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1

Selectable resistance-area product by dilute highly charged ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Considerable effort worldwide has been invested in producing low resistance-area (RA) product magnetic tunnel junction sensors for future hard drive read heads. Here the authors present a method of producing tunnel barriers with a selectable RA value spanning orders of magnitude. A single process recipe is used with only the dose of highly charged ions (HCIs) varied. The HCIs reduce the tunnel barrier integrity, providing enhanced conduction that reduces the overall RA product. The final RA product is selected by appropriate choice of the HCI density; e.g., 100 HCIs/{mu}m{sup 2} typically results in the RA product being reduced by a factor of 100.

Pomeroy, J. M.; Grube, H.; Perrella, A. C.; Gillaspy, J. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2007-08-13

2

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas  

E-print Network

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas Charles G-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia

Cochlan, William P.

3

High surface area calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcite (CaCO3) is important in many fields—in nature, because it is a component of aquifers, oil reservoirs and prospective CO2 storage sites, and in industry, where it is used in products as diverse as paper, toothpaste, paint, plastic and aspirin. It is difficult to obtain high purity calcite with a high surface area but such material is necessary for industrial applications and for fundamental calcite research. Commercial powder is nearly always contaminated with growth inhibitors such as sugars, citrate or pectin and most laboratory synthesis methods deliver large precipitates, often containing vaterite or aragonite. To address this problem, we (i) adapted the method of carbonating a Ca(OH)2 slurry with CO2 gas to develop the first simple, cheap, safe and reproducible procedure using common laboratory equipment, to obtain calcite that reproducibly had a surface area of 14-17 m2/g and (ii) conducted a thorough characterization of the product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed nanometer scale, rhombohedral crystals. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) confirmed highly crystalline, pure calcite that more closely resembles the dimensions of the biogenic calcite produced by algae in coccoliths than other methods for synthesizing calcite. We suggest that this calcite is useful when purity and high surface area are important.

Schultz, L. N.; Andersson, M. P.; Dalby, K. N.; Müter, D.; Okhrimenko, D. V.; Fordsmand, H.; Stipp, S. L. S.

2013-05-01

4

Iron enrichment stimulates toxic diatom production in high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll areas  

PubMed Central

Oceanic high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll environments have been highlighted for potential large-scale iron fertilizations to help mitigate global climate change. Controversy surrounds these initiatives, both in the degree of carbon removal and magnitude of ecosystem impacts. Previous open ocean enrichment experiments have shown that iron additions stimulate growth of the toxigenic diatom genus Pseudonitzschia. Most Pseudonitzschia species in coastal waters produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), with their blooms causing detrimental marine ecosystem impacts, but oceanic Pseudonitzschia species are considered nontoxic. Here we demonstrate that the sparse oceanic Pseudonitzschia community at the high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll Ocean Station PAPA (50° N, 145° W) produces approximately 200 pg DA L?1 in response to iron addition, that DA alters phytoplankton community structure to benefit Pseudonitzschia, and that oceanic cell isolates are toxic. Given the negative effects of DA in coastal food webs, these findings raise serious concern over the net benefit and sustainability of large-scale iron fertilizations. PMID:20231473

Trick, Charles G.; Bill, Brian D.; Cochlan, William P.; Wells, Mark L.; Trainer, Vera L.; Pickell, Lisa D.

2010-01-01

5

Using Very High Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery to Estimate Agricultural Production: A comparison of food insecure and secure growing areas in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the amount of food produced in a food insecure, isolated, subsistence farming community can be used to help identify households or communities who may be in need of additional food resources. Measuring annual food production in developing countries, much less at a sub-national level, is complicated by lack of data. It can be difficult and costly to access all of the farming households engaged in subsistence farming. However, recent research has focused on the use of remotely sensed data to aid in the estimation of area under cultivation and because food production is the measure of yield (production per hectare) multiplied by area (number of hectares), we can use the area measure to reduce uncertainty in food production estimates. One strategy for estimating cultivated area relies on a fairly time intensive manual interpretation of very high resolution data. Due to the availability of very high resolution data it is possible to construct estimates of cultivated area, even in communities where fields are small. While this strategy has been used to effectively estimate cultivated area in a timely manner, questions remain about the spatial and temporal generalizability of this approach. The purpose of this paper is to produce and compare estimates of cultivated area in two very different agricultural areas of Kenya, a highly food insecure country in East Africa, during two different agricultural seasons. The areas selected represent two different livelihood zones: a marginal growing area where poor farmers rely on inconsistent rainfall and a lush growing area near the mountainous region of the middle-West area of the country where rainfall is consistent and therefore more suited to cultivation. The overarching goal is to determine the effectiveness of very high resolution remotely sensed imagery in calculating estimates of cultivated area in areas where food production strategies are different. Additionally the results of this research will explore the ability of this high resolution based methodology to forecast and hindecast cultivated area, which is particularly relevant in climate-sensitive East Africa.

Grace, K.; Husak, G. J.; Bogle, S.

2013-12-01

6

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area...

2012-01-01

7

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... GRAPES GROWN IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production area. Production area means Imperial County, California...that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated...

2010-01-01

8

Peanut Profits and Irrigation Yield Response in the Northern Texas High Plains, A Non-Traditional Production Area.  

E-print Network

response to surface (furrow) irrigation as an alternative crop in the northern Texas High Plains, and (2) evaluate the profitability of peanut production in this non-tradi tional short-growing-season region. Review of Literature Newman (1979...) and Bausch et al. (1971) found that early season plant water stress delayed blooming as well as maturity, reduced vegetative growth, and resulted in lower yields. Newman indicated stress at the bloom stage at Stephenville, Texas, where the frost free...

Harman, Wyatte L.; Regier, C.; Petr, F.; Lansford, V.D.

1990-01-01

9

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity  

E-print Network

Original article Photosynthesis, leaf area and productivity of 5 poplar clones during; The stem volume and biomass (stem + branches) production, net photosynthesis of mature leaves and leaf area found in volume production, woody biomass production, total leaf area and net photosynthesis. Above

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Distribution and life history of the planktonic copepod, Eucalanus californicus, in the northwestern Pacific: Mechanisms for population maintenance within a high primary production area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the geographical and vertical distribution of the copepodid stages of Eucalanus californicus in the northwestern (NW) Pacific Ocean, and compared life history characteristics against the northeastern (NE) population of the species and the neighboring subarctic sister species, Eucalanus bungii. In the NW Pacific, multi-layered zooplankton samples were collected between 15°N and 49°N. High abundances (>1000 inds. m-2) of E. californicus were restricted to an area around 33°N, whereas E. bungii was highly abundant between 36°N and 49°N. The occurrence of E. californicus in the surface layer was associated with seasonal spring ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM), as suggested by previous studies in the NE Pacific. Gonadal analysis of adult females showed that surface reproduction occurs during the spring in the slope water area, which is a region on the continental slope north of the Kuroshio axis, and within the Kuroshio-Oyashio Transition Area (TA). The seasonal OVM strategy of E. californicus in the NW Pacific is characterized by (1) shorter periods of surface reproduction and growth and (2) deep C5 stage dormancy (500-2000 m). The former is an adaptive response to relatively high water temperatures and short bloom periods in the TA and slope water area. The latter strategy of deep dormancy is considered to be an adaptation to avoid drift caused by a local oceanic feature of deeper westward (>1000 m) recirculation currents, thus retaining the population within the high primary production zones of the TA and slope water area.

Shimode, Shinji; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Shimizu, Yugo; Nonomura, Takumi; Tsuda, Atsushi

2012-04-01

11

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2011-01-01

12

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2010-01-01

13

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2013-01-01

14

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2014-01-01

15

7 CFR 929.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT, NEW JERSEY, WISCONSIN...Production area. Production area means the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Wisconsin,...

2012-01-01

16

7 CFR 925.5 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...IN A DESIGNATED AREA OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 925.5 Production...Production area means Imperial County, California, and that part of Riverside County and San Diego County, California, situated east of a line drawn...

2011-01-01

17

7 CFR 922.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulating Handling Definitions § 922.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [27 FR...

2010-01-01

18

7 CFR 923.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.4 Production area. Production area means the counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, Klickitat in the State of Washington and all of the counties in Washington lying east thereof. [66 FR...

2010-01-01

19

7 CFR 924.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulating Handling Definitions § 924.4 Production area. Production area means the Counties of Okanogan, Chelan, Kittitas, Yakima, and Klickitat in the State of Washington and all counties in Washington lying east thereof and Umatilla County in...

2010-01-01

20

7 CFR 917.11 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.11 Production area. Production area means...

2010-01-01

21

High surface area carbon aerogels for supercapacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of carbon aerogels as electrodes in supercapacitors require high surface area and simple production method. Carbon aerogels are derived via the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels. In order to simplify production, subcritical drying of the RF gels is favoured, which is possible for gels prepared with high molar resorcinol to catalyst (R\\/C) ratios, i.e. very low catalyst concentrations. Resulting

R. Saliger; U Fischer; C Herta; J Fricke

1998-01-01

22

Fusarium mycotoxins in corn and corn products in a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Shandong Province, China.  

PubMed

Consumption of fermented, but not unfermented, corn pancakes has been linked with elevated stomach cancer mortality rates in rural Linqu County in Shandong Province, China. Previous surveys of fungal contamination of corn in China have detected fumonisins, which are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme. To determine whether mycotoxins might account for the increased risk of cancer among those consuming fermented pancakes, we obtained specimens of corn, cornmeal, unfermented and fermented pancake batter, and cooked fermented pancakes from each of 16 households in Linqu County for analysis by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Fumonisins B1, B2, and B3 were detected (> or = 0.5 microgram/g) in 19, 25, and 6% of the corn specimens, respectively, as well as in various corn products. No type A trichothecenes were detected; however, the type B trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were detected (> or = 0.5 microgram/g) in 58 and 17% of the corn specimens, respectively, and zearalenone was detected (> or = 0.5 microgram/g) in 15% of the cornmeal specimens. The mycotoxins were detected only at low levels (< 10 micrograms/g), which did not increase with fermentation. These findings do not support the hypothesis that mycotoxin contamination increases the risk of gastric cancer among those who consume fermented Chinese pancakes. PMID:10367384

Groves, F D; Zhang, L; Chang, Y S; Ross, P F; Casper, H; Norred, W P; You, W C; Fraumeni, J F

1999-01-01

23

Error modelling on burned area products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade multiple efforts have been undertaken to map burned areas (BA) at global scale. Global BA projects usually carry along a validation phase, which aims to assess product quality. Errors are commonly measured in these validation exercises, but they frequently do not tackle error sources, which hampers the use of BA products as input to earth system models. In this study we present a method to assess the relationships between commission and omission errors on one side and landscape and burned patch characteristics on the other side. Errors were extracted by comparing global BA results and Landsat BA perimeters. Selected factors to explain error distribution were related to landscape characteristics and quality of input data. The former included BA spatial properties, tree cover (from MODIS Vegetation Continous Field), and the land cover type (Globcover 2005). The latter were the number of cloud-free observations, the confidence level of the BA algorithm and the sub-pixel proportion of true BA. The relationship between explanatory variables and errors was estimated using Generalized Additive Models. This analysis was undertaken to assess global BA products within the framework of the fire_cci project (www.esa-fire-cci.org). This project is part of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative, which aims to generate long-term global products of Essential Climate Variables (ECV). The fire_cci project aims to generate time series of global BA, merging data from three sensors: MERIS, (A)ATSR and VEGETATION. The error characterization exercise presented in this paper was based on MERIS BA results from 2005 in four study sites (Australia, Brazil, Canada and Kazakhstan). Results show that errors are more frequent on pixels partially burned, and tend to decrease for high and low tree-cover (when areas have either 0 or 100%), as well as when the product confidence level is high. Detected burned pixels surrounded by other burned pixels were found less likely to be commission errors than isolated patches. Finally, the number of cloud-free observations had little influence on error distribution.

Padilla, M.; Chuvieco, E.

2012-12-01

24

Advanced high area ratio nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Progress was made in two areas during the past year. First, performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the SSME nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. Second, the PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

1995-01-01

25

Advanced high area ratio nozzles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective is to develop computational techniques for the design of high-area-ratio nozzles and to validate these models by comparison with experiments and computations using other codes. Performance computations were added to the PARC2D code and the performance of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) nozzle was computed for inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow assuming a perfect gas with gamma = 1.2. The PARC2D code was modified in a non-CASP (Center for Advanced Space Propulsion) project to compute equilibrium flow about hypersonic blunt bodies. Progress has been made toward modifying this code to compute equilibrium H2/O2 flow through the SSME and related nozzles.

Raiszadeh, Farhad; Collins, Frank G.; Orr, Joseph L., Jr.; Myruski, Brian

1989-01-01

26

A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION  

SciTech Connect

A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

Yue Kuo

2010-08-15

27

Production of high-current large-area negative hydrogen ion beams by a bucket-type ion source equipped with a magnetic filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Magnetic multicusp ion sources, also known as bucket-type sources, are suitable for producing large-area ion beams and they have been developed as high-current ion sources in neutral beam injector (NBI) systems for nuclear fusion plasma heating. Neutral beams are produced by neutralization of ion beams in the systems. Recently, development of a negative-ion-based NBI system has

M. Tanaka; H. Kawakami; Y. Takeiri; E. Asano; O. Kaneko; T. Kuroda

1996-01-01

28

Copper losses in surface runoff from flatwoods citrus production areas.  

PubMed

Crop production in areas with a high water table and poorly drained soils requires special drainage infrastructure to allow adequate rooting depth. In addition to facilitating drainage, this infrastructure also facilitates discharge of agrichemicals dissolved in drainage and runoff water. Copper export from bedded citrus production areas was evaluated using simulated rainfall events following application of copper. Copper concentrations in runoff water from individual water furrows ranged from 13 to 223 ?g/L during the staged events, while copper loadings ranged from 32 to 302 g/water furrow. PMID:22933171

Wilson, P Chris; Boman, Brian; Albano, Joseph P

2012-10-01

29

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

30

Intercomparison of global burned area products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (CCI) is part of the European contribution to the Global Observing Climate System (GCOS) program. Fire disturbance is one of the Essential Climate Variables included in this phase of the CCI program. The project aims to map globally burned areas (BA) using European sensors (ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS), and in comparing the performance of the results with other existing datasets (www.esa-fire-cci.org). The project aims at developing and validating algorithms, to produce consistent, stable, error-characterized global BA information. It includes as well algorithms for pre-processing of ATSR, VEGETATION and MERIS data, to improve geometrical accuracy and remove atmospheric effects that may lead to potential confusions with burned areas (clouds, smoke, cloud shadows, water, snow, topographic shadows), as well as algorithms to merge BA from different sensors and adapting the outputs to the needs of the climate modeling community. This paper will present the latest comparisons of the fire_cci BA results with other existing global BA products, using a validation dataset of 100 Landsat multitemporal pairs, from which fire perimeters were semi-automatically drawn. The standard CEOS Cal-Val procedures have been used to document the reference files. The intercomparison method relies on measuring accuracy, error balance and temporal consistency. Preliminary results showed higher accuracy for MCD45, but with lower temporal consistency, particularly in areas dominated by savannah fires.

Chuvieco, E.; Corti, D.; Padilla, M.

2012-12-01

31

Update on Area Production in Mixing of Supercritical Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The focus of this research is on supercritical C7H16/N2 and O2/H2 mixing layers undergoing transitions to turbulence. The C7H16/N2 system serves as a simplified model of hydrocarbon/air systems in gas-turbine and diesel engines; the O2/H2 system is representative of liquid rocket engines. One goal of this research is to identify ways of controlling area production to increase disintegration of fluids and enhance combustion in such engines. As used in this research, "area production" signifies the fractional rate of change of surface area oriented perpendicular to the mass-fraction gradient of a mixing layer. In the study, a database of transitional states obtained from direct numerical simulations of the aforementioned mixing layers was analyzed to investigate global layer characteristics, phenomena in regions of high density-gradient magnitude (HDGM), irreversible entropy production and its relationship to the HDGM regions, and mechanisms leading to area production.

Okongo, Nora; Bellan, Josette

2003-01-01

32

Measuring High Performance Computing Productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One key to improving high performance computing (HPC) productivity is to find better ways to measure it. We define productivity in terms of mission goals, i.e. greater produc- tivity means that more science is accomplished with less cost and effort. Traditional software productivity metrics and computing benchmarks have proven inadequate for assessing or predicting such end-to-end productivity. In this paper

Stuart R. Faulk; John Gustafson; Philip Johnson; Adam A. Porter; Walter F. Tichy; Lawrence G. Votta

2004-01-01

33

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.14 Production...Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2012-01-01

34

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.14 Production...Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2011-01-01

35

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.14 Production...Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2014-01-01

36

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.14 Production...Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2010-01-01

37

7 CFR 930.14 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.14 Production...Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington and...

2013-01-01

38

The cascade high productivity language  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design of Chapel, the Cascade High Productivity Language, which is being developed in the DARPA-funded HPCS project Cascade led by Cray Inc. Chapel pushes the state-of-the-art in languages for HEC system programming by focusing on productivity, in particular by combining the goal of highest possible object code performance with that of programmability offered by a high-level user interface.

Callahan, David; Chamberlain, Branford L.; Zima, Hans P.

2004-01-01

39

Reinventing high density area departure traffic management  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a complex dynamic system, today's National Airspace System (NAS) can be very sensitive to disruptive events. High density area departure management is particularly sensitive to such disruptions. This paper builds upon previous research that proposes an operational concept to ensure safe, efficient, and stable departure traffic management in the Next Generation Air Transportation System. This research first proposes the

Lixia Song; Christine Taylor; Tudor Mesak; Bill Bateman

2011-01-01

40

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2010-01-01

41

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2012-01-01

42

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2011-01-01

43

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2014-01-01

44

7 CFR 906.4 - Production area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.4 Production...territory in the counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy in the State of...

2013-01-01

45

Production of high purity argon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for the production of high purity argon. It comprises: recovering an argon-enriched sidestream from a low pressure column of a cryogenic air separation distillation system comprising a high pressure column, the low pressure column, an argon sidearm column, and a main heat exchanger; passing the argon-enriched sidestream into the argon sidearm column and withdrawing therefrom

J. A. Hopkins; R. M. McGuinnes; R. Agrawal; S. L. Feldman

1991-01-01

46

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production  

E-print Network

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou Department model accounts for the inter-temporal and spatial dependencies of multi-area wind power production. Results are presented for a case study of the California power system. Keywords - Wind power generation

Oren, Shmuel S.

47

Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

Dusterhoft, R.G. (Halliburton Energy Services, Duncan, OK (United States)); Chapman, B.J. (Halliburton Energy Services, New Orleans, LA (United States))

1994-06-20

48

Laser processing system development of large area and high precision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As industry of PCB (Printed Circuit Board) and display growing, this industry requires an increasingly high-precision quality so current cutting process in industry is preferred laser machining than mechanical machining. Now, laser machining is used almost "step and repeat" method in large area, but this method has a problem such as cutting quality in the continuity of edge parts, cutting speed and low productivity. To solve these problems in large area, on-the-fly (stagescanner synchronized system) is gradually increasing. On-the-fly technology is able to process large area with high speed because of stage-scanner synchronized moving. We designed laser-based high precision system with on-the-fly. In this system, we used UV nano-second pulse laser, power controller and scanner with telecentric f-theta lens. The power controller is consisted of HWP(Half Wave Plate), thin film plate polarizer, photo diode, micro step motor and control board. Laser power is possible to monitor real-time and adjust precision power by using power controller. Using this machine, we tested cutting of large area coverlay and sheet type large area PCB by applying on-the-fly. As a result, our developed machine is possible to process large area without the problem of the continuity of edge parts and by high cutting speed than competitor about coverlay.

Park, Hyeongchan; Ryu, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Taesang

2013-03-01

49

IIFET 2010 Montpellier Proceedings5 Species Products Areas/ localisation Actors Product typicity Adding-value Tools  

E-print Network

of the Sea 2007 World Export : Swiss consumer via Migros supermarket + minimum of fair- fish productsIIFET 2010 Montpellier Proceedings5 Species Products Areas/ localisation Actors Product typicity (PUD) products Goudomp area, Middle- Casamance, Senegal Small-scale fishermen Wild shrimp of Casamance

Boyer, Edmond

50

High throughput protein production screening  

DOEpatents

Methods, compositions, and kits for the cell-free production and analysis of proteins are provided. The invention allows for the production of proteins from prokaryotic sequences or eukaryotic sequences, including human cDNAs using PCR and IVT methods and detecting the proteins through fluorescence or immunoblot techniques. This invention can be used to identify optimized PCR and WT conditions, codon usages and mutations. The methods are readily automated and can be used for high throughput analysis of protein expression levels, interactions, and functional states.

Beernink, Peter T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA); Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA)

2009-09-08

51

Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent  

E-print Network

Transfer of Large-Area Graphene Films for High-Performance Transparent Conductive Electrodes transmittance and conductivity. In this paper, we report on an improved transfer process of large-area graphene strength, are flexible, and are chemically stable.5,6,9 Production of large-area and high-quality graphene

52

New large area glass RPC: development, production and performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an R&D program targeted to produce large area glass resistive plate chamber (RPC) detectors. The aim of this work has been to exploit as much as possible glass industry standard techniques. One of the most important steps we have introduced to reach the goal of fully automated production of large area detectors has been the use of

A. Calcaterra; R. de Sangro; D. Gamba; G. Mannocchi; P. Patteri; P. Picchi; M. Piccolo; S. Ragazzi; N. Redaelli; L. Satta; T. Tabarelli de Fatis; G. C. Trinchero

2006-01-01

53

General view of the High Bay area of the Space ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of the High Bay area of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. This view shows the specially modified fork lift used for horizontal installation and removal of the SSMEs into and out of the Orbiters. SSME number 2059 is in the background and is in the process of being scanned with a high-definition laser scanner to acquire field documentation for the production of historic documentatin. - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

54

Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

1991-01-01

55

High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

2013-10-01

56

Measuring Productivity on High Performance Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the high performance computing domain, the speed of execution of a program has typically been the prima ry performance metric. But productivity is also of con cern to high performance computing developers. In this pape r we will discuss the problems of defining and measuring productivity for these machines and we develop a mo del of productivity that includes

Marvin V. Zelkowitz; Victor R. Basili; Sima Asgari; Lorin Hochstein; Jeffrey K. Hollingsworth; Taiga Nakamura

2005-01-01

57

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2011-01-01

58

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2012-01-01

59

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2010-01-01

60

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2014-01-01

61

10 CFR 835.502 - High and very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false High and very high radiation areas. 835.502 Section 835...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.502 High and very high radiation areas. (a) The following...

2013-01-01

62

Thermal stability of high surface area silicon carbide materials  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of mesoporous silicon carbide by chemical vapor infiltration of dimethyl dichlorosilane into mesoporous silica SBA-15 and subsequent dissolution of the silica matrix with HF was investigated. The influence of the synthesis parameters of the composite material (SiC/SBA-15) on the final product (mesoporous SiC) was determined. Depending on the preparation conditions, materials with specific surface areas from 410 to 830 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and pore sizes between 2 and 10 nm with high mesopore volume (0.31-0.96 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}) were prepared. Additionally, the thermal stability of mesoporous silicon carbide at 1573 K in an inert atmosphere (argon) was investigated, and compared to that of SBA-15 and ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-1). Mesoporous SiC has a much higher thermal textural stability as compared to SBA-15, but a lower stability than ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-1. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of mesoporous silicon carbide by chemical vapor infiltration of dimethyl dichlorosilane into mesoporous silica SBA-15 and subsequent dissolution of the silica matrix was used for the preparation of mesoporous SiC with high specific surface areas up to 830 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and pore sizes between 2 and 10 nm.

Krawiec, Piotr [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Technical University of Dresden, Mommsenstr. 6, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kaskel, Stefan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Technical University of Dresden, Mommsenstr. 6, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: Stefan.kaskel@chemie.tu-dresden.de

2006-08-15

63

The Geoland2 BioPar burned area product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Commission Geoland2 project intends to constitute a major step forward to the implementation of the GMES Land Monitoring Core Service (LMCS). The Bio-geophysical Parameters (BioPar) Core Monitoring Service aims at setting-up pre-operational infrastructures for providing regional, European, and global bio-geophysical variables, both in near real time and off-line mode, for describing the vegetation state, the radiation budget at the surface, and the water cycle. The burned area product is part of the BioPar portfolio. The burned area product further builds on the experience of the Global Burned Area (GBA2000) and L3JRC projects. In the GBA2000 project, several algorithms were developed for different geographical regions of the world, and applied to a 1-year time series (the year 2000) of SPOT-VEGETATION data. In the L3JRC project, a single algorithm was improved and applied to a 7-year global dataset of SPOT-VEGETATION data. Since the conception of the Geoland2 project, work has been undertaken to improve the L3JRC algorithm, mainly based on user comments and feedback. Furthermore, the Geoland2 burned area product specification has been developed to meet the requirements of the Core Information Service, specifically LandCarbon and Natural Resource Monitoring in Africa (Narma). The Geoland2 burned area product has the following improvements over the L3JRC product: • It resolves issues with users extracting statistics and burned area estimates for time periods considered to be outside the main seasons for burning. Specifically, this deals with issues in northern latitude winters. • The number of pre-processing steps has been shortened, reducing processing time. • An improved land-water mask has been used. This resolves a problem around the coastlines of land masses which were frequently being detected as being burned. • A season metric calculation is performed over a 1x1 degree grid. For each grid cell, a date is logged against the start of the fire season, peak of the fire season and then the end of the fire season. Once a fire season has been confirmed as being finished, the region effectively resets itself, which means that the land surface can burn again when the next fire season starts. This automated season reset feature enables multiple fire seasons to be analysed. • Provides easy to interpret seasonality tables every 10 days (the reporting period for the product). It is intended that the product will be validated using CEOS-approved protocols and data sets currently being developed through the European Space Agency Fire-CCI project. In this paper, initial results being produced operationally and will be presented along with examples highlighting the performance of the seasonality metric.

Tansey, K.; Bradley, A.; Smets, B.; van Best, C.; Lacaze, R.

2012-04-01

64

Calcined, high surface area, particulate matter, process using this matter, and admixtures with other agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is concerned with production and use of high surface area particulate matter by calcining a charge of clay mineral, feldspar, zeolite, coal ash, fly ash, pozzolan or volcanic ash for a time to develop fractures which increase the surface area of the particles. Vacuum calcining decreases the calcining time. The calcined matter desirably has an analysis including: calcium

Sabherwal

1984-01-01

65

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/  

E-print Network

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20071/ J, Lubbock; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Program Specialist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research......................................................................................................................... 6 Table COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lamesa 1 Production Information

Mukhtar, Saqib

66

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/  

E-print Network

Cotton Performance Tests in the Texas High Plains and Trans-Pecos Areas of Texas 20081/ J.K. Dever; Area Agronomist-Cotton, Extension Entomologist, Texas AgriLife Extension, Lubbock; Research Scientist......................................................................................................................... 6 Table UNIFORM COTTON VARIETY TESTS - IRRIGATED Lubbock 1 Production Information

Mukhtar, Saqib

67

Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

2010-01-01

68

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

69

Estimating the Effects of the Terminal Area Productivity Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report describes methods and results of an analysis of the technical and economic benefits of the systems to be developed in the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. A runway capacity model using parameters that reflect the potential impact of the TAP technologies is described. The runway capacity model feeds airport specific models which are also described. The capacity estimates are used with a queuing model to calculate aircraft delays, and TAP benefits are determined by calculating the savings due to reduced delays. The report includes benefit estimates for Boston Logan and Detroit Wayne County airports. An appendix includes a description and listing of the runway capacity model.

Lee, David A.; Kostiuk, Peter F.; Hemm, Robert V., Jr.; Wingrove, Earl R., III; Shapiro, Gerald

1997-01-01

70

Geographic Identification of High Gonorrhea Transmission Areas in Baltimore, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic approaches to sexually transmitted infection (STI) research frequently seek to identify areas where outreach STI testing may most effectively interrupt continued transmission of STIs. Many of the studies are limited, however, in that they fail to control for racial\\/ethnic composition of the high prevalence areas. These studies thus may be merely identifying the broader sexual networks of the high

Jacky M. Jennings; Frank C. Curriero; David Celentano; Jonathan M. Ellen

71

High-efficiency large-area CdTe modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small solar cell with an efficiency of 12.3 percent was examined. The high efficiency of this device was largely due to improving the window layer. Analyzing the diode characteristics of this cell indicates that the largest potential for fill-factor improvement lies in reducing the diode quality factor. Through outdoor life testing of encapsulated modules and accelerated life testing of laboratory cells, the CdS/CdTe structure has demonstrated the long term stability necessary for photovoltaic products. Also described is a preformed metal backcap, which is fitted with hermetic feed-through tubes and used for encapsulization. Using the results of these studies, PEI produced sample modules with efficiencies very close to the original objectives, including a 1 sq ft module with an output of 6.1 W and an active area of 754 sq cm. For this module, the active area efficiency was 8.1 percent and the aperture efficiency was 7.3 percent.

Albright, S. P.; Ackerman, B.

1989-10-01

72

Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest  

PubMed Central

In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better targeting high conservation value areas. PMID:25502238

Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

2014-01-01

73

Power reserve in interconnected systems with high wind power production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capacity of installed wind power of 40 GW in Europe, control areas with a wind power production exceeding the maximum load-these are serious plans that may come true in several years. Due to the high fluctuations and the limited predictability of wind power, this development will cause a severe change in the demands on the power reserve. Therefore, this

Gundolf Dany

2001-01-01

74

Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas  

SciTech Connect

The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD participants believe that the platform concept could have far-reaching applications in the Arctic as a drilling and production platform, as originally intended, and as a possible staging area. The overall objective of this project was to document various potential applications, locations, and conceptual designs for the inland platform serving oil and gas operations on the Alaska North Slope. The University of Alaska Fairbanks assisted the HARC/TerraPlatforms team with the characterization of potential resource areas, geotechnical conditions associated with continuous permafrost terrain, and the potential end-user evaluation process. The team discussed the various potential applications with industry, governmental agencies, and environmental organizations. The benefits and concerns associated with industry's use of the technology were identified. In this discussion process, meetings were held with five operating companies (22 people), including asset team leaders, drilling managers, HSE managers, and production and completion managers. Three other operating companies and two service companies were contacted by phone to discuss the project. A questionnaire was distributed and responses were provided, which will be included in the report. Meetings were also held with State of Alaska Department of Natural Resources officials and U.S. Bureau of Land Management regulators. The companies met with included ConcoPhillips, Chevron, Pioneer Natural Resources, Fairweather E&P, BP America, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Association.

Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

2008-12-31

75

Effects of Climate Change on Range Forage Production in the San Francisco Bay Area  

PubMed Central

The San Francisco Bay Area in California, USA is a highly heterogeneous region in climate, topography, and habitats, as well as in its political and economic interests. Successful conservation strategies must consider various current and future competing demands for the land, and should pay special attention to livestock grazing, the dominant non-urban land-use. The main objective of this study was to predict changes in rangeland forage production in response to changes in temperature and precipitation projected by downscaled output from global climate models. Daily temperature and precipitation data generated by four climate models were used as input variables for an existing rangeland forage production model (linear regression) for California’s annual rangelands and projected on 244 12 km x 12 km grid cells for eight Bay Area counties. Climate model projections suggest that forage production in Bay Area rangelands may be enhanced by future conditions in most years, at least in terms of peak standing crop. However, the timing of production is as important as its peak, and altered precipitation patterns could mean delayed germination, resulting in shorter growing seasons and longer periods of inadequate forage quality. An increase in the frequency of extremely dry years also increases the uncertainty of forage availability. These shifts in forage production will affect the economic viability and conservation strategies for rangelands in the San Francisco Bay Area. PMID:23472102

Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; George, Melvin R.

2013-01-01

76

Production of High Purity Niobium Ingots at CBMM  

SciTech Connect

CBMM is a fully integrated company, from the mine to the end line of the production chain, supplying different niobium products to the world market: ferroniobium, nickelniobium, niobium pentoxide and high purity metallic niobium. This high purity metallic niobium has long been known to exhibit superconductivity below 9.25 Kelvin. This characteristic has the potential to bring technological benefits for many different areas such as medicine, computing and environment. This paper presents the raw material requirements as well as CBMM experience on producing high purity niobium ingots. The results prove that CBMM material can be the best solution for special applications such as low cost superconductive radiofrequency cavities.

Moura, Lourenco de; Faria Sousa, Clovis Antonio de; Burgos Cruz, Edmundo [CBMM-Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineracao, Fazenda Corrego da Mata, P.O. Box 838.183.903, Araxa, MG (Brazil)

2011-03-31

77

Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Areas. Methodology for Designating High Impact.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a method to estimate the number of migrant and seasonal farmworkers present in a prescribed area during crop harvest, and to pinpoint areas of high need for health and social services. The collection of health clinic and federal program data on migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Florida, northwestern Ohio, and Maryland's…

HCR, Washington, DC.

78

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2009-05-15

79

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2008-10-10

80

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-05-11

81

Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons  

DOEpatents

A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

1999-05-11

82

Strategy For A/M Area Production Wells  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Site personnel are planning a two phase program in order to significantly reduce the amount of dissolved chlorinated solvents that are being transported to the McQueen branch Aquifer via the wellbore and gravel pack zones of the A/M Area production well system. In Phase I of the program a commercially available inflatable packer and check valve assembly will be installed inside the casing at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Unit. This immediate, short term solution will eliminate the majority of the contaminant mass that is moving downward through the wellbore of the A/M Area production wells. During the packer installation process several pre- and post- testing activities are planned to aid SRS investigators in understanding the dynamics of the flow conditions and effectiveness of the installed assembly.The second phase of the program will address the small amount of contaminant mass that is moving downward through the continuous gravel pack of the production wells. The investigative data obtained during Phase I of this program will be beneficial for developing plans and appropriate actions for the Phase II activities. Site personnel are currently evaluating various options, i.e. casing perforation with grout injection or partial well abandonment, to eliminate the downward flow in the gravel pack at the altitude of the McQueen Branch Confining Zone. In addressing potential remediation actions for the dissolved solvents in the Cretaceous sediments, due to the limited vertical extent of the plume and the size, any remediation program should incorporate carefully located wells screened vertically within the plume trajectory.This optimizing approach will minimize water treatment and pumping costs and maximize the amount of contaminant removal. Flow and contaminant transport modeling scenarios are currently being developed to address the Cretaceous sediments. These efforts involve incorporating the available characterization data and the results of previous modeling work to more precisely define the extent and magnitude of this plume. SRS proposes incorporating depth discrete sampling during any future characterization effort to optimize any proposed remediation system. Finally, by using a full three-dimensional model rather than the traditional quasi-three dimensional methods an efficient remediation system can be developed.

Jackson, D.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Looney, B.B.; Bergren, C.L.; Wells, D.G.; Beavers, B.A.

