dose (E) was estimated by multiplying the DAP with case-specific conversion coefficients (CCs) that were calculated with Monte Carlo software MCNP5. As a model for the patient, a mathematical hermaphrodite phantom was used. Calculations showed that tube configurations and extra Cu filtration have a large influence on these CCs. Due to the use of Cu filtration, effective dose can be twice as high for comparable DAP values. Also the use of an over-couch tube configuration is a disadvantage when compared with the under-couch tube configuration. For centres working under-couch without the use of extra Cu-filtration, the DAP values correlate very well with effective dose (Spearman's rank correlation rho ; = 0.97). For these conditions, general CCs between DAP and E were calculated. They were 0.083 mSv Gy(-1) cm(-2) (ICRP 60) and 0.065 mSv Gy(-1) cm(-2) (ICRP 103). PMID:18310610

  2. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  3. Large-Area High Aspect Ratio Plasmonic Interference Lithography Utilizing a Single High-k Mode.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Cheng; Zhou, Jing; Guo, L Jay

    2016-04-26

    Plasmonic lithography, which utilizes subwavelength confinement of surface plasmon polartion (SPP) waves, has the capability of breaking the diffraction limit and delivering high resolution. However, all previously reported results suffer from critical issues, such as shallow pattern depth and pattern nonuniformity even over small exposure areas, which limit the application of the technology. In this work, periodic patterns with high aspect ratios and a half-pitch of about 1/6 of the wavelength were achieved with pattern uniformity in square centimeter areas. This was accomplished by designing a special mask and photoresist (PR) system to select a single high spatial frequency mode and incorporating the PR into a waveguide configuration to ensure uniform light exposure over the entire depth of the photoresist layer. In addition to the experimental progress toward large-scale applications of plasmonic interference lithography, the general criteria of designing such an exposure system is also discussed, which can be used for nanoscale fabrication in this fashion for various applications with different requirements for wavelength, pitch, aspect ratio, and structure. PMID:27075440

  4. High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

  5. Managing emissions from highly industrialized areas: Regulatory compliance under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Abi-Esber, L.; Ayash, T.

    The use of regulatory and compliance-based modeling for air quality impact assessment is invariably relied upon to predict future air quality under various management scenarios particularly where air quality monitoring data are limited. This paper examines the dispersion from a multi-stack cement manufacturing complex with associated quarries and transport activities for regulatory compliance under uncertain emission and meteorological conditions. The concentrations of CO, NO x, SO 2 and PM at sensitive receptor locations were used as indicators in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidelines. Exceedance exposure areas were delineated under bounded uncertainties in input emission factors and meteorological parameters. Planning and management initiatives were tested to control/minimize potential exposure. Compared to the case of low emissions and actual meteorological conditions, the consideration of worst emissions coupled to worst meteorological conditions enlarged the boundaries of the exceedance exposure areas considerably. The implementation of best available technologies and enforcement of emission standards improved air quality in the region significantly and lowered the exposure at many population centers to below health standards. Uncertainty in the output of atmospheric dispersion models continues to play a significant role to be considered at the point where science is translated into political decision making.

  6. High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    1993-01-01

    The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

  7. High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

    The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

  8. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  9. 43 CFR 3282.10 - When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participating area receive a production allocation? 3282.10 Section 3282.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.10 When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation? Unleased Federal lands within...

  10. 43 CFR 3282.10 - When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participating area receive a production allocation? 3282.10 Section 3282.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.10 When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation? Unleased Federal lands within...

  11. 43 CFR 3282.10 - When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participating area receive a production allocation? 3282.10 Section 3282.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.10 When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation? Unleased Federal lands within...

  12. 43 CFR 3282.10 - When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participating area receive a production allocation? 3282.10 Section 3282.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES UNIT AGREEMENTS Participating Area § 3282.10 When will unleased Federal lands in a participating area receive a production allocation? Unleased Federal lands within...

  13. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe; Tillotson, Thomas; Hrubesh, Lawrence; Simpson, Randall

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  14. Doubly promoted catalyst with high geometric surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G.; Hegedus, L.; Maselli, J. M.; Pereira, C. J.

    1985-04-09

    An extrudate catalyst suitable for auto emission control is made from a solid, transitional aluminia with a partially hollow interior. Deposited on the extrudate are two promoters, ceria and an alkali metal, and one or more platinum group metals. The preferred alkali metal is in the oxide form as lithia. The cylindrical extrudate has internal reinforcing vanes or ribs extending from the inner wall to the center of the extrudate particle. This configuration permits the catalyst to have the large geometric surface area per reactor volume yet, because of the openings inside the extrudate, the catalyst particles do not exhibit a large pressure drop when packed in a deep bed. These catalysts provide greater hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide conversions than do similar size spherical particles and they have improved light-off characteristics.

  15. Importance of crown architecture for leaf area index of different Populus genotypes in a high-density plantation.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, L S; Verlinden, M S; Vangronsveld, J; Ceulemans, R

    2012-10-01

    Crown architecture is an important determinant of biomass production and yield of any bio-energy plantation since it determines leaf area display and hence light interception. Four Populus genotypes-of different species and hybrids and with contrasting productivity and leaf area-were examined in terms of their branch characteristics in relation to crown architecture during the first and second growing seasons after plantation establishment. The trees were planted at high density (8000 ha(-1)) on two different former land use types, cropland and pasture. We documented significant differences in branch architecture among the genotypes and for the first year among the former land use types. Land use effects only affected factors not related to canopy closure and wood production, and decreased after the first growing season. This suggested that both former land use types were equally suited for the establishment success of a poplar bio-energy plantation. Tree height and branch dimensions-branch diameter and branch length-were the most important determinants of wood production and maximum leaf area index. Despite the secondary importance of the number of sylleptic branches, these branches contributed significantly to the total leaf area in three out of the four studied genotypes. This indicated that enhanced syllepsis accelerates leaf area development and hence carbon assimilation, especially in the early stages of a high-density plantation with poplar. PMID:23022688

  16. Skin dose and dose-area product values in patients undergoing intracoronary brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Vano, E; Prieto, C; Fernandez, J M; Gonzalez, L; Sabate, M; Galvan, C

    2003-01-01

    Entrance skin doses, dose-area product (DAP) values, fluoroscopy times and digital cine acquisition data were measured for 86 patients undergoing intracoronary brachytherapy procedures with beta sources, to estimate risk of skin injuries. Interventions were carried out in three dedicated X-ray interventional cardiology rooms equipped with X-ray systems operating in pulsed modes, with high filtration and edge filter options. Skin dose distribution was analysed in detail in 56 patients using slow films and thermoluminescent dosimetry. Digital recording of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine cine images also allowed analysis of the technical parameters used throughout the procedures. A protocol for clinical follow-up of these patients at the cardiology service is also presented, which prescribes special attention when a threshold dose is reached. Median values for DAP, fluoroscopy time and number of frames were 81.2 Gy cm(2), 17.5 min and 1569 frames, respectively, and maximum values were 323.3 Gy cm(2), 46.2 min and 3213 frames, respectively. In two cases, maximum skin doses in a procedure reached 3.5 Gy and 4.6 Gy. Comparing median values in this study, intracoronary brachytherapy involved approximately two-fold the DAP used in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures performed during the same period in the same catheterization laboratories, as a consequence of the need to monitor the radioactive source location used for the treatment of stenoses and the intravascular ultrasound. Special care must be paid in those cases of high dose in relation to potential patient skin injuries and late effects. PMID:12595323

  17. High-efficiency large-area CdTe panels

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. )

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this three year effort has been to develop an improved materials technology and fabrication process for limited volume production of 1 ft{sup 2} and 4 ft{sup 2} CdS/CdTe photovoltaic modules. The module stability objective by the end of this three year subcontract was to develop techniques to provide ten year life exploration with no greater than 10% degradation. In order to achieve these efficiency and stability objectives, the research program has been separated into tasks including: (1) analysis and characterization of CdS/CdTe Devices; (2) performance optimization on small cells; (3) encapsulation and stability testing; and (4) module efficiency optimization. 27 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  19. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  20. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  1. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  2. 10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas....

  3. 78 FR 41195 - Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... AFFAIRS Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... announcing the availability of funds under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas... Areas Program requirements, see the Final Rule published in the Federal Register (78 FR 19586) on...

  4. Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

    2013-12-01

    Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

  5. Software Synthesis for High Productivity Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodik, Rastislav

    2010-09-01

    Over the three years of our project, we accomplished three key milestones: We demonstrated how ideas from generative programming and software synthesis can help support the development of bulk-synchronous distributed memory kernels. These ideas are realized in a new language called MSL, a C-like language that combines synthesis features with high level notations for array manipulation and bulk-synchronous parallelism to simplify the semantic analysis required for synthesis. We also demonstrated that these high level notations map easily to low level C code and show that the performance of this generated code matches that of handwritten Fortran. Second, we introduced the idea of solver-aided domain-specific languages (SDSLs), which are an emerging class of computer-aided programming systems. SDSLs ease the construction of programs by automating tasks such as verification, debugging, synthesis, and non-deterministic execution. SDSLs are implemented by translating the DSL program into logical constraints. Next, we developed a symbolic virtual machine called Rosette, which simplifies the construction of such SDSLs and their compilers. We have used Rosette to build SynthCL, a subset of OpenCL that supports synthesis. Third, we developed novel numeric algorithms that move as little data as possible, either between levels of a memory hierarchy or between parallel processors over a network. We achieved progress in three aspects of this problem. First we determined lower bounds on communication. Second, we compared these lower bounds to widely used versions of these algorithms, and noted that these widely used algorithms usually communicate asymptotically more than is necessary. Third, we identified or invented new algorithms for most linear algebra problems that do attain these lower bounds, and demonstrated large speed-ups in theory and practice.

  6. Flight Qualification And Production Results With Large Area Space Solar Cells And Panel Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Hanley, James; Jun, Bogim; Bardfield, Rina; Stone, Beth

    2011-10-01

    Spectrolab's product roadmap provides improvement in product performance in parallel with continuous cost reduction to maintain competitive standing in our industry. Product performance improvement is achieved by developing higher efficiency solar cells (e.g. 29.5% XTJ and 33% IMM cells).Reduced product cost is achieved historically through a variety of means including yield improvements, direct material cost reductions, process changes, and most recently, a transition to large area cell configurations (e.g. "LEONE" at 59.65 cm2). Spectrolab has successfully completed the qualification of its latest triple junction space solar cell, the 29.5% 2 XTJ (26.62 cm ), per AIAA-S-111-2005 - augmented by additional Spectrolab testing. Large area LEONE UTJ and XTJ cells (59.65 cm2 from 100 mm diameter germanium wafer) have also been qualified. Use of these large area cells has resulted in the reduction of solar panel cost, add-on mass and manufacturing cycle time for programs. This evolution to larger area cells is the result of a strategic cost reduction effort initiated in 2006; the first step of which was to manufacture the largest possible cells (LEONE) using the 100 mm germanium (Ge) wafer. In flight production since 2007, the LEONE UTJ cell has now completed rigorous qualification testing to 15,549 GEO (Geosynchronous orbit) and 66,060 LEO (Low Earth Orbit) thermal cycles. Over 53,000 LEONE UTJ cells, including more than 27,000 cells on panels delivered to flight programs, have been produced to date. The on-orbit performance of the LEONE UTJ cells is nominal. Finally, progress on the second step of our strategic cost reduction effort towards larger cells and less piece part handling is presented. This effort involves the establishment of a 150 mm Ge -based manufacturing infrastructure.

  7. Household use of insecticide consumer products in a dengue endemic area in México

    PubMed Central

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Chan-Dzul, Yamili N.; Zapata-Gil, Rocio; Carrillo-Solís, Claudia; Uitz-Mena, Ana; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate household use of insecticide consumer products to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests, as well as the expenditures for using these products, in a dengue endemic area in México. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 441 households in Mérida City or other communities in Yucatán State to assess household use of insecticide consumer products. Results Most (86.6%) households took action to kill insect pests with consumer products. Among those households, the most commonly used product types were insecticide aerosol spray cans (73.6%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (37.4%), and mosquito coils (28.3%). Mosquitoes were targeted by 89.7% of households using insecticide aerosol spray cans and >99% of households using electric plug-in insecticide emitters or mosquito coils. During the part of the year when a given product type was used, the frequency of use was daily or every 2 days in most of the households for insecticide aerosol spray cans (61.4%), electric plug-in insecticide emitters (76.2%), and mosquito coils (82.1%). For all products used to kill insect pests, the median annual estimated expenditure per household that took action was 408 Mexican pesos ($MXN), which corresponded to ∼31 $U.S. These numbers are suggestive of an annual market in excess of 75 million $MXN (>5.7 million $U.S.) for Mérida City alone. Conclusion Mosquitoes threaten human health and are major nuisances in homes in the study area in México. Households were found to have taken vigorous action to kill mosquitoes and other insect pests and spent substantial amounts of money on insecticide consumer products. PMID:25040259

  8. Adaptability and stability of conilon coffee in areas of high altitude.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, D H G S; Rodrigues, W P; Vieira, H D; Partelli, F L; Viana, A P

    2014-01-01

    In view of the predicted models of global climate change and differences in prices and production costs, there is increased interest in Coffea canephora cultivation in areas of high altitude. However, this species is sensitive to low temperatures, where genotypes vary regarding adaptation/tolerance mechanisms, demonstrating genotype x environment interaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability and adaptability of C. canephora varieties in high-altitude areas. The experiments were carried out in February 2004, in Bom Jesus do Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, at an altitude of 725 m. Four clonal varieties (EMCAPA 8111, EMCAPA 8121, EMCAPA 8131, and EMCAPA 8151) and five harvests (2006 to 2010) were used. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four treatments and six plots, with 12 plants in each plot and spaced 2.5 x 1.2 m. Adaptability and stability parameters were determined using methods based on nonparametric analysis and analysis of variance. The results showed that the EMCAPA 8131 had the best performance according to stability and adaptability parameters and may be promising for high-altitude regions. PMID:25299102

  9. Space optical payloads, new application area for high temperature composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdepuy, B.; Leleu, F.; Boursereau, F.; Parrot, P.; Bailly, B.; Riti, J. B.; Cornu, J. L.

