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1

Management of Replacement Heifers for a High Reproductive and Calving Rate.  

E-print Network

- TDOC - Z TA24S.7 B873 no.1213 Management of 8-1213 Replacement Heifers for a High Reproductive and Calving Rate Texas Agricultural Extension Service. The Texas A&M University System. Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director. College Station, Texas... (Blaok Page m O,rigiaal BuBetiol . " .'f- . .; 1:: i -: . . . : . ~: 1 9 Management of Replacement Heifers for a High Reproductive and Calving Rate John R. Beverly and John C. Spitzer* Profitable beef production requires producing maximum...

Beverly, John R.; Spitzer, John C.

1980-01-01

2

High rates of pregnancy loss by subordinates leads to high reproductive skew in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)  

PubMed Central

Across taxa, cooperative breeding has been associated with high reproductive skew. Cooperatively breeding golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) were long thought to have a monogynous mating system in which reproduction was limited to a single dominant female. Subordinates with few reproductive opportunities delayed dispersal and remained in the natal group to provide alloparental care to siblings, thus allowing dominant reproductive females to meet the energetic needs associated with high rates of reproduction and successful infant rearing. The goal of this study was to re-assess monogyny in wild golden lion tamarin groups based upon pregnancy diagnoses that used non-invasive enzyme immunoassay for progesterone and cortisol, combined with weekly data on individual weight gain, bi-annual physical examinations noting pregnancy and lactation status and daily behavioral observations. We established quantitative and qualitative criteria to detect and determine the timing of pregnancies that did not result in the birth of infants. Pregnancy polygyny occurred in 83% of golden lion tamarin groups studied. The loss of 64% of subordinate pregnancies compared to only 15% by dominant females limited reproductive success mainly to dominant females, thus maintaining high reproductive skew in female golden lion tamarins. Pregnancy loss by subordinate adults did not appear to result from dominant interference in subordinate hormonal mechanisms, but more likely resulted from subordinate abandonment of newborn infants to mitigate dominant aggression. PMID:23454002

Henry, MaLinda D.; Hankerson, Sarah J.; Siani, Jennifer M.; French, Jeffrey A.; Dietz, James M.

2013-01-01

3

Variation in the reproductive rate of bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many respects, bats have relatively slow life histories. However, the reproductive rate of bats (i.e., the proportion of females that reproduce in any breeding season) has not been critically examined. We compiled data on the reproductive rates of bats to test predictions based on life-history theory. Among 257 samples from 103 species, re - productive rate varied considerably and

Robert M. R. Barclay; Joel Ulmer; Cameron J. A. MacKenzie; Megan S. Thompson; Leif Olson; Julianne McCool; Elvie Cropley; Graeme Poll

2004-01-01

4

Ejaculate components delay reproductive senescence while elevating female reproductive rate in an insect  

PubMed Central

Increased female reproductive rates usually result in accelerated senescence. This correlation provides a link between the evolutionary conflict of the sexes and aging when ejaculate components elevate female reproductive rates at the cost of future reproduction. It is not clear whether this female cost is manifest as shorter lifespan or an earlier onset or a steeper rate of reproductive senescence. It also is unclear whether beneficial ejaculates release females from reproductive trade-offs and, if so, which senescence parameters are affected. We examined these issues in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, a long-lived insect that shows reduced female lifespan as well as female reproductive senescence at the male-determined mating frequency. We demonstrate experimentally that, independently of the mating frequency, females receiving more ejaculate show increased reproductive rates and enter reproductive senescence later than females receiving less ejaculate. The rate of reproductive senescence did not differ between treatments, and reproductive rates did not predict mortality. The ejaculate effects were consistent in inter- and intra-population crosses, suggesting they have not evolved recently and are not caused by inbreeding. Our results suggest that ejaculate components compensate for the costs of elevated female reproductive rates in bedbugs by delaying the onset of reproductive senescence. Ejaculate components that are beneficial to polyandrous females could have arisen because male traits that protect the ejaculate have positive pleiotropic effects and/or because female counteradaptations to antagonistic male traits exceed the neutralization of those traits. That males influence female reproductive senescence has important consequences for trade-offs between reproduction and longevity and for studies of somatic senescence. PMID:19996174

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard A.; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

2009-01-01

5

Ejaculate components delay reproductive senescence while elevating female reproductive rate in an insect.  

PubMed

Increased female reproductive rates usually result in accelerated senescence. This correlation provides a link between the evolutionary conflict of the sexes and aging when ejaculate components elevate female reproductive rates at the cost of future reproduction. It is not clear whether this female cost is manifest as shorter lifespan or an earlier onset or a steeper rate of reproductive senescence. It also is unclear whether beneficial ejaculates release females from reproductive trade-offs and, if so, which senescence parameters are affected. We examined these issues in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, a long-lived insect that shows reduced female lifespan as well as female reproductive senescence at the male-determined mating frequency. We demonstrate experimentally that, independently of the mating frequency, females receiving more ejaculate show increased reproductive rates and enter reproductive senescence later than females receiving less ejaculate. The rate of reproductive senescence did not differ between treatments, and reproductive rates did not predict mortality. The ejaculate effects were consistent in inter- and intra-population crosses, suggesting they have not evolved recently and are not caused by inbreeding. Our results suggest that ejaculate components compensate for the costs of elevated female reproductive rates in bedbugs by delaying the onset of reproductive senescence. Ejaculate components that are beneficial to polyandrous females could have arisen because male traits that protect the ejaculate have positive pleiotropic effects and/or because female counteradaptations to antagonistic male traits exceed the neutralization of those traits. That males influence female reproductive senescence has important consequences for trade-offs between reproduction and longevity and for studies of somatic senescence. PMID:19996174

Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard A; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

2009-12-22

6

Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been studied intensively to understand the associations between physiological stress and reproductive skew in animal societies. However, we have little appreciation of the range of either natural levels within and among individuals, or the associations among dominance status, reproductive rate and GCs levels during breeding. To address these shortcomings, we examined variation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGC) during breeding periods in free-ranging female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over 11 years. The vast majority of variation in fGC levels was found within breeding events by the same female (~87%), with the remaining variation arising among breeding events and among females. Concentrations of fGC generally tripled as pregnancy progressed. However, females with a high reproductive rate, defined as those conceiving within a month following parturition (mean = 9 days postpartum), showed significant reductions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition. Despite these reductions, females with a high reproductive rate had higher fGC levels at conception of the following litter than those breeding at a low rate. After controlling for the higher reproductive rate of dominants, we found no association between levels of fGC and either age or dominance status. Our results suggest that one should be cautious about interpreting associations between dominance status, reproductive skew and GCs levels, without knowledge of the natural variation in GCs levels within and among females. PMID:22210199

Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Russell, Andrew F

2012-04-01

7

Reproduction in high altitude Aymara: physiological stress and fertility planning?  

PubMed

Reproductive characteristics at high altitude are described based on the reproductive histories of 720 Aymara women, collected in 1998 and 1999 in a group of twelve peasant communities at a mean altitude of 4000 m in the Bolivian Altiplano. The reproductive pattern is shaped by a late onset of childbearing, associated with a rather short reproductive span and large birth intervals. Environmental conditions could explain the particularly late age at menarche of rural girls compared with their urban counterparts, whereas the age at first birth is likely to be under cultural control. The short reproductive span appears to result from a large mean interval between last birth and menopause, which is essentially determined by cultural decisions. The birth intervals, which are longer than in many traditional societies, could be the result of a slower restoration of postpartum fecundability induced by the hard way of life inherent in the Altiplano (including poor sanitary and nutritional conditions and high workload), perhaps aggravated by hypoxia. However, a secular trend in fertility is perceptible, towards earlier menarche, earlier age at first birth, increasing reproductive span and a slight increase in live births and surviving offspring, which is probably the result of a slow improvement in living conditions. The existence of birth control on the one hand, and a total fertility rate averaging six live births among the couples who do not practise contraception on the other, are other arguments against the hypothesis of a low natural fecundity in these Aymara groups. PMID:12395863

Crognier, E; Villena, M; Vargas, E

2002-10-01

8

Variation in Rates of Asexual Reproduction By Convolutriloba retrogemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convolutriloba retrogemma, an acoel turbellarian (phylum Platyhelminthes), engages in an obligate symbiotic relationship with unicellular algae, This species reproduces asexually by budding from the posterior end of the parent individual. The rate of reproduction of 24 newly budded flatworms of various sizes was studied over a period of six weeks, Flatworms were individually placed into 6 mL of 0.2 ?m

Rahim Sara

2003-01-01

9

High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew

1998-01-01

10

Exploring individual quality: Basal metabolic rate and reproductive performance in storm-petrels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite evidence that some individuals achieve both superior reproductive performance and high survivorship, the factors underlying variation in individual quality are not well understood. The compensation and increased-intake hypotheses predict that basal metabolic rate (BMR) influences reproductive performance; if so, variation in BMR may be related to differences in individual quality. We evaluated whether BMR measured during the incubation period provides a proximate explanation for variation in individual quality by measuring the BMRs and reproductive performance of Leach's storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) breeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, during 2000 and 2001. We statistically controlled for internal (body mass, breeding age, sex) and external (year, date, time of day) effects on BMR. We found that males with relatively low BMRs hatched their eggs earlier in the season and that their chicks' wing growth rates were faster compared to males with relatively high BMRs. Conversely, BMR was not related to egg volume, hatching date, or chick growth rate for females or to lifetime (???23 years) hatching success for either sex. Thus, for males but not for females, our results support the compensation hypothesis. This hypothesis predicts that animals with low BMRs will achieve better reproductive performance than animals with high BMRs because they have lower self-maintenance costs and therefore can apportion more energy to reproduction. These results provide evidence that intraspecific variation in reproductive performance is related to BMR and suggest that BMR may influence individual quality in males. ?? The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

Blackmer, A.L.; Mauck, R.A.; Ackerman, J.T.; Huntington, C.E.; Nevitt, G.A.; Williams, J.B.

2005-01-01

11

The dynamics of sexual conflict over mating rate with endosymbiont infection that affects reproductive phenotypes  

E-print Network

; reproductive traits; sexual selection; Wolbachia. Abstract Maternally inherited endosymbionts have been' in sexual conflict, thus suggesting the novel hypothesis that endosymbiont-induced changes in reproductiveThe dynamics of sexual conflict over mating rate with endosymbiont infection that affects

Gavrilets, Sergey

12

Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.  

PubMed

1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

2009-01-01

13

Effects of Heat Detection, Conception Rate, and Culling Policy on Reproductive Performance in Dairy Herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation mode) of the reproductive process in dairy herds was developed to examine the effects of heat detection, conception rate, and culling policy on measures of reproductive performance. Twenty-one 65-cow herds were simulated to quantify over 10 yr changes in days to first service, days open, calving interval, number of services required annually, and annual culling rate attributed to

T. R. Rounsaville; P. A. Oltenacu; R. A. Milligan; R. H. Foote

1979-01-01

14

The dependence of reproductive rate on cell size and temperature in freshwater ciliated protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive rates have been calculated for ten species of ciliated protozoa in defined conditions. Interspecific double log regressions of generation time vs. cell volume have been computed at each of three temperatures (8.5° C, 15° C, and 20° C) indicating a significant dependence of reproductive rate on cell size. Recorded generation times varied from 6.38 h in Vorticella microstoma at

Bland J. Finlay

1977-01-01

15

Macroevolutionary speciation rates are decoupled from the evolution of intrinsic reproductive isolation in Drosophila and birds  

PubMed Central

The rate at which speciation occurs varies greatly among different kinds of organisms and is frequently assumed to result from species- or clade-specific factors that influence the rate at which populations acquire reproductive isolation. This premise leads to a fundamental prediction that has never been tested: Organisms that quickly evolve prezygotic or postzygotic reproductive isolation should have faster rates of speciation than organisms that slowly acquire reproductive isolation. We combined phylogenetic estimates of speciation rates from Drosophila and birds with a method for analyzing interspecific hybridization data to test whether the rate at which individual lineages evolve reproductive isolation predicts their macroevolutionary rate of species formation. We find that some lineages evolve reproductive isolation much more quickly than others, but this variation is decoupled from rates of speciation as measured on phylogenetic trees. For the clades examined here, reproductive isolation—especially intrinsic, postzygotic isolation—does not seem to be the rate-limiting control on macroevolutionary diversification dynamics. These results suggest that factors associated with intrinsic reproductive isolation may have less to do with the tremendous variation in species diversity across the evolutionary tree of life than is generally assumed. PMID:24003144

Rabosky, Daniel L.; Matute, Daniel R.

2013-01-01

16

Conception rates following assisted reproduction in poor responder patients: a retrospective study in 300 consecutive cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor response to ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction treatment is a therapeutic challenge. Oocyte donation may be unacceptable to some patients, and many couples opt to continue with treatment despite low follicle numbers. Minimal data are available regarding conception rates in poor responders who elect to undergo oocyte retrieval. This study summarizes the outcome of assisted reproduction treatment in poor

Ulun Ulug; Izhar Ben-Shlomo; Ersadik Turan; Halit Firat Erden; Mehmet Ali Akman; Mustafa Bahceci

2003-01-01

17

Individual heterogeneity in reproductive rates and cost of reproduction in a long-lived vertebrate  

PubMed Central

Individual variation in reproductive success is a key feature of evolution, but also has important implications for predicting population responses to variable environments. Although such individual variation in reproductive outcomes has been reported in numerous studies, most analyses to date have not considered whether these realized differences were due to latent individual heterogeneity in reproduction or merely random chance causing different outcomes among like individuals. Furthermore, latent heterogeneity in fitness components might be expressed differently in contrasted environmental conditions, an issue that has only rarely been investigated. Here, we assessed (i) the potential existence of latent individual heterogeneity and (ii) the nature of its expression (fixed vs. variable) in a population of female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii), using a hierarchical modeling approach on a 30-year mark–recapture data set consisting of 954 individual encounter histories. We found strong support for the existence of latent individual heterogeneity in the population, with “robust” individuals expected to produce twice as many pups as “frail” individuals. Moreover, the expression of individual heterogeneity appeared consistent, with only mild evidence that it might be amplified when environmental conditions are severe. Finally, the explicit modeling of individual heterogeneity allowed us to detect a substantial cost of reproduction that was not evidenced when the heterogeneity was ignored. PMID:23919151

Chambert, Thierry; Rotella, Jay J; Higgs, Megan D; Garrott, Robert A

2013-01-01

18

High Mutation Rates in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Daphnia pulex  

E-print Network

High Mutation Rates in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Daphnia pulex Sen Xu,1, * Sarah Schaack,2 mutation (e.g., the rate and spectrum of mutational change) are based on few direct estimates. Furthermore, the variation in the mtDNA mutation process within species or between lineages with contrasting reproductive

Lynch, Michael

19

Low reproductive rate predicts species sensitivity to habitat loss: a meta-analysis of wetland vertebrates.  

PubMed

We tested the hypotheses that species with greater mobility and/or higher reproductive rates are less sensitive to habitat loss than species with lower mobility and/or reproductive rates by conducting a meta-analysis of wetland vertebrate responses to wetland habitat loss. We combined data from 90 studies conducted worldwide that quantified the relationship between wetland amount in a landscape and population abundance of at least one wetland species to determine if mobility (indexed as home range size and body length) and annual reproductive rate influence species responses to wetland loss. When analyzed across all taxa, animals with higher reproductive rates were less sensitive to wetland loss. Surprisingly, we did not find an effect of mobility on response to wetland loss. Overall, wetland mammals and birds were more sensitive to wetland loss than were reptiles and amphibians. Our results suggest that dispersal between habitat patches is less important than species' reproductive rates for population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This implies that immigration and colonization rate is most strongly related to reproduction, which determines the total number of potential colonists. PMID:24651675

Quesnelle, Pauline E; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Fahrig, Lenore

2014-01-01

20

Low Reproductive Rate Predicts Species Sensitivity to Habitat Loss: A Meta-Analysis of Wetland Vertebrates  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that species with greater mobility and/or higher reproductive rates are less sensitive to habitat loss than species with lower mobility and/or reproductive rates by conducting a meta-analysis of wetland vertebrate responses to wetland habitat loss. We combined data from 90 studies conducted worldwide that quantified the relationship between wetland amount in a landscape and population abundance of at least one wetland species to determine if mobility (indexed as home range size and body length) and annual reproductive rate influence species responses to wetland loss. When analyzed across all taxa, animals with higher reproductive rates were less sensitive to wetland loss. Surprisingly, we did not find an effect of mobility on response to wetland loss. Overall, wetland mammals and birds were more sensitive to wetland loss than were reptiles and amphibians. Our results suggest that dispersal between habitat patches is less important than species’ reproductive rates for population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This implies that immigration and colonization rate is most strongly related to reproduction, which determines the total number of potential colonists. PMID:24651675

Quesnelle, Pauline E.; Lindsay, Kathryn E.; Fahrig, Lenore

2014-01-01

21

Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2009, pp. 197-215 The net reproduction rate and the type-  

E-print Network

Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2009, pp. 197-215 The net reproduction rate and the type- reproduction number in multiregional demography Hisashi Inaba* Abstract In order to study effects of migration of the 1970s, its key concept, the multiregional net reproduction rate, has been long neglected

Inaba, Hisashi

22

Reproductive effects of sodium borates on male employees: birth rate assessment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--The purpose of the study was to investigate potential reproductive effects of sodium borates on occupationally exposed male employees at a large mining and production facility in the Mojave Desert of California. METHODS--The standardised birth ratio (SBR) was used to assess fertility of the male employees. Live births were the measured end point, and the rate of female to male offspring was also assessed. Data were collected through a questionnaire after a series of on site introductory and explanatory meetings with the employees. Initial non-responders were followed up by telephone. Medical insurance records were assessed for those who declined to participate. RESULTS--The questionnaire was a good method of ascertainment for live births. There was no evidence of selection bias in the results. There was a highly significant excess of offspring fathered by the male employees. There was no evidence of a relation between exposure and this excess of offspring, nor were there any temporal differences during the period of observation (> 30 years). Also, there was an excess of the percentage of female offspring fathered by these male employees. This excess of female offspring was not significant. There was no evidence of an exposure relation to sodium borates with this excess of female offspring nor were there any temporal differences. CONCLUSION--Under the conditions studied, there were no adverse reproductive effects of high borate doses as reported from oral ingestion studies in animals. PMID:7849854

Whorton, M D; Haas, J L; Trent, L; Wong, O

1994-01-01

23

Probing the Effect of Human Normal Sperm Morphology Rate on Cycle Outcomes and Assisted Reproductive Methods Selection  

PubMed Central

Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR) is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14%) to the 5th version (4%). We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF) or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ?14%, 4%–14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(?14%, 4%–14%, <4%), in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01) and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton) showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (?14%, 4%–14%, <4%), high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05), while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ?14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05), in the 4%–14% group, birth weight (twins) of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition), ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR?4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred. PMID:25411962

Xiao, Xifeng; Li, Li; Liu, Chuang; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xiaohong

2014-01-01

24

High repetition rate fiber lasers  

E-print Network

This thesis reports work in high repetition rate femtosecond fiber lasers. Driven by the applications including optical arbitrary waveform generation, high speed optical sampling, frequency metrology, and timing and frequency ...

Chen, Jian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

25

Reproductive consequences of natal dispersal in a highly philopatric seabird  

E-print Network

Reproductive consequences of natal dispersal in a highly philopatric seabird Ulrich K. Steinera were caused by egg loss rather than infertility or nestling death. However, we could not explain why- tance, which is also suggested by optimality models of dispersal (Shields, 1982). For colonial seabirds

26

Reproductive hazards among workers at high voltage substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study on reproductive hazards was performed among 542 employees at Swedish power plants. Questionnaires were answered by 89% of the employees. Data on pregnancies were checked by studying hospital case records. There was a statistically significant, decreased frequency of ''normal'' pregnancy outcome, almost exclusively due to an increased frequency of congenital malformations, when the father was a high-voltage

S. Nordstroem; E. Birke; L. Gustavsson

1983-01-01

27

Is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants endangered by heat?  

PubMed

Strong solar irradiation in combination with still air and dry soil can cause prostrate high-mountain plants to heat up considerably and ultimately suffer heat damage. Such heat damage has been repeatedly shown for vegetative structures, but not for reproductive structures, which we expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat. Heat effects on cold-adapted plants may increase with rising global temperatures and the predicted increase in heat waves. We have tested the heat tolerance of reproductive versus vegetative shoots at different reproductive stages, comparing ten common plant species from different elevation belts in the European Alps. Plant samples were exposed to temperatures in 2-K steps of 30 min each between 42 and 56 °C. Heat damage was assessed by visual rating and vital staining. Reproductive shoots were on average 2.5 K less heat tolerant (LT50, i.e. the mean temperature causing 50 % heat damage, 47.2 °C) than vegetative shoots (mean LT50 49.7 °C). Initial heat injuries (mean LT10) were observed at 43-45 °C in heat-susceptible species and at 45-47 °C in more heat-tolerant species, in at least one reproductive stage. Generally, heat tolerance was significantly higher during fruiting than during the bud stages and anthesis. Prostrate species with acaulescent buds and flowers tolerated heat better than those with caulescent buds and flowers. Petals were the most heat-susceptible plant structure and mature pollen the most heat tolerant. Based on these data, heat tolerance of reproductive structures appears to be adapted to the prevailing maximum temperatures which the plants experience during different reproductive stages in their environment. During hot spells, however, heat tolerance thresholds may be exceeded. More frequent heat waves would decrease the reproductive output and, consequently, the competitiveness of heat-susceptible species. PMID:25698138

Ladinig, Ursula; Pramsohler, Manuel; Bauer, Ines; Zimmermann, Sonja; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

2015-04-01

28

Pollen flow and effects of population structure on selfing rates and female and male reproductive success in fragmented Magnolia stellata populations  

PubMed Central

Background Fragmentation of plant populations may affect mating patterns and female and male reproductive success. To improve understanding of fragmentation effects on plant reproduction, we investigated the pollen flow patterns in six adjacent local populations of Magnolia stellata, an insect-pollinated, threatened tree species in Japan, and assessed effects of maternal plant (genet) size, local genet density, population size and neighboring population size on female reproductive success (seed production rates), and effects of mating distance, paternal genet size, population size and separation of populations on male reproductive success. Results The seed production rate, i.e. the proportion of ovules that successfully turned into seeds, varied between 1.0 and 6.5%, and increased with increasing population size and neighboring population size, and with decreasing maternal genet size and local genet density. The selfing rate varied between 3.6 and 28.9%, and increased with increasing maternal genet size and with declining local genet density. Male reproductive success increased with increasing paternal genet size, and decreased with increasing mating distance and separation of population. Pollen flow between the populations was low (6.1%) and highly leptocurtic. Conclusions Our results indicate that habitat fragmentation, separation and reduced size of populations, affected mating patterns and reproductive success of M. stellata. Local competition for pollinators and plant display size were likely to alter the reproductive success. PMID:23517612

2013-01-01

29

Comparison of Gene Repertoires and Patterns of Evolutionary Rates in Eight Aphid Species That Differ by Reproductive Mode  

PubMed Central

In theory, the loss of sexual reproduction is expected to result in the accumulation of deleterious mutations. In aphids, two main types of life cycle, cyclic and obligate parthenogenesis, represent respectively “sexual” and “asexual” reproductive modes. We used the complete pea aphid genome and previously published expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from two other aphid species. In addition, we obtained 100,000 new ESTs from five more species. The final set comprised four sexual and four asexual aphid species and served to test the influence of the reproductive mode on the evolutionary rates of genes. We reconstructed coding sequences from ESTs and annotated these genes, discovering a novel peptide gene family that appears to be among the most highly expressed transcripts from several aphid species. From 203 genes found to be 1:1 orthologs among the eight species considered, we established a species tree that partly conflicted with taxonomy (for Myzus ascalonicus). We then used this topology to evaluate the dynamics of evolutionary rates and mutation accumulation in the four sexual and four asexual taxa. No significant increase of the nonsynonymous to synonymous ratio or of nonsynonymous mutation numbers was found in any of the four branches for asexual taxa. We however found a significant increase of the synonymous rate in the branch leading to the asexual species Rhopalosiphum maidis, which could be due to a change in the mutation rate or to an increased number of generations implied by its change of life cycle. PMID:22215803

Ollivier, M.; Gabaldón, T.; Poulain, J.; Gavory, F.; Leterme, N.; Gauthier, J.-P.; Legeai, F.; Tagu, D.; Simon, J. C.; Rispe, C.

2012-01-01

30

High compression rate text summarization  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on methods for condensing large documents into highly concise summaries, achieving compression rates on par with human writers. While the need for such summaries in the current age of information overload ...

Branavan, Satchuthananthavale Rasiah Kuhan

2008-01-01

31

A Visibility Matching Tone Reproduction Operator for High Dynamic Range Scenes  

E-print Network

A Visibility Matching Tone Reproduction Operator for High Dynamic Range Scenes Gregory Ward Larson/APL, Laurel, MD. #12;LBNL 39882 UC 400 A Visibility Matching Tone Reproduction Operator for High Dynamic Range reproduction operator that preserves visibility in high dynamic range scenes. Our method introduces a new

32

TROPHIC STRUCTURE, REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS, AND GROWTH RATE OF FISHES IN A NATURAL AND MODIFIED HEADWATER STREAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of removing riparian vegetation, channel straightening, and fluctuations in flow regime on trophic structure, reproductive success, and growth rate of fishes was assessed in a natural (Jordan Creek(JC)) and modified (Big Ditch(BD)) headwater stream in eastcentral Illin...

33

Human Disturbance Influences Reproductive Success and Growth Rate in California Sea Lions (Zalophus  

E-print Network

population growth and anthropogenic impacts on a global scale have left few populations of plants and animalsHuman Disturbance Influences Reproductive Success and Growth Rate in California Sea Lions (Zalophus at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales

Gerber, Leah R.

34

Mortality rate acceleration and post-reproductive lifespan in matrilineal whale species.  

PubMed

The strength of selection to increase the span of a life stage is dependent upon individuals at that stage being able to contribute towards individual fitness and the probability of their surviving to that stage. Complete reproductive cessation and a long post-reproductive female lifespan as found in humans are also found in killer whale (Orcinus orca) and short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), but not in the long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melaena). Each species forms kin-based, stable matrilineal groups and exhibits kin-directed behaviours that could increase inclusive fitness. Here, the initial mortality rate and mortality rate-doubling time of females of these three closely related whale species are compared. The initial mortality rate shows little variation among pilot whale species; however mortality rate accelerates almost twice as fast in the long-finned pilot whale as it does in killer whale and short-finned pilot whale. Selection for a long post-reproductive female lifespan in matrilineal whales may therefore be determined by the proportion of females surviving past the point of reproductive cessation. PMID:18252662

Foote, Andrew D

2008-04-23

35

Human Disturbance Influences Reproductive Success and Growth Rate in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)  

PubMed Central

The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations. PMID:21436887

French, Susannah S.; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R.

2011-01-01

36

Reproductive rate and body size predict road impacts on mammal abundance.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that mobile species should be more negatively affected by road mortality than less-mobile species because they interact with roads more often, and that species with lower reproductive rates and longer generation times should be more susceptible to road effects because they will be less able to rebound quickly from population declines. Taken together, these hypotheses suggest that, in general, larger species should be more affected by road networks than smaller species because larger species generally have lower reproductive rates and longer generation times and are more mobile than smaller species. We tested these hypotheses by estimating relative abundances of 17 mammal species across landscapes ranging in road density within eastern Ontario, Canada. For each of the 13 species for which detectability was not related to road density, we quantified the relationship between road density and relative abundance. We then tested three cross-species predictions: that the slope of the relationship between road density and abundance should become increasingly negative with (1) decreasing annual reproductive rate; (2) increasing home range area (an indicator of movement range); and (3) increasing body size. All three predictions were supported in univariate models, with R2 values of 0.68, 0.50, and 0.52 respectively. The best overall model based on AICc contained both reproductive rate (P = 0.008) and body size (P = 0.072) and explained 77% of the variation in the slope of the relationship between road density and abundance. Our results suggest that priority should be placed on mitigating road effects on large mammals with low reproductive rates. PMID:21563588

Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

2011-03-01

37

Evidence for ASD Recurrence Rates and Reproductive Stoppage From Large UK ASD Research Family Databases.  

PubMed

Following a diagnosis of a developmental disorder such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in early childhood, parents may decide to have fewer children than previously planned. The tendency for families to halt reproduction after receiving a diagnosis for one child is known as reproductive stoppage. Stoppage may lead to an underestimate of recurrence risk estimates of parents having more than one child with ASD. Using two large UK ASD family databases, we investigated recurrence rates for ASD and evidence for reproductive stoppage for both ASD and undiagnosed ASD/broader autism phenotype in a subgroup of families. Reproductive stoppage was tested for using the Mann-Whitney U-test to disprove the null hypothesis that affected and nonaffected children were distributed randomly by birth order. Dahlberg's later-sib method was used to estimate recurrence risk and take stoppage into account. Data were available from 299 families (660 children) including 327 with ASD. Ten percent of the complete families had more than one child with an ASD. Using Dahlberg's later-sib method, the recurrence risk for ASD was 24.7% overall and 50.0% in families with two or more older siblings with ASD. Children with ASD were born significantly later in families than those without ASD in all sibship combinations. This study shows strong evidence that ASD is associated with reproductive stoppage. These data have important implications for family planning and genetic counseling. Autism Res 2015, 8: 73-81. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25273900

Wood, Claire L; Warnell, Frances; Johnson, Mary; Hames, Annette; Pearce, Mark S; McConachie, Helen; Parr, Jeremy R

2015-02-01

38

Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate in soybean plants: uptake during reproductive growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic culture was measured daily during a 63 d period of reproductive development between the first florally inductive photoperiod and [unknown word] seed growth. Removal of NO3- from a replenished solution containing 1.0 mol m-3 NO3- was determined by ion chromatography. Uptake of NO3- continued throughout reproductive development. The net uptake rate of NO3- cycled between maxima and minima with a periodicity of oscillation of 3 to 7 d during the floral stage and about 6 d during the fruiting stage. Coupled with increasing concentrations of carbon and C : N ratios in tissues, the oscillations in net uptake rates of NO3- are evidence that the demand for carbohydrate by reproductive organs is contingent on the availability of nitrogen in the shoot pool rather than that the demand for nitrogen follows the flux of carbohydrate into reproductive tissues.

Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1990-01-01

39

High Data Rate Instrument Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High Data Rate Instrument Study was a joint effort between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The objectives were to assess the characteristics of future high data rate Earth observing science instruments and then to assess the feasibility of developing data processing systems and communications systems required to meet those data rates. Instruments and technology were assessed for technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006. The highest data rate instruments are hyperspectral and synthetic aperture radar instruments which are capable of generating 3.2 Gigabits per second (Gbps) and 1.3 Gbps, respectively, with a technology readiness date of 2003. These instruments would require storage of 16.2 Terebits (Tb) of information (RF communications case of two orbits of data) or 40.5 Tb of information (optical communications case of five orbits of data) with a technology readiness date of 2003. Onboard storage capability in 2003 is estimated at 4 Tb; therefore, all the data created cannot be stored without processing or compression. Of the 4 Tb of stored data, RF communications can only send about one third of the data to the ground, while optical communications is estimated at 6.4 Tb across all three technology readiness dates of 2000, 2003, and 2006 which were used in the study. The study includes analysis of the onboard processing and communications technologies at these three dates and potential systems to meet the high data rate requirements. In the 2003 case, 7.8% of the data can be stored and downlinked by RF communications while 10% of the data can be stored and downlinked with optical communications. The study conclusion is that only 1 to 10% of the data generated by high data rate instruments will be sent to the ground from now through 2006 unless revolutionary changes in spacecraft design and operations such as intelligent data extraction are developed.