1996-02-29

83

High volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2009-10-13

84

15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. VIEW OF MODULE H, THE HIGH PRESSURE ASSEMBLY AREA. PROCESSES IN THIS MODULE OCCURRED UNDER HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

85

Production system improvement : floor area reduction and inventory optimization  

E-print Network

This thesis shows improvements of a medical device production system. The demand at the Medical Device Manufacturing Company (MDMC¹) is low for the occlusion system product and there is a need to introduce other production ...

Yang, Tianying, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

86

Production of plasma with large area for plasma application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electron cyclotron resonance plasma (ECR plasma) with large area for plasma processing is produced with a multi slot antenna whose diameter is chosen independently of microwave frequency, and the uniformity is examined as a function of pressure, microwave power, and magnetic field configuration. The plasma parameters are: ne=2.3×1011 cm-3, Te=5-10 eV, and the plasma potential Vs=20-30 V. A circular TE01 mode converted from the principal rectangular mode, TE10, is also developed to produce a high density plasma with large area. The ion saturation current density of 36 mA/cm2 is achieved for the input microwave power of 3 kW at 5×10-4 Torr. The uniformity of the ion saturation current density is within ±3% over 200 mm in diameter. Furthermore, in order to avoid window contamination, a new microwave launcher with reflector plates is designed and a dense plasma of 1013 cm-3 is realized.

Kawai, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.

1995-09-01

87

High-value products from Illinois coal  

SciTech Connect

The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) has had a research program since program since 1983 aimed at finding new uses for high-sulfur Illinois coal. Since 1990, one focus of this program has been used to use Illinois coal as a precursor for preparing high-value, carbon-based products include carbon molecular sieves (CMS) for separating multi component gas streams, and activated carbons prepared both for storing methane and for removing contaminants from flue gas streams. In this paper, the status of the ISGS`s efforts to develop these high-value products and the resulting potential for increased utilization of Illinois coal are described.

DeBarr, J.A.; Lizzio, A.A.; Kruse, C.W. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

88

Novel fabrication technology for three-dimensional high surface area pyrolized structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High specific surface area structures are used in a variety of applications including production of highly sensitive biosensors, fabrication of separation membranes, manufacturing of high throughput catalytic microreactors, and development of efficient electrodes for batteries and fuel cells. In many electrochemical applications (i.e. sensors and batteries) it's also critical to have good conductive properties of the fabricated high surface area structures. For energy harvesting technologies such as batteries and fuel cells, careful design of surface-to-volume ratio of the electrode surface is important, because while high specific surface area facilitates electrochemical reaction rates, it also increases overall electrode resistance. Thus, it is desirable to construct electrodes with a range of hierarchical features (for example with fractal structures). We invented a novel fabrication technology for creating three-dimensional conductive high surface area structures based on the deposition and subsequent processing of the electroactive polymers (EAP). The proposed fabrication technique is capable of fast and inexpensive production of high surface area structures with the designed geometry, porosity, and conductivity.

Ho, Vinh; Shimada, Mark; Szeto, David; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Kang, Qinjun; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc J.

2010-04-01

89

Biological productivity regime and associated N cycling in the vicinity of Kerguelen Island area, Southern Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the Southern Ocean is considered a High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll area (HNLC), massive and recurrent blooms are observed over and downstream the Kerguelen Plateau. This mosaic of blooms is triggered by a higher iron supply resulting from the interaction between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the local bathymetry. Net primary production, N-uptake (NO3- and NH4+), and nitrification rates were measured at 8 stations in austral spring 2011 (October-November) during the KEOPS2 cruise in the Kerguelen area. Iron fertilization stimulates primary production, with integrated net primary production and growth rates much higher in the fertilized areas (up to 315 mmol C m-2 d-1 and up to 0.31 d-1, respectively) compared to the HNLC reference site (12 mmol C m-2 d-1 and 0.06 d-1, respectively). Primary production is mainly sustained by nitrate uptake, with f ratio (corresponding to NO3- uptake/(NO3- uptake + NH4+ uptake)) lying in the upper end of the observations for the Southern Ocean (up to 0.9). Unexpectedly, we report unprecedented rates of nitrification (up to ~3 mmol C m-2 d-1, with ~90% of them <1 mmol C m-2 d-1). It appears that nitrate is assimilated in the upper part of the mixed layer (coinciding with the euphotic layer) and regenerated in the lower parts. We suggest that such high contribution of nitrification to nitrate assimilation is driven by (i) a deep mixed layer, extending well below the euphotic layer, allowing nitrifiers to compete with phytoplankton for the assimilation of ammonium, (ii) extremely high rates of primary production for the Southern Ocean, stimulating the release of dissolved organic matter, and (iii) an efficient food web, allowing the reprocessing of organic N and the retention of nitrogen into the dissolved phase through ammonium, the substrate for nitrification.

Cavagna, A. J.; Fripiat, F.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Mangion, P.; Chirurgien, L.; Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Flores-Leiva, L.; Cardinal, D.; Leblanc, K.; Fernandez, C.; Lefèvre, D.; Oriol, L.; Blain, S.; Quéguiner, B.

2014-12-01

90

Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.  

PubMed

In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching in rural areas. PMID:17407927

Monk, David H

2007-01-01

91

New concepts regarding the production of waterfowl and other game birds in areas of diversified agriculture  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many concepts regarding breeding ecology of waterfowl and the influences of environmental factors on annual production have changed in the past 20 years. These influences are especially pronounced in the prairie region of central North America where agriculture becomes more intensive each year. The principal task assigned to this Research Center when established in 1965 was to determine the relative impact of these influences on production and to identify those facets of breeding biology, nesting habitat requirements and other factors that may be altered to increase production on lands dedicated for this purpose. A corollary objective was to develop methods for enhancing production of waterfowl and other ground-nesting birds on private lands in agricultural areas. Some of the highlights of our findings to date, together with the results from current work of others, provide new information on waterfowl that indicates: (1) homing instincts are not as specific as indicated by earlier workers, (2) there are differences in pioneering between species, sexes and age classes, (3) strength and duration of pair bonds vary by species and age classes, (4) territorial tolerances for most species are greater than previously indicated, (5) there is differential productivity by age classes in some species, (6) there has been a gradual decline in nesting success in the prairie region the past 30 years, (7) adverse influences of intensive agriculture are increasing, (8) mammalian predation is an important factor, (9) high quality, secure nesting habitat and a complex of wetland types are the essential components of an optimum production unit, (10) the size and shape of blocks of nesting cover are important management considerations, (11) overharvest of local breeding populations is becoming a serious problem in some areas. Each of these subjects is discussed as related to research objectives and current management problems. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum production of waterfowl and other game birds on public and private lands in agricultural areas.

Nelson, H.K.; Duebbert, H.F.

1974-01-01

92

High purity silane and silicon production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen and metallurgical silicon are reacted at about 400.degree.-600.degree. C. and at pressures in excess of 100 psi, and specifically from about 300 up to about 600 psi to form di- and trichlorosilane that is subjected to disproportionation in the presence of an anion exchange resin to form high purity silane. By-product and unreacted materials are recycled, with metallurgical silicon and hydrogen being essentially the only consumed feed materials. The silane product may be further purified, as by means of activated carbon or cryogenic distillation, and decomposed in a fluid bed or free space reactor to form high purity polycrystalline silicon and by-product hydrogen which can be recycled for further use. The process results in simplified waste disposal operations and enhances the overall conversion of metallurgical grade silicon to silane and high purity silicon for solar cell and semiconductor silicon applications.

Breneman, William C. (Inventor)

1987-01-01

93

Validation Framework for USGS Landsat-derived Essential Climate Variables: the Burned Area Product Example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), as defined by the Global Climate Observing System program, from the Landsat data archive. The Landsat archive will provide high spatial resolution (30 m) and long-term (1972 to present) global land products, meeting the needs of climate and ecological studies at global, national, and regional scales. Validation protocols for these products are being established, paralleling the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Calibration/Validation Working Groups' best practice guidelines, but also being modified to account for the unique characteristics of the Landsat data. The USGS validation plan is unique in that it incorporates protocols that span not only the breadth of ecoregions but the timespan of the ECV products and Landsat satellite sensors (MSS, TM, TM+, and OLI). To achieve these goals, the incorporation of existing data bases is essential. Protocols are being developed to perform a CEOS Working Group on Calibration/Validation Stage 2 validation with plans on performing a full Stage 4 validation ensuring the spatial and temporal consistency of the ECV products. A Stage 2 validation reports product accuracies over a large number of locations and time periods by comparison with in situ or other suitable reference data. The Stage 3 validation reports product uncertainties in a statistically robust way over multiple locations and time periods representing global conditions. Validation at this stage reports on the accuracies and confidence of products for the user communities as well as to the algorithm developers. The Stage 4 validation calls for continual assessments as new product versions of the algorithms are released. This presentation will report on the validation protocols used for the Burned Area ECV product. The burned area ECV product is unique from other ECV products such as land cover or LAI because of the transitory nature of fires. In the United States, the use of existing fire perimeter data bases from various state and federal agencies as reference data is economical and enables the validation of different time periods and locations. Additionally, the incorporation of existing satellite-derived reference data used to validate other coarser resolution global burned area data sets such as the MCD45 (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, 500 m spatial resolution), GlobCarbon (Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) sensor, 1 km spatial resolution), and L3JRC (SPOT-VEGETATION sensor, 1 km spatial resolution) is also being pursued. The validation the approach developed for the USGS ECV products and the challenges of using the vector polygons and raster layers from these reference datasets will be reported in the presentation.

Mladinich, C. S.; Brunner, N. M.; Beal, Y. G.

2013-12-01

94

Areas of Lean Manufacturing for Productivity Improvement in a Manufacturing Unit  

E-print Network

Abstract—Many organisations are nowadays interested to adopt lean manufacturing strategy that would enable them to compete in this competitive globalisation market. In this respect, it is necessary to assess the implementation of lean manufacturing in different organisations so that the important best practices can be identified. This paper describes the development of key areas which will be used to assess the adoption and implementation of lean manufacturing practices. There are some key areas developed to evaluate and reduce the most optimal projects so as to enhance their production efficiency and increase the purpose of the economic benefits of the manufacturing unit. Lean manufacturing is becoming lean enterprise by treating its customers and suppliers as partners. This gives the extra edge in today’s cost and time competitive markets. The organisation is becoming strong in all the conventional competition points. They are Price, Quality and Delivery. Lean enterprise owners can deliver high quality products quickly, with low price.

Hudli Mohd Rameez; K. H. Inamdar

95

High energy product in Battenberg structured magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphase nano-structured permanent magnets show a high thermal stability of remanence and a high energy product while the amount of rare-earth elements is reduced. Non-zero temperature micromagnetic simulations show that a temperature coefficient of remanence of -0.073%/K and that an energy product greater than 400 kJ/m3 can be achieved at a temperature of 450 K in a magnet containing around 40 volume percent Fe65Co35 embedded in a hard magnetic matrix.

Bance, S.; Oezelt, H.; Schrefl, T.; Winklhofer, M.; Hrkac, G.; Zimanyi, G.; Gutfleisch, O.; Evans, R. F. L.; Chantrell, R. W.; Shoji, T.; Yano, M.; Sakuma, N.; Kato, A.; Manabe, A.

2014-11-01

96

Large area high-speed metrology SPM system.  

PubMed

We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm(2) regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope. PMID:25597347

Klapetek, P; Valtr, M; Picco, L; Payton, O D; Martinek, J; Yacoot, A; Miles, M

2015-02-13

97

Large area high-speed metrology SPM system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a large area high-speed measuring system capable of rapidly generating nanometre resolution scanning probe microscopy data over mm2 regions. The system combines a slow moving but accurate large area XYZ scanner with a very fast but less accurate small area XY scanner. This arrangement enables very large areas to be scanned by stitching together the small, rapidly acquired, images from the fast XY scanner while simultaneously moving the slow XYZ scanner across the region of interest. In order to successfully merge the image sequences together two software approaches for calibrating the data from the fast scanner are described. The first utilizes the low uncertainty interferometric sensors of the XYZ scanner while the second implements a genetic algorithm with multiple parameter fitting during the data merging step of the image stitching process. The basic uncertainty components related to these high-speed measurements are also discussed. Both techniques are shown to successfully enable high-resolution, large area images to be generated at least an order of magnitude faster than with a conventional atomic force microscope.

Klapetek, P.; Valtr, M.; Picco, L.; Payton, O. D.; Martinek, J.; Yacoot, A.; Miles, M.

2015-02-01

98

Production system improvement : floor area reduction and visual management  

E-print Network

This thesis suggests on the development process of a new layout design and visual management tools to improve the efficiency of a production line in a medical device company. Lean production philosophy and common lean ...

Chen, Zhuling, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

99

OXYANION SORPTION TO HIGH SURFACE AREA IRON AND ALUMINUM OXIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sorption of selected oxyanions (Mo, As, and P) to high surface area iron and aluminum oxides was investigated using in situ Raman and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, batch sorption methods, electrophoretic mobility measurements, and surface complexation modeling. In situ ATR-FTIR and Raman spectra were coup...

100

HIGH SPEED WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKING FOR FARM APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A high-speed wireless local area network (WLAN) was designed and implemented on a commercial farm in Macon County, MS, to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing such a network and to provide the basis for continuing development of software and hardware for farm applications. Since the farm was...

101

PRODUCTION OF HIGH BRIGHTNESS PROTON BUNCHES.  

SciTech Connect

Strongly pulsed proton beams for secondary beam production are required for projects such as pulsed spallation neutron sources or neutrino factories where accurate time-of-flight information is required. To meet these demands techniques to produce multi-GeV proton bunches with very high longitudinal brightness are being developed. A review of the present status is presented.

ROSER,T.

2001-06-18

102

Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Declining water supplies is the critical resource issue for irrigated agriculture in the High Plains and much of the western U.S. Farmers need to maximize production per unit water consumed to remain economically viable and sustain irrigated agriculture. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Wat...

103

A simple facile approach to large scale synthesis of high specific surface area silicon nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

An inexpensive, facile, and high throughput synthesis of silicon nanoparticles was achieved by the mechano-chemical reduction reaction of magnesium silicide (Mg{sub 2}Si) and silicon monoxide (SiO) using a high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) technique followed by acid leaching. Characterization of the resultant product using X-Ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analyses was performed at various stages of the synthesis process. XRD patterns show that the final product formed is single phase silicon and the nanocrystalline nature was confirmed by the shifted transverse optical (TO) band, characteristic of nc-Si determined by Raman analysis. SEM and TEM shows the presence of particles of different sizes in the range of few nanometers to agglomerates of few microns which is consistent with products obtained from mechanical milling. BET measurements show a very high specific surface area (SSA) of ?190 m{sup 2}/g obtained due to acid leaching which is also validated by the porous nature of the particles confirmed by the SEM images. - Graphical abstract: Schematic showing the large scale production of nanosized silicon and BET surface area of the product formed at various stages.

Epur, Rigved [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Minardi, Luke [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028 (United States); Datta, Moni K. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chung, Sung Jae [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials (CCEMM), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

2013-12-15

104

High Energy Product Developed from Cobalt Nanowires  

PubMed Central

Cobalt nanowires with high aspect ratio have been synthesized via a solvothermal chemical process. Based on the shape anisotropy and orientation of the nanowire assemblies, a record high room-temperature coercivity of 10.6?kOe has been measured in Co nanowires with a diameter of about 15?nm and a mean length of 200?nm. As a result, energy product of the wires reaches 44?MGOe. It is discovered that the morphology uniformity of the nanowires is the key to achieving the high coercivity and high energy density. Nanowires of this type are ideal building blocks for future bonded, consolidated and thin film magnets with high energy density and high thermal stability. PMID:24939036

Gandha, Kinjal; Elkins, Kevin; Poudyal, Narayan; Liu, Xubo; Liu, J. Ping

2014-01-01

105

Hydroetching of high surface area ceramics using moist supercritical fluids  

DOEpatents

Aerogels having a high density of hydroxyl groups and a more uniform pore size with fewer bottlenecks are described. The aerogel is exposed to a mixture of a supercritical fluid and water, whereupon the aerogel forms a high density of hydroxyl groups. The process also relaxes the aerogel into a more open uniform internal structure, in a process referred to as hydroetching. The hydroetching process removes bottlenecks from the aerogels, and forms the hydrogels into more standard pore sizes while preserving their high surface area.

Fryxell, Glen; Zemanian, Thomas S.

2004-11-02

106

EAP high-level product architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

2013-04-01

107

29 CFR 780.720 - “Area of production” requirement of exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirement of exemption. 780.720 Section 780.720 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ...the Area of Productionâ § 780.720 “Area of production”...

2010-07-01

108

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOEpatents

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-10-28

109

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOEpatents

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-12-03

110

Production of large-area plasmas by electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented for the production of weakly ionized plasmas by electron beams, with an emphasis on the production of broad, planar plasmas capable of reflecting X-band microwaves. Considered first in the analysis is the ability of weakly ionized plasmas to absorb, emit and reflect electromagnetic radiation. Following that is a determination of the electron beam parameters needed to

R. F. Fernsler; W. M. Manheimer; R. A. Meger; J. Mathew; D. P. Murphy; R. E. Pechacek; J. A. Gregor

1998-01-01

111

Production system improvement : floor area reduction and cycle time analysis  

E-print Network

A medical device company challenged a research team to reduce the manufacturing floor space required for an occlusion system product by one third. The team first cataloged equipment location and size, detailed the processes ...

Peterson, Jennifer J. (Jennifer Jeanne)

2012-01-01

112

Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder by continuous precipitation  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: High surface area ZnO powders are synthesized by a low temperature continuous precipitation under ultrasonication. Urea is used as precipitating agent so that no contamination of ZnO powder emanating from precipitating agent, such as, alkalis, is observed. pH and type of precursor greatly affects the surface area and other properties. In this manuscript, we report a very simple and effective continuous precipitation to synthesize high surface area ZnO powder. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved at 90 Degree-Sign C in a continuous precipitation unit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous precipitation unit was ultrasonicated to improve final product homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation intermediate, hydrozincite, was led to high surface area ZnO powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles had a rather uniform mesoporous structure. -- Abstract: Synthesis of high surface area ZnO powder was achieved by continuous precipitation using zinc ions and urea at low temperature of 90 Degree-Sign C. The powder precipitated resulted in high-purity single-phase ZnO powder when calcined at 280 Degree-Sign C for 3 h in air. The solution pH and the precipitation duration strongly affected the surface area of the calcined ZnO powder. Detailed structural characterizations demonstrated that the synthesized ZnO powder were single crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The powdered samples precipitated by homogeneous precipitation crystallized directly to hydrozincite without any intermediate phase formation. The phase structures, morphologies and properties of the final ZnO powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering particle size analysis (DLS), and nitrogen physisorption in order to determine the specific surface area (BET) and the pore size distribution (BJH).

Boz, Ismail, E-mail: ismailb@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Kaluza, Stefan [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany); Boroglu, Mehtap Safak [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey)] [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Avcilar, Istanbul 34320 (Turkey); Muhler, Martin [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)] [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitaetsstr. 150, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

2012-05-15

113

Production at Intermediate Energies and Lund Area Law  

E-print Network

The Lund area law was developed into a Monte Carlo program LUARLW. The important ingredients of this generator was described. It was found that the LUARLW simulations are in good agreement with the BEPC/BES R scan data between 2--5 GeV.

Haiming Hu; An Tai

2001-06-04

114

CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area  

E-print Network

CO2 gas production understanding above a partly flooded coal post-mining area Candice Lagnya, a former coal mining area. To understand the origin of this production, a borehole of 90 meters deep located above a former coal mine associated with a rising water table. These variations are characterized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Pollen productivity estimates and relevant source area of pollen  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Pollen productivity estimates and relevant source area of pollen for selected Relevant source area of pollen (RSAP) and pollen productivity for 11 key taxa characteristic of the pasture woodland landscape of the Jura Mountains, Swit- zerland, were estimated using pollen assemblages from moss

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

Production of High-Intensity, Highly Charged Ions  

E-print Network

In the past three decades, the development of nuclear physics facilities for fundamental and applied science purposes has required an increasing current of multicharged ion beams. Multiple ionization implies the formation of dense and energetic plasmas, which, in turn, requires specific plasma trapping configurations. Two types of ion source have been able to produce very high charge states in a reliable and reproducible way: electron beam ion sources (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS). Multiple ionization is also obtained in laser-generated plasmas (laser ion sources (LIS)), where the high-energy electrons and the extremely high electron density allow step-by-step ionization, but the reproducibility is poor. This chapter discusses the atomic physics background at the basis of the production of highly charged ions and describes the scientific and technological features of the most advanced ion sources. Particular attention is paid to ECRIS and the latest developments, since they now r...

Gammino, S

2013-01-01

117

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2013-07-01

118

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2012-07-01

119

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2011-07-01

120

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Gggggg... - Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources 1 Table 1...Primary Nonferrous Metals Area Sources-Zinc, Cadmium, and Beryllium Pt. 63, Subpt...Applicability of General Provisions to Primary Zinc Production Area Sources As...

2014-07-01

121

Fission product sorption parameters for Hanford 200 area sediment types  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted to measure the Hanford Site 200 Separation Areas sorption properties for trace strontium (/sup 85/Sr), cesium (/sup 137/Cs), and cobalt (/sup 60/Co). Scintillation logs of ground disposal facilities and particle size plus calcium carbonate sediment data were used to independently delineate sediment types. Good agreement was found between the sediment types from the two methods. Twenty-one sediment types were delineated from five wells.

Routson, R.C.; Barney, G.S.; Smith, R.M.; Delegard, C.H.; Jensen, L.

1981-06-01

122

High conversion TAME and MTBE production process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes isopentene, or isoamylene, conversion to methyl tertamyl ether that can be substantially improved while high conversion of isobutylene to methyl tert-butyl ether can be maintained by carrying out the overall etherification process with alkanol in a staged manner, wherein the first stage is methanol etherification of a C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbon feedstream rich in isoamylene and the second stage is etherification to produce MTBE and additional TAME from a C{sub 4+}, or C{sub 4}, feedstream. Unreacted methanol and hydrocarbons from the first etherification are uniquely separated by fractionation from the TAME product by using the second stage C{sub 4+} feedstream as a reflux stream to the fractionator and passed to the second etherification zone. Products from the second etherification zone are separated by distillation to produce MTBE, TAME and C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbons as a bottom stream.

Harandi, M.N.; Owens, H.

1991-01-29

123

Industrial Crafts (Production.) Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for an industrial crafts course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Claus, Robert; And Others

124

Wood Technology (Production). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide for a wood technology course is one of four developed for the production area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--energy/power and graphic communications.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

Claus, Robert; And Others

125

Tensor Product Surfaces Guided by Minimal Surface Area Triangulations John K. Johnstone  

E-print Network

Tensor Product Surfaces Guided by Minimal Surface Area Triangulations John K. Johnstone and Kenneth from contour (cross-section) data. Mini- mal area triangulations are used to guide the surface con data, mini- mum area triangulation, Bezier surface, biomedical visual- ization 1 Introduction

Johnstone, John K.

126

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...

2010-07-01

127

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...

2014-07-01

128

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...

2012-07-01

129

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...

2011-07-01

130

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ccccccc... - Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area Sources  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Area...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing Pt...Applicability of General Provisions to Paints and Allied Products Manufacturing...

2013-07-01

131

High Temperature Thermoelectric Device Concept Using Large Area PN Junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high temperature thermoelectric device concept using large area nanostructured silicon p-type and n-type ( PN) junctions is presented. In contrast to conventional thermoelectric generators, where the n-type and p-type semiconductors are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel, we experimentally demonstrate a device concept in which a large area PN junction made from highly doped densified silicon nanoparticles is subject to a temperature gradient parallel to the PN interface. In the proposed device concept, the electrical contacts are made at the cold side eliminating the hot side substrate and difficulties that go along with high temperature electrical contacts. This concept allows temperature gradients greater than 300 K to be experimentally applied with hot side temperatures larger than 800 K. Electronic properties of the PN junctions and power output characterizations are presented. A fundamental working principle is discussed using a particle network model with temperature and electric fields as variables, and which considers electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity according to Fourier's law, as well as Peltier and Seebeck effects.

Chavez, R.; Angst, S.; Hall, J.; Stoetzel, J.; Kessler, V.; Bitzer, L.; Maculewicz, F.; Benson, N.; Wiggers, H.; Wolf, D.; Schierning, G.; Schmechel, R.

2014-06-01

132

Cloud obstruction and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cover maps provide information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they enable estimation of the regional snow resource. In this context, Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloud cover can hide the ground, thus obstructing snow detection. Here, we consider MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over the Po River basin. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analysed and processed with the support of a 500 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We first investigate the issue of cloud obstruction, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting period. Thus, cloud cover highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, starting from previous studies, we propose a cloud removal procedure and we apply it to a wide area, characterized by high geomorphological heterogeneity such as the Po River basin. In conceiving the new procedure, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there was not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we used temporal filters with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter. In the validation stage, the proposed procedure was compared against others, showing improvements in the performance for our case study. The accuracy is assessed by applying the procedure to clear-sky maps masked with additional cloud cover. The average value is higher than 95% considering 40 days chosen over all seasons. The procedure also has advantages in terms of input data and computational effort requirements.

Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

2014-11-01

133

CLIC RF High Power Production Testing Program  

SciTech Connect

The CLIC Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) is a passive microwave device in which bunches of the drive beam interact with the impedance of the periodically loaded waveguide and generate RF power for the main linac accelerating structure. The demands on the high power production ({approx} 150 MW) and the needs to transport the 100 A drive beam for about 1 km without losses, makes the PETS design rather unique and the operation very challenging. In the coming year, an intense PETS testing program will be implemented. The target is to demonstrate the full performance of the PETS operation. The testing program overview and test results available to date are presented.

Syratchev, I.; Riddone, G.; /CERN; Tantawi, S.G.; /SLAC

2011-11-02

134

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou  

E-print Network

Stochastic Modeling of Multi-Area Wind Power Production Anthony Papavasiliou CORE, UCL anthony of wind power production on power system operations over an entire year, it is necessary to account for the non-stationary (seasonal and diurnal) patterns of wind power production. This paper presents a multi

Oren, Shmuel S.

135

Discover areas of highest plant productivity in the ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science animation presents a series of monthly satellite images that track global levels of phytoplankton throughout a year. The introduction explains that the color-enhanced images indicate chlorophyll concentration in the oceans. In addition, the text briefly describes the significance of these concentration values. Students are encouraged to analyze changes in plant productivity that occur over the course of a year. Movie control buttons allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to analyze the images.

TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

2003-01-01

136

High surface area tapes produced with functionalized graphene.  

PubMed

We describe a scalable method for producing continuous graphene networks by tape casting surfactant-stabilized aqueous suspensions of functionalized graphene sheets. Similar to all other highly connected graphene-containing networks, the degree of overlap between the sheets controls the tapes' electrical and mechanical properties. However, unlike other graphene-containing networks, the specific surface area of the cast tapes remains high (>400 m(2)·g(-1)). Exhibiting apparent densities between 0.15 and 0.51 g·cm(-3), with electrical conductivities up to 24 kS·m(-1) and tensile strengths over 10 MPa, these tapes exhibit the best combination of properties with respect to density heretofore observed for carbon-based papers, membranes, or films. PMID:21545115

Korkut, Sibel; Roy-Mayhew, Joseph D; Dabbs, Daniel M; Milius, David L; Aksay, Ilhan A

2011-06-28

137

Persistent organic pollutants in snow from European high mountain areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow cores were collected in the catchment area of five remote mountain lakes in Europe. They were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and organochlorine pesticides, namely DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH). PAH are found in higher amounts in the Tatra and Caledonian mountains, PCB are higher in the Alps and HCH are highest in the Alps and Pyrenees. The qualitative PAH distributions are dominated by low molecular weight compounds, phenanthrene being the most abundant PAH in all but in one site. These compounds also occur predominantly in the gas phase in the atmosphere. Their high abundance in the snowpack witness the occurrence of effective transfer mechanisms from gas to snow flakes. In Starolesnianske (Tatra mountains), a higher contribution of high molecular weight compounds is found. This site exhibits the highest snow PAH and suspended particulate levels. Transformation of the concentration values of these compounds into annual deposition rates and correction for catchment/lake area indicates that in Scandinavia and the Alps a large proportion of PAH incorporation is mediated by snowfallout whereas in the Tatra mountains snow deposition only accounts for a small fraction of the compounds stored in the lake sediments. Among organochlorine compounds, only PCB and HCH have been found above method detection limit in most of the samples. The PCB congener distributions changes significantly between sites, although a predominance of the less chlorinated congeners have generally been observed.

Carrera, Guillem; Fernández, Pilar; Vilanova, Rosa M.; Grimalt, Joan O.

138

Production of high specific activity silicon-32  

DOEpatents

A process for preparation of silicon-32 is provide and includes contacting an irradiated potassium chloride target, including spallation products from a prior irradiation, with sufficient water, hydrochloric acid or potassium hydroxide to form a solution, filtering the solution, adjusting pH of the solution to from about 5.5 to about 7.5, admixing sufficient molybdate-reagent to the solution to adjust the pH of the solution to about 1.5 and to form a silicon-molybdate complex, contacting the solution including the silicon-molybdate complex with a dextran-based material, washing the dextran-based material to remove residual contaminants such as sodium-22, separating the silicon-molybdate complex from the dextran-based material as another solution, adding sufficient hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide to the solution to prevent reformation of the silicon-molybdate complex and to yield an oxidization state of the molybdate adapted for subsequent separation by an anion exchange material, contacting the solution with an anion exchange material whereby the molybdate is retained by the anion exchange material and the silicon remains in solution, and optionally adding sufficient alkali metal hydroxide to adjust the pH of the solution to about 12 to 13. Additionally, a high specific activity silicon-32 product having a high purity is provided.

Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM); Brzezinski, Mark A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

1994-01-01

139

Spatiotemporal patterns of cropland area and net primary production in the central United States estimated from USDA agricultural information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central United States, which is dominated by agriculture, has been selected as the first North American Carbon Program intensive campaign. Data sets that describe spatiotemporal variability in carbon fluxes are needed to support this campaign. Here we report the behavior of county cropland net primary production (NPP) in the first intensive region derived using USDA information together with crop-specific parameters that convert agronomic data into carbon fluxes. Total cropland area in the eight-state region was ~550,000 km2 (40% of total area), with some interannual variability but no temporal trend from 1972 to 2001. Regional production (P) was 0.3 Pg C yr-1 in the late 1990s, roughly 64% of the total US crop production. P was highest in the central counties (>1.2 Tg C yr-1). In contrast to area, both NPP (flux per unit area) and P (spatially aggregated flux) increased during the study period (46 and 51%, respectively). Corn was the dominant crop type grown in the region, contributing 58% of the total production, with soybeans second most productive but substantially less (20%) despite similar harvested area. Maximum year-to-year variability in P was high, generally greater than 30% for most counties, though exceeding 80% for some counties.

Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Lobell, David B.

2004-10-01

140

Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area  

SciTech Connect

The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth`s most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability.

Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

1994-12-31

141

High surface area aerogels for energy storage and efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissertation is divided into two main chapters, each focused on a different application for aerogel. The first chapter concerns the development of silica aerogel for thermal insulation. It begins with initial characterization of a silica aerogel insulation for a next-generation Advanced Radioisotope Stirling Generator for space vehicles. While the aerogel as made performs well, it is apparent that further improvements in mechanical strength and durability are necessary. The chapter then continues with the exploration of chlorotrimethysilane surface modification, which somewhat surprisingly provides a drastic increase in mechanical properties, allowing the inherently brittle silica network to deform plastically to >80% strain. It is hypothesized that the hydrophobic surface groups reduce capillary forces during drying, lowering the number of microcracks that may form and weaken the gel. This surface modification scheme is then implemented in a fiber-reinforced, opacified aerogel insulation for a prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. This is the first known report of aerogel insulation for thermoelectrics. The aerogel insulation is able to increase the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator by 40% compared with commercial high-temperature insulating wool. Unfortunately, the supercritical drying process adds significant cost to the aerogel insulation, limiting its commercial viability. The chapter then culminates in the development and characterization of an Ambiently Dried Aerogel Insulation (ADAI) that eliminates the need for expensive supercritical drying. It is believed that this report represents the first aerogel insulation that can be dried without undergoing a large volume change before "springing back" to near its original volume, which allows it to be cast into place into complex geometries and around rigid inclusions. This reduces a large barrier to the commercial viability of aerogel insulation. The advantages of ADAI are demonstrated in a third-generation prototypical thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery. The second chapter then details two different aerogel-based materials for electrochemical energy storage. It begins with lithium titanate aerogel, which takes advantage of the high surface area of the aerogel morphology to display a batt-cap behavior. This should allow the lithium titanate aerogel to perform at higher rates than would normally be expected for the bulk oxide material. Additionally, the flexibility of the sol-gel process is demonstrated through the incorporation of electrically conductive high-surface area exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets in the oxide. The last section describes the characterization of a LiMn2O 4 spinel coated carbon nanofoam in a non-aqueous electrolyte. The short diffusion path, high surface area and intimately wired architecture of the nanofoam allows the oxide to retain its capacity at significantly higher rates when compared with literature values for the bulk oxide. Additionally, the nanometric length scale improves cycle life, and the high surface area dramatically increases the insertion capacity by providing a higher concentration of surface defects. Taken together, it is clear that aerogels are an extremely attractive class of material for applications pertaining to energy and efficiency, and further research in this area will provide valuable solutions for pressing societal needs. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

Maloney, Ryan Patrick

142

Automatic area based registration method and its application to the surface inspection of steel industry products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the automated application of an area based registration method to the surface inspection of steel industry products as a tool to solve an intermediate mosaicing problem. The main problem of area based methods is that there is high probability that the results of a matching process will be incorrect if a region of interest without any relevant detail is used. The selection of a region of interest with relevant content continues to be a problem nowadays. We propose a method to select a salient area when using a zero mean normalised cross correlation metric and a block as a region of interest. The selection of the size and the position of the block is focused on ensuring a smooth unimodal similarity surface around the maximum similitude point. Experiments show a correlation between the surface kurtosis of the block autocovariance and the same coefficient measured over the correlation surface around the maximum similitude point for the three different steel products analysed. We check that the maximum correlation value is reached abruptly, in a small range of pixels around the maximum similitude point, in correlation surfaces obtained from blocks containing non-relevant information. On the other hand, salient blocks usually lead to unimodal smooth similarity surfaces with small sensitivity to noise in contrast with the ones obtained from non-remarkable blocks. Also, the method proposed allows the application of fast search algorithms based on the unimodality of the correlation surface, obtaining high computational time reduction in comparison with full search strategies using fast normalised cross correlation algorithms.