    High temperature composites have been extensively developed in order to produce thermal protection systems of reusable re-entry vehicles and launchers. This development effort covers all aspects including sizing, design, manufacturing processes characterization, non destructive inspection, and all industrial facilities which have also been installed. Strong interest recently appeared for these materials to meet requirements for different space applications. In particularly, for more stringent optical payloads, new materials with high performance requirements have appeared. In the field of high dimensionally stable structures for telescopes, materials have to meet severe requirements, such as low coefficients of thermal expansion, good specific modulus, long-term stability (moisture and chemical insensitivity), etc. Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites can meet these specifications. To demonstrate this capability a structure has been designed, manufactured and will be submitted for complete testing (work supported by ESA/ESTEC). The main available results (part feasibility, characterizations, analysis and stability performance budgets) are presented. For future telescope mirrors, silicon carbide is already known as a good candidate. However, an innovative concept based on silicon carbide sandwich honeycomb technology, which allows optimized design, has been developed. The first characterization results and manufacturing capabilities are presented.

  10. Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

    2012-12-01

    The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established restricting the Amazon and the Pantanal basin to sugarcane expansion. These eco-regions were, therefore, not considered by ZAECANA, which defined pasture lands as preferential for sugarcane crop expansion, since their majority is considered as degraded lands. ZAECANA results show that approximately 64 million ha, currently under pasture and agriculture, are suitable for sugarcane cropping in Brazil, located mainly at the Midwest and Southeast regions (35% of the national territory).Our results indicate that, if the ZAECANA instrument is implemented to drive investments for sugarcane expansion in Brazil, the projected demands for bioethanol could be met without significant impacts to food production, and environmental sustainability could be attained by the adoption of good crop, soil and water management practices.

  11. 75 FR 21368 - Designation of Five Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated five additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The...

  12. 75 FR 52780 - Designation of Nine Counties as High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Trafficking Areas ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy designated nine additional counties as High Drug Trafficking Areas pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 1706. The...

  13. Using a dose-area product for absolute measurements in small fields: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufreneix, S.; Ostrowsky, A.; Le Roy, M.; Sommier, L.; Gouriou, J.; Delaunay, F.; Rapp, B.; Daures, J.; Bordy, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    To extend the dosimetric reference system to field sizes smaller than 2 cm  ×  2 cm, the LNE-LNHB laboratory is studying an approach based on a new dosimetric quantity named the dose-area product instead of the commonly used absorbed dose at a point. A graphite calorimeter and a plane parallel ion chamber with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter were designed and built for measurements in fields of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter. The detector surface being larger than the beam section, most of the issues linked with absolute dose measurements at a point could be avoided. Calibration factors of the plane parallel ionization chamber were established in terms of dose-area product in water for small fields with an uncertainty smaller than 0.9%.

  14. Using a dose-area product for absolute measurements in small fields: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dufreneix, S; Ostrowsky, A; Le Roy, M; Sommier, L; Gouriou, J; Delaunay, F; Rapp, B; Daures, J; Bordy, J-M

    2016-01-21

    To extend the dosimetric reference system to field sizes smaller than 2 cm  ×  2 cm, the LNE-LNHB laboratory is studying an approach based on a new dosimetric quantity named the dose-area product instead of the commonly used absorbed dose at a point. A graphite calorimeter and a plane parallel ion chamber with a sensitive surface of 3 cm diameter were designed and built for measurements in fields of 2, 1 and 0.75 cm diameter. The detector surface being larger than the beam section, most of the issues linked with absolute dose measurements at a point could be avoided. Calibration factors of the plane parallel ionization chamber were established in terms of dose-area product in water for small fields with an uncertainty smaller than 0.9%. PMID:26690271

  15. Application of Remote Sensors in Mapping Rice Area and Forecasting Its Production: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mosleh, Mostafa K.; Hassan, Quazi K.; Chowdhury, Ehsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ∼19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ∼65 kg during 2010–2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

  16. Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Campbell, D.; Samburova, V.; Hendler, E.; Beskid, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the Fort Worth Basin. Oil and gas experts have suggested that it may be the largest onshore natural gas field in the US, containing not only natural gas but also condensate and light oil. Gas production wells in the Barnett Shale area number in the thousands and are spread over a large areas of North Texas. Emissions can occur during various stages in the life of any single well and along various points of the production stream from extraction of raw gas at the well to distribution of commercial grade natural gas at central gathering and processing plants. In the first phase of this study we characterized the emissions from major gas production facilities in the area. An initial survey was performed using a mobile sampling vehicle to identify facilities with measurable emissions. Source-oriented volatile organic compounds (VOC) samples were collected at several facilities with confirmed emissions measured with our continuous survey monitors. In the second phase we conducted saturation monitoring (multiple fixed-ambient sampling locations using passive sampling systems) downwind of gas production areas. One location was near a well with emissions from condensate tanks that were well characterized during Phase 1. A single private residence was located a short distance downwind of this well and was away from other emission sources that might interfere with the measured gradient of emissions from the well. The measurement at this site serves as a case study of the pollutant gradient from a well characterized emission source at various distances downwind of the source relative to the upwind pollutant concentrations. The second facility was a gas compressor station located near a small community. The spatial variations in pollutant concentrations were determined at various distances and directions from the source, sites adjacent to nearby roadways and a background site located upwind of the community. The measured volatile organic compounds were apportioned to sources using the Chemical Mass Balance receptor model. The study results are placed in context by comparing the measured pollutant concentrations to comparable data from elsewhere is the Barnett Shale area and from urban areas of the Dallas-Fort Worth.

  17. Water - Food Nexus: Impact of Rapid Urbanization on Fishery Production in Jakarta Bay Area, Indonesia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.; Martosuparno, S.; Bakti, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    An enormous land-use change is envisaged along the coastline of Jakarta Bay both housing, commercial and industrial zones. Housing and business projects in Jakarta coastal area started from late 1980s have had great impact on mangrove areas and coastal water quality. The next mega project will also be conducted, such as giant sea wall as a sea wall defence and reclamation the north coast of Jakarta as a waterfront city. These reclamation projects should ideally not marginalize fishery production and local fisher communities, but hopefully it will increase their welfare. Therefore, some policy concept base on water-food resilience at coastal area should be carried out before the next activities implemented.

  18. [Radio-ecological situation in the area of JSC "Priargunsky Production Mining and Chemical Association"].

    PubMed

    Shandala, N K; Semenova, M P; Isaev, D V; Kiselev, S M; Seregin, V A; Titov, A V; Filonova, A A; Zhuravleva, L A; Marenny, A M

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the radioecological situation created in the area of the location of diversified uranium mining enterprise "Priargunsky Production Mining and Chemical Association" (PIMCU) there was investigated the radioactivity of a number of the compartments of environment, both at the industrial site and beyond it, as well as the volume activity of radon inside the ground and working premises. Radioecological situation in the vicinity of the uranium mines was performed in comparison with the background (fixed reference, control) district, where there is no uranium mining. Performed studies have shown the significant excess content of 226Ra, 232Th, 210Pb, 222Rn in soil, water open water bodies and local foods near uranium mines compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining that allows to make a conclusion about the significant technogenic pollution of local areas of the plant and adjoining territory. PMID:25842487

  19. Highly reliable detection and correction of pinched areas for high transmission phase shift mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih Li; Liao, Chun-Cheng; Chou, Pin-Jan; Shih, Chiang Lin; Shih, Steven

    2008-03-01

    HTPSM (High-Transmission Phase Shift Mask) is one of the most promising mask technologies for photolithography resolution enhancement. However, it s well known that the use of HTPSM frequently results in unwanted patterns due to inevitable pinching effects, particularly in spacious areas. Although pinching effect can be effectively suppressed by the application of additional Cr patterns at the problematic locations, it is a critical challenge to systematically detect and automatically correct the complicated patterns in most of realistic cases. We demonstrated remarkable photolithography process window improvement by the use of HTPSM (A type and above) with the focus on the development of a systematic methodology for automatic detection and correction of abnormal patterns due to optical pinching effect. Regular optical rules check (ORC) with specific modifications was employed to precisely locate the potential pinched areas, whereas enhanced design rules check (DRC) was applied subsequently to generate the required additional Cr patterns for final mask fabrication. A variety of photolithography variables, such as wavelength and numerical aperture (NA) were extensively investigated against optical pinching effect to confirm the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed detection/correction methodology for HTPSM application.

  20. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise. PMID:23635281

  1. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

  2. High-speed, high-resolution image reading technique using multi-area sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehira, Kazutake

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes image reading technique using multi area sensors for building a high- speed full color still image reader. An experimental system has been created using four CCD imagers which are located symmetrically on the optical axis and optically coupled to the same lens. To produce four images at each surface of the imagers, a pyramidal mirror is placed between the lens and its focal plane. Each CCD sensor reads a quarter section of the original image, and the four images are combined into one image like the original by signal processing. Image discontinuity, which is caused by the differences in characteristics among the CCD imagers, can be decreased below the perception of the human eye by signal correction processing and the read image can be output as a seamless image.

  3. Evaluation of new large area PMT with high quantum efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Cui, Lei; Yue-Kun, Heng; Sen, Qian; Jing-Kai, Xia; Shu-Lin, Liu; Zhi, Wu; Bao-Jun, Yan; Mei-Hang, Xu; Zheng, Wang; Xiao-Nan, Li; Xiang-Dong, Ruan; Xiao-Zhuang, Wang; Yu-Zhen, Yang; Wen-Wen, Wang; Can, Fang; Feng-Jiao, Luo; Jing-Jing, Liang; Lu-Ping, Yang; Biao, Yang

    2016-02-01

    The neutrino detector of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is designed to use 20 kilotons of liquid scintillator and approximately 16 000 20 inch photomultipliers (PMTs). One of the options is to use the 20 inch R12860 PMT with high quantum efficiency which has recently been developed by Hamamatsu Photonics. The performance of the newly developed PMT preproduction samples is evaluated. The results show that its quantum efficiency is 30% at 400 nm. Its Peak/Valley (P/V) ratio for the single photoelectron is 4.75 and the dark count rate is 27 kHz at the threshold of 3 mV while the gain is at 1 × 107. The transit time spread of a single photoelectron is 2.86 ns. Generally the performances of this new 20 inch PMT are improved over the old one of R3600. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (X-DA10010200), Key Deployment Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  4. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremely high surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

  5. Quantitative determination and sampling of lamivudine and zidovudine residues for cleaning validation in a production area.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello; Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erica Rosa Maria

    2007-01-01

    Lamivudine (3TC) and zidovudine (AZT) are systemic antiviral substances extensively used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Nowadays, 3TC, AZT, and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in the same production area. To assure quality of drug products and patient safety, properly validated cleaning methodology is necessary. A carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of 3TC and AZT will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate a simple analytical method for verification of residual 3TC and AZT in equipment used in the production area and to confirm the efficiency of the cleaning procedure. The liquid chromatography method was validated using a Nova-Pak C18 column (3.9 x 150 mm, 4 microm particle size) and methanol-water (20 + 80, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Ultraviolet detection was made at 266 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 2.0-22.0 microg/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.36 and 1.21 microg/mL, respectively. The intra-day and interday precision expressed as relative standard deviation were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of the method was 99.19%. The mean extraction recovery from manufacturing equipment was 83.5%. PMID:17580624

  6. Simulation of ground-water flow and areas contributing ground water to production wells, Cadillac, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water is the primary source of water for domestic, municipal, and industrial use within the northwest section of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. Because of the importance of this resource, numerous communities including the city of Cadillac in Wexford County, Michigan, have begun local wellhead protection programs. In these programs, communities protect their ground-water resources by identifying the areas that contribute water to production wells, identifying potential sources of contamination, and developing methods to cooperatively manage and minimize threats to the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cadillac, simulated regional ground-water flow and estimated areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the production well field. Ground-water flow models for the Clam River watershed, in Wexford and Missaukee Counties, were developed using the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model (MODFLOW 2000). Ground-water flow models were calibrated using the observation, sensitivity, and parameter estimation packages of MODFLOW 2000. Ground-water-head solutions from calibrated flow models were used in conjunction with MODPATH, a particle-tracking program, to simulate regional ground-water flow and estimate areas contributing recharge and zones of transport to the Cadillac production-well field for a 10-year period. Model simulations match the conceptual model in that regional ground-water flow in the deep ground-water system is from southeast to northwest across the watershed. Areas contributing water were determined for the optimized parameter set and an alternate parameter set that included increased recharge and hydraulic conductivity values. Although substantially different hydrologic parameters (assumed to represent end-member ranges of realistic hydrologic parameters) were used in alternate numerical simulations, simulation results differ little in predictions of the size of the contributing area to the city well field. However, increasing recharge and hydraulic conductivity values appreciably affected the shape of the contributing area and zone of contribution of reacharge. Simulation results indicate that the region immediately to the south and southeast of the well field is contributing water to the production wells. Detailed aquifer characterization would be needed to describe and simulate the heterogeneous glacial deposits in the watershed.