Schober, Wayne; Lansing, Faiza; Wilson, Keith; Webb, Evan

1999-01-01

40

Influence of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in patients who undergo assisted reproduction therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of acupuncture on the pregnancy rate in assisted reproduction therapy (ART) by comparing a group of patients receiving acupuncture treatment shortly before and after embryo transfer with a control group receiving no acupuncture.Design: Prospective randomized study.Setting: Fertility center.Patient(s): After giving informed consent, 160 patients who were undergoing ART and who had good quality embryos were

Wolfgang E. Paulus; Mingmin Zhang; Erwin Strehler; Imam El-Danasouri; Karl Sterzik

2002-01-01

41

Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population  

PubMed Central

The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating genetic perspectives into studies of human life-history evolution. PMID:24107531

Bolund, Elisabeth; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Pettay, Jenni E.; Lummaa, Virpi

2013-01-01

42

Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus ; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis ; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus ),

Sandra Hamel; Steeve D. Côté; Jean-Michel Gaillard; Marco Festa-Bianchet

2009-01-01

43

Influence of early pregnancy on reproductive rate in lines of mice selected for litter size.  

PubMed

The influence of male-induced early puberty on female reproductive rate was determined in three lines of mice differing in litter size and body weight. The lines originated from a single base population and had undergone 20 generations of selection for the following criteria: large litter size at birth (L(+)), large litter size and small 6-week body weight (L(+)W(-)), or small litter size and large 6-week body weight (L(-)W(+)). Females were paired with a mature intact male of the same line at 3, 5 or 7 weeks of age. Mean mating age, averaged over lines, was 26.5 ± .3, 38.3 ± .3 and 52.7 ± .3 days. Exposure to a mature male accelerated female sexual maturation in each line. When contrasted with their sibs mated at a later age, early-pregnant females from each line exhibited a decline in one or more component of reproductive performance, suggesting that the physiological state of the very young female was not optimum for normal pregnancy. In comparisons of early and later mating ages, all three lines showed a decreased littering rate at first mating, number born alive, and individual birth weight of progeny adjusted for litter size; L(+) and L(+)W(-) mice showed an increased perinatal mortality rate; L(+) and L(-)W(+) had a reduction in litter size at birth. When the L(+), L(+)W(-) and L(-)W(+) lines were compared with an unselected strain and a line selected for high postweaning gain in similar experiments, a genotype by environment interaction was apparent since all lines did not respond in a similar manner to early mating. The line ranking for litter size at birth for each age at male-exposure was L(+)>L(+)W(-)>L(-)W(+), despite the significant line by age interaction. When litter size was adjusted by covariance for body weight at mating, the significant effects of age at male-exposure and line by age interaction were eliminated. All fertile females were remated after they had weaned their first litter to obtain information on litter size in parity two. Line differences in litter size at birth and number born alive were uniform across parities. An age by parity interaction was evident since the decreased fecundity at younger ages of male exposure in the L(+) and L(-)W(+) litters of parity one was not evident in parity two. Litter feed efficiency during first parity gestation was defined as litter birth weight divided by either cumulative feed intake of the dam from mating to parturition (GEI) or cumulative feed intake from weaning to parturition (GEII). The ranking of lines for GEI and GEH was L(+)> L(+)W(-)>L(-)W(+), but when feed efficiency was adjusted for littering rate, L(+)W(-) and L(-)W(+) were not significantly different. With regard to age at mating, the ranking for GEI (7 wk > 5 wk > 3 wk) was reversed from GEII (3 wk >5 wk > 7 wk) and these significant differences were maintained after adjustment for littering rate. PMID:24301094

Eisen, E J

1980-09-01

44

High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

1990-01-01

45

Personality and reproductive success in a high-fertility human population  

E-print Network

Personality and reproductive success in a high-fertility human population Alexandra Alvergnea,b,1 influences reproductive decisions in humans has remained limited and informed primarily by modern societies- lygynous high-fertility human population living in rural Senegal to investigate whether personality

Lummaa, Virpi

46

Synchronized reproduction promotes species coexistence through reproductive facilitation  

E-print Network

Synchronized reproduction promotes species coexistence through reproductive facilitation Yu synchronized reproduction. The facilitation on reproduction may enhance species persistence and coexistence- meters, such as mortality and recruitment rates, and functions of reproductive facilitation. Both

Hsu, Sze-Bi

47

1995 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first national guide to information on the success rate of 281 fertility clinics around the country resides at this site. Issued by the US Centers for Disease Control, the full text of the report offers a clinic-by-clinic guide to summary statistics on the success of numerous methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART) including a variety of in vitro techniques. Based on 59,142 treatments that resulted in 11,315 live births in 1995, the report contains information on percentages of multiple births, information about the diagnoses of patients and age-specific success rates. This report is a response to a 1992 Congressional measure requiring the CDC to publish fertility clinic statistics for consumers.

48

Research article Breeding system and reproductive skew in a highly polygynous ant population  

E-print Network

Research article Breeding system and reproductive skew in a highly polygynous ant population C determinants of nest kin structure, we conducted a detailed analysis of the breeding system of the ant Formica a sub-sample of queens to assess their reproductive status. We also used microsatellites to estimate

Alvarez, Nadir

49

High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)  

E-print Network

was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent, Fragaria virginiana, microsatellites, population genetic structure. INTRODUCTION Many plant speciesHigh variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria

Ashley, Mary V.

50

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2009-05-15

51

Foolproof completions for high rate production wells  

E-print Network

gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

Tosic, Slavko

2008-10-10

52

Reproductive responses to varying food supply in a population of Darwin's finches: Clutch size, growth rates and hatching synchrony  

Microsoft Academic Search

I show how food shortage affects reproduction in a population of Darwin's Medium Ground Finches, Geospiza fortis. Despite the common occurrence of starvation and absence of nest predation, hatching is typically nighly synchronous and adaptive brood reductionappears to be absent. Variation in both growth rates and clutch size in association with the varying conditions is documented. This variation is interpreted

Trevor Price

1985-01-01

53

Effects of subcutaneous transmitters on reproduction, incubation behavior, and annual return rates of female wood ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiotransmitters attached externally to breeding waterfowl can have a variety of negative effects. Implanted transmitters can reduce potential deleterious effects; abdominal implants are used most commonly in waterfowl. Methods also have been developed to implant transmitters subcutaneously, but effects of subcutaneous implants on adult ducks have not been evaluated. In this study, we subcutaneously implanted radiotransmitters in pre-laying female wood ducks (Aix sponsa, n = 62) and compared nest initiation date, incubation behavior, body mass, and annual return rates of radiomarked females to a group of females that were not radiomarked. Ninety-six percent (50 of 52) of radiomarked females that were monitored for the entire breeding season initiated nests. Nesting date of radiomarked adult females did not differ from that of adult females without radios, but radiomarked yearling females nested earlier than yearlings not receiving transmitters. We found no differences in early- and late-incubation body mass, incubation constancy, recess frequency, and incubation period between radiomarked females and those without radios. Annual return rates of females that initiated nests did not differ between radiomarked females and those not receiving radios. Data suggest that implanting radiotransmitters subcutaneously in pre-laying female wood ducks did not negatively impact subsequent reproduction, incubation behavior, and survival.

Hepp, G.R.; Folk, T.H.; Hartke, K.M.

2002-01-01

54

Cumulative live birth rate and assisted reproduction: impact of female age and transfer day  

PubMed Central

Background: Many studies on assisted reproductive technology examine live birth rate per cycle. However, after a cycle fails, couples often want to know what their chances are of having a live birth if they continue treatment. From a patients’ perspective, the cumulative probability of live birth is more informative. Materials and Methods: This study includes patients who underwent fresh, frozen and non-donor ICSI cycles at our IVF unit between 2006-2012. Patients were divided into two groups; Group 1 represented those who underwent only Day 5 transfers, Group 2 represented only Day 3 transfers. Patients who underwent both were excluded. ­Cycles were analyzed until the first live birth or the end of the 3rd cycle. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we estimated the cumulative live birth rates for each group and according to female age. Results: The mean age for Group 1 was significantly lower than for Group 2. After 3 cycles, Group 1’s CLBR was 79% versus 66% in Group 2. When analyzing the live births by age and group, there was a significant difference in the CLBR after 3 cycles with the women less than 35 years having the highest CLBR and the women 40 years or older having the lowest CLBR. Conclusion: In women less than 35 years, excellent CLBR can be achieved irrespective of the transfer day. For women 40 years and above, better results of CLBR are observed with Day 5 transfers. Our findings may impact the counseling of couples considering IVF treatment. PMID:25374657

Abuzeid, M.I.; Bolonduro, O.; La Chance, J.; Abozaid, T.; Urich, M.; Ullah, K.; Ali, T.; Ashraf, M.; Khan, I.

2014-01-01

55

Serological screening for Coxiella burnetii infection and related reproductive performance in high producing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The possible relationship between Coxiella-seropositivity and the reproductive performance of cows during the previous year to the serological screening was examined in three high producing dairy herds. The herds had a history of subfertility (<25% of pregnancies for the total number of AI), abortion (>18% abortions) and a positive polymerase chain reaction test for Coxiella burnetii in the bulk tank milk with an excretion higher than 10(4)Coxiella /ml for all three herds. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 50.2% of the 781 parous cows analyzed. Coxiella seropositivity was linked to placenta retention, to changes in the interval from parturition to conception (with the lowest interval parturition-conception for cows with low level of seropositivity), early pregnancy (cows becoming pregnant before Day 90 postpartum) and maintenance of gestation during the early fetal period, while it failed to affect rates of abortion after Day 90 of gestation or stillbirth. PMID:21862091

López-Gatius, F; Almeria, S; Garcia-Ispierto, I

2012-08-01

56

High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites. PMID:19797422

Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

2009-01-01

57

Extensive Pollen Flow but Few Pollen Donors and High Reproductive Variance in an Extremely Fragmented Landscape  

PubMed Central

Analysing pollen movement is a key to understanding the reproductive system of plant species and how it is influenced by the spatial distribution of potential mating partners in fragmented populations. Here we infer parameters related to levels of pollen movement and diversity of the effective pollen cloud for the wind-pollinated shrub Pistacia lentiscus across a highly disturbed landscape using microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis and the indirect KinDist and Mixed Effect Mating models were used to assess mating patterns, the pollen dispersal kernel, the effective number of males (Nep) and their relative individual fertility, as well as the existence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure in adult plants. All methods showed extensive pollen movement, with high rates of pollen flow from outside the study site (up to 73–93%), fat-tailed dispersal kernels and large average pollination distances (??=?229–412 m). However, they also agreed in detecting very few pollen donors (Nep?=?4.3–10.2) and a large variance in their reproductive success: 70% of males did not sire any offspring among the studied female plants and 5.5% of males were responsible for 50% of pollinations. Although we did not find reduced levels of genetic diversity, the adult population showed high levels of biparental inbreeding (14%) and strong spatial genetic structure (Sp?=?0.012), probably due to restricted seed dispersal and scarce safe sites for recruitment. Overall, limited seed dispersal and the scarcity of successful pollen donors can be contributing to generate local pedigrees and to increase inbreeding, the prelude of genetic impoverishment. PMID:23152842

González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Aparicio, Abelardo

2012-01-01

58

Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats  

E-print Network

(mean=9 days postpartum), showed significant reduc- tions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition of subordinates or whether subordi- nates depress their own reproductive system when their chances of success

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

59

Selective advantage for sexual reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a simplified model for sexual reproduction within the quasispecies formalism. The model assumes a diploid genome consisting of two chromosomes, where the fitness is determined by the number of chromosomes that are identical to a given master sequence. We also assume that there is a cost to sexual reproduction, given by a characteristic time ?seek during which haploid cells seek out a mate with which to recombine. If the mating strategy is such that only viable haploids can mate, then when ?seek=0 , it is possible to show that sexual reproduction will always out compete asexual reproduction. However, as ?seek increases, sexual reproduction only becomes advantageous at progressively higher mutation rates. Once the time cost for sex reaches a critical threshold, the selective advantage for sexual reproduction disappears entirely. The results of this paper suggest that sexual reproduction is not advantageous in small populations per se, but rather in populations with low replication rates. In this regime, the cost for sex is sufficiently low that the selective advantage obtained through recombination leads to the dominance of the strategy. In fact, at a given replication rate and for a fixed environment volume, sexual reproduction is selected for in high populations because of the reduced time spent finding a reproductive partner.

Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

2006-06-01

60

Population dynamics of Salpa thompsoni near the Antarctic Peninsula: Growth rates and interannual variations in reproductive activity (1993-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salp Salpa thompsoni has exhibited increased abundance in high latitude portions of the Southern Ocean in recent decades and is now frequently the numerically dominant zooplankton taxon in the Antarctic Peninsula region. The abundance increase of this species in high latitude waters is believed related to ocean warming. Due to its continuous filter feeding and production of dense rapidly sinking fecal pellets S. thompsoni is considered to be an important link in the export of particulate carbon from the surface waters. Hence basic information on the life history of this component of the Antarctic marine ecosystem is essential for assessing its impact given continued climate warming. Here we cover various aspects of the life history of S. thompsoni collected in the north Antarctic Peninsula during annual austral summer surveys of the US Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) Program between 1993 and 2009. We focus on seasonal and interannual variations in the size composition and abundance of the aggregate (sexual) and solitary (asexual) stages. This information is valuable for refining components of Southern Ocean food web models that explicitly deal with size-structured and life history information on zooplankton. Intraseasonal changes in length-frequency distribution of both stages are used to estimate their growth rates. These average 0.40 mm day-1 for aggregates and 0.23 mm day-1 for solitaries; together these represent ?7 week and ?7.5 month generation times, respectively, and a 9 month life cycle (i.e., onset of aggregate production year 1 to aggregate production year 2). Based on the maximum lengths typically found during January-March, the life spans of the aggregate and solitary stages can reach at least ?5 and ?15 months, respectively. Length-frequency distributions each year reflect interannual differences in timing of the initiation and peak reproductive output. Interannual differences in the abundance of total salps and proportions of the overwintering solitary stage are significantly correlated with El Niño Southern Oscillation indices (SOI and Nino3.4) prevailing over the previous 2 years. Massive salp blooms result from two successive summers of elevated solitary production following a reversal from La Niña to El Niño conditions. These results indicate the role of basin-scale atmospheric-oceanic processes in establishing optimal conditions that support aggregate and solitary stage reproduction, development and growth.

Loeb, V. J.; Santora, J. A.

2012-04-01

61

Effects of high tissue concentrations of selenium on reproduction by bluegills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have associated high body concentrations of selenium with declines in fish populations inhabiting cooling reservoirs of coal-fired electric power plants. Because some evidence indicated that these declines resulted from reduced reproduction, the authors made a series of 18 artificial crosses of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus possessing high and low body concentrations of Se to determine whether elevated Se in

ROBERT B. GILLESPIE; PAUL C. BAUMANN

1986-01-01

62

BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH-STRENGTH CONCRETE AT HIGH LOADING RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks in plain concrete run along the boundary layer of the concrete-aggregate grain. The aggre- gate grains are pulled out from the surrounding cement paste under friction. This friction, which shows a partial viscous character, leads to an additional force transfer in the composite material at high rates of loading. In contrast, in high-strength concrete under low rates of loading,

S. Ortlepp; M. Curbach

63

Female modulation of reproductive rate and its role in postmating prezygotic isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Mechanisms that come into play after mating but prior to fertilization can prevent hybrid formation and thus promote reproductive isolation. Recent research indicates that the evolution of such barriers to gene exchange between incipient forms appears to be common and is essential for speciation. 2. We aimed to test if female Bean Weevils ( Callosobruchus maculatus ) modulate

C. FRICKE; G. ARNQVIST; N. AMARO

2006-01-01

64

THE INFLUENCE OF MODEL TIME STEP ON THE RELATIVE SENSITIVIY OF POPULATION GROWTH RATE TO REPRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using population models in environmental assessments. Matrix population models represent a valuable tool for extrapolating from life stage-specific stressor effects on survival and reproduction to effects on finite populati...

65

Fifty fertile years: anthropologists' studies of reproduction in high altitude natives.  

PubMed

Early European colonists of the Andes had difficulties in reproducing, a fact that underpins the hypothesis that reproduction is impaired amongst all humans at high altitudes. Yet a 16th century missionary wrote, "… the Indians are healthiest and where they multiply the most prolifically is in these same cold air-tempers, … [yet most children of the Spaniards] when born in such regions do not survive." These observations suggest that humans at high altitudes are subjected to strong natural selection from hypoxia, cold and limited food sources and, furthermore, that human populations can and have adapted, and continue to adapt, to these conditions. Informed by multiple approaches and theoretical frameworks, anthropologists have investigated to what extent and precisely how high altitude environments impact human reproductive functioning and fertility. Analyses of the proximate determinants of natural fertility suggest that behaviors (breast/infant feeding practices in the Andes, and marriage practices and religious celibacy in the Himalaya) are major determinants of fertility in high altitude populations. Furthermore, data from Project REPA (Reproduction and Ecology in Provincía Aroma), a longitudinal study in rural Bolivia, demonstrate that fecundity is not impaired in this indigenous altiplano population, and that the risk for early pregnancy loss (EPL) is not elevated by environmental hypoxia but does vary seasonally with the agricultural cycle (contra to the assumption that EPLs are due almost entirely to genetically flawed concepti). This review discusses these and other findings that reveal the complex and dynamic adaptations of human reproductive functioning in high altitude environments. PMID:23382088

Vitzthum, Virginia J

2013-01-01

66

High Bit Rate Experiments Over ACTS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes two high data rate experiments chat are being developed for the gigabit NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). The first is a telescience experiment that remotely acquires image data at the Keck telescope from the Caltech campus. The second is a distributed global climate application that is run between two supercomputer centers interconnected by ACTS. The implementation approach for each is described along with the expected results. Also. the ACTS high data rate (HDR) ground station is also described in detail.

Bergman, Larry A.; Gary, J. Patrick; Edelsen, Burt; Helm, Neil; Cohen, Judith; Shopbell, Patrick; Mechoso, C. Roberto; Chung-Chun; Farrara, M.; Spahr, Joseph

1996-01-01

67

Hard times in the city – attractive nest sites but insufficient food supply lead to low reproduction rates in a bird of prey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Urbanization is a global phenomenon that is encroaching on natural habitats and decreasing biodiversity, although it is creating new habitats for some species. The Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is frequently associated with urbanized landscapes but it is unclear what lies behind the high densities of kestrels in the urban environment. Results Occupied nest sites in the city of Vienna, Austria were investigated along a gradient of urbanization (percentage of land covered by buildings or used by traffic). Field surveys determined the abundance of potential prey (birds and rodents) and the results were compared to the birds’ diets. A number of breeding parameters were recorded over the course of three years. The majority of kestrels breed in semi-natural cavities in historic buildings. Nearest neighbour distances (NND) were smallest and reproductive success lowest in the city centre. Abundance of potential prey was not found to relate to the degree of urbanization but there was a significant shift in the birds’ diets from a heavy reliance on rodents in the outskirts of the city to feeding more on small birds in the centre. The use of urban habitats was associated with higher nest failure, partly associated with predation and nest desertion, and with significantly lower hatching rates and smaller fledged broods. Conclusions High breeding densities in urban habitats do not necessarily correlate with high habitat quality. The high density of kestrel nests in the city centre is probably due to the ready availability of breeding cavities. Highly urbanized areas in Vienna are associated with unexpected costs for the city dwelling-raptor, in terms both of prey availability and of reproductive success. The kestrel appears to be exploiting the urban environment but given the poor reproductive performance of urban kestrels it is likely that the species is falling into an ecological trap. PMID:24872836

2014-01-01

68

High levels of maternally transferred mercury do not affect reproductive output or embryonic survival of northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon).  

PubMed

Maternal transfer is an important exposure pathway for contaminants because it can directly influence offspring development. Few studies have examined maternal transfer of contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), in snakes, despite their abundance and high trophic position in many ecosystems where Hg is prevalent. The objectives of the present study were to determine if Hg is maternally transferred in northern watersnakes (Nerodia sipedon) and to evaluate the effects of maternal Hg on reproduction. The authors captured gravid female watersnakes (n?=?31) along the South River in Waynesboro, Virginia, USA, where an extensive Hg-contamination gradient exists. The authors measured maternal tissue and litter Hg concentrations and, following birth, assessed (1) reproductive parameters (i.e., litter size and mass, neonate mass); (2) rates of infertility, death during development, stillbirths, malformations, and runts; and (3) the overall viability of offspring. Mercury concentrations in females were strongly and positively correlated with concentrations in litters, suggesting that N. sipedon maternally transfer Hg in proportion to their tissue residues. Maternal transfer resulted in high concentrations (up to 10.10?mg/kg dry wt total Hg) of Hg in offspring. The authors found little evidence of adverse effects of Hg on these measures of reproductive output and embryonic survival, suggesting that N. sipedon may be more tolerant of Hg than other vertebrate species. Given that this is the first study to examine the effects of maternally transferred contaminants in snakes and that the authors did not measure all reproductive endpoints, further research is needed to better understand factors that influence maternal transfer and associated sublethal effects on offspring. PMID:23233365

Chin, Stephanie Y; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Drewett, David V V; Hopkins, William A

2013-03-01

69

Highly variable spread rates in replicated biological invasions: fundamental limits to predictability.  

PubMed

Although mean rates of spread for invasive species have been intensively studied, variance in spread rates has been neglected. Variance in spread rates can be driven exogenously by environmental variability or endogenously by demographic or genetic stochasticity in reproduction, survival, and dispersal. Endogenous variability is likely to be important in spread but has not been studied empirically. We show that endogenously generated variance in spread rates is remarkably high between replicated invasions of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum in laboratory microcosms. The observed variation between replicate invasions cannot be explained by demographic stochasticity alone, which indicates inherent limitations to predictability in even the simplest ecological settings. PMID:19762641

Melbourne, Brett A; Hastings, Alan

2009-09-18

70

A Visibility Matching Tone Reproduction Operator for High Dynamic Range Scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a tone reproduction operator that preserves visibility in high dynamic range scenes. Our method introduces a new histogram adjustment technique, based on the population of local adaptation luminances in a scene. To match subjective viewing experience, the method incorporates models for human contrast sensitivity, glare, spatial acuity and color sensitivity. We compare our results to previous work and

Gregory Ward Larson; Holly E. Rushmeier; Christine D. Piatko

1997-01-01

71

High pathogenicity avian influenza virus in the reproductive tract of chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection with high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations in poultry including severe depression in egg production and isolation of HPAIV from eggs laid by infected hens. To evaluate the pathobiology in the reproductive tract of...

72

Effects of feeding high-linoleate safflower seeds on postpartum reproduction in beef cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate reproductive responses to supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds in postpartum beef cows. In Exp. 1, 18 primiparous, crossbred beef cows (BW 411 ± 24.3 kg) were fed Foxtail millet hay at 1.68% of BW (DM basis) and either a low-fat control (Control: 63...

73

Compact High Repetition Rate Pseudospark Pulse Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pseudospark-based high repetition rate pulse generator, together with a resonant charging power supply is presented. The pulse generator was developed for research applications that include transient plasma ignition. The design incorporates a lumped element Blumlein pulse-forming network that is switched by a commercial pseudospark into an output pulse transformer with a METGLAS core. The Blumlein is charged up to

Fei Wang; András Kuthi; Martin A. Gundersen

2005-01-01

74

Integrated High Repetition Rate Pulse Compressor Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to the design of high repetition rate, solid state pulse power generators is described. The effects of the various design parameters are discussed, and the order in which these should be approached is also described. Of particular interest are several compressor core constructional parameters which are important in the final performance of the compressor.

M. Greenwood; J. Gowar; D. A. Grant

1991-01-01

75

High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

2012-08-01

76

High strain rate response of an elastomer.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-shear plate impact experiments have been conducted to study the mechanical response of an elastomer (polyurea) at very high strain rates: 10^5 - 10^6 s-1. Thin samples are cast between two hard steel plates. Longitudinal waves reverberating through the sample are used to determine the slope of the isentrope at compressive stresses greater than, say, 500 MPa - the pressure at impact. Release wave experiments, combined with plane wave simulations, are used to extend the isentrope into the tensile regime. Because the shearing resistance of polyurea depends strongly on pressure, two approaches are used to investigate the regime of high shearing rate and low pressure. First, an unloading longitudinal wave reflected from the rear surface of the target assembly is made to arrive at the sample midway through its loading by the incident shear wave. As a result, the sample is sheared at high strain rates and both high and low pressure during a single experiment. Second, the thickness of the flyer and front plates are selected such that the compressive pulse passes through the cast-in-place sample before the shear wave arrives, allowing the shearing resistance to be measured at zero pressure. Results of these experiments and their simulation will be presented.

Jiao, Tong; Clifton, Rodney; Grunschel, Stephen

2007-06-01

77

Phosphor thermometry at high repetition rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphor thermometry is a semi-invasive surface temperature measurement technique utilizing the luminescence properties of thermographic phosphors. Typically these ceramic materials are coated onto the object of interest and are excited by a short UV laser pulse. Photomultipliers and high-speed camera systems are used to transiently detect the subsequently emitted luminescence decay point wise or two-dimensionally resolved. Based on appropriate calibration measurements, the luminescence lifetime is converted to temperature. Up to now, primarily Q-switched laser systems with repetition rates of 10 Hz were employed for excitation. Accordingly, this diagnostic tool was not applicable to resolve correlated temperature transients at time scales shorter than 100 ms. For the first time, the authors realized a high-speed phosphor thermometry system combining a highly repetitive laser in the kHz regime and a fast decaying phosphor. A suitable material was characterized regarding its temperature lifetime characteristic and precision. Additionally, the influence of laser power on the phosphor coating in terms of heating effects has been investigated. A demonstration of this high-speed technique has been conducted inside the thermally highly transient system of an optically accessible internal combustion engine. Temperatures have been measured with a repetition rate of one sample per crank angle degree at an engine speed of 1000 rpm. This experiment has proven that high-speed phosphor thermometry is a promising diagnostic tool for the resolution of surface temperature transients.

Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

2013-09-01

78

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion occurs in the high temperature sections of energy production plants due to a number of factors: ash deposition, coal composition, thermal gradients, and low NOx conditions, among others. Electrochemical corrosion rate (ECR) probes have been shown to operate in high temperature gaseous environments that are similar to those found in fossil fuel combustors. ECR probes are rarely used in energy production plants at the present time, but if they were more fully understood, corrosion could become a process variable at the control of plant operators. Research is being conducted to understand the nature of these probes. Factors being considered are values selected for the Stern-Geary constant, the effect of internal corrosion, and the presence of conductive corrosion scales and ash deposits. The nature of ECR probes will be explored in a number of different atmospheres and with different electrolytes (ash and corrosion product). Corrosion rates measured using an electrochemical multi-technique capabilities instrument will be compared to those measured using the linear polarization resistance (LPR) technique. In future experiments, electrochemical corrosion rates will be compared to penetration corrosion rates determined using optical profilometry measurements.

Bullard, Sophie J.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

2005-09-01

79

A high-throughput method for assessing chemical toxicity using a Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction assay  

SciTech Connect

The National Research Council has outlined the need for non-mammalian toxicological models to test the potential health effects of a large number of chemicals while also reducing the use of traditional animal models. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an attractive alternative model because of its well-characterized and evolutionarily conserved biology, low cost, and ability to be used in high-throughput screening. A high-throughput method is described for quantifying the reproductive capacity of C. elegans exposed to chemicals for 48 h from the last larval stage (L4) to adulthood using a COPAS Biosort. Initially, the effects of exposure conditions that could influence reproduction were defined. Concentrations of DMSO vehicle {<=} 1% did not affect reproduction. Previous studies indicated that C. elegans may be influenced by exposure to low pH conditions. At pHs greater than 4.5, C. elegans reproduction was not affected; however below this pH there was a significant decrease in the number of offspring. Cadmium chloride was chosen as a model toxicant to verify that automated measurements were comparable to those of traditional observational studies. EC{sub 50} values for cadmium for automated measurements (176-192 {mu}M) were comparable to those previously reported for a 72-h exposure using manual counting (151 {mu}M). The toxicity of seven test toxicants on C. elegans reproduction was highly correlative with rodent lethality suggesting that this assay may be useful in predicting the potential toxicity of chemicals in other organisms.

Boyd, Windy A. [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); McBride, Sandra J.; Rice, Julie R.; Snyder, Daniel W. [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Freedman, Jonathan H., E-mail: freedma1@niehs.nih.go [Biomolecular Screening Branch, National Toxicology Program, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

2010-06-01

80

2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings  

E-print Network

,145 bcd 11 g 0.485 521.54 bcd Beltwide Cotton Genetics 520R 1.38 abc 1,177 bc 14 efg 0.517 537.33 b Fiber2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings for Verticillium Wilt Dr. Terry Wheeler Research 2326RR, FiberMax (FM) 960 BR, FM 989 BR, FM 989B2R, and DeltaPine 455BR. The best Roundup Ready Flex

Mukhtar, Saqib

81

Civilian residential fire fatality rates: Six high-rate states versus six low-rate states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of an analysis of 1,600 fire fatalities occurring in six states with high fire-death rates and six states with low fire-death rates are presented. Reasons for the differences in rates are explored, with special attention to victim age, sex, race, and condition at time of ignition. Fire cause patterns are touched on only lightly but are addressed more extensively in the companion piece to this report, "Rural and Non-Rural Civilian Residential Fire Fatalities in Twelve States', NBSIR 82-2519.

Hall, J. R., Jr.; Helzer, S. G.

1983-08-01

82

Reproductive Biology of RareReproductive Biology of Rare PlantsPlants  

E-print Network

in reproductive success. Mating system.Mating system. Lower with higher rates ofLower with higher ratesReproductive Biology of RareReproductive Biology of Rare PlantsPlants Importance of ReproductionImportance of Reproduction Case StudiesCase Studies #12;Rare Plant ReproductionRare Plant Reproduction Population Viability

Cruzan, Mitchell B.

83

High rate pulse processing algorithms for microcalorimeters  

SciTech Connect

It has been demonstrated that microcalorimeter spectrometers based on superconducting transition-edge-sensor can readily achieve sub-100 eV energy resolution near 100 keV. However, the active volume of a single microcalorimeter has to be small to maintain good energy resolution, and pulse decay times are normally in the order of milliseconds due to slow thermal relaxation. Consequently, spectrometers are typically built with an array of microcalorimeters to increase detection efficiency and count rate. Large arrays, however, require as much pulse processing as possible to be performed at the front end of the readout electronics to avoid transferring large amounts of waveform data to a host computer for processing. In this paper, they present digital filtering algorithms for processing microcalorimeter pulses in real time at high count rates. The goal for these algorithms, which are being implemented in the readout electronics that they are also currently developing, is to achieve sufficiently good energy resolution for most applications while being (a) simple enough to be implemented in the readout electronics and (b) capable of processing overlapping pulses and thus achieving much higher output count rates than the rates that existing algorithms are currently achieving. Details of these algorithms are presented, and their performance was compared to that of the 'optimal filter' that is the dominant pulse processing algorithm in the cryogenic-detector community.