García Llenderrozos, Ricardo; Álvarez García, Ignacio; Enguita González, José M.; Rodríguez Jiménez, Silvia

2013-04-01

143

NPDES permit requirements in Gulf Coast exploration and production areas  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Government regulates discharges of pollutants into waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act (CWA) through issuance of permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Anyone discharging pollutants directly into [open quotes]waters of the United States[close quotes] (almost any body of water, including lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, or offshore waters) from a point source (e.g., oil and gas exploration and production facilities) is a direct discharger. Direct dischargers must have an NPDES permit that specifically allows them to discharge designated pollutants. The permit will normally list the pollutants that the facility may discharge, and limit the discharge of each pollutant on a monthly, weekly, or daily basis. The EPA has developed NPDES requirements for facilities engaged in offshore oil and gas exploration and production. On September 30, 1992, Region 6 of the EPA issued a general NPDES permit for offshore operators within the Gulf of Mexico authorizing discharges in accordance with specific effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other conditions of the permit. A general NPDES permit was also formalized by EPA Region 6 in 1991 for onshore oil and gas facilities. This [open quotes]zero discharge[close quotes] NPDES permit (prohibiting any discharge of pollutants into waters of the U.S.) is applicable to most onshore oil and gas facilities within Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Failure to meet the requirements of a general or site-specific NPDES permit violates the law. The EPA and states with delegated permit authority can penalize violators through fines and imprisonment. Permitting authorities are becoming increasingly diligent in their enforcement efforts.

Mundt, W.J. (R.W. Beck and Associates, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-01

144

Controlling Orientation, Edge Geometry and Thickness of High Quality Large-area CVD Adrian Murdock, Antal Koos, Benjamin Britton, Lothar Houben, Tim Batten, Tong Zhang,  

E-print Network

Controlling Orientation, Edge Geometry and Thickness of High Quality Large-area CVD Graphene Adrian deposition (CVD) graphene crucially depends on the ability to generate large-area sheets with selected provides a new avenue towards the controlled production of high quality large-area graphene sheets

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

145

Benefit Estimates of Terminal Area Productivity Program Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents benefit analyses for the NASA Terminal Area Technology (TAP) technology programs. Benefits are based on reductions in arrival delays at ten major airports over the 10 years from 2006 through 2015. Detailed analytic airport capacity and delay models were constructed to produce the estimates. The goal of TAP is enable good weather operations tempos in all weather conditions. The TAP program includes technologies to measure and predict runway occupancy times, reduce runway occupancy times in bad weather, accurately predict wake vortex hazards, and couple controller automation with aircraft flight management systems. The report presents and discusses the estimate results and describes the models. Three appendixes document the model algorithms and discuss the input parameters selected for the TAP technologies. The fourth appendix is the user's guide for the models. The results indicate that the combined benefits for all TAP technologies at all 10 airports range from $550 to $650 million per year (in constant 1997 dollars). Additional benefits will accrue from reductions in departure delays. Departure delay benefits are calculated by the current models.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald; Lee, David; Gribko, Joana; Glaser, Bonnie

1999-01-01

146

Seasonal predator removal relative to hatch rate of duck nests in waterfowl production areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These authors report that hatch rates of duck nests were related to removal of predators from waterfowl production areas. Cost effectiveness of such efforts is questioned. The prairie pothole region (PPR) is the primary breeding ground of several species of North American ducks (Bellrose 1980). Much habitat of breeding ducks in the PPR has been destroyed or degraded by intensive agriculture (e.g., Kiel et al. 1972, Bellrose 1980, Sugden and Beyersbergen 1984, Boyd 1985), resulting in high predation rates on duck nests (Sargeant and Raveling 1992). Because of predation, hatch rate (HR) of duck nests in Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA's) in the PPR is often less than the 15-20% suggested for stability of populations of the 5 most common species of dabbling ducks (e.g., Cowardin et al. 1985, Greenwood 1986, Klett et al. 1988, Greenwood et al. 1990). Managers seek ways to reduce depredations of duck clutches in WPA's, but little information is available concerning effects of predator removal. We evaluated seasonal (spring and early summer) removal of predators from WPA's in Minnesota and North Dakota. Our objectives were to compare HR in uplands of WPA's with and without predators removed and to determine functional aspects of conducting predator removal.

Sargeant, A.B.; Sovada, M.A.; Shaffer, T.L.

1995-01-01

147

Characteristics of the flux of isoprene and its oxidation products in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the mixing ratios and fluxes of isoprene and its oxidation products, methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) from a tall flux tower in metropolitan Houston, Texas, during summertime using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system combined with a dual-channel GC-FID instrument. We show that isoprene was affected dominantly by biogenic emission sources during daytime, but also that tail-pipe emission sources (alongside 2-pentenes) are contributing during the rush hours and at night. The observed daytime mixing ratios of isoprene were much lower than over forested areas due to a comparatively low density of isoprene emitting trees in the tower's footprint area. Daytime isoprene fluxes displayed the expected light and temperature driven emission characteristics, and a detailed isoprene emissions model explained average fluxes fairly well. Our investigation of isoprene's oxidation products MACR and MVK showed that both anthropogenic and isoprene oxidation sources exist for MACR, while MVK was strongly dominated by isoprene oxidation between its emission and sampling points due to presumably high local OH radical concentrations. While biogenic emission modeling appears to work well for this urban environment when supplied with accurate input data, emission inventories used for ozone modeling may need to consider tailpipe isoprene (and MACR) emissions to properly account for urban concentrations, particularly higher morning abundances.

Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W.; Boedeker, Ian

2011-11-01

148

Assessing the landscape context and conversion risk of protected areas using satellite data products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since the establishment of the first national park (Yellowstone National Park in 1872) and the first wildlife refuge (Pelican Island in 1903), dramatic changes have occurred in both ecological and cultural landscapes across the U.S. The ability of these protected areas to maintain current levels of biodiversity depend, at least in part, on the integrity of the surrounding landscape. Our objective was to quantify and compare the extent and pattern of natural land cover, risk of conversion, and relationships with demographic and economic variables in counties near National Park Service units and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuges with those counties distant from either type of protected area in the coterminous United States. Our results indicate that landscapes in counties within 10??km of both parks and refuges and those within 10??km of just parks were more natural, more intact, and more protected than those in counties within 10??km of just refuges and counties greater than 10??km from either protected area system. However, they also had greater human population density and change in population, indicating potential conversion risk since the percent of landscape protected averaged 2) in 76% of counties near both parks and refuges, 81% of counties near just parks, 91% of counties near just refuges, and 93% of distant counties. Thirteen percent of counties in the coterminous U.S. had moderate to high amounts of natural land cover (> 60%), low protection ( 20%). Although these areas are not the most critically endangered, they represent the greatest conservation opportunity, need, and urgency. Our approach is based on national level metrics that are simple, general, informative, and can be understood by broad audiences and by policy makers and managers to assess the health of lands surrounding parks and refuges. Regular monitoring of these metrics with satellite data products in counties surrounding protected areas provides a consistent, national level assessment of management opportunities and potentially adverse changes on adjacent lands. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Svancara, L.K.; Scott, J.M.; Loveland, T.R.; Pidgorna, A.B.

2009-01-01

149

Two photon absorption in high power broad area laser diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in thermal management and improvements in fabrication and facet passivation enabled extracting unprecedented optical powers from laser diodes (LDs). However, even in the absence of thermal roll-over or catastrophic optical damage (COD), the maximum achievable power is limited by optical non-linear effects. Due to its non-linear nature, two-photon absorption (TPA) becomes one of the dominant factors that limit efficient extraction of laser power from LDs. In this paper, theoretical and experimental analysis of TPA in high-power broad area laser diodes (BALD) is presented. A phenomenological optical extraction model that incorporates TPA explains the reduction in optical extraction efficiency at high intensities in BALD bars with 100?m-wide emitters. The model includes two contributions associated with TPA: the straightforward absorption of laser photons and the subsequent single photon absorption by the holes and electrons generated by the TPA process. TPA is a fundamental limitation since it is inherent to the LD semiconductor material. Therefore scaling the LDs to high power requires designs that reduce the optical intensity by increasing the mode size.

Dogan, Mehmet; Michael, Christopher P.; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Lin; Jacob, Jonah H.

2014-03-01

150

Bicontinuous ceramics with high surface area from block copolymer templates.  

PubMed

Mesoporous polymers with gyroid nanochannels can be fabricated from the self-assembly of degradable block copolymer, polystyrene-b-poly(L-lactide) (PS-PLLA), followed by hydrolysis of PLLA block. Well-defined polymer/ceramic nanohybrid materials with inorganic gyroid nanostructures in a PS matrix can be obtained by using the mesoporous PS as a template for sol-gel reaction. Titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) is used as a precursor to give a model system for the fabrication of metal oxide nanostructures from reactive transition metal alkoxides. By controlling the rates of capillary-driven pore filling and sol-gel reaction, the templated synthesis can be well-developed. Also, by taking advantage of calcination, bicontinuous TiO(2) with controlled crystalline phase (i.e., anatase phase) can be fabricated after removal of the PS template and crystallization of TiO(2) by calcination leading to high photocatalytic efficiency. This new approach provides an easy way to fabricate high-surface-area and high-porosity ceramics with self-supporting structure and controlled crystalline phase for practical applications. As a result, a platform technology to fabricate precisely controlled polymer/ceramic nanohybrids and mesoporous ceramic materials can be established. PMID:22530553

Hsueh, Han-Yu; Ho, Rong-Ming

2012-06-01

151

High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas  

SciTech Connect

High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

1995-01-01

152

Radioactivity in the groundwater of a high background radiation area.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity was measured in groundwater samples collected from 37 wells scattered in an inhabited area of high natural background radiation, in a purpose of radiation protection. The study area is adjacent to Aja heights of granitic composition in Hail province, Saudi Arabia. Initial screening for gross ? and gross ? activities showed levels exceeded the national regulation limits set out for gross ? and gross ? activities in drinking water. The gross ? activity ranged from 0.17 to 5.41 Bq L(-)(1) with an average value of 2.15 Bq L(-)(1), whereas gross ? activity ranged from 0.48 to 5.16 Bq L(-)(1), with an average value of 2.60 Bq L(-)(1). The detail analyses indicated that the groundwater of this province is contaminated with uranium and radium ((226)Ra and (228)Ra). The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (234)U, (226)Ra and (228)Ra were 0.40, 0.77, 0.29 and 0.46 Bq L(-)(1), respectively. The higher uranium content was found in the samples of granitic aquifers, whereas the higher radium content was found in the samples of sandstone aquifers. Based on the obtained results, mechanism of leaching of the predominant radionuclides has been discussed in detail. PMID:25087070

Shabana, E I; Kinsara, A A

2014-11-01

153

High surface area ThO/sub 2/ catalyst  

DOEpatents

A ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a high surface area of about 80 to 125m/sup 2//g is synthesized. The compound is synthesized by simultaneously mixing an aqueous solution of ThNO/sub 3/(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.4H/sub 2/O with an aqueous solution of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, to produce a solution and solid ThOCO/sub 3/. The solid ThOCO/sub 3/ is separated from the solution, and then calcined at a temperature of about 225 to 300/sup 0/C for about 40 to 55 hours to produce ThO/sub 2/. The ThO/sub 2/ catalyst produced includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount equal to about 5 to 10 at. %.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21

154

High-productivity automatic GTAW process  

SciTech Connect

Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has, since developed by AIRCO, spread globally as a weld process which assures a quality weld. However, the only drawback with GTAW is low productivity and we have challenged the subject in how we could improve that. To that end, we set the target of 3 times deposition rate as compared to conventional TIG. With conventional TIG arc, arc spread angle ranges 130{degrees} to 140{degrees}; to improve energy density, we have employed double flux TIG of SAF, France to converge the arc down to 80{degrees}. Consequently, energy density was upped to 4 times of conventional TIG, thus penetration depth and filler wire feed rated increased up to 2 to 4 times. We have succeeded in controlling cool-down in the molten pool, enabling the utilization of highly-converged TIG arc and preventing deposited metals burn-through for cleaner weld process, high-productivity GTAW. We find that: (1) The TIG arc spread angle is convergeable from 140{degrees} down to 80{degrees}; heat energy to be 3.5 times of that obtainable conventionally. (2) 65{emdash}80 g/min attained with 500A and C.S. in flat position, and 35{emdash}40 g/min., with all-position pipe weld. (3) 2{emdash}3 times efficiency improvement, obtained with work in C.S., S.S., and Inconel. (4) Excellent impact value obtainable despite heat-input increase. (5) Fume-less, spatterless, gouging-less and grindingless weld is obtainable; we were successful in improving the operational environment.

Imaizumi, H.; Kato, T.; Murakami, Y.

1994-12-31

155

Experimental performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at high combustion chamber pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion area ratio of 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1, was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.

Jankovsky, Robert S.; Kazaroff, John M.; Pavli, Albert J.

1996-01-01

156

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

2006-04-01

157

GIS-technologies for integrated assessment of the productive mining areas  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the bases of a new application of GIS-technologies for integrated assessment and comparison of the productive mining areas, involving a wide range of mining and technological factors, considering mineral properties, mineral occurrence conditions and geographical advantages of a mineral deposit location. The model capabilities are exemplified by a comparison of technological characteristics of coals, transportation and power supply infrastructure of the productive mining areas at the Kuznetsk Coal Basin.

Zamaraev, R.Y.; Oparin, V.N.; Popov, S.E.; Potapov, V.P.; Pyastunovich,O.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2008-05-15

158

Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

2008-01-01

159

Productivity cycles in the coastal upwelling area off Concepción: The importance of diatoms and bacterioplankton in the organic carbon flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recurrent coastal upwelling is recognized as one of the main factors promoting the exceptionally high productivity of the Humboldt Current System. Herein, we study time series data of gross primary production (2003-2006) and its fluctuation in relation to seasonal changes in the light and nutrient field of the Concepción upwelling ecosystem. Concurrent measurements of gross primary production, community respiration, bacterial secondary production, and sedimentation rates allowed a characterization of the main carbon fluxes and pathways in the study area. The integrated values of gross primary production were higher during the upwelling period (>1 g C m -2 d -1; October-April; that is, early spring to early austral fall). Seasonal changes in the system were also reflected in community respiration, organic matter sedimentation, and bacterial production rates, which varied along with the gross primary production. The significant correlation between gross primary production and community respiration (Spearman, r = 0.7; p < 0.05; n = 18) reflected an important degree of coupling between organic matter formation and its usage by the microplanktonic community during periods when gross primary production/community respiration were highly similar. Higher gross primary production values (>6 g C m -2 d -1) were consistently associated with maximum biomass levels of Skeletonema costatum and Thalassiosira subtilis. We observed a positive correlation between gross primary production and the sedimentation of intact diatom cells (Spearman, r = 0.5, p < 0.05, n = 17). Our data suggest that, in the Concepción upwelling ecosystem, bacteria utilize an important fraction of the gross primary production. If our interpretations are correct, they leave unanswered the question of how the system supports the extremely high fish biomass levels, therein pointing out the system’s limited capacity to buffer the evasion of CO 2 following upwelling.

Montero, Paulina; Daneri, Giovanni; Cuevas, L. Antonio; González, Humberto E.; Jacob, Bárbara; Lizárraga, Lorena; Menschel, Eduardo

2007-11-01

160

Safe Use of Glyphosate-containing Products in Aquatic and Upland Natural Areas1  

E-print Network

SS-AGR-104 Safe Use of Glyphosate-containing Products in Aquatic and Upland Natural Areas1 K. A of other products of suitable composition. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS and Invasive Plants, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

Watson, Craig A.

161

Ceramic production, consumption and exchange in the Banda area, Ghana: Insights from compositional analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic production, exchange and consumption in the Banda area, west central Ghana has been affected by historical developments ranging from recent competition with alternative vessels (made of metal and plastic) to political economic upheavals that altered community relationships within and outside the region. In this study, we explore spatial and temporal patterning in pottery production, exchange and consumption using a

Ann B. Stahl; Maria das Dores Cruz; Hector Neff; Michael D. Glascock; Robert J. Speakman; Bretton Giles; Leith Smith

2008-01-01

162

Area Products and Mass Formula for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT Space-time  

E-print Network

We derive some important physical black hole thermodynamic products (e.g."area product", "entropy product", irreducible mass product etc.) of the event horizon and Cauchy horizons of Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT(Newman-Unti-Tamburino) space-time. We observe that these thermodynamic products are \\emph{not} universal (mass-independence) for Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT(KNTN) black hole(BH), whereas for Kerr-Newman(KN) BH such products are universal (mass-independence). We also examine the "entropy sum" and "area sum" for this BH. It is shown that they are all depends on mass, charge and NUT parameter of the back ground space-time. Thus we can conclude that the universal(mass-independence) behaviour of "area product", "entropy product", "area sum" and "entropy sum" for KNTN BH is broken down and which is also quite different from KN BH. We further show that the KNTN BH do not possess \\emph{first law of BH thermodynamics } and \\emph {Smarr-Gibbs-Duhem } realations and that such relations are unlikely in the KN case . The BH \\emph{ mass formula } and \\emph{Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula} for KNTN black holes are derived.

Parthapratim Pradhan

2014-08-13

163

COMPARISON OF PHYTOPLANKTON PRODUCTION BETWEEN NATURAL AND ALTERED AREAS IN WEST BAY, TEXAS'  

E-print Network

types of plant life: phytoplankton, attached algae, sea grasses, and emergent vegetation. Production and emergent vegetation is compensated for by an increase in production by phytoplankton and attached algae- ment canals, natural marsh areas, and the open bay in a shallow Texas 'Bstuary. , Contribution No. 319

164

Seasonal ice area and volume production of the Arctic Ocean: November 1996 through April 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) produces estimates of sea ice motion, deformation, and thickness of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover from time-sequential synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by RADARSAT. Based on these products, we summarize the evolution of a region of the Arctic Ocean ice cover in terms of its area change, ice volume production, and multiyear

R. Kwok; G. F. Cunningham

2002-01-01

165

Timber production possibilities of the Norwegian forest area and measures for a sustainable forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents long-range forest management analyses with the objective of mapping consequences for the timber production potential when forest management treatments are changed in an environmentally oriented direction. Sample plots from the National Forest Inventory, covering the entire productive forest area in Norway, were aggregated into 10000 treatment units. Management strategies maximising the net present value of the forest-land,

Tron Eid; Hans Fredrik Hoen; Petter Økseter

2002-01-01

166

Calibration of a conceptual hydrological model using EUMETSAT snow covered area product  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow is one of the main water resources, therefore monitoring and estimating the snow water equivalent play important role in predicting discharges during melting seasons. Spatial ground-based observations of snow are often limited at the watershed-scale, therefore the snow modeling component of a hydrologic modeling system is often calibrated along the rainfall-runoff model using watershed discharge observations. The objective of this study is to test the potential of snow cover data from MSG satellite sensor. The product has been developed in the framework of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The product is generated by using data from Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument making observations from a geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). The methodology is based on an indirect comparison of snow water equivalent simulated by hydrological model and the MSG snow cover data (SCA). The analysis is performed in the upper Euphrates basin in Turkey. The Euphrates basin is largely fed from snow precipitation whereby nearly two-thirds occur in winter and may remain in the form of snow for half of the year. The results indicate the cloud clearance capability of MSG-SEVIRI snow product would make the product usable in hydrological modeling, especially for the areas where high cloud coverage may be seen during snow season. The calibration against SCA in addition to runoff improved the simulated runoff considerably. The calibration is performed for the water years 2009,2010 and 2011, the validation is performed for 2012 and 2013 water years. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency is used as the model efficiency. The runoff model efficiencies for the validation period are 0.68 for calibration runoff only and 0.74 for the calibration that utilized runoff and MSG SEVIRI SCA data. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the magnitude of the model efficiency is sensitive to the choice of the threshold of snow covered area used in estimating the snow underestimation errors, and the cloud cover threshold used in deciding if a MSG snow cover product can be used for model analysis.

Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Parajka, J.; Bloeschl, G.

2013-12-01

167

Crop area estimation using high and medium resolution satellite imagery in areas with complex topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable estimates of cropped area (CA) in developing countries with chronic food shortages are essential for emergency relief and the design of appropriate market-based food security programs. Satellite interpretation of CA is an effective alternative to extensive and costly field surveys, which fail to represent the spatial heterogeneity at the country-level. Bias-corrected, texture based classifications show little deviation from actual crop inventories, when estimates derived from aerial photographs or field measurements are used to remove systematic errors in medium resolution estimates. In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid high-medium resolution technique for Central Ethiopia that combines spatially limited unbiased estimates from IKONOS images, with spatially extensive Landsat ETM+ interpretations, land-cover, and SRTM-based topography. Logistic regression is used to derive the probability of a location being crop. These individual points are then aggregated to produce regional estimates of CA. District-level analysis of Landsat based estimates showed CA totals which supported the estimates of the Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. Continued work will evaluate the technique in other parts of Africa, while segmentation algorithms will be evaluated, in order to automate classification of medium resolution imagery for routine CA estimation in the future.

Husak, G. J.; Marshall, M. T.; Michaelsen, J.; Pedreros, D.; Funk, C.; Galu, G.

2008-07-01

168

High Radon concentration in the karst area of south Puglia, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radon mapping are normally based on regular grids or on geological maps. The geological maps are advantageous because foresee little areas with high hazard in zones which are otherwise considered like a low risk. The Italian national maps consider the South Puglia, Lecce Karst, as a zone with low risk, but this region presents local important anomalies that can be seen with the geological Radon map. The methodology used to understand the natural phenomena (that are the basis of the analysis of potential Radon risk) is based on a preliminary study from literature: Geological study, general classification, environment formation in which it has developed the area or part of it, detailed studies of the area investigated, the underground structure, level of fracturing, cracking, and primary and secondary porosity, seismic of area. The Area's identification with different risk degrees of Radon production, concentration and emanation characterized by natural boundaries, geological, geomorphological, etc... Information obtained from paragraphs 1 and 2 provide the "Indices of potential risk of the generation, emanation and diffusion of Radon'; this hazard indices allow to optimize the measurements distribution in soils. We Identify the sub-areas of the zone study that can be characterized by high Radon concentrations, dividing these by "natural" hypothetical lines such as the lithology changing, permeability, subsoil structure, etc. ... The preliminary study allows the optimisation of sampling strategy based on not Uniform distribution of 'in situ' measures, where to intensive the measures and where to make only control points of Radon concentration. With these information and with Uranium concentration in samples of different geological formations and Radon measures in water and in soil air we obtained thematic maps and box-plots linking the natural geological indices and we identified the factors that govern the Radon rise and diffusion. The Lecce Karst's study have foreseen: Samples of rocks and soils to determine the Uranium concentration; Collection of water samples for the determination of Radon concentrations; Measurements of the Radon concentration in soil air; The Lecce's area is divided into 4 sub-areas, each of them with the same geological features: subsoil structure with high/normal/low fracturing, cracking, permeability, porosity, ecc... The potential Radon risk increases with the alteration's degree of subsoil structure. Results show that the 4 Lecce's subareas are characterized by average Radon value between 1.000-2.000 Bq/m3, and that in 2 of the 4 zones, characterized by high fracturing and big permeability, the range is high, from 400 Bq/m3 to over the 60.000 Bq/m3. The distribution of anomalies isn't homogeneous in the study zone, but as Hot-Spot and these are present in all sub-areas; the greatest number is detected in areas with high fracturing and cracking and in areas with lithological changes at different permeability. The others determinants factors in these areas are those anthropogenic; in some little zones belonging to subareas there are industrial and commercial areas built removing soil and damaging and altering the subsoil structure; in this way create zones of Radon accumulation in the soil air with fast ascent of the gas to the surface, and this produce high Radon concentration indoor. In the soil around these areas, few meters from buildings, and in the indoor air the Radon concentration is higher than 60.000 Bq/m3.

Taroni, Mattia; Bartolomei, Paolo; Esposito, Massimo; Vaccaro, Carmela

2010-05-01

169

Production of large area LST products of HJ-1B IRS based on a fusion framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, image fusion algorithm are used to improve the quality of HJ-1 B IRS LST products. The HJ-1 B IRS LST data with multi temporal are transformed to the similar temporal based on a fusion framework, and the MODIS LST products are used as reference data. There are two research core: 1) How to simplify the fusion model to obtain more robustness data production result; 2)How to deal with the cloud and cloud shadow region. A algorithm process for HJ-1 B LST products is proposed, and a specific experiment showed the application prospect of the algorithm process.

Hu, Changmiao; Tang, Ping

2014-11-01

170

Highball: A high speed, reserved-access, wide area network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A network architecture called Highball and a preliminary design for a prototype, wide-area data network designed to operate at speeds of 1 Gbps and beyond are described. It is intended for applications requiring high speed burst transmissions where some latency between requesting a transmission and granting the request can be anticipated and tolerated. Examples include real-time video and disk-disk transfers, national filestore access, remote sensing, and similar applications. The network nodes include an intelligent crossbar switch, but have no buffering capabilities; thus, data must be queued at the end nodes. There are no restrictions on the network topology, link speeds, or end-end protocols. The end system, nodes, and links can operate at any speed up to the limits imposed by the physical facilities. An overview of an initial design approach is presented and is intended as a benchmark upon which a detailed design can be developed. It describes the network architecture and proposed access protocols, as well as functional descriptions of the hardware and software components that could be used in a prototype implementation. It concludes with a discussion of additional issues to be resolved in continuing stages of this project.

Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.

1990-01-01

171

Rainfed areas and animal agriculture in Asia: the wanting agenda for transforming productivity growth and rural poverty.  

PubMed

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C

2012-01-01

172

Rainfed Areas and Animal Agriculture in Asia: The Wanting Agenda for Transforming Productivity Growth and Rural Poverty  

PubMed Central

The importance of rainfed areas and animal agriculture on productivity enhancement and food security for economic rural growth in Asia is discussed in the context of opportunities for increasing potential contribution from them. The extent of the rainfed area of about 223 million hectares and the biophysical attributes are described. They have been variously referred to inter alia as fragile, marginal, dry, waste, problem, threatened, range, less favoured, low potential lands, forests and woodlands, including lowlands and uplands. Of these, the terms less favoured areas (LFAs), and low or high potential are quite widely used. The LFAs are characterised by four key features: i) very variable biophysical elements, notably poor soil quality, rainfall, length of growing season and dry periods, ii) extreme poverty and very poor people who continuously face hunger and vulnerability, iii) presence of large populations of ruminant animals (buffaloes, cattle, goats and sheep), and iv) have had minimum development attention and an unfinished wanting agenda. The rainfed humid/sub-humid areas found mainly in South East Asia (99 million ha), and arid/semi-arid tropical systems found in South Asia (116 million ha) are priority agro-ecological zones (AEZs). In India for example, the ecosystem occupies 68% of the total cultivated area and supports 40% of the human and 65% of the livestock populations. The area also produces 4% of food requirements. The biophysical and typical household characteristics, agricultural diversification, patterns of mixed farming and cropping systems are also described. Concerning animals, their role and economic importance, relevance of ownership, nomadic movements, and more importantly their potential value as the entry point for the development of LFAs is discussed. Two examples of demonstrated success concern increasing buffalo production for milk and their expanded use in semi-arid AEZs in India, and the integration of cattle and goats with oil palm in Malaysia. Revitalised development of the LFAs is justified by the demand for agricultural land to meet human needs e.g. housing, recreation and industrialisation; use of arable land to expand crop production to ceiling levels; increasing and very high animal densities; increased urbanisation and pressure on the use of available land; growing environmental concerns of very intensive crop production e.g. acidification and salinisation with rice cultivation; and human health risks due to expanding peri-urban poultry and pig production. The strategies for promoting productivity growth will require concerted R and D on improved use of LFAs, application of systems perspectives for technology delivery, increased investments, a policy framework and improved farmer-researcher-extension linkages. These challenges and their resolution in rainfed areas can forcefully impact on increased productivity, improved livelihoods and human welfare, and environmental sustainability in the future. PMID:25049487

Devendra, C.

2012-01-01

173

The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.  

PubMed

Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors. PMID:25200960

Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

2014-12-28

174

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high- temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

175

[Environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area of Hunan Province].  

PubMed

To evaluate the environmental cost of rice production is of significance for the sustainable development of agriculture and the set-up of green GDP accounting system. In this paper, the environmental cost of rice production in Dongting Lake area, one of the main bread baskets in China, was evaluated from the aspects of pesticide pollution, chemical fertilizer pollution, greenhouse gases emission, plastic film persistence, paddyfield gleyization, and polderization. The results showed that in 1999, the total environmental cost of rice production in this area was 41.91 billion yuan, equivalent to 26.8% of its total agricultural production value, or 28.5% of the gross output of its planting industry. For the sustainable production of rice, the strategies for decrease environmental cost intrinsically were put forward. PMID:16471365

Xiang, Ping'an; Huang, Huang; Yan, Huimin; Zhou, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Huang, Xingguo

2005-11-01

176

Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.  

PubMed

Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available. PMID:17166651

Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

2007-11-01

177

Evaluation of the MODIS Albedo Product over a Heterogeneous Agricultural Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this article, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF)/Albedo product (MCD43) is evaluated over a heterogeneous agricultural area in the framework of the Earth Observation: Optical Data Calibration and Information Extraction (EODIX) project campaign, which was developed in Barrax (Spain) in June 2011. In this method, two models, the RossThick-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR) (which corresponds to the MODIS BRDF algorithm) and the RossThick-Maignan-LiSparse-Reciprocal (RTLSR-HS), were tested over airborne data by processing high-resolution images acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor. During the campaign, airborne images were retrieved with different view zenith angles along the principal and orthogonal planes. Comparing the results of applying the models to the airborne data with ground measurements, we obtained a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.018 with both RTLSR and RTLSR-HS models. The evaluation of the MODIS BRDF/Albedo product (MCD43) was performed by comparing satellite images with AHS estimations. The results reported an RMSE of 0.04 with both models. Additionally, taking advantage of a homogeneous barley pixel, we compared in situ albedo data to satellite albedo data. In this case, the MODIS albedo estimation was (0.210 +/- 0.003), while the in situ measurement was (0.204 +/- 0.003). This result shows good agreement in regard to a homogeneous pixel.

Sobrino, Jose Antonio; Franch, B.; Oltra-Carrio, R.; Vermote, E. F.; Fedele, E.

2013-01-01

178

Manganese concentrations in soil and settled dust in an area with historic ferroalloy production.  

PubMed

Ferroalloy production can release a number of metals into the environment, of which manganese (Mn) is of major concern. Other elements include lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, and cadmium. Mn exposure derived from settled dust and suspended aerosols can cause a variety of adverse neurological effects to chronically exposed individuals. To better estimate the current levels of exposure, this study quantified the metal levels in dust collected inside homes (n=85), outside homes (n=81), in attics (n=6), and in surface soil (n=252) in an area with historic ferroalloy production. Metals contained in indoor and outdoor dust samples were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, whereas attic and soil measurements were made with a X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean Mn concentrations in soil (4600??g/g) and indoor dust (870??g/g) collected within 0.5?km of a plant exceeded levels previously found in suburban and urban areas, but did decrease outside 1.0?km to the upper end of background concentrations. Mn concentrations in attic dust were ~120 times larger than other indoor dust levels, consistent with historical emissions that yielded high airborne concentrations in the region. Considering the potential health effects that are associated with chronic Mn inhalation and ingestion exposure, remediation of soil near the plants and frequent, on-going hygiene indoors may decrease residential exposure and the likelihood of adverse health effects.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 22 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.70. PMID:25335867

Pavilonis, Brian T; Lioy, Paul J; Guazzetti, Stefano; Bostick, Benjamin C; Donna, Filippo; Peli, Marco; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bertrand, Patrick; Lucas, Erika; Smith, Donald R; Georgopoulos, Panos G; Mi, Zhongyuan; Royce, Steven G; Lucchini, Roberto G

2014-10-22

179

[The productive district of textile asbestos in the Lower Iseo Lake area].  

PubMed

In the Bergamo area of Basso Sebino (lower Lake Iseo), for decades there has been a large concentration of small firms (mostly family-run), specialised in the production of rubber gaskets. Within this production field, some companies used to manufacture textile asbestos exclusively or as part of their business. The asbestos goods were therefore marketed as they were or subsequently cut and transformed into gaskets. Among the 5 companies involved, "Manifattura Colombo & C" was the first one that started this production in the district, and the one that engaged the greatest number of employees (considering both the Sarnico and Predore factories). In the Predore factory, operating from the fifties to 1979, the asbestos thread production was carried out exclusively and to the complete technological cycle (i.e. from crashing the raw asbestos that was brought in from Balangero). The whole process was performed in an extremely dusty environment (according to the witness of former workers), expecially during the first production steps. In the Sarnico factory which operated from 1920 to 1993, they produced textile asbestos items (laces, ropes, etc.), as well as rubber and metal gaskets. The latter were coupled with asbestos by means of metal-plastics co-moulding operations, in order to obtain gaskets highly resistant to exhaust vapours, gases, oils, solvents and so on. The environmental data available (referred to the 1980-1992 period), supply evidence of severe exposure in the first years of activity, whilst a sharp reduction in the asbestos-fiber concentration rate was achieved along the years, thanks mainly to the completion and improvement of exhaust systems installed on winding and braiding machines. Finally we shortly describe the work of the four other factories and in more detail that of the "Manifattura Sebina srl" is mentioned herein because, although this is a "typical" textile mill and exclusively manufacturing cotton products, a considerable number of cases of mesothelioma has been detected among its workforce. This has been attributed to the presence of asbestos insulated piping, to maintenance and replacement interventions on looms brake pads, and above all to the nearly 50 asbestos blankets that were employed in the weekly fire-fighting exercises, and usually leaned against the walls of departments, with no protection whatsoever. PMID:18050852

Caironi, Massimo; Polini, Sandro; Storto, Teodorico; Bertoli, Mariarosa

2007-01-01

180

49 CFR 192.905 - How does an operator identify a high consequence area?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operator identify a high consequence area? 192.905 Section 192...TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity...identify a high consequence area? (a) General....

2010-10-01

181

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist...MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.43 Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to...

2010-07-01

182

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2010-01-01

183

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2011-01-01

184

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2014-01-01

185

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2013-01-01

186

10 CFR 20.1602 - Control of access to very high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Control of access to very high radiation areas. 20.1602 Section 20.1602...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...1602 Control of access to very high radiation areas. In addition to the...

2012-01-01

187

[Scientific productivity and Hirsch's h index of Spanish social psychology: convergence between productivity indexes and comparison with other areas].  

PubMed

This article describes Hirsch's h index as a measure of researchers' scientific productivity and quality, examining its convergent validity with other productivity and quality measures (total citations, maximum citation, sexennials, years since earning Ph.D., and years as a full professor). It shows the distribution of the index among Spanish Social Psychology professors, and a comparison is made among the ten professors with highest h index of the six knowledge areas into which academic Psychology is divided in Spain. The results show that the index largely correlates with the citations but only very modestly with the number of sexennial investigations. The distributions by areas show that Psychobiology and Basic Psychology, as a whole, have a higher h index than the other areas, with Social Psychology in fourth place. Lastly, we discuss the implications of these results and we offer some recommendations for using the index in academic and research decision making. PMID:17425885

Salgado, Jesús F; Páez, Darío

2007-05-01

188

Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to ?-, ?- and ?-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied.