  7. Production of ultra-high-purity polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iya, Sridhar K.

    1986-05-01

    Union Carbide's newly developed silane process for the production of high-purity polycrystalline silicon is described. The inherent advantages of using silane instead of a trichlorosilane-hydrogen mixture are discussed. Typical purity data for the current product as well as future purity goals are presented.

  8. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5

  9. Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Peter

    Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

  10. High Volume Manufacturing and Field Stability of MEMS Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jack

    Low volume MEMS/NEMS production is practical when an attractive concept is implemented with business, manufacturing, packaging, and test support. Moving beyond this to high volume production adds requirements on design, process control, quality, product stability, market size, market maturity, capital investment, and business systems. In a broad sense, this chapter uses a case study approach: It describes and compares the silicon-based MEMS accelerometers, pressure sensors, image projection systems, and gyroscopes that are in high volume production. Although they serve several markets, these businesses have common characteristics. For example, the manufacturing lines use automated semiconductor equipment and standard material sets to make consistent products in large quantities. Standard, well controlled processes are sometimes modified for a MEMS product. However, novel processes that cannot run with standard equipment and material sets are avoided when possible. This reliance on semiconductor tools, as well as the organizational practices required to manufacture clean, particle-free products partially explains why the MEMS market leaders are integrated circuit manufacturers. There are other factors. MEMS and NEMS are enabling technologies, so it can take several years for high volume applications to develop. Indeed, market size is usually a strong function of price. This becomes a vicious circle, because low price requires low cost - a result that is normally achieved only after a product is in high volume production. During the early years, IC companies reduced cost and financial risk by using existing facilities for low volume MEMS production. As a result, product architectures are partially determined by capabilities developed for previous products. This chapter includes a discussion of MEMS product architecture with particular attention to the impact of electronic integration, packaging, and surfaces. Packaging and testing are critical, because they are significant factors in MEMS product cost. These devices have extremelyhigh surface/volume ratios, so performance and stability may depend on the control of surface characteristics after packaging. Looking into the future, the competitive advantage of IC suppliers will decrease as small companies learn to integrate MEMS/NEMS devices on CMOS foundry wafers. Packaging challenges still remain, because most MEMS/NEMS products must interact with the environment without degrading stability or reliability. Generic packaging solutions are unlikely. However, packaging subcontractors recognize that MEMS/NEMS is a growth opportunity. They will spread the overhead burden of high-capital-cost-facilities by developing flexible processes in order to package several types of moderate volume integrated MEMS/NEMS products on the same equipment.

  11. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  12. Retrieving leaf area index from landsat using MODIS LAI products and field measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple reference-based approach has been developed for retrieving leaf area index (LAI) from Landsat imagery. The approach uses homogeneous and high quality LAI retrievals from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) as reference to develop a regression tree relating these MODIS ...

  13. Quantitative determination and sampling of azathioprine residues for cleaning validation in production area.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello

    2007-03-12

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, azathioprine and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in same production area. Carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of azathioprine will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for verification of residual azathioprine in equipments used in the production area and to confirm efficiency of cleaning procedure. The HPLC method was validated on a LC system using Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 4 microm) and methanol-water-acetic acid (20:80:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was made at 280 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 2.0 to 22.0 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.09 and 0.29 microg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of method was 99.19%. The mean extraction-recovery from manufacturing equipments was 83.5%. The developed UV spectrophotometric method could only be used as limit method to qualify or reject cleaning procedure in production area. Nevertheless, the simplicity of spectrophotometric method makes it useful for routine analysis of azathioprine residues on cleaned surface and as an alternative to proposed HPLC method. PMID:17118615

  14. The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biehle, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas. (GR)

  15. Ecohydrology in semiarid urban ecosystems: Modeling the relationship between connected impervious area and ecosystem productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Catherine; Tague, Christina

    2015-01-01

    In water-stressed, semiarid urban environments, connections between impervious surfaces and drainage networks may strongly impact the water use and ecosystem productivity of neighboring vegetated areas. We use an ecohydrologic model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), to quantify the sensitivity of vegetation water use and net primary productivity (NPP) to fine-scale impervious surface connectivity. We develop a set of very fine-scale (2 m2) scenarios that vary both the percentage of impervious surface and fraction of this impervious surface with direct hydrologic connections to urban drainage systems for a small hillslope. When driven by Mediterranean climate forcing, model estimates suggest that total vegetation water use declines with increasing impervious area. However, when impervious area is hydrologically disconnected from the urban drainage network, declines in water and carbon fluxes with decreased vegetated area can be partially, or in some cases even completely, offset by increased transpiration and NPP in the remaining vegetation. Relative increases in water use and NPP of remaining vegetation are much greater for deeply rooted shrubs and trees and negligible for shallow rooted grasses. We extrapolate our findings to the catchment scale by developing a first-order approximation of fine-scale impervious connection impacts on aggregate watershed water and carbon flux estimates. Our approach offers a computationally and data-efficient method for estimating the impact of impervious area connectivity on these ecohydrologic fluxes. For our only partially urbanized Santa Barbara watershed, estimates of water use and NPP that account for fine-scale impervious connection differed by more than 10% from those that did not.

  16. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerald M.

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  17. Intercomparison of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Products in a Semi-Arid Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, S.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    Precipitation is the driving force of the terrestrial water cycle over land, and is also one of the most common indicators of climate change. As such, it is rigorously monitored by many organizations using an array of instruments and/or models. However, disparities between the various products and observations lead to the questions: what are the uncertainties of these products? and how do these uncertainties propagate to the estimation of soil moisture? To address the first question, we have evaluated over 20 gauge-based, satellite-based, modeled, and reanalysis precipitation products using 57 years of observations over a highly instrumented 150 km2 watershed in southern Arizona. Most of the products do a better job of estimating winter precipitation than summer or annual precipitation with higher daily correlation and lower root mean square differences compared with observations. All products with the exception of models estimate the timing of the peaks in the annual cycle well, but overestimate amount with respect to the observations. The gauge and satellite products estimate average intensity of precipitation well, while the models estimate drizzle (<0.01 mm/day) too frequently. Many products reveal positive or negative trends in seasonal and annual precipitation total, while observations do not show any significant trends over the same time period. To answer the second question, several modeled and reanalysis soil moisture products relying on the above mentioned precipitation products are compared with 11 years of in situ soil moisture measurements as well as the modeled soil moisture of Stillman et al. (2014), which extends the measurement period of summer soil moisture to 57 years. Most of the soil moisture products are significantly correlated with observations except for the models, partly due to errors in precipitation estimation. Improvements in soil moisture estimation from updated versions of ERA and MERRA are also shown.

  18. [How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Xiao, S H

    1982-05-29

    After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful. PMID:12266135

  19. 'Syntactic Perturbation' During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca's Area or the ATL.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax - the core structure-building component of language - has focused on Broca's area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca's area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations - we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring. PMID:26941692

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCCC, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart CCCCCCC of Part 63—Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and...

  4. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercialization effort, the project team believes, will lead to increasing market attention and broader demand for more efficient, wide area general purpose white OLED lighting in the coming years.

  5. Vacuum-thermal-evaporation: the route for roll-to-roll production of large-area organic electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. M.

    2015-05-01

    Surprisingly little consideration is apparently being given to vacuum-evaporation as the route for the roll-to-roll (R2R) production of large-area organic electronic circuits. While considerable progress has been made by combining silicon lithographic approaches with solution processing, it is not obvious that these will be compatible with a low-cost, high-speed R2R process. Most efforts at achieving this ambition are directed at conventional solution printing approaches such as inkjet and gravure. This is surprising considering that vacuum-evaporation of organic semiconductors (OSCs) is already used commercially in the production of organic light emitting diode displays. Beginning from a discussion of the materials and geometrical parameters determining transistor performance and drawing on results from numerous publications, this review makes a case for vacuum-evaporation as an enabler of R2R organic circuit production. The potential of the vacuum route is benchmarked against solution approaches and found to be highly competitive. For example, evaporated small molecules tend to have higher mobility than printed OSCs. High resolution metal patterning on plastic films is already a low-cost commercial process for high-volume packaging applications. Similarly, solvent-free flash-evaporation and polymerization of thin films on plastic substrates is also a high-volume commercial process and has been shown capable of producing robust gate dielectrics. Reports of basic logic circuit elements produced in a vacuum R2R environment are reviewed and shown to be superior to all-solution printing approaches. Finally, the main issues that need to be resolved in order to fully develop the vacuum route to R2R circuit production are highlighted.

  6. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  7. High-Volume Production of Lightweight Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youtsey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    MicroLink Devices, Inc., has transitioned its 6-inch epitaxial lift-off (ELO) solar cell fabrication process into a manufacturing platform capable of sustaining large-volume production. This Phase II project improves the ELO process by reducing cycle time and increasing the yield of large-area devices. In addition, all critical device fabrication processes have transitioned to 6-inch production tool sets designed for volume production. An emphasis on automated cassette-to-cassette and batch processes minimizes operator dependence and cell performance variability. MicroLink Devices established a pilot production line capable of at least 1,500 6-inch wafers per month at greater than 80 percent yield. The company also increased the yield and manufacturability of the 6-inch reclaim process, which is crucial to reducing the cost of the cells.

  8. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  9. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  10. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  11. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  12. 10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External Sources in Restricted Areas § 20.1602 Control of access to very high radiation...

  13. Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

    2013-01-01

    Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

  14. High-Throughput Protein Production (HTPP): a review of enabling technologies to expedite protein production.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Jim; Hunt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Recombinant protein production plays a crucial role in the drug discovery process, contributing to several key stages of the pathway. These include exploratory research, target validation, high-throughput screening (HTS), selectivity screens, and structural biology studies. Therefore the quick and rapid production of high-quality recombinant proteins is a critical component of the successful development of therapeutic small molecule inhibitors. This chapter will therefore attempt to provide an overview of some of the current "best-in-class" cloning, expression, and purification strategies currently available that enhance protein production capabilities and enable greater throughput. As such the chapter should also enable a reader with limited understanding of the high-throughput protein production (HTPP) process with the necessary information to set up and equip a laboratory for multiparallel protein production. PMID:18988015

  15. Production of extremely thin plastic films of large area for gas-filled detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassel, H.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Freiesleben, H.; Kiesewetter, J.

    1990-11-01

    The production and investigation of properties of 60 × 15 cm2 Formvar foils with mass area densities from 1 to 150 μgcm-2 is described. The foils are used both as entrance windows of a large ionization chamber and coated with a thin gold layer, as cathode foils of a parallel-plate avalanche counter. The production technique is based on the method of lacquering a surface of distilled water with a solution of Formvar in 1,2-dichlorethane. The thicknesses of the foils are determined with various methods. Their rupture strength and gas permeability are investigated. The differential energy loss as well as the energy-loss straggling in these foils are measured for 16O-ions using the 4 MV tandem accelerator in Bochum.

  16. Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Gary L.; Wones, A.; McIntire, C.D.; Samora, B.

    1994-01-01

    A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

  17. Assessing NO2 variability over urban areas at high spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. L.; Szykman, J.; Knepp, T. N.; Chen, G.; Crawford, J. H.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Fishman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a short-lived species within the troposphere, contributing to the production of ozone and aerosols. It is concentrated in urban and industrial areas where an abundance of point and mobile sources exist. Due to its short lifetime, it is difficult to capture the variability of NO2 and represent it within atmospheric chemistry transport models. Understanding this variability is important for emission controls, health impacts, and photochemistry. This analysis uses in situ aircraft measurements collected during ARCTAS-CARB, ICARTT, TexAQS-2000, TexAQS-2006, and DISCOVER-AQ as well as high spatial resolution column measurements of NO2 from the NASA GSFC Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) instrument collected during the first DISCOVER-AQ deployment, to assess the variability over urban areas. First order structure functions are used to generate statistics over a range of spatial scales. Column density is calculated from the DISCOVER-AQ profiles to assess the variability of a column within the aircraft profile. Results show that spatial variability depends on the airmass being sampled, polluted versus background conditions.

  18. Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.