Rabin, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bacrania, Mnesh K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tan, Hui [XIA-LLC; Breus, Dimitry [XIA-LLC; Henning, Wolfgang [XIA-LLC; Sabourov, Konstantin [XIA-LLC; Collins, Jeff [XAI-LLC; Warburton, William K [XIA-LLC; Dorise, Bertrand [NIST; Ullom, Joel N [NIST; [NON LANL

2009-01-01

84

Glass Dynamics at High Strain Rates  

E-print Network

We present a shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theoretical analysis of molecular-dynamics simulations of a rapidly sheared metallic glass. These simulations are especially revealing because, although they are limited to high strain rates, they span temperatures ranging from well below to well above the glass transition. With one important discrepancy, the STZ theory reproduces the simulation data, including the way in which those data can be made to collapse onto simple curves by a scaling transformation. The STZ analysis implies that the system's behavior at high strain rates is controlled primarily by effective-temperature thermodynamics, as opposed to system-specific details of the molecular interactions. The discrepancy between theory and simulations occurs at the lower strain rates for temperatures near the glass transition. We argue that this discrepancy can be resolved by the same multi-species generalization of STZ theory that has been proposed recently for understanding frequency-dependent viscoelastic responses, Stokes-Einstein violations, and stretched-exponential relaxation in equilibrated glassy materials.

J. S. Langer; Takeshi Egami

2012-05-11

85

High strain rate behavior of polyurea compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-strain-rate response of three polyurea compositions with varying molecular weights has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar arrangement equipped with aluminum bars. Three polyurea compositions were synthesized from polyamines (Versalink, Air Products) with a multi-functional isocyanate (Isonate 143L, Dow Chemical). Amines with molecular weights of 1000, 650, and a blend of 250/1000 have been used in the current investigation. These materials have been tested to strain rates of over 6000/s. High strain rate results from these tests have shown varying trends as a function of increasing strain. While higher molecular weight composition show lower yield, they do not show dominant hardening behavior at lower strain. On the other hand, the blend of 250/1000 show higher load bearing capability but lower strain hardening effects than the 600 and 1000 molecular weight amine based materials. Results indicate that the initial increase in the modulus of the blend of 250/1000 may lead to the loss of strain hardening characteristics as the material is compressed to 50% strain, compared to 1000 molecular weight amine based material.

Joshi, Vasant S.; Milby, Christopher

2012-03-01

86

High Strain Rate Behavior of Polyurea Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyurea has been gaining importance in recent years due to its impact resistance properties. The actual compositions of this viscoelastic material must be tailored for specific use. It is therefore imperative to study the effect of variations in composition on the properties of the material. High-strain-rate response of three polyurea compositions with varying molecular weights has been investigated using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar arrangement equipped with titanium bars. The polyurea compositions were synthesized from polyamines (Versalink, Air Products) with a multi-functional isocyanate (Isonate 143L, Dow Chemical). Amines with molecular weights of 1000, 650, and a blend of 250/1000 have been used in the current investigation. The materials have been tested up to strain rates of 6000/s. Results from these tests have shown interesting trends on the high rate behavior. While higher molecular weight composition show lower yield, they do not show dominant hardening behavior. On the other hand, the blend of 250/1000 show higher load bearing capability but lower strain hardening effects than the 600 and 1000 molecular weight amine based materials. Refinement in experimental methods and comparison of results using aluminum Split Hopkinson Bar is presented.

Joshi, Vasant; Milby, Christopher

2011-06-01

87

High Strain Rate Behavior of Nanoporous Tantalum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-scale failure under extreme conditions is not well understood. In addition to porosity arising from mechanical failure at high strain rates, porous structures also develop due to radiation damage. Therefore, understanding the role of porosity on mechanical behavior is important for the assessment and development of materials like metallic foams, and materials for new fission and fusion reactors, with improved mechanical properties. We carry out molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a Tantalum (a model body-centered cubic metal) crystal with a collection of nanovoids under compression. The effects of high strain rate, ranging from 10^7s-1 to 10^10s-1, on the stress strain curve and on dislocation activity are examined. We find massive total dislocation densities, and estimate a much lower density of mobile dislocations, due to the formation of junctions. Despite the large stress and strain rate, we do not observe twin formation, since nanopores are effective dislocation production sources. A significant fraction of dislocations survive unloading, unlike what happens in fcc metals, and future experiments might be able to study similar recovered samples and find clues to their plastic behavior during loading.

Ruestes, Carlos J.; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Stukowski, Alexander; Rodriguez Nieva, Joaquin F.; Bertolino, Graciela; Tang, Yizhe; Meyers, Marc A.

2012-02-01

88

High strain rate deformation of layered nanocomposites.  

PubMed

Insight into the mechanical behaviour of nanomaterials under the extreme condition of very high deformation rates and to very large strains is needed to provide improved understanding for the development of new protective materials. Applications include protection against bullets for body armour, micrometeorites for satellites, and high-speed particle impact for jet engine turbine blades. Here we use a microscopic ballistic test to report the responses of periodic glassy-rubbery layered block-copolymer nanostructures to impact from hypervelocity micron-sized silica spheres. Entire deformation fields are experimentally visualized at an exceptionally high resolution (below 10?nm) and we discover how the microstructure dissipates the impact energy via layer kinking, layer compression, extreme chain conformational flattening, domain fragmentation and segmental mixing to form a liquid phase. Orientation-dependent experiments show that the dissipation can be enhanced by 30% by proper orientation of the layers. PMID:23132014

Lee, Jae-Hwang; Veysset, David; Singer, Jonathan P; Retsch, Markus; Saini, Gagan; Pezeril, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A; Thomas, Edwin L

2012-01-01

89

The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

90

Fuel droplet burning rates at high pressures.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane was observed in air under natural convection conditions, at pressures up to 100 atm. The droplets were simulated by porous spheres, with diameters in the range from 0.63 to 1.90 cm. The pressure levels of the tests were high enough so that near-critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol. Due to the high pressures, the phase-equilibrium models of the analysis included both the conventional low-pressure approach as well as high-pressure versions, allowing for real gas effects and the solubility of combustion-product gases in the liquid phase. The burning-rate predictions of the various theories were similar, and in fair agreement with the data. The high-pressure theory gave the best prediction for the liquid-surface temperatures of ethanol and propanol-1 at high pressure. The experiments indicated the approach of critical burning conditions for methanol and ethanol at pressures on the order of 80 to 100 atm, which was in good agreement with the predictions of both the low- and high-pressure analysis.

Canada, G. S.; Faeth, G. M.

1973-01-01

91

High reproductive synchrony of Acropora (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea.  

PubMed

Coral spawning in the northern Gulf of Aqaba has been reported to be asynchronous, making it almost unique when compared to other regions in the world. Here, we document the reproductive condition of Acropora corals in early June 2014 in Dahab, in the Gulf of Aqaba, 125 km south of previous studies conducted in Eilat, Israel. Seventy-eight percent of Acropora colonies from 14 species had mature eggs, indicating that most colonies will spawn on or around the June full moon, with a very high probability of multi-species synchronous spawning. Given the proximity to Eilat, we predict that a comparable sampling protocol would detect similar levels of reproductive synchrony throughout the Gulf of Aqaba consistent with the hypothesis that high levels of spawning synchrony are a feature of all speciose coral assemblages. PMID:25653848

Bouwmeester, Jessica; Berumen, Michael L

2015-01-01

92

A visibility matching tone reproduction operator for high dynamic range scenes  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a tone reproduction operator that preserves visibility in high dynamic range scenes. The method introduces a new histogram adjustment technique, based on the population of local adaptation luminances in a scene. To match subjective viewing experience, the method incorporates models for human contrast sensitivity, glare, spatial acuity and color sensitivity. They compare the results to previous work and present examples the techniques applied to lighting simulation and electronic photography.

Larson, G.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rushmeier, H. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Piatko, C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1997-01-15

93

Response of Chickpea Yield to High Temperature Stress during Reproductive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimizing the exposure of an annual crop to abiotic stresses may increase seed yield. A study was conducted to determine the effect of high temperature stress during reproductive development on pod fer- tility, seed set, and seed yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). 'Myles' desi and 'Xena' kabuli chickpea were grown in a controlled envi- ronment under 20\\/16C day\\/night air

J. Wang; Y. T. Gan; F. Clarke; C. L. McDonald

2006-01-01

94

Cervix cancer brachytherapy: high dose rate.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, although less common in industrialized countries, is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide and the fourth leading cause of cancer death. In developing countries, these cancers are often discovered at a later stage in the form of locally advanced tumour with a poor prognosis. Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment is mainly based on a chemoradiotherapy followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy ending by a potential remaining tumour surgery or in principle for some teams. The role of irradiation is crucial to ensure a better local control. It has been shown that the more the delivered dose is important, the better the local results are. In order to preserve the maximum of organs at risk and to allow this dose escalation, brachytherapy (intracavitary and/or interstitial) has been progressively introduced. Its evolution and its progressive improvement have led to the development of high dose rate brachytherapy, the advantages of which are especially based on the possibility of outpatient treatment while maintaining the effectiveness of other brachytherapy forms (i.e., low dose rate or pulsed dose rate). Numerous innovations have also been completed in the field of imaging, leading to a progress in treatment planning systems by switching from two-dimensional form to a three-dimensional one. Image-guided brachytherapy allows more precise target volume delineation as well as an optimized dosimetry permitting a better coverage of target volumes. PMID:25151650

Miglierini, P; Malhaire, J-P; Goasduff, G; Miranda, O; Pradier, O

2014-10-01

95

MST-5 high rate mechanical testing facility  

SciTech Connect

Selected aspects of five gun systems in the MST-5 High Rate Mechanical Testing Facility are described. 238 plutonium sources heated by a projectile furnace are impacted in a 7 in. gun system which provides impact containment. Failure strains in sheet metals are determined by a biaxial punch test and a tensile test using a 2 in. bore gun. A similar gun has its target chamber in a glove box for testing radioactive materials. High temperatures (less than or equal to1000/sup 0/C) compression stress-strain curves are obtained by a Hopkinson bar where wave dispersion in the bars is corrected in the data reduction. A 40 mm gun is being set up in a glove box train for determining the shock response of hazardous materials using both instrumental and recovery tests.

Frantz, C.E.

1985-01-01

96

Study on high rate MRPC for high luminosity experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) has been used to construct time-of-flight system in the field of nuclear and particle physics, due to their high-precision timing properties, high efficiency, reliability and coverage of large area. With the increase of accelerator luminosity, MRPCs have to withstand particle fluxes up to several tens of kHz/cm2 in view of the next generation physics experiments, such as the SIS-100/300 at FAIR-CBM, SoLID at JLab and NICA at JINR. But the MRPC assembled with float glass has very low rate capability not exceeding some hundreds of Hz/cm2. Two possible solutions for increasing rate capability, one is to reduce the bulk resistivity of glass and the other is to reduce the electrode thickness. Tsinghua University has done R&D on high rate MRPC for many years. A special low resistive glass with bulk resistivity around 1010?.cm was developed. We also studied the rate capability changes with glass thickness. In this paper we describe the performance of low resistive glass and two kinds of high rate MRPC (Pad readout and Strip readout) tested by deuterium beams. The results show that the tolerable particle flux can reach 70 kHz/cm2. In the mean time, MRPCs assembled with three thickness (0.7 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.35 mm) of float glass were also tested with deuteron beams, the results show that the three detectors can afford particle rate up to 500 Hz/cm2, 0.75 kHz/cm2 and 3 kHz/cm2, respectively.

Wang, Y.; Huang, X.; Lv, P.; Zhu, W.; Shi, L.; Xie, B.; Cheng, J.; Li, Y.

2014-08-01

97

High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer.  

PubMed

Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. PMID:23179377

Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

2013-01-01

98

Image-guided high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Fractionated high dose rate endorectal brachytherapy (HDR-EBT) using CT-based treatment planning is an alternative method for preoperative down-sizing and down-staging of advanced rectal adeno-carcinomas. The authors present an image guidance procedure that was developed to ensure daily dose reproducibility for the four brachytherapy treatment fractions. Since the applicator might not be placed before each treatment fraction inside the rectal lumen in the same manner as it was placed during the 3D CT volume acquisition used for treatment planning, there is a shift along the catheter axis that may have to be performed. The required shift is determined by comparison of a daily radiograph with the treatment planning digitally-reconstructed radiograph (DRR). A procedure is developed for DRR reconstruction from the 3D data set used for the treatment planning, and two possible daily longitudinal shifts are illustrated: above and below the planning dose distribution. The authors also describe the procedure for rotational alignment illustrated on a clinical case. Reproduction of the treatment planned dose distribution on a daily basis is crucial for the success of fractionated 3D based brachytherapy treatments. Due to the cylindrical symmetry of the applicator used for preoperative HDR-EBT, two types of adjustments are necessary: applicator rotation and dwell position shift along the applicator's longitudinal axis. The impact of the longitudinal applicator shift prior to treatment delivery for 62 patients treated in our institution is also assessed.

Devic, Slobodan; Vuong, Te; Moftah, Belal; Evans, Michael; Podgorsak, Ervin B.; Poon, Emily; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2007-11-15

99

High-energy, high-rate materials processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasingly available range of pulsed-power, high energy kinetic storage devices, such as low-inductance pulse-forming networks, compulsators, and homopolar generators, is presently considered as a basis for industrial high energy/high rate (HEHR) processing to accomplish shock hardening, drilling, rapid surface alloying and melting, welding and cutting, transformation hardening, and cladding and surface melting in metallic materials. Time-temperature-transformation concepts furnish the basis for a fundamental understanding of the potential advantages of this direct pulsed power processing. Attention is given to the HEHR processing of a refractory molybdenum alloy, a nickel-base metallic glass, tungsten, titanium aluminides, and metal-matrix composites.

Marcus, H. L.; Bourell, D. L.; Eliezer, Z.; Persad, C.; Weldon, W.

1987-12-01

100

Reproductive effects of inorganic borates on male employees: birth rate assessment.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential for reproductive effects of inorganic borate compounds on male employees. The standardized birth ratio (SBR) methodology was used to assess fertility among male employees, using live births as the measured end point. The ratio of female to male births was also assessed. Data were collected via questionnaires and telephone follow-up interviews. Medical insurance records were assessed for nonresponders. Exposures were assessed using three semiquantitative categories. We found a statistically significant increase in fertility as measured by live births among the employees of the inorganic borate facility. There does not appear to be any decrease in fertility due to exposures either as analyzed by the borate exposure categories or over time, which is an indirect measure of exposures. We found a nonstatistically significant increase in the percentage of female offspring. This increase was due, not to a deficiency of male offspring, but rather to a marked increase in the numbers of female offspring. This increase in percentage female offspring does not appear to be related to exposures to inorganic borates. Based on the data, exposures to inorganic borates do not appear to adversely affect fertility in this population. PMID:7889872

Whorton, D; Haas, J; Trent, L

1994-01-01

101

High spin rate magnetic controller for nanosatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of a high rate closed-loop spin controller that uses only electromagnetic coils as actuators. The controller is able to perform spin rate control and simultaneously align the spin axis with the Earth's inertial reference frame. It is implemented, optimised and simulated for a 1-unit CubeSat ESTCube-1 to fulfil its mission requirements: spin the satellite up to 360 deg s-1 around the z-axis and align its spin axis with the Earth's polar axis with a pointing error of less than 3°. The attitude of the satellite is determined using a magnetic field vector, a Sun vector and angular velocity. It is estimated using an Unscented Kalman Filter and controlled using three electromagnetic coils. The algorithm is tested in a simulation environment that includes models of space environment and environmental disturbances, sensor and actuator emulation, attitude estimation, and a model to simulate the time delay caused by on-board calculations. In addition to the normal operation mode, analyses of reduced satellite functionality are performed: significant errors of attitude estimation due to non-operational Sun sensors; and limited actuator functionality due to two non-operational coils. A hardware-in-the-loop test is also performed to verify on-board software.

Slavinskis, A.; Kvell, U.; Kulu, E.; Sünter, I.; Kuuste, H.; Lätt, S.; Voormansik, K.; Noorma, M.

2014-02-01

102

Consideration of wear rates at high velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the research presented here is one in which high velocity relative sliding motion between two bodies in contact has been considered. Overall, the wear environment is truly three-dimensional. The attempt to characterize three-dimensional wear was not economically feasible because it must be analyzed at the micro-mechanical level to get results. Thus, an engineering approximation was carried out. This approximation was based on a metallographic study identifying the need to include viscoplasticity constitutive material models, coefficient of friction, relationships between the normal load and velocity, and the need to understand wave propagation. A sled test run at the Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) was considered for the determination of high velocity wear rates. In order to adequately characterize high velocity wear, it was necessary to formulate a numerical model that contained all of the physical events present. The experimental results of a VascoMax 300 maraging steel slipper sliding on an AISI 1080 steel rail during a January 2008 sled test mission were analyzed. During this rocket sled test, the slipper traveled 5,816 meters in 8.14 seconds and reached a maximum velocity of 1,530 m/s. This type of environment was never considered previously in terms of wear evaluation. Each of the features of the metallography were obtained through micro-mechanical experimental techniques. The byproduct of this analysis is that it is now possible to formulate a model that contains viscoplasticity, asperity collisions, temperature and frictional features. Based on the observations of the metallographic analysis, these necessary features have been included in the numerical model, which makes use of a time-dynamic program which follows the movement of a slipper during its experimental test run. The resulting velocity and pressure functions of time have been implemented in the explicit finite element code, ABAQUS. Two-dimensional, plane strain models were used to determine the state of stress within the slipper and the pressure distribution along the bottom. Local submodel collisions between the slipper and a 6 mum radius hemispherical asperity were analyzed to determine mechanical and melt wear rates. A simplified damage criterion of maximum Mises stress was used to determine the damaged volume during the slipper and asperity collision. Overall, the model predicts a total wear volume that is approximately 36% of the total wear measured during the metallographic analysis.

Hale, Chad S.

103

Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite  

PubMed Central

Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

2008-01-01

104

Differential reproductive success favours strong host preference in a highly specialized brood parasite.  

PubMed

Obligate avian brood parasites show dramatic variation in the degree to which they are host specialists or host generalists. The screaming cowbird Molothrus rufoaxillaris is one of the most specialized brood parasites, using a single host, the bay-winged cowbird (Agelaioides badius) over most of its range. Coevolutionary theory predicts increasing host specificity the longer the parasite interacts with a particular avian community, as hosts evolve defences that the parasite cannot counteract. According to this view, host specificity can be maintained if screaming cowbirds avoid parasitizing potentially suitable hosts that have developed effective defences against parasitic females or eggs. Specialization may also be favoured, even in the absence of host defences, if the parasite's reproductive success in alternative hosts is lower than that in the main host. We experimentally tested these hypotheses using as alternative hosts two suitable but unparasitized species: house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and chalk-browed mockingbirds (Mimus saturninus). We assessed host defences against parasitic females and eggs, and reproductive success of the parasite in current and alternative hosts. Alternative hosts did not discriminate against screaming cowbird females or eggs. Egg survival and hatching success were similarly high in current and alternative hosts, but the survival of parasitic chicks was significantly lower in alternative hosts. Our results indicate that screaming cowbirds have the potential to colonize novel hosts, but higher reproductive success in the current host may favour host fidelity. PMID:18647716

De Mársico, María C; Reboreda, Juan C

2008-11-01

105

High corticosterone, not high energy cost, correlates with reproductive success in the burrow-nesting ancient murrelet.  

PubMed

Theory and observations suggest that offspring abandonment in animals may occur when the costs to future reproductive output of current reproductive effort outweigh the fitness benefits of rearing the current brood. While hormonal cues (i.e. corticosterone) or energy reserves are believed to be involved, few studies have directly focused on the proximate cues influencing behaviours directly related to reproductive success. To address this information gap, we determined the incubation metabolic rates and corticosterone (CORT) levels of naturally fasting and freely incubating ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Respiratory quotient (RQ) increased with date, suggesting that incubating ancient murrelets shifted from strictly lipid-based metabolism towards more protein-based metabolism as incubation progressed. Birds that hatched only one nestling had higher levels of circulating CORT than those which hatched two, suggesting that birds which laid only a single egg found incubation more stressful than those which laid two. However, CORT levels and incubation shift lengths were not correlated, suggesting that birds that undertook prolonged incubation shifts did so only when their energy stores were not jeopardized. PMID:24391929

Shoji, Akiko; Elliott, Kyle H; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Gaston, Anthony J

2013-01-01

106

High Corticosterone, Not High Energy Cost, Correlates with Reproductive Success in the Burrow-Nesting Ancient Murrelet  

PubMed Central

Theory and observations suggest that offspring abandonment in animals may occur when the costs to future reproductive output of current reproductive effort outweigh the fitness benefits of rearing the current brood. While hormonal cues (i.e. corticosterone) or energy reserves are believed to be involved, few studies have directly focused on the proximate cues influencing behaviours directly related to reproductive success. To address this information gap, we determined the incubation metabolic rates and corticosterone (CORT) levels of naturally fasting and freely incubating ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Respiratory quotient (RQ) increased with date, suggesting that incubating ancient murrelets shifted from strictly lipid-based metabolism towards more protein-based metabolism as incubation progressed. Birds that hatched only one nestling had higher levels of circulating CORT than those which hatched two, suggesting that birds which laid only a single egg found incubation more stressful than those which laid two. However, CORT levels and incubation shift lengths were not correlated, suggesting that birds that undertook prolonged incubation shifts did so only when their energy stores were not jeopardized. PMID:24391929

Shoji, Akiko; Elliott, Kyle H.; O’Reilly, Kathleen M.; Gaston, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

107

Why are Canadian and US Unemployment Rates So Highly Correlated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine twin mysteries - the high correlation between Canadian and US unemployment rates and the emergence of a gap between these rates around 1982. We argue that the apparent close relationship between the unemployment rates and the sudden emergence of a gap are statistically spurious, because both rates are highly persistent. When we difference the data, the unemployment rates

Kevin Lang; Jay Zagorsky

1998-01-01

108

The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states’ high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in state and federal minimum wage rates on state high

John Robert Warren

2010-01-01

109

High variance in reproductive success generates a false signature of a genetic bottleneck in populations of constant size: a simulation study  

PubMed Central

Background Demographic bottlenecks can severely reduce the genetic variation of a population or a species. Establishing whether low genetic variation is caused by a bottleneck or a constantly low effective number of individuals is important to understand a species’ ecology and evolution, and it has implications for conservation management. Recent studies have evaluated the power of several statistical methods developed to identify bottlenecks. However, the false positive rate, i.e. the rate with which a bottleneck signal is misidentified in demographically stable populations, has received little attention. We analyse this type of error (type I) in forward computer simulations of stable populations having greater than Poisson variance in reproductive success (i.e., variance in family sizes). The assumption of Poisson variance underlies bottleneck tests, yet it is commonly violated in species with high fecundity. Results With large variance in reproductive success (Vk ? 40, corresponding to a ratio between effective and census size smaller than 0.1), tests based on allele frequencies, allelic sizes, and DNA sequence polymorphisms (heterozygosity excess, M-ratio, and Tajima’s D test) tend to show erroneous signals of a bottleneck. Similarly, strong evidence of population decline is erroneously detected when ancestral and current population sizes are estimated with the model based method MSVAR. Conclusions Our results suggest caution when interpreting the results of bottleneck tests in species showing high variance in reproductive success. Particularly in species with high fecundity, computer simulations are recommended to confirm the occurrence of a population bottleneck. PMID:24131797

2013-01-01

110

High divergence of reproductive tract proteins and their association with postzygotic reproductive isolation in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila virilis group species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible association between gonadal protein divergence and postzygotic reproductive isolation was investigated among species of the Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis groups. Protein divergence was scored by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Close to 500 protein spots from gonadal tissues (testis and ovary) and nongonadal tissues (malpighian tubules and brain) were analyzed and protein divergence was calculated based on presence

Alberto Civetta; Rama S. Singh

1995-01-01

111

Potential and realized rates of vegetative reproduction in Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of vegetative propagule development was estimated in three duckweed (Lemnaceae) species, Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia borealis, by measuring the number of daughter fronds produced over the life span of mother fronds. Under the same constant environmental conditions, plants of L. minor lived the longest (31.3 days) and produced the most daughter fronds (14.0), yet W. borealis

Gordon D. Lemon; Usher Posluszny; Brian C. Husband

2001-01-01

112

Estimating Pesticide Effects on Fecundity Rates of Wild Birds Using Current Laboratory Reproduction Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory agencies have used laboratory toxicity tests for decades to assess potential risks of pesticide use to wildlife, but questions remain about the ecological significance of test results. Population models may provide a valuable tool for projecting the consequences of pesticide use if information exists on the relationship between exposure and effects on survival and fecundity rates. We review issues

Richard S. Bennett; Matthew A. Etterson

2006-01-01

113

Investigating the life-cycle and growth rate of Pediastrum boryanum and the implications for wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds.  

PubMed

The colonial alga Pediastrum boryanum has beneficial characteristics for wastewater treatment High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAP) including high biomass productivity and settleability. Our previous work has shown that these characteristics are enhanced when a portion of gravity harvested algae is recycled back to the pond. To help understand the mechanisms behind the improved performance of P. boryanum dominated HRAP with algal recycling, this study investigated the life-cycle of P. boryanum. Experiments determined the exact timing and growth rate of P. boryanum life-cycle stages ('juvenile', 'growth' and 'reproductive') under four combinations of light and temperature (250 or 120 ?Mol/m(2)/s; 20 or 10 °C). Single juvenile 16-celled colonies were grown in microcosms on an inverted microscope and photographed every 15 min until reproduction ceased. Two asexual life-cycles and a rarely occurring sexual life-cycle were observed. The time required to achieve asexual reproductive maturity increased from 52 h (high light and temperature) to 307 h (low light and temperature), indicating that the minimum hydraulic retention time or mean cell residence time (MCRT) must be higher than these values to sustain a P. boryanum HRAP culture under ambient conditions. The net growth rate of a P. boryanum colony varied between life-cycle stages (growth > juvenile > reproductive). This suggests that the higher biomass productivity measured in HRAP with algal recycling could be due to both the increased MCRT and an increase in the net growth rate of the HRAP culture by 'seeding' with faster growing colonies. PMID:24852411

Park, Jason B K; Craggs, Rupert J; Shilton, Andy N

2014-09-01

114

Effect of stocking rate on pasture production, milk production, and reproduction of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.  

PubMed

Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stocking rate (SR). Pasture production and quality data, milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear and quadratic contrasts on SR were evaluated. In addition, the Wilmink exponential model (y(t) = a + b x e((-0.05t) )+ c x t) was fitted to milk yield within lactation, and the parameters were averaged by SR treatment and analyzed as above. The median variation explained by the function for individual lactations was 84%. The amount of pasture grown tended to increase, and the quality of the pasture on offer increased linearly with increasing SR, reducing some of the negative impact of SR on the availability of pasture per cow. Milk production per cow declined linearly with increasing SR, although there was a tendency for most production variables to decline quadratically, with the negative effect of SR declining with increasing SR. The effect on milk production per cow was primarily because of a lower peak milk yield and a greater post-peak decline (less persistent milk profile), although a decline in lactation length with increasing SR was responsible for 24% of the effect of SR on milk yield. Milk production per hectare increased linearly with increasing SR, and there was only a small difference (approximately 3%/cow per ha) in the efficiency of converting feed dry matter into milk energy. Stocking rate did not affect reproductive success. The data are consistent with the need for a more robust measure of SR than cows per hectare because farms will differ in the genetic merit of their cows and in the potential to produce pasture. We introduce the concept of a comparative SR, whereby the carrying capacity of the farm is defined by the BW of the cows, the potential of the land to produce pasture, and the amount of supplement purchased (kg of BW/t of feed dry matter). The adoption of such a measure would facilitate the extrapolation and transfer of research findings among systems. PMID:18420647

Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Lancaster, J A S; Roche, J R

2008-05-01

115

Lunar periodicity in catch rate and reproductive condition of adult eastern king prawns, Penaeus plebejus, in coastal waters of south-eastern Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the lunar and die1 variation in catch rates and reproductive condition of adult eastern king prawns, Penaeus plebejus, in relatively deep (160 m) coastal waters off south- eastern Queensland. Females numerically dominated catches over most of the lunar cycle and constituted 76% of the weight of the catch. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed an interaction between lunar

A. J. Courtney; DJ Die; JG McGilvray

1996-01-01

116

Bipolar high-repetition-rate high-voltage nanosecond pulser  

SciTech Connect

The pulser designed is mainly used for producing corona plasma in waste water treatment system. Also its application in study of dielectric electrical properties will be discussed. The pulser consists of a variable dc power source for high-voltage supply, two graded capacitors for energy storage, and the rotating spark gap switch. The key part is the multielectrode rotating spark gap switch (MER-SGS), which can ensure wider range modulation of pulse repetition rate, longer pulse width, shorter pulse rise time, remarkable electrical field distortion, and greatly favors recovery of the gap insulation strength, insulation design, the life of the switch, etc. The voltage of the output pulses switched by the MER-SGS is in the order of 3-50 kV with pulse rise time of less than 10 ns and pulse repetition rate of 1-3 kHz. An energy of 1.25-125 J per pulse and an average power of up to 10-50 kW are attainable. The highest pulse repetition rate is determined by the driver motor revolution and the electrode number of MER-SGS. Even higher voltage and energy can be switched by adjusting the gas pressure or employing N{sub 2} as the insulation gas or enlarging the size of MER-SGS to guarantee enough insulation level.

Tian Fuqiang; Wang Yi; Shi Hongsheng [School of Electrical Engineer, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Lei Qingquan [School of Electrical Engineer, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineer, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040 (China); Key Laboratory of Engineer Dielectrics and Its Application of Education Ministry, Harbin 150040 (China)

2008-06-15

117

Tradeoff between offspring mass and subsequent reproduction in a highly iteroparous mammal  

E-print Network

subsequent reproductive success or survival. We used longitudinal data on marked mountain goatsOreamnos americanus to assess if offspring mass at weaning affected maternal survival and future reproduction

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

118

PS foams at high pressure drop rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report data on PS foamed at 100 °C after CO2 saturation at 10 MPa in a new physical foaming batch that achieves pressure drop rates up to 120 MPa/s. Results show how average cell size of the foam nicely fit a linear behavior with the pressure drop rate in a double logarithmic plot. Furthermore, foam density initially decreases with the pressure drop rate, attaining a constant value at pressure drop rates higher than 40 MPa/s. Interestingly, furthermore, we observed that the shape of the pressure release curve has a large effect on the final foam morphology, as observed in tests in which the maximum pressure release rate was kept constant but the shape of the curve changed. These results allow for a fine tuning of the foam density and morphology for specific applications.