T. Evseeva; T. Majstrenko; S. Geras'kin; J. E. Brown; E. Belykh

2009-01-01

189

Assessing changes to South African maize production areas in 2055 using empirical and process-based crop models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns associated with climate change pose a significant threat to crop production, particularly in developing countries. In South Africa, a semi-arid country with a diverse agricultural sector, anthropogenic climate change is likely to affect staple crops and decrease food security. Here, we focus on maize production, South Africa’s most widely grown crop and one with high socio-economic value. We build on previous coarser-scaled studies by working at a finer spatial resolution and by employing two different modeling approaches: the process-based DSSAT Cropping System Model (CSM, version 4.5), and an empirical distribution model (Maxent). For climate projections, we use an ensemble of 10 general circulation models (GCMs) run under both high and low CO2 emissions scenarios (SRES A2 and B1). The models were down-scaled to historical climate records for 5838 quinary-scale catchments covering South Africa (mean area = 164.8 km2), using a technique based on self-organizing maps (SOMs) that generates precipitation patterns more consistent with observed gradients than those produced by the parent GCMs. Soil hydrological and mechanical properties were derived from textural and compositional data linked to a map of 26422 land forms (mean area = 46 km2), while organic carbon from 3377 soil profiles was mapped using regression kriging with 8 spatial predictors. CSM was run using typical management parameters for the several major dryland maize production regions, and with projected CO2 values. The Maxent distribution model was trained using maize locations identified using annual phenology derived from satellite images coupled with airborne crop sampling observations. Temperature and precipitation projections were based on GCM output, with an additional 10% increase in precipitation to simulate higher water-use efficiency under future CO2 concentrations. The two modeling approaches provide spatially explicit projections of gains and losses in maize productivity. We identify several areas-particularly along the southern and eastern boundaries of current production-with potential for increased productivity. However, larger areas, primarily in the more arid western and northern production regions, are likely to experience diminished productivity. The combination of process-based and distribution models for agricultural impacts assessments provides a useful comparison of two different crop modeling frameworks, as well as the finest scale investigation using a spatially-explicit implementation of a process-based model for South Africa. The large GCM ensemble and multiple emissions scenarios provide a broad climate risk assessment for current maize production. SOM downscaling can help improve climate impacts assessments by increasing their resolution, and by circumventing GCM precipitation schemes whose outcomes are highly divergent.

Estes, L.; Bradley, B.; Oppenheimer, M.; Beukes, H.; Schulze, R. E.; Tadross, M.

2010-12-01

190

Ceramic microreactors for on-site hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming of propane{  

E-print Network

Ceramic microreactors for on-site hydrogen production from high temperature steam reforming microreactors comprising high surface area, tailored macroporous SiC porous monoliths coated with ruthenium (Ru of propane into hydrogen at temperatures between 800 and 1000 uC. We characterized these microreactors

Kenis, Paul J. A.

191

Water Production Functions For High Plains Crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing demands on limited water supplies will require maximizing crop production per unit water. Field studies are being carried out near Greeley, Colorado to develop water production functions for crops grown in the Great Plains. These yield per unit water relationships can be used to determi...

192

High frequency noise studies at the Hartousov mofette area (CZE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient noise analysis has been used as a reliable tool to investigate sub-surface structures at seismological quiet regions with none or less specific seismic events. Here, we consider the acoustic signals from a single mofette at the Hartoušov area (CZE) as a noise-like high frequency source caused by multiple near surface degassing processes in a restricted location. From this assumption we have used different array geometries for recording at least one hour of continuous noise. We installed triangular arrays with 3 component geophones: the first deployment consisted on two co-centric triangles with side length of 30 and 50 m with the mofette in the center; the second deployment consisted on two triangular arrays, both with side length of 30 m, co-directional to the mofette. Furthermore, we also installed profiles with 24 channels and vertical geophones locating them in different positions with respect to the mofette. In this work, we present preliminary results from the data analysis dependent on the geometry, to show the characteristics of the noise wave-field referring to frequency content and propagation features, such as directionality and surface wave velocity. The spectral analysis shows that the energy is concentrated in a frequency band among 10 and 40 Hz. However, in this interval there is no evidence of any exclusive fundamental frequencies. From this, man-induced influences can be identified as intermittent signal peaks in narrow frequency bands and can be separated to receive the revised mofette wave-field record. The inversion of dispersive surface waves, that were detected by interferometric methods, provides a velocity model down to 12 m with an S-wave velocity between 160 and 180 m/s on the uppermost layer. Furthermore, the interferometric signal properties indicate that it is not possible to characterize the mofette as a punctual source, but rather as a conglomerate of multiple sources with time and location variations.

Schmidt, Andreas; Flores-Estrella, Hortencia; Pommerencke, Julia; Umlauft, Josefine

2014-05-01

193

What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea?  

SciTech Connect

The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the ``biological pump``. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

Weiler, C.S. [comp.

1991-06-25

194

What controls phytoplankton production in nutrient-rich areas of the open sea  

SciTech Connect

The oceans play a critical role in regulating the global carbon cycle. Deep-ocean waters are roughly 200% supersaturated with CO{sub 2} compared to surface waters, which are in contact with the atmosphere. This difference is due to the flux of photosynthetically derived organic material from surface to deep waters and its subsequent remineralization, i.e. the biological pump''. The pump is a complex phytoplankton-based ecosystem. the paradoxical nature of ocean regions containing high nutrients and low phytoplankton populations has intrigued biological oceanographers for many years. Hypotheses to explain the paradox include the regulation of productivity by light, temperature, zooplankton grazing, and trace metal limitation and/or toxicity. To date, none of the hypotheses, or combinations thereof, has emerged as a widely accepted explanation for why the nitrogen and phosphorus are not depleted in these regions of the oceans. Recently, new evidence has emerged which supports the hypothesis that iron limitation regulates primary production in these areas. This has stimulated discussions of the feasibility of fertilizing parts the Southern Ocean with iron, and thus sequestering additional atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the deep oceans, where it would remain over the next few centuries. The economic, social, and ethical concerns surrounding such a proposition, along with the outstanding scientific issues, call for rigorous discussion and debate on the regulation of productivity in these regions. To this end, The American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) held a Special Symposium on the topic Feb. 22--24th, 1991. Participants included leading authorities, from the US and abroad, on physical, chemical, and biological oceanography, plant physiology, microbiology, and trace metal chemistry. Representatives from government agencies and industry were also present.

Weiler, C.S. (comp.)

1991-06-25

195

Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas (Arabian Gulf, South Africa)  

E-print Network

REPORT B. Riegl Climate change and coral reefs: different effects in two high-latitude areas other corals in 2002 at Sir Abu Nuair and recovered at Jebel Ali and Ras Hasyan. In South Africa, reef, the Arabian Gulf and South Africa, have rich coral faunas but little to no recent reef- framework production

196

High B-field, large area ratio MHD duct experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of the effect of area ratio variation on the performance of a supersonic Hall MHD duct were extended up to area ratios of 6.25/1. It is shown that for a given area ratio there is a combustion pressure above which the power generating region of the duct is shock free and the power output increases linearly with the square of the magnetic field. Below this pressure a shock forms in the duct which moves upstream with increasing magnetic field strength and results in a less rapid rise in power output.

Smith, J. M.; Wang, S. Y.; Morgan, J. L.

1981-01-01

197

Center for By-Products Utilization High Durability Concrete Using  

E-print Network

Center for By-Products Utilization High Durability Concrete Using High-Carbon Fly Ash and Pulp Mill-Products Utilization Durable Concrete in Northern Climates · Producing durable concrete in a freezing and thawing for concrete is not very expensive, however, the specialty admixtures that are required when using a high

Saldin, Dilano

198

Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter  

SciTech Connect

Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi [SEN Corporation, 1501, Imazaike, Saijo, Ehime, 799-1362 (Japan)

2011-01-07

199

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. (Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)) (and others)

1996-01-01

200

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

SciTech Connect

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N`Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50`s in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and fluids regime appeared as production went on and could not be resolved with the available seismic data which was old (1974 to 1982) and irregular. A new 3D seismic survey was shot in 1992 (245 km2) over an area fringed with shallow water and mangrove forests, covered with savannah liable to flooding, and including several populated areas. The acquisition set-up was adjusted to every type of environment: Airgun in shallow water, explosive in uninhabited areas, and Vibroseis (TM) through the city of Port-Gentil. A carefully designed processing sequence led to consistently good quality throughout the survey, allowing a complete and detailed review of the area. In addition to building a coherent reference model, multi-disciplinary studies have already unveiled new opportunities : complex structural and stratigraphic components in the old fields together with unexpected structural closures and stratigraphic leads are revealed by the 3D interpretation. They will constitute new targets for further exploring an area at late production stage, and may help build a model for the exploration of the turbidites in the Senonian basin.

Fontaine, J.M.; Jones, M.; Ombagho, M.L. [Elf Gabon, Port-Gentil (Gabon)] [and others

1996-12-31

201

Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

Breslavets, A. V.

1974-01-01

202

Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation is constructed on a 0.25°latitude/ longitude grid over China for a 3 year period from 2005 to 2007 by interpolating gauge reports from ~2000 stations (fig.1) collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration. Gauge-based precipitation analysis is applied to examine the performance of six high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates, including Joyce et al.’s (2004) Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and the arithmetic mean of the microwave estimates used in CMORPH; Huffman et al.’s (2007) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product 3B42 and its real-time version 3B42RT; Turk et al.’s (2004) Naval Research Laboratory blended product; and Hsu et al.’s (1997) Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN). Our results showed the following: (1) all six satellite products are capable of capturing the overall spatial distribution and temporal variations of precipitation reasonably well; (2) performance of the satellite products varies for different regions and different precipitation regimes, with better comparison statistics observed over wet regions and for warm seasons; (3) products based solely on satellite observations present regionally and seasonally varying biases, while the gauge-adjustment procedures applied in TRMM 3B42 remove the large-scale bias almost completely; (4) CMORPH exhibits the best performance in depicting the spatial pattern and temporal variations of precipitation; and (5) both the relative magnitude and the phase of the warm season precipitation over China are estimated quite well, but the early morning peak associated with the Mei-Yu rainfall over central eastern China is substantially under-estimated by all satellite products. The work reported in this paper is an integral part of our efforts to construct an analysis of hourly merged precipitation analysis in the future (Shen et al., 2010). Further work is to extend its temporal coverage and to improve the quality of the CPAP. The dataset for the period of 1900-1952 with only ~100 gauge reports available over mainland China is under consideration for development. Gauge network is an important element to determine the quality of the dataset, while the gauge distribution is very sparse over the northwestern China and the Tibetan Plateau, the effective tool to improve the quality of the dataset over these areas is to merge the gauge observations with the satellite precipitation products which is under way. Figure 1 Number of Chinese stations reporting hourly precipitation over a three-year period from January 2005 to December 2007

Shen, Y.; Xiong, A.; Wang, Y.; Xie, P.; Precipitation Merge Team

2010-12-01

203

CHANGES IN CROP PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY WITH HIGH YIELD PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increases in crop yield are due to changes in the genetic efficiency in the use of inputs. However, there are constraints on efficient use of resources, e.g., water, nitrogen, solar radiation, that limit consistent high yield response. The interactions of water, nitrogen, and light form a basis fo...

204

Bagasse production from high fibre sugarcane hybrids  

SciTech Connect

Since 1975, 90% of the sugarcane bagasse produced by the Louisiana sugar industry is now used as a fuel for raw sugar production. Two sugarcane hybrid varieties which are too low in sucrose to be acceptable as commercial sugarcane varieties were tested for their biomass yield. Yields of over 100 tons of total biomass were obtained, resulting in over 30 tons of dry matter per acre per year, using conventional practices. This material could be grown on sub-optimal land in sufficient quantities to meet part of the needs of the sugarcane by-product industries who have been deprived of their source of bagasse.

Giamalva, M.J.; Clarke, S.; Bischoff, K.

1981-08-01

205

Application of Remote Sensors in Mapping Rice Area and Forecasting Its Production: A Review  

PubMed Central

Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ?19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ?65 kg during 2010–2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

Mosleh, Mostafa K.; Hassan, Quazi K.; Chowdhury, Ehsan H.

2015-01-01

206

Application of remote sensors in mapping rice area and forecasting its production: a review.  

PubMed

Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. Rice paddies accounted for approximately 11.5% of the World's arable land area during 2012. Rice provided ~19% of the global dietary energy in recent times and its annual average consumption per capita was ~65 kg during 2010-2011. Therefore, rice area mapping and forecasting its production is important for food security, where demands often exceed production due to an ever increasing population. Timely and accurate estimation of rice areas and forecasting its production can provide invaluable information for governments, planners, and decision makers in formulating policies in regard to import/export in the event of shortfall and/or surplus. The aim of this paper was to review the applicability of the remote sensing-based imagery for rice area mapping and forecasting its production. Recent advances on the resolutions (i.e., spectral, spatial, radiometric, and temporal) and availability of remote sensing imagery have allowed us timely collection of information on the growth and development stages of the rice crop. For elaborative understanding of the application of remote sensing sensors, following issues were described: the rice area mapping and forecasting its production using optical and microwave imagery, synergy between remote sensing-based methods and other developments, and their implications as an operational one. The overview of the studies to date indicated that remote sensing-based methods using optical and microwave imagery found to be encouraging. However, there were having some limitations, such as: (i) optical remote sensing imagery had relatively low spatial resolution led to inaccurate estimation of rice areas; and (ii) radar imagery would suffer from speckles, which potentially would degrade the quality of the images; and also the brightness of the backscatters were sensitive to the interacting surface. In addition, most of the methods used in forecasting rice yield were empirical in nature, so thus it would require further calibration and validation prior to implement over other geographical locations. PMID:25569753

Mosleh, Mostafa K; Hassan, Quazi K; Chowdhury, Ehsan H

2015-01-01

207

High-biomass sorghums for biomass biofuel production  

E-print Network

High-biomass sorghums are being developed as a dedicated energy crop for biofuels. Their high biomass yields provide large quantities of structural carbohydrates (cellulose, lignin, etc.) for energy production. Sorghum improvement for applications...

Packer, Daniel

2011-05-09

208

Self-assembly of boehmite nanopetals to form 3D high surface area nanoarchitectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flower-like boehmite nanostructure was prepared through a template-free chemical route by the self-assembly process of nanosize petals 800-1000 nm long, 200-250 nm wide, 20-50 nm thick and having an average crystallite size of about 2.21 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DTA/TGA analyses and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET-N2) analyses were used in order to characterize the product obtained. XRD results exhibited that the obtained nanostructures composed of pure orthorhombic AlOOH phase. The effects of Cl- ions and TEA on the growth of boehmite three-dimensional nanoarchitectures in the presence of NO3- ions were investigated. BET analyses of as-prepared material demonstrate that this nanostructure material has a high specific surface area, as high as 123 m2 g-1.

Zanganeh, Saeid; Kajbafvala, Amir; Zanganeh, Navid; Mohajerani, Matin Sadat; Lak, Aidin; Bayati, M. R.; Zargar, H. R.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

2010-04-01

209

Pair production of colored hypermesons at very high energy  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of current dynamical-symmetry-breaking models we study the pair production of colored Pseudo-Goldstone bosons in future very-high-energy experiments. We compare pair production with single production through the anomaly-dominated gluon-gluon and photon-gluon fusion mechanisms.

Grifols, J.A.; Menez, A.

1982-07-01

210

High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing of Fruit and Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a minimal thermal technology is a valuable tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruit and vegetable production. Microorganisms and deteriorative enzymes can be inhibited or inactivated depending on the amount of pressure and time applied to the product. The resistance of microorganisms and enzymes to pressure in fruit and vegetable products also is dependent on

José A. Guerrero-Beltrán; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G. Swanson

2005-01-01

211

Graphene made easy: High quality, large-area samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that by using an original method, bulk graphite can be bonded onto borosilicate glass or potentially any insulating substrate with ionic conductivity and then cleaved off to leave single or few layer graphene on the substrate, identified optically and with Raman spectroscopy. This simple, inexpensive and fast method leads to the preparation of large area graphene and single

Abhay Shukla; Rakesh Kumar; Javed Mazher; Adrian Balan

2009-01-01

212

Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

2001-01-01

213

29 CFR 536.3 - “Area of production” as used in section 13(b)(14) of the Fair Labor Standards Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LABOR REGULATIONS AREA OF PRODUCTION § 536.3 “Area of production” as used in section 13...employed within the “area of production,” within the meaning...With respect to grain and soybeans—50 miles; (2) With...

2010-07-01

214

Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

215

The effect of light availability and basal area on cone production in Abies balsamea and Picea  

E-print Network

sapin baumier (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) et l'épinette blanche (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) en 1998 et in the boreal forest, white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) MillThe effect of light availability and basal area on cone production in Abies balsamea and Picea

Fortin, Marie Josee

216

Comparative abilities of different herbivorous species to graze in upland areas: consequences for productivity  

E-print Network

Comparative abilities of different herbivorous species to graze in upland areas: consequences for productivity and vegetation JA Milne Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB9 2QJ, UK Animal size, as it influences digestive function and ingestive behaviour, is the most important factor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Correlation of patient skin doses in cardiac interventional radiology with dose-area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of X-rays in cardiac interventional radiology has the potential to induce deterministic radiation effects on the patient's skin. Guidelines published by official organizations encourage the recording of information to evaluate this risk, and the use of reference values in terms of the dose-area product (DAP). Skin dose measurements were made with thermo- luminescent dosemeters placed at eight different

S VAN DE PUTTE; F VERHAEGEN; Y TAEYMANS; H THIERENS

218

Civil defence in agricultural production areas; Grazhdanskaya oborona na ob'ektakh sel'skokhozyaistvenogo proizvodstva  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this textbook for students of agricultural schools the following ; topics are covered: the nature of rocket-nuclear warfare, the role and problems ; of civil defense applicable to agricultural production areas; organization of ; civil defense in agricultural regions, at cooperative farms, and at state farms; ; the nature of biological, chemical, and radiation surveys and dosimetric control; ;

N. I. Akimov; V. G. Ilin

1973-01-01

219

A Seasonal Survey of Click Beetles in a Potato Production Area Near Palmer, Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adult elaterids associated with potato production were collected in the three major potato producing areas of Alaska: Fairbanks, Delta Junction, and Palmer, and from a subsistence farm above the arctic circle in Wiseman. Twelve species from ten genera were collected including three of the six most e...

220

Reliability test procedures for achieving highly robust electronic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's consumer electronics market becomes highly competitive because of the increase on number of manufacturers and high consumer expectations. These competition causes dramatic cost decreasing. Each cost down work could cause very crucial reliability problems if it is not managed well. Also, consumers' expectations about reliability of the products are increased. Reliable, trouble-free and robust products satisfy customer needs for

Tarkan Tekcan; B. Kirisken

2010-01-01

221

Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

2012-06-01

222

Mammoth steppe: a high-productivity phenomenon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the last deglaciation Earth's largest biome, mammoth-steppe, vanished. Without knowledge of the productivity of this ecosystem, the evolution of man and the glacial-interglacial dynamics of carbon storage in Earth's main carbon reservoirs cannot be fully understood. Analyzes of fossils 14C dates and reconstruction of mammoth steppe climatic envelope indicated that changing climate wasn't a reason for extinction of this ecosystem. We calculate, based on animal skeleton density in frozen soils of northern Siberia, that mammoth-steppe animal biomass and plant productivity, even in these coldest and driest of the planet's grasslands were close to those of an African savanna. Numerous herbivores maintained ecosystem productivity. By reducing soil moisture and permafrost temperature, accumulating carbon in soils, and increasing the regional albedo, mammoth-steppe amplified glacial-interglacial climate variations. The re-establishment of grassland ecosystems would slow permafrost thawing and reduce the current warming rate. Proposed methods can be used to estimate animal density in other ecosystems.

Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N. S.; Tikhonov, A. N.; Chapin, F. S.

2012-12-01

223

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resource’s worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2011-05-24

224

Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We developed,interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas (excluding Antarctica) at a spatial resolution of 30 arc s (often referred to as 1-km spatial resolution). The climate elements considered were monthly precipitation and mean, minimum, and maximum temperature. Input data were gathered from a variety of sources and, where possible, were restricted to records from the 1950–2000 period. We

Robert J. Hijmans; Susan E. Cameron; Juan L. Parra; Peter G. Jones; Andy Jarvis

2005-01-01

225

High Energy Astrophysics with the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the findings of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Observatory. It includes information about the LAT, and the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM), detection of the quiet sun and the moon in gamma rays, Pulsars observed by the observatory, Globular Star Clusters, Active Galactic Nucleus, and Gamma-Ray Bursts, with specific information about GRB 080916C.

Hays, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

226

Cotton Production on the Texas High Plains.  

E-print Network

of planting furron, depth of seed cover and planting equipment con. - -- tri'bute to a stand of cotton. Planting Date . Cotton in this area should be planted as earl:: as possible because of the short growing season. The average last frost date is April... emergence is not entirely reliable. But it can be used to determine the earliest date, Figure 3. A knifing attachment mounted on the rolling after the last frost in the spring, that a ~lantin! stalk cutter helps eliminate the trash from sorghum stubble...

Lane, H. C.; Owen, W. L. Jr.; Walker, H. J.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.; Ray, L. L.; Hudspeth, E. B. Jr.; Jones, D. L.

1956-01-01

227

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOEpatents

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Joilet, IL)

1995-01-01

228

Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid  

DOEpatents

A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

Bonsignore, P.V.

1995-11-28

229

Time-resolved infrared spectrophotometric observations of high area to mass ratio (HAMR) objects in GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical surveys have identified a class of high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects in the vicinity of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) ring [1]. The exact origin and nature of these objects are not well known, although their proximity to the GEO ring poses a hazard to active GEO satellites. Due to their high area-to-mass ratios, solar radiation pressure perturbs their orbits in ways that makes it difficult to predict their orbital trajectories over periods of time exceeding a week. To better understand these objects and their origins, observations that allow us to derive physical characteristics are required in order to improve the non-conservative force modeling for orbit determination and prediction. Information on their temperatures, areas, emissivities, and albedos may be obtained from thermal infrared, mid-wave infrared (MWIR), and visible measurements. Spectral features may help to identify the composition of the material, and thus possible origins for these objects. We have collected observational data on various HAMR objects from the AMOS observatory 3.6 m AEOS telescope. The thermal-IR spectra of these low-earth orbit objects acquired by the Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) span wavelengths 3-13 ?m and constitute a unique data set, providing a means of measuring, as a function of time, object fluxes. These, in turn, allow temperatures and emissivity-area products to be calculated. In some instances we have also collected simultaneous filtered visible photometric data on the observed objects. The multi-wavelength observations of the objects provide possible clues as to the nature of the observed objects. We describe briefly the nature and status of the instrumental programs used to acquire the data, our data of record, our data analysis techniques, and our current results, as well as future plans.

Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Rudy, Richard J.; Gutierrez, David J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk; Gregory, Steve; Kelecy, Tom

2011-12-01

230

High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices  

SciTech Connect

In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

1999-11-01

231

Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

None

2008-06-30

232

High Energy Wide Area Blunt Impact on Composite Aircraft Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest source of damage to commercial aircraft is caused by accidental contact with ground service equipment (GSE). The cylindrical bumper typically found on GSE distributes the impact load over a large contact area, possibly spanning multiple internal structural elements (frame bays) of a stiffened-skin fuselage. This type of impact can lead to damage that is widespread and difficult to detect visually. To address this problem, monolithic composite panels of various size and complexity have been modeled and tested quasi-statically and dynamically. The experimental observations have established that detectability is dependent on the impact location and immediately-adjacent internal structure of the panel, as well as the impactor geometry and total deformation of the panel. A methodology to model and predict damage caused by wide area blunt impact events was established, which was then applied to more general cases that were not tested in order to better understand the nature of this type of impact event and how it relates to the final damage state and visual detectability.

DeFrancisci, Gabriela K.

233

High surface area, low weight composite nickel fiber electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The energy density and power density of light weight aerospace batteries utilizing the nickel oxide electrode are often limited by the microstructures of both the collector and the resulting active deposit in/on the collector. Heretofore, these two microstructures were intimately linked to one another by the materials used to prepare the collector grid as well as the methods and conditions used to deposit the active material. Significant weight and performance advantages were demonstrated by Britton and Reid at NASA-LeRC using FIBREX nickel mats of ca. 28-32 microns diameter. Work in our laboratory investigated the potential performance advantages offered by nickel fiber composite electrodes containing a mixture of fibers as small as 2 microns diameter (Available from Memtec America Corporation). These electrode collectors possess in excess of an order of magnitude more surface area per gram of collector than FIBREX nickel. The increase in surface area of the collector roughly translates into an order of magnitude thinner layer of active material. Performance data and advantages of these thin layer structures are presented. Attributes and limitations of their electrode microstructure to independently control void volume, pore structure of the Ni(OH)2 deposition, and resulting electrical properties are discussed.

Johnson, Bradley A.; Ferro, Richard E.; Swain, Greg M.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

1993-01-01

234

High Resolution Marine Magnetic Survey of Shallow Water Littoral Area  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to present a system developed for detection and accurate mapping of ferro-metallic objects buried below the seabed in shallow waters. The system comprises a precise magnetic gradiometer and navigation subsystem, both installed on a non-magnetic catamaran towed by a low-magnetic interfering boat. In addition we present the results of a marine survey of a near-shore area in the vicinity of Atlit, a town situated on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, about 15 km south of Haifa. The primary purpose of the survey was to search for a Harvard airplane that crashed into the sea in 1960. A magnetic map of the survey area (3.5 km2 on a 0.5 m grid) was created revealing the anomalies at sub-meter accuracy. For each investigated target location a corresponding ferro-metallic item was dug out, one of which turned to be very similar to a part of the crashed airplane. The accuracy of location was confirmed by matching the position of the actual dug artifacts with the magnetic map within a range of ± 1 m, in a water depth of 9 m.

Ginzburg, Boris; Cohen, Tsuriel Ram; Zafrir, Hovav; Alimi, Roger; Salomonski, Nizan; Sharvit, Jacob

2007-01-01

235

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2013-07-01

236

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2014-07-01

237

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2012-07-01

238

36 CFR 9.43 - Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. 9.43...Precautions necessary in areas where high pressures are likely to exist. When drilling...territory, or in any field where high pressures are likely to exist, the...

2011-07-01

239

New High in Engineering Degree Production. Facts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several of the state's key industry sectors depend heavily on employees with advanced scientific, analytic and technical knowledge. Among the fields closely related to these sectors, engineering degrees have posted the largest gain. This paper presents details on the following facts: (1) 2009 represented a record high for engineering degrees; (2)…

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

240

Forest Products: Achieving high performance through  

E-print Network

profitability, such as higher return on invested capital through synergies and economies of scale. Companies, as companies seek ways to achieve high performance. In the past five years the level of M&A activity--as measured by the number of transactions in the industry--has increased as major companies have acquired

241

PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research  

E-print Network

April 2012 PROFESSIONAL INTERESTS Forest ecology, with an emphasis on productivity, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Current areas of research focus on longterm changes in ecosystems including restoration ecology, productivity, and nutrient cycling. Major current projects include projects

Binkley, Dan

242

High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities. PMID:21860777

Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

2011-01-01

243

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise. PMID:23635281

Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

2013-01-01

244

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., 39655 Eureka Drive, Newark, California 94560 (United States); Speidel, Michael A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2013-05-15

245

Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis  

DOEpatents

Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01

246

MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUBHUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

MIXED CROP-LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SUB-HUMID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ZAMBIA. Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop\\/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on

J. C. N. LUNGU

247

Siloxanes removal from biogas by high surface area adsorbents.  

PubMed

Biogas utilized for energy production needs to be free from organic silicon compounds, as their burning has damaging effects on turbines and engines; organic silicon compounds in the form of siloxanes can be found in biogas produced from urban wastes, due to their massive industrial use in synthetic product, such as cosmetics, detergents and paints. Siloxanes removal from biogas can be carried out by various methods (Mona, 2009; Ajhar et al., 2010 May; Schweigkofler and Niessner, 2001); aim of the present work is to find a single practical and economic way to drastically and simultaneously reduce both the hydrogen sulphide and the siloxanes concentration to less than 1 ppm. Some commercial activated carbons previously selected (Monteleone et al., 2011) as being effective in hydrogen sulfide up taking have been tested in an adsorption measurement apparatus, by flowing the most volatile siloxane (hexamethyldisiloxane or L2) in a nitrogen stream, typically 100-200 ppm L2 over N2, through an activated carbon powder bed; the adsorption process was analyzed by varying some experimental parameters (concentration, grain size, bed height). The best activated carbon shows an adsorption capacity of 0.1g L2 per gram of carbon. The next thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms the capacity data obtained experimentally by the breakthrough curve tests. The capacity results depend on L2 concentration. A regenerative carbon process is then carried out by heating the carbon bed up to 200 °C and flushing out the adsorbed L2 samples in a nitrogen stream in a three step heating procedure up to 200 °C. The adsorption capacity is observed to degrade after cycling the samples through several adsorption-desorption cycles. PMID:24075968

Gislon, P; Galli, S; Monteleone, G

2013-12-01

248

Expansion of Sugarcane area for Ethanol production in Brazil: a Threat to Food Production and Environmental Sustainability?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The raise in fossil fuels prices and the increase in Greenhouse Gas emissions is leading nations to adopt non-fossil fuels based energy sources. Sugarcane crops for biofuel production are expanding fast in Brazil, mainly through land use change (LUC) processes, in substitution of pasturelands and grain crops plantations. Would these changes affect negatively sustainability assessments of bioethanol production in the future? We estimate the extent of sugarcane cropland needed to produce sufficient ethanol to attend to market demands. This work presents a baseline scenario for sugarcane cropping area in Brazil in 2017, taking into account market forces (supply and demand). We also comment on a policy instrument targetting sustainable sugarcane production in Brazil. The expansion scenarios took into account the demand for ethanol from 2008-2017, produced by the Energy Research Corporation, of Brazil. In order to develop the expansion scenario, we estimated the amount of sugarcane needed to attend the ethanol demand. We then calculated the area needed to generate that amount of sugarcane. The analytical parameters were: 1) one tonne of sugarcane produces an average 81.6 liters of ethanol; 2) the average sugarcane crop productivity varied linearly from 81.4 tons/hectare in 2008 to 86.2 tons/hectare in 2017. We also assumed that sugarcane productivity in 2017 as the current average productivity of sugarcane in the State of São Paulo. The results show that the requirement for 3.5 million ha in 2007 will increase to 9 million ha in 2017. The Sugarcane Agroecologic Zoning (ZAECANA), published by Embrapa (2009), is a tool that not only informs the territory occupation and use policies, but also classifies land as qualified, restricted or non-qualified for the plantation of sugarcane crops. The ZAECANA is based on soil and climate suitability assessments, and is presented in a spatially-explicit format. Adopting the precautionary principle, a national policy was established restricting the Amazon and the Pantanal basin to sugarcane expansion. These eco-regions were, therefore, not considered by ZAECANA, which defined pasture lands as preferential for sugarcane crop expansion, since their majority is considered as degraded lands. ZAECANA results show that approximately 64 million ha, currently under pasture and agriculture, are suitable for sugarcane cropping in Brazil, located mainly at the Midwest and Southeast regions (35% of the national territory).Our results indicate that, if the ZAECANA instrument is implemented to drive investments for sugarcane expansion in Brazil, the projected demands for bioethanol could be met without significant impacts to food production, and environmental sustainability could be attained by the adoption of good crop, soil and water management practices.

Monteiro, J. M.; Coutinho, H. L.; Veiga, L. B.

2012-12-01

249

GLAST large area telescope - daily survey of high energy sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GLAST Large Area Telescope was proposed to NASA in 1999 as a follow-up of EGRET on-board Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory by an international collaboration. The proposal has been approved as a part of the GLAST observatory mission in its capability to explore a wide range of astrophysics with 5-40 times higher sensitivity and extended energy coverage (20MeV to 300GeV) than EGRET. The instrument consists of 16 towers of e+e- pair tracker, 16 blocks of segmented electro-magnetic calorimeter, and a set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles covering the tracker towers. It will have 5-10 times larger on-axis effective area, 6 times wider field-of-view (FOV), and up to 5 times better angular resolution when compared with EGRET. The Large Area Telescope will cover about 40% of the sky above the Earth's horizon in its FOV at any given time and will scan nearly the entire Universe every orbit (~ 90min): about 20% of Gamma-Ray Bursts will be observed from the onset of the bursts to the initial after-glow phase; all longer-lasting transients and variabilities will be detected daily at the improved sensitivity. The instrument has been prototyped twice between 1995 and 2001, designed almost to the Flight Model by the international collaboration of the US (NASA and DoE), France, Italy, Japan, and Sweden. The first prototype consisted of one tower of e+e- pair trackers, one block of segmented calorimeters and a smaller set of anti-coicidence plastic scintillator tiles (Beam Test Engineering Model, BTEM), which was put into e+, p, and ? beams at SLAC in the winter of 1999-2000. It was subsequently modified for a balloon experiment (Balloon Flight Engineering Model, BFEM) and flown at Palestine, Texas in August 2001. Data collected in the test experiments have been analyzed and compared with predictions of computer simulation codes such as Geant4. These studies have confirmed validity of the basic design, brought up a few issues for further improvement, and gathered data on the cosmic-ray background expected in the orbit. All subsystems of GLAST-LAT are scheduled to be completed and come to SLAC in 2005 for integration. The integrated instrument will go through a set of tests before being integrated onto the spacecraft. The spacecraft will be put into a Low Earth Orbit (altitude ~ 450-550km) in the fall of 2006 and the LAT will begin collecting data after the commissiong phase. The astronomical gamma-ray data collected in the observation will be processed by the LAT team and archived for public use GLAST Science Support Center at Goddard Space Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. For the GLAST-LAT collaboration.

Kamae, Tuneyoshi

2003-07-01

250

Production of high voltage by ion bombardment  

E-print Network

PRODLrCTION OF HIGH VOLTAGE BY ION BOMBARDMENT A Thesis by LUCAS CARTER PHINNEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fultillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003... additional studies and experiments through out the 1950's and 60's. Many of the experiments did not perform as hoped due to the limited technology at the time, and as a result most of the direct energy work with relation to fission fragments was stopped...