    PubMed

    Marshall, K

    2014-10-01

    Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. PMID:24467512

  19. Investigation of OxProduction Rates in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during MILAGRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusanter, S.; Molina, L. T.; Stevens, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and the formation of secondary pollutants are important issues in atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone (O3) is of particular interest due to its detrimental effects on both human health and agricultural ecosystems. A detailed characterization of tropospheric O3 production rates will help in the development of effective control strategies. The 2006 Mexico City Metropolitan Area field campaign (MCMA-2006) was one of four components of MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local And Global Research Observations) intended to collect information on the impact of megacity emissions on local, regional and global scales. In this presentation, rates of production of Ox (Ox = O3 + NO2) species during MCMA-2006 at the supersite T0 (Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo) will be presented using different approaches based on measured and modeled concentrations of ROx (OH + HO2 + RO2) radicals. In addition, we will examine both the reactivity of OH and the contribution of specific peroxy radicals to the oxidation rate of NO to estimate the contribution of groups of VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, oxygenated and biogenic VOCs) to the total production rate of Ox species.

  20. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the potential for industrial application. To our knowledge, this represents the most effective engineered microbial system for propionate production with titers and yields comparable to those achieved by anaerobic batch cultivation of various native propionate-producing strains of Propionibacteria. PMID:25948049

  1. HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS: CONVERTING OATS TO HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS FOR USE IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new generation of soluble beta-glucan product, called Nutrim-OB (OB, oat bran), was developed that qualified for a FDA health claim. Nutrim-OB was prepared by heat-shearing oat flour or bran aqueous slurry in series of treatments that solubilises oat beta-glucans but maintains basic bran composit...

  2. Properties of the high area-to-mass ratio space debris population at high altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Musci, R.; Flohrer, T.

    In the framework of its space debris research activities ESA established an optical survey program to study the space debris environment at high altitudes, in particular in the geostationary ring and in the geostationary transfer orbit region. The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) performs these surveys on behalf of ESA using ESA’s 1-m telescope in Tenerife. Regular observations were started in 1999 and are continued during about 120 140 nights per year. Results from these surveys revealed a substantial amount of space debris at high altitudes in the size range from 0.1 to 1 m. Several space debris populations with different dynamical properties were identified in the geostationary ring. During the searches for debris in the geostationary transfer orbit region a new population of objects in unexpected orbits, where no potential progenitors exist, was found. The orbital periods of these objects are clustered around one revolution per day; the eccentricities, however, are scattered between 0 and 0.6. By following-up some of these objects using the ESA telescope and AIUB’s 1-m telescope in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, it was possible to study the properties of this new population. One spectacular finding from monitoring the orbits over time spans of days to months is the fact that these objects must have extreme area-to-mass ratios, which are by several orders of magnitudes higher than for ‘normal-type’ debris. This in turn supports the hypothesis that the new population actually is debris generated in or near the geostationary ring and which is in orbits with periodically varying eccentricity and inclination due to perturbations by solar radiation pressure. In order to further study the nature of these debris, multi-color and temporal photometry (light curves) were acquired with the Zimmerwald telescope. The light curves show strong variations over short time intervals, including signals typical for specular reflections. Some objects exhibit distinct periodic variations with periods ranging from 10 to several 100 s. All this is indicative for objects with complicated shapes and some highly reflective surfaces.

  3. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  4. Why is the South Orkney Island shelf (the world's first high seas marine protected area) a carbon immobilization hotspot?

    PubMed

    Barnes, David K A; Ireland, Louise; Hogg, Oliver T; Morley, Simon; Enderlein, Peter; Sands, Chester J

    2016-03-01

    The Southern Ocean archipelago, the South Orkney Islands (SOI), became the world's first entirely high seas marine protected area (MPA) in 2010. The SOI continental shelf (~44 000 km(2) ), was less than half covered by grounded ice sheet during glaciations, is biologically rich and a key area of both sea surface warming and sea-ice losses. Little was known of the carbon cycle there, but recent work showed it was a very important site of carbon immobilization (net annual carbon accumulation) by benthos, one of the few demonstrable negative feedbacks to climate change. Carbon immobilization by SOI bryozoans was higher, per species, unit area and ice-free day, than anywhere-else polar. Here, we investigate why carbon immobilization has been so high at SOI, and whether this is due to high density, longevity or high annual production in six study species of bryozoans (benthic suspension feeders). We compared benthic carbon immobilization across major regions around West Antarctica with sea-ice and primary production, from remotely sensed and directly sampled sources. Lowest carbon immobilization was at the northernmost study regions (South Georgia) and southernmost Amundsen Sea. However, data standardized for age and density showed that only SOI was anomalous (high). High immobilization at SOI was due to very high annual production of bryozoans (rather than high densities or longevity), which were 2x, 3x and 5x higher than on the Bellingshausen, South Georgia and Amundsen shelves, respectively. We found that carbon immobilization correlated to the duration (but not peak or integrated biomass) of phytoplankton blooms, both in directly sampled, local scale data and across regions using remote-sensed data. The long bloom at SOI seems to drive considerable carbon immobilization, but sea-ice losses across West Antarctica mean that significant carbon sinks and negative feedbacks to climate change could also develop in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. PMID:26682944

  5. High-temperature liberation of certain spallogenic products from nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Novgorodov, A.F.; Kolachkovski, A.; Chang, N.K.; Zelinski, A.; Kaskevich, M.

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of thermodynamic calculations, investigations were made of the high-temperature liberation of certain spallogenic products (Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co) from porous nickel into the gas phase, containing a mixture of hydrogen and hydrogen chloride. The possibility of the creation of the massive nickel target for nondestructive production of large quantities of /sup 52/Fe and certain other valuable radionuclides for medium energy accelerators, was demonstrated.

  6. Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

    2011-10-15

    China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

  7. Influence of Cooling Rate in High-Temperature Area on Hardening of Deposited High-Cutting Chrome-Tungsten Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malushin, N. N.; Valuev, D. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Serikbol, A.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-09-01

    The authors study the influence of cooling rate in high-temperature area for thermal cycle of high-cutting chrome-tungsten metal weld deposit on the processes of carbide phase merging and austenite grain growth for the purpose of providing high hardness of deposited metal (HRC 64-66).

  8. High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.

    PubMed

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  9. High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success

    PubMed Central

    Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L−1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

  10. High protein production of phytoplankton in the Amundsen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung Song, Ho; Jung Kang, Jae; Kyung Kim, Bo; Joo, HuiTae; Jin Yang, Eun; Park, Jisoo; Hoon Lee, Sang; Heon Lee, Sang

    2016-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea polynya is one of the largest and most productive polynyas in the Southern Ocean and has recently experienced a rapid change in sea ice coverage. However, very little is known about current physiological status of phytoplankton and its quality as food for pelagic herbivores and consequently higher trophic levels in the Amundsen Sea. Using a 13C isotope tracer technique, macromolecular production measurements of phytoplankton at eleven stations were conducted at three light depths (100, 30, and 1%) onboard R/V ARAON in the Amundsen Sea, 2012. The concentrations of major inorganic nutrients were replete at all the productivity stations and no substantial difference in macromolecular production was found between polynya and non-polynya regions. Distinct vertical trends were not observed in low-molecular-weight metabolites (LMWM) and polysaccharide productions, but weak vertical patterns in lipid and protein productions were found during our cruise period. The vertical patterns of lipids slightly increased with depth whereas decreased for protein synthesis in this study, and these vertical trends were not consistent with the results reported previously in the Arctic Ocean. Overall, phytoplankton allocated more photosynthetic carbon into proteins (60.0%) than other macromolecules in the Amundsen Sea, which is markedly higher than those reported previously in the Antarctic Ocean, ranging from 7 to 23%. The high protein synthesis appears to be sustained by high concentrations of major nutrients, which might be a strong factor for general patterns of macromolecular productions of phytoplankton in polar oceans, even under potential iron limitation.

  11. Sampling Vegetation for Biomass, Productivity, and Leaf Area Index at the Continental Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, C. L.; Jones, K. D.; Thorpe, A.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the NEON Terrestrial Observation System (TOS), the sampling design for plant biomass, productivity, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements forms the basis of how NEON will enable a nuanced understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. The plant biomass and productivity sampling design is also critical to maximizing the utility of flux and soil measurements that are part of the Terrestrial Instrument System, as well as spectrometer and LiDAR measurements made by the Airborne Observation Platform, and the design explicitly states how these links are created. The plant biomass and productivity sampling falls into three main categories: 1) aboveground vegetation sampling; 2) belowground vegetation sampling; and 3) LAI sampling. Here, we describe the basic components of the sampling design associated with these three categories, and how sampling is standardized across very different suites of measurements. At the coarsest level, each terrestrial NEON site will support plant biomass and productivity measurements in three types of plots: Distributed plots located throughout the site, Gradient plots that capture site-level differences in important plant biophysical variables, and Tower plots that will enable a fine-grain partitioning of annual net primary productivity across different vegetation components. We also discuss how the timing of vegetation sampling will be standardized across the Observatory so that interannual variation in response variables can best be interpreted. Data from this sampling design will produce a long-term record of how plant biomass stocks and fluxes respond to change drivers at site, regional, and continental spatial scales. Ideally, the data will also inform and inspire process-based, PI-driven research within the user-community, as well as ecosystem modeling efforts.

  12. Factors affecting phytoplankton distribution and production in the Elephant Island area, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Helbling, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    During the austral summer of four years, 1990 to 1993, studies on phytoplankton were performed in the Elephant Island area as one component of the US Antarctica Marine Living Resources program. In addition to continuous measurements (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, beam attenuation) made on ship's intake water, a profiling CTD-rosette unit was used to obtain water column characteristics (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, attenuation of solar radiation, beam attenuation) from the surface to 750m depth and also water samples from at least 10 depths for chemical and biological analyses. The sampling grid consisted of an average of 70 stations, all of which were occupied two times each year. The Elephant Island area is a transition zone between the rich coastal areas, where phytoplankton can develop dense blooms, and pelagic waters where the phytoplankton biomass is in general very low. A frontal zone was usually found to the north of Elephant Island and over the continental slope, and high phytoplankton biomass was in general associated with this frontal region. Although the location of this frontal system showed seasonal movement in a north-south direction, it seems to be a consistent feature from year to year. There seems to be considerable year-to-year variability in physical (water temperatures and salinity) and phytoplankton characteristics within the study area, in regard to both distributional patterns in surface waters and to profile characteristics in the upper 100m of the water column. With shallow upper mixed layer depths of less than 50 m, phytoplankton can attain relatively high concentrations. Optimum light conditions for growth occurred when the mixed layer was less than 55% of the euphotic zone. As the area around Elephant Island is characterized by relatively strong and frequent winds, the depth of the upper mixed layer at many stations approached the depth of the euphotic zone, with the result that growth of phytoplankton was light limited.

  13. Diazepam inhibits stimulating effect of cooling preoptic area on antibody production.

    PubMed

    Banet, M; Brandt, S

    1990-02-01

    To clarify the mechanism of the stimulating effect of fever on the primary antibody response, rats were immunized with sheep erythrocytes, and a fever-like response was induced by cooling the preoptic area for five days. Diazepam, 0.5 mg/kg, given daily during the cooling time, did not affect the normal antibody response of the control animals nor did it prevent the rise in body temperature elicited by cooling the preoptic area but it did, nevertheless, strongly reduce the stimulating effect of this procedure on antibody production. A smaller reduction of this effect was also seen in adrenalectomized rats in which a physiological and stable plasma level of corticosterone was maintained. Because diazepam suppresses some sympathetic and endocrine responses to stress, these data suggest that the effect of cooling the preoptic area on the primary antibody response, and, by inference, that of fever, is to a large extent mediated by the adrenal and other stress response or responses to the cold stimulus. The results do not, however, exclude the possibility of an additional, direct effect of the elevated body temperature on immunocompetent cells. PMID:2309933

  14. Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.

    PubMed

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V A

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

  15. Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment

    PubMed Central

    Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

  16. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) product (i.e., MODIS) involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM), which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., >1 km) allows for comparison and analysis with this ...

  17. Production technology for high efficiency ion implanted solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.; Josephs, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ion implantation is being developed for high volume automated production of silicon solar cells. An implanter designed for solar cell processing and able to properly implant up to 300 4-inch wafers per hour is now operational. A machine to implant 180 sq m/hr of solar cell material has been designed. Implanted silicon solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16% AM1 are now being produced and higher efficiencies are expected. Ion implantation and transient processing by pulsed electron beams are being integrated with electrostatic bonding to accomplish a simple method for large scale, low cost production of high efficiency solar cell arrays.

  18. In situ cosmogenic radiocarbon production and 2-D ice flow line modeling for an Antarctic blue ice area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizert, Christo; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey L.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Brook, Edward J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2012-06-01

    Radiocarbon measurements at ice margin sites and blue ice areas can potentially be used for ice dating, ablation rate estimates and paleoclimatic reconstructions. Part of the measured signal comes from in situ cosmogenic 14C production in ice, and this component must be well understood before useful information can be extracted from 14C data. We combine cosmic ray scaling and production estimates with a two-dimensional ice flow line model to study cosmogenic 14C production at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. We find (1) that 14C production through thermal neutron capture by nitrogen in air bubbles is negligible; (2) that including ice flow patterns caused by basal topography can lead to a surface 14C activity that differs by up to 25% from the activity calculated using an ablation-only approximation, which is used in all prior work; and (3) that at high ablation margin sites, solar modulation of the cosmic ray flux may change the strength of the dominant spallogenic production by up to 10%. As part of this effort we model two-dimensional ice flow along the central flow line of Taylor Glacier. We present two methods for parameterizing vertical strain rates, and assess which method is more reliable for Taylor Glacier. Finally, we present a sensitivity study from which we conclude that uncertainties in published cosmogenic production rates are the largest source of potential error. The results presented here can inform ongoing and future 14C and ice flow studies at ice margin sites, including important paleoclimatic applications such as the reconstruction of paleoatmospheric 14C content of methane.