Tammaro, Daniele; De Maio, Attilio; Carbone, Maria Giovanna Pastore; Di Maio, Ernesto; Iannace, Salvatore

2014-05-01

119

Effect of high somatic cell counts on reproductive performance of Chilean dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objectives were to evaluate the effect of high linear somatic cell counts (LNSCC > or =4.5) during early lactation on reproductive performance and to estimate their association with the risk of abortion in a population of central-southern Chilean dairy cattle. The analysis included records from a population of 157 farms and considered 1,127,405 test-day records including 101,944 lactations that began between 1997 and 2006. After data edits, the analyses of calving to first service and calving to conception intervals consisted of 88,633 and 70,877 lactations, respectively. Once controlling for significant variables, time to first breeding was 21.8 d longer in cows with at least 1 high LNSCC before the first breeding compared with controls. Cows with at least 1 high LNSCC before the fertile breeding had an increment in time to conception of 48.7 d and required, on average, 0.49 more services to conceive. The odds of conception at first service in cows with a high LNSCC within 30 d before [after] breeding were 0.85 (0.81 to 0.89; 95% confidence interval ) [0.82 (0.78 to 0.87; 95% confidence interval)] times the odds of conception for cows without a high LNSCC during that period. The Cox proportional hazard model indicated that after correction by calving year, lactation number, and milk yield standardized to 305 d, the risk of pregnancy decreased by 44% if a high LNSCC occurred before breeding. Cows registering a high LNSCC during the first 90 d of gestation had an increased risk of abortion, being 1.22 (1.07 to 1.35; 95% confidence interval) times more likely to abort than nonaffected cows. It is concluded that subclinical mastitis, measured as LNSCC >/=4.5, had a significant effect on reproductive performance in Chilean dairy cattle. PMID:19307638

Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Villagomez-Cortes, J A; Risco, C A

2009-04-01

120

Dislocation Mechanics of High-Rate Deformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four topics associated with constitutive equation descriptions of rate-dependent metal plastic deformation behavior are reviewed in honor of previous research accomplished on the same issues by Professor Marc Meyers along with colleagues and students, as follow: (1) increasing strength levels attributed to thermally activated dislocation migration at higher loading rates; (2) inhomogeneous adiabatic shear banding; (3) controlling mechanisms of deformation in shock as compared with shock-less isentropic compression experiments and (4) Hall-Petch-based grain size-dependent strain rate sensitivities exhibited by nanopolycrystalline materials. Experimental results are reviewed on the topics for a wide range of metals.

Armstrong, Ronald W.; Li, Qizhen

2015-02-01

121

HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many â?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability weâ??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDDâ??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detectorâ??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

2013-04-30

122

Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

2015-02-01

123

LOCALIZATION AND SHEAR BANDS IN HIGH STRAIN-RATE PLASTICITY  

E-print Network

study. The mathematical theory of localization in high strain rate plastic- ity aims to understandLOCALIZATION AND SHEAR BANDS IN HIGH STRAIN-RATE PLASTICITY THEODOROS KATSAOUNIS AND ATHANASIOS and the formation of shear bands in high strain-rate plasticity of metals. We employ the Arrhenius constitutive

Katsaounis, Theodoros D.

124

New high-rate wireless LAN standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the IEEE 802.11 standardization group established the first wireless LAN, several efforts were started to increase data rates and also to use other bands. This article describes the new wireless LAN standards developed by IEEE 802.11, ETSI BRAN, and MMAC. The new standards are targeting data rates up to 11 Mb\\/s in the 2.4 GHz band and up to

Richard van Nee; Geert Awater; Masahiro Morikura; H. Takanashi; M. Webster; K. W. Halford

1999-01-01

125

Nesting ecology and reproductive rate of the red-winged blackbird in tidal marshes of the upper Chesapeake Bay region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nesting ecology and reproductive rate of the polygynous red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, were studied in the tidal marshes of Maryland during the period of 1958 through 1961. Sixteen nesting colonies were located in six major marsh communities of the Eastern Shore and were visited approximately twice a week from late April to mid-August. The average clutch size for 537 clutches was 3.3 eggs, with a range of 2 to 5 eggs. The ratio of territorial males to nesting females was 1:1.9. There was direct evidence of double broods by four females. The average number of young produced was 4.2 per breeding female or 8.1 per breeding male. Nesting success for the total of 675 active nests was 57%, with a range from 38% to 69% in the colonies. Robust plants that held constant form throughout the nesting season supported 95% of the nests, and the success of these nests was 58%; in contrast, non-robust plants supported only 5% of the nests, and success of this group of nests was only 26%. Nesting success varied with height from ground: 45% for nests less than 2 feet from the ground, 55% for those 2 to 4 feet, and 62% for those more than 4 feet. Histories of 749 nests were summarized by stages: 749 newly built, 675 with eggs, 424 with nestlings, and 388 with fledging young.

Meanley, B.; Webb, J.S.

1963-01-01

126

Lineless Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rate Sources?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain XMM-Newton spectroscopic imaging observations of a remarkable group of five quasars that lack detectable ultraviolet emission lines at z=2.9-4.0 with a total exposure time of 195 ks. Obtaining ~1000 photons per source, we will measure the hard-X-ray photon index and intrinsic absorption, and search for an iron line and Compton reflection. Steep hard-X-ray spectral slopes will indicate that high accretion rates may be responsible for the emission-line suppression with implications for the physics of the broad-line region. The XMM-Newton data may provide an important linkage between our sources and an apparently related group of radio-quiet, weak-lined active galactic nuclei at low redshift.

Shemmer, Ohad

2007-10-01

127

Reproductive biology of Acrolophia cochlearis (Orchidaceae): estimating rates of cross-pollination in epidendroid orchids  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Pollen fates strongly influence mating success in plants but are difficult to quantify. By promoting foraging constancy in pollinators, floral rewards such as nectar may enhance the overall efficiency of pollen transfer. However, this can also lead to high levels of geitonogamy. Pollen fates were studied in Acrolophia cochlearis, a member of a terrestrial epidendroid orchid genus that includes both rewarding and deceptive species. Methods Pollinator observations were conducted. Pollen transfer efficiency (PTE), the proportion of removed pollinia deposited on stigmas, was measured in a large population at regular intervals throughout the 5-month flowering season. The level of cross-pollination in two populations was estimated from the percentage of seeds with embryos in naturally pollinated fruits. Key Results Acrolophia cochlearis (and a congener A. micrantha) produce minute but concentrated nectar rewards. Observations showed that A. cochlearis is pollinated exclusively by a solitary bee species, Colletes claripes. Although both sexes visited flowers, only males carried pollinaria. Overall levels of pollination and PTE of the rewarding A. cochlearis were much higher than in a deceptive congener, A. capensis. Seeds resulting from self-fertilization had a significantly lower probability of containing viable embryos than did those from cross-fertilization. This dichotomy in fruit quality was used to estimate that cross-pollination occurred in approx. 66 % of A. cochlearis flowers in a large dense population and approx. 10 % in a small sparse population. Traits of A. cochlearis that limit geitonogamy include pollinarium reconfiguration that exceeds the visit time of pollinators and rapid flower senescence following visitation. Conclusions Presence of a nectar reward in Acrolophia cochlearis results in high levels of PTE. It is estimated that approx. 33–90 % of fruits in natural populations arise from self-pollination in this species. PMID:19001427

Peter, Craig I.; Johnson, Steven D.

2009-01-01

128

Thermonuclear-Reaction Rates at High Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermonuclear-reaction rates have been calculated over the temperature range 2<~((T)\\/(109))°K<~6 for some cases of particular interest in nucleosynthesis during silicon burning (Michaud and Fowler). We explicitly relate our calculations to the evaporation theory and the optical model for particle channels. For gamma-ray channels we develop an approximate formula fitted to the experimental results of Macklin and Gibbons on radiative capture

Georges Michaud; William A. Fowler

1970-01-01

129

High-Repetition-Rate Femtosecond Yb  

E-print Network

pending covering the Yb-fibre laser system and a high-energy optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system systems are available to purchase from the university commercialisation office ­ prices & full, up to 500 MHz · No water cooling required TECHNOLOGY The laser design utilizes a highly- doped Yb

Painter, Kevin

130

Controlling the high order multiple birth rate: the European perspective.  

PubMed

The dramatic increase in the incidence of high order multiple pregnancies that has occurred since the mid-1970s is due to three main factors: increasing female age at conception; increasing use of ovulation induction agents and the introduction of sophisticated assisted reproduction techniques. High order multiple pregnancies are at significantly higher risk of complications than singleton pregnancies, for the fetuses, babies and the mothers. The aim of all fertility treatments is to achieve a healthy live child for each couple seeking treatment. Treatment of infertility by IVF and related techniques provides an ideal opportunity to limit the number of high order multiple pregnancies by reducing the number of embryos transferred to the woman. The realization that high order multiple pregnancy can and should be avoided has increasingly led, in most European countries, to a restriction of the number of embryos for transfer to two or even one, without a significant decrease in a couples' chance of achieving a pregnancy. The experience of European countries in reducing the number of embryos transferred is reviewed and a recommendation made that a responsible attitude to embryo transfer is adopted by all practitioners of assisted reproduction. PMID:12735870

Brinsden, Peter R

2003-01-01

131

Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

2013-01-01

132

High performance interconnection between high data rate networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bridge/gateway system needed to interconnect a wide range of computer networks to support a wide range of user quality-of-service requirements is discussed. The bridge/gateway must handle a wide range of message types including synchronous and asynchronous traffic, large, bursty messages, short, self-contained messages, time critical messages, etc. It is shown that messages can be classified into three basic classes, synchronous and large and small asynchronous messages. The first two require call setup so that packet identification, buffer handling, etc. can be supported in the bridge/gateway. Identification enables resequences in packet size. The third class is for messages which do not require call setup. Resequencing hardware based to handle two types of resequencing problems is presented. The first is for a virtual parallel circuit which can scramble channel bytes. The second system is effective in handling both synchronous and asynchronous traffic between networks with highly differing packet sizes and data rates. The two other major needs for the bridge/gateway are congestion and error control. A dynamic, lossless congestion control scheme which can easily support effective error correction is presented. Results indicate that the congestion control scheme provides close to optimal capacity under congested conditions. Under conditions where error may develop due to intervening networks which are not lossless, intermediate error recovery and correction takes 1/3 less time than equivalent end-to-end error correction under similar conditions.

Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, K.; Overstreet, C. M.; Zhang, L.; Sun, W.

1992-01-01

133

A new high rate serially concatenated space-time code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using high rate recursive systematic convolutional code (RSCC) as the basic element and the trace criteria as the design principle, a new kind of high rate recursive space-time trellis code (HR-RSTTC) is designed for serial concatenation. By making the number of RSCCs and the coding rate of each RSCC be variable, our designed HR-RSTTC can adjust the data rate according

Ying Li; Xudong Guo; Junhong Hui; Xinmei Wang

2005-01-01

134

New high rate lead acid battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to the design of lead acid batteries has been developed based on the use of very thin lead foil current collectors. The basic cell construction and the performance characteristics for the new cell are described. Spiral wrap cells based on this electrode concept exhibit extremely high power output with excellent capacity maintenance. Additionally, these cells exhibit very flat voltage at all currents, and are capable of very rapid recharge. Applications for this high power technology cover a broad spectrum such as portable power tools, UPS systems, electrically heated catalytic converters, military pulse power applications, and electric and hybrid vehicles.

Juergens, Tristan; Ruderman, Michael A.; Brodd, Ralph J.

1994-05-01

135

High lifetime inbreeding depression counteracts the reproductive assurance benefit of selfing in a mass-flowering shrub.  

PubMed

BackgroundDecreases in mate and/or pollinator availability would be expected to affect the selective pressure on plant mating systems. An increase in self-fertilization may evolve to compensate for the negative effects of pollination failure. However, the benefit of selfing in variable pollination environments depends on the relative fitnesses of selfed and outcrossed progeny. We investigated the potential for selfing to provide reproductive assurance over the lifetime of a long-lived perennial species and its variation between plant patches of various sizes. Patch size is likely to affect mate and pollinator availabilities, thereby affecting pollination success and the rate of selfing. We estimated fruit and seed set, reproductive assurance, self-compatibility, the multilocus patch selfing rate and lifetime inbreeding depression in natural patches of Rhododendron ferrugineum (Ericaceae), a mass-flowering species characterized by considerable patch size variation (as estimated by the total number of inflorescences).ResultsOpen seed set declined linearly with increasing patch size, whereas pollinator-mediated seed set (emasculated flowers) was not significantly affected. Progeny array analysis indicated that the selfing rate declined with increasing patch size, consistent with greater reproductive assurance in small sparse patches than in large, dense patches. However, fruit set and adult fitness decreased with decreasing patch size, with an estimated mean lifetime inbreeding depression of 0.9 (obtained by comparing F values in adults and progenies).ConclusionsLifetime inbreeding depression strongly counteracts the advantage of reproductive assurance due to selfing in this long-lived species. The poor fitness of selfed offspring should counteract any evolution towards selfing, despite its potential to alleviate the negative consequences of pollen limitation. This study highlights the need to estimate lifetime inbreeding depression, together with mating system and pollination parameters, if we are to understand the actual benefit of selfing and avoid the overestimation of reproductive assurance. PMID:25433917

Delmas, Chloé; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Escaravage, Nathalie; Pornon, André

2014-11-30

136

Influence of application methods and varying rates of uniconazol on the vegetative and reproductive response of pecan trees, Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch  

E-print Network

the non-fruitful space inside the canopy thereby improving tree health and improving fruit quality and flower bud formation and reduced pruning costs (Quinlan, 1980; Quinlan, 1981). This PGR technology would give the possibility of quickly altering...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Horticulture INFLUENCE OF APPLICATION METHODS AND VARYING RATES OF UNICONAZOL ON THE VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE RESPONSE OF PECAN TREES...

Graham, Charles Jordan

1990-01-01

137

High-Rate Strong-Signal Quantum Cryptography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several quantum cryptosystems utilizing different kinds of nonclassical lights, which can accommodate high intensity fields and high data rate, are described. However, they are all sensitive to loss and both the high rate and the strong-signal character rapidly disappear. A squeezed light homodyne detection scheme is proposed which, with present-day technology, leads to more than two orders of magnitude data rate improvement over other current experimental systems for moderate loss.

Yuen, Horace P.

1996-01-01

138

How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment.  

PubMed

In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga bryoides, S. moschata, S. caesia), differing in growth form, altitudinal distribution and phenology, frost resistance of reproductive and vegetative shoots was assessed in different reproductive stages. Intact plants were exposed to simulated night frosts between -2 and -14 °C in temperature-controlled freezers. Nucleation temperatures, freezing damage and subsequent reproductive success (fruit and seed set, seed germination) were determined. During all reproductive stages, reproductive shoots were significantly less frost resistant than vegetative shoots (mean difference for LT50 -4.2 ± 2.7 K). In most species, reproductive shoots were ice tolerant before bolting and during fruiting (mean LT50 -7 and -5.7 °C), but were ice sensitive during bolting and anthesis (mean LT50 around -4 °C). Only R. glacialis remained ice tolerant during all reproductive stages. Frost injury in reproductive shoots usually led to full fruit loss. Reproductive success of frost-treated but undamaged shoots did not differ significantly from control values. Assessing the frost damage risk on the basis of summer frost frequency and frost resistance shows that, in the alpine zone, low-statured species are rarely endangered as long as they are protected by snow. The situation is different in the subnival and nival zone, where frost-sensitive reproductive shoots may become frost damaged even when covered by snow. Unprotected individuals are at high risk of suffering from frost damage, particularly at higher elevations. It appears that ice tolerance in reproductive structures is an advantage but not an absolute precondition for colonizing high altitudes with frequent frost events. PMID:23386042

Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

2013-03-01

139

High strain rate deformation in FCC metals and alloys  

SciTech Connect

The effect of strain rate, and particularly of high strain rates, on deformation mechanisms in materials is of fundamental interest to those who model and analyze dynamic loading. In many materials the strain rate sensitivity is known to increase dramatically when the strain rate is raised above approx.10/sup 3/ s/sup -1/. This increase has been interpreted previously as a transmission in deformation mechanism from thermal activation control at low strain rate to dislocation drag control at high strain rate. In copper, copper-aluminum alloys and stainless steel, recent measurements have shown that the increased rate sensitivity found at high strain rates is not due to a transition in deformation mechanism but rather can be explained with standard thermal activation theory. These findings and their implications regarding the formulation of constitutive behavior are presented.

Follansbee, P.S.

1985-01-01

140

High Strain Rate Response of an Elastomer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressure-shear plate impact experiments are used to study the nonlinear dynamic response of an elastomer at shearing rates of 105 - 106 s-1. Samples with thicknesses in the range 100 ?m - 400 ?m are cast between two hard steel plates. Because of the comparatively low impedance of the elastomer, longitudinal waves reverberating through the thickness of the sample — and recorded with a laser interferometer — are used to determine the isentrope of the material under uniaxial strain compression. Once the sample is fully compressed a shear wave arrives and imposes a simple shearing deformation. From the transverse velocity, measured interferometrically at the rear surface of the sandwich target, the shear stress and the transverse velocity at the rear surface of the sample are determined. These measurements provide an indication of the shearing resistance of the material under pressure. When the longitudinal unloading wave arrives from the rear surface of the target, these same measurements provide an indication of the shearing resistance of the material at zero pressure. Because the sample adheres to the bounding plates the reflection of unloading waves from both the rear surface of the flyer and the rear surface of the target allows the sample to be strained in uniaxial extension. Thus, from a single experiment, one obtains the response of the elastomer in uniaxial strain compression, simple shear and uniaxial strain extension.

Jiao, Tong; Clifton, Rodney J.; Grunschel, Stephen E.

2006-07-01

141

Infection of United States swine with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess the pathogenic effects of Type 2 highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) on healthy 10-week old commercial swine in the United States, viral kinetics and resultant disease caused by intranasal inoculation of such virus rescued from an infectious clo...

142

HIGH-THROUGHPUT CELLULAR ASSAYS FOR MODELING TOXICITY IN THE FISH REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The most important benefit of this project is the experimental evaluation of all essential steps in the development and testing of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) for a diverse set of reproductive and non-reproductive toxicants. In contrast to human testing and the toxicity pat...

143

The modern high rate digital cassette recorder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic tape recorder has played an essential role in the capture and storage of instrumentation data for more than thirty years. During this time, data recording technology has steadily progressed to meet user demands for more channels, wider bandwidths, and longer recording durations. When acquisition and processing moved from analog to digital techniques, so recorder design followed suit. Milestones marking the evolution of the data recorder through these various stages - multi-track analog, high density longitudinal digital, and more recently rotary digital - have often represented important breakthroughs in the handling of ever-greater quantities of data. Throughout this period there has been a very clear line of demarcation between data storage methods in the 'instrumentation world' on the one hand and the 'computer peripheral world' on the other. This is despite the fact that instrumentation data, whether analog or digital at the point of acquisition, is now likely to be processed on a digital computer at some stage. Regardless of whether the processing device is a small personal computer, a workstation, or the largest supercomputer, system integrators have traditionally been faced with the same basic problem - how to interface what is essentially a manually controlled, continuously running device (the tape recorder) into the fast start/stop computer environment without resorting to an excessive amount of complex custom interfacing and performance compromise. The increasing availability of affordable high power processing equipment throughout the scientific world is forcing recorder manufacturers to make their latest and perhaps most important breakthrough - the computer-friendly data recorder. The operating characteristics of such recorders are discussed and the resultant impact on both data acquisition and data analysis elements of system configuration are considered.

Clemow, Martin

1993-01-01

144

The modern high rate digital cassette recorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic tape recorder has played an essential role in the capture and storage of instrumentation data for more than thirty years. During this time, data recording technology has steadily progressed to meet user demands for more channels, wider bandwidths, and longer recording durations. When acquisition and processing moved from analog to digital techniques, so recorder design followed suit. Milestones marking the evolution of the data recorder through these various stages - multi-track analog, high density longitudinal digital, and more recently rotary digital - have often represented important breakthroughs in the handling of ever-greater quantities of data. Throughout this period there has been a very clear line of demarcation between data storage methods in the 'instrumentation world' on the one hand and the 'computer peripheral world' on the other. This is despite the fact that instrumentation data, whether analog or digital at the point of acquisition, is now likely to be processed on a digital computer at some stage. Regardless of whether the processing device is a small personal computer, a workstation, or the largest supercomputer, system integrators have traditionally been faced with the same basic problem - how to interface what is essentially a manually controlled, continuously running device (the tape recorder) into the fast start/stop computer environment without resorting to an excessive amount of complex custom interfacing and performance compromise. The increasing availability of affordable high power processing equipment throughout the scientific world is forcing recorder manufacturers to make their latest and perhaps most important breakthrough - the computer-friendly data recorder. The operating characteristics of such recorders are discussed and the resultant impact on both data acquisition and data analysis elements of system configuration are considered.

Clemow, Martin

145

High strain rate compressive behaviour of aluminium alloy foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high strain rate compressive behaviour of two cellular aluminium alloys (Alulight and Duocel) has been investigated using the split Hopkinson pressure bar and direct impact tests. It is found that the dynamic behaviour of these foams is very similar to their quasi-static behaviour. The plateau stress is almost insensitive to strain rate, for strain rates ?? up to 5000s?1.

V. S. Deshpande; N. A. Fleck

2000-01-01

146

Behaviour of smooth catalysts at high reaction rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluating effective reaction rates in catalysts subject to heat and mass transport limitations, the size of the catalytic body is best defined by the so-called characteristic length ?, the ratio between catalyst volume and its external surface area, ?=Vp\\/Sp. This result follows from the limiting behaviour at very high reaction rates, when the effective reaction rates are proportional to

Sergio D. Keegan; Néstor J. Mariani; Osvaldo M. Martínez; Guillermo F. Barreto

2005-01-01

147

High data rate optical transceiver terminal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this study were: (1) to design a 400 Mbps optical transceiver terminal to operate from a high-altitude balloon-borne platform in order to permit the quantitative evaluation of a space-qualifiable optical communications system design, (2) to design an atmospheric propagation experiment to operate in conjunction with the terminal to measure the degrading effects of the atmosphere on the links, and (3) to design typical optical communications experiments for space-borne laboratories in the 1980-1990 time frame. As a result of the study, a transceiver package has been configured for demonstration flights during late 1974. The transceiver contains a 400 Mbps transmitter, a 400 Mbps receiver, and acquisition and tracking receivers. The transmitter is a Nd:YAG, 200 Mhz, mode-locked, CW, diode-pumped laser operating at 1.06 um requiring 50 mW for 6 db margin. It will be designed to implement Pulse Quaternary Modulation (PQM). The 400 Mbps receiver utilizes a Dynamic Crossed-Field Photomultiplier (DCFP) detector. The acquisition receiver is a Quadrant Photomultiplier Tube (QPMT) and receives a 400 Mbps signal chopped at 0.1 Mhz.

Clarke, E. S.

1973-01-01

148

High-shear-rate capillary viscometer for inkjet inks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capillary viscometer developed to measure the apparent shear viscosity of inkjet inks at high apparent shear rates encountered during inkjet printing is described. By using the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch equation, true shear viscosity versus true shear rate is obtained. The device is comprised of a constant-flow generator, a static pressure monitoring device, a high precision submillimeter capillary die, and a high stiffness flow path. The system, which is calibrated using standard Newtonian low-viscosity silicone oil, can be easily operated and maintained. Results for measurement of the shear-rate-dependent viscosity of carbon-black pigmented water-based inkjet inks at shear rates up to 2×105 s-1 are discussed. The Cross model was found to closely fit the experimental data. Inkjet ink samples with similar low-shear-rate viscosities exhibited significantly different shear viscosities at high shear rates depending on particle loading.

Wang, Xi; Carr, Wallace W.; Bucknall, David G.; Morris, Jeffrey F.

2010-06-01

149

Does High Unemployment Rate Result in a High Divorce Rate?: A Test for Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine if the increase in the unemployment rate has any effect on the divorce rate. We use time series data and cross section data for the whole of Japan in order to examine this assertion. We also include crime rate and average working hours as explanatory variables. We conducted cointegration analysis to avoid

Yukichika Kawata

2008-01-01

150

High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

Wu, Chih-Chun

2011-01-01

151

HIGH-RATE DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES FOR COMBIND SEWER OVERFLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents high-rate disinfection technologies for combined sewer overflow (CSO). The high-rate disinfection technologies of interest are: chlorination/dechlorination, ultraviolet light irradiation (UV), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), ozone (O3), peracetic acid (CH3COOOH )...

152

High graduate unemployment rate and Taiwanese undergraduate education  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates’ class choices, job needs, and future income expectations. Therein, the results obtained from a structural equation model indicate

Chih-Chun Wu

2011-01-01

153

CASE REPORT High seed dispersal rates in faunally intact tropical  

E-print Network

CASE REPORT High seed dispersal rates in faunally intact tropical rain forest: theoretical the crowns of parent trees. We then model community dynamics to assess whether the observed dispersal rate may promote high tree-species diversity in rain forest by slowing local competitive exclusion

Webb, Campbell O.

154

An empirical test of evolutionary theories for reproductive senescence and reproductive effort in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary theory predicts that differential reproductive effort and rate of reproductive senescence will evolve under different rates of external mortality. We examine the evolutionary divergence of age-specific reproduction in two life-history ecotypes of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. We test for the signature of reproductive senescence (decreasing fecundity with age) and increasing reproductive effort with age (increasing reproductive

Amanda M. Sparkman; Stevan J. Arnold; Anne M. Bronikowski

2007-01-01

155

Observation of high recombination occurrence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in field condition.  

PubMed

Recombination in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is a well-documented phenomenon. A high recombination frequency has been reported in experimental conditions both in vitro and in vivo, and its role in driving viral evolution has been postulated by several authors. However field evidences are rare, mainly obtained from large-scale sampling and typically represented by single sequences rather than by groups of circulating "recombinant progenies". The present work was aimed to investigate the gray area between experimental studies and large-scale epidemiological investigations. The study was performed on ORF5, ORF7 and concatenated sequences obtained in our laboratory or available in GenBank collected between 2009 and 2012 in northern Italy. Six independent recombinant strains out of 66 concatenated sequences (?9%) were found, demonstrating a high recombination frequency respect to previous field studies but comparable to in vitro experiments. In silico analysis let speculate that this new strain displayed physicochemical features diverse enough to potentially alter its immunological properties. Taken altogether, the results of our study support previous experimental evidences that depict PRRSV to be extremely prone to recombination. The limited temporal and geographical spread of recombinant strains however states in favor of a limited fitness of the recombinant progeny compared to parental strains and the marginal role of this phenomenon in PRRSV evolution. PMID:25150757

Franzo, Giovanni; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Ceglie, Letizia; Gigli, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele

2014-12-19

156

Effects of high tissue concentrations of selenium on reproduction by bluegills  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies have associated high body concentrations of selenium with declines in fish populations inhabiting cooling reservoirs of coal-fired electric power plants. Because some evidence indicated that these declines resulted from reduced reproduction, the authors made a series of 18 artificial crosses of bluegills Lepomis macrochirus possessing high and low body concentrations of Se to determine whether elevated Se in parents reduced viability of gametes or increased mortality of embryos and larvae. Bluegills with high body concentrations of Se were obtained from Hyco Reservoir (cooling water source of a coal-fired power plant) and those with low body concentrations were obtained from nearby Roxboro City Lake, North Carolina. Neither percent fertilization nor percent hatch of eggs differed significantly among the parent combinations. However, all crosses (8) that included females with high Se body concentrations resulted in larvae with edema; such larvae did not survive to the swim-up stage. Only one of these crosses produced some normal larvae (35%). Mean Se concentrations in the gonads and carcass (body minus gonad) were more than 20 times higher in bluegills from Hyco Reservoir (average = 7.94 mg/kg) than in those from Roxboro City Lake (average = 0.38 mg/kg). The high Se concentrations in ovaries of Hyco Reservoir bluegills and in their progeny suggested that Se was transferred from females to offspring and caused edema in larvae. This abnormality resulted in mortality of affected larval bluegills - and consequently may have caused reductions in the bluegill populations of selenium-enriched reservoirs.

Gillespie, R.B.; Baumann, P.C.

1986-03-01

157

Optimal dietary energy and protein for gilt development: Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements, and to determine relationships between these traits and growth trajectories. Crossbred Large White × L...

158

Oscillations in the reproductive condition of Diaptomus leptopus (Copepoda: Calanoida) and their relation to rates of egg-clutch production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated female D. leptopus oscillate between gravid and nongravid reproductive conditions. When gravid, the oviducts are visible as a pair of dark bands lateral to the digestive tract. Periodically the females revert to a nongravid condition by releasing all the unfertilized oocytes into the environment. The oviducts then remain transparent until they refill with ripe gametes.

Carl J. Watras; James F. Haney

1980-01-01

159

Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using

Glen A. Warren; Douglas C. Rodriguez

2012-01-01

160

Endocrinology of year-round reproduction in a highly seasonal habitat: environmental variability in testosterone and glucocorticoids in baboon males  

PubMed Central

In conditions characterized by energetic constraints, such as in periods of low food availability, some trade-offs between reproduction and self-maintenance may be necessary; even year-round breeders may then be forced to exhibit some reproductive seasonality. Prior research has largely focused on female reproduction and physiology, and few studies have evaluated the impact of environmental factors on males. Here we assessed the effects of season and ambient temperatures on fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) and testosterone (fT) levels in male baboons in Amboseli, Kenya. The Amboseli basin is a highly challenging, semi-arid tropical habitat that is characterized by strongly seasonal patterns of rainfall and by high ambient temperatures. We previously reported that female baboons were impacted by these challenging environmental conditions. We ask here whether male baboons in the same environment and groups as females exhibit similar physiological effects. We found that after accounting for male age and individual variability, males exhibited higher fGC levels and lower fT levels during the dry season than during the wet season. Furthermore, fT but not fGC levels were lower in months of high average daily maximum temperatures, suggesting a direct impact of heat on testes. Our results demonstrate that male baboons, like females, experience ecological stress that alters their reproductive physiology. The impact of the environment on male reproduction deserves more attention both in its own right and because alteration in male physiology may contribute to the reduction in female fertility observed in challenging environments. PMID:20721938

Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Onyango, Patrick O.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

2010-01-01

161

Developing a High Level Data Base to Teach Reproductive Endocrinology Using the HyperCard Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a database courseware using the HyperCard program on the subject of human reproductive endocrinology and feedback mechanisms. Discusses some issues concerning database courseware development. Presents several examples of the courseware display. (Author/YP)

Friedler, Yael; Shabo, Amnon

1990-01-01

162

Thermal and reproductive biology of high and low elevation populations of the lizard Sceloporus scalaris : implications for the evolution of viviparity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viviparity in squamate reptiles is presumed to evolve in cold climates by selection for increasingly longer periods of egg retention. Longer periods of egg retention may require modifications to other reproductive features associated with the evolution of viviparity, including a reduction in eggshell thickness and clutch size. Field studies on the thermal and reproductive biology of high (HE) and low

Tom Mathies; Robin M. Andrews

1995-01-01

163

Temperature-driven flower longevity in a high-alpine species of Oxalis influences reproductive assurance.  

PubMed

How high-alpine plants confront stochastic conditions for animal pollination is a critical question. We investigated the effect of temperature on potential flower longevity (FL) measured in pollinator-excluded flowers and actual FL measured in pollinated flowers in self-incompatible Oxalis compacta and evaluated if plastically prolonged potential FL can ameliorate slow pollination under cool conditions. Pollinator-excluded and hand-pollinated flowers were experimentally warmed with open-top chambers (OTCs) on a site at 3470 m above sea level (asl). Flower-specific temperatures, and pollinator-excluded and open-pollination flower life-spans were measured at six alpine sites between 3100 and 3470 m asl. Fruit set was analyzed in relation to inferred pollination time. Warming reduced potential FL. Variable thermal conditions across the alpine landscape predicted potential and actual FL; flower senescence was pollination-regulated. Actual FL and potential FL were coupled. Prolonged potential FL generally increased fruit set under cooler conditions. Plastic responses permit virgin flowers of O. compacta to remain open longer under cooler temperatures, thereby ameliorating slow pollination, and to close earlier when pollination tends to be faster under warmer conditions. Plastic potential FL provides adaptive advantages in the cold, thermally variable alpine habitat, and has important implications for reproductive success in alpine plants in a warming world. PMID:23952472

Arroyo, Mary T K; Dudley, Leah S; Jespersen, Gus; Pacheco, Diego A; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

2013-12-01

164

Fast molecular evolution associated with high active metabolic rates in poison frogs.  