Phinney, Lucas Carter

2003-01-01

251

High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

2013-05-15

252

Risks of Avian Influenza Transmission in Areas of Intensive Free-ranging Duck Production with wild waterfowl  

PubMed Central

For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions. PMID:24652313

Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Nelson, Martha I.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

2014-01-01

253

Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

2014-01-01

254

Monitoring of Emissions from Natural Gas Production Facilities in Barnett Shale Area for Population Exposure Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Barnett Shale study was conducted in April-May 2010 to provide a better understanding of population exposure to air toxics associated with gas production operations in the Barnett Shale region of North Texas. The Barnett Shale is a geological formation that stretches form Dallas to west of Fort Worth and southward, covering 5,000 square miles and 18 counties in the Fort Worth Basin. Oil and gas experts have suggested that it may be the largest onshore natural gas field in the US, containing not only natural gas but also condensate and light oil. Gas production wells in the Barnett Shale area number in the thousands and are spread over a large areas of North Texas. Emissions can occur during various stages in the life of any single well and along various points of the production stream from extraction of raw gas at the well to distribution of commercial grade natural gas at central gathering and processing plants. In the first phase of this study we characterized the emissions from major gas production facilities in the area. An initial survey was performed using a mobile sampling vehicle to identify facilities with measurable emissions. Source-oriented volatile organic compounds (VOC) samples were collected at several facilities with confirmed emissions measured with our continuous survey monitors. In the second phase we conducted saturation monitoring (multiple fixed-ambient sampling locations using passive sampling systems) downwind of gas production areas. One location was near a well with emissions from condensate tanks that were well characterized during Phase 1. A single private residence was located a short distance downwind of this well and was away from other emission sources that might interfere with the measured gradient of emissions from the well. The measurement at this site serves as a case study of the pollutant gradient from a well characterized emission source at various distances downwind of the source relative to the upwind pollutant concentrations. The second facility was a gas compressor station located near a small community. The spatial variations in pollutant concentrations were determined at various distances and directions from the source, sites adjacent to nearby roadways and a background site located upwind of the community. The measured volatile organic compounds were apportioned to sources using the Chemical Mass Balance receptor model. The study results are placed in context by comparing the measured pollutant concentrations to comparable data from elsewhere is the Barnett Shale area and from urban areas of the Dallas-Fort Worth.

Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Campbell, D.; Samburova, V.; Hendler, E.; Beskid, C. S.

2010-12-01

255

Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 1,612 adolescents from nine different high schools in the region of Québec city completed a questionnaire developed by Lesieur and Klein (1987) concerning their gambling behavior. Seventy-six percent had gambled once in their lifetime, 65% placed a bet in the last year and 24% gambled at least once a week. Of those who had gambled, 5.6% wanted

Robert Ladouceur; Chantal Mireault

1988-01-01

256

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in atmosphere and soil of a production area in China: Levels and partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in atmosphere and soil samples taken in winter and summer at a PBDE production area of Laizhou Bay in China. The concentrations of ?11PBDE were 0.017–1.17 ng\\/m3 in gaseous phase, 0.5–161.1 ng\\/m3 in particulate phase, and 73–2629 ng\\/g dry weight in soil samples. The PBDE congener pattern in the gaseous phase differed from that

Jim Jin; Ying Wang; Weizhi Liu; Congqiao Yang; Jicheng Hu; Jian Cui

2011-01-01

257

How to rejuvenate interest in exploring an old production area in Gabon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mandji peninsula area is the oldest explored petroleum province in Gabon. The Clairette, Lopez North and South, N'Tchengue fields were discovered in the 50's in Senonian and Tertiary turbidites structured by salt domes. A total of 120 wells have led to a production of 12,5 MT (91 MMbls) oil. However, some gaps in the understanding of reservoir distribution and

J. M. Fontaine; M. Jones; M. L. Ombagho

1996-01-01

258

The Role of Microphytobenthic Primary Production in a Mediterranean Mussel Culture Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production and biomass of microphytobenthos in a Mediterranean mussel farm was studied during 1991-92. Gross and net microphytobenthic production and respiration were calculated from oxygen fluxes in transparent and black bell jars at two stations; sediments under a mussel table and reference sediments, both located at 5 m depth. Net oxygen fluxes were mainly negative under the mussel tables (average -19·5 mg O 2 m -2 h -1, CV=132%), and microphytobenthos production could not meet the sediment oxygen demand; in the reference sediments, microphytobenthos production was responsible for net oxygen production (average +13·0 mg O 2 m -2 h -1, CV=118%). Benthic respiration rates were, on average, 47·3 mg O 2 m -2 h -1(CV=82%) under the tables and 27·7 mg O 2 m -2 h -1(CV=45%) in reference sediments. Aerobic respiration could remineralize less than 2% of the biodeposited carbon under the tables, implying that a large amount of organic material is accumulating under the tables, and that most of the degradation will be anaerobic. Gross microbenthic production showed sharp changes between 1991 and 1992 under the mussel tables and for reference sediments (averages 20·98 mg O 2 m -2 h -1, CV=135% and 33 mg O 2 m -2 h -1, CV=48%, respectively). Despite the negative oxygen balance in the sediments under the tables, microphytobenthos was more productive than phytoplankton in bottom waters. Per unit area, phytoplankton was more productive than microphytobenthos at both stations, especially in the area of the mussel tables, where phytoplanktonic production was enhanced by the excretion products of mussels. Microphytobenthos was composed mainly of diatoms in the sediments under the tables, while in reference sediments, the population was more diverse, with algae containing chlorophyll balso present. Chlorophyll aconcentration in sediments under the tables was 207 mg m -2(CV=73%) and 95 mg m -2(CV=28%) in reference sediments; the stock of plant pigments was increased under the tables by biodeposition. Microphytobenthos constitutes a compartment with an important contribution in biomass, but also in oxygen production.

Barranguet, C.

1997-06-01

259

The Science Resource Area in the State-of-the-Art High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines areas that are part of a flexible and integrated science facility within state-of-the-art high schools that allow students to progress at their own speed and learn in their most effective manner. Areas described include outdoor, greenhouse, biological wastewater treatment, controlled environment, and student and faculty meeting areas. (GR)

Biehle, James T.

2000-01-01

260

Phytoremediative urban design: transforming a derelict and polluted harbour area into a green and productive neighbourhood.  

PubMed

Many urban areas are polluted by industrial activities and waste disposal in landfills. Since conventional soil remediation techniques are costly and unsustainable, phytoremediation might offer an alternative. In this article, we explore how phytoremediation can be integrated into the transformation of urban post-industrial areas, while improving public space. Buiksloterham, a polluted and deprived industrial area in Amsterdam, serves as case study. Buiksloterham is polluted with heavy metals, with Zinc (Zn) concentrations being the highest. A regression-model for Alpine Pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) is used to estimate the time needed to remediate the site. This reveals a conflict in time between remediation and urban development. A research by design experiment shows how to overcome this conflict by dealing with polluted soil innovatively while emphasizing spatial and aesthetic qualities of the phytoremediation plant species. The resulting landscape framework integrates phytoremediation with biomass production and gives new ecological, economic and social value to Buiksloterham. PMID:23452757

Wilschut, M; Theuws, P A W; Duchhart, I

2013-12-01

261

[Smoking. Analysis of the scientific production in the SEPAR smoking area in 2009].  

PubMed

The SEPAR Smoking Area was started in the year 1995. Its main aims were to increase awareness of the problem of smoking among the members of our scientific society, to improve their scientific knowledge on this problem, to help in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in smokers, and finally, to promote interventions for the prevention and treatment of smoking by the health and political administrations. Nowadays, it is the most dynamic areas of SEPAR and has more than 400 members. Throughout the year 2009, the health professionals of the SEPAR smoking area have carried out intense research work that has led to a reasonable scientific production that has covered different aspects of the discipline of smoking. The most impressive studies were those that tried to determine the impact that Law 28/2005 has had in the prevalence of smoking in Spain, the studies that assessed the scientific productivity of the area members and the numerous articles that published the results from different smoking units that are led by Spanish pneumologists. PMID:20353843

Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Reina, Segismundo Solano; López, Cristina Esquinas; Rebollo, José Carlos Serrano

2010-03-01

262

ORIGINAL PAPER High individual variation in pheromone production  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles # Springer-Verlag 2007 Abstract Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essen- tial for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait

Ayres, Matthew.P.

263

Identifying and Researching Market Opportunities for New High Technology Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a product called the synchro-pulse welder as a case study example, this paper discusses the activities of CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in identifying and marketing new high-technology products. A general discussion of CSIRO's market research plans includes two goals to be attained within the next 5…

Dunstan, Peter

264

Further analysis of infrared spectrophotometric observations of high area to mass ratio (HAMR) objects in GEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical surveys have identified a class of high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR) objects in the vicinity of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) ring?. The exact origin and nature of these objects are not well known, although their proximity to the GEO belt poses a hazard to active GEO satellites. The prevalent conjecture is that many of these objects may be thermal materials shed from derelict spacecraft in 'graveyard' orbits above the GEO ring. Due to their high area-to-mass ratios and unknown attitude dynamics and material characteristics, solar radiation pressure (SRP) perturbs their orbits in ways that makes it difficult to predict their orbital trajectories over periods of time exceeding a week or less. To better understand and track these objects and infer their origins, we have made observations that allow us to determine physical characteristics that will improve the non-conservative force modeling used for orbit determination (OD) and prediction. Information on their temperatures, areas, emissivities, and albedos may be obtained from thermal infrared and visible measurements. Simultaneous observations in the thermal infrared and visible wavelengths may allow disentangling of projected area, albedo, and object emissivity. Further analysis and modeling of observational data on certain of the HAMR objects collected at the AMOS observatory 3.6 m AEOS telescope are presented. The thermal-IR spectra of these geosynchronous orbit objects acquired by the Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) span wavelengths 3 to 13 ?m and constitute a unique data set, providing a means of measuring object fluxes in the infrared and visible wavelengths. These, in turn, allow temperatures and emissivity-area products to be calculated, and in some cases provide information on rotation rates. We compare our observational results with the outputs of simple models, in terms of visible and infrared flux and orbital characteristics. The resulting temperatures and rotation rates are used in SRP acceleration models to demonstrate improvements in OD and prediction performance relative to models which assume default ambient temperature and static attitude dynamics. Additionally, we have the capability and plans to measure material properties with the same instrument in the lab as used at the telescope to facilitate direct comparisons.

Skinner, Mark A.; Russell, Ray W.; Kelecy, Tom; Gregory, Steve; Rudy, Richard J.; Gutierrez, David J.; Kim, Daryl L.; Crawford, Kirk

2012-11-01

265

H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program  

E-print Network

H.B. 492 Areas of Required Instruction & the NEFE High School Financial Planning Program® Areas of renting or buying a home 3. managing money to make the transition from renting a home to home ownership 4 public high school. BE IT ENACTED BY THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF TEXAS: SECTION 1. Subchapter A

266

Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

2013-01-01

267

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2012-01-01

268

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2010-01-01

269

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2014-01-01

270

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2011-01-01

271

10 CFR 20.1601 - Control of access to high radiation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Control of access to high radiation areas. 20.1601 Section 20.1601...COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Control of Exposure From External...20.1601 Control of access to high radiation areas. (a) The licensee shall...

2013-01-01

272

Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials  

DOEpatents

A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ludtka, Gerald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-03-22

273

Stabilizers: indispensable substances in dairy products of high rheology.  

PubMed

The functionality of stabilizers is apparent in many food applications including dairy products. The role of stabilizers like gelatin, pectins, alginates, carboxymethylcellulose, gums, ispghol, sago starch, and chitosan in the development of dairy products of high rheology, like yoghurt, ice cream, and flavored milk, is discussed in this review. Attention is also paid to comprehend on interactions among milk proteins, minerals, and other milk constituents with the reactive sites of stabilizers to get the desirable properties such as appearance, body and texture, mouthfeel, consistency. The role played by stabilizers in the control of syneresis and overrun problems in the high-rheology dairy products is also the topic of discussion. PMID:24499066

Tasneem, Madiha; Siddique, Farzana; Ahmad, Asif; Farooq, Umar

2014-01-01

274

Recurrent acute respiratory tract infections in areas with high nitrate concentrations in drinking water.  

PubMed

A review of the literature indicated an association among high nitrate ingestion, methemoglobinemia, and pathologic changes in bronchi and lung parenchyma. The present study examined a possible correlation among drinking water nitrate concentration, methemoglobin levels, cytochrome b(5) reductase activity, and acute respiratory tract infection with a history of recurrence (RRTI). Our study was conducted in five village units in the state of Rajasthan, India, with nitrate concentrations of 26, 45, 95, 222, and 459 mg NO(3) ion/L. We randomly selected 88 children. The children were up to 8 years of age, age matched, and represented 10% of the total population of these areas. We obtained detailed RRTI histories and conducted medical examinations. Methemoglobin levels and cytochrome b(5) reductase activity were estimated biochemically. The data collected were statistically analyzed using spreadsheet software on a personal computer. We observed strong interdependence between methemoglobin levels and RRTI in children up to 8 years of age. Methemoglobin levels alone explained 80% of the variation in the RRTI cases. This study indicates that methemoglobinemia, secondary to high nitrate ingestion in drinking water, causes RRTI. Increased production of methemoglobin and free radicals of nitric oxide and oxygen due to nitrate metabolism in the body lead to alveolar damage and mismatching of ventilation and perfusion, which may be the reason for high mortality in children due to RRTI. PMID:10753096

Gupta, S K; Gupta, R C; Gupta, A B; Seth, A K; Bassin, J K; Gupta, A

2000-04-01

275

Integrating limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes into the landscape of a natural area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A general conceptual watershed-lake model of the complex interactions among climatic conditions, watershed location and characteristics, lake morphology, and fish predation was used to evaluate limnological characteristics of high mountain lakes. Our main hypothesis was that decreasing elevation in mountainous terrain corresponds to an increase in diversity of watershed size and lake area, depth, temperature, nutrient concentrations, and productivity. A second hypothesis was that watershed location and aspect relative to climatic gradients within mountainous terrain influences the limnological characteristics of the lakes. We evaluated these hypotheses by examining watershed location, aspect and size; lake morphology; water quality; and phytoplankton and zooplankton community characteristics among high mountain forest and subalpine lakes in Mount Rainier National Park. Although many of the comparisons between all forest and subalpine lakes were statistically insignificant, the results revealed trends that were consistent with our hypotheses. The forest lake group included more lakes with larger watersheds, larger surface areas, greater depths, higher concentrations of nutrients, and higher algal biovolumes than did the group of subalpine lakes. Deep lakes, which were mostly of the forest lake type, exhibited thermal stratification and relatively high values of some of the water-quality variables near the lake bottoms. However, the highest near-surface water temperatures and phytoplankton densities and the taxonomic structures of the phytoplankton and zooplankton assemblages were more closely related to geographical location, which corresponded to a west-east climate gradient in the park, than to lake type. Some crustacean and rotifer taxa, however, were limited in distribution by lake type. Fish predation did not appear to play an important role in the structure of the crustacean zooplankton communities at the genus level with the exception of Mowich Lake, where crustacean taxa were absent from the zooplankton community. This was the only lake inhabited by a true zooplanktivourous species of fish.

Larson, Gary L.; Wones, A.; McIntire, C.D.; Samora, B.

1994-01-01

276

Ecohydrology in semiarid urban ecosystems: Modeling the relationship between connected impervious area and ecosystem productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In water-stressed, semiarid urban environments, connections between impervious surfaces and drainage networks may strongly impact the water use and ecosystem productivity of neighboring vegetated areas. We use an ecohydrologic model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys), to quantify the sensitivity of vegetation water use and net primary productivity (NPP) to fine-scale impervious surface connectivity. We develop a set of very fine-scale (2 m2) scenarios that vary both the percentage of impervious surface and fraction of this impervious surface with direct hydrologic connections to urban drainage systems for a small hillslope. When driven by Mediterranean climate forcing, model estimates suggest that total vegetation water use declines with increasing impervious area. However, when impervious area is hydrologically disconnected from the urban drainage network, declines in water and carbon fluxes with decreased vegetated area can be partially, or in some cases even completely, offset by increased transpiration and NPP in the remaining vegetation. Relative increases in water use and NPP of remaining vegetation are much greater for deeply rooted shrubs and trees and negligible for shallow rooted grasses. We extrapolate our findings to the catchment scale by developing a first-order approximation of fine-scale impervious connection impacts on aggregate watershed water and carbon flux estimates. Our approach offers a computationally and data-efficient method for estimating the impact of impervious area connectivity on these ecohydrologic fluxes. For our only partially urbanized Santa Barbara watershed, estimates of water use and NPP that account for fine-scale impervious connection differed by more than 10% from those that did not.

Shields, Catherine; Tague, Christina

2015-01-01

277

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01

278

[How to carry out work on family planning after adopting production responsibility systems in rural areas].  

PubMed

After the Third Meeting of the Eleventh People's Congress, the entire responsibility for agricultural production was transferred to a lower level. Peasants in various areas have adopted the so called production responsibility system, and the phenomenon of an increased population rate has also appeared in some areas. In this article, the author discusses how to solve these problems created by the new situation. The 1st step is try to control population growth through socialist propaganda education, administrative measures, economic incentives and punishments, and family planning work. The 2nd step is to popularize the practice of having only 1 child per household in the rural areas. The 2nd and 3rd child in each family should be controlled and prohibited. This policy formulated by the Central Government should be carried out thoroughly. Families which follow the policy and have only 1 child should be encouraged with economic rewards, and those families which have 2 or more children should be punished economically. The 3rd step is to establish a national work team to be in charge of family planning and birth control. There should be an ideological unity among the nation's leadership. Party members and cadres should establish themselves as good examples for the people so that the population control work may become successful. PMID:12266135

Xiao, S H

1982-05-29

279

Canopy leaf area constrains [CO2]-induced enhancement of productivity and partitioning among aboveground carbon pools.  

PubMed

Net primary productivity (NPP) is enhanced under future atmospheric [CO2] in temperate forests representing a broad range of productivity. Yet questions remain in regard to how elevated [CO2]-induced NPP enhancement may be affected by climatic variations and limiting nutrient resources, as well as how this additional production is distributed among carbon (C) pools of different longevities. Using 10 years of data from the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment (Duke FACE) site, we show that spatially, the major control of NPP was nitrogen (N) availability, through its control on canopy leaf area index (L). Elevated CO2 levels resulted in greater L, and thus greater NPP. After canopy closure had occurred, elevated [CO2] did not enhance NPP at a given L, regardless of soil water availability. Additionally, using published data from three other forest FACE sites and replacing L with leaf area duration (LD) to account for differences in growing season length, we show that aboveground NPP responded to [CO2] only through the enhancement of LD. For broadleaf forests, the fraction of aboveground NPP partitioned to wood biomass saturated with increasing LD and was not enhanced by [CO2], whereas it linearly decreased for the conifer forest but was enhanced by [CO2]. These results underscore the importance of resolving [CO2] effects on L to assess the response of NPP and C allocation. Further study is necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that control the differential allocation of C among aboveground pools in different forest types. PMID:17159159

McCarthy, Heather R; Oren, Ram; Finzi, Adrien C; Johnsen, Kurt H

2006-12-19

280

Germany 2007: Undiminished High Construction Production and Increased Construction Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the high growth of 2006, the first quarter of 2007 also shows undiminished high construction production. Evidence of this is provided by the number of hours worked, which see growth rates in double figures in all fields of civil and structural engineering; yet it is surprising that growth in industrial construction lagged somewhat. It remains to be seen to

Bernd Bartholmai; Martin Gornig

2007-01-01

281

High-pT hadron production and triggered particle correlations  

E-print Network

The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has performed measurements of high transverse momentum particle production in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. High-pT hadrons are generated from hard parton scatterings early in the collision. The outgoing partons probe the surrounded hot and dense matter through interactions. Recent results on high-pT inclusive particle production and leading particle correlations in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV are reviewed.

A. Mischke

2006-05-25

282

Direct and Indirect Estimation of Leaf Area Index, f APAR, and Net Primary Production of Terrestrial Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primary objective of the Earth Observing System (EOS) is to develop and validate algorithms to estimate leaf area index (L), fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), and net primary production (NPP) from remotely sensed products. These three products are important because they relate to or are components of the metabolism of the biosphere and can be determined for

Stith T. Gower; Chris J. Kucharik; John M. Norman

1999-01-01

283

First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.  

SciTech Connect

On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

Normann, Randy Allen

2006-04-01

284

Highly Functional Bioplastics (PLA compounds) Used for Electronic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed highly functional bioplastics (biomass-based plastics), polylactic acid composites, which improve the environmental friendliness of electronic products. A kenaf-fiber-reinforced polylactic acid has high heat resistance, high impact strength, and good moldability, and its use in PC parts and mobile phone housing has started from September 2004 and May 2006 respectively. A thermoreversibly cross-linked polylactic acid has excellent shape

Kazuhiko Inoue; Shin Serizawa; Midori Yamashiro; Masatoshi Iji

2007-01-01

285

The production of premixed flame surface area in turbulent shear flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present work, we use three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of premixed flames in turbulent shear flow to characterize the effect of a mean shear motion on flame surface production. The shear is uniform in the unburnt gas, and simulations are performed for different values of the mean shear rate, S. The data base is then used to estimate and compare the different terms appearing in the Sigma-equation as a function of S. The analysis gives in particular the relative weights f the turbulent flow and mean flow components, a(sub T) and A(sub T), of the flame surface production term. This comparison indicates whether the dominant effects of a mean flow velocity gradient on flame surface area are implicit and scale with the modified turbulent flow parameters, kappa and epsilon, or explicit and scale directly with the rate of deformation.

Trouve, A.

1993-01-01

286

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

287

The role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in word production.  

PubMed

The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key structure for behavioral planning and execution. Recent research on motor control conducted with monkeys and humans has put to light an anatomical and functional distinction between pre-SMA and SMA-proper. According to this view, the pre-SMA would be involved in higher level processes while the SMA-proper would be more closely tied to motor output. We extended this general framework to the verbal domain, in order to investigate the role of the SMA in speech production. We conducted two speech production experiments with fMRI where we manipulated parameters such as familiarity, complexity or constraints on word selection. The results reveal a parcellation of the SMA into three distinct regions, according to their involvement in different aspects of word production. More specifically, following a rostrocaudal gradient, we observed differential activations related to lexical selection, linear sequence encoding and control of motor output. A parallel organization was observed in the dorsolateral frontal cortex. By refining its anatomical and functional parcellation, these results clarify the roles of the SMA in speech production. PMID:16480694

Alario, F-Xavier; Chainay, Hanna; Lehericy, Stéphane; Cohen, Laurent

2006-03-01

288

Microwave pyrolysis of microalgae for high syngas production.  

PubMed

The microwave induced pyrolysis of the microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis and its extraction residue was carried out at 400 and 800°C. The results show that it is possible to obtain a gas fraction with a high content (c.a. 50vol.%) in H2 from both materials, regardless of the pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, an outstanding syngas production and high gas yields were achieved. The maximum syngas concentration obtained was c.a. 94 vol.%, in the case of the pyrolysis of the residue at 800°C, indicating that the production of CO2 and light hydrocarbons was minimized. The same experiments were carried out in a conventional electric furnace in order to compare the products and yields obtained. It was found that microwave induced pyrolysis gives rise not only to higher gas yields but also to greater syngas and H2 production. PMID:23871926

Beneroso, D; Bermúdez, J M; Arenillas, A; Menéndez, J A

2013-09-01

289

High Productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS Volume Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimised to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters has resulted in ultra high silicon etch rates, with unrivalled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer heads and Silicon microphones.

Puech, M.; Thevenoud, JM; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, JM

2006-04-01

290

High-productivity DRIE solutions for 3D-SiP and MEMS volume manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging 3D-SiP technologies and high volume MEMS applications require high productivity mass production DRIE systems. The Alcatel DRIE product range has recently been optimized to reach the highest process and hardware production performances. A study based on sub-micron high aspect ratio structures encountered in the most stringent 3D-SiP has been carried out. The optimization of the Bosch process parameters have shown ultra high silicon etch rate, with unrivaled uniformity and repeatability leading to excellent process yields. In parallel, most recent hardware and proprietary design optimization including vacuum pumping lines, process chamber, wafer chucks, pressure control system, gas delivery are discussed. A key factor for achieving the highest performances was the recognized expertise of Alcatel vacuum and plasma science technologies. These improvements have been monitored in a mass production environment for a mobile phone application. Field data analysis shows a significant reduction of cost of ownership thanks to increased throughput and much lower running costs. These benefits are now available for all 3D-SiP and high volume MEMS applications. The typical etched patterns include tapered trenches for CMOS imagers, through silicon via holes for die stacking, well controlled profile angle for 3D high precision inertial sensors, and large exposed area features for inkjet printer head and Silicon microphones.

Puech, M.; Thevenoud, J. M.; Launay, N.; Arnal, N.; Godinat, P.; Andrieu, B.; Gruffat, J. M.

2006-12-01

291

Production of high intensity Beta beams at the ISOLDE facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a design study devoted to a construction of the Beta beams facility at CERN, a next generation European facility aiming for a production of pure and collimated ultra-relativistic beam of electron (anti)neutrinos with help of accelerated ?-decaying radioactive ions circulating in a storage decay ring. This high intense source of (anti)neutrinos directed towards a remote underground neutrino detector will allow to measure neutrino oscillations with high accuracy offering a unique chance for establishing a value of the ?13 mixing angle and CP violating phase. Recently, a significant progress have been achieved on the conceptual design of high power targets required for a production and an extraction of two baseline isotopes, 6He and 18Ne, at the unexampled rate of several 1013 ions/s. There is a possibility to produce these isotopes using the so-called Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) method at the ISOLDE facility (CERN). The 6He production is realized by taking advantage of the 9Be(n,?)6He reaction and with help of spallation neutrons and porous BeO target material. The production of 18Ne through the 19F(p,2n)18Ne reaction at required intensities is even more challenging. Currently, a molten salt (NaF) loop target is proposed for a production of high rate of 18Ne required for the Beta beams project. The progress on the design study associated with new data and plans for future is briefly presented.

Hodák, Rastislav; Stora, Thierry; Mendonça, Tania M.

2011-12-01

292

Impacts of China's Three Gorges Dam Project on net primary productivity in the reservoir area.  

PubMed

China's Three Gorges Dam Project (TGP) is the world's largest hydroelectric power project, and as a consequence the reservoir area is at risk of ecological degradation. This study uses net primary productivity (NPP) as an important indicator of the reservoir ecosystem's productivity to estimate the impacts of the TGP in the local resettlement region of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) over the 2000-2010 period. The modeling method is based upon the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) terrestrial carbon model and uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing data for modeling simulation. The results demonstrate that total NPP in the resettlement region decreased by 8.0% (632.8Gg) from 2000 to 2010. The impact of the TGP on NPP is mainly mediated by land-use change brought about by the large-scale inundation of land and subsequent massive resettlement of both rural and urban residents. Nearby resettlement, land inundation, and relocation of old urban centers and affiliated urban dwellers are responsible for 54.3%, 28.0%, and 5.8% respectively of total NPP reduction in the resettlement region over the study period. The major national ecological projects implemented in the TGRA since 1998 have played a key role in offsetting the negative impacts of the TGP on NPP in the region. PMID:21889782

Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Yang, Guishan; Li, Hengpeng; Su, Weizhong

2011-10-15

293

High risk of lead contamination for scavengers in an area with high moose hunting success.  

PubMed

Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg x L(-1), more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

2014-01-01

294

High Risk of Lead Contamination for Scavengers in an Area with High Moose Hunting Success  

PubMed Central

Top predators and scavengers are vulnerable to pollutants, particularly those accumulated along the food chain. Lead accumulation can induce severe disorders and alter survival both in mammals (including humans) and in birds. A potential source of lead poisoning in wild animals, and especially in scavengers, results from the consumption of ammunition residues in the tissues of big game killed by hunters. For two consecutive years we quantified the level lead exposure in individuals of a sentinel scavenger species, the common raven (Corvus corax), captured during the moose (Alces alces) hunting season in eastern Quebec, Canada. The source of the lead contamination was also determined using stable isotope analyses. Finally, we identified the different scavenger species that could potentially be exposed to lead by installing automatic cameras targeting moose gut piles. Blood lead concentration in ravens increased over time, indicating lead accumulation over the moose-hunting season. Using a contamination threshold of 100 µg.L?1, more than 50% of individuals were lead-contaminated during the moose hunting period. Lead concentration was twice as high in one year compared to the other, matching the number of rifle-shot moose in the area. Non-contaminated birds exhibited no ammunition isotope signatures. The isotope signature of the lead detected in contaminated ravens tended towards the signature from lead ammunition. We also found that black bears (Ursus americanus), golden eagles and bald eagles (Aquila chrysaetos and Haliaeetus leucocephalus, two species of conservation concern) scavenged heavily on moose viscera left by hunters. Our unequivocal results agree with other studies and further motivate the use of non-toxic ammunition for big game hunting. PMID:25389754

Legagneux, Pierre; Suffice, Pauline; Messier, Jean-Sébastien; Lelievre, Frédérick; Tremblay, Junior A.; Maisonneuve, Charles; Saint-Louis, Richard; Bêty, Joël

2014-01-01

295

Methods and compositions involving high specific surface area carbides and nitrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a high specific surface area metal carbide of nitride. The metal is molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, chromium, zirconium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum, hafnium, or rhenium. The carbides and nitrides are prepared from the respective metal oxides and resulting in at least a 5-fold increase in surface area over that of the oxide. It is produced by a method which

M. Boudart; S. T. Oyama; L. M. Boudart

1989-01-01

296

A high-throughput and selective method for the measurement of surface areas of silver nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A high-throughput and selective method based on biomolecule affinity coordination was employed for measuring nanoparticle surface area in solutions. In this design, silver binding peptides (AgBPs) are immobilized on bacterial cellulose via fusion with cellulose binding domains to capture silver nanoparticles whereas green fluorescent proteins are fused with AgBPs as reporters for surface area quantification. PMID:25713816

Agustin, Yuana Elly; Tsai, Shen-Long

2015-03-30

297

The measurement for high-level and complex building and model in share property areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has discussed the measurement of house property areas for high-level and complex building. The conditions analysis based on building itself and surrounding construction site considered, we propose the methods of the measurement of the side length of outward wall, the coordinates in the housing corner feature points and the area calculation by total station survey. The method for

Haiyun Zhao; Zongyi He; Gang Cheng; Yu He; Ping Li

2008-01-01

298

High velocity geomorphological processes in a tropical area: the Remparts River case  

E-print Network

High velocity geomorphological processes in a tropical area: the Remparts River case study (Réunion remain unclear. The Remparts River is an appropriate area for studying such geomorphological processes. The river system can be divided into three compartments, each affected by three classes of geomorphological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Vegetation productivity patterns at high northern latitudes: a multi-sensor satellite data assessment  

PubMed Central

Satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity are the primary data source used to study changes in global vegetation productivity over recent decades. Creating coherent, long-term records of vegetation activity from legacy satellite data sets requires addressing many factors that introduce uncertainties into vegetation index time series. We compared long-term changes in vegetation productivity at high northern latitudes (>50°N), estimated as trends in growing season NDVI derived from the most widely used global NDVI data sets. The comparison included the AVHRR-based GIMMS-NDVI version G (GIMMSg) series, and its recent successor version 3g (GIMMS3g), as well as the shorter NDVI records generated from the more modern sensors, SeaWiFS, SPOT-VGT, and MODIS. The data sets from the latter two sensors were provided in a form that reduces the effects of surface reflectance associated with solar and view angles. Our analysis revealed large geographic areas, totaling 40% of the study area, where all data sets indicated similar changes in vegetation productivity over their common temporal record, as well as areas where data sets showed conflicting patterns. The newer, GIMMS3g data set showed statistically significant (? = 0.05) increases in vegetation productivity (greening) in over 15% of the study area, not seen in its predecessor (GIMMSg), whereas the reverse was rare (<3%). The latter has implications for earlier reports on changes in vegetation activity based on GIMMSg, particularly in Eurasia where greening is especially pronounced in the GIMMS3g data. Our findings highlight both critical uncertainties and areas of confidence in the assessment of ecosystem-response to climate change using satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity. Broader efforts are required to evaluate NDVI time series against field measurements of vegetation growth, primary productivity, recruitment, mortality, and other biological processes in order to better understand ecosystem responses to environmental change over large areas. PMID:24890614

Guay, Kevin C; Beck, Pieter S A; Berner, Logan T; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Buermann, Wolfgang

2014-01-01

300

Gluon recombination in high parton density QCD: inclusive pion production  

E-print Network

We argue that the collinear factorization of the fragmentation functions in high energy hadron and nuclei collisions breaks down at transverse momenta kT < Qs/g due to high parton densities in the colliding hadrons and/or nuclei. We calculate, at next-to-leading order in projectile parton density and to all orders in target parton density, the double-inclusive cross section for production of a pair of gluons in the scalar J^(PC)=0^(++) channel. Using the low energy theorems of QCD we find the inclusive cross section for pi-meson production.

Yang Li; Kirill Tuchin

2007-02-20

301

Production technology for high efficiency ion implanted solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion implantation is being developed for high volume automated production of silicon solar cells. An implanter designed for solar cell processing and able to properly implant up to 300 4-inch wafers per hour is now operational. A machine to implant 180 sq m/hr of solar cell material has been designed. Implanted silicon solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 16% AM1 are now being produced and higher efficiencies are expected. Ion implantation and transient processing by pulsed electron beams are being integrated with electrostatic bonding to accomplish a simple method for large scale, low cost production of high efficiency solar cell arrays.

Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Minnucci, J. A.; Greenwald, A. C.; Josephs, R. H.

1978-01-01

302

HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS: CONVERTING OATS TO HIGH-FIBRE PRODUCTS FOR USE IN FUNCTIONAL FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new generation of soluble beta-glucan product, called Nutrim-OB (OB, oat bran), was developed that qualified for a FDA health claim. Nutrim-OB was prepared by heat-shearing oat flour or bran aqueous slurry in series of treatments that solubilises oat beta-glucans but maintains basic bran composit...

303

Managing Cotton Insects in the High Plains, Rolling Plains and Trans Pecos Areas of Texas--2008  

E-print Network

E-6 5-08 Managing Cotton Insects in the High Plains, Rolling Plains and Trans Pecos Areas of Texas 2008 Contents Page Pest Management Principles ......................................................................... 3 Insecticide... ..................................................................................... 6 Management Decisions ................................................................................... 7 Scouting Decisions .......................................................................................... 7 Early-Season Pests...

Siders, Kerry; Baugh, Brant A.; Sansone, Chris; Kerns, David L.

2008-04-29

304

Partially graphitic, high-surface-area mesoporous carbons from polyacrylonitrile templated by ordered and disordered  

E-print Network

Partially graphitic, high-surface-area mesoporous carbons from polyacrylonitrile templated Ordered and disordered mesoporous carbons synthesized from polyacrylonitrile using a templating method; Polyacrylonitrile 1. Introduction Graphitic mesoporous carbons (that is, those with pores of diameter 2­50 nm

305

High Speed Railway Productivity: How Does Organizational Restructuring Contribute to HSR Productivity Growth?  