  19. Long-Term Evolution of High Area-to-Mass Ratio Objects in Different Orbital Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Vananti, A.; Hinze, A.; Herzog, J.

    2012-09-01

    Objects with high area-to-mass ratios (HAMR) in high-altitude orbits were first discovered in 2004. The orbits of these objects had semimajor axes near the nominal value of geosynchronous objects but eccentricities considerably different from zero. They are believed to stem from parent objects which reside (or resided) in or near the geostationary ring (GEO). The mechanisms of their production are, however, still unknown. Several hypotheses were put forward, including breakup events and aging processes leading to delamination of spacecraft surface materials. Similar HAMR populations as found in GEO-like orbits may be expected in other orbital regions. Optical surveys of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) revealed HAMR objects in a variety of geostationary transfer orbits (GTO). This paper will analyze the long-term evolution of HAMR objects in different orbital regimes including the GEO disposal orbits, Medium-Earth orbits of the navigation satellite constellations and Molniya orbits. The characteristics of the hypothetic HAMR populations will be based on the observed population in GEO and GTO. The simulation results allow assessing the future threats stemming from HAMR objects.

  20. Long-term evolution of high area-to-mass ratio objects in different orbital regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, Thomas; Hinze, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Objects with high area-to-mass ratios (HAMR) in high-altitude orbits were first discovered in 2004. The orbits of these objects had semimajor axes near the nominal value of geosynchronous objects but eccentricities considerably different from zero. They are believed to stem from parent objects which reside (or resided) in or near the geostationary ring (GEO). The mechanisms of their production are, however, still unknown. Several hypotheses were put forward, including breakup events and aging processes leading to delamination of spacecraft surface materials. Similar HAMR populations as found in GEO-like orbits may be expected in other orbital regions. Optical surveys of the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) revealed HAMR objects in a variety of geostationary transfer orbits (GTO). This paper will analyze the long-term evolution of HAMR objects in different orbital regimes including the GEO disposal orbits, Medium-Earth orbits of the navigation satellite constellations and Molniya orbits. The characteristics of the hypothetic HAMR populations will be based on the observed population in GEO and GTO. The simulation results allow assessing the future threats stemming from HAMR objects.

  1. OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99.

    SciTech Connect

    KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

    2001-10-01

    As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O{sub 3} production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O{sub 3} production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O{sub 3} concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O{sub 3} concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city.

  2. Anaerobic reactor/high rate pond combined technology for sewage treatment in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    El Hafiane, F; El Hamouri, B

    2005-01-01

    Two high-rate, anaerobic/aerobic units were used to treat the sewage of the Institut Agronomique st Vétérinaire Hassan II (Morocco) campus in a 1,100 m2-plant designed for 1,500 e.p. and receiving 63 m3 per day. The anaerobic pre-treatment consisted of a two-step up-flow anaerobic reactor (TSUAR) comprising two reactors and one external settler all in series. The aerobic line, or post-treatment, consisted of a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) and one maturation pond in series. The system totalized a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 days. A gravel filter (GF) was constructed behind the TSUAR to trap low-density particles. The TSUAR removed 80% of COD and 90% of SS within 48 h. Solids retention time in the reactors averaged 32 d with a specific sludge production of 0.28 g SS g(-1) COD removed. Almost 93% of the sludge evacuated from the settler was stabilized. Specific biogas production from both reactors was 0.25m3 kg(-1) COD removed. Used in this configuration, the HRAP lost its BOD removal activity and increased its nutrients and pathogens removal capabilities (tertiary treatment). Results showed that 85% of total nitrogen and 48% of total phosphorus were removed by the HRAP. Land area requirement of this combination was less than 1 m2 per capita and filtered final effluent was of excellent quality (COD, 82 mg/l; TKN, 8.3 mg/l; total P, 2.7 mg/l, faecal coliforms, 2.4 10(3)/100 ml and zero helminths eggs). PMID:16114674

  3. High production rate of IBAD-MgO buffered substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, M.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Fukushima, H.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2009-10-01

    The conventional IBAD (Ion Beam Assisted Deposition) process using fluorite materials yields low production rates, resulting in high production cost, which reduces the motivation for practical application in spite of its high quality. The IBAD process using rock salt materials, e.g. MgO, is well known as a strong candidate of practical application due to its potential of high production rate and high in-plane grain alignment. In this work, the IBAD-MgO process was investigated for a newly developed architecture of PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition)-CeO 2/sputter-LMO (LaMnO 3)/IBAD-MgO/sputter-GZO (Gd 2Zr 2O 7)/Hastelloy TM to make long buffered metal tapes with high properties and a high production rate. The 50 m-long IBAD-MgO substrates with about 4 of ? ?CeO 2 in an XRD ? scan could be fabricated repeatedly. A GdBCO (GdBa 2Cu 3O x) layer deposited on the buffered substrate showed the minimum Ic value of 325 A/cm-w in a 41 m-long tape. Almost of the tape showed 500-600 A/cm-w of Ic value. The deposition time for the IBAD-MgO layer was 60 s which was about 2 orders of magnitude shorter than the conventional IBAD process. The production rate of 24 m/h was realized at the IBAD-MgO process to fabricate the GdBCO coated conductor with high Jc and Ic properties.

  4. Strategies for the production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds: production of high concentrations of bioethanol from seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol has attracted attention as an alternative to petroleum-derived fuel. Seaweeds have been proposed as some of the most promising raw materials for bioethanol production because they have several advantages over lignocellulosic biomass. However, because seaweeds contain low contents of glucans, i.e., polysaccharides composed of glucose, the conversion of only the glucans from seaweed is not sufficient to produce high concentrations of ethanol. Therefore, it is also necessary to produce ethanol from other specific carbohydrate components of seaweeds, including sulfated polysaccharides, mannitol, alginate, agar and carrageenan. This review summarizes the current state of research on the production of ethanol from seaweed carbohydrates for which the conversion of carbohydrates to sugars is a key step and makes comparisons with the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. This review provides valuable information necessary for the production of high concentrations of ethanol from seaweeds. PMID:23314751

  5. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1995-07-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

  6. Transmutation and energy production with high power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G. P.

    1996-01-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

  7. Large-area, triple-junction a-Si alloy production scale-up. Semiannual subcontract report, 17 March 1994--18 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, R.; Morris, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-y subcontract to advance Solarex`s photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, reduce its a-Si:H module production costs, increase module performance, and expand the Solarex commercial production capacity. During this period, Solarex focused on improving deposition of the front contact, investigating alternate feedstocks for the front contact, maximizing throughput and area utilization for all laser scribes, optimizing a-Si:H deposition equipment to achieve uniform deposition over large areas, optimizing the triple-junction module fabrication process, evaluating the materials to deposit the rear contact, and optimizing the combination of isolation scribe and encapsulant to pass the wet high potential test.

  8. A high natural radiation area in Khao-Than hot spring, Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bhongsuwan, T; Auisui, S A

    2015-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in Khao-Than hot spring area, Surat Thani Province, Thailand was investigated. Gamma dose survey indicated a possible high radiation risk for this area. Rock, soil and hot spring mud samples were collected and analysed by a low background gamma spectrometer. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples were 151-139 092 (mean = 13 794), 12-596 (127), 24-616 (215) Bq kg(-1), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that quartz and calcite (CaCO3) are the main constituents in mud samples with varying contents. In conclusion, this study area was reasonably classified as a high natural background radiation area. The source of radium in this area is supposed to be related to the fault fluids enriched in radium that precipitated with calcium in the carbonate terrain and partly absorbed by high cation exchange capacity clays. PMID:25956781

  9. Recent developments in high purity niobium metal production at CBMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, Gustavo Giovanni Ribeiro; Sousa, Clovis Antonio de Faria; Guimarães, Rogério Contato; Ribas, Rogério Marques; Vieira, Alaércio Salvador Martins; Menezes, Andréia Duarte; Fridman, Daniel Pallos; Cruz, Edmundo Burgos

    2015-12-01

    CBMM is a global supplier of high quality niobium products including pure niobium, the focus of this paper. CBMM's position has been consolidated over three decades of producing high purity niobium metal ingots. The company supplies, among other products, commercial and reactor grade niobium ingots. One of the main uses of CBMM's ingots is for the manufacture of particle accelerators (superconducting radio frequency - SRF - cavities), where the purity and homogeneity of niobium metal is essentially important for good performance. CBMM constantly strives to improve process controls and product quality, and is currently implementing innovations in production, research and development to further improve ingot quality. The main aim is to reduce the content of interstitial elements, such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H), starting with the raw materials through the final step of ingot production. CBMM held the first trial to produce the world's largest-diameter niobium ingot (as cast 535 mm). The results of this initial trial presented very low levels of interstitial impurities (N, O, C, H), allowing the achievement of residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values very close to 300 in a six-melt process in an electron beam furnace. These values were reached with 850 ppm of tantalum. SRF cavities will be produced with this material in order to study the effect of low impurities and high RRR on the Q factor and accelerating gradient.

  10. Calculates Neutron Production in Canisters of High-level Waste

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-01-15

    ALPHN calculates the (alpha,n) neutron production rate of a canister of vitrified high-level waste. The user supplies the chemical composition of the glass or glass-ceramic and the curies of the alpha-emitting actinides present. The output of the program gives the (alpha,n) neutron production of each actinide in neutrons per second and the total for the canister. The (alpha,n) neutron production rates are source terms only; that is, they are production rates within the glass andmore » do not take into account the shielding effect of the glass. For a given glass composition, the user can calculate up to eight cases simultaneously; these cases are based on the same glass composition but contain different quantities of actinides per canister.« less

  11. 75 FR 53877 - Proposed Establishment of the Antelope Valley of the California High Desert Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau proposes to establish the 665-square mile ``Antelope Valley of the California High Desert'' viticultural area in Los Angeles and Kern Counties, California. We designate viticultural areas to allow vintners to better describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. We invite comments on this......

  12. Continuous downstream processing for high value biological products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zydney, Andrew L

    2016-03-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility of developing truly continuous processes for the large-scale production of high value biological products. Continuous processing has the potential to provide significant reductions in cost and facility size while improving product quality and facilitating the design of flexible multi-product manufacturing facilities. This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art in separations technology suitable for continuous downstream bioprocessing, focusing on unit operations that would be most appropriate for the production of secreted proteins like monoclonal antibodies. This includes cell separation/recycle from the perfusion bioreactor, initial product recovery (capture), product purification (polishing), and formulation. Of particular importance are the available options, and alternatives, for continuous chromatographic separations. Although there are still significant challenges in developing integrated continuous bioprocesses, recent technological advances have provided process developers with a number of attractive options for development of truly continuous bioprocessing operations. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 465-475. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26153056

  13. The Productive High School: Creating Personalized Academic Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph; Beck, Lynn G.; Crawford, Marilyn; Hodges, Amy; McGaughy, Charis L.

    This book is designed to inform the educational community about the empirical foundations of productive high schools. Part 1 focuses on the core technology (learning and teaching), the organizational systems in which the core function are nested (the ecology of the institution), and the institutional linkages between the school and its…

  14. High biomass sorghum production across tillage systems and nitrogen rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy production has traditionally focused on perennial crops; however, these crops require an establishment period before they can be utilized. High biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) grown as an annual crop can be used during this establishment period, but typical yields and nutrient...

  15. Injection molding of optics for high volume consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, Rien

    2012-03-01

    For high volume consumer products using optical technology, plastics injection molding is a very suitable technology. In optical component fabrication, astonishing results are be booked. However, to achieve success, excellent performance is needed in mastering different technologies such as polymer processing, evaporated coatings, tool making, ultra-precision turning of metals and optical metrology.

  16. High-throughput production of two disulphide-bridge toxins.

    PubMed

    Upert, Grégory; Mourier, Gilles; Pastor, Alexandra; Verdenaud, Marion; Alili, Doria; Servent, Denis; Gilles, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    A quick and efficient production method compatible with high-throughput screening was developed using 36 toxins belonging to four different families of two disulphide-bridge toxins. Final toxins were characterized using HPLC co-elution, CD and pharmacological studies. PMID:24947561

  17. The Tacit Knowledge of Highly Productive Professors of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestor-Baker, Nancy; Lippa, Amy; Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Floyd, Loury

    This study investigated the tacit knowledge of highly productive and influential scholars in educational administration. Tacit knowledge is personal knowledge so thoroughly grounded in experience that it cannot be fully expressed. Some researchers suggest it is a marker of practical intelligence. Individual, indepth, semistructured interviews were…

  18. Liquid hot water pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production accompanying with high valuable products.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Wen; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Zhou, Guixiong; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance of biomass and enhance the ethanol conversion efficiency of polysaccharides. Compared with other pretreatment methods, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment not only reduces the downstream pressure by making cellulose more accessible to the enzymes but minimizes the formation of degradation products that inhibit the growth of fermentative microorganisms. Herein, this review summarized the improved LHW process for different biomass feedstocks, the decomposition behavior of biomass in the LHW process, the enzymatic hydrolysis of LHW-treated substrates, and production of high value-added products and ethanol. Moreover, a combined process producing ethanol and high value-added products was proposed basing on the works of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion to make LHW pretreatment acceptable in the biorefinery of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26403722

  19. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production. PMID:25562933

  20. High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Thevenoud, JM; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, JM

    2006-04-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones.