PubMed

Molecular evolution is simultaneously paced by mutation rate, genetic drift, and natural selection. Life history traits also affect the speed of accumulation of nucleotide changes. For instance, small body size, rapid generation time, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and high resting metabolic rate (RMR) are suggested to be associated with faster rates of molecular evolution. However, phylogenetic correlation analyses failed to support a relationship between RMR and molecular evolution in ectotherms. In addition, RMR might underestimate the metabolic budget (e.g., digestion, reproduction, or escaping predation). An alternative is to test other metabolic rates, such as active metabolic rate (AMR), and their association with molecular evolution. Here, I present comparative analyses of the associations between life history traits (i.e., AMR, RMR, body mass, and fecundity) with rates of molecular evolution of and mitochondrial loci from a large ectotherm clade, the poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). My results support a strong positive association between mass-specific AMR and rates of molecular evolution for both mitochondrial and nuclear loci. In addition, I found weaker and genome-specific covariates such as body mass and fecundity for mitochondrial and nuclear loci, respectively. No direct association was found between mass-specific RMR and rates of molecular evolution. Thus, I provide a mechanistic hypothesis of the link between AMRs and the rate of molecular evolution based on an increase in ROS within germ line cells during periodic bouts of hypoxia/hyperoxia related to aerobic exercise. Finally, I propose a multifactorial model that includes AMR as a predictor of the rate of molecular evolution in ectothermic lineages. PMID:22337863

Santos, Juan C

2012-08-01

165

Effects of high-dose soy isoflavones and equol on reproductive tissues in female cynomolgus monkeys.  

PubMed

Soy isoflavonoids have well-established estrogenic properties in cell culture and rodent models, raising concerns that high isoflavonoid intake may promote development of uterine and breast cancers. To address this concern we evaluated the effects of high-dose isoflavonoid supplements on reproductive tissues in a postmenopausal primate model. Thirty adult female ovariectomized monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were randomized to receive a control diet 1) alone, 2) with 509 mg/day of the soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein (IF), or 3) with 1020 mg/day of racemic equol (EQ), an isoflavan, for approximately 1 mo. Doses are expressed in aglycone units as calorically scaled human equivalents. Total serum isoflavonoid levels 4 h postfeeding were <20 nmol/L, 2570.7 nmol/L, and 6944.8 nmol/L for control, IF, and EQ groups, respectively. Equol was the predominant serum isoflavonoid in both IF (72.5%) and EQ (99.7%) groups. Aglycones represented 0.9% (IF) and 0.5% (EQ) of total serum isoflavonoids. Histologically, uteri and mammary glands were diffusely atrophic in all groups. Uterine weight, endometrial thickness, glandular area, and epithelial proliferation in the uterus were not significantly different among treatment groups (ANOVA P > 0.1 for all). Endometrial progesterone receptor gene expression was significantly increased in the IF group (P = 0.02), while protein expression was not altered (ANOVA P > 0.1). Within the mammary gland, proliferation and indicators of estrogen exposure did not differ among treatment groups (ANOVA P > 0.1 for all). These findings indicate that high doses of dietary soy isoflavonoids have minimal uterotrophic or mammotrophic effects in an established primate model. PMID:16723506

Wood, Charles E; Appt, Susan E; Clarkson, Thomas B; Franke, Adrian A; Lees, Cynthia J; Doerge, Daniel R; Cline, J Mark

2006-09-01

166

High Strain Rate Compressive Tests on Woven Graphite Epoxy Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of composite materials may be different when they are subjected to high strain rate load. Penetrating split Hopkinson pressure bar (P-SHPB) is a method to impose high strain rate on specimen in the laboratory experiments. This research work studied the response of the thin circular shape specimens, made out of woven graphite epoxy composites, to high strain rate impact load. The stress-strain relationships and behavior of the specimens were investigated during the compressive dynamic tests for strain rates as high as 3200 s-1. One dimensional analysis was deployed for analytical calculations since the experiments fulfilled the ratio of diameter to length of bars condition in impact load experiments. The mechanics of dynamic failure was studied and the results showed the factors which govern the failure mode in high strain deformation via absorbed energy by the specimen. In this paper, the relation of particle velocity with perforation depth was discussed for woven graphite epoxy specimens.

Allazadeh, Mohammad Reza; Wosu, Sylvanus N.

2011-08-01

167

Quantum data locking for high-rate direct communication  

E-print Network

We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

Cosmo Lupo; Seth Lloyd

2015-01-28

168

Quantum data locking for high-rate private communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that, if the accessible information is used as a security quantifier, quantum channels with a certain symmetry can convey private messages at a tremendously high rate, as high as less than one bit below the rate of non-private classical communication. This result is obtained by exploiting the quantum data locking effect. The price to pay to achieve such a high private communication rate is that accessible information security is in general not composable. However, composable security holds against an eavesdropper who is forced to measure her share of the quantum system within a finite time after she gets it.

Lupo, Cosmo; Lloyd, Seth

2015-03-01

169

Effect of intermittent hypoxia on the reproduction of rats exposed to high altitude in the Chilean Altiplano.  

PubMed

Environmental parameters such as the large day-night temperature differences, high light radiation, and low humidity may have a synergistic effect with low oxygen pressure. To evaluate the effects of the exposure to intermittent chronic hypobaric hypoxia (ICHH) in nature on rat reproduction, a group of rats was alternately moved to a location at 3400 meters over sea level (moml) for 7 days and returned the subsequent week to sea level; this procedure was repeated six times. Hematological and reproductive parameters were measured and analyzed. At the end of the experimental protocol, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly greater in the ICHH group compared to the control group (Nx) (p < 0.05). The diameter of the seminiferous tubule and the height of the spermatogenic epithelium in ICHH rats presented a significant decrease in relation to Nx rats (p < 0.05). Consequently, the number of epididymal spermatozoa in the experimental animals decreased compared to normal rats, with no evidence of recovery after 84 days. The offspring of the different matings between normal and hypoxic animals decreased proportionally to hypoxia exposure. The low oxygen and the changes in testicular temperature homeostasis would provide a novel local mechanism to explain the decrease in sperm cell production and the reduced number of puppies born. The alterations of the reproductive parameters of the hypoxic female, plus testicular injuries and diminished sperm in males, result in a significant decrease in the reproductive activity of the animals. PMID:20039817

Cikutovic, Marcos; Fuentes, Nelson; Bustos-Obregón, Eduardo

2009-01-01

170

110MHz, High Slew Rate, High Output Current Buffer  

E-print Network

· Line Driver · Data Acquisition · 110MHz Buffer · Radar Cable Driver · High Power Current Booster · High Power Current Source · Sample and Holds · Video Products Ordering Information PART NUMBER (BRAND) TEMP Can T8.C HA3-5002-5 0 to 75 8 Ld PDIP E8.3 HA4P5002-5 0 to 75 20 Ld PLCC N20.35 HA7-5002-2 -55 to 125

Berns, Hans-Gerd

171

Structure of high-speed steel with high solidification rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The interaction of the particles in spraying to a significant degree determines the conditions of solidification and the final structure of high-speed steel powder. After colliding with larger drops the highly dispersed, rapidly solidifying particles play the role of foreign internal centers of solidification on the surface of which heterogeneous formation of nuclei of the crystallizing phase starts.2.After cooling of

A. D. Ozerskii; H. Fishmaister; L. Olsson; G. A. Panova

1984-01-01

172

High strain rate characterization and modeling of polymer composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear rate dependent behavior of two class of polymeric composites, the unidirectional S2 Glass/8553 and the woven E Glass 7781/F155 fabric are investigated in the strain rate range from 0.0001/S to 1000/S. Uniaxial tension tests were conducted on a servohydraulic testing machine at strain rates of up to 1/S, based on which a two parameter overstress viscoplasticity and a three parameter total form of the constitutive equation were developed to predict the rate dependent behavior of these material systems. Both these models were subsequently validated by predicting the rate dependent behavior of various off axis specimens. The three parameter viscoplasticity model was subsequently used to develop a 2D viscoplasticity code to investigate the viscoplastic response of various laminates with different symmetric stacking sequences, in the low strain rate regime of up to 1/S. The material models that were developed was also used to study the rate dependent response of graphite/glass hybrid composites. High strain rate experiments were then conducted using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar in which strain rates of the order 1000/S were achieved. Three dimensional incremental equations of viscoplasticity were developed and implemented into a finite element code. Finite element predictions show that the proposed viscoplasticity model adequately models the high strain rate response of these material systems over a spectrum of strain rates.

Thiruppukuzhi, Srikanth Vankeepuram

173

Orientation and rate dependence in high strain-rate compression of single-crystal silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High strain-rate (??˜106-109s-1) compression of single crystal Si reveals strong orientation- and rate-dependent precursor stresses. At these high compression rates, the peak elastic stress, ?E_Peak, for Si [100], [110], and [111] exceeds twice the Hugoniot elastic limit. Near the loading surface, the rate at which Si evolves from uniaxial compression to a three-dimensional relaxed state is exponentially dependent on ?E_Peak and independent of initial crystal orientation. At later times, the high elastic wave speed results in a temporal decoupling of the elastic precursor from the main inelastic wave. A rapid high-?? increase in the measured elastic stress at the onset of inelastic deformation is consistent with a transition from dislocation flow mediated by thermal activation to a phonon drag regime.

Smith, R. F.; Minich, R. W.; Rudd, R. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Bolme, C. A.; Brygoo, S. L.; Jones, A. M.; Collins, G. W.

2012-12-01

174

Effect of reproduction on the consistency of the between-line type divergence in laboratory mice selected on Basal metabolic rate.  

PubMed

Artificial selection experiments are an effective tool for testing evolutionary hypotheses, because they allow one to separate genetic and environmental variances of the phenotype. However, it is unclear whether trait divergence typically selected early in life persists over an animal's life and altered physiological states, such as reproduction. Here we analyzed the long-term consistency of the between-line type divergence in basal metabolic rate (BMR) selected at 12 wk of age in laboratory mice. We measured BMR in nonreproducing and reproducing females at the age of 22 wk and then at 27 wk of age. Our results show that within both the reproducing group and the control group, the between-line type separation in BMR is consistently retained over time and reproductive status. Metabolically active internal organs (heart, liver, kidneys, and small intestine) also consistently differed in size between the two line types with no significant long-term effect of reproduction. The observed consistency of the between-line type divergence in BMR suggests the existence of the persistent effect of the selection on metabolic traits applied early in life. Moreover, BMR variation achieved by means of artificial selection is considerably higher than that found in natural/unmanipulated populations. The latter may therefore be characterized by insufficient variance to statistically resolve correlations involving BMR. PMID:25860830

Sadowska, Julita; G?bczy?ski, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

2015-01-01

175

Toward the definition of a carbon budget model: seasonal variation and temperature effect on respiration rate of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio trees (Pistacia vera).  

PubMed

This study, as a preliminary step toward the definition of a carbon budget model for pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L.), aimed at estimating and evaluating the dynamics of respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio tree. Trials were performed in 2005 in a commercial orchard located in Sicily (370 m a.s.l.) on five bearing 20-year-old pistachio trees of cv. Bianca grafted onto Pistachio terebinthus L. Growth analyses and respiration measurements were done on vegetative (leaf) and reproductive (infructescence) organs during the entire growing season (April-September) at biweekly intervals. Results suggested that the respiration rates of pistachio reproductive and vegetative organs were related to their developmental stage. Both for leaf and for infructescence, the highest values were observed during the earlier stages of growth corresponding to the phases of most intense organ growth. The sensitivity of respiration activity to temperature changes, measured by Q(10), showed an increase throughout the transition from immature to mature leaves, as well as during fruit development. The data collected were also used to estimate the seasonal carbon loss by respiration activity for a single leaf and a single infructescence. The amount of carbon lost by respiration was affected by short-term temperature patterns, organ developmental stage and tissue function. PMID:19661135

Marra, Francesco P; Barone, Ettore; La Mantia, Michele; Caruso, Tiziano

2009-09-01

176

Uncovering high-strain rate protection mechanism in nacre  

PubMed Central

Under high-strain-rate compression (strain rate ?103?s?1), nacre (mother-of-pearl) exhibits surprisingly high fracture strength vis-à-vis under quasi-static loading (strain rate 10?3?s?1). Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism responsible for such sharply different behaviors in these two loading modes remains completely unknown. Here we report a new deformation mechanism, adopted by nacre, the best-ever natural armor material, to protect itself against predatory penetrating impacts. It involves the emission of partial dislocations and the onset of deformation twinning that operate in a well-concerted manner to contribute to the increased high-strain-rate fracture strength of nacre. Our findings unveil that Mother Nature delicately uses an ingenious strain-rate-dependent stiffening mechanism with a purpose to fight against foreign attacks. These findings should serve as critical design guidelines for developing engineered body armor materials. PMID:22355664

Huang, Zaiwang; Li, Haoze; Pan, Zhiliang; Wei, Qiuming; Chao, Yuh J.; Li, Xiaodong

2011-01-01

177

Dual-rate high order hold equivalent controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is focused on the computation of a dual-rate high-order-hold discrete equivalent controller. We assume that the continuous-time controller has been already designed in order to meet continuous time-domain and frequency-domain specifications. Dual rate controllers are N-periodic time varying systems, and the lifting technique is utilized to express them as time invariant systems. Several different models are presented (dual-rate

Josep Tornero; M. Tomizuka

2000-01-01

178

Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

179

High rate fingerprinting codes and the fingerprinting capacity Ehsan Amiri  

E-print Network

High rate fingerprinting codes and the fingerprinting capacity Ehsan Amiri G´abor Tardos Abstract fingerprinting codes. In this paper we consider fingerprinting with the mark- ing assumption and design codes possible rate (the fingerprinting capacity) for any fixed number of pirates. We prove new up- per bounds

Tardos, Gábor

180

Fundamental limits of input rate control in high speed network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental limits of input rate control by specific analysis in the frequency domain are explored. Both deterministic and stochastic analyses are developed. The simple deterministic analysis helps provide knowledge about the performance tradeoff for input rate control in a high-speed network

San-qi Li; Song Chong

1993-01-01

181

High School Graduation Rates in the United States. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents public high school graduation rates for all students and for African Americans, Latinos, and white sub-groups. Rates are reported for each state, for each of the 50 largest school districts, and for a few other districts of interest. The state and district numbers are also reported separately for African Americans, Latinos,…

Greene, Jay P.

182

Rural and Urban High School Dropout Rates: Are They Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the high school dropout rate in rural and urban areas, the determinants of dropping out, and whether the differences in graduation rates have changed over time. We use geocoded data from two nationally representative panel household surveys (NLSY 97 and NLSY 79) and a novel methodology that corrects for biases in graduation…

Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Kostandini, Genti; Mykerezi, Elton

2012-01-01

183

Forced resting by high dietary zinc: tissue zinc accumulation and reproductive organ weight changes.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high dietary zinc, as a means of inducing a forced-rest, on selected organ accumulation of zinc and reproductive function in terms of ovary and oviduct weight in the laying hen. Single Comb White Leghorn hens laying approximately at 60% production were fed either 10,000 ppm zinc as zinc oxide (10 Zn) or 20,000 ppm zinc (20 Zn) for a period of 4 days. At the initiation of the experiment (Day 0), five hens were killed and organs obtained for analysis. On 4, 10, 16, and 22 days afterward, similar samples were obtained from 5 hens per treatment. Ovary and oviduct weights were determined and zinc analysis performed on the latter as well as liver, kidney, and pancreas. The brief 4-day feeding of either high zinc diet caused a marked 80% reduction in ovary weight by Day 10. The oviduct, although less affected, was still reduced approximately 60% in weight after feeding either 10 Zn or 20 Zn for 4 days. The oviduct exhibited a statistically significant elevation in zinc concentration on Day 4 but was normal by Day 10 (6 days following the refeeding of a normal diet) and not different between treatments. There was extensive accumulation of zinc in kidney, liver, and especially pancreas after 4 days of feeding either 10 Zn or 20 Zn. The level of dietary zinc had no effect on the extent of accumulation in any tissue. The depletion of tissue zinc roughly corresponded to the magnitude of increase in the concentration of zinc observed at Day 4. Possible ramifications of the dramatic increase observed in pancreatic zinc were discussed. We concluded that feeding either 10 Zn or 20 Zn as a means of inducing a forced rest effects a marked and rapid reduction in ovary and oviduct weight as well as an extensive increase in renal, hepatic, and especially pancreatic zinc. PMID:6739411

McCormick, C C; Cunningham, D L

1984-06-01

184

Pulse height analyzer operates at high repetition rates, low power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple multistage transistor gating circuit provides a pulse height analyzer that operates at high repetition rates and low power. The circuit compares the input pulse heights to discrete reference voltages.

1965-01-01

185

ISS Update: High Rate Communications System - Duration: 9:26.  

NASA Video Gallery

ISS Update Commentator Pat Ryan interviews Diego Serna, Communications and Tracking Officer, about the High Rate Communications System. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the ha...

186

Identifying High-Rate Flows Based on Sequential Sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the problem of fast identification of high-rate flows in backbone links with possibly millions of flows. Accurate identification of high-rate flows is important for active queue management, traffic measurement and network security such as detection of distributed denial of service attacks. It is difficult to directly identify high-rate flows in backbone links because tracking the possible millions of flows needs correspondingly large high speed memories. To reduce the measurement overhead, the deterministic 1-out-of-k sampling technique is adopted which is also implemented in Cisco routers (NetFlow). Ideally, a high-rate flow identification method should have short identification time, low memory cost and processing cost. Most importantly, it should be able to specify the identification accuracy. We develop two such methods. The first method is based on fixed sample size test (FSST) which is able to identify high-rate flows with user-specified identification accuracy. However, since FSST has to record every sampled flow during the measurement period, it is not memory efficient. Therefore the second novel method based on truncated sequential probability ratio test (TSPRT) is proposed. Through sequential sampling, TSPRT is able to remove the low-rate flows and identify the high-rate flows at the early stage which can reduce the memory cost and identification time respectively. According to the way to determine the parameters in TSPRT, two versions of TSPRT are proposed: TSPRT-M which is suitable when low memory cost is preferred and TSPRT-T which is suitable when short identification time is preferred. The experimental results show that TSPRT requires less memory and identification time in identifying high-rate flows while satisfying the accuracy requirement as compared to previously proposed methods.

Zhang, Yu; Fang, Binxing; Luo, Hao

187

High-throughput reproduction of the Morpho butterfly's specific high contrast blue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some species of the blue Morpho butterfly have a mysterious physical feature of strucural color, because it has both high reflectivity (>60%) and a single color in too wide angular range (> +/- 40° from the normal), which are contradicting with each other in consideration of the interference phenomena. We have recently proven the principle of the mystery by extracting the physical essence, and emulating the nano-structures using nano-fabrication techniques. The essence was special combination of regular and irregular structures at nanometer scale. Such artificial structural color was found to concern wide applications, because the Morpho-color can produce a single color without pigment in wide angular range with high reflectivity. Also it makes colors impossible by pigment, and is resistant to fading due to chemical change over longtime. However, we must overcome several "death valleys" for wide industrial applications. One of the most serious problems was extremely low throughput in the fabrication process of nano-patterning by the conventional lithography. This difficulty was solved by use of the nano-imprinting technique. However, from the practical viewpoint, the enlargement of the mold area for nano-imprinting process was essential. This problem was found to be solved using the laser fabrication and electroforming processes. Nevertheless, to reproduce the clear blue contrast of the Morpho-color, a blackening treatment at the film interface was found to be necessary. The blackening processes and conditions by use of absorbing layers were then estimated and successfully applied to reproduce the clear contrast of the Morpho-blue, which has been confirmed by the optical measurement of the reflectivity.

Saito, Akira; Murase, Junichi; Yonezawa, Masaru; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Takuto; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Noguchi, Shunji; Akai-kasaya, Megumi; Kuwahara, Yuji

2012-04-01

188

SHEAR LOCALIZATION AND CHEMICAL REACTION IN HIGH-STRAIN, HIGH-STRAIN-RATE DEFORMATION OF  

E-print Network

SHEAR LOCALIZATION AND CHEMICAL REACTION IN HIGH-STRAIN, HIGH-STRAIN-RATE DEFORMATION OF Ti.6±1 mm. Thermodynamic and kinetic calculations yield the reaction rate outside the shear bands.S.A. (Received 19 June 1997; accepted 19 December 1997) AbstractÐTi±Si mixtures were subjected to high-strain-rate

Meyers, Marc A.

189

Performance of high flow rate samplers for respirable particle collection.  

PubMed

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial hygienists (ACGIH) lowered the threshold limit value (TLV) for respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposure from 0.05 to 0.025 mg m(-3) in 2006. For a working environment with an airborne dust concentration near this lowered TLV, the sample collected with current standard respirable aerosol samplers might not provide enough RCS for quantitative analysis. Adopting high flow rate sampling devices for respirable dust containing silica may provide a sufficient amount of RCS to be above the limit of quantification even for samples collected for less than full shift. The performances of three high flow rate respirable samplers (CIP10-R, GK2.69, and FSP10) have been evaluated in this study. Eleven different sizes of monodisperse aerosols of ammonium fluorescein were generated with a vibrating orifice aerosol generator in a calm air chamber in order to determine the sampling efficiency of each sampler. Aluminum oxide particles generated by a fluidized bed aerosol generator were used to test (i) the uniformity of a modified calm air chamber, (ii) the effect of loading on the sampling efficiency, and (iii) the performance of dust collection compared to lower flow rate cyclones in common use in the USA (10-mm nylon and Higgins-Dewell cyclones). The coefficient of variation for eight simultaneous samples in the modified calm air chamber ranged from 1.9 to 6.1% for triplicate measures of three different aerosols. The 50% cutoff size ((50)d(ae)) of the high flow rate samplers operated at the flow rates recommended by manufacturers were determined as 4.7, 4.1, and 4.8 microm for CIP10-R, GK2.69, and FSP10, respectively. The mass concentration ratio of the high flow rate samplers to the low flow rate cyclones decreased with decreasing mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and high flow rate samplers collected more dust than low flow rate samplers by a range of 2-11 times based on gravimetric analysis. Dust loading inside the high flow rate samplers does not appear to affect the particle separation in either FSP10 or GK2.69. The high flow rate samplers overestimated compared to the International Standards Organization/Comité Européen de Normalisation/ACGIH respirable convention [up to 40% at large MMAD (27.5 microm)] and could provide overestimated exposure data with the current flow rates. However, both cyclones appeared to be able to provide relatively unbiased assessments of RCS when their flow rates were adjusted. PMID:20660144

Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Chisholm, William P; Slaven, James; Harper, Martin

2010-08-01

190

Nine AGU Journals Rated Highly by Australian Evaluation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine AGU journals recently received high ratings from the Australian Research Council’s Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative evaluation system. ERA evaluates and rates peer-reviewed journals in a wide range of research fields on the basis of expert review and public consultation. For the 2010 ratings, released in February, ERA evaluated more than 20,000 peer-reviewed journals. The system rates journals as (from highest to lowest) A*, A, B, or C. According to ERA criteria, “Typically an A* journal would be one of the best in its field or subfield in which to publish and would typically cover the entire field/subfield. Virtually all papers they publish will be of a very high quality.” The criteria also state that A* journals are those that publish important work that will shape the field. In addition, A* journals typically have low acceptance rates and an editorial board dominated by field leaders.

Cook, Bill

2010-05-01

191

A High Rate Tension Device for Characterizing Brain Tissue  

E-print Network

The mechanical characterization of brain tissue at high loading velocities is vital for understanding and modeling Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The most severe form of TBI is diffuse axonal injury (DAI) which involves damage to individual nerve cells (neurons). DAI in animals and humans occurs at strains > 10% and strain rates > 10/s. The mechanical properties of brain tissues at these strains and strain rates are of particular significance, as they can be used in finite element human head models to accurately predict brain injuries under different impact conditions. Existing conventional tensile testing machines can only achieve maximum loading velocities of 500 mm/min, whereas the Kolsky bar apparatus is more suitable for strain rates > 100/s. In this study, a custom-designed high rate tension device is developed and calibrated to estimate the mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension at strain rates 100% de...

Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1177/1754337112436900

2013-01-01

192

Slow rate of molecular evolution in?high-elevation?hummingbirds  

PubMed Central

Estimates of relative rates of molecular evolution from a DNA-hybridization phylogeny for 26 hummingbird species provide evidence for a negative association between elevation and rate of single-copy genome evolution. This effect of elevation on rate remains significant even after taking into account a significant negative association between body mass and molecular rate. Population-level processes do not appear to account for these patterns because (i) all hummingbirds breed within their first year and (ii) the more extensive subdivision and speciation of bird populations living at high elevations predicts a positive association between elevation and rate. The negative association between body mass and molecular rate in other organisms has been attributed to higher mutation rates in forms with higher oxidative metabolism. As ambient oxygen tensions and temperature decrease with elevation, the slow rate of molecular evolution in high-elevation hummingbirds also may have a metabolic basis. A slower rate of single-copy DNA change at higher elevations suggests that the dynamics of molecular evolution cannot be separated from the environmental context. PMID:9435240

Bleiweiss, Robert

1998-01-01

193

Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme  

SciTech Connect

The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

Halim Meco

2004-12-19

194

Statistical profiles of highly-rated web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are creating an interactive tool to help non-professional web site builders create high quality designs. We have previously reported that quantitative measures of web page structure can predict whether a site will be highly or poorly rated by experts, with accuracies ranging from 67--80%. In this paper we extend that work in several ways. First, we compute a much

Melody Y. Ivory; Marti A. Hearst

2002-01-01

195

Evolution of High Tooth Replacement Rates in Sauropod Dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

Background Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. Methodology/Principal Findings We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Conclusions/Significance Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs. PMID:23874921

Smith, Kathlyn M.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.

2013-01-01

196

Moving Indiana Forward: High Standards and High Graduation Rates. A Strategic Assessment for Indiana Education Policymakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indiana was selected to participate in a new initiative--"Moving Forward: High Standards and High Graduation Rates"--jointly sponsored by Achieve, Inc. and Jobs for the Future and funded by Carnegie Corporation of New York. This effort is designed to spotlight the importance of pursuing a dual agenda of high standards and high graduation rates.…

Achieve, Inc., 2006

2006-01-01

197

Effects of reproductive status and high ambient temperatures on the body temperature of a free-ranging basoendotherm.  

PubMed

Tenrecs (Order Afrosoricida) exhibit some of the lowest body temperatures (T b) of any eutherian mammal. They also have a high level of variability in both active and resting T bs and, at least in cool temperatures in captivity, frequently employ both short- and long-term torpor. The use of heterothermy by captive animals is, however, generally reduced during gestation and lactation. We present data long-term T b recordings collected from free-ranging S. setosus over the course of two reproductive seasons. In general, reproductive females had slightly higher (~32 °C) and less variable T b, whereas non-reproductive females and males showed both a higher propensity for torpor as well as lower (~30.5 °C) and more variable rest-phase T bs. Torpor expression defined using traditional means (using a threshold or cut-off T b) was much lower than predicted based on the high degree of heterothermy in captive tenrecs. However, torpor defined in this manner is likely to be underestimated in habitats where ambient temperature is close to T b. Our results caution against inferring metabolic states from T b alone and lend support to the recent call to define torpor in free-ranging animals based on mechanistic and not descriptive variables. In addition, lower variability in T b observed during gestation and lactation confirms that homeothermy is essential for reproduction in this species and probably for basoendothermic mammals in general. The relatively low costs of maintaining homeothermy in a sub-tropical environment might help shed light on how homeothermy could have evolved incrementally from an ancestral heterothermic condition. PMID:25155185

Levesque, Danielle L; Lobban, Kerileigh D; Lovegrove, Barry G

2014-12-01

198

Global crop exposure to critical high temperatures in the reproductive period: historical trends and future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term warming trends across the globe have shifted the distribution of temperature variability, such that what was once classified as extreme heat relative to local mean conditions has become more common. This is also true for agricultural regions, where exposure to extreme heat, particularly during key growth phases such as the reproductive period, can severely damage crop production in ways that are not captured by most crop models. Here, we analyze exposure of crops to physiologically critical temperatures in the reproductive stage (Tcrit), across the global harvested areas of maize, rice, soybean and wheat. Trends for the 1980-2011 period show a relatively weak correspondence (r = 0.19) between mean growing season temperature and Tcrit exposure trends, emphasizing the importance of separate analyses for Tcrit. Increasing Tcrit exposure in the past few decades is apparent for wheat in Central and South Asia and South America, and for maize in many diverse locations across the globe. Maize had the highest percentage (15%) of global harvested area exposed to at least five reproductive days over Tcrit in the 2000s, although this value is somewhat sensitive to the exact temperature used for the threshold. While there was relatively little sustained exposure to reproductive days over Tcrit for the other crops in the past few decades, all show increases with future warming. Using projections from climate models we estimate that by the 2030s, 31, 16, and 11% respectively of maize, rice, and wheat global harvested area will be exposed to at least five reproductive days over Tcrit in a typical year, with soybean much less affected. Both maize and rice exhibit non-linear increases with time, with total area exposed for rice projected to grow from 8% in the 2000s to 27% by the 2050s, and maize from 15 to 44% over the same period. While faster development should lead to earlier flowering, which would reduce reproductive extreme heat exposure for wheat on a global basis, this would have little impact for the other crops. Therefore, regardless of the impact of other global change factors (such as increasing atmospheric CO2), reproductive extreme heat exposure will pose risks for global crop production without adaptive measures such as changes in sowing dates, crop and variety switching, expansion of irrigation, and agricultural expansion into cooler areas.

Gourdji, Sharon M.; Sibley, Adam M.; Lobell, David B.

2013-06-01

199

PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH?RATE\\/HIGH?SHEAR ACTIVATED SLUDGE BIOREACTOR TREATING BIODEGRADABLE WASTEWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high?rate activated sludge (HRAS) bioreactor with high shear venturi aeration was operated in the laboratory at various organic loading rates to evaluate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and sludge production. Organic loading rates two orders of magnitude higher than conventional activated sludge loading were investigated in the modified HRAS reactor for a period of 41 weeks. Filtered COD

S. J. Christian; S. R. Grant; K. S. Singh; R. C. Landine

2008-01-01

200

High Strain Rate Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites Analyzed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for modeling the high-speed impact of composite materials are needed for designing reliable composite engine cases that are lighter than the metal cases in current use. The types of polymer matrix composites that are likely to be used in such an application have a deformation response that is nonlinear and that varies with strain rate. To characterize and validate material models that could be used in the design of impactresistant engine cases, researchers must obtain material data over a wide variety of strain rates. An experimental program has been carried out through a university grant with the Ohio State University to obtain deformation data for a representative polymer matrix composite for strain rates ranging from quasi-static to high rates of several hundred per second. This information has been used to characterize and validate a constitutive model that was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

Goldberg, Robert K.; Roberts, Gary D.

2001-01-01

201

Study of High Strain Rate Response of Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the research was to continue the experimental study of the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of epoxy resins and carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composites, and to initiate a study of the effects of temperature by developing an elevated temperature test. The experimental data provide the information needed for NASA scientists for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models for composites that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Three types of epoxy resins were tested in tension and shear at various strain rates that ranges from 5 x 10(exp -5), to 1000 per second. Pilot shear experiments were done at high strain rate and an elevated temperature of 80 C. The results show that all, the strain rate, the mode of loading, and temperature significantly affect the response of epoxy.