E-print Network

1 High Speed Railway Productivity: How Does Organizational Restructuring Contribute to HSR.............................................................................................................. Heidi M. Nepf Chair, Departmental Committee for Graduate Students #12;2 #12;3 High Speed Railway National Railway (JNR) in 1987 has been considered as a great success. After the Japanese railway reform

Entekhabi, Dara

306

N2O production during high energy auroral precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ACE instrument on SCISAT-I observed very high values of NOx in the lower polar mesosphere in February of 2004. It also measured unusually high mesospheric values of N2O as adduced by both absolute amount and by comparison with simultaneously measured CH4 data. GOMOS data for the same period have revealed high polar NO2 values. Anomalous N2O values in the mesosphere have also been seen by ACE in other years. We suggest that the excess N2O is produced by the reaction of N with NO2. Atomic N is critical to the production and questions arise as to whether N produced by solar radiation of NO is adequate to drive the process is there are high mixing ratios of NO. Thus we have used the CMAM chemistry climate model to examine whether the N2O production is driven by NOx transport from above and photolysis or by in-situ production of N and NO by high energy electron ionization. Our results suggest that N produced by auroral ionization is essential for the production of N2O and, given the short lifetime of N, that N2O is produced locally where NO2 is present below around 80 km. The ionization rate is inferred from observations of electron fluxes and energies by the MEPED instruments on NOAA polar orbiting environmental satellites.

McConnell, J. C.; Semeniuk, K.; Bernath, P.; Jin, J.; Fu, C.; Jaroz, J.

2007-12-01

307

Increase in groundwater storage in discontinuous permafrost areas in Eurasia and impact on vegetation productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use monthly measurements of time-variable gravity from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite mission to determine the increase in terrestrial water storage (TWS) in Eurasia, during the period 2002-2011. We compare monthly TWS from GRACE with TWS from time series of precipitation (P) minus evapo-transpiration (ET) from ERA-Interim re-analysis and observational river discharge (R) in the Lena, Yenisei and Ob river basins. We find an excellent agreement between the two time series of TWS. If we account for a negative bias in the average annual precipitation during the analyzed period, we effectively close the terrestrial water budget. From this comparison, we attribute both the increase in R and in TWS to an increase in P. In the Lena river basin the TWS increase is dominated by a large signal in an area of discontinuous permafrost. We attribute the observed signal to an increase in groundwater storage of 68+/-19 cubic km or to surface water recharging the ground water through areas not underlain by permafrost, while changes in active layer thickness have likely less impact. These TWS changes will have a significant impact on the terrestrial hydrology of the region, including increased baseflow and alteration of seasonal runoff. We also analyze the temporal and spatial correlation between TWS and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Net Primary Production (NPP) from MODIS. We show how the correlation changes within water rich and water limited areas as well as in function of different land cover types. We find that vegetation productivity in the Lena river basin is mainly controlled by temperature constraints rather than moisture availability, while in the Ob river basin it is mainly controlled by water limitation.

Tong, J.; Velicogna, I.; Zhang, T.; Kimball, J. S.

2011-12-01

308

A regional Earth radiation budget product for the BALTEX area from ScaRaB  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed to derive regional Earth radiation budget products with high spatial and temporal resolution by synergy of the well calibrated scanner for radiation budget (ScaRaB) data with auxiliary data from the operational meteorological satellites. The topic of a narrow-to-broadband conversion from NOAA 11 AVHRR channel 1 to the broadband shortwave channel of ScaRaB will be addressed.

Rainer Hollmann; Johannes Mueller; Rolf Stuhlmann

1999-01-01

309

Global Gradients in Vertebrate Diversity Predicted by Historical Area-Productivity Dynamics and Contemporary Environment  

PubMed Central

Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or “evolutionary arenas,” characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V. A.

2012-01-01

310

Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.  

PubMed

Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients. PMID:22479151

Jetz, Walter; Fine, Paul V A

2012-01-01

311

A high volume cost efficient production macrostructuring process. [for silicon solar cell surface treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents an experimentally developed surface macro-structuring process suitable for high volume production of silicon solar cells. The process lends itself easily to automation for high throughput to meet low-cost solar array goals. The tetrahedron structure observed is 0.5 - 12 micron high. The surface has minimal pitting with virtually no or very few undeveloped areas across the surface. This process has been developed for (100) oriented as cut silicon. Chemi-etched, hydrophobic and lapped surfaces were successfully texturized. A cost analysis as per Samics is presented.

Chitre, S. R.

1978-01-01

312

Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (< C6). Although measured ambient VOC concentrations were well below health-based safe exposure levels, the existence of urban-level mean concentrations of benzene and other mobile source air toxics combined with soot to total carbon ratios that were high for an area with little residential or commercial development may be indicative of the impact of increased heavy-duty vehicle traffic related to gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production. PMID:25562933

Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

2014-12-01

313

OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILADELPHIA URBAN AREA DURING NE-OPS 99.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the 1999 NARSTO Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NE-OPS) field campaign, the DOE G-1 aircraft sampled trace gases and aerosols in and around the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Twenty research flights were conducted between July 25 and August 11. The overall goals of these flights were to obtain a mechanistic understanding of O{sub 3} production; to characterize the spatial and temporal behavior of photo-oxidants and aerosols; and to study the evolution of aerosol size distributions, including the process of new particle formation. Within the NE-OPS program, other groups provided additional trace gas, aerosol, and meteorological observations using aircraft, balloon, remote sensing, and surface based instruments (Phillbrick et al., 2000). In this article we provide an overview of the G-1 observations related to O{sub 3} production, focusing on the vertical distribution of pollutants. Ozone production rates are calculated using a box model that is constrained by observed trace gas concentrations. Highest O{sub 3} concentrations were observed on July 31, which we present as a case study. On that day, O{sub 3} concentrations above the 1-hour 120 ppb standard were observed downwind of Philadelphia and also in the plume of a single industrial facility located on the Delaware River south of the city.

KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

2001-10-01

314

Do High Technology Policies Work?: High Technology Industry Employment Growth in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1988-1998  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970s, federal, state and local governments have launched an array of new high technology development programs. Researchers and policy-makers disagree about the relative merits of these policies. We address the effects of seven of these policies on high tech industry employment growth in metropolitan statistical areas in the United…

Jenkins, J. Craig; Leicht, Kevin T.; Jaynes, Arthur

2006-01-01

315

Acetone-butanol-ethanol production with high productivity using Clostridium acetobutylicum BKM19.  

PubMed

Conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation is severely limited by low solvent titer and productivities. Thus, this study aims at developing an improved Clostridium acetobutylicum strain possessing enhanced ABE production capability followed by process optimization for high ABE productivity. Random mutagenesis of C. acetobutylicum PJC4BK was performed by screening cells on fluoroacetate plates to isolate a mutant strain, BKM19, which exhibited the total solvent production capability 30.5% higher than the parent strain. The BKM19 produced 32.5?g?L(-1) of ABE (17.6?g?L(-1) butanol, 10.5?g?L(-1) ethanol, and 4.4?g?L(-1) acetone) from 85.2?g?L(-1) glucose in batch fermentation. A high cell density continuous ABE fermentation of the BKM19 in membrane cell-recycle bioreactor was studied and optimized for improved solvent volumetric productivity. Different dilution rates were examined to find the optimal condition giving highest butanol and ABE productivities. The maximum butanol and ABE productivities of 9.6 and 20.0?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , respectively, could be achieved at the dilution rate of 0.85?h(-1) . Further cell recycling experiments were carried out with controlled cell-bleeding at two different bleeding rates. The maximum solvent productivities were obtained when the fermenter was operated at a dilution rate of 0.86?h(-1) with the bleeding rate of 0.04?h(-1) . Under the optimal operational condition, butanol and ABE could be produced with the volumetric productivities of 10.7 and 21.1?g?L(-1) ?h(-1) , and the yields of 0.17 and 0.34?g?g(-1) , respectively. The obtained butanol and ABE volumetric productivities are the highest reported productivities obtained from all known-processes. PMID:23335317

Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-06-01

316

Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF and WF for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor

Bulko

2003-01-01

317

Heat management for hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many research and development projects throughout the world are devoted to sustainable hydrogen production processes. Low-temperature electrolysis, when consuming electricity produced without greenhouse gas emissions, is a sustainable process, though having limited efficiency.The performance of electrolysis processes can be improved by functioning at high temperature (high-temperature electrolysis, HTE). This leads to a reduction in energy consumption but requires some of

Christine Mansilla; Jon Sigurvinsson; André Bontemps; Alain Maréchal; François Werkoff

2007-01-01

318

Preparation and characterization of titanium oxynitrides with high specific surface areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titania was reacted with ammonia between 890 and 1120 K to produce titanium oxynitride. The degree of nitridation and the specific surface area of the final solid products depend upon various factors such as gas composition, space velocity of the synthesis gas, heating rate, temperature and duration of isothermal treatment, and structure and texture of the starting material (commercial titania

C Shin; Bugli Chae Ho; G. Djega-mariadassou

1991-01-01

319

Feedback model evaluation of high-mix product manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the patterns are getting smaller, the difficulty to control a margin-tight process expands exponentially. The use of the Automated Process Control (APC), therefore, becomes a widely employed mean in photolithography process to control overlay and CD variations. The accuracy of APC is dependent upon the amount of the previous process data. However, in a foundry with high-mix products it is typical that there are not enough historic data points for accurate calculation of process parameters for a low volume product. The consequence is the high rework rate of pilot runs and test runes due to poor process parameter prediction for overlay. Several studies of the method for predicting the overlay correction have been reported. The key to build a good prediction model is to break the overlay errors down to several parts. Some are equipment or technology related errors, which are shared by all products. Others are the characteristic for certain products, for instance, mask error or special alignment marks. In the production environment the former parts are updated in real time by data feedback from processing all kinds of products. The low volume products or pilot products can share the information. Thus we can achieve a more accurate control or prediction for a new product. In this paper we provide a new model for predicting the process parameter settings of overlay for a pilot run or a product not being run on a tool for a long period of time. This new model is a Simplified Cerebellar Manipulation Arithmetic Controller (SCMAC), which is one kind of Neural Network (NN) model. We assume each part of overlay errors is a cell in SCMAC and build the whole cell table by using this assumption. The final overlay correction value is the sum of a group of cells, which is activated by one lot information. We will also present the details of the building and training of this new SCMAC model. The prediction accuracy of SCMAC in overlay parameters is also evaluated. According to the results, SCMAC can split the overlay error to several factors successfully and also overcome the mismatch in the equipments and processes. We also compare the new SCMAC model with the general Exponential Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) model, which calculates the correction value based on the history data points, and in which the newer data points have more weight in the calculation. Based on the results, the SCMAC model is not good enough to substitute the EWMA model in controlling the overlay of a high volume product.

King, Dion; Cheng, Mingjen; Lu, Aho; Mao, Zhibiao; Liang, Curtis

2006-03-01

320

Waste characterization of activation product radionuclides in high level waste (HLW) supernate  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation has been made of the radionuclides produced as products of reactor neutron activation as they exist in high level waste (HLW) and their potential to contaminate and impact low level waste (LLW). Process knowledge was used to define the source terms of tritium, carbon, nickel, and cobalt activation products in HLW in an effort to help characterize these radionuclides in HLW supernate in support of LLW Certification. This report uses waste tank sample data and materials inventory data to determine the potential for waste packages, contaminated with tank supernate, to exceed the E-Area Vault (EAV) Package Acceptance Criteria (PAC).

Bess, C.E.

1994-06-30

321

Alfalfa Production Texas High Plains/Far West Texas  

E-print Network

Alfalfa Production Texas High Plains/Far West Texas Calvin Trostle Extension Agronomy, Lubbock 806.746.6101 ctrostle@ag.tamu.edu #12;Observations in West Texas · Our best alfalfa producers don't have a massive farm is #12;Alfalfa Quality · This is what will make or break large producers · What is your goal? What

Mukhtar, Saqib

322

High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

Stegen, G.E.

1996-02-13

323

Production of heavy charged Higgs particles at very high energies  

SciTech Connect

The production of heavy charged Higgs bosons at very high energies (LEP) is investigated. It turns out that, in favorable circumstances, charged scalars of mass 50-100 GeV could be detected and be even more copiously produced than the standard neutral Weinberg-Salam-type Higgs particle of the same mass.

Grifols, J.A.; Sola, J.

1981-01-01

324

Global marketing strategy modeling of high tech products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the role of global marketing strategy and its relation to market orientation, international experience, and performance in the high tech products context. Knowledge of this important domain of global marketing strategy and performance remains limited. In this respect, the study raises a number of important questions concerning how market orientation, international experience and global marketing strategy impact

Chih-Wen Wu

2011-01-01

325

Comparison of the MODIS Active Fire Product and Burned Area Product in Detecting Fire Affected Pixels in the Ecosystems of Belize 2003 - 2009   

E-print Network

The MODIS Active Fire Product (AFP) and the Burned Area Product (BAP) were used to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of fire affected pixels in the ecosystems of Belize from 2003-2009. There was an overall trend of decreasing fire...

van, Warmerdam

2010-11-24

326

Multi-stage high cell continuous fermentation for high productivity and titer.  

PubMed

We carried out the first simulation on multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) to show that the MSC-HCDC can achieve batch/fed-batch product titer with much higher productivity to the fed-batch productivity using published fermentation kinetics of lactic acid, penicillin and ethanol. The system under consideration consists of n-serially connected continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) with either hollow fiber cell recycling or cell immobilization for high cell-density culture. In each CSTR substrate supply and product removal are possible. Penicillin production is severely limited by glucose metabolite repression that requires multi-CSTR glucose feeding. An 8-stage C-HCDC lactic acid fermentation resulted in 212.9 g/L of titer and 10.6 g/L/h of productivity, corresponding to 101 and 429% of the comparable lactic acid fed-batch, respectively. The penicillin production model predicted 149% (0.085 g/L/h) of productivity in 8-stage C-HCDC with 40 g/L of cell density and 289% of productivity (0.165 g/L/h) in 7-stage C-HCDC with 60 g/L of cell density compared with referring batch cultivations. A 2-stage C-HCDC ethanol experimental run showed 107% titer and 257% productivity of the batch system having 88.8 g/L of titer and 3.7 g/L/h of productivity. MSC-HCDC can give much higher productivity than batch/fed-batch system, and yield a several percentage higher titer as well. The productivity ratio of MSC-HCDC over batch/fed-batch system is given as a multiplication of system dilution rate of MSC-HCDC and cycle time of batch/fed-batch system. We suggest MSC-HCDC as a new production platform for various fermentation products including monoclonal antibody. PMID:21127908

Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Nag-Jong; Kang, Jongwon; Jeong, Chang Moon; Choi, Jin-dal-rae; Fei, Qiang; Kim, Byoung Jin; Kwon, Sunhoon; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Jungbae

2011-05-01

327

Evaluation of ocean color products from Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao coastal area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first geostationary ocean color satellite sensor launched in June 2010 on board the South Korean Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS). The GOCI has a local coverage area of the western Pacific Ocean including Bohai, Yellow Sea and East Sea of China. Jiaozhou Bay is a semienclosed basin in the western part of the Yellow Sea, which is an important representative of gulf ecosystem in the North Temperate Zone. The GOCI data can provide useful information with an-hour temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions for monitoring oceanic and atmospheric process in Jiaozhou Bay. The performance of the atmospheric and optical algorithms of GOCI was evaluated by comparing with the simultaneous data from MODIS/Aqua. The match-up products include remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and chlorophyll-a concentration ([chl-a]) and they were derived by GDPS software for GOCI data and SeaDAS software for MODIS and GOCI data, respectively, using default atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms. Our analyses show that GOCI products (i.e., Rrs(490), Rrs(555) and [chl-a]) are compared well with MODIS products. GOCI shows a potential capability of oceanography investigations in Jiaozhou Bay and Qingdao coastal area. The consistency of Rrs between GOCI and MODIS is relatively good but significant difference was observed in [chl-a] especially in Jiaozhou Bay. Moreover, it is suggested to improve GOCI standard atmospheric correction algorithm for high turbid water and cloud detection to increase data utilization.

Yang, Qian; Du, Libin; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Lianbo; Chen, Shuguo; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zhaoyu; Wang, Zhangjun; Zhou, Yan

2014-11-01

328

On the causes of rising gross ecosystem productivity in a regenerating clearcut environment: leaf area vs. species composition.  

PubMed

Clearcutting a forest ecosystem can result in a drastic reduction of stand productivity. Despite the severity of this disturbance type, past studies have found that the productivity of young regenerating stands can quickly rebound, approaching that of mature undisturbed stands within a few years. One of the obvious reasons is increased leaf area (LA) with each year of recovery. However, a less obvious reason may be the variability in species composition and distribution during the natural regeneration process. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent the increase in gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), observed during the first 4 years of recovery in a naturally regenerating clearcut stand, was due to (i) an overall expansion of leaf area and (ii) an increase in the canopy's photosynthetic capacity stemming from either species compositional shifts or drift in physiological traits within species. We found that the multi-year rise in GEP following harvest was clearly attributed to the expansion of LA rather than a change in vegetation composition. Sizeable changes in the relative abundance of species were masked by remarkably similar leaf physiological attributes for a range of vegetation types present in this early-successional environment. Comparison of upscaled leaf-chamber estimates with eddy-covariance-based estimates of light-response curves revealed a broad consistency in both maximum photosynthetic capacity and quantum yield efficiency. The approaches presented here illustrate how chamber- and ecosystem-scale measurements of gas exchange can be blended with species-level LA data to draw conclusive inferences about changes in ecosystem processes over time in a highly dynamic environment. PMID:25030934

Khomik, Myroslava; Williams, Christopher A; Vanderhoof, Melanie K; MacLean, Richard G; Dillen, Sophie Y

2014-07-01

329

Brilliant high-power diode lasers based on broad area lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the German national research project "Briolas" Osram Semiconductors and Laserline GmbH cooperated in the subproject "Brilasi" which focused mainly on Brilliant Laser Diodes for Industrial Applications. The project was finished in December 2007 and lasted more than three years. Laserline and Osram are investigating the performance of broad area diode lasers with a bar width from 1.0 to 10.0 mm in high brilliance diode laser beam sources. Within the program different fibre coupled laser sources are built up: 1. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a Beam Parameter Product (BBP) of 40 mmxmrad built from diode laser bars with 10 mm bar width. 2. Fibre coupled diode laser beam source with a BBP of 20 mmxmrad built from Mini-Bars with a bar width of 3.0 mm and 8 emitters. These Different solutions are characterized regarding the electro optical performance. The laser output characteristics are determined for the diode laser device as well as the complete beam source. Lifetime tests are conducted to determine the long term stability of the prototypes and the different chip material.

Krause, V.; Koesters, A.; Koenig, H.; Strauss, U.

2008-02-01

330

Responses of primary productivity to current and climate changes in the mud area to the southwest of Cheju Island during the past 800 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogenic silica (BSi), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and grain size were analyzed with a gravity core (3250-6) collected from the mud area in the north East China Sea. The average deposition rate of the upper core was about 0.078 cm yr-1 based on the results of 210Pbex. The mean grain size increased with depth in general. The frequency distribution of grain size showed that two marked changes of deposition environment occurred at 30 cm and 50 cm depths (about 1550 AD and 1300 AD, respectively). The variations of BSi and TOC indicated two distinct major periods of primary productivity over the past 800 years: a stage of low primary productivity corresponding to weak upwelling and low nutrient input below 30 cm depth (about 1200-1550 AD), and a stage of high primary productivity with strong currents and upwelling above 30 cm depth (about 1550-1950 AD). The stage with high primary productive appeared to be due to the northward-expanded muddy area caused by strong Asian Winter Monsoon and enhanced Yellow Sea Warm Current in winter. In conclusion, the BSi and TOC in the muddy sediments, the symbols of marine primary productivity, can be then used to investigate the evolution history of currents and relative climate change in the offshore areas.

Liu, Yi; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Wang, Yuhong; Jia, Nan; Ji, Haoyuan; Huang, Yiya; Sun, Liguang

2013-12-01

331

Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe < or = 3.5 dSm(-1), but areas 5 and 6 exceeded this concentration and reached maximum values of 5.5 and 7.0 dS m(-1), respectively. Higher values in area 6 were probably due to the presence of a rocky layer at 0.3 m depth, leaving a thin soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area. PMID:22439570

Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

2011-12-01

332

Parallel production and verification of protein products using a novel high-throughput screening method.  

PubMed

Protein production and analysis in a parallel fashion is today applied in laboratories worldwide and there is a great need to improve the techniques and systems used for this purpose. In order to save time and money, a fast and reliable screening method for analysis of protein production and also verification of the protein product is desired. Here, a micro-scale protocol for the parallel production and screening of 96 proteins in plate format is described. Protein capture was achieved using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the product was verified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS. In order to obtain sufficiently high cell densities and product yield in the small-volume cultivations, the EnBase® cultivation technology was applied, which enables cultivation in as small volumes as 150 ?L. Here, the efficiency of the method is demonstrated by producing 96 human, recombinant proteins, both in micro-scale and using a standard full-scale protocol and comparing the results in regard to both protein identity and sample purity. The results obtained are highly comparable to those acquired through employing standard full-scale purification protocols, thus validating this method as a successful initial screening step before protein production at a larger scale. PMID:21681961

Tegel, Hanna; Yderland, Louise; Boström, Tove; Eriksson, Cecilia; Ukkonen, Kaisa; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter; Ottosson, Jenny; Hober, Sophia

2011-08-01

333

ROLE OF WOMEN FARMERS’ COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF BAUCHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BAUCHI STATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at examining the role of Women farmers’ cooperative Societies in Agricultural Production in Bauchi Local Government Area of Bauchi State Nigeria. A total of eighty (80) women farmers were randomly selected from eight Cooperative societies which represent 50% of all registered and viable Cooperative Societies in the study area. Data were collected using well-structured pre-tested interview

B. O. Emefesi; B. M. Hamidu; U. Haruna

2004-01-01

334

ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

2015-01-01

335

Synthesis and application of magnesium oxide nanospheres with high surface area  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? MgO nanospheres with high specific surface area synthesized by the polyol method. ? The BET specific surface area of nanopowders was 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. ? MgO nanospheres were applied to remove hexavalent chromium. -- Abstract: Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanospheres with a high specific surface area were synthesized by the polyol method. The BET specific surface area of the nanopowders was ?90 m{sup 2}/g by adjusting the molar ratio of the precursor, the reaction time, and the washing solution. It was increased to 102 m{sup 2}/g by calcining at ?250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that the MgO nanospheres composed of highly folded flakes, which were responsible for the observed high surface area. The high BET characteristic of the MgO nanospheres can be applied to sintering of microwave ceramics at a reducing sintering temperature, uniformed grain size distribution, and high bulk density. Finally, their capacity to remove hexavalent chromium was presented.

Hsiao, Chu-Yun; Li, Wei-Min; Tung, Kuo-Shin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail: cfshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Wen-Dung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

2012-11-15

336

Hydrogen production reaction with a metal oxide catalyst in high pressure high temperature water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen production from biomass was attempted in high pressure high temperature water at 573 K by adopting partial oxidation to increase the yield of H2 via CO production in the presence of ZnO. The results revealed that an addition of H2O2 as an oxidant to the reaction of glucose and sugarcane bagasse brought about the trend of increasing the yields

M. Watanabe; M. Takahashi; H. Inomata

2008-01-01

337

Using NASA's World Wind virtual globe for interactive internet visualization of the global MODIS burned area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three?dimensional virtual globes are radically changing the way geographic information is perceived by the public. This article describes how NASA World Wind, an open source virtual globe, is currently being used for visualization of the MODIS burned area product. The procedures adopted for converting the product into a format compatible with World Wind, as well as the spatial generalization of

L. Boschetti; D. P. Roy; C. O. Justice

2008-01-01

338

Bacteriological quality of vegetables from organic and conventional production in different areas of Korea.  

PubMed

Foods grown in organic production systems have been described as representing an increased risk to public health compared with foods from conventional production. Leafy vegetables (spinach, romaine lettuce, and green sesame leaves) grown in organic and conventional systems were collected from various areas in Korea and examined using standard culture methods to compare the microbiological quality of the produce grown in the two agricultural systems. The 354 samples of these leafy vegetables were analyzed for levels of indicator bacteria (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the prevalence of the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella. Aerobic bacteria and coliforms were detected in all vegetable types, but nonpathogenic E. coli was below the limit of detection in all samples. B. cereus was the most prevalent pathogen, found on 7 (11.1%) of the 63 organic spinach samples. The prevalence of S. aureus was highest in organic sesame leaves; it was found on 5 (8.0%) of the 63 samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes was highest on organic romaine lettuce and spinach; it was found in 4 (6.4%) of 63 samples of each type of vegetable. E. coli O157:H7 found on only 1 (1.58%) of 55 conventional spinach samples. These results suggest that farming type at most only slightly affects the hygienic quality of leafy vegetables, and no effect was found for sample collection area. Salmonella was not isolated from any of the conventional or organic leafy vegetables. These results do not support the hypothesis that organic produce poses a substantially greater risk of pathogen contamination than does conventional produce. PMID:25198606

Tango, Charles Nkufi; Choi, Na-Jung; Chung, Myung-Sub; Oh, Deog Hwan

2014-08-01

339

Preparation and characterization of wide area, high quality diamond film using magnetoactive plasma chemical vapour deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetomicrowave plasma was used for the low pressure deposition of diamond. The important point in the plasma deposition system is to set the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition (875 G in the case of a 2.45 GHz microwave) at the deposition area. The high density plasma (above 1 x 10 exp 11\\/cu cm) necessary for high quality diamond formation

Akio Hiraki; Hiroshi Kawarada; Jin Wei; Jun-Ichi Suzuki

1990-01-01

340

Cooking methods and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in high-risk areas of Iran.  

PubMed

Cooking methods have been implicated in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancers, reflecting exposure to potential carcinogens as results of cooking. We used a validated food frequency questionnaire and a pretested cooking method questionnaire in 3 groups: 40 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases from a high-risk area in northeast of Iran, 40 healthy subjects from the same high-risk area, and 40 healthy subjects from a low-risk area in Southern Iran. We compared the frequency of boiling, grilling, and frying, and the frying score among these 3 groups. We also calculated "frying index" by multiplying the frequency of each fried food item by its frying score. Mean frying to boiling ratios were 18.2:1, 12.8:1, and 2.6:1 for cases, high-risk controls, and low-risk controls, respectively (P < 0.01). Reuse of cooking oil for frying was reported in 37.5% of the ESCC cases, 25% of high-risk controls, and 7.5% of low-risk controls (P < 0.001). Frying index was higher in the high-risk than in the low-risk controls (P < 0.001) and in cases than in the high-risk controls (P < 0.05) after adjusting for smoking, opium use, rural residence, education, and ethnicity. High-temperature cooking and frying may be associated with increased risk of ESCC in high-risk areas. PMID:24033341

Hakami, Roya; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Pourshams, Akram; Mohtadinia, Javad; Firoozi, Mehdi Saberi; Birkett, Nicholas; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

341

Crossing historical and sedimentary archives to reconstruct an extreme flood event calendar in high alpine areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Torrential flood hazard is expected to increase in the context of global warming. However, long time-series of climate and gauge data at high-elevation sites are too sparse to assess reliably recurrence times of such events in high mountain areas. Historical documents are an alternative which provide valuable information. However, historic archives are by nature subjective and variable in quality owing

B. Wilhelm; C. Giguet-Covex; F. Arnaud; F. Allignol; A. Legaz; A. Melo

2010-01-01

342

High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy storage and catalysis  

E-print Network

High surface area crystalline titanium dioxide: potential and limits in electrochemical energy-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz, Germany Abstract Titanium dioxide is one, as support in catalysis etc. Common synthesis methods of titanium dioxide typically require a high

Pfeifer, Holger

343

Using ASTER and SRTM DEMs for studying geomorphology and glaciation in high mountain areas  

E-print Network

Using ASTER and SRTM DEMs for studying geomorphology and glaciation in high mountain areas Tobias, SRTM, geomorphology, glaciation, Andes, Hindu Kush, Tien Shan ABSTRACT: For selected peaks in high identifying debris-covered glaciers and geomorphologic forms and processes. Results show that ASTER/SRTM DEMs

Bolch, Tobias

344

Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL.  

PubMed

Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm thick Ta liner used for the reduction of x-ray irradiation at the high voltage insulator. With double-frequency (18+14.5 GHz) heating and at maximum total microwave power of 2.0 kW, SECRAL has successfully produced quite a few very highly charged Xe ion beams, such as 10 e microA of Xe(37+), 1 e microA of Xe(43+), and 0.16 e microA of Ne-like Xe(44+). To further explore the capability of the SECRAL in the production of highly charged heavy metal ion beams, a first test run on bismuth has been carried out recently. The main goal is to produce an intense Bi(31+) beam for HIRFL accelerator and to have a feel how well the SECRAL can do in the production of very highly charged Bi beams. During the test, though at microwave power less than 3 kW, more than 150 e microA of Bi(31+), 22 e microA of Bi(41+), and 1.5 e microA of Bi(50+) have been produced. All of these results have again demonstrated the great capability of the SECRAL source. This article will present the detailed results and brief discussions to the production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL. PMID:20192339

Sun, L T; Zhao, H W; Lu, W; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, J Y; Cao, Y; Guo, X H; Ma, H Y; Zhao, H Y; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Wang, H; Li, X X; Jin, T; Xie, D Z

2010-02-01

345

Modelling technical snow production for skiing areas in the Austrian Alps with the physically based snow model AMUNDSEN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tourism and particularly winter tourism is a key factor for the Austrian economy. Judging from currently available climate simulations, the Austrian Alps show a particularly high vulnerability to climatic changes. To reduce the exposure of ski areas towards changes in natural snow conditions as well as to generally enhance snow conditions at skiing sites, technical snowmaking is widely utilized across Austrian ski areas. While such measures result in better snow conditions at the skiing sites and are important for the local skiing industry, its economic efficiency has also to be taken into account. The current work emerges from the project CC-Snow II, where improved future climate scenario simulations are used to determine future natural and artificial snow conditions and their effects on tourism and economy in the Austrian Alps. In a first step, a simple technical snowmaking approach is incorporated into the process based snow model AMUNDSEN, which operates at a spatial resolution of 10-50 m and a temporal resolution of 1-3 hours. Locations of skiing slopes within a ski area in Styria, Austria, were digitized and imported into the model environment. During a predefined time frame in the beginning of the ski season, the model produces a maximum possible amount of technical snow and distributes the associated snow on the slopes, whereas afterwards, until to the end of the ski season, the model tries to maintain a certain snow depth threshold value on the slopes. Due to only few required input parameters, this approach is easily transferable to other ski areas. In our poster contribution, we present first results of this snowmaking approach and give an overview of the data and methodology applied. In a further step in CC-Snow, this simple bulk approach will be extended to consider actual snow cannon locations and technical specifications, which will allow a more detailed description of technical snow production as well as cannon-based recordings of water and energy consumption.

Hanzer, F.; Marke, T.; Steiger, R.; Strasser, U.

2012-04-01

346

Bracovirus gene products are highly divergent from insect proteins.  

PubMed

Recently, several polydnavirus (PDV) genomes have been completely sequenced. The dsDNA circles enclosed in virus particles and injected by wasps into caterpillars appear to mainly encode virulence factors potentially involved in altering host immunity and/or development, thereby allowing the survival of the parasitoid larvae within the host tissues. Parasitoid wasps generally inject virulence factors produced in the venom gland. As PDV genomes are inherited vertically by wasps through a proviral form, wasp virulence genes may have been transferred to this chromosomal form, leading to their incorporation into virus particles. Indeed, many gene products from Cotesia congregata bracovirus (CcBV), such as PTPs, IkappaB-like, and cystatins, contain protein domains conserved in metazoans. Surprisingly however, CcBV virulence gene products are not more closely related to insect proteins than to human proteins. To determine whether the distance between CcBV and insect proteins is a specific feature of BV proteins or simply reflects a general high divergence of parasitoid wasp products, which might be due to parasitic lifestyle, we have analyzed the sequences of wasp genes obtained from a cDNA library. Wasp sequences having a high similarity with Apis mellifera genes involved in a variety of biological functions could be identified indicating that the high level of divergence observed for BV products is a hallmark of these viral proteins. We discuss how this divergence might be explained in the context of the current hypotheses on the origin and evolution of wasp-bracovirus associations. PMID:18348209

Bézier, Annie; Herbinière, Juline; Serbielle, Céline; Lesobre, Jérome; Wincker, Patrick; Huguet, Elisabeth; Drezen, Jean-Michel

2008-04-01

347

Yam Farmers' Access to Production Resources in Kabba\\/Bunu Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuber crops in developing countries-especially yam and cassava-are major staple foods. But the accessibility of producers to production resources has been one of the major problems to increase production. Therefore, the study assessed the accessibility of yam farmers to production resources in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting 150 respondents for the study. Majority of

J. O. Oladeji; O. B. Oyesola

2007-01-01

348

Genetic Population Structure of Cacao Plantings within a Young Production Area in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Significant cocoa production in the municipality of Waslala, Nicaragua, began in 1961. Since the 1980s, its economic importance to rural smallholders increased, and the region now contributes more than 50% of national cocoa bean production. This research aimed to assist local farmers to develop production of high-value cocoa based on optimal use of cacao biodiversity. Using microsatellite markers, the allelic composition and genetic structure of cacao was assessed from 44 representative plantings and two unmanaged trees. The population at Waslala consists of only three putative founder genotype spectra (lineages). Two (B and R) were introduced during the past 50 years and occur in >95% of all trees sampled, indicating high rates of outcrossing. Based on intermediate allelic diversity, there was large farm-to-farm multilocus genotypic variation. GIS analysis revealed unequal distribution of the genotype spectra, with R being frequent within a 2 km corridor along roads, and B at more remote sites with lower precipitation. The third lineage, Y, was detected in the two forest trees. For explaining the spatial stratification of the genotype spectra, both human intervention and a combination of management and selection driven by environmental conditions, appear responsible. Genotypes of individual trees were highly diverse across plantings, thus enabling selection for farm-specific qualities. On-farm populations can currently be most clearly recognized by the degree of the contribution of the three genotype spectra. Of two possible strategies for future development of cacao in Waslala, i.e. introducing more unrelated germplasm, or working with existing on-site diversity, the latter seems most appropriate. Superior genotypes could be selected by their specific composite genotype spectra as soon as associations with desired quality traits are established, and clonally multiplied. The two Y trees from the forest share a single multilocus genotype, possibly representing the Mayan, ‘ancient Criollo’ cacao. PMID:21264251

Trognitz, Bodo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Hansel-Hohl, Karin; Kuant, Aldo; Grebe, Hans; Hermann, Michael

2011-01-01

349

Land uplift at Kvarken archipelago and High Coast UNESCO World Heritage area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land uplift is a well-known phenomenon at the coastal areas of the Gulf of Bothnia in Finland and Sweden. Today, about 700 hectares of new land is rising from the sea every year. This is changing the landscape rapidly, especially at the shallow coastlines and archipelago of Kvarken where the uplift rate is about 9 mm/year. At the opposite side in Sweden, the High Coast has much steeper landscape and changes there are less prominent during one generation. Due to its unique nature, the area has received the UNESCO World Heritage status. The area is at the uplift maximum of the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound. In this presentation we describe the uplift on the area, based on geodetic measurements, modelling and relations to the sea level rise and climate change. We also discuss future scenarios in this UNESCO World Heritage area.