  1. High-productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS volume manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Thevenoud, J. M.; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimized to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters have shown ultra high silicon etch rate, with unrivaled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process yields. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. A key factor for achieving the highest performances was the recognized expertise of Alcatel vacuum and plasma science technologies. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer head and Silicon microphones.

  2. High performance ground penetrating radar survey of TA-49/Area 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Rangel, M.J. III

    1994-09-01

    The results of high performance ground penetrating radar study of Area 2 at Technical Area 49 are presented. The survey was commissioned as part of Los Alamos Laboratory`s continuing Environmental Remediation program and was completed and analyzed before borehole studies in Area 2 were started. Based upon the ground penetrating radar results, the location of one of the planned boreholes was moved to assure the drilling area was as safe as possible. While earlier attempts to use commercial radar devices at this facility had not been successful, the radar and digital processing system developed at Los Alamos were able to significantly improve the buried physical detail of the site.

  3. Do High Technology Policies Work?: High Technology Industry Employment Growth in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1988-1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, J. Craig; Leicht, Kevin T.; Jaynes, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s, federal, state and local governments have launched an array of new high technology development programs. Researchers and policy-makers disagree about the relative merits of these policies. We address the effects of seven of these policies on high tech industry employment growth in metropolitan statistical areas in the United…

  4. Shallow Early Cretaceous oil production in Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, A.G.

    1986-08-01

    Over 1.5 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Early Cretaceous Fall River and Lakota Formations on the east side of the Powder River basin in the Wind Creek/Tomcat Creek area, Crook County, Wyoming. Producing depths range from 42 ft at the Barton Ranch field to over 2528 ft at an unnamed field. The gravity of the gas-free oil ranges from 17/sup 0/ API at Barton Ranch to over 49/sup 0/ API in the deeper reservoir rocks located at an unnamed oil field. Oil has been trapped in Lakota channel sandstones and Fall River nearshore sandstones on the Black Hills monocline within a catchment area located on the northeast side of the large northeast-southwest-trending Gillette arch. Currently, the oldest producible oil on or east of the central Black Hills monocline is Early Cretaceous in age. This oil is the highest structural, active, primary production along the west-central flank of the Black Hills uplift. Two Permian-Pennsylvanian fields are located structurally higher, but one is a thermal tertiary project and the other has been abandoned.

  5. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment.

    PubMed

    Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg ) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g ), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (α = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg ), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg , particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

  6. Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (α = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg, particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

  7. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, .

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  8. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  9. Hanford Immobilized LAW Product Acceptance: Initial Tanks Focus Area Testing Data Package

    SciTech Connect

    Vienna, John D.; Jiricka, Antonin; McGrail, B. Peter; Jorgensen, Benaiah M.; Smith, Donald E.; Allen, Benjamin R.; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.; Brown, Kevin G.; Reamer, I. A.; Ebert, W. L.

    2000-02-08

    A matrix of 55 glasses was developed and tested with the aim to identify the impact of glass composition on the long-term corrosion behavior and to develop an acceptable low-activity waste glass composition region. Of the 55 glasses, 45 were designed to systematically vary the glass composition and 10 were selected because large and growing databases on their corrosion characteristics had accumulated. The performance of these 55 glasses in the vapor-phase hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) were characterized. VHT's were performed at temperatures between 150?C and 300?C for times up to 280 days; preliminary corrosion rates and type of alteration products were identified. PCTs were performed at 90?C with glass surface area's to solution volumes (S/V) of 2000 m-1 for 7 days and S/V of 20 000 m-1 for 10 h, 100 h, and 1000 h. The corrosion extents by PCT were determined as functions of time from solution composition analyses.

  10. Hydrogen Production:. Ceramic Materials for High Temperature Water Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammou, A.

    2006-06-01

    Hydogen, H2 is regarded as the main energy vector for the future. Today, the world production of hydrogen rises to 550 billion Nm3 (44 Mt) corresponding to 1,5% of the primary energy production. Contrary to fossil fuels, H2 does not exist in a native form and its use obviously requires its fabrication and storage. The future status of H2 as a fuel for electricity production (fuel cells) and for automobile transportation makes necessary a considerable increase of its production. Some H2 manufactoring processes are briefly described in the first part of this article : (i) steam methane reforming, (ii) water decomposition by thermochemical cycles, (iii) water decomposition by photoelectrochemistry, (iv) water or organic compounds decomposition in using bacteria or alguae. The second part concerns the H2 production by water electrolysis. This manufactoring process does not exceed 1% of the total production of hydrogen. It is expected that the electrolysers working at high temperature (700-900°C) using ceramic oxides based electrolytes are the more promising. Two groups are considered: electrolysers with proton conductors or oxide ion conductors as electrolytes. Proton conductors belong to the perovskite oxides family MCe1-xLnxO3 with M = Ba, Sr and Ln = Lanthanide. For these conductors, few results on water electrolysis at high temperature are available in the litterature and will be shown here. Electrolysers using oxide ion conductors are more promising. The selected materials are those developped for SOFCs : YSZ for the electrolyte, Ni based cermets for the cathode materials and La1-xSrxMO3±δ with M = Mn, Co, Ni, Fe ... The electrochemical characteristics of the anodic and cathodic interfaces as well as the perfomances of electrolysers working at high temperature are presented.

  11. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.; Lu, W.; Cao, Y.; Shang, Y.

    2010-02-15

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 37+}, 1 e {mu}A of Xe{sup 43+}, and 0.16 e {mu}A of Ne-like Xe{sup 44+}. To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi{sup 31+} beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 31+}, 22 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 41+}, and 1.5 e {mu}A of Bi{sup 50+} have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  12. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

    PubMed

    Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Cao, Y; Guo, X H; Ma, H Y; Zhao, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Jin, T; Xie, D Z

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e microA of Xe(37+), 1 e microA of Xe(43+), and 0.16 e microA of Ne-like Xe(44+). To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi(31+) beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e microA of Bi(31+), 22 e microA of Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of Bi(50+) have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL. PMID:20192339

  13. Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRALa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.; Lu, W.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, J. Y.; Cao, Y.; Guo, X. H.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhao, H. Y.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Wang, H.; Li, X. X.; Jin, T.; Xie, D. Z.

    2010-02-01

    Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e μA of Xe37+, 1 e μA of Xe43+, and 0.16 e μA of Ne-like Xe44+. To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi31+ beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e μA of Bi31+, 22 e μA of Bi41+, and 1.5 e μA of Bi50+ have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.

  14. Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposite Sheets Utilizing Large Interfacial Area from a High Surface Area Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, Kazufumi; Nishino, Hidekazu; Yamada, Takeo; Futaba, Don; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2011-03-01

    We employed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the available highest specific surface area (more than 1000 m2/g) that provided very large interfacial area for the matrix to fabricate epoxy composite sheets. Through mechanical redirection of the SWNT alignment to horizontal to create a laterally aligned scaffold sheet, into which epoxy resin was impregnated. The SWNT scaffold was engineered in structure to meet the these two nearly mutually exclusive demands, i.e. to have nanometer meso-pores (2-50 nm) to facilitate homogeneous impregnation of the epoxy resin and to have mechanical strength to tolerate the compaction forces generated during impregnation. Through this approach, a SWNT/epoxy composite sheet with a nearly ideal morphology was realized where long and aligned SWNTs were loaded at high weight fraction (33 percent) with an intertube distance approaching the radius of gyration for polymers. The resultant composite showed a Young's modulus of 15.0 GPa and a tensile strength of 104 MPa, thus achieving 5.4 and 2.1 times reinforcement as compared to the neat epoxy resin.

  15. Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the Mayan, ‘ancient Criollo’ cacao. PMID:21264251

  16. High production of bacteriorhodopsin from wild type Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Seyedkarimi, Mansooreh-Sadat; Aramvash, Asieh; Ramezani, Rohollah

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is a trans-membrane proton pump found in the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. This protein has high photochemical and photoelectric conversion efficiency and thermal stability, allowing it to withstand high temperatures, high salinity, and nutritionally-limited environments. The ability of this protein to convert light energy into chemical energy has applications that are mainly therapeutic/diagnostic and research-oriented. There is increasing demand for bacteriorhodopsin production in different fields. The present study maximized bacteriorhodopsin production using H. salinarum. The physical parameters of illumination, agitation speed, temperature, and nitrogen source were studied using a fractional factorial design to determine the optimal levels of each. The most suitable nitrogen source was determined to be peptone from meat. The optimal temperature was 39 °C, agitation speed was 150 rpm, and light intensity was 6300 lux for bR production. Under these conditions, the maximum bR yield was 196 mg/l, which is about 4.23 fold greater than those obtained with basal medium. The proposed strategies could be used for bR production using this archaeobacterium; the results are the highest reported thus far from a batch culture of H. salinarum. PMID:26254806

  17. Multiple Weak Gauge Boson Production in High Energy Hadronic Collisions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mohammad Yousif

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The electroweak standard model, as well-known, has been remarkably successful in describing a broad spectrum of high energy physics and has also given a satisfactory and consistent theoretical description of all the experimental data which has been obtained so far. The aim of the present work is to investigate some of the most important processes associated with the standard model which involve the charged intermediate bosons W^{+/-} , the neutral intermediate boson Z, the pair production of weak gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. First of all we start with the study of the effect of the strong interaction on the direct production of weak gauge boson production at hadron colliders. We calculate the first order perturbative QCD corrections O( alpha_{s}) to the lowest order cross sections for photon and Z pair production at hadron colliders. The calculation contains divergences, represented in dimensional regularisation by poles of order O(1/epsilon) and O(1/epsilon ^2), where epsilon = {4 -nover2}. The order O(1/epsilon ^2) terms are eliminated when real and virtual corrections are combined, and the remaining O(1/ epsilon) corrections will be absorbed into the quark momentum distribution functions. We then study the production rate of weak gauge boson pairs for proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders using single and double parton scattering mechanisms. We extrapolate to the next generation of hadron colliders with centre-of-mass energy E_{cm} = 10-200 TeV. We find comparable values for the single and double scattering cross sections at very high energies. To expand our investigation, we study also the production rate of multiple gauge bosons at hadron supercolliders using the double parton scattering mechanism. These kinds of processes are important and represent a potential significant background for Higgs boson production. Finally, and for completeness, we study Higgs boson phenomenology, which now forms a substantial part of the physics program at the next generation of high energy colliders. The calculation covers the production rate of single and double Higgs production at hadron colliders via gluon-gluon fusion, their branching ratios and decay widths.

  18. Characterization, distribution, and risk assessment of heavy metals in agricultural soil and products around mining and smelting areas of Hezhang, China.

    PubMed

    Briki, Meryem; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Ding, Huaijian; Gao, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Mining and smelting have been releasing huge amount of toxic substances into the environment. In the present study, agricultural soil and different agricultural products (potato, Chinese cabbage, garlic bolt, corn) were analyzed to examine the source, spatial distribution, and risk of 12 elements (As, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) in agricultural soil near mine fields, smelting fields, and mountain field around Hezhang County, west of Guizhou Province, China. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that in mining area, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn were generated from anthropogenic sources; in smelting area, As, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were derived from anthropogenic sources through zinc smelting ceased in 2004. The enrichment factors (EFs) and ecological risk index (RI) of soil in mining area are the most harmful, showing extremely high enrichment and very high ecological risk of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn. Zinc is the most significant enriched in the smelting area; however, mountain area has a moderate enrichment and ecological risk and do not present any ecological risk. According to spatial distribution, the concentrations depend on the nearby mining and smelting activities. Transfer factors (TFs) in the smelting area and mountain are high, implying a threat for human consumption. Therefore, further studies should be carried out taking into account the harm of those heavy metals and potential negative health effects from the consumption of agricultural products in these circumstances. PMID:26590987

  19. Production of high intensity Beta beams at the ISOLDE facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hodak, Rastislav; Stora, Thierry; Mendonca, Tania M.

    2011-12-16

    We discuss a design study devoted to a construction of the Beta beams facility at CERN, a next generation European facility aiming for a production of pure and collimated ultra-relativistic beam of electron (anti)neutrinos with help of accelerated {beta}-decaying radioactive ions circulating in a storage decay ring. This high intense source of (anti)neutrinos directed towards a remote underground neutrino detector will allow to measure neutrino oscillations with high accuracy offering a unique chance for establishing a value of the {beta}{sub 13} mixing angle and CP violating phase. Recently, a significant progress have been achieved on the conceptual design of high power targets required for a production and an extraction of two baseline isotopes, {sup 6}He and {sup 18}Ne, at the unexampled rate of several 10{sup 13} ions/s. There is a possibility to produce these isotopes using the so-called Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) method at the ISOLDE facility (CERN). The {sup 6}He production is realized by taking advantage of the {sup 9}Be(n,{alpha}){sup 6}He reaction and with help of spallation neutrons and porous BeO target material. The production of {sup 18}Ne through the {sup 19}F(p,2n){sup 18}Ne reaction at required intensities is even more challenging. Currently, a molten salt (NaF) loop target is proposed for a production of high rate of {sup 18}Ne required for the Beta beams project. The progress on the design study associated with new data and plans for future is briefly presented.