Gilat, Amos

2003-01-01

202

High-strain-rate measurements of dislocation mobility  

SciTech Connect

The strain rate sensitivity in a variety of metals is known to increase dramatically when the strain rate exceeds about 10/sup 3/ s/sup -1/. In copper, this behavior is analyzed in terms of the transition in rate controlling deformation mechanism from thermal activation to dislocation drag. Experimental results can be made to agree with a model of this transition, which leads to several observations regarding dislocation mobility at these high strain rates. The mobile dislocation density is estimated to be a mildly increasing function of stress or strain rate at any one strain and is roughly independent of strain for 0.05 less than or equal to epsilon less than or equal to 0.20.

Follansbee, P.S.; Regazzoni, G.; Kocks, U.F.

1984-05-01

203

Compressive behaviour of concrete at high strain rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental techniques commonly used for high strain-rate testing of concrete in compression, together with the methods used\\u000a for measurement and recording of stress and strain, are critically assessed in the first part of this paper. The physical\\u000a capability of each loading method is discussed and some consideration is given to the definitions used for specifying the\\u000a loading rate. The second

P. H. Bischoff; S. H. Perry

1991-01-01

204

A review of reaction rates in high temperature air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existing experimental data on the rate coefficients for the chemical reactions in nonequilibrium high temperature air are reviewed and collated, and a selected set of such values is recommended for use in hypersonic flow calculations. For the reactions of neutral species, the recommended values are chosen from the experimental data that existed mostly prior to 1970, and are slightly different from those used previously. For the reactions involving ions, the recommended rate coefficients are newly chosen from the experimental data obtained more recently. The reacting environment is assumed to lack thermal equilibrium, and the rate coefficients are expressed as a function of the controlling temperature, incorporating the recent multitemperature reaction concept.

Park, Chul

1989-01-01

205

High-Strain-Rate Compression Testing of Ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the present study a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was employed to study the effect of strain rate on the dynamic material response of ice. Disk-shaped ice specimens with flat, parallel end faces were either provided by Dartmouth College (Hanover, NH) or grown at Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland, OH). The SHPB was adapted to perform tests at high strain rates in the range 60 to 1400/s at test temperatures of -10 and -30 C. Experimental results showed that the strength of ice increases with increasing strain rates and this occurs over a change in strain rate of five orders of magnitude. Under these strain rate conditions the ice microstructure has a slight influence on the strength, but it is much less than the influence it has under quasi-static loading conditions. End constraint and frictional effects do not influence the compression tests like they do at slower strain rates, and therefore the diameter/thickness ratio of the samples is not as critical. The strength of ice at high strain rates was found to increase with decreasing test temperatures. Ice has been identified as a potential source of debris to impact the shuttle; data presented in this report can be used to validate and/or develop material models for ice impact analyses for shuttle Return to Flight efforts.

Shazly, Mostafa; Prakash, Vikas; Lerch, Bradley A.

2006-01-01

206

Behavior of MR Fluids at High Shear Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high shear rate behavior of MR fluids is investigated using a concentric rotational cylinder viscometer fabricated in-house. The rotational cylinder viscometer is designed such that a high shear rate of up to 30,000 s-1 can be applied to the MR fluid in a pure shear flow mode. As a comparison, the maximum shear rate of a commercially available parallel disk type rheometer is only up to 1,000 s-1. To determine the shear rate of the MR fluid in the viscometer, an exact expression between torque and angular velocity is established. The yield stress and viscosity of the MR fluid is determined by fitting the expression into the measured torque and angular velocities, and the shear stress as a function of the shear rate is further derived. The magnetic filed strength across the fluid gap is determined based on an electromagnetic field analysis, and the yield stress and viscosity of the fluid as a function of the magnetic filed is established. Specifically, the stability of the MR fluid at high shear rate is also evaluated. Two commercially available MR fluids, i.e., Lord's MRF-132DG and MRF-140CG, are investigated using the rotational cylinder viscometer, and the testing results are compared to the manufacturer's data.

Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.

207

Optomechanical crystal nanobeam cavity with high optomechanical coupling rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optomechanical crystal nanobeam cavity, only by increasing the radius of air holes in the defect region, is proposed and optimized for a high optomechanical coupling rate. In our proposed cavity, the photonic and phononic defect modes are simultaneously confined by each corresponding bandgap, and the overlap of the optical and mechanical modes can be improved simply by adjusting the radius of the air holes. Accordingly, an optomechanical coupling rate (g) as high as 1.16 MHz is obtained, which is the highest coupling rate among the reported optomechanical crystal cavities. What’s more, the proposed cavity also exhibits a high mechanical frequency of 4.01 GHz and a small effective mass of 85 fg for the fundamental mechanical mode.

Li, Yongzhuo; Cui, Kaiyu; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yidong; Huang, Zhilei; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei

2015-04-01

208

High strain rate compression testing of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper details an investigation of the high strain rate compression testing of GFPP with the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) in the through-thickness and in-plane directions. GFPP posed challenges to SHPB testing as it fails at relatively high stresses, while having relatively low moduli and hence mechanical impedance. The modifications to specimen geometry and incident pulse shaping in order to gather valid test results, where specimen equilibrium was achieved for SHPB tests on GFPP are presented. In addition to conventional SHPB tests to failure, SHPB experiments were designed to achieve specimen equilibration at small strains, which permitted the capture of high strain rate elastic modulus data. The strain rate dependency of GFPP's failure strengths in the in-plane and through-thickness direction is modelled using a logarithmic law.

Govender, R. A.; Langdon, G. S.; Cloete, T. J.; Nurick, G. N.

2012-08-01

209

Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser  

PubMed Central

High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100?GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55?ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7?nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153

Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu

2013-01-01

210

High-Strain Rate Mechanical Response of Cured Epoxy Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically cross-linked polymer networks are increasingly common in high performance composites, adhesives and other applications involving high-impact loading conditions or ballistic collisions. The mechanical behavior of epoxy and other polymer networks exhibit a strong dependence on strain rate near the glass transition temperature (Tg); however, the elastic modulus at strain rates greater than 10^5 1/s is difficult to capture with experimental techniques. We present computational results of Di-Glycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA) and Jeffamine diamines (D230) from molecular dynamics simulation, which is intrinsically well-suited to model material deformation at high strain rates. Our results show that the experimental Tg can be reproduced from molecular dynamics, and the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation is useful in rationalizing the shift of Tg due to fast annealing and high strain rates. Temperature sweeps of elastic modulus show the glass-rubber transition to occur over a significantly wider temperature range compared with experimental measurements at low strain rates.

Sirk, Timothy; Khare, Ketan; Karim, Mir; Lenhart, Joseph; Khare, Rajesh; Andzelm, Jan

2013-03-01

211

Strategies for adapting to high rates of employee turnover.  

PubMed

For many organizations facing high rates of employee turnover, strategies for increasing employee retention may not be practical because employees leave for reasons beyond the control of management or the costs of reducing turnover exceed the benefits to be derived. In this situation managers need to consider strategies that can minimize or buffer the organization from the negative consequences that often follow from turnover. Strategies organizations can use to adapt to uncontrollably high employee turnover rates are presented in this article. In addition, suggestions are made for how managers should make choices among the alternative strategies. PMID:10270679

Mowday, R T

1984-01-01

212

High removal rate laser-based coating removal system  

DOEpatents

A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Mrowka, Stanley (Richmond, CA)

1999-11-16

213

GPU accelerated OCT processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we describe how to highly optimize a CUDA based platform to perform real time optical coherence tomography data processing and 3D volumetric rendering using commercially-available cost-effective graphic processing units (GPUs). The maximum complete attainable axial scan processing rate (including memory transfer and rendering frame) was 2.2 megahertz for 16 bits pixel depth and 2048 pixels/A-scan, the maximum 3D volumetric rendering speed is 23 volumes/second (size:1024×256×200). To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest processing rate reported to date with single-chip GPU and the first implementation of real time video rate volumetric OCT processing and rendering that is capable of matching the ultrahigh-speed OCT acquisition rates.

Jian, Yifan; Wong, Kevin; Sarunic, Marinko V.

2013-03-01

214

Low Primary Cesarean Rate and High VBAC Rate With Good Outcomes in an Amish Birthing Center  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Recent national guidelines encourage a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) as a means of increasing vaginal births after cesarean (VBACs) and decreasing the high US cesarean birth rate and its consequences (2010 National Institute of Health Consensus Statement and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists revised guideline). A birthing center serving Amish women in Southwestern Wisconsin offered an opportunity to look at the effects of local culture and practices that support vaginal birth and TOLAC. This study describes childbirth and perinatal outcomes during a 17-year period in LaFarge, Wisconsin. METHODS We undertook a retrospective analysis of the records of all women admitted to the birth center in labor. Main outcome measures include rates of cesarean deliveries, TOLAC and VBAC deliveries, and perinatal outcomes for 927 deliveries between 1993 and 2010. RESULT S The cesarean rate was 4% (35 of 927), the TOLAC rate was 100%, and the VBAC rate was 95% (88 of 92). There were no cases of uterine rupture and no maternal deaths. The neonatal death rate of 5.4 of 1,000 was comparable to that of Wisconsin (4.6 of 1,000) and the United States (4.5 of 1,000). CONCLUSIONS Both the culture of the population served and a number of factors relating to the management of labor at the birthing center have affected the rates of cesarean delivery and TOLAC. The results of the LaFarge Amish study support a low-technology approach to delivery where good outcomes are achieved with low cesarean and high VBAC rates. PMID:23149530

Deline, James; Varnes-Epstein, Lisa; Dresang, Lee T.; Gideonsen, Mark; Lynch, Laura; Frey, John J.

2012-01-01

215

Ultra High-Rate Germanium (UHRGe) Modeling Status Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ultra-High Rate Germanium (UHRGe) project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to develop a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector that can provide both the high resolution typical of germanium and high signal throughput. Such detectors may be beneficial for a variety of potential applications ranging from safeguards measurements of used fuel to material detection and verification using active interrogation techniques. This report describes some of the initial radiation transport modeling efforts that have been conducted to help guide the design of the detector as well as a description of the process used to generate the source spectrum for the used fuel application evaluation.

Warren, Glen A.; Rodriguez, Douglas C.

2012-06-07

216

Machining and grinding: High rate deformation in practice  

SciTech Connect

Machining and grinding are well-established material-working operations involving highly non-uniform deformation and failure processes. A typical machining operation is characterized by uncertain boundary conditions (e.g.,surface interactions), three-dimensional stress states, large strains, high strain rates, non-uniform temperatures, highly localized deformations, and failure by both nominally ductile and brittle mechanisms. While machining and grinding are thought to be dominated by empiricism, even a cursory inspection leads one to the conclusion that this results more from necessity arising out of the complicated and highly interdisciplinary nature of the processes than from the lack thereof. With these conditions in mind, the purpose of this paper is to outline the current understanding of strain rate effects in metals.

Follansbee, P.S.

1993-01-01

217

Machining and grinding: High rate deformation in practice  

SciTech Connect

Machining and grinding are well-established material-working operations involving highly non-uniform deformation and failure processes. A typical machining operation is characterized by uncertain boundary conditions (e.g.,surface interactions), three-dimensional stress states, large strains, high strain rates, non-uniform temperatures, highly localized deformations, and failure by both nominally ductile and brittle mechanisms. While machining and grinding are thought to be dominated by empiricism, even a cursory inspection leads one to the conclusion that this results more from necessity arising out of the complicated and highly interdisciplinary nature of the processes than from the lack thereof. With these conditions in mind, the purpose of this paper is to outline the current understanding of strain rate effects in metals.

Follansbee, P.S.

1993-04-01

218

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Using a high temperature plastometer with a new cone-shaped shearing disk, the effect of shear rate ({gamma}R) on the apparent viscosity of softened coal was studied. For {gamma}R from 2.01 s{sup {minus}1} to 10.7 s{sup {minus}1}, no shear rate effect on the viscosity of Pittsburgh No. 8 high volatile bituminous coal was observed. Three other coals, each of different ranks ranging from high volatile bituminous to low volatile bituminous, were also studied. Although lower in tar and extractable yields than high volatile bituminous coals, medium and low volatile bituminous coals were found to be very plastic. Their good plastic behavior is therefore hypothesized to arise from their ability to generate higher molecular weight liquid fragments ( macrometaplast'') which are not represented by tar and extractable yields.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1992-02-01

219

High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter  

SciTech Connect

A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-09-01

220

High-rate quantum cryptography in untrusted networks  

E-print Network

We extend the field of continuous-variable quantum cryptography to a network formulation where two honest parties connect to an untrusted relay by insecure quantum links. To generate secret correlations, they transmit coherent states to the relay where a continuous-variable Bell detection is performed and the outcome broadcast. Even though the detection could be fully corrupted and the links subject to optimal coherent attacks, the honest parties can still extract a secret key, achieving high rates when the relay is proximal to one party, as typical in public networks with access points or proxy servers. Our theory is confirmed by an experiment generating key-rates which are orders of magnitude higher than those achievable with discrete-variable protocols. Thus, using the cheapest possible quantum resources, we experimentally show the possibility of high-rate quantum key distribution in network topologies where direct links are missing between end-users and intermediate relays cannot be trusted.

Stefano Pirandola; Carlo Ottaviani; Gaetana Spedalieri; Christian Weedbrook; Samuel L. Braunstein; Seth Lloyd; Tobias Gehring; Christian S. Jacobsen; Ulrik L. Andersen

2014-08-01

221

Performance Evaluation of High-Rate GPS Seismometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-rate GPS observations with higher than once-per-second sampling are getting increasingly important for seismology. Unlike a traditional seismometer which measures short period vibration using accelerometers, the GPS receiver can measure its antenna position directly and record long period seismic wave and permanent displacements as well. The high-rate GPS observations are expected to provide new insights in understanding the whole aspects of earthquake process. In this study, we investigated dynamic characteristics of the high-rate GPS receivers capable of outputting the observations at up to 50Hz. This higher output rate, however, doesn't mean higher dynamics range of the GPS observations. Since many GPS receivers are designed for low dynamics applications, such as static survey, personal and car navigation, the bandwidth of the loop filters tend to be narrower in order to reduce the noise level of the observations. The signal tracking loop works like a low-pass filter. Thus the narrower the bandwidth, the lower the dynamics range. In order to extend this dynamical limit, high-rate GPS receivers might use wider loop bandwidth for phase tracking. In this case, the GPS observations are degraded by higher noise level in return. In addition to the limitation of the loop bandwidth, higher acceleration due to earthquake may cause the steady state error in the signal tracking loop. As a result, kinematic solutions experience undesirable position offsets, or the receiver may lose the GPS signals in an extreme case. In order to examine those effects for the high-rate GPS observations, we made an experiment using a GPS signal simulator and several geodetic GPS receivers, including Trimble Net-R8, NovAtel OEMV, Topcon Net-G3A, and Javad SIGMA-G2T. We set up the zero-baseline simulation scenario in which the rover receiver was vibrating in a periodic motion with the frequency from 1Hz to 10Hz around the reference station. The amplitude of the motion was chosen to provide up to 10G acceleration to emulate high frequency and high acceleration earthquake motion. The simulation results showed that the amplitude was too small when the frequency was higher than 5Hz, and kinematic solutions were buried under the noise level. The jerk was also too high in such high frequency region, and no receiver was capable of maintaining signal lock. Many receivers lost signal under the acceleration higher than 4G. We also found that the accuracy of high-rate GPS observations was independent of sampling rate of the receivers, and the 50Hz sampling rate provides better resolution to the kinematic solutions. Our experiment suggested that, in the given environment and receiver sets, higher sampling interval was recommended to measure the ground motion in higher resolution. On the other hand, the dynamic characteristics of the signal tracking loop put a limit on the frequency and the acceleration of the antenna motion, and it would be quite difficult to capture the ground vibration with higher than 5Hz in frequency and 4G in acceleration. We will further continue our experiments to find the optimal configurations of the high-rate GPS receivers to monitor seismic events.

Kato, T.; Ebinuma, T.

2011-12-01

222

Childhood Onset Schizophrenia: High Rate of Visual Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To document high rates and clinical correlates of nonauditory hallucinations in childhood onset schizophrenia (COS). Method: Within a sample of 117 pediatric patients (mean age 13.6 years), diagnosed with COS, the presence of auditory, visual, somatic/tactile, and olfactory hallucinations was examined using the Scale for the Assessment…

David, Christopher N.; Greenstein, Deanna; Clasen, Liv; Gochman, Pete; Miller, Rachel; Tossell, Julia W.; Mattai, Anand A.; Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

2011-01-01

223

High Information Rate and Efficient Color Barcode Decoding  

E-print Network

High Information Rate and Efficient Color Barcode Decoding Homayoun Bagherinia and Roberto Manduchi in color barcodes. A popular system, Microsofts HCCB technology, uses four or eight colors per patch. This system displays a color palette of four or eight colors in the color barcode to solve the problem

Manduchi, Roberto

224

Thermomechanical treatment for high strain rate superplastic aluminum matrix composites  

SciTech Connect

Thermomechanical treatment with hot extrusion is described for a high strain rate superplastic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4p}/6061Al composite. Dynamic precipitation was caused during hot extrusion, which played an important role in grain refinement. As a result, very small grain size of about 1 {mu}m was obtained by hot extrusion.

Mabuchi, Mamoru [Government Industrial Research Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Higashi, Kenji [Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

225

Estimation of Intrinsic Dimensionality Using High-Rate Vector Quantization  

E-print Network

of a manifold (a topological property) to the asymp- totic optimal quantization error for distributionsEstimation of Intrinsic Dimensionality Using High-Rate Vector Quantization Maxim Raginsky,slazebni}@uiuc.edu Abstract We introduce a technique for dimensionality estimation based on the no- tion of quantization

Raginsky, Maxim

226

Compact solid state high repetition rate variable amplitude pulse generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is a solid state high repetition-rate pulse generator with adjustable output amplitude, together with a resonant LC charger. This pulse generator was designed for transient plasma production for ignition and other aerospace plasma applications. The design of the pulse-forming network makes use of commercially available insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) switching a capacitor bank into a METGLAS transformer together

Scott J. Pendleton; Daniel Singleton; Andras Kuthi; Martin A. Gundersen

2009-01-01

227

Viscosity of coal/water slurries at high shear rates  

SciTech Connect

The service life of an injector nozzle in a diesel engine fueled with of coal/water slurry (CWS) is 2-5 h, which limits the continuous running time of the engine. This study of CWS flow and erosion in injector nozzles was initiated to provide an analytical tool, validated by experiment, for designing a durable injector and predicting long-term wear from limited test runs. The two-phase hydrodynamic theory of solid/liquid slurry flow has been extended to incorporate the constitutive relationship for power-law non-Newtonian behavior. A computer model has been developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations in solid and liquid velocities, viscosities, and concentrations under the high shear rates encountered in diesel injection systems. The model has been validated using Newtonian, single phase flow data obtained with water or No. 2 diesel fuel and non-Newtonian, two-phase flow data using a CWS. The computed and measured viscosities and shear rates showed good agreement. Viscosities of four micronized CWS samples were measured at shear rates between 3000 and 30,000 sec/sup /minus/1/ in a high-pressure/high-shear capillary tube system of a rotational viscometer. The complex CWS flow at high shear depended on coal particle size, temperature, coal loading, additives, and the shear rate. 40 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Sekar, R.R.; Wang, C.S.; Choi, U.S.

1988-08-01

228

OPTIMIZATION OF METALLURGICAL PROCESSES USING HIGH RATE BIOTECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing metallurgical operations can be optimized by implementing engineered bioreactor systems in the process configuration. For instance, metals can be recovered safely and economically from process and waste streams using biogenic sulfide. This paper focuses upon possible applications of high rate biotechnology in metallurgy and mining. Metal recovery from liquid streams (process bleed streams, leach water, waste streams), integrated removal

Henk Dijkman; Johannes Boonstra; Rick Lawrence; Cees J. N. Buisman

229

Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

Foster, D. L.

1966-01-01

230

High Rate of Recent Transposable ElementInduced Adaptation  

E-print Network

High Rate of Recent Transposable Element­Induced Adaptation in Drosophila melanogaster Josefa Gonza to be potent sources of mutation, their contribution to the generation of recent adaptive changes has never been systematically assessed. In this work, we conduct a genome- wide screen for adaptive TE insertions

Petrov, Dmitri

231

Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

2011-01-01

232

Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence  

EPA Science Inventory

Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

233

Reproductive Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

234

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The broad objective of this project is to obtain improved, quantitative understanding of the transient plasticity of bituminous coals under high heating rates and other reaction and pretreatment conditions of scientific and practical interest. To these ends the research plan is to measure the softening and resolidification behavior of two US bituminous coals with a rapid-heating, fast response, high-temperature coal plastometer, previously developed in this laboratory. Specific measurements planned for the project include determinations of apparent viscosity, softening temperature, plastic period, and resolidificationtime for molten coal: (1) as a function of independent variations in coal type, heating rate, final temperature, gaseous atmosphere (inert, 0{sub 2} or H{sub 2}), and shear rate; and (2) in exploratory runs where coal is pretreated (preoxidation, pyridine extraction, metaplast cracking agents), before heating. The intra-coal inventory and molecular weight distribution of pyridine extractables will also be measured using a rapid quenching, electrical screen heater coal pyrolysis reactor. The yield of extractables is representative of the intra-coal inventory of plasticing agent (metaplast) remaining after quenching. Coal plasticity kinetics will then be mathematically modeled from metaplast generation and depletion rates, via a correlation between the viscosity of a suspension and the concentration of deformable medium (here metaplast) in that suspension. Work during this reporting period has been concerned with re-commissioning the rapid heating rate plastometer apparatus.

Darivakis, G.S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1990-01-01

235

High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments.

Borot, A.; Douillet, D.; Iaquaniello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Lopez-Martens, R. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.-P. [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2014-01-15

236

High repetition rate plasma mirror device for attosecond science.  

PubMed

This report describes an active solid target positioning device for driving plasma mirrors with high repetition rate ultra-high intensity lasers. The position of the solid target surface with respect to the laser focus is optically monitored and mechanically controlled on the nm scale to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for each shot at arbitrary repetition rate. We demonstrate the target capabilities by driving high-order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors produced on glass targets with a near-relativistic intensity few-cycle pulse laser system operating at 1 kHz. During experiments, residual target surface motion can be actively stabilized down to 47?nm (root mean square), which ensures sub-300-as relative temporal stability of the plasma mirror as a secondary source of coherent attosecond extreme ultraviolet radiation in pump-probe experiments. PMID:24517742

Borot, A; Douillet, D; Iaquaniello, G; Lefrou, T; Audebert, P; Geindre, J-P; Lopez-Martens, R

2014-01-01

237

High-rate mechanical properties of energetic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to the many thousands of studies that have been performed on the energy release mechanisms of high energy materials, relatively few studies have been performed (a few hundred) into their mechanical properties. Since it is increasingly desired to model the high rate deformation of such materials, it is of great importance to gather data on their response so that predictive constitutive models can be constructed. This paper reviews the state of the art concerning what is known about the mechanical response of high energy materials. Examples of such materials are polymer bonded explosives (used in munitions), propellants (used to propel rockets), and pyrotechnics (used to initiate munitions and also in flares).

Walley, S. M.; Siviour, C. R.; Drodge, D. R.; Williamson, D. M.

2010-01-01

238

High rate sputter deposition of wear resistant tantalum coatings  

SciTech Connect

The refractory nature and high ductility of body centered cubic (bcc) phase tantalum makes it a suitable material for corrosion- and wear-resistant coatings on surfaces which are subjected to high stresses and harsh chemical and erosive environments. Sputter deposition can produce thick tantalum films but is prone to forming the brittle tetragonal beta phase of this material. Efforts aimed at forming thick bcc phase tantalum coatings in both flat plate and cylindrical geometries by high-rate triode sputtering methods are discussed. In addition to substrate temperature, the bcc-to-beta phase ratio in sputtered tantalum coatings is shown to be sensitive to other substrate surface effects.

Matson, D.W.; Merz, M.D.; McClanahan, E.D.

1991-11-01

239

High rate constitutive modeling of aluminium alloy tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the need for fuel efficient automobiles increases, car designers are investigating light-weight materials for automotive bodies that will reduce the overall automobile weight. Aluminium alloy tube is a desirable material to use in automotive bodies due to its light weight. However, aluminium suffers from lower formability than steel and its energy absorption ability in a crash event after a forming operation is largely unknown. As part of a larger study on the relationship between crashworthiness and forming processes, constitutive models for 3mm AA5754 aluminium tube were developed. A nominal strain rate of 100/s is often used to characterize overall automobile crash events, whereas strain rates on the order of 1000/s can occur locally. Therefore, tests were performed at quasi-static rates using an Instron test fixture and at strain rates of 500/s to 1500/s using a tensile split Hopkinson bar. High rate testing was then conducted at rates of 500/s, 1000/s and 1500/s at 21circC, 150circC and 300circC. The generated data was then used to determine the constitutive parameters for the Johnson-Cook and Zerilli-Armstrong material models.

Salisbury, C. P.; Worswick, M. J.; Mayer, R.

2006-08-01

240

Generation of high power, high repetition-rate pulses using erbium-doped fiber ring laser  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the results obtained from crographics. generation of high repetition rate, high peak power output pulses using an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Two configurations were employed. The first setup used a linear cavity...

Hinson, Brett Darren

1998-01-01

241

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, this site is a concise overview of animal reproduction. The site addresses important aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, and the importance of hormones. Visitors to the site will find diagrams outlining biological processes especially helpful.

Gregory, Michael

242

Asexual Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the author of Kimball's Biology textbook, this online chapter presents modes of asexual reproduction in plants and animals. Asexual reproduction in plants includes stems, leaves, roots, plant propagation and apomixis, whereas the animal section includes budding, fragmentation and parthenogenesis. The chapter is supported with a general discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction.

John W. Kimball

243

High strain-rate model for fiber-reinforced composites  

SciTech Connect

Numerical simulations of dynamic uniaxial strain loading of fiber-reinforced composites are presented that illustrate the wide range of deformation mechanisms that can be captured using a micromechanics-based homogenization technique as the material model in existing continuum mechanics computer programs. Enhancements to the material model incorporate high strain-rate plastic response, elastic nonlinearity, and rate-dependent strength degradation due to material damage, fiber debonding, and delamination. These make the model relevant to designing composite structural components for crash safety, armor, and munitions applications.

Aidun, J.B.; Addessio, F.L.

1995-07-01

244

High-Transfer-Rate High-Capacity Holographic Disk Data-Storage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design and implementation of a high-data-rate high-capacity digital holographic storage disk system. Various system design trade-offs that affect density and data-rate performance are described and analyzed. In the demonstration system that we describe, high-density holographic recording is achieved by use of high-resolution short-focal-length optics and correlation shift multiplexing in photopolymer disk media. Holographic channel decoding at a

Sergei S. Orlov; William Phillips; Eric Bjornson; Yuzuru Takashima; Padma Sundaram; Lambertus Hesselink; Robert Okas; Darren Kwan; Raymond Snyder

2004-01-01

245

Determination of Tensile Properties of Polymers at High Strain Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of high rate testing of polymers the measured properties are highly dependent on the applied methodology. Hence, the test setup as whole but in particular also the geometrical type of specimen plays a decisive role. The widely used standard for the determination of tensile properties of polymers (ISO527-2) was extended by a novel standard (ISO18872:2007), which is targeted on the determination of tensile properties at high strain rates. In this standard also a novel specimen shape is proposed. Hand in hand with the introduction of new specimen geometry the question of comparability arises. To point out the differences in stress-strain response of the ISO18872 specimen and the ISO527-2 multipurpose specimen tensile tests over a wide loading rate range were conducted in this paper. A digital image correlation system in combination with a high speed camera was used to characterize the local material behaviour. Different parameters like nominal stress, true stress, nominal strain, true strain as well as volumetric strain were determined and used to compare the two specimen geometries.

Reiter, M.; Major, Z.

2010-06-01

246

Method for generating high-energy and high repetition rate laser pulses from CW amplifiers  

DOEpatents

A method for obtaining high-energy, high repetition rate laser pulses simultaneously using continuous wave (CW) amplifiers is described. The method provides for generating micro-joule level energy in pico-second laser pulses at Mega-hertz repetition rates.

Zhang, Shukui

2013-06-18

247

Dissolution rate of calcium carbonate in high pCO2 seawater under high pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand how the dissolution rate of calcium carbonate changes, laboratory experiments were conducted under high pressure and high pCO2 condition. As a result, rapid dissolution was observed at above 5000 ppm of pCO2. The initial dissolution rates of the well correlated with initial concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon. Dissolution rate were generally decreased with time. Dissolution of calcium carbonate

N. Tsurushima; M. Suzumura; N. Yamada; K. Harada

2008-01-01

248

Mechanical characterization of rocks at high strain rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the dynamic characterization in tension and compression of three rocks, Carrara marble, Onsernone gneiss and Peccia Marble, at high strain-rates. Two versions of a Split Hopkinson Bar have been used. The version for direct tension tests is installed at the DynaMat Laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, while the traditional version in compression is installed at the Laboratory of Dynamic Investigation of Materials of Lobachevsky State University. Results of the tests show a significantly strain-rate sensitive behaviour, exhibiting dynamic strength increasing with strain-rate. The experimental research has been developed in the frame of the Swiss-Russian Joint Research Program.

Cadoni, E.; Bragov, A. M.; Dotta, M.; Forni, D.; Konstantinov, A.; Lomunov, A.

2012-08-01

249

High rates of evolution preceded the origin of birds.  

PubMed

The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. PMID:24471891

Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J

2014-05-01

250

Plastic behavior of aluminum in high strain rate regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this experiment was to study the plastic response of Al to dynamic loading at high strain rates. Dynamic loading was applied by direct laser ablation of the sample with pulse width of 3 ns long. The free surface velocity histories of shock loaded samples, 60-310 ?m thick at room temperature, and 150 ?m thick with initial temperature from 293 to 893 K, have been recorded using a line velocity interferometer for any reflections (VISAR) system. The line VISAR could measure free surface velocity profile with high temporal resolution (˜100 ps). The measured amplitudes of the elastic precursor waves have been approximated by power functions of the propagation distance with the power index of 0.581, and these data have been converted into relationships between the shear stress at Hugoniot elastic limit and the initial plastic strain rate. The peak longitudinal elastic stress and the strain rate meet a power law dependency with the power index of 0.44. Samples were recovered for post-shot metallographic analysis. The metallographic analysis leads to the conclusion that the spall strength of preheated aluminum is determined more by the rate of void nucleation rather than its growth.

Shu, Hua; Fu, Sizu; Huang, Xiuguang; Pan, Hao; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Ziyong; Ye, Junjian; Jia, Guo

2014-07-01

251

HIGH RATES OF EVOLUTION PRECEDED THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS  

PubMed Central

The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. PMID:24471891

Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J; Polly, P David

2014-01-01

252

High Rate Proton Irradiation of 15mm Muon Drifttubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future LHC luminosity upgrades will significantly increase the amount of background hits from photons, neutrons 11.11d protons in the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At the proposed LHC peak luminosity of 5\\cdot 1034(1)/(cm2s), background hit rates of more than 10(kHz)/(cm2) are expected in the innermost forward region, leading to a loss of performance of the current tracking chambers. Based on the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers, a new high rate capable drift tube detecor using tubes with a reduced diameter of 15mm was developed. To test the response to highly ionizing particles, a prototype chamber of 46 15mm drift tubes was irradiated with a 20 MeV proton beam at the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Munich. Three tubes in a planar layer were irradiated while all other tubes were used for reconstruction of cosmic muon tracks through irradiated and nonirradiated parts of the chamber. To determine the rate capability of the 15mm drifttubes we investigated the effect of the proton hit rate on pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution of the cosmic muon signals.