Poutanen, Markku; Steffen, Holger

2014-05-01

350

High lipid productivity of an Ankistrodesmus-Rhizobium artificial consortium.  

PubMed

Microalgae have great potential as alternative productive platforms for sustainable production of bioenergy, food, feed and other commodities. Process optimization to realize the claimed potential often comprises strains selection and improvement and also developing of more efficient cultivation, harvesting and downstream processing technology. In this work we show that inoculation with the bacterium Rhizobium strain 10II resulted in increments of up to 30% in chlorophyll, biomass and lipids accumulation of the oleaginous microalgae Ankistrodesmus sp. strain SP2-15. Inoculated cultures have reached a high lipid productivity of up to 112 mg L(-1) d(-1) after optimization. The resulting biomass presented significant levels of ?3 fatty acids including stearidonic acid, suggesting potential as an alternative land-based source of essential fatty acids. PMID:23948276

Do Nascimento, Mauro; Dublan, Maria de los Angeles; Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Curatti, Leonardo

2013-10-01

351

A route to high surface area, porosity and inclusion of large molecules in crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the outstanding challenges in the field of porous materials is the design and synthesis of chemical structures with exceptionally high surface areas. Such materials are of critical importance to many applications involving catalysis, separation and gas storage. The claim for the highest surface area of a disordered structure is for carbon, at 2,030m2g-1 (ref. 2). Until recently, the

Hee K. Chae; Diana Y. Siberio-Pérez; Jaheon Kim; YongBok Go; Mohamed Eddaoudi; Adam J. Matzger; Michael O'Keeffe; Omar M. Yaghi

2004-01-01

352

Polycrystalline CVD diamond detector: Fast response and high sensitivity with large area  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline diamond was successfully used to fabricate a large area (diameter up to 46 mm) radiation detector. It was proven that the developed detector shows a fast pulsed response time and a high sensitivity, therefore its rise time is lower than 5 ns, which is two times faster than that of a Si-PIN detector of the same size. And because of the large sensitive area, this detector shows good dominance in fast pulsed and low density radiation detection.

Liu, Linyue, E-mail: liulinyue@gmail.com; Zhang, Xianpeng; Zhong, Yunhong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping, E-mail: oyxp@yahoo.com; Zhang, Jianfu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China) [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-01-15

353

HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study is under way to assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Results presented in this paper were obtained from a ten-cell planar electrolysis stack, with an active area of 64 cm2 per cell. The electrolysis cells are electrolyte-supported, with scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolytes (~140 µm thick), nickel-cermet steam/hydrogen electrodes, and manganite air-side electrodes. The metallic interconnect plates are fabricated from ferritic stainless steel. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 - 0.6), gas flow rates (1000 - 4000 sccm), and current densities (0 to 0.38 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Hydrogen production rates up to 90 Normal liters per hour were demonstrated. Values of area-specific resistance and stack internal temperatures are presented as a function of current density. Stack performance is shown to be dependent on inlet steam flow rate.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

2005-10-01

354

Simultaneous production of trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice by an enzymatic process.  

PubMed

Rice is a starch-rich raw material that can be used for trehalose production. It can be hydrolyzed with alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and pullulanase to produce high-maltose content of rice saccharified solution for bioconversion of maltose into trehalose by trehalose synthase (TSase). For this purpose, an efficient enzymatic procedure has been successfully developed to simultaneously produce value-added trehalose, bioethanol, and high-protein product from rice as substrate. The highest maltose yield produced from the liquefied rice starch hydrolysate was 82.4 +/- 2.8% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 21-22 h. The trehalose conversion rate can reach at least 50% at 50 degrees C and pH 5.0 for 20-24 h by a novel thermostable recombinant Picrophilus torridus trehalose synthase (PTTS). All residual sugar, except trehalose, can be fully hydrolyzed by glucoamylase into glucose for further bioethanol production. The insoluble byproduct containing high yields of protein (75.99%) and dietary fiber (14.01%) can be processed as breakfast cereal product, health food, animal forage, etc. The conversion yield of bioethanol was about 98% after 64 h of fermentation time by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any artificial culture solution addition. Ethanol can easily be separated from trehalose by distillation with a high recovery yield and purity of crystalline trehalose of 92.5 +/- 8.7% and 92.3%, respectively. PMID:20131789

Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang, Wei-Hsin; Lee, Maw-Rong; Yang, Tzung-Jie; Yu, Nu-Yi; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Shaw, Jei-Fu

2010-03-10

355

Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil  

DOEpatents

In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

2012-12-18

356

High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical predictions show good agreement for the first 0.5 in. from the nozzle wall; but the further into the core flow that measurements were taken, the more that TDK overpredicted the boundary layer thickness.

Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

1999-01-01

357

Effect of high pressure-high temperature process on meat product quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

High pressure\\/high temperature (HPHT) processing is an innovative way to sterilize food and has been proposed as an alternative to conventional retorting. By using elevated temperatures and adiabatic compression, it allows the inactivation of vegetative microorganisms and pathogen spores. Even though the microbial inactivation has been widely studied, the effect of such process on sensorial attributes of food products, especially

Frederique Duranton; Elvire Maree; Helene Simonin; Romuald Cheret; Marie de Lamballerie

2011-01-01

358

Second Generation Biofuels: High-Efficiency Microalgae for Biodiesel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of fossil fuels is now widely accepted as unsustainable due to depleting resources and the accumulation of greenhouse\\u000a gases in the environment that have already exceeded the “dangerously high” threshold of 450 ppm CO2-e. To achieve environmental and economic sustainability, fuel production processes are required that are not only renewable,\\u000a but also capable of sequestering atmospheric CO2. Currently, nearly

Peer M. Schenk; Skye R. Thomas-Hall; Evan Stephens; Jan H. Mussgnug; Clemens Posten; Olaf Kruse; Ben Hankamer

2008-01-01

359

Production of highly charged ion beams with SECRAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an all-superconducting-magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged ion beams to meet the requirements of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To further enhance the performance of SECRAL, an aluminum chamber has been installed inside a 1.5 mm

L. T. Sun; H. W. Zhao; W. Lu; X. Z. Zhang; Y. C. Feng; J. Y. Li; Y. Cao; X. H. Guo; H. Y. Ma; H. Y. Zhao; Y. Shang; B. H. Ma; H. Wang; X. X. Li; T. Jin; D. Z. Xie

2010-01-01

360

Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

361

Investigation of Low Loss and High Reliability Encapsulation Technology in Large-Area, High-Power Semiconductor Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize uniform and low contact resistance in the low mounting force region for large-area, high-power semiconductor devices, the effects of hardness and surface cleanliness of metal sheets inserted between an Al cathode and Mo internal electrode on the contact resistance were investigated as a function of mounting force. Contact resistance was lowered with increasing cleanliness and decreasing

Toshiaki Morita; Mitsuo Kato; Jin Onuki; Hidekatsu Onose; Nobuyoshi Matsuura; Shuroku Sakurada

1999-01-01

362

Phytoplankton and light limitation in the Southern Ocean: Learning from high-nutrient, high-chlorophyll areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the Southern Ocean is a high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area. There are exceptions to this situation downstream of some of the islands, where iron from the islands or surrounding shallow plateau fertilizes the mixed layer and causes a phytoplankton bloom in spring and summer. The main locations where this occurs are downstream of the South Georgia, Crozet, and Kerguelen

Hugh Venables; C. Mark Moore

2010-01-01

363

Urinary perchlorate exposure and risk in women of reproductive age in a fireworks production area of China.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is used widely in fireworks, and, if ingested, it has the potential to disrupt thyroid function. The concentrations of perchlorate in water and soil samples and in urine samples of women of reproductive age from Liuyang, the largest fireworks production area in China, were investigated. The results showed that the average perchlorate concentrations in groundwater, surface water, farmland soil, and urine samples of women from the fireworks production area were significantly greater than those from the control area. The health risk of perchlorate ingested through drinking water was assessed based on the mode recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The values of hazard quotient of river water and groundwater in the fireworks production area were much greater than the safe level (=1), which indicates that adverse health effects may result from perchlorate when these sources of water are used as drinking water. These results indicated that the environment of the fireworks production area has been polluted by perchlorate and that residents were and are facing greater exposure doses of perchlorate. Fireworks production enterprises may be a major source of perchlorate contamination. PMID:24859046

Li, Qin; Yu, Yun-jiang; Wang, Fei-fei; Chen, Shi-wu; Yin, Yan; Lin, Hai-peng; Che, Fei; Sun, Peng; Qin, Juan; Liu, Jie; Wang, Hong-mei

2014-07-01

364

Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated from Si isotopic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive diatom-bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a High-Nutrient Low-Chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the Plateau biogenic silica production fluxes are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 in average), silica dissolution rates were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (Si:C and Si:N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate the primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution to production ratios (D:P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustained most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS-expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution on the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to a higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling between H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross-Si:N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the HNLC area, likely due to different diatoms communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long time scales does not necessarily decrease Si:N uptake ratios as suggested by the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis. Finally, we propose the first seasonal estimate of Si-biogeochemical budget above the Kerguelen Plateau based on direct measurements. This study points out that naturally iron fertilized areas of the Southern Ocean could sustain very high regimes of biogenic silica production, similar to those observed in highly productive upwelling systems.

Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

2014-05-01

365

Seasonal evolution of net and regenerated silica production around a natural Fe-fertilized area in the Southern Ocean estimated with Si isotopic approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A massive diatom bloom is observed each year in the surface waters of the naturally Fe-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean). We measured biogenic silica production and dissolution fluxes (?Si and ?Diss, respectively) in the mixed layer in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Plateau during austral spring 2011 (KEOPS-2 cruise). We compare results from a high-nutrient low-chlorophyll reference station and stations with different degrees of iron enrichment and bloom conditions. Above the plateau biogenic ?Si are among the highest reported so far in the Southern Ocean (up to 47.9 mmol m-2 d-1). Although significant (10.2 mmol m-2 d-1 on average), ?Diss were generally much lower than production rates. Uptake ratios (?Si : ?C and ?Si : ?N) confirm that diatoms strongly dominate primary production in this area. At the bloom onset, decreasing dissolution-to-production ratios (D : P) indicate that the remineralization of silica could sustain most of the low silicon uptake and that the system progressively shifts toward a silica production regime which must be mainly supported by new source of silicic acid. Moreover, by comparing results from the two KEOPS expeditions (spring 2011 and summer 2005), we suggest that there is a seasonal evolution of the processes decoupling Si and N cycles in the area. Indeed, the consumption of H4SiO4 standing stocks occurs only during the growing stage of the bloom when strong net silica production is observed, contributing to higher H4SiO4 depletion relative to NO3-. Then, the decoupling of H4SiO4 and NO3- is mainly controlled by the more efficient nitrogen recycling relative to Si. Gross Si : N uptake ratios were higher in the Fe-rich regions compared to the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) area, likely due to different diatom communities. This suggests that the diatom responses to natural Fe fertilization are more complex than previously thought, and that natural iron fertilization over long timescales does not necessarily decrease Si : N uptake ratios as suggested by the silicic acid leakage hypothesis. Finally, we propose the first seasonal estimate of the Si biogeochemical budget above the Kerguelen Plateau based on direct measurements. This study points out that naturally iron-fertilized areas of the Southern Ocean could sustain very high regimes of biogenic silica production, similar to those observed in highly productive upwelling systems.

Closset, I.; Lasbleiz, M.; Leblanc, K.; Quéguiner, B.; Cavagna, A.-J.; Elskens, M.; Navez, J.; Cardinal, D.

2014-10-01

366

Production of large area low-energy electron beams by extraction from a multidipolar plasma (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

The production of large area low-energy electron beams by extraction from a low-pressure plasma is investigated. In order to extract electron beams of given energy from a plasma, the plasma potential, as referred to wall potential, must be stationary and independent of the extraction potential. The macroscopic neutrality of the plasma therefore requires that reactor walls are metallic and that extraction to reactor wall area ratio is less than the square root of the electron to ion mass ratio. These specifications are fulfilled in the source presented in this study where the plasma is produced in a cylindrical chamber by seven elementary dipolar sources distributed over the end flange of a cylindrical chamber opposite to the extraction grid. The plasma is sustained at electron cyclotron resonance by microwaves at 2.45 GHz in the chamber whose wall potential (extraction potential) can be varied from 0 to -200 V with respect to the ground potential. The electron beam extracted from the plasma through the grid then expands in a second chamber whose walls are set at the ground potential. The details of the experimental arrangement built on the above specifications are presented and the characteristics of argon plasmas measured by using cylindrical Langmuir probes as a function of the extraction voltage. In the same way, electron beam characteristics in the ground potential chamber are also measured using both planar and cylindrical Langmuir probes. In particular, variations in plasma and beam potentials are simultaneously determined as a function of extraction voltage. Current-voltage extraction characteristics are also reported, which show that electron beams in the ampere range can be extracted between 0 and -200 V. The experimental results are in good agreement with the expected electron source behavior.

Lacoste, A.; Bechu, S.; Maulat, O.; Pelletier, J.; Arnal, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie - UJF, CNRS IN2P3 et ST2I, INPG, Centre de Recherche Plasmas-Materiaux-Nanostructures, 53 rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble, Cedex (France)

2008-02-15

367

Dose indices in dental cone beam CT and correlation with dose–area product  

PubMed Central

Objectives: In the 2011 project “Safety and efficacy of a new and emerging dental X-ray modality (SEDENTEXCT)”, it was suggested that dose index (DI) and dose–area product (DAP) could be easily measured and used as diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), which would help in the management of radiation doses to patients in optimum exposure settings. Such indices could be directly related to effective dose. The purposes of this study, therefore, were to measure and calculate the DI and DAP in cone beam CT (CBCT) machines and to evaluate the correlation between the two. Methods: Dose measurements were performed on three-dimensional cone beam CT (3D-CBCT) machines [3D Accuitomo (J. Morita Mfg. Corp., Kyoto, Japan), Veraviewepocs (J. Morita Mfg. Corp.) and CS9300 (Carestream, New York, NY)] by exposing a cylindrical poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom using a CT ionization chamber. These dose measurements were used for the calculation of Dose Indices 1 and 2, according to the methodology suggested by SEDENTEXCT. The DAP was measured using a DAP meter that was attached to the detector to cover the entire irradiated area. Results: The DI1 ranged from 53.6?mR to 216.6?mR, the DI2 ranged from 77.1?mR to 325.0?mR and the DAP ranged from 101.1?mGy?cm2 to 457.9?mGy?cm2, depending on the machines and exposure settings. Index 2 had a better correlation with the DAP than Index 1. Conclusions: The DIs and DAP proposed by SEDENTEXCT may be useful for establishing DRLs for dental CBCT machines; however, further studies are necessary to determine which of these indices provide accurate dose estimates proportionally relating to the effective dose. PMID:23520392

Araki, K; Patil, S; Endo, A; Okano, T

2013-01-01

368

Seasonal Phenology and Species Composition of the Aphid Fauna in a Northern Crop Production Area  

PubMed Central

Background The species diversity of aphids and seasonal timing of their flight activity can have significant impacts on crop production, as aphid species differ in their ability to transmit plant viruses and flight timing affects virus epidemiology. The aim of the study was to characterise the species composition and phenology of aphid fauna in Finland in one of the northernmost intensive crop production areas of the world (latitude 64°). Methodology/Principal Findings Flight activity was monitored in four growing seasons (2007–010) using yellow pan traps (YPTs) placed in 4–8 seed potato fields and a Rothamsted suction trap. A total of 58,528 winged aphids were obtained, identified to 83 taxa based on morphology, and 34 species were additionally characterised by DNA barcoding. Seasonal flight activity patterns analysed based on YPT catch fell into three main phenology clusters. Monoecious taxa showed early or middle-season flight activity and belonged to species living on shrubs/trees or herbaceous plants, respectively. Heteroecious taxa occurred over the entire potato growing season (ca. 90 days). Abundance of aphids followed a clear 3-year cycle based on suction trap data covering a decade. Rhopalosiphum padi occurring at the end of the potato growing season was the most abundant species. The flight activity of Aphis fabae, the main vector of Potato virus Y in the region, and Aphis gossypii peaked in the beginning of potato growing season. Conclusions/Significance Detailed information was obtained on phenology of a large number aphid species, of which many are agriculturally important pests acting as vectors of plant viruses. Aphis gossypii is known as a pest in greenhouses, but our study shows that it occurs also in the field, even far in the north. The novel information on aphid phenology and ecology has wide implications for prospective pest management, particularly in light of climate change. PMID:23967149

Kirchner, Sascha M.; Hiltunen, Lea; Döring, Thomas F.; Virtanen, Elina; Palohuhta, Jukka P.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

2013-01-01

369

FERMENTATON AND FORMULATION: CRUCIAL FOCUS AREAS FOR EXPEDITING THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOCONTROL PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developing an effective, commercially successful biological control product is a complex, labor-intensive undertaking. The process must begin with a carefully crafted microbial selection procedure, proceed by employing biomass production protocols that optimize product quantity and quality, and end...

370

7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain...

2010-01-01

371

Performance of high-resolution satellite precipitation products over China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gauge-based analysis of hourly precipitation is constructed on a 0.25° latitude/longitude grid over China for a 3 year period from 2005 to 2007 by interpolating gauge reports from ˜2000 stations collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological Administration. Gauge-based precipitation analysis is applied to examine the performance of six high-resolution satellite precipitation estimates, including Joyce et al.'s (2004) Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique (CMORPH) and the arithmetic mean of the microwave estimates used in CMORPH; Huffman et al.'s (2007) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation product 3B42 and its real-time version 3B42RT; Turk et al.'s (2004) Naval Research Laboratory blended product; and Hsu et al.'s (1997) Precipitation Estimation From Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN). Our results showed the following: (1) all six satellite products are capable of capturing the overall spatial distribution and temporal variations of precipitation reasonably well; (2) performance of the satellite products varies for different regions and different precipitation regimes, with better comparison statistics observed over wet regions and for warm seasons; (3) products based solely on satellite observations present regionally and seasonally varying biases, while the gauge-adjustment procedures applied in TRMM 3B42 remove the large-scale bias almost completely; (4) CMORPH exhibits the best performance in depicting the spatial pattern and temporal variations of precipitation; and (5) both the relative magnitude and the phase of the warm season precipitation over China are estimated quite well, but the early morning peak associated with the Mei-Yu rainfall over central eastern China is substantially under-estimated by all satellite products.

Shen, Yan; Xiong, Anyuan; Wang, Ying; Xie, Pingping

2010-01-01

372

Towards an Abstraction-Friendly Programming Model for High Productivity and High Performance Computing  

SciTech Connect

General purpose languages, such as C++, permit the construction of various high level abstractions to hide redundant, low level details and accelerate programming productivity. Example abstractions include functions, data structures, classes, templates and so on. However, the use of abstractions significantly impedes static code analyses and optimizations, including parallelization, applied to the abstractions complex implementations. As a result, there is a common perception that performance is inversely proportional to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, programming large scale, possibly heterogeneous high-performance computing systems is notoriously difficult and programmers are less likely to abandon the help from high level abstractions when solving real-world, complex problems. Therefore, the need for programming models balancing both programming productivity and execution performance has reached a new level of criticality. We are exploring a novel abstraction-friendly programming model in order to support high productivity and high performance computing. We believe that standard or domain-specific semantics associated with high level abstractions can be exploited to aid compiler analyses and optimizations, thus helping achieving high performance without losing high productivity. We encode representative abstractions and their useful semantics into an abstraction specification file. In the meantime, an accessible, source-to-source compiler infrastructure (the ROSE compiler) is used to facilitate recognizing high level abstractions and utilizing their semantics for more optimization opportunities. Our initial work has shown that recognizing abstractions and knowing their semantics within a compiler can dramatically extend the applicability of existing optimizations, including automatic parallelization. Moreover, a new set of optimizations have become possible within an abstraction-friendly and semantics-aware programming model. In the future, we will apply our programming model to more large scale applications. In particular, we plan to classify and formalize more high level abstractions and semantics which are relevant to high performance computing. We will also investigate better ways to allow language designers, library developers and programmers to communicate abstraction and semantics information with each other.

Liao, C; Quinlan, D; Panas, T

2009-10-06

373

Passive sampling of atmospheric organochlorine compounds by SPMDs in a remote high mountain area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) have been deployed in high mountain areas (Central Pyrenees, Catalonia, Spain) for the measurement of atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) over a period of 1.5 years. These devices were filled with triolein and have been deployed at three altitudes, 1600, 2240 and 2600 m above sea level. Performance reference compounds were used to calibrate their sampling rates. The SPMD results were validated by comparison to active air sampling with high-volume systems. Sampling rates between 0.55 and 1.3 m 3 d -1 were estimated from the dissipation of PCB155. Atmospheric concentrations measured by SPMDs were in good agreement with the levels obtained by high-volume sampling. These findings suggest that SPMDs can be useful monitoring systems for the atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine compounds in remote high mountain areas.

Van drooge, Barend L.; Grimalt, Joan O.; Booij, Kees; Camarero, Lluis; Catalan, Jordi

374

Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted with highly irradiated light-water reactor fuel rod segments to investigate fission products released in steam in the temperature range 500 to 1200/sup 0/C. (Two additional release tests were conducted in dry air.) The primary objectives were to quantify and characterize fission product release under conditions postulated for a spent-fuel transportation accident and for a successfully terminated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). In simulated, controlled LOCA-type tests, release at the time of rupture proved to be more significant than the diffusional release that followed. Comparison of the release data for the dry-air tests with the release data of similarly conducted tests in steam indicated significant increases in the releases of iodine, ruthenium, and cesium in air. Various parameters that affect fission product release are discussed, and experimental observations and analysis of the chemical behavior of releasable fission products in inert, steam, and dry-air atmospheres are examined.

Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Kirkland, O.L.; Towns, R.L.

1980-02-01

375

Exclusive vector meson production at high energies and gluon saturation  

E-print Network

We systematically study exclusive diffractive (photo) production of vector mesons ($J/\\psi$, $\\psi(2s)$, $\\phi$ and $\\rho$) off protons in high-energy collisions and investigate whether the production is a sensitive probe of gluon saturation. We confront saturation-based results for diffractive $\\psi(2s)$ and $\\rho$ production at HERA and $J/\\psi$ photoproduction with all available data including recent ones from HERA, ALICE and LHCb, finding good agreement. In particular, we show that the $t$-distribution of differential cross sections of photoproduction of vector mesons offers a unique opportunity to discriminate among saturation and non-saturation models. This is due to the emergence of a pronounced dip (or multiple dips) in the $t$-distribution of diffractive photoproduction of vector mesons at relatively large, but potentially accessible $|t|$ that can be traced back to the unitarity features of colour dipole amplitude in the saturation regime. We show that in saturation models the dips in $t$-distribution recede towards lower $|t|$ with decreasing mass of the vector meson, increasing energy or decreasing Bjorken-$x$, and decreasing virtuality $Q$. We provide various predictions for exclusive (photo) production of different vector mesons including the ratio of $\\psi(2s)/J/\\psi$ at HERA, the LHC, and future colliders.

Néstor Armesto; Amir H. Rezaeian

2014-08-26

376

CORNPLANTER ROADLESS AREA, PENNSYLVANIA.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cornplanter Roadless Area is on the west shore of Allegheny Reservoir, Pennsylvania, in an area containing flat-lying sedimentary rocks of Devonian and Mississippian age. Based on mineral-resource studies, these rocks have a substantiated potential for natural gas and a probable potential for oil in the roadless area. Other identified mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, conglomeratic sandstone suitable for high silica uses, and shale suitable for production of clay products.

Lesure, Frank G.; Welsh, Robert A., Jr.

1984-01-01

377

Aviation System Capacity Program Terminal Area Productivity Project: Ground and Airborne Technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground and airborne technologies were developed in the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) project for increasing throughput at major airports by safely maintaining good-weather operating capacity during bad weather. Methods were demonstrated for accurately predicting vortices to prevent wake-turbulence encounters and to reduce in-trail separation requirements for aircraft approaching the same runway for landing. Technology was demonstrated that safely enabled independent simultaneous approaches in poor weather conditions to parallel runways spaced less than 3,400 ft apart. Guidance, control, and situation-awareness systems were developed to reduce congestion in airport surface operations resulting from the increased throughput, particularly during night and instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). These systems decreased runway occupancy time by safely and smoothly decelerating the aircraft, increasing taxi speed, and safely steering the aircraft off the runway. Simulations were performed in which optimal trajectories were determined by air traffic control (ATC) and communicated to flight crews by means of Center TRACON Automation System/Flight Management System (CTASFMS) automation to reduce flight delays, increase throughput, and ensure flight safety.

Giulianetti, Demo J.

2001-01-01

378

Summaries and data packages of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the Department of the Interior and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) of the Department of Defense entered into an agreement to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 through September 2011. The work resulted in a report that summarizes new results and interpretations on 24 important Areas of Interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities inAfghanistan (Peters and others, 2011). The report is supported by digital data in the form of geographic information system (GIS) databases and by archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI. The data packages contain from 20 to 50 digital layers of data, such as geology, geophysics, and hyperspectral and remotely sensed imagery. Existing reports and maps are mainly from the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) archive and are Soviet-era (1960s and 1970s) reports. These data are available from the AGS Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en; http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and also are available for viewing and download from the USGS public Web site (http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov/) and from a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov.

Peters, Stephen G.

2011-01-01

379

Summaries of important areas for mineral investment and production opportunities of nonfuel minerals in Afghanistan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) entered into an agreement with the Afghanistan Geological Survey to study and assess the fuel and nonfuel mineral resources of Afghanistan from October 2009 to September 2011 so that these resources could be economically extracted to expand the economy of Afghanistan. This report summarizes the results of joint studies on 24 important areas of interest (AOIs) of nonfuel mineral resources that were identified for mineral investment and production opportunities in Afghanistan. This report is supported by digital data and archival and non-USGS reports on each AOI, and these data are available from the Afghanistan Geological Survey Data Center in Kabul (http://mom.gov.af/en/ and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/) and for viewing and download on the USGS public Web site and in a separate viewer at http://mapdss2.er.usgs.gov/.

Peters, Stephen G.; King, Trude V.V.; Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.

2011-01-01

380

Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.  

PubMed

Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100 %, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100 % in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76 % after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed. PMID:25391230

Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

2014-11-13

381

Insecticide residues in soil and water in coastal areas of vegetable production in Togo.  

PubMed

Some common organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides were analysed in agricultural soil samples (n?=?35) and surface water and groundwater samples (n?=?25) collected from coastal areas of vegetable production in Togo. Analytical methods included solvent extraction of the insecticide residues and their subsequent quantification using GC-ECD. ?-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, 4,4-DDE, endosulphan (?, ? and sulphate), lambda-cyalothrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the soil samples with concentrations that varied from non-detectable (ND) to 26.93 ?g kg(-1) dry weight. For water samples, heptachlor epoxide, 2,4-DDD, 4,4-DDD, 4,4-DDE and endosulphan (?, ?, and sulphate) were found at contamination levels that varied from ND to 0.116 ?g L(-1). The concentration of insecticide residues detected in the water samples was below the limits set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and also by the European Union (EU), with the exception of the concentration of endosulphan sulphate at the Aného site, which was 0.116 ?g L(-1). PMID:25034236

Mawussi, Gbénonchi; Scorza Júnior, Rômulo P; Dossa, Ekwe L; Alaté, Koffi-Kouma Akouété

2014-11-01

382

Terminal Area Productivity Airport Wind Analysis and Chicago O'Hare Model Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two results from a continuing effort to provide accurate cost-benefit analyses of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program technologies. Previous tasks have developed airport capacity and delay models and completed preliminary cost benefit estimates for TAP technologies at 10 U.S. airports. This task covers two improvements to the capacity and delay models. The first improvement is the completion of a detailed model set for the Chicago O'Hare (ORD) airport. Previous analyses used a more general model to estimate the benefits for ORD. This paper contains a description of the model details with results corresponding to current conditions. The second improvement is the development of specific wind speed and direction criteria for use in the delay models to predict when the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) will allow use of reduced landing separations. This paper includes a description of the criteria and an estimate of AVOSS utility for 10 airports based on analysis of 35 years of weather data.

Hemm, Robert; Shapiro, Gerald

1998-01-01

383

Economics of Mechanical Cotton Harvesting in the High Plains Cotton Area of Texas.  

E-print Network

in the High Plains cotton area of Texas is highly mechanized except for some hand hoeing and much of the harvesting. Some growers rely on mechanical strippers to harvest their entire crop. Others use hand labor to harvest cotton that matures before frost... operation and harvesting conditions. Mechanical stripping is confined to the period after frost has killed the plants. Open cotton left standing in the field is subject to weather damage. Therefore, hand harvested cotton before frost grades higher than...

Rogers, Ralph H.; Morgan, Quevedo Martin; Williamson, M. N. (Marion Newton)

1951-01-01

384

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gasses in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters.

Northrup, M. Allen (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA); Raley, Norman F. (Danville, CA)

1999-01-01

385

Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size  

DOEpatents

Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

1999-03-16

386

Irrigated Area Mapping in The Northern High Plains of Texas Using Landsat Thematic Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irrigated agriculture in the Texas High Plains accounts for a major portion of the groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer, and groundwater levels are declining. Accurate information on irrigated acreage and its spatial distribution enhances local groundwater districts’ ability to manage limited water resources. In addition, irrigated land area is one of the important inputs in most surface and groundwater models to evaluate economic feasibility for various crop rotations systems and irrigation management practices. In this study, we used a novel approach to derive an irrigated area map covering a 4-county area (Dallam, Sherman, Hartley, and Moore Counties) in the northwest region of the Texas High Plains from a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper image acquired on August 13, 2008. The spectral band ratios and vegetation indices were used to define threshold value for the irrigated pixels. The hierarchical rule-based decision tree classification algorithm was employed to delineate final irrigated class. Ground truth data collected for accuracy assessment included land cover type, irrigation practices and their geographic locations using a global positioning system. Accuracy assessment of the irrigated area map indicated that we achieved an overall mapping accuracy of 96% with omission and commission errors at 9% and 8%, respectively, which are mainly due to clouds and shadows of clouds. Irrigated acreages of summer crops derived from the TM image closely matched with that from agricultural statistical reports for the 4-county area. At present, a spring image is being processed to identify irrigated area planted with winter wheat in the study area. The combined irrigated area map will be used in the comprehensive regional analysis of groundwater depletion in the Ogallala Aquifer Region with the purpose of understanding short- and long-term effects of existing and alternative land use scenarios on groundwater changes.

Biradar, C. M.; Gowda, P. H.; Hernandez, J. E.; Howell, T. A.; Marek, T. H.; Xiao, X.

2009-12-01

387

Innovative production technology in aircraft construction: CIAM Forming 'made by MBB' - A highly productive example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel production technology in aircraft construction was developed for manufacturing parts of shapes and dimensions that involve only small quantities for one machine. The process, called computerized integrated and automated manufacturing (CIAM), makes it possible to make ready-to-install sheet-metal parts for all types of aircraft. All of the system's job sequences, which include milling the flat sheet-metal parts in stacks, deburring, heat treatment, and forming under the high-pressure rubber-pad press, are automated. The CIAM production center, called SIAM Forming, fulfills the prerequisites for the cost-effective production of sheet-metal parts made of aluminum alloys, titanium, or steel. The SIAM procedure results in negligible material loss through computerizing both component-contour nesting of the sheet-metal parts and contour milling.

388

Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics  

E-print Network

Large area, high resolution, dry printing of conducting polymers for organic electronics Graciela B for electronics. We illustrate the viability of thermal imaging and imageable organics conductors by printing, these difficulties may be surpassed and the vision of printing of organic electronics devices in a press may come

Rogers, John A.

389

Degradation behavior of high surface area calcium hydroxide sorbent for SO 2 removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation behavior of a calcium hydroxide sorbent for SO2 removal was investigated in terms of microstructure and crystal phase change. Hydrated lime sorbents with a high surface area were prepared by hydration of Diethylene glycol-coated quicklime. A durability test for sorbents was carried out in a consistent chamber condition at a temperature of 50°C and a humidity level of

Hyun-Gyoo Shin; Hwan Kim; Taimin Noh; Dowan Kim; Yong-Nam Kim

2011-01-01

390

Satellite snow cover monitoring and snowmelt runoff prediction in the high alpine area of northwestern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The headwaters of the Yellow River are located in the high alpine area of the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. The meltwater from the snow cover is the main water supply for the river during springtime. In this paper, the data of the NOAA meteorological satellite were used for monitoring the dynamics of the snow cover on a large scale,

CHEN XIANZHANG; ZENG QUNZHU; LAN YONGCHAO

391

The Differentiation of High School Students in Vocational Education Areas by the Ohio Vocational Interest Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a preliminary validation and to determine whether the Ohio Vocational Interest Survey (OVIS) could discriminate among the interests of high school students in six vocational areas (agriculture, distributive education, home economics, health, office, and trade and industrial), the OVIS was administered to 2,387 seniors in 24 schools…

D'Costa, Ayres G. J. E.

392

Recurrent Diarrhea in Children Living in Areas with High Levels of Nitrate in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that there was documented evidence of an association between diarrhea and high nitrate ingestion, the authors examined drinking water nitrate concentration and its possible correlation(s) with methemoglobin levels, cytochrome b5 reductase activity, and recurrent diarrhea. In addition, the authors studied histopathological changes in the intestines of rabbits in an animal model. Five village areas were studied, and nitrate concentrations

Sunil Kumar Gupta; Ramesh C. Gupta; Akhilendra B. Gupta; Asmok K. Seth; Jagdegsh K. Bassin; Alka Gupta; Mohan L. Sharma

2001-01-01

393

Burst Swimming in Areas of High Flow: Delayed Consequences of Anaerobiosis in Wild Adult Sockeye Salmon  

E-print Network

carryover effects on wild aquatic animals. Introduction Reproductive migrations are challenging life000 Burst Swimming in Areas of High Flow: Delayed Consequences of Anaerobiosis in Wild Adult2 Collin T. Middleton2 Samantha M. Wilson2 Steven J. Cooke2 1 Fish Ecology and Conservation

Hinch, Scott G.

394

Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

2012-01-01

395

The New Orleans-Katrina Case for New Federal Policies and Programs for High Risk Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the federal government's programs and policies and how these policies encourage urban growth in areas having relatively high risk potential for recurring natural disasters. While Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and local authorities respond to emergency situations during crisis events, this paper explores the concept that such disasters, and additional emerging loss of life and property, could

John S. Baen; Sofia V. Dermisi

396

Strong and tough cellulose nanopaper with high specific surface area and porosity.  