  20. Brilliant high-power diode lasers based on broad area lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, V.; Koesters, A.; Koenig, H.; Strauss, U.

    2008-02-01

    Within the German national research project "Briolas" Osram Semiconductors and Laserline GmbH cooperated in the subproject "Brilasi" which focused mainly on Brilliant Laser Diodes for Industrial Applications. The project was finished in December 2007 and lasted more than three years. Laserline and Osram are investigating the performance of broad area diode lasers with a bar width from 1.0 to 10.0 mm in high brilliance diode laser beam sources. Within the program different fibre coupled laser sources are built up: 1. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a Beam Parameter Product (BBP) of 40 mmxmrad built from diode laser bars with 10 mm bar width. 2. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a BBP of 20 mmxmrad built from Mini-Bars with a bar width of 3.0 mm and 8 emitters. These Different solutions are characterized regarding the electro optical performance. The laser output characteristics are determined for the diode laser device as well as the complete beam source. Lifetime tests are conducted to determine the long term stability of the prototypes and the different chip material.

  1. Non-activated high surface area expanded graphite oxide for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermisoglou, E. C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G. E.; Boukos, N.; Giannouri, M.; Lei, C.; Lekakou, C.; Trapalis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave irradiation of graphite oxide constitutes a facile route toward production of reduced graphene oxide, since during this treatment both exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide occurs. In this work, the effect of pristine graphite (type, size of flakes), pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the finally produced expanded material was examined. All the types of graphite that were tested afforded materials with high BET surface areas ranging from 940 m2/g to 2490 m2/g, without intervening an activation stage at elevated temperature. SEM and TEM images displayed exfoliated structures, where the flakes were significantly detached and curved. The quality of the reduced graphene oxide sheets was evidenced both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrode material capacitance was determined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The materials with PEDOT binder had better performance (∼97 F/g) at low operation rates while those with PVDF binder performed better (∼20 F/g) at higher rates, opening up perspectives for their application in supercapacitors.

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NESHAP General Provisions (40 CFR part 63, subpart A) as shown in the following table. Citation Subject... Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart GGGGGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt....

  5. A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitre, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

  6. Effect of increased bird population in a fixed cage area on production and economic responses of single comb white leghorn laying hens.

    PubMed

    Roush, W B; Mashaly, M M; Graves, H B

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative relationships between the cage area allotted per hen and parameters associated with egg production were examined by regression analysis. Hens were placed 3, 4, and 5 birds per cage (30.5 x 50.8 cm) with 516, 387, and 310 cm2 of floor area per hen, respectively. Egg production declined as the area per hen was reduced. There was no numerical difference for feed consumption per dozen eggs between 516 or 387 cm2 per hen. Feed conversion was less efficient when the area was reduced to 310 cm2 per hen. Feed conversion when adjusted to 20 dozen eggs accentuated the decline in efficiency as previously noted. Mortality was significantly related to a reduction in cage area per hen. Egg weight tended to increase as the allotted area per bird decreased. Eggs produced and feed consumed per cage were highly correlated to bird numbers per cage area. An economic analysis based on dozens of eggs produced, feed consumption, egg and feed prices, grower payment, and pullet cost showed that profitability associated with increased bird numbers in a fixed cage area is sensitive to changes in egg and feed prices. PMID:6701142

  7. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical predictions show good agreement for the first 0.5 in. from the nozzle wall; but the further into the core flow that measurements were taken, the more that TDK overpredicted the boundary layer thickness.

  8. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    PubMed

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. PMID:27019422

  9. Diphoton production in high-energy p+A collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovner, Alex; Rezaeian, Amir H.

    2014-07-01

    We consider semi-inclusive diphoton +jet and inclusive diphoton production in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions, treating the target nucleus as a color-glass condensate and the projectile proton in the parton model. We obtain the prompt diphoton production cross section in terms of fragmentation and direct contributions. The fragmentation part is given in terms of single-photon and double-photon fragmentation functions. We study prompt, direct, and fragmentation diphoton correlations in p +p and p +A collisions at the LHC and show that at low values of transverse momenta of the produced photon pair these correlations are sensitive to saturation effects. We show that back-to-back (de)correlations in prompt diphoton production are stronger in the fragmentation part than in the direct one.

  10. Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

    2012-04-01

    Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy consumption.

  11. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

    2005-10-01

    An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

  12. Ethanol and hydrogen production by two thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from Icelandic geothermal areas.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Beck, Steinar R; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2008-11-01

    Microbial fermentations are potential producers of sustainable energy carriers. In this study, ethanol and hydrogen production was studied by two thermophilic bacteria (strain AK15 and AK17) isolated from geothermal springs in Iceland. Strain AK15 was affiliated with Clostridium uzonii (98.8%), while AK17 was affiliated with Thermoanaerobacterium aciditolerans (99.2%) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both strains fermented a wide variety of sugar residues typically found in lignocellulosic materials, and some polysaccharides. In the batch cultivations, strain AK17 produced ethanol from glucose and xylose fermentations of up to 1.6 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose (80% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.1 mol-EtOH/mol-xylose (66%), respectively. The hydrogen yields by AK17 were up to 1.2 mol-H2/ mol-glucose (30% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.0 mol-H2/mol-xylose (30%). The strain AK15 produced hydrogen as the main fermentation product from glucose (up to 1.9 mol-H2/mol-glucose [48%]) and xylose (1.1 mol-H2/mol-xylose [33%]). The strain AK17 tolerated exogenously added ethanol up to 4% (v/v). The ethanol and hydrogen production performance from glucose by a co-culture of the strains AK15 and AK17 was studied in a continuous-flow bioreactor at 60 degrees C. Stable and continuous ethanol and hydrogen co-production was achieved with ethanol yield of 1.35 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose, and with the hydrogen production rate of 6.1 mmol/h/L (H2 yield of 0.80 mol-H2/mol-glucose). PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the AK17 became the dominant bacterium in the bioreactor. In conclusion, strain AK17 is a promising strain for the co-production of ethanol and hydrogen with a wide substrate utilization spectrum, relatively high ethanol tolerance, and ethanol yields among the highest reported for thermoanaerobes. PMID:18500766

  13. Synthesis and application of magnesium oxide nanospheres with high surface area

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Li, Wei-Min; Tung, Kuo-Shin; Shih, Chuan-Feng; Center for Micro Hsu, Wen-Dung

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► MgO nanospheres with high specific surface area synthesized by the polyol method. ► The BET specific surface area of nanopowders was 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ∼250 °C. ► MgO nanospheres were applied to remove hexavalent chromium. -- Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanospheres with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the polyol method. The BET specific surface area of the nanopowders was ∼90 m{sup 2}/g by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursor, the reaction time, and the washing solution. It was increased to 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ∼250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the MgO nanospheres composed of highly folded flakes, which were responsible for the observed high surface area. The high BET characteristic of the MgO nanospheres can be applied to sintering of microwave ceramics at a reducing sintering temperature, uniformed grain size distribution, and high bulk density. Finally, their capacity to remove hexavalent chromium was presented.

  14. Waste characterization of activation product radionuclides in high level waste (HLW) supernate

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, C.E.

    1994-06-30

    An evaluation has been made of the radionuclides produced as products of reactor neutron activation as they exist in high level waste (HLW) and their potential to contaminate and impact low level waste (LLW). Process knowledge was used to define the source terms of tritium, carbon, nickel, and cobalt activation products in HLW in an effort to help characterize these radionuclides in HLW supernate in support of LLW Certification. This report uses waste tank sample data and materials inventory data to determine the potential for waste packages, contaminated with tank supernate, to exceed the E-Area Vault (EAV) Package Acceptance Criteria (PAC).

  15. Tuneable ultra high specific surface area Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunping; Wangriya, Aunchana; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2015-10-01

    We report the synthesis of tuneable ultra high specific surface area Aqueous Miscible Organic solvent-Layered Double Hydroxides (AMO-LDHs). We have investigated the effects of different solvent dispersion volumes, dispersion times and the number of re-dispersion cycles specific surface area of AMO-LDHs. In particular, the effects of acetone dispersion on two different morphology AMO-LDHs (Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers and Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates) was investigated. It was found that the amount of acetone used in the dispersion step process can significantly affect the specific surface area of Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH flowers while the dispersion time in acetone is critical factor to obtain high specific surface area Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH plates. Optimisation of the acetone washing steps enables Mg3Al-CO3 AMO-LDH to have high specific surface area up to 365 m(2) g(-1) for LDH flowers and 263 m(2) g(-1) for LDH plates. In addition, spray drying was found to be an effective and practical drying method to increase the specific surface area by a factor of 1.75. Our findings now form the basis of an effective general strategy to obtain ultrahigh specific surface area LDHs. PMID:26308729

  16. Impact of Weather Analysis on Agricultural Production and Planning Decisions for the Semiarid Areas of Kenya.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J. Ian; Hash, Charles T.

    1982-04-01

    Kenya's current 4% rate of population growth requires cultivation of food crops by smallholder farmers in ever drier zones of semiarid lands. Rainfall is limited, variable and unpredictable, but maize, widely known for susceptibility to drought, remains the staple and favorite food crop.A case study is presented in which `effective rainfall' for Katumani Composite B-type maize, grown at Katumani, Machakos District, is evaluated for each of the 48 wet seasons in the 24-year record. The newly developed analysis takes into account rainfall, evaporation, soil depth and water holding capacity, and growth characteristics of the crop influencing water uptake and yield. Conclusions are:1) The analysis evaluates suitability of a given crop for production in any location where rainfall and evaporation records are available.2) Dates of onset of the rains at Katumani are sortable into periods termed `early' (implies expectation of high to medium water adequacy for maize production), `late' (medium to low expectation), and `too late' to recommend planting. These expectations determine recommendations for initial seed and fertilizer rates.3) Although unpredictable earlier, the rainfall pattern following onset soon sorts itself into one of three categories of water adequacy for maize (high, medium or low). Recommendations for thinning to final plant densities, and for adjusting nitrogen fertilizer rates through sidedressing are based on the perceived category.4) Approximately two months before harvest, total season effective rainfall can be estimated, and predictions of yield provided to farmers, economists, and other planners concerned with food supplies.5) An estimate is presented of the value of meteorological information to maize production in Machakos and Kitui Districts.

  17. Roadmap for High School Feedback Reports: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Data for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    High school feedback reports let school and district leaders know where their students go after graduation and how well they are prepared for college and beyond. This roadmap discusses the seven key focus areas the Data Quality Campaign (DQC) recommends states work on to ensure quality implementation of high school feedback reports.

  18. Blood lead levels among children in high-risk areas--California, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In the United States, elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) are a major health risk for children; this risk is totally preventable (1). To better characterize lead poisoning among children at high risk for lead exposure in California, the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) conducted lead-screening surveys that measured lead levels in children's blood, household paint, and soil in three selected high-risk areas in northern, southern, and central California. This report summarizes the survey findings and describes CDHS's efforts to reduce lead exposure among children in California, especially among those in high-risk areas.

  19. Geohydrology of the High Plains Aquifer system, Cheyenne urban area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Crist, Marvin A.

    1991-01-01

    The Cheyenne area is on broad tablelands that form part of the High Plains aquifer. Surficial deposits, along with the Ogallala Formation and the White River Group, are included in the High Plains aquifer in the study area, and both unconfined and confined ground-water conditions exist within 100 feet of land surface. During wet years, shallow ground-water problems affect urban development. The High Plains aquifer is considered an aquifer system in the Cheyenne area. Water-yielding sandstone and conglomerate units are surrounded by sequences of clay and silt; although the water-yielding units under confined conditions may be areally extensive, they are not easily identified. Urban development has modified the High Plains aquifer system locally as indicated by the mapped potentiometric surfaces, the perched water zones, and the surface-drainage patterns. That part of the system in the shallow zones is affected by excavations and by structures that penetrate the saturated zones. (USGS)

  20. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  1. New hydrocracking catalysts for high quality distillate production

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, M.E.; Schaefer, B.L.; Penning, R.T.; Wood, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    UOP has developed two state-of-the-art hydrocracking catalysts to meet the refining industry's current and future need for quality middle distillate. One of the catalysts, UOP DHC-8, is an amorphous catalyst that is characterized by high, stable yields of quality middle distillate products. The other, DHC-100, is a modified zeolitic catalyst and is characterized by high activity and low deactivation rate. These catalysts have been developed to satisfy specific refining needs. DHC-8 catalyst is the choice for new units where the primary objective is maximization of quality middle distillate products. DHC-100 catalyst is the choice for existing distillate hydrocrackers where refiners are limited by existing reactor volume, but still need increased conversion capabilities to process more feedstock or heavier feeds. DHC-100 catalyst is also recommended for existing naphtha/distillate units where refiners want increased distillate yields.

  2. Sensitivity Analysis of a Conceptual HBV Raınfall-Runoff MODEL Using Eumetsat Snow Covered Area Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Parajka, J.