Zibell, A.; Biebel, O.; Hertenberger, R.; Ruschke, A.; Schmitt, Ch.; Kroha, H.; Bittner, B.; Schwegler, P.; Dubbert, J.; Ott, S.

2012-08-01

253

V794 Aql: evolution at high mass transfer rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

V794 Aql, a VYScl or nova-like star in which a white dwarf, accretes at very high mass transfer rate mdot (~10(-8) solar masses) from a main sequence binary companion. Very few interacting white dwarf binaries show clear physical manifestation of such high mass transfer rate, which is very important to understand how recurrent novae and type I supernovae occur. Periodic "low states" at all wavelengths from optical to X-rays can be explained with a limit cycle that regulates the mdot through a physical mechanisms that could be due to a number of root causes: irradiation induced wind from the secondary and its periodic halt, spots on the secondary, the magnetic field of the WD. We propose to obtain a HETG spectrum that will clarify how these systems evolve.

Orio, Marina

2014-09-01

254

Failure Rate Data Analysis for High Technology Components  

SciTech Connect

Understanding component reliability helps designers create more robust future designs and supports efficient and cost-effective operations of existing machines. The accelerator community can leverage the commonality of its high-vacuum and high-power systems with those of the magnetic fusion community to gain access to a larger database of reliability data. Reliability studies performed under the auspices of the International Energy Agency are the result of an international working group, which has generated a component failure rate database for fusion experiment components. The initial database work harvested published data and now analyzes operating experience data. This paper discusses the usefulness of reliability data, describes the failure rate data collection and analysis effort, discusses reliability for components with scarce data, and points out some of the intersections between magnetic fusion experiments and accelerators.

L. C. Cadwallader

2007-07-01

255

High repetition rate volumetric x-ray CT scanning  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography (CT) has provided a means of solving the superposition problem inherent in conventional radiographic imaging. High repetition rate cylindrical volumetric scanning is a means of applying CT for the purpose of unambiguous visualization and quantitative measurement of moving organ systems such as the heart, lungs, and blood in intact animals and man. A scanning system capable of operating in this manner has recently become operational at the Mayo Clinic. This system, the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (DSR), is capable of producing video radiographic images at a repetition rate of 60 times per second from which multiple CT slices may be produced. A stack of 60 contiguous, 1 mm thick, transverse sections spanning a 21 cm high volume containing the beating heart, for instance, can be generated every 1/60 second.

Kinsey, J.H.; Orvis, A.L.

1981-04-01

256

Calibration of 192Ir high-dose-rate afterloading systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for calibration of 192Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy afterloading systems. Since NIST does not offer calibration of ionization chambers with the gamma-ray spectrum of iridium-192, an interpolation procedure is employed, using calibrations above (137Cs, 662 keV) and below (250 kVcp, 146-keV x rays) the exposure-weighted average 192Ir energy of 397 keV. The same total wall + cap

Steven J. Goetsch; F. H. Attix; D. W. Pearson; B. R. Thomadsen

1991-01-01

257

A novel approach to high shear rate rheometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is presented for converting torque-speed plots obtained from experiments using discs rotating rapidly in shear thinning materials into information on the viscosity function. The method is based on an exact boundary-layer solution for the power-law model and on the concept of pseudo-similarity of non-Newtonian flows. It enables the rheological behaviour to be evaluated at very high shear rates.

K. Wichterle; P. Mitschka

1986-01-01

258

Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability  

DOEpatents

A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS.sub.2 and NiS.sub.2 in about equal molar amounts along with about 2-20 mole percent of the reaction product Li.sub.2 S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

Redey, Laszlo (Downers Grove, IL)

1988-01-01

259

Long-Term Hyperphagia and Caloric Restriction Caused by Low- or High-Density Husbandry Have Differential Effects on Zebrafish Postembryonic Development, Somatic Growth, Fat Accumulation and Reproduction  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia) and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI) displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis mediating differential energy allocation. PMID:25799180

Leibold, Sandra; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

2015-01-01

260

High-rate electrochemical energy storage through Li+ intercalation pseudocapacitance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudocapacitance is commonly associated with surface or near-surface reversible redox reactions, as observed with RuO2·xH2O in an acidic electrolyte. However, we recently demonstrated that a pseudocapacitive mechanism occurs when lithium ions are inserted into mesoporous and nanocrystal films of orthorhombic Nb2O5 (T-Nb2O5; refs , ). Here, we quantify the kinetics of charge storage in T-Nb2O5: currents that vary inversely with time, charge-storage capacity that is mostly independent of rate, and redox peaks that exhibit small voltage offsets even at high rates. We also define the structural characteristics necessary for this process, termed intercalation pseudocapacitance, which are a crystalline network that offers two-dimensional transport pathways and little structural change on intercalation. The principal benefit realized from intercalation pseudocapacitance is that high levels of charge storage are achieved within short periods of time because there are no limitations from solid-state diffusion. Thick electrodes (up to 40??m thick) prepared with T-Nb2O5 offer the promise of exploiting intercalation pseudocapacitance to obtain high-rate charge-storage devices.

Augustyn, Veronica; Come, Jérémy; Lowe, Michael A.; Kim, Jong Woung; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Abruña, Héctor D.; Simon, Patrice; Dunn, Bruce

2013-06-01

261

The Gamma Ray Burst Rate at High Photon Energies  

E-print Network

Some gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra exhibit high energy tails with the highest photon energy detected at 18 GeV. The spectral slope of the high-energy tails is sufficiently flat in nu F_nu to consider the possibility of their detection at still higher energies. We calculate how many bursts can reasonably be expected above a given energy threshold for a cosmological distribution of bursts satisfying the observed apparent brightness distribution. The crucial point is that the gamma-ray absorption by pair production in the intergalactic diffuse radiation field eliminates bursts from beyond the gamma-ray horizon tau ~ 1, thus drastically reducing the number of bursts at high energies. Our results are consistent with the non-detection of bursts by current experiments in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. For the earth-bound detector array MILAGRO, we predict a maximal GRB rate of ~ 10 events per year. The Whipple Observatory can detect, under favorable conditions, ~1 event per year. The event rate for the HEGRA array is ~ 0.01 per year. Detection of significantly higher rates of bursts would severely challenge cosmological burst scenarios.

Karl Mannheim; Dieter Hartmann; Burkhardt Funk

1996-05-17

262

Avalanche Photo-Detection for High Data Rate Applications  

E-print Network

Avalanche photo detection is commonly used in applications which require single photon sensitivity. We examine the limits of using avalanche photo diodes (APD) for characterising photon statistics at high data rates. To identify the regime of linear APD operation we employ a ps-pulsed diode laser with variable repetition rates between 0.5MHz and 80MHz. We modify the mean optical power of the coherent pulses by applying different levels of well-calibrated attenuation. The linearity at high repetition rates is limited by the APD dead time and a non-linear response arises at higher photon-numbers due to multiphoton events. Assuming Poissonian input light statistics we ascertain the effective mean photon-number of the incident light with high accuracy. Time multiplexed detectors (TMD) allow to accomplish photon- number resolution by photon chopping. This detection setup extends the linear response function to higher photon-numbers and statistical methods may be used to compensate for non-linearity. We investigated this effect, compare it to the single APD case and show the validity of the convolution treatment in the TMD data analysis.

H. B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge; C. Silberhorn

2007-09-19

263

Long-term operation of high rate algal ponds for the bioremediation of piggery wastewaters at high loading rates.  

PubMed

The performance of two 464-L high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) treating 20- and 10-folds diluted swine manure at 10 days of hydraulic residence time was evaluated under continental climatic conditions in Castilla y Leon (Spain) from January to October. Under optimum environmental conditions (from July to September), both HRAPs supported a stable and efficient carbon and nitrogen oxidation performance, with average COD and TKN removal efficiencies of 76+/-11% and 88+/-6%, respectively, and biomass productivities ranging from 21 to 28 g/m(2)d. Nitrification was identified as the main TKN removal mechanism at dissolved oxygen concentrations higher than 2mg/L (accounting for 80-86% of the TKN removed from January to May and for 54% from July to September). On the other hand, empirical evidences of a simultaneous nitrification-denitrification process were found at dissolved oxygen concentrations lower than 0.5mg/L (high organic loading rates). However, despite the achievement of excellent COD and nitrogen oxidation performance, phosphorous removal efficiencies lower than 10% were recorded in both HRAPs probably due to the high buffer capacity of the piggery wastewater treated (absence of abiotic pH-mediated PO(4)(3-) precipitation). Finally, a detailed monitorization of the dynamics of microalgae population revealed that the combination of moderate temperatures/solar irradiances and high organic loading rates, prevailing during late spring and summer, supported higher microalgae diversities than those found during winter conditions. PMID:19427783

Godos, Ignacio de; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro A; Becares, Eloy; Muñoz, Raúl

2009-10-01

264

Mechanical Solder Characterisation Under High Strain Rate Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a setup for high strain rate tensile experiments the mechanical behavior of two lead-free tin based solders is investigated. The first alloy is SnAg1.3Cu0.5Ni. The second alloy has a higher silver content but no addition of Ni. Solder joints are the main electrical, thermal and mechanical interconnection technology on the first and second interconnection level. With the recent rise of 3D packaging technologies many novel interconnection ideas are proposed with innovative or visionary nature. Copper pillar, stud bump, intermetallic (SLID) and even spring like joints are presented in a number of projects. However, soldering will remain one of the important interconnect technologies. Knowing the mechanical properties of solder joints is important for any reliability assessment, especially when it comes to vibration and mechanical shock associated with mobile applications. Taking the ongoing miniaturization and linked changes in solder joint microstructure and mechanical behavior into account the need for experimental work on that issue is not satisfied. The tests are accomplished utilizing miniature bulk specimens to match the microstructure of real solder joints as close as possible. The dogbone shaped bulk specimens have a crucial diameter of 1 mm, which is close to BGA solder joints. Experiments were done in the strain rate range from 20 s-1 to 600 s-1. Solder strengthening has been observed with increased strain rate for both SAC solder alloys. The yield stress increases by about 100% in the investigated strain rate range. The yield level differs strongly. A high speed camera system was used to assist the evaluation process of the stress and strain data. Besides the stress and strain data extracted from the experiment the ultimate fracture strain is determined and the fracture surfaces are evaluated using SEM technique considering rate dependency.

Meier, Karsten; Roellig, Mike; Wiese, Steffen; Wolter, Klaus-Juergen

2010-11-01

265

Characterization of an infrared detector for high frame rate thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a commercially available photodetector based infrared thermography system, operating in the 2-5 µm range, for high frame rate imaging of temperature evolutions in solid materials is investigated. Infrared photodetectors provide a very fast and precise means of obtaining temperature evolutions over a wide range of science and engineering applications. A typical indium antimonide detector will have a thermal resolution of around 4 mK for room temperature measurements, with a noise threshold around 15 to 20 mK. However the precision of the measurement is dependent on the integration time (akin to exposure time in conventional photography). For temperature evolutions that occur at a moderate rate the integration time can be relatively long, enabling a large signal to noise ratio. A matter of increasing importance in engineering is the behaviour of materials at high strain rates, such as those experienced in impact, shock and ballistic loading. The rapid strain evolution in the material is usually accompanied by a temperature change. The temperature change will affect the material constitutive properties and hence it is important to capture both the temperature and the strain evolutions to provide a proper constitutive law for the material behaviour. The present paper concentrates on the capture of the temperature evolutions, which occur at such rates that rule out the use of contact sensors such as thermocouples and electrical resistance thermometers, as their response times are too slow. Furthermore it is desirable to have an indication of the temperature distribution over a test specimen, hence the full-field approach of IRT is investigated. The paper explores the many hitherto unaddressed challenges of IRT when employed at high speed. Firstly the images must be captured at high speeds, which means reduced integration times and hence a reduction in the signal to noise ratio. Furthermore, to achieve the high image capture rates the detector array must be windowed down, therefore there is a compromise made between the extent of the full-field imaging and the temporal resolution of the image capture. In the present work a maximum image capture speed of 15 kHz was achieved with a detector array of 64 × 12 elements and an integration time was 60 µs. Results from initial work on woven E-glass/epoxy tensile specimens are presented.

Fruehmann, R. K.; Crump, D. A.; Dulieu-Barton, J. M.

2013-10-01

266

Frequent sexual reproduction and high intraspecific variation in Salix arctica: Implications for a terrestrial feedback to climate change in the High Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic variation at molecular loci may underlie important variation in the phenotypes of arctic plants. Such intraspecific variation may be a neglected but important component of biological diversity in the Arctic that could impact how arctic ecosystems respond to climate change. Here, we characterized genetic and phenotypic variation in Salix arctica and evaluated the effect of S. arctica on ecosystem CO2 exchange, a process by which terrestrial ecosystems in the Arctic feedback to the global climate system. We found high genetic variation at microsatellite loci of S. arctica collected from an inland and a coastal site in Greenland that indicates sexual reproduction has occurred frequently as the ice sheet has retreated. Across the North American range of S. arctica, ten chloroplast DNA haplotypes were identified. Haplotype diversity and allelic richness were high overall and similar across regions with different glacial histories. Phenotypic variation in ecologically important traits varied substantially in a High Arctic population of S. arctica. In a widespread High Arctic ecosystem, a net loss of CO2 to the atmosphere was observed except where S. arctica was present. We suggest that high genetic variation in S. arctica is in part a result of frequent sexual reproduction, and that the phenotypic variation we observed is likely to be at least partially genetic-based. This would enable a productive High Arctic species to adapt and potentially prosper as climate changes, and thus affect the terrestrial feedback of the Arctic to the climate system.

Steltzer, Heidi; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Welker, Jeffery M.; Casalis, Maxime; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Chimner, Rodney

2008-09-01

267

Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates for the Graduating Class of 2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the graduation rates for the class of 2003 for Montana High Schools. Sections include: Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rate Overview, and Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates, 2002-03 School Year.

McCulloch, Linda

2004-01-01

268

High Dose-Rate Versus Low Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Lip Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To analyze the outcome after low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for lip cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred and three patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the lip were treated between March 1985 and June 2009 either by HDR (n = 33) or LDR brachytherapy (n = 70). Sixty-eight patients received brachytherapy alone, and 35 received tumor excision followed by brachytherapy because of positive resection margins. Acute and late toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Results: Median follow-up was 3.1 years (range, 0.3-23 years). Clinical and pathological variables did not differ significantly between groups. At 5 years, local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, and overall survival rates were 93%, 90%, and 77%. There was no significant difference for these endpoints when HDR was compared with LDR brachytherapy. Forty-two of 103 patients (41%) experienced acute Grade 2 and 57 of 103 patients (55%) experienced acute Grade 3 toxicity. Late Grade 1 toxicity was experienced by 34 of 103 patients (33%), and 5 of 103 patients (5%) experienced late Grade 2 toxicity; no Grade 3 late toxicity was observed. Acute and late toxicity rates were not significantly different between HDR and LDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: As treatment for lip cancer, HDR and LDR brachytherapy have comparable locoregional control and acute and late toxicity rates. HDR brachytherapy for lip cancer seems to be an effective treatment with acceptable toxicity.

Ghadjar, Pirus, E-mail: pirus.ghadjar@insel.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Bojaxhiu, Beat [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Simcock, Mathew [Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Coordinating Center, Bern (Switzerland); Terribilini, Dario; Isaak, Bernhard [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Gut, Philipp; Wolfensberger, Patrick; Broemme, Jens O.; Geretschlaeger, Andreas; Behrensmeier, Frank; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland)

2012-07-15

269

High Spontaneous Mutation Rate of an Avian Sarcoma Virus  

PubMed Central

Three genetically distinct types of chicken sarcoma virus Bratislava 77 (B77 virus) differing in their ability to infect duck cells were identified. B77 virus type I does not infect duck cells; B77 virus type II has a low efficiency of infection of duck cells; and B77 virus type III has a high efficiency of infection of duck cells. B77 viruses type I and III are produced by spontaneous mutation during the growth of B77 virus type II in chicken cells. The spontaneous mutation of B77 virus type II to B77 virus type III occurs with a high rate (approximately 1 mutation per 50 infected cell generations), requires cell replication, and neither occurs during the synthesis of viral DNA on an RNA template nor during the transcription of progeny viral RNA from the provirus. The rate of spontaneous mutation of B77 virus type II to B77 virus type I is greater than the rate of spontaneous mutation of B77 virus type II to B77 virus type III. PMID:173893

Zarling, David A.; Temin, Howard M.

1976-01-01

270

High rate ECR etching of III-V nitride materials  

SciTech Connect

The III-V nitride compound semiconductors are attracting considerable attention for blue and ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers as well as high temperature electronics due to their wide band gaps and high dielectric constants. The recent progress observed in the growth of these materials has not been matched by progress in processing techniques to fabricate more highly sophisticated devices. Patterning these materials has been especially difficult due to the relatively inert chemical nature of the group-III nitrides. The authors review dry etch techniques which have been used to pattern these materials including electron cyclotron resonance (ECR), reactive ion etch (RIE), and chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE). ECR etch rates greater than 3,800 {angstrom}/min for InN, 3,500 {angstrom}/min for GaN, and 1,170 A/min for AlN are reported. Etch anisotropy, surface morphology, and near-surface stoichiometry will be discussed.

Shul, R.J.; Howard, A.J.; Kilcoyne, S.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Vartuli, C.B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Barnes, P.A.; Bozack, M.J. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

1994-12-31

271

High Temperatures Result in Smaller Nurseries which Lower Reproduction of Pollinators and Parasites in a Brood Site Pollination Mutualism  

PubMed Central

In a nursery pollination mutualism, we asked whether environmental factors affected reproduction of mutualistic pollinators, non-mutualistic parasites and seed production via seasonal changes in plant traits such as inflorescence size and within-tree reproductive phenology. We examined seasonal variation in reproduction in Ficus racemosa community members that utilise enclosed inflorescences called syconia as nurseries. Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall defined four seasons: winter; hot days, cold nights; summer and wet seasons. Syconium volumes were highest in winter and lowest in summer, and affected syconium contents positively across all seasons. Greater transpiration from the nurseries was possibly responsible for smaller syconia in summer. The 3–5°C increase in mean temperatures between the cooler seasons and summer reduced fig wasp reproduction and increased seed production nearly two-fold. Yet, seed and pollinator progeny production were never negatively related in any season confirming the mutualistic fig–pollinator association across seasons. Non-pollinator parasites affected seed production negatively in some seasons, but had a surprisingly positive relationship with pollinators in most seasons. While within-tree reproductive phenology did not vary across seasons, its effect on syconium inhabitants varied with season. In all seasons, within-tree reproductive asynchrony affected parasite reproduction negatively, whereas it had a positive effect on pollinator reproduction in winter and a negative effect in summer. Seasonally variable syconium volumes probably caused the differential effect of within-tree reproductive phenology on pollinator reproduction. Within-tree reproductive asynchrony itself was positively affected by intra-tree variation in syconium contents and volume, creating a unique feedback loop which varied across seasons. Therefore, nursery size affected fig wasp reproduction, seed production and within-tree reproductive phenology via the feedback cycle in this system. Climatic factors affecting plant reproductive traits cause biotic relationships between plants, mutualists and parasites to vary seasonally and must be accorded greater attention, especially in the context of climate change. PMID:25521512

Krishnan, Anusha; Pramanik, Gautam Kumar; Revadi, Santosh V.; Venkateswaran, Vignesh; Borges, Renee M.

2014-01-01

272

Sex-specific survival rates of adult roseate terns: are males paying a higher reproductive cost than females?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long-term mark-recapture/resighting program has been carried out on the Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) nesting at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA from the late 1980s through the mid 2000s, and from 1995-1998 an intensive collaborative study of food-provisioning of chicks by their parents also was conducted on many of the banded individuals at this site. Adult female Roseate Terns have significantly higher 'local survival' rates than do males. While both sexes feed their young, males usually have higher prey delivery rates than do females and do most feeding of the (oldest if more than one) chick just before it fledges. Males usually depart at the same time as the (oldest) fledgling, while successful females parents may linger at the colony site for up to two weeks. The lower 'local survival' rate of males probably does not represent lower colony-site fidelity, but instead may reflect the price they pay for doing more 'child care,' especially if fledglings are still dependant on them for food during post breeding dispersal and (at least early) migration.

Spendelow, J.A.; Shealer, D.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.

2005-01-01

273

ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORTS (ART REPORTS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART), an organization of ART providers affiliated with the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), has been collecting data and publishing annual reports of pregnancy success rates for fertility clinics in the United S...

274

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

275

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees.  

PubMed

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits--short turnover times--are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L

2014-05-01

276

Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees  

PubMed Central

The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John

2014-01-01

277

High-rate growth of stable a-Si:H  

SciTech Connect

Correlation between the gas phase species in silane plasma measured by mass spectrometry and the properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) has been investigated. The authors have specially been interested in the higher-order silane related species in the plasma, whose contribution to the film growth is considered to be the cause of light-induced degradation in the film quality, especially at high growth rate. In this study, they varied excitation frequency, gas pressure and power density to vary the growth rates of a-Si:H films ranging from 2 {angstrom}/s to 20 {angstrom}/s. Molecular density ratio of trisilane, representative of higher silane related radicals, to monosilane has shown a clear correspondence to the fill factor after light soaking of Schottky cells fabricated on the resulting films.

Takagai, T.; Hayashi, R.; Payne, A.; Futako, W.; Nishimoto, T.; Takai, M.; Kondo, M.; Matsuda, A.

1999-07-01

278

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (< 60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10/sup 5/ counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, J.A.; Kopp, M.K.

1980-05-23

279

Multianode cylindrical proportional counter for high count rates  

DOEpatents

A cylindrical, multiple-anode proportional counter is provided for counting of low-energy photons (<60 keV) at count rates of greater than 10.sup.5 counts/sec. A gas-filled proportional counter cylinder forming an outer cathode is provided with a central coaxially disposed inner cathode and a plurality of anode wires disposed in a cylindrical array in coaxial alignment with and between the inner and outer cathodes to form a virtual cylindrical anode coaxial with the inner and outer cathodes. The virtual cylindrical anode configuration improves the electron drift velocity by providing a more uniform field strength throughout the counter gas volume, thus decreasing the electron collection time following the detection of an ionizing event. This avoids pulse pile-up and coincidence losses at these high count rates. Conventional RC position encoding detection circuitry may be employed to extract the spatial information from the counter anodes.

Hanson, James A. (Madison, WI); Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01

280

Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams  

SciTech Connect

A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t{sub 0}. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high ({approx}800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range E{sub dep}= 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on {sup 12}C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with E{sub n} < 7 MeV ascribed to {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}){sup 9}Be and 12C(n,n')3{alpha}.

Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Energy Department, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); STFC, ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton Didcot Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, and Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy)

2012-06-19

281

Diamond detector for high rate monitors of fast neutrons beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast neutron detection system suitable for high rate measurements is presented. The detector is based on a commercial high purity single crystal diamond (SDD) coupled to a fast digital data acquisition system. The detector was tested at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source. The SDD event signal was digitized at 1 GHz to reconstruct the deposited energy (pulse amplitude) and neutron arrival time; the event time of flight (ToF) was obtained relative to the recorded proton beam signal t0. Fast acquisition is needed since the peak count rate is very high (˜800 kHz) due to the pulsed structure of the neutron beam. Measurements at ISIS indicate that three characteristics regions exist in the biparametric spectrum: i) background gamma events of low pulse amplitudes; ii) low pulse amplitude neutron events in the energy range Edep = 1.5-7 MeV ascribed to neutron elastic scattering on 12C; iii) large pulse amplitude neutron events with En < 7 MeV ascribed to 12C(n,?)9Be and 12C(n,n')3?.

Giacomelli, L.; Rebai, M.; Cippo, E. Perelli; Tardocchi, M.; Fazzi, A.; Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Frost, C. D.; Rhodes, N.; Schooneveld, E.; Gorini, G.

2012-06-01

282

Efficacy of Highly Purified Urinary FSH versus Recombinant FSH in Chinese Women over 37 Years Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Urine derived follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH) contains a higher proportion of acidic isoforms, whereas recombinant FSH (rFSH) contains a higher proportion of less-acidic isoforms. Less-acidic isoforms have a faster clearance, and thus a shorter half-life than the acidic FSH isoforms. The slow clearance of the acidic isoforms has a longer half-life and higher biological activity. This study was designed to determine whether uFSH or rFSH is more effective in older Chinese women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Materials and Methods This is a prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study. A total of 508 Chinese women over 37 years were randomized into two following study groups for their in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles: i. group A (n=254) were treated with rFSH, and ii. group B (n=254) were treated with uFSH. Both groups were suppressed with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue using a long down-regulation protocol. The main outcomes for comparison were days of stimulation, estradiol (E2) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, number of oocytes collected, amount of FSH used, quantity of FSH/oocyte, endometrial thickness at hCG day, M ? oocyte rate, 2PN zygote rate, grade ? embryo rate, number of embryos cryopreserved, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, abortion rate and the rate of no transferable embryos. Results Twenty two cycles including 16 cycles with poor ovarian response and six cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were cancelled. There were 243 cycles left in each group. The patients treated with uFSH had a significantly higher 2PN zygote rate (87.4 vs. 76.6%, p<0.001), grade ? embryo rate (49.8 vs. 40.8%, p<0.001) and endometrial thickness on day of hCG (11.8 mm vs. 11.2 mm, respectively, p=0.006) and a lower rate of no transferable embryos (1.2 vs. 5.3%, p=0.019) than women treated with rFSH. The other measures evaluated showed no statistically significant differences between groups (p>0.05). Conclusion This study showed that uFSH produced a significantly higher proportion of grade ? embryos than rFSH in older Chinese women and there was a significantly lower chance of no transferable embryos in uFSH cycles. The clinical efficacy of the two gonadotropins was equivalent. PMID:25780520

Liu, Xuemei; Hao, Cuifang; Wang, Jinfang

2015-01-01

283

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What animals abandon their offspring? Find out this and more as you explore reproduction in the animal world. Did you know that all animals must reproduce to survive? In this project you will be learning some interesting facts about reproduction in animals. After you have some background information you will have a chance to select 3 animals and complete a chart on reproduction. TASK: Day 1 ...

Mrs. Joggerst

2008-03-30

284

High Strain Rate Compression and Tension Characterization of High Strength (Automotive) Sheet Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compression and tension split Hopkinson bar techniques are used to characterize high strength automotive sheet steels at strain rates of 500/s and 1000/s. Compression and tension data on two representative steel grades are given. There are differences in the measured compression and tension flow stresses for both the steels. The effect of strain rate and steel strength on these differences is discussed.

Syed, I. H.; Brar, N. S.

2004-07-01

285

High energy high rate pulsed power processing of materials by powder consolidation and by railgun deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This exploratory research program was initiated to investigate the potential of using pulse power sources for powder consolidation, deposition and other High Energy High Rate Processing. The characteristics of the High Energy High Rate (1MJ/s) powder consolidation using megampere current pulses from a Homopolar Generator, have been defined. Molybdenum Alloy TZM, A Nickel based metallic glass, Copper graphite composites, and P/M Aluminum Alloy X7091 have been investigated. The powder consolidation process produced high densification rates. Density values of 80% to 99% could be obtained with sub second high temperature exposure. Specific energy input and applied pressure were controlling process parameters. Time Temperature Transformation (TTT) concepts underpin a fundamental understanding of pulsed power processing. Deposition experiments were conducted using an exploding foil device (EFD) providing an armature feed to railgun mounted in a vacuum chamber. The material to be deposited - in plasma, gas, liquid or solid state - was accelerated electromagnetically in the railgun and deposited on a substrate.

Persad, C.; Marcus, H. L.; Weldon, W. F.

1987-03-01

286

Characterisation and modelling of structural bonding at high strain rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These paper deals with the development of new bonded joint modelling for crash application. A new testing device has been set up on Split Hopkinson bars in order to identify adhesive's properties in assemblies for high strain rate and for different loading angles. These tests led to the development of a new cohesive element model used for solving nonlinear dynamic problems with an explicit integration time scheme. An example illustrates and justifies the development of such a cohesive element under dynamic loading by a good efficiency and a significant saving in calculation time.

Haugou, G.; Bourel, B.; Lauro, F.; Bennani, B.; Lesueur, D.; Morin, D.

2012-08-01

287

High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing  

SciTech Connect

High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a production tool and process. The developed technique will have an reducing impact on product pricing. As efficiency has a substantial impact on the economics of solar cell production due to the high material cost content; in essence, improved efficiency through cost-effective texturing reduces the material cost component since the product is priced in terms of $/W. The project is a collaboration between Fraunhofer USA, Inc. and a c-Si PV manufacturer.

Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

2013-01-10

288

Highly Scalable Signals in Space for Future High Data Rate Military Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future military communications systems, on both national and international levels, will demand the capability of transmitting high data rates over self-organising ad-hoc networks. In the work presented in this paper we describe a high data rate signal in space (HDR-SiS) developed by Rohde & Schwarz, that enables the transmission of real time video, voice and data in a mobile ad-hoc

T. Nicolay; T. Kuhwald; A. Schaefer; T. Detert; T. Langguth

2006-01-01

289

Radiation Hardened, Modulator ASIC for High Data Rate Communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-based telecommunication services are challenged by the need to generate down-link power levels adequate to support high quality (BER approx. equals 10(exp 12)) links required for modem broadband data services. Bandwidth-efficient Nyquist signaling, using low values of excess bandwidth (alpha), can exhibit large peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR) values. High PAPR values necessitate high-power amplifier (HPA) backoff greater than the PAPR, resulting in unacceptably low HPA efficiency. Given the high cost of on-board prime power, this inefficiency represents both an economical burden, and a constraint on the rates and quality of data services supportable from satellite platforms. Constant-envelope signals offer improved power-efficiency, but only by imposing a severe bandwidth-efficiency penalty. This paper describes a radiation- hardened modulator which can improve satellite-based broadband data services by combining the bandwidth-efficiency of low-alpha Nyquist signals with high power-efficiency (negligible HPA backoff).

McCallister, Ron; Putnam, Robert; Andro, Monty; Fujikawa, Gene

2000-01-01

290

High-order harmonic generation using a high-repetition-rate turnkey laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generate high-order harmonics at high pulse repetition rates using a turnkey laser. High-order harmonics at 400 kHz are observed when argon is used as target gas. In neon, we achieve generation of photons with energies exceeding 90 eV (˜13 nm) at 20 kHz. We measure a photon flux of up to 4.4 × 1010 photons per second per harmonic in argon at 100 kHz. Many experiments employing high-order harmonics would benefit from higher repetition rates, and the user-friendly operation opens up for applications of coherent extreme ultra-violet pulses in new research areas.

Lorek, E.; Larsen, E. W.; Heyl, C. M.; Carlström, S.; Pale?ek, D.; Zigmantas, D.; Mauritsson, J.