PubMed

In order to better understand nanostructured fiber networks, effects from high specific surface area of nanofibers are important to explore. For cellulose networks, this has so far only been achieved in nonfibrous regenerated cellulose aerogels. Here, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used to prepare high surface area nanopaper structures, and the mechanical properties are measured in tensile tests. The water in NFC hydrogels is exchanged to liquid CO2, supercritical CO2, and tert-butanol, followed by evaporation, supercritical drying, and sublimation, respectively. The porosity range is 40-86%. The nanofiber network structure in nanopaper is characterized by FE-SEM and nitrogen adsorption, and specific surface area is determined. High-porosity TEMPO-oxidized NFC nanopaper (56% porosity) prepared by critical point drying has a specific surface area as high as 482 m(2) g(-1). The mechanical properties of this nanopaper structure are better than for many thermoplastics, but at a significantly lower density of only 640 kg m(-3). The modulus is 1.4 GPa, tensile strength 84 MPa, and strain-to-failure 17%. Compared with water-dried nanopaper, the material is softer with substantiallly different deformation behavior. PMID:21888417

Sehaqui, Houssine; Zhou, Qi; Ikkala, Olli; Berglund, Lars A

2011-10-10

397

Large-Area Chemical and Biological Decontamination Using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for quickly decontaminating large areas exposed to chemical and biological (CB) warfare agents can present significant logistical, manpower, and waste management challenges. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pursuing an alternate method to decompose CB agents without the use of toxic chemicals or other potentially harmful substances. This process uses a high energy arc lamp (HEAL) system to photochemically

Chad E Duty; Rob R Smith; Arpad Alexander Vass; Ralph H Ilgner; Gilbert M Brown

2008-01-01

398

Identifying areas of high herpetofauna diversity that are threatened by planned infrastructure projects in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major task related to conservation is to predict if planned infrastructure projects are likely to threaten biodiversity. In this study we investigated the potential impact of planned infrastructure in Spain on amphibian and reptile species, two highly vulnerable groups given their limited dispersal and current situation of population decline. We used distribution data of both groups to identify areas

José M. Rey Benayas; Enrique De La Montaña; Josabel Belliure; Xavier R. Eekhout

2006-01-01

399

Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West Indies)  

E-print Network

of the French West Indies island of Guadeloupe. It has been the subject of a large number of studies covering are part of the French West Indies (Figure 1) that lie on the Lesser Antilles island arc (Andreieff1 Hydrogeological model of a high energy geothermal field (Bouillante area, Guadeloupe, French West

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Tuberculosis transmission in a high incidence area: A retrospective molecular epidemiological study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Casablanca, Morocco Loubna Tazi a,*, Ralf Reintjes b,c , Anne-Laure Ban in most developing countries, tuberculosis represents a major public health problem in Morocco. This paper

401

High-Performance Wide-Area Optical Tracking: The HiBall Tracking System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1980s, the Tracker Project at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been working on wide-area head tracking for virtual and augmented environments. Our long-term goal has been to achieve the high performance re- quired for accurate visual simulation throughout our entire laboratory, beyond into the hallways, and eventually even outdoors.

Greg Welch; Gary Bishop; Leandra Vicci; Stephen Brumback; Kurtis Keller; D'nardo Colucci

2001-01-01

402

IDENTIFICATION OF AUSTRALIAN POULTRY REARING AREAS AT HIGH RISK OF EXPOSURE TO AVIAN INFLUENZA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is most likely to enter Australia via migratory shorebirds returning from Asia and become established through transfer to native waterfowl in shared ecosystems. Analysis of the location of wild bird habitat and abundance of wild bird species identified areas of highest risk for HPAI introduction and establishment. The proximity of poultry farms to

I. J. East; S. A. Hamilton; M. G. Garner

403

Myocardial Infarction Area Quantification using High-Resolution SPECT Images in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Imaging techniques enable in vivo sequential assessment of the morphology and function of animal organs in experimental models. We developed a device for high-resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging based on an adapted pinhole collimator. Objective To determine the accuracy of this system for quantification of myocardial infarct area in rats. Methods Thirteen male Wistar rats (250 g) underwent experimental myocardial infarction by occlusion of the left coronary artery. After 4 weeks, SPECT images were acquired 1.5 hours after intravenous injection of 555 MBq of 99mTc-Sestamibi. The tomographic reconstruction was performed by using specially developed software based on the Maximum Likelihood algorithm. The analysis of the data included the correlation between the area of perfusion defects detected by scintigraphy and extent of myocardial fibrosis assessed by histology. Results The images showed a high target organ/background ratio with adequate visualization of the left ventricular walls and cavity. All animals presenting infarction areas were correctly identified by the perfusion images. There was no difference of the infarct area as measured by SPECT (21.1 ± 21.2%) and by histology (21.7 ± 22.0%; p=0.45). There was a strong correlation between individual values of the area of infarction measured by these two methods. Conclusion The developed system presented adequate spatial resolution and high accuracy for the detection and quantification of myocardial infarction areas, consisting in a low cost and versatile option for high-resolution SPECT imaging of small rodents. PMID:23917507

de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; Mejia, Jorge; de Carvalho, Eduardo Elias Vieira; Lataro, Renata Maria; Frassetto, Sarita Nasbine; Fazan, Rubens; Salgado, Hélio Cesar; Galvis-Alonso, Orfa Yineth; Simões, Marcus Vinícius

2013-01-01

404

The 2GCHAS: A high productivity software development environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To the user, the most visible feature of the Transportable Applications Executive (TAE) is its very powerful user interface. To the programmer, TAE's user interface, proc concept, standardized interface definitions, and hierarchy search provide a set of tools for rapidly prototyping or developing production software. The 2GCHAS (Second Generation Comprehensive Helicopter Analysis System) project has extended and enhanced these mechanisms, creating a powerful and high productivity programming environment where the 2GCHAS development environment is 2GCHAS itself and where a sustained rate for certified, documented, and tested software above 30 delivered source instructions per programmer day has been achieved. The 2GCHAS environment is not limited to helicopter analysis, but is applicable to other disciplines where software development is important.

Babb, Larry

1986-01-01

405

Investigation of Rare Particle Production in High Energy Nuclear Collisions  

SciTech Connect

Our program is an investigation of the hadronization process through measurement of rare particle production in high energy nuclear interactions. Such collisions of heavy nuclei provide an environment similar in energy density to the conditions in the Big Bang. We are currently involved in two major experiments to study this environment, E896 at the AGS and STAR at RHIC. We have completed our physics running of E896, a search for the H dibaryon and measurement of hyperon production in AuAu collisions, and are in the process of analyzing the data. We have produced the electronics and software for the STAR trigger and will begin to use these tools to search for anti-nuclei and strange hadrons when RHIC turns on later this year.

None

1999-09-02

406

Large-area and uniform plasma production by rotating mode radial line slot antennas with densely arrayed slots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-area and uniform plasma production is of crucial importance for achieving large-scaled material processing. In particular, with the progress of memory sizes of micro-processors, the uniformity of plasma parameters over large-area is a serious problem for completing sub-micrometer ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) circuits. On the other hand, it is desirable to control the plasma profiles directly only by the microwave antenna

Tetsuya Yamamoto; Mitsuhiro Ono; Masaharu Takahashi; Makoto Ando; Naohisa Goto; Yasuyoshi Yasaka; N. Ishii

2001-01-01

407

Synergy Between Ground Measurements and High Spatial Resolution Imagery to Validate Medium Spatial Resolution Land Surface Product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, several biophysical variables such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR) and the surface albedo are derived from remote sensing observations acquired with medium spatial resolution sensors (250m to 7km). Because of their high temporal frequency and their important spatial coverage, these products are very useful to describe the mass and energy

S. Garrigues; J. Morisette; F. Baret; J. Privette

2005-01-01

408

Microwave-and Nitronium Ion-Enabled Rapid and Direct Production of Highly Conductive Low-Oxygen Graphene  

E-print Network

for large-scale production of solution-processable graphene is via a nonconductive graphene oxide (GO and directly produce large, highly conductive graphene sheets. This approach intentionally excludes KMnO4 from of its excellent electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, and its large surface area and low mass

Garfunkel, Eric

409

Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

2012-06-01

410

Combination of geophysical prospecting techniques into areas of high protection value: Identification of shallow volcanic structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timanfaya National Park is a volcanic area located in the southwest of Lanzarote Island (Canary Islands, Spain). Several lava tubes have been found in the lava flows but many others remain unknown. Its location and identification are important to mitigate collapse hazards in this touristic area. We present a new study about the location of recent lava tubes by the analysis and joint interpretation of ground penetrating radar (GPR), microgravity and electromagnetic induction (EMI) data along the same profile over an area not previously surveyed. GPR data display a complex pattern of reflections up to ~ 10 m depth. The strongest hyperbolic reflections can be grouped in four different areas. Visual inspections carried out in the field allow confirming the occurrence of lava tubes at two of them. These reflections have been interpreted as the effect of the roof and bottom interfaces of several lava tubes. The microgravity survey defines a wide gravity low with several over-imposed minor highs and lows. Using the GPR data, a 2.5D gravity model has been obtained revealing four lava tubes. EMI data have been used to obtain an inverted resistivity model that displays four high resistivity areas that closely match the locations of the lava tubes derived from the previous methods. This resistivity model exhibits the lower resolution although reaches a deeper investigation depth (~ 20 m). The comparison of the results has revealed that joint interpretation of GPR, microgravity and EMI methods provides reliable models useful for the detection of unknown shallow lava tubes.

Gómez-Ortiz, David; Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Martín-Crespo, Tomás; Solla, Mercedes; Arnoso, José; Vélez, Emilio

2014-10-01

411

Central Exclusive Particle Production at High Energy Hadron Colliders  

SciTech Connect

We review the subject of central exclusive particle production at high energy hadron colliders. In particular we consider reactions of the type A + B {yields} A + X + B, where X is a fully specified system of particles that is well separated in rapidity from the outgoing beam particles. We focus on the case where the colliding particles are strongly interacting and mainly they will be protons (or antiprotons) as at the ISR, Sp{bar p}S, Tevatron and LHC. The data are surveyed and placed within the context of theoretical developments.

Albrow, M.G.; /Fermilab; Coughlin, T.D.; /University Coll. London; Forshaw, J.R.; /Manchester U.

2010-06-01

412

Incinerator for the high speed combustion of waste products  

SciTech Connect

A high speed combustion incinerator is described comprising: a burner which includes a fuel tank, a mixer, and a controller for controlling the amount of the fuel and the air flow; a burner furnace; an incinerator means which includes mainly an outer pipe, an intermediate pipe, and an inner pipe which are all of transverse cylindrical shape. A neck portion on the right side of the inner pipe is of a truncated conical shape and is connected to the burning furnace; a preheating chamber located on the outer pipe of the incinerator means; and a conveyor located in the preheating chamber for conveying waste product to be burned into the incinerator means.

Chang, S.F.

1986-12-30

413

Multi-lepton production at high transverse momentum at HERA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A search for events containing two or more high-transverse-momentum isolated leptons has been performed in ep collisions with the ZEUS detector at HERA using the full collected data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 480 pb-1. The number of observed events has been compared with the prediction from the Standard Model, searching for possible deviations, especially for multi-lepton events with invariant mass larger than 100 GeV. Good agreement with the Standard Model has been observed. Total and differential cross sections for di-lepton production have been measured in a restricted phase space dominated by photon-photon collisions.

Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Jüngst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Paul, E.; Samson, U.; Schönberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Morris, J. D.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Kamaluddin, B.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bo?d, T.; Grabowska-Bo?d, I.; Kisielewska, D.; ?ukasik, J.; Przybycie?, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kota?ski, A.; S?omi?ski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Bot, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fang, S.; Geiser, A.; Göttlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hüttmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Löhr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Tomaszewska, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, P.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Zolko, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Terrón, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Zhou, C.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vázquez, M.; Wiggers, L.; Brümmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Corso, F. Dal; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.; Ishitsuka, M.; Kanno, T.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Shimizu, S.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Martin, J. F.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; ?u?niak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; ?arnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Noor, U.; Whyte, J.; ZEUS Collaboration

2009-09-01

414

Video-rate structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput imaging of large tissue areas  

PubMed Central

We report the development of a structured illumination microscopy instrument specifically designed for the requirements for high-area-throughput, optically-sectioned imaging of large, fluorescently-stained tissue specimens. The system achieves optical sectioning frame-rates of up to 33 Hz (and pixel sampling rates of up to 138.4 MHz), by combining a fast, ferroelectric spatial light modulator for pattern generation with the latest large-format, high frame-rate scientific CMOS camera technology. Using a 10X 0.45 NA objective and a 7 mm/sec scan stage, we demonstrate 4.4 cm2/min area-throughput rates in bright tissue-simulating phantoms, and 2 cm2/min area-throughput rates in thick, highly-absorbing, fluorescently-stained muscle tissue, with 1.3 ?m lateral resolution. We demonstrate high-contrast, high-resolution imaging of a fluorescently-stained 30.4 cm2 bovine muscle specimen in 15 minutes comprising 7.55 gigapixels, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach for gigapixel imaging of large tissues in short timeframes, such as would be needed for intraoperative imaging of tumor resection specimens. PMID:24575333

Schlichenmeyer, Tyler C.; Wang, Mei; Elfer, Katherine N.; Brown, J. Quincy

2014-01-01

415

Controllable and Rapid Synthesis of High-Quality and Large-Area Bernal Stacked Bilayer Graphene Using Chemical Vapor Deposition  

E-print Network

Controllable and Rapid Synthesis of High-Quality and Large-Area Bernal Stacked Bilayer Graphene graphene. This work introduces a fast and reliable method of growing high-quality Bernal stacked large-area for a large number (>50) of dual-gated FETs fabricated at random across the large-area bilayer graphene film

416

Assembly of BaTiO3 nanocrystals into macroscopic aerogel monoliths with high surface area.  

PubMed

Aerogels with their low density and high surface area are fascinating materials. However, their advantageous morphology is still far from being fully exploited owing to their limited compositional variety and low crystallinity. Replacing the sol-gel process by a particle-based assembly route is a powerful alternative to expand the accessible functionalities of aerogels. A strategy is presented for the controlled destabilization of concentrated dispersions of BaTiO3 nanoparticles, resulting in the assembly of the fully crystalline building blocks into cylindrically shaped monolithic gels, thereby combining the inherent properties of ternary oxides with the highly porous microstructure of aerogels. The obtained aerogels showed an unprecedentedly high surface area of over 300?m(2) ?g(-1). PMID:24853124

Rechberger, Felix; Heiligtag, Florian J; Süess, Martin J; Niederberger, Markus

2014-06-23

417

Geological and geochemical characteristics of high arsenic coals from endemic arsenosis areas in southwestern Guizhou Province, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Southwest Guizhou Province is one of the most important areas of disseminated, sediment-hosted-type Au deposits in China and is an important area of coal production. The chemistry of most of the coals in SW Guizhou is similar to those in other parts of China. Their As content is near the Chinese coal average, but some local, small coal mines contain high As coals. The highest As content is up to 3.5 wt.% in the coal. The use of high As coals has caused in excess of 3000 cases of As poisoning in several villages. The high As coals are in the Longtan formation, which is an alternating marine facies and terrestrial facies. The coals are distributed on both sides of faults that parallel the regional anticlinal axis. The As content of coal is higher closer to the fault plane. The As content of coal changes greatly in different coal beds and different locations of the same bed. Geological structures such as anticlines, faults and sedimentary strata control the distribution of high As coals. Small Au deposits as well as Sb, Hg, and Th mineralization, are found near the high As coals. Although some As-bearing minerals such as pyrite, arsenopyrite, realgar (?), As-bearing sulfate, As-bearing clays, and phosphate are found in the high As coals, their contents cannot account for the abundance of As in some coals. Analysis of the coal indicates that As mainly exists in the form of As5+ and As3+, perhaps, combined with organic compounds. The occurrence of such exceptionally high As contents in coal and the fact that the As is dominantly organically associated are unique observations. ?? 201 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Ding, Z.; Zheng, B.; Long, J.; Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Chen, C.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.

2001-01-01

418

Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522  

SciTech Connect

'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 ?Sv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 ?Sv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 ?Sv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The seasonal dependence of radon activity concentration is observed in the air of workshops (radon levels are lower in winter in comparison with spring-summer period). - in drinking water, intervention levels by gross alpha activity and by some radionuclides, in particular by Rn-222, are in excess. Annual effective dose of internal exposure due to ingestion of such water will be 0.14-0.28 mSv. (authors)

Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V. [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [FSBI SRC A.I. Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of FMBA of Russia, Zhivopisnaya Street, 46, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, L.A. [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation)] [FSHE 'Centre of Hygiene and Epidemiology no. 107' under FMBA of Russia (Russian Federation); Marenny, A.M. [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)] [Ltd 'Radiation and Environmental Researches' (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

419

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag.

Hubble, David H. (Export, PA); Ulrich, Klaus H. (Duisburg, DE)

1998-01-01

420

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-04-21

421

Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel  

DOEpatents

A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

1998-09-22

422

Assessing landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources in a mediterranean area.  

PubMed

We used a fire simulation modeling approach to assess landscape scale wildfire exposure for highly valued resources and assets (HVR) on a fire-prone area of 680 km(2) located in central Sardinia, Italy. The study area was affected by several wildfires in the last half century: some large and intense fire events threatened wildland urban interfaces as well as other socioeconomic and cultural values. Historical wildfire and weather data were used to inform wildfire simulations, which were based on the minimum travel time algorithm as implemented in FlamMap. We simulated 90,000 fires that replicated recent large fire events in the area spreading under severe weather conditions to generate detailed maps of wildfire likelihood and intensity. Then, we linked fire modeling outputs to a geospatial risk assessment framework focusing on buffer areas around HVR. The results highlighted a large variation in burn probability and fire intensity in the vicinity of HVRs, and allowed us to identify the areas most exposed to wildfires and thus to a higher potential damage. Fire intensity in the HVR buffers was mainly related to fuel types, while wind direction, topographic features, and historically based ignition pattern were the key factors affecting fire likelihood. The methodology presented in this work can have numerous applications, in the study area and elsewhere, particularly to address and inform fire risk management, landscape planning and people safety on the vicinity of HVRs. PMID:25613434

Alcasena, Fermín J; Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A; Arca, Bachisio; Molina, Domingo; Spano, Donatella

2015-05-01

423

Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas are defined as areas with reported or estimated incidence of 20 cases per 100,000  

E-print Network

Countries with Estimated or Reported Tuberculosis Incidence, 2009 "High Incidence" areas Niger Swaziland Source: World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory, Tuberculosis Incidence 2009. For future updates , refer to http://apps.who.int/ghodata/?vid=510 Tuberculosis Screening

Myers, Lawrence C.

424

Large-area Ice Sheet and Sea Ice mapping from High-altitude Aircraft: Examples from the LVIS Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High altitude airborne surveys of remote polar regions is a relatively recent addition to the remote sensing capabilities serving the Cryospheric science community. The NASA/GSFC-developed airborne sensor, LVIS (Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor) is a wide-swath, full-waveform laser altimeter system that produces large-area topographic maps with the highest levels of accuracy and precision. Recent data collections in support of NASA's Operation IceBridge over Antarctica and Greenland have demonstrated the extraordinary mapping capability of the LVIS sensor. Areal coverage is accumulated at a rate of > 1,000 sq. km/hr with repeatability of the surface elevation measurements at the decimeter level. With this new capability come new applications, new insights, the ability to fully capture the spatial extent and variability of changes occurring in highly dynamic areas, and enhanced input into ice sheet models. One example is over 7,000 sq. km collected over the Antarctic Peninsula in just 7 hours from 40,000 ft on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. The wide swath and dense coverage enabled by the LVIS sensor results in significant overlap with legacy ICESat data permitting statistically powerful comparisons and eliminate the need for interpolation or slope corrections. Several examples of ICESat comparisons and change detection between LVIS data takes and other topographic data sets will be presented . Further, a description of the LVIS waveform vector data product and examples of advanced data products and analysis techniques with be shown. A fully-autonomous version of LVIS is now under development (LVIS-GH) for use in the Global Hawk aircraft. Long duration flights over remote areas will be possible with this sensor. Testing on the Global Hawk UAV is scheduled for the Summer of 2011. The LVIS data are freely available from the NSIDC website (http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/) and the LVIS website (https://lvis.gsfc.nasa.gov).

Blair, J. B.; Hofton, M. A.; Rabine, D. L.

2010-12-01

425

Projecting future grassland productivity to assess the sustainability of potential biofuel feedstock areas in the Greater Platte River Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study projects future (e.g., 2050 and 2099) grassland productivities in the Greater Platte River Basin (GPRB) using ecosystem performance (EP, a surrogate for measuring ecosystem productivity) models and future climate projections. The EP models developed from a previous study were based on the satellite vegetation index, site geophysical and biophysical features, and weather and climate drivers. The future climate data used in this study were derived from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model 3.0 ‘SRES A1B’ (a ‘middle’ emissions path). The main objective of this study is to assess the future sustainability of the potential biofuel feedstock areas identified in a previous study. Results show that the potential biofuel feedstock areas (the more mesic eastern part of the GPRB) will remain productive (i.e., aboveground grassland biomass productivity >2750 kg ha?1 year?1) with a slight increasing trend in the future. The spatially averaged EPs for these areas are 3519, 3432, 3557, 3605, 3752, and 3583 kg ha?1 year?1 for current site potential (2000–2008 average), 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099, respectively. Therefore, the identified potential biofuel feedstock areas will likely continue to be sustainable for future biofuel development. On the other hand, grasslands identified as having no biofuel potential in the drier western part of the GPRB would be expected to stay unproductive in the future (spatially averaged EPs are 1822, 1691, 1896, 2306, 1994, and 2169 kg ha?1 year?1 for site potential, 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050, and 2099). These areas should continue to be unsuitable for biofuel feedstock development in the future. These future grassland productivity estimation maps can help land managers to understand and adapt to the expected changes in future EP in the GPRB and to assess the future sustainability and feasibility of potential biofuel feedstock areas.

Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce K.; Boyte, Stephen; Phyual, Khem

2014-01-01

426

Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. I - Plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a test plant with a hydrogen-production capacity of 4 cu Nm\\/hour based on a high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolyzer is discussed, and results of corrosion tests on metallic materials for plant construction are presented. The test plant electrolyzer was designed and constructed on the basis of the construction and testing of a series of bench-scale electrolyzers operating at

I. Abe; T. Fujimaki; Y. Kajiwara; Y. Yokoo

1981-01-01

427

Hydrogen production by high temperature, high pressure water electrolysis. III - Design and construction of test plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and construction of a test plant of hydrogen capacity 4 cu Nm\\/hour based on high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis which was built to obtain technical data for the construction of a 20-cu Nm\\/hour pilot plant are outlined. The test plant is a forced circulation system comprised of an electrolyzer, electrolyte circulation line, gas-liquid separator, hydrogen\\/oxygen production gas line, measurement

Y. Kajiwara; S. Maezawa; K. Matsunaga

1981-01-01

428

Strategies and Attributes of Highly Productive Scholars and Contributors to the School Psychology Literature: Recommendations for Increasing Scholarly Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In all academic fields, there are scholars who contribute to the research literature at exceptionally high levels. The goal of the current study was to discover what school psychology researchers with remarkably high levels of journal publication do to be so productive. In Study 1, 94 highly productive school psychology scholars were identified…

Martinez, Rebecca S.; Floyd, Randy G.; Erichsen, Luke W.

2011-01-01

429

Troll high rate production test, planning and execution  

SciTech Connect

The high rate production test performed by Norsk Hydro on the Troll East structure during the summer of 1985 with the semi submersible drilling rig Treasure Seeker required that a large number of specially designed, modified or adapted equipment items were used in order to fulfil the objectives and maintain safe operations. These were: Jetting tool for casing cleaning; Gravel pack floor manifold to ease operations; Surface read out of downhole pressure and temperature through cable on the outside of the tubing; 3 inch I.D. tester valve; 3.7 inch I.D. annulus pressure operated kill valve; Full bore double gauge carrier; 5 inch I.D. sub-sea test valve; 5 inch I.D. lubricator valve; 5 1/8 inch bore flowhead; Vertical high capacity separator; 32 channel data logger. The use of this equipment together with other more commonly used equipment made the test a success.

Nilssen, B.H.

1987-01-01

430

Calibration methodology application of kerma area product meters in situ: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kerma-area product (KAP) is a useful quantity to establish the reference levels of conventional X-ray examinations. It can be obtained by measurements carried out with a KAP meter on a plane parallel transmission ionization chamber mounted on the X-ray system. A KAP meter can be calibrated in laboratory or in situ, where it is used. It is important to use one reference KAP meter in order to obtain reliable quantity of doses on the patient. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) is a new equipment from Radcal that measures KAP. It was manufactured following the IEC 60580 recommendations, an international standard for KAP meters. This study had the aim to calibrate KAP meters using the PDC in situ. Previous studies and the quality control program of the PDC have shown that it has good function in characterization tests of dosimeters with ionization chamber and it also has low energy dependence. Three types of KAP meters were calibrated in four different diagnostic X-ray equipments. The voltages used in the two first calibrations were 50 kV, 70 kV, 100 kV and 120 kV. The other two used 50 kV, 70 kV and 90 kV. This was related to the equipments limitations. The field sizes used for the calibration were 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm. The calibrations were done in three different cities with the purpose to analyze the reproducibility of the PDC. The results gave the calibration coefficient for each KAP meter and showed that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument to calibrate clinical KAP meters.

Costa, N. A.; Potiens, M. P. A.

2014-11-01

431

Urban scale atmospheric inversion of CO2 emissions using a high-density surface tower network over Indianapolis area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Greenhouse Gas emissions from urban areas represent a significant fraction of the overall release of fossil fuel CO2 from the surface of the globe into the atmosphere. Several ongoing efforts attempt to quantify these emissions over a few major cities across the world (i.e. Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Paris, London, Salt Lake City,...) and demonstrate the concept of atmospheric monitoring of city emissions. The accuracy of the method will highly depend on the inverse modeling framework. The atmospheric transport model and the probabilities assumed in the a priori will be used to extract the information content of surface emissions at very fine scales. But incorrect assumptions in the background emissions and concentrations or systematic errors in the local dynamics can generate artificial trends and seasonal variability in the local emissions. The construction of unbiased atmospheric modeling systems and well-defined prior errors remains a critical step in atmospheric emissions monitoring over urban areas. We present here the first inverse emission estimates over Indianapolis using a high-density surface tower network of CO2 analyzers. In order to minimize transport model errors, we developed a WRF-Chem-FDDA modeling system ingesting surface and profile measurements of horizontal mean wind, temperature and moisture in addition to the original CO2 emissions and boundary conditions. The systematic improvement of the simulated atmospheric conditions thanks to the nudging system is critical to identify and retrieve source locations at high resolution over the area. We then present an ensemble of inverse fluxes generated from varying the configuration of the inverse system in order to more accurately represent the probability space, exploring the assumptions in the a priori (i.e. the prior local urban emissions and the background atmospheric concentrations). We finally discuss the detection of trends or changes in the spatial distribution of sources at decadal time scales using two high resolution emissions products (from the Hestia project) and land cover information coupled to the WRF-Chem-FDDA system.

Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Davis, K. J.; Deng, A.; Hardesty, R. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Gurney, K. R.; Karion, A.; Mcgowan, L. E.; Possolo, A.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Sarmiento, D.; Sweeney, C.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.

2013-12-01

432

Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect

A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2008-08-01

433

High level production of tyrosinase in recombinant Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Background Tyrosinase is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes both the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase activity) and the subsequent oxidation of the diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase activity). Due to the potential applications of tyrosinase in biotechnology, in particular in biocatalysis and for biosensors, it is desirable to develop a suitable low-cost process for efficient production of this enzyme. So far, the best production yield reported for tyrosinase was about 1?g?L-1, which was achieved by cultivating the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei for 6?days. Results In this work, tyrosinase from Verrucomicrobium spinosum was expressed in Escherichia coli and its production was studied in both batch and fed-batch cultivations. Effects of various key cultivation parameters on tyrosinase production were first examined in batch cultures to identify optimal conditions. It was found that a culture temperature of 32?°C and induction at the late growth stage were favorable, leading to a highest tyrosinase activity of 0.76 U mL-1. The fed-batch process was performed by using an exponential feeding strategy to achieve high cell density. With the fed-batch process, a final biomass concentration of 37?g?L-1 (based on optical density) and a tyrosinase activity of 13 U mL-1 were obtained in 28?hours, leading to a yield of active tyrosinase of about 3?g?L-1. The highest overall volumetric productivity of 103?mg of active tyrosinase per liter and hour (corresponding to 464?mU?L-1?h-1) was determined, which is approximately 15 times higher than that obtained in batch cultures. Conclusions We have successfully expressed and produced gram quantities per liter of active tyrosinase in recombinant E. coli by optimizing the expression conditions and fed-batch cultivation strategy. Exponential feed of substrate helped to prolong the exponential phase of growth, to reduce the fermentation time and thus the cost. A specific tyrosinase production rate of 103?mg?L?1?h?1 and a maximum volumetric activity of 464?mU?L?1?h-1 were achieved in this study. These levels have not been reported previously. PMID:23442796

2013-01-01

434

Production of High Value Fluorine Gases for the Semiconductor Industry  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry to manufacture high purity GeF{sub 4} and WF{sub 6} for use in the semiconductor industry using Starmet's new fluorine extraction technology has been developed. Production of GeF{sub 4} was established using a tube-style reactor system where conversion yields as high as 98.1% were attained for the reaction between and GeO{sub 2}. Collection of the fluoride gas improved to 97.7% when the reactor sweep gas contained a small fraction of dry air (10-12 vol%) along with helium. The lab-synthesized product was shown to contain the least amount of infrared active and elemental impurities when compared with a reference material certified at 99.99% purity. Analysis of the ''as-produced'' gas using ICP-MS showed that uranium could not be detected at a detection limit of 0.019ppm-wt. A process to make WF{sub 6} from WO{sub 2}, and UF{sub 4}, produced a WOF{sub 4} intermediate, which proved difficult to convert to tungsten hexafluoride using titanium fluoride as a fluorinating agent.

Bulko, J. B.

2003-10-23

435

High Throughput, Continuous, Mass Production of Photovoltaic Modules  

SciTech Connect

AVA Solar has developed a very low cost solar photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing process and has demonstrated the significant economic and commercial potential of this technology. This I & I Category 3 project provided significant assistance toward accomplishing these milestones. The original goals of this project were to design, construct and test a production prototype system, fabricate PV modules and test the module performance. The original module manufacturing costs in the proposal were estimated at $2/Watt. The objectives of this project have been exceeded. An advanced processing line was designed, fabricated and installed. Using this automated, high throughput system, high efficiency devices and fully encapsulated modules were manufactured. AVA Solar has obtained 2 rounds of private equity funding, expand to 50 people and initiated the development of a large scale factory for 100+ megawatts of annual production. Modules will be manufactured at an industry leading cost which will enable AVA Solar's modules to produce power that is cost-competitive with traditional energy resources. With low manufacturing costs and the ability to scale manufacturing, AVA Solar has been contacted by some of the largest customers in the PV industry to negotiate long-term supply contracts. The current market for PV has continued to grow at 40%+ per year for nearly a decade and is projected to reach $40-$60 Billion by 2012. Currently, a crystalline silicon raw material supply shortage is limiting growth and raising costs. Our process does not use silicon, eliminating these limitations.

Kurt Barth

2008-02-06

436

Temporal analysis of all high-resolution Mars imaging products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A meta-data analysis has been performed of high-resolution imagery that have been acquired over the last four decades from Mars. More specifically, we are interested in two independent image parameters, the time that each image was acquired and the spatial resolution with which the planetary region is mapped in the image. We are only interested in mapping changes in high-resolution images. We use two different upper thresholds to discriminate them from low-resolution images, twenty metres and a hundred metres per pixel. In order to be able to extract semantic information about the temporal and spatial distribution of high-resolution Martian imagery we adopt two grouping strategies. In the first, images are clustered according to the time period (counted in Martian Years) that they were acquired, so as to examine whether sporadic Martian phenomena can be identified (e.g. a new crater) from imagery that depict the same area in different time periods. In the second grouping, images are clustered according to the Martian season that they were acquired, so as to examine whether seasonal Martian phenomena can be identified from imagery that depict the same area during the same season. This analysis supports the hypothesis that there is sufficient coverage for both tasks, since the Martian surface has been mapped at least once in each epoch and more than twice since 2002 and for each season at least 10 % of Martian surface has been mapped at least three times. The resulting maps and graphical plots will be presented will provide additional detail to this report.

Sidiropoulos, P.; Muller, J.-P.

2014-04-01

437

Identifying areas of high herpetofauna diversity that are threatened by planned infrastructure projects in Spain.  

PubMed

A major task related to conservation is to predict if planned infrastructure projects are likely to threaten biodiversity. In this study we investigated the potential impact of planned infrastructure in Spain on amphibian and reptile species, two highly vulnerable groups given their limited dispersal and current situation of population decline. We used distribution data of both groups to identify areas of high herpetofauna diversity, and compared the locations of these areas with the locations of the planned road, high-speed train railway and water reservoir network. Four criteria were used for this identification: species richness, rarity, vulnerability, and a combined index of the three criteria. From a total of 1441 cells of 20 x 20 km, areas of high diversity were defined as those cells whose ranked values for the different criteria included either all species or all threatened species. The combined index provided the smallest number of cells needed to retain all threatened species (1.7 and 2.6% of the cells for amphibian and reptile species, respectively). Coincidences between these high diversity areas and cells including planned infrastructures-denominated 'alert planning units'-were 35.4% for amphibians and 31.2% for reptiles. Mitigation of the potential impacts would include actions such as barriers to animal access to roads and railways and ecoducts under these constructions. Our approach provides conservation authorities information that can be used to make decisions on habitat protection. A technique that identifies threats to herpetofauna before they occur is also likely to improve the chance of herpetofauna being protected. PMID:16253418

Benayas, José M Rey; Montaña, Enrique De La; Belliure, Josabel; Eekhout, Xavier R

2006-05-01

438

FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

439

MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH-EATING BIRDS FROM THE PINCHI LAKE AREA IN RELATION TO PRODUCTIVITY AND REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bald eagles and red-necked grebes were monitored from 2000 - 2002 on several lakes along the Pinchi fault, an area with a known source of geologic mercury and previous Hg mining (on Pinchi Lake), in an effort to discern whether increased Hg concentrations were affecting reproductive success and productivity. To determine whether or not Hg levels were elevated, fish tissues

Shari A. Weech; R. P. Bio; Tony M. Scheuhammer

440

Overview of water-saving potato production research for the semi-arid areas of Northern China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern China, potato makes a greater contribution to solve food problems, even though,frequent droughts, general water shortages and poor irrigation management often lead to low yields and poor tuber quality. Therefore, water-saving potato production plays an imp...

441

Specific gravity — dry matter relationship and reducing sugar changes affected by potato variety, production area and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of the specific gravity-dry matter relationship in potato tubers is affected by factors such as variety, area of production and storage conditions. Previous work reported by Woodbury and Weinheimer (10) showed that regression coefficients for percent dry matter on specific gravity increased with storage length. Ross and co-workers (8) reported an increase in percent dry matter for a

William M. Agle; G. W. Woodbury

1968-01-01