    2014-12-01

    HBV is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in operational hydrological forecasting and water balance studies. In this study, we apply the HBV model on the upper Euphrates basin in Turkey, which has 10 624 km2 area. The Euphrates basin is largely fed from snow precipitation whereby nearly two-thirds occur in winter and may remain in the form of snow for half of the year. We analyze individual sensitivity of the parameters by calibrating the model using the Multi-Objective Shuffled Complex Evolution (MOSCEM) algorithm. The calibration is performed against snow cover area (SCA) in addition to runoff data for the water years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. The SCA product has been developed in the framework of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The product is generated by using data from Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument making observations from a geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In the previous study evaluation of the model was done with commonly used statistical performance metrics (Nash-Sutcliffe) for high and low flows, volume error and root mean square error (RMSE). In this study signature metrics, which are based on the flow duration curve (FDC) are used to see the performance of the model for low flows. In order to consider a fairly balanced evaluation between high and low flow phases we divided the flow duration curve into segments of high, medium and low flow phases, and additionally into very high and very low phases. Root mean square error (RMSE) is used to evaluate the performance in these segments. The sensitivity analysis of the parameters around the calibrated optimum points showed that parameters of the soil moisture and evapotranspiration (FC, beta and LPrat) have a strong effect in the total volume error of the model. The parameters from the response and transformation routines (LSUZ, K1, K0 and bmax) have a significant influence on the peak flows. It is observed that the parameters of snow routine (Tmelt, CSF and DDF) have strong effect in high flows and total volume. The parameters FC, K0, K1 And K2 are found to have effect on low flows from the signature metrics.

  3. Responses of primary productivity to current and climate changes in the mud area to the southwest of Cheju Island during the past 800 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Wang, Yuhong; Jia, Nan; Ji, Haoyuan; Huang, Yiya; Sun, Liguang

    2013-12-01

    The biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and grain size were analyzed with a gravity core (3250-6) collected from the mud area in the north East China Sea. The average deposition rate of the upper core was about 0.078 cm yr-1 based on the results of 210Pbex. The mean grain size increased with depth in general. The frequency distribution of grain size showed that two marked changes of deposition environment occurred at 30 cm and 50 cm depths (about 1550 AD and 1300 AD, respectively). The variations of BSi and TOC indicated two distinct major periods of primary productivity over the past 800 years: a stage of low primary productivity corresponding to weak upwelling and low nutrient input below 30 cm depth (about 1200-1550 AD), and a stage of high primary productivity with strong currents and upwelling above 30 cm depth (about 1550-1950 AD). The stage with high primary productive appeared to be due to the northward-expanded muddy area caused by strong Asian Winter Monsoon and enhanced Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter. In conclusion, the BSi and TOC in the muddy sediments, the symbols of marine primary productivity, can be then used to investigate the evolution history of currents and relative climate change in the offshore areas.

  4. Dose indices in dental cone beam CT and correlation with dose–area product

    PubMed Central

    Araki, K; Patil, S; Endo, A; Okano, T

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In the 2011 project “Safety and efficacy of a new and emerging dental X-ray modality (SEDENTEXCT)”, it was suggested that dose index (DI) and dose–area product (DAP) could be easily measured and used as diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), which would help in the management of radiation doses to patients in optimum exposure settings. Such indices could be directly related to effective dose. The purposes of this study, therefore, were to measure and calculate the DI and DAP in cone beam CT (CBCT) machines and to evaluate the correlation between the two. Methods: Dose measurements were performed on three-dimensional cone beam CT (3D-CBCT) machines [3D Accuitomo (J. Morita Mfg. Corp., Kyoto, Japan), Veraviewepocs (J. Morita Mfg. Corp.) and CS9300 (Carestream, New York, NY)] by exposing a cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom using a CT ionization chamber. These dose measurements were used for the calculation of Dose Indices 1 and 2, according to the methodology suggested by SEDENTEXCT. The DAP was measured using a DAP meter that was attached to the detector to cover the entire irradiated area. Results: The DI1 ranged from 53.6 mR to 216.6 mR, the DI2 ranged from 77.1 mR to 325.0 mR and the DAP ranged from 101.1 mGy cm2 to 457.9 mGy cm2, depending on the machines and exposure settings. Index 2 had a better correlation with the DAP than Index 1. Conclusions: The DIs and DAP proposed by SEDENTEXCT may be useful for establishing DRLs for dental CBCT machines; however, further studies are necessary to determine which of these indices provide accurate dose estimates proportionally relating to the effective dose. PMID:23520392

  5. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  6. PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-07

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  7. High Yield Production Process for Shigella Outer Membrane Particles

    PubMed Central

    Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Colucci, Anna Maria; Maggiore, Luana; Sanzone, Silvia; Rossi, Omar; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Pesce, Isabella; Caboni, Mariaelena; Norais, Nathalie; Di Cioccio, Vito; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria naturally shed particles that consist of outer membrane lipids, outer membrane proteins, and soluble periplasmic components. These particles have been proposed for use as vaccines but the yield has been problematic. We developed a high yielding production process of genetically derived outer membrane particles from the human pathogen Shigella sonnei. Yields of approximately 100 milligrams of membrane-associated proteins per liter of fermentation were obtained from cultures of S. sonnei ΔtolR ΔgalU at optical densities of 30–45 in a 5 L fermenter. Proteomic analysis of the purified particles showed the preparation to primarily contain predicted outer membrane and periplasmic proteins. These were highly immunogenic in mice. The production of these outer membrane particles from high density cultivation of bacteria supports the feasibility of scaling up this approach as an affordable manufacturing process. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of using this process with other genetic manipulations e.g. abolition of O antigen synthesis and modification of the lipopolysaccharide structure in order to modify the immunogenicity or reactogenicity of the particles. This work provides the basis for a large scale manufacturing process of Generalized Modules of Membrane Antigens (GMMA) for production of vaccines from Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22701551

  8. Seasonal Phenology and Species Composition of the Aphid Fauna in a Northern Crop Production Area

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Sascha M.; Hiltunen, Lea; Döring, Thomas F.; Virtanen, Elina; Palohuhta, Jukka P.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°). Methodology/Principal Findings Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007–010) using yellow pan traps (YPTs) placed in 4–8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days). Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. Conclusions/Significance Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change. PMID:23967149

  9. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the traditional economy into the cash system. But by 1960 in the Bamileke plateau and Mont Mandaras and after 1970 in the Lekie country population no longer appeared as a consequence but as the main cause of rural structural changes. Containing the demographic pressure on the land and maintaining food self-sufficiency will require combatting poverty in general, through a series of actions aimed at both the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. PMID:12178536

  10. Estimating and interpretation of radioactive heat production using airborne gamma-ray survey data of Gabal Arrubushi area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present work deals with mapping of radioactive heat production from rocks in the Gabal Arrubushi area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt based on airborne spectral gamma-ray survey data. The results show that the radioactive heat production in the areas ranges from 0.01 μWm-3 to 5.2 μWm-3. Granites, muscovite and sericite schists in the western part of Gabal Arrubushi area have abnormally high radioactive heat production values from 2.57 μWm-3 to 4.44 μWm-3. Meanwhile, the higher averages of radioactive heat production of these rock units change from 1.21 μWm-3 to 1.5 μWm-3. The intermediate averages of heat production of felsitic mylonite schist, chlorite schist, felsites, amphibolites and Hammamat sediments are below the crustal average value range, i.e., from 0.8 μWm-3 to 1.2 μWm-3. The lowest averages of heat production values are less than 0.8 μWm-3 and found in the following rock units: Wadi sediments, rhyolites, andesites, gabbro and serpentinites.

  11. Large area detector based computed tomography system for production nondestructive evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, S. C.; Davis, A. A.; Claytor, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    We present a system for industrial x-ray computed tomography that has been optimized for all phases of nondestructive component inspection. Data acquisition is greatly enhanced by the use of high resolution, large area, flat-panel amorphous-silicon detectors. The detectors have proven, over several years, to be a robust alternative to CCD-optics and image intensifier CT systems. In addition to robustness, these detectors provide the advantage of area detection as compared with the single slice geometry of linear array systems. Parallel processing provides significant speed improvements for data reconstruction, and is implemented for parallel-beam, fan-beam and Feldkamp conebeam reconstruction algorithms. By clustering ten or more equal-speed computers, reconstruction times are reduced by an order of magnitude. We have also developed interactive software for visualization and interrogation of the full three-dimensional dataset. Inspection examples presented in this paper include an electro-mechanical device, nonliving biological specimens and a turbo-machinery component. We also present examples of everyday items for the benefit of the layperson.

  12. Method of forming macro-structured high surface area transparent conductive oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Arnold J.; Chen, Zhebo; Jaramillo, Thomas F.

    2016-01-05

    A method of forming a high surface area transparent conducting electrode is provided that includes depositing a transparent conducting thin film on a conductive substrate, where the transparent conducting thin film includes transparent conductive particles and a solution-based transparent conducting adhesive layer which serves to coat and bind together the transparent conducting particles, and heat treating the transparent conducting adhesion layer on the conductive substrate, where an increased surface area transparent conducting electrode is formed.

  13. Productivity cycles in the coastal upwelling area off Concepción: The importance of diatoms and bacterioplankton in the organic carbon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Paulina; Daneri, Giovanni; Cuevas, L. Antonio; González, Humberto E.; Jacob, Bárbara; Lizárraga, Lorena; Menschel, Eduardo

    2007-11-01

    Recurrent coastal upwelling is recognized as one of the main factors promoting the exceptionally high productivity of the Humboldt Current System. Herein, we study time series data of gross primary production (2003-2006) and its fluctuation in relation to seasonal changes in the light and nutrient field of the Concepción upwelling ecosystem. Concurrent measurements of gross primary production, community respiration, bacterial secondary production, and sedimentation rates allowed a characterization of the main carbon fluxes and pathways in the study area. The integrated values of gross primary production were higher during the upwelling period (>1 g C m -2 d -1; October-April; that is, early spring to early austral fall). Seasonal changes in the system were also reflected in community respiration, organic matter sedimentation, and bacterial production rates, which varied along with the gross primary production. The significant correlation between gross primary production and community respiration (Spearman, r = 0.7; p < 0.05; n = 18) reflected an important degree of coupling between organic matter formation and its usage by the microplanktonic community during periods when gross primary production/community respiration were highly similar. Higher gross primary production values (>6 g C m -2 d -1) were consistently associated with maximum biomass levels of Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira subtilis. We observed a positive correlation between gross primary production and the sedimentation of intact diatom cells (Spearman, r = 0.5, p < 0.05, n = 17). Our data suggest that, in the Concepción upwelling ecosystem, bacteria utilize an important fraction of the gross primary production. If our interpretations are correct, they leave unanswered the question of how the system supports the extremely high fish biomass levels, therein pointing out the system’s limited capacity to buffer the evasion of CO 2 following upwelling.

  14. Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giulianetti, Demo J.

    2001-01-01

    Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

  15. Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

  16. Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

  17. Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

  18. Insecticide residues in soil and water in coastal areas of vegetable production in Togo.

    PubMed

    Mawussi, Gbénonchi; Scorza Júnior, Rômulo P; Dossa, Ekwe L; Alaté, Koffi-Kouma Akouété

    2014-11-01

    Some common organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides were analysed in agricultural soil samples (n = 35) and surface water and groundwater samples (n = 25) collected from coastal areas of vegetable production in Togo. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the insecticide residues and their subsequent quantification using GC-ECD. δ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, 4,4-DDE, endosulphan (α, β and sulphate), lambda-cyalothrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the soil samples with concentrations that varied from non-detectable (ND) to 26.93 μg kg(-1) dry weight. For water samples, heptachlor epoxide, 2,4-DDD, 4,4-DDD, 4,4-DDE and endosulphan (α, β, and sulphate) were found at contamination levels that varied from ND to 0.116 μg L(-1). The concentration of insecticide residues detected in the water samples was below the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and also by the European Union (EU), with the exception of the concentration of endosulphan sulphate at the Aného site, which was 0.116 μg L(-1). PMID:25034236

  19. Dose area product measurement for diagnostic reference levels and analysis of patient dose in dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Han, Suchul; Lee, Boram; Shin, Gwisoon; Choi, Jonghak; Kim, Jungmin; Park, Changseo; Park, Hyok; Lee, Kisung; Kim, Youhyun

    2012-07-01

    In this study, diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were suggested and patient doses were analysed through the dose-area product value in dental radiography. In intraoral radiography, at three sites, i.e. molar, premolar and incisor on the maxilla and acquired third quartile values: 55.5, 46 and 36.5 mGy cm(2), respectively, were measured. In panoramic, cephalometric and cone beam computed tomography, the values were 120.3, 146 and 3203 mGy cm(2) (16 × 18 cm), respectively. It has been shown that, in intraoral radiography, the patient dose changes proportionally to the value of mA s, but the change in extraoral radiography in response to mA s could not be confirmed. The authors could confirm, however, the difference in dose according to the manufacturer in all dental radiography examinations, except for panoramic radiography. Depending on the size of hospital, there were some differences in patient dose in intraoral radiography, but no difference in patient dose in extraoral radiography. PMID:22147923

  20. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed. PMID:25391230