2014-12-01

291

Risk Factors for Malformations and Impact on Reproductive Performance and Mortality Rates of Schmallenberg Virus in Sheep Flocks in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

In Northwestern Europe, an epizootic outbreak of congenital malformations in newborn lambs due to infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) started at the end of 2011. The objectives of this study were to describe clinical symptoms of SBV infection, the effect of infection on mortality rates, and reproductive performance in sheep, as well as to identify and quantify flock level risk factors for SBV infections resulting in malformations in newborn lambs. A case-control study design was used, with 93 case flocks that had notified malformed lambs and 84 control flocks with no such lambs. Overall animal seroprevalence in case flocks was estimated at 82.0% (95% CI: 74.3–87.8), and was not significantly different from the prevalence in control flocks being 76.4% (95% CI: 67.2–83.6). The percentages of stillborn lambs or lambs that died before weaning, repeat breeders, and lambs with abnormal suckling behaviour were significantly higher in case flocks compared to control flocks. However, effect of SBV infection on mortality rates and reproductive performance seemed to be limited. Multivariable analysis showed that sheep flocks with an early start of the mating season, i.e. before August 2011 (OR?=?33.1; 95% CI: 10.0–109.8) and in August 2011 (OR?=?8.2; 95% CI: 2.7–24.6) had increased odds of malformations in newborn lambs caused by SBV compared to sheep flocks with a start of the mating season in October 2011. Other flock-level risk factors for malformations in newborn lambs were purchase of silage (OR 5.0; 95% CI: 1.7–15.0) and flocks with one or more dogs (OR?=?3.3; 95% CI: 1.3–8.3). Delaying mating until October could be a potential preventive measure for naïve animals to reduce SBV induced losses. As duration of immunity after infection with SBV is expected to last for several years, future SBV induced congenital malformations are mainly expected in offspring of early mated seronegative animals. PMID:24937443

Luttikholt, Saskia; Veldhuis, Anouk; van den Brom, René; Moll, Lammert; Lievaart-Peterson, Karianne; Peperkamp, Klaas; van Schaik, Gerdien; Vellema, Piet

2014-01-01

292

Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates  

PubMed Central

Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30–500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks. PMID:25201981

Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

2014-01-01

293

Resistance of the boreal forest to high burn rates.  

PubMed

Boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks are strongly shaped by extensive wildfires. Coupling climate projections with records of area burned during the last 3 decades across the North American boreal zone suggests that area burned will increase by 30-500% by the end of the 21st century, with a cascading effect on ecosystem dynamics and on the boreal carbon balance. Fire size and the frequency of large-fire years are both expected to increase. However, how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future burn rates is poorly understood, mostly because of incomplete records of past fire overlaps. Here, we reconstruct the length of overlapping fires along a 190-km-long transect during the last 200 y in one of the most fire-prone boreal regions of North America to document how fire size and time since previous fire will influence future fire recurrence. We provide direct field evidence that extreme burn rates can be sustained by a few occasional droughts triggering immense fires. However, we also show that the most fire-prone areas of the North American boreal forest are resistant to high burn rates because of overabundant young forest stands, thereby creating a fuel-mediated negative feedback on fire activity. These findings will help refine projections of fire effect on boreal ecosystems and their large carbon stocks. PMID:25201981

Héon, Jessie; Arseneault, Dominique; Parisien, Marc-André

2014-09-23

294

On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg (University of Texas-Austin)

2010-02-01

295

High-rate lithium thionyl-chloride battery development  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a lithium thionyl-chloride cell for use in a high rate battery application to provide power for a missile computer and stage separation detonators. The battery pack contains 20 high surface area ``DD`` cells wired in a series-parallel configuration to supply a nominal 28 volts with a continuous draw of 20 amperes. The load profile also requires six squib firing pulses of one second duration at a 20 ampere peak. Performance and safety of the cells were optimized in a ``D`` cell configuration before progressing to the longer ``DD` cell. Active surface area in the ``D`` cell is 735 cm{sup 2}, and 1650 cm{sup 2} in the ``DD`` cell. The design includes 1.5M LiAlCl{sub 4}/SOCl{sub 2} electrolyte, a cathode blend of Shawinigan Acetylene Black and Cabot Black Pearls 2000 carbons, Scimat ETFE separator, and photoetched current collectors.

Cieslak, W.R.; Weigand, D.E.

1993-12-31

296

Troll high rate production test, planning and execution  

SciTech Connect

The high rate production test performed by Norsk Hydro on the Troll East structure during the summer of 1985 with the semi submersible drilling rig Treasure Seeker required that a large number of specially designed, modified or adapted equipment items were used in order to fulfil the objectives and maintain safe operations. These were: Jetting tool for casing cleaning; Gravel pack floor manifold to ease operations; Surface read out of downhole pressure and temperature through cable on the outside of the tubing; 3 inch I.D. tester valve; 3.7 inch I.D. annulus pressure operated kill valve; Full bore double gauge carrier; 5 inch I.D. sub-sea test valve; 5 inch I.D. lubricator valve; 5 1/8 inch bore flowhead; Vertical high capacity separator; 32 channel data logger. The use of this equipment together with other more commonly used equipment made the test a success.

Nilssen, B.H.

1987-01-01

297

High rates of methane emissions from south taiga wetland ponds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since wetland ponds are often assumed to be insignificant sources of methane, there is a limited data about its fluxes. In this study, we found surprisingly high rates of methane emission at several shallow ponds in the south taiga zone of West Siberia. Wetland ponds within the Great Vasyugan Mire ridge-hollow-pool patterned bog system were investigated. 22 and 24 flux measurements from ponds and surrounded mires, respectively, were simultaneously made by a static chamber method in July, 2011. In contrast to previous measurements, fluxes were measured using the small boat with floated chamber to avoid disturbance to the water volume. Since the ebullition is most important emission pathway, minimization of physical disturbance provoking gas bubbling significantly increases the data accuracy. Air temperature varied from 15 to 22° C during the measurements, and pH at different pond depths - from 4.4 to 5. As it was found, background emission from surrounding ridges and hollows was 1.7/2.6/3.3 mgC·m-2·h1 (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles). These rates are in a perfect correspondence with the typical methane emission fluxes from other south taiga bogs. Methane emission from wetland ponds turned out to be by order of magnitude higher (9.3/11.3/15.6 mgC·m-2·h1). Comparing to other measurements in West Siberia, many times higher emissions (70.9/111.6/152.3 mgC·m-2·h1) were found in forest-steppe and subtaiga fen ponds. On the contrary, West Siberian tundra lakes emit methane insignificantly, with the flux rate close to surrounding wetlands (about 0.2-0.3 mgC·m-2·h1). Apparently, there is a naturally determined distribution of ponds with different flux rates over different West Siberia climate-vegetation zones. Further investigations aiming at revelation of the zones with different fluxes would be helpful for total flux revision purposes. With respect to other studies, high emission rates were already detected, for instance, in Baltic ponds (Dzyuban, 2002) and U.K. lakes (Casper et al., 2000). Annual CH4 emission from West Siberia south taiga ponds with area of 0.6·106 Mha was estimated to be 0.26 MtCH4·yr-1.

Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Maksyutov, S.

2012-04-01

298

Reproduction and Feeding of the Electric Fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae) and the Discussion of a Life History Pattern for Gymnotiforms from High Latitudes  

PubMed Central

The reproductive biology and feeding habits of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio were studied. The species has seasonal reproductive behavior, with breeding occurring during the Southern Hemisphere spring and summer, and having a positive relation with the photoperiod variation. Brachyhypopomus gauderio was defined as a fractional spawner, with low relative fecundity and high first maturation size. Sexual dimorphism was registered, males undergoing hypertrophy of the distal portion of caudal filament. The results on reproductive biology herein obtained are in agreement with data concerning gymnotiforms from Southern Brazil and Uruguay, pointing to an ecological pattern for the species from high latitudes, differing from species with tropical distribution. According to the analysis of the food items, B. gauderio feed mainly on autochthonous insects, likewise the other gymnotiforms previously investigated, leading to conclude that there is no variation on the diet of the species of the order related to climatic conditions or even to habitat of occurrence. PMID:25207924

Giora, Julia; Tarasconi, Hellen M.; Fialho, Clarice B.

2014-01-01

299

Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

2014-04-20

300

Parasitic heating effects in high frame rate laser imaging experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of applications using high frame rate imaging in combustion research has grown rapidly in recent years. Enabled by continuous improvements in laser power, a wide range of diagnostics have been developed to measure velocity, species concentration, and temperature. Growing attention is focused on measurements near surfaces, e.g., to gain better insight into transient boundary layer flows in internal combustion engines. During such experiments, laser light is used to illuminate the gas phase region above the surface, but often the laser beam is terminated into the surface directly. Thus, laser operation at several kilohertz and power levels in the range of 10-100 W raise concerns about heating the surface and altering the conditions in the gas phase. In other words, the non-intrusive properties of laser diagnostics might not be guaranteed under such conditions. We have investigated the effect of heating by high repetition rate lasers by measuring the temperature of an exposed metal surface with an infrared sensor and by various simulation approaches. The current results show a modest but noticeable influence of laser heating.

Brusnahan, Matthew; Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker

2013-06-01

301

Design and construction of a high frame rate imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new high frame rate imaging method has been developed recently [Jian-yu Lu, ``2D and 3D high frame rate imaging with limited diffraction beams,'' IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 44, 839-856 (1997)]. This method may have a clinical application for imaging of fast moving objects such as human hearts, velocity vector imaging, and low-speckle imaging. To implement the method, an imaging system has been designed. The system consists of one main printed circuit board (PCB) and 16 channel boards (each channel board contains 8 channels), in addition to a set-top box for connections to a personal computer (PC), a front panel board for user control and message display, and a power control and distribution board. The main board contains a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and controls all channels (each channel has also an FPGA). We will report the analog and digital circuit design and simulations, multiplayer PCB designs with commercial software (Protel 99), PCB signal integrity testing and system RFI/EMI shielding, and the assembly and construction of the entire system. [Work supported in part by Grant 5RO1 HL60301 from NIH.

Wang, Jing; Waugaman, John L.; Liu, Anjun; Lu, Jian-Yu

2002-05-01

302

A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps).

Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L.

2014-12-01

303

High conversion efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell formed from disilane under high rate deposition conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-conversion-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell of the glass/transparent-conducting-oxide/p-i-n/Al structure has been fabricated using the glow discharge method, utilizing disilane for high-rate deposition of the i-layer. The RF power and the flow rate of the disilane were lowered at the beginning of the i-layer preparation and then the deposition rate was increased gradually to avoid any damage due to plasma at the p/i interface. Computer control of the power and the flow rate was used for this purpose. A solar cell with a conversion efficiency of 10.04 percent was attained even at the i-layer deposition rate of 20.2 A/s, reflecting an improvement in the collection efficiency of blue light.

Azuma, K.; Tanaka, M.; Watanabe, T.; Nakatani, M.; Shimada, T.

304

Diversification and reproductive isolation: cryptic species in the only New World high-duty cycle bat, Pteronotus parnellii  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular techniques are increasingly employed to recognize the presence of cryptic species, even among commonly observed taxa. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats using high-duty cycle echolocation may be more likely to speciate quickly. Pteronotus parnellii is a widespread Neotropical bat and the only New World species to use high-duty cycle echolocation, a trait otherwise restricted to Old World taxa. Here we analyze morphological and acoustic variation and genetic divergence at the mitochondrial COI gene, the 7th intron region of the y-linked Dby gene and the nuclear recombination-activating gene 2, and provide extensive evidence that P. parnellii is actually a cryptic species complex. Results Central American populations form a single species while three additional species exist in northern South America: one in Venezuela, Trinidad and western Guyana and two occupying sympatric ranges in Guyana and Suriname. Reproductive isolation appears nearly complete (only one potential hybrid individual found). The complex likely arose within the last ~6 million years with all taxa diverging quickly within the last ~1-2 million years, following a pattern consistent with the geological history of Central and northern South America. Significant variation in cranial measures and forearm length exists between three of the four groups, although no individual morphological character can discriminate these in the field. Acoustic analysis reveals small differences (5–10 kHz) in echolocation calls between allopatric cryptic taxa that are unlikely to provide access to different prey resources but are consistent with divergence by drift in allopatric species or through selection for social recognition. Conclusions This unique approach, considering morphological, acoustic and multi-locus genetic information inherited maternally, paternally and bi-parentally, provides strong support to conclusions about the cessation of gene flow and degree of reproductive isolation of these cryptic species. PMID:23360354

2013-01-01

305

Transfer functions for high-rate GNSS receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years the development of GPS receivers with sampling rates as high as 100Hz has sparked interest in capturing high-dynamic motions and has potentially enlarged the applicability in navigation, positioning and Earth monitoring. The additional yield of information due to increased sampling rates, however, may be counteracted by a strong correlation of the measurements in time. Unfortunately, the tracking loop filters of the receivers produce correlations exactly in the frequency range (1-100Hz) of the expected benefit of high-rate receivers. The consequences of the correlations between subsequent epochs can be demonstrated by increased amplitude and phase retrieval errors during accelerated motions. The magnitude of these deviations directly depends on the bandwidth of the used tracking loops. A minimization of tracking loop-induced errors can be achieved in two ways: (1) by the optimization of the receiver tracking loop parameters (a larger bandwidth reduces the amplitude errors at high accelerations) and (2) by inverse filtering with a pre-estimated receiver transfer function. Especially for receivers with low and fixed tracking loop bandwidths the determination of a transfer function is crucial. In this presentation an approach to retrieve an empirical transfer function will be demonstrated. A lot of GPS coordinate time series with a broad variety of motions generated by a single-axis shake table have been produced. The discrepancies between the actual shake table motion (measured by inductive sensors) and the motions derived from the data of various GPS receivers are the basis for the determination of (receiver-specific) transfer functions.. The discrete transfer functions are modeled as an Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) using the least-squares method. The transfer function can be decomposed into two terms, the moving average of the input (shake table or signal simulator) and the auto-regression of the output (GPS signal). The major challenges to retrieve an empirical transfer function from real measurements are the measurement noise and the time-dependent parameters (e.g. changes in the tracking loop bandwidths dependent on the signal strength).

Häberling, Simon; Rothacher, Markus; Geiger, Alain

2014-05-01

306

The 2011 Grímsvötn Eruption From High Rate Geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High rate geodetic measurements at volcanoes can give displacements at sub second intervals, revealing surface deformation associated with magma movements. The Grímsvötn volcano lies beneath the Vatnajökull icecap, Iceland, limiting the near field monitoring efforts to a single nunatak, Mt. Grímsfjall, on the southern caldera rim. A 5 Hz GPS station and an electronic tilt meter are located at Grímsfjall. The colocation of these instruments (GPS and tilt station) allows us to relate the observed surface deformation to pressure change in a magma chamber assuming a simple Mogi source within an elastic half space. During the 21-28 May 2011 Grímsvötn eruption a continuous stream of data, despite the eruption plume and lightning, was transmitted to Reykjavík. The tiltmeter measures N-S and E-W components of tilt, the N-S component was recorded at 100 samples per second (sps) but the E-W component at 4 sps. The high rate data from the GPS station at Grímsfjall (GFUM) were analyzed using the Track part of GAMIT/GLOBK. We produced kinematic solutions at 5 Hz and 1 Hz intervals using reference stations in 40-120 km distance of the volcano. To minimize multipath effects we applied sidereal filtering and stacked the individual solutions to further improve the signal to noise ratio. The resulting deformation time series suggests a rapid pressure drop starting about 50 minutes prior to the onset of the eruption when over 20 km high plume formed. The characteristics of the GPS and tilt data time series suggests that the main signal was induced by a single source of fixed location and geometry throughout the eruption; a shallow magma chamber. Small deviations in displacement direction prior to the onset of the eruption can be explained by the opening of the feeder dike. We see a total displacement of 57 cm in direction ˜N38.5°W and down at the GPS station, suggesting a source depth of ~1.7 km. About 20% of the displacement preceded the eruption and more than 95% took place within 24 hours of the onset of deformation. Thus real time high rate geodesy could play an important role in foreseeing both the onset and the evolution of explosive eruptions.

Hreinsdottir, S.; Grapenthin, R.; Sigmundsson, F.; Roberts, M. J.; Holmjarn, J.; Geirsson, H.; Arnadottir, T.; Bennett, R. A.; Villemin, T.; Ofeigsson, B. G.; Sturkell, E. C.

2011-12-01

307

High Retention Rates, No Dropouts among Hispanic Students in California High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares characteristics of California high schools with low and high dropout rates for Hispanic students. Identifies programs and factors that positively influence student retention and keep students from dropping out. Schools with pleasing physical appearance, sound management, efficient and caring staff, and multicultural environments had…

Pulido, J. Alex

1991-01-01

308

Component/OEM XC-HR50 High Frame Rate Monochrome Camera  

E-print Network

with a compact, robust body, these cameras are ideal for demanding inspection applications such as semiconductor® Component/OEM XC-HR50 High Frame Rate Monochrome Camera XC-HR70 High Frame Rate Monochrome Camera XC-56 Monochrome Video Camera XC-HR57 High Frame Rate Monochrome Camera XC-HR58 High Frame Rate

Demoulin, Pascal

309

The strain-rate sensitivity of high-strength high-toughness steels.  

SciTech Connect

The present study examines the strain-rate sensitivity of four high strength, high-toughness alloys at strain rates ranging from 0.0002 s-1 to 200 s-1: Aermet 100, a modified 4340, modified HP9-4-20, and a recently developed Eglin AFB steel alloy, ES-1c. A refined dynamic servohydraulic method was used to perform tensile tests over this entire range. Each of these alloys exhibit only modest strain-rate sensitivity. Specifically, the strain-rate sensitivity exponent m, is found to be in the range of 0.004-0.007 depending on the alloy. This corresponds to a {approx}10% increase in the yield strength over the 7-orders of magnitude change in strain-rate. Interestingly, while three of the alloys showed a concominant {approx}3-10% drop in their ductility with increasing strain-rate, the ES1-c alloy actually exhibited a 25% increase in ductility with increasing strain-rate. Fractography suggests the possibility that at higher strain-rates ES-1c evolves towards a more ductile dimple fracture mode associated with microvoid coalescence.

Dilmore, M.F. (AFRL/MNMW, Eglin AFB, FL); Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

2006-01-01

310

Impact of school size on graduation rates, drop-out rates, and academic achievement in Michigan high schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the impact of school size on graduation rates, drop-out rates and academic performance in Michigan public high schools. Issues related to smaller learning communities were discussed.^ Multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate a series of statistical models. Dependent variables included measures of student achievement and graduation rates. Independent variables

Richard M Machesky

2006-01-01

311

High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode  

PubMed Central

Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4?M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10?mA?cm?2 for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4?mA?cm?2 for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

2015-01-01

312

High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4?M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10?mA?cm?2 for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4?mA?cm?2 for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries.

Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

2015-02-01

313

Advances in high-rate uncooled detector fabrication at Raytheon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two years Raytheon has made a major investment aimed at establishing a high volume uncooled manufacturing capability. This effort has addressed three elements of the uncooled value stream, namely bolometer fabrication, packaging and calibration/test. To facilitate a low cost / high volume source of bolometers Raytheon has formed a partnership with a high volume 200mm commercial silicon wafer fabrication. Over a 12 month period Raytheon has installed 200mm VOx deposition equipment, matched the metrology used on the Raytheon 150mm line, transferred the process flow used to fabricate Raytheon's double layer bolometer process and qualified the product. In this paper we will review the process transfer methodology and bolometer performance. To reduce bolometer packaging cost and increase production rates, Raytheon has implemented an automated packaging line. This line utilizes automated adhesive dispense, component pick and place, wire bonding and solder seal. In this paper we will review the process flow, qualification process and line capacity Calibration and test has traditionally been performed using a number of temperature chambers, with increased throughput being obtained by adding more chambers. This comes at the expense of increased test labor required to feed the chambers and an increased energy and floor space foot print. To avoid these collateral costs, Raytheon has implemented an automated robotic calibration cell capable of performing in excess of 5,000 calibrations a month. In this paper we will provide an overview of the calibration cell along with takt time and throughput data.

Black, S. H.; Kraft, R.; Medrano, A.; Kocian, T.; Bradstreet, D.; Williams, R.; Yang, T.

2010-04-01

314

Earth Science Mission Benefits of High Data Rate Satellite Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite to ground communication bandwidth limitations place constraints on current earth remote sensing instruments which limit the spatial and spectral resolution of data transmitted to the ground for processing. Instruments such as VIIRS, CrIS and OMPS on the Soumi-NPP spacecraft must aggregate data both spatially and spectrally in order to fit inside current data rate constraints limiting the optimal use of the as-built sensors. Future planned missions such as PACE, TEMPO and DESDynI Radar will have to trade spatial and spectral resolution if increased communication band width is not made available. A number of high-impact, environmental remote sensing disciplines such as hurricane observation, mega-city air quality, wild fire detection and monitoring, and monitoring of coastal oceans would benefit dramatically from enabling the downlinking of sensor data at higher spatial and spectral resolutions. The enabling technologies of multi-Gbps Ka-Band communication and multi-Terabit SSRs are currently available with high technological maturity enabling high data volume mission requirements to be met with minimal mission constraints while utilizing only a very few ground sites from NASA's Near Earth Network (NEN). These enabling technologies will be described in detail with emphasis on benefits to future remote sensing missions currently under consideration by government agencies.

Jackson, J. M.; Munger, J.; Emch, P. G.; Sen, B.; Gu, D.

2013-12-01

315

High rate and stable cycling of lithium metal anode.  

PubMed

Lithium metal is an ideal battery anode. However, dendrite growth and limited Coulombic efficiency during cycling have prevented its practical application in rechargeable batteries. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide salt enables the high-rate cycling of a lithium metal anode at high Coulombic efficiency (up to 99.1%) without dendrite growth. With 4?M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane as the electrolyte, a lithium|lithium cell can be cycled at 10?mA?cm(-2) for more than 6,000 cycles, and a copper|lithium cell can be cycled at 4?mA?cm(-2) for more than 1,000 cycles with an average Coulombic efficiency of 98.4%. These excellent performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of lithium ion concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may enable practical applications for lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries. PMID:25698340

Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Ji-Guang

2015-01-01

316

Performance of drift-tube detectors at high counting rates for high-luminosity LHC upgrades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of pressurized drift-tube detectors at very high background rates has been studied at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN and in an intense 20 MeV proton beam at the Munich Van-der-Graaf tandem accelerator for applications in large-area precision muon tracking at high-luminosity upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS muon drift-tube (MDT) chambers with 30 mm tube diameter have been designed to cope with ? and neutron background hit rates of up to 500 Hz/cm2. Background rates of up to 14 kHz/cm2 are expected at LHC upgrades. The test results with standard MDT readout electronics show that the reduction of the drift-tube diameter to 15 mm, while leaving the operating parameters unchanged, vastly increases the rate capability well beyond the requirements. The development of new small-diameter muon drift-tube (sMDT) chambers for LHC upgrades is completed. Further improvements of tracking efficiency and spatial resolution at high counting rates will be achieved with upgraded readout electronics employing improved signal shaping for high counting rates.

Bittner, Bernhard; Dubbert, Jörg; Kortner, Oliver; Kroha, Hubert; Manfredini, Alessandro; Nowak, Sebastian; Ott, Sebastian; Richter, Robert; Schwegler, Philipp; Zanzi, Daniele; Biebel, Otmar; Hertenberger, Ralf; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, Andre

2013-12-01

317

High strain rate testing of bovine trabecular bone.  

PubMed

In spinal vertebral burst fractures, the dynamic properties of the trabecular centrum, which is the central region of porous bone inside the vertebra, can play an important role in determining the failure mode. If the failure occurs in the posterior portion of the vertebral body, spinal canal occlusion can occur and ejected trabecular bone can impact the spinal cord resulting in serious injury. About 15% of all spinal cord injuries are caused by such burst fractures. Unfortunately, due to the uniqueness of burst fracture injuries, postinjury investigation cannot always accurately assess the degree of damage caused by these fractures. This research makes an effort to begin understanding the governing effects in this important bone fracture event. Measurements of the dynamic deformation response of bovine trabecular bone with the marrow intact and marrow removed using a modified split-Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus are reported and compared with quasistatic deformation response results. Because trabecular bone is more compliant and lower in strength than cortical bone, typical Hopkinson pressure bar experimental techniques used for high strain rate testing of harder materials cannot be applied. Instead, a quartz-crystal-embedded, split-Hopkinson pressure bar developed for testing compliant, low strength materials is used. Care is taken into account for the orthotropic properties in the bone by testing only along the principle material axes, determined through microcomputed tomography. In addition, shaping of the stress wave pulse is used to ensure a constant strain rate and homogeneous specimen deformation. Results indicate that the strength of trabecular bone increases by a factor of approximately 2-3 when the strain rate increases from 10(-3) s(-1) to 500 s(-1) and that the bone fractures beyond a critical strain. PMID:20670061

Pilcher, A; Wang, X; Kaltz, Z; Garrison, J G; Niebur, G L; Mason, J; Song, B; Cheng, M; Chen, W

2010-08-01

318

Do highly ornamented and less parasitized males have high quality sperm? – an experimental test for parasite-induced reproductive trade-offs in European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)  

PubMed Central

Parasites take their resources from hosts and thus directly reduce available resources for hosts’ own body functions, such as growth and reproduction. Furthermore, parasite infections cause significant indirect costs to their hosts in terms of increased investments on immune defense. In this study, we investigated the impact of parasite infection on the sperm quality and expression of secondary sexual ornamentation (saturation of the red abdominal colouration and number of breeding tubercles) in the Eurasian minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus). We exposed minnows to a high and low dose of common nonspecific fish ectoparasite, the glochidia larvae of duck mussel (Anodonta anatina) and tested whether parasite infection leads to trade-off in sperm quality and/or ornamental expression. We found that glochidia infection reduces the curvature of the sperm swimming trajectory, number of breeding tubercles, and possibly male competitive ability, but does not affect expression of male color ornamentation. Furthermore, glochidia infection was found to reduce sperm motility, but only when all the noninfected individuals were excluded from the model. Supporting one of the predictions by phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis both in high-infection and low-infection group male breeding colouration was positively associated with sperm quality. Our results suggest that although glochidia infection may have negative impact on male reproductive success, parasite-induced costs may not create strong trade-off between breeding colouration and sperm quality or that such trade-off become detectable only in resource-limited conditions. PMID:25540686

Kekäläinen, Jukka; Pirhonen, Juhani; Taskinen, Jouni

2014-01-01

319

Calibration of 192Ir high-dose-rate afterloading systems.  

PubMed

A method is described for calibration of 192Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy afterloading systems. Since NIST does not offer calibration of ionization chambers with the gamma-ray spectrum of iridium-192, an interpolation procedure is employed, using calibrations above (137Cs, 662 keV) and below (250 kVcp, 146-keV x rays) the exposure-weighted average 192Ir energy of 397 keV. The same total wall + cap thickness must be used for both calibrations, and for the 192Ir measurements. A wall + cap thickness of 0.3 g/cm2 is recommended to assure charged particle equilibrium and to exclude secondary electrons emitted from the source encapsulation. Procedures are described for determining the corrections for source-chamber distance and room scatter during the source calibration in inverse-square-law geometry. A new well-type ionization chamber has been designed specifically for convenient routine use with the HDR afterloading system. It can be calibrated by means of a previously calibrated 192Ir source, and offers a simple means for verifying the decay rate and for calibrating 192Ir replacement sources. PMID:1870490

Goetsch, S J; Attix, F H; Pearson, D W; Thomadsen, B R

1991-01-01

320

Calibration of 192Ir high-dose-rate afterloading systems  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for calibration of 192Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy afterloading systems. Since NIST does not offer calibration of ionization chambers with the gamma-ray spectrum of iridium-192, an interpolation procedure is employed, using calibrations above (137Cs, 662 keV) and below (250 kVcp, 146-keV x rays) the exposure-weighted average 192Ir energy of 397 keV. The same total wall + cap thickness must be used for both calibrations, and for the 192Ir measurements. A wall + cap thickness of 0.3 g/cm2 is recommended to assure charged particle equilibrium and to exclude secondary electrons emitted from the source encapsulation. Procedures are described for determining the corrections for source-chamber distance and room scatter during the source calibration in inverse-square-law geometry. A new well-type ionization chamber has been designed specifically for convenient routine use with the HDR afterloading system. It can be calibrated by means of a previously calibrated 192Ir source, and offers a simple means for verifying the decay rate and for calibrating 192Ir replacement sources.

Goetsch, S.J.; Attix, F.H.; Pearson, D.W.; Thomadsen, B.R. (University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison (USA))

1991-05-01

321

Modelling high data rate communication network access protocol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling of high data rate communication systems is different from the low data rate systems. Three simulations were built during the development phase of Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN) modeling. The first was a model using SIMCRIPT based upon the determination and processing of each event at each node. The second simulation was developed in C based upon isolating the distinct object that can be identified as the ring, the message, the node, and the set of critical events. The third model further identified the basic network functionality by creating a single object, the node which includes the set of critical events which occur at the node. The ring structure is implicit in the node structure. This model was also built in C. Each model is discussed and their features compared. It should be stated that the language used was mainly selected by the model developer because of his past familiarity. Further the models were not built with the intent to compare either structure or language but because the complexity of the problem and initial results contained obvious errors, so alternative models were built to isolate, determine, and correct programming and modeling errors. The CSMA/RN protocol is discussed in sufficient detail to understand modeling complexities. Each model is described along with its features and problems. The models are compared and concluding observations and remarks are presented.

Khanna, S.; Foudriat, E. C.; Paterra, Frank; Maly, Kurt J.; Overstreet, C. Michael

1990-01-01

322

Investigating the confining compressibility of STF at high deformation rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) was used to study the compressibility of shear thickening fluid (STF) at high deformation rate. In this study, a steel bulk was introduced into the SHPB system to confine and load the STF. A series of STFs with different particle types (SiO2 and PSt-EA) and volume fractions (63 vol.% and 65 vol.%) were tested and the results were compared. The reliability of the results was proved by repeating the tests and the force balance in suspension. The bulk modulus was used to evaluate the compressibility of STF, which indicated that the SiO2-based STF exhibited a larger compressibility than the PSt-EA-based STF. It was found that the bulk modulus increases with increasing of the strain rate and the volume fraction shows little effect on the bulk modulus. The structure-dependent mechanical property was analyzed and the loading effect of bulk modulus was considered to be originated from the interparticle clustering.

Jiang, Weifeng; Gong, Xinglong; Xu, Yulei; Xuan, Shouhu; Jiang, Wanquan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Qin, Lijun

2012-12-01

323

Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

1991-01-01

324

An Aerogel ?erenkov Detector with High Rate Capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The excitation spectra of medium mass hypernuclei will be studied by the (e,e'K^+) reaction at a new spectrometer system to be deployed at Jefferson Lab by the E01-011 collaboration. The high background rates expected require an efficient trigger level particle identification. An aerogel ?erenkov detector will be employed for pion suppression. This detector is being developed and built at Florida International University. It will consist of three layers of segmented aerogel ?erenkov detectors. A prototype consisting of one segment only has been built and recently was tested in a mixed hadron beam at KEK. On average, roughly 20 photoelectrons have been observed for pions with 1.2 GeV/c momentum. After presenting the design and the results from the prototype, we will discuss the expected performance characteristics of the full system under the predicted experimental conditions.

Carl, Michael; Reinhold, Joerg

2002-10-01

325

Resistive Wall Heating of the Undulator in High Repetition Rate  

SciTech Connect

In next generation high repetition rate FELs, beam energy loss due to resistive wall wakefields will produce significant amount of heat. The heat load for a superconducting undulator (operating at low temperature), must be removed and will be expensive to remove. In this paper, we study this effect in an undulator proposed for a Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) at LBNL. We benchmark our calculations with measurements at the LCLS and carry out detailed parameter studies using beam from a start-to-end simulation. Our preliminarym results suggest that the heat load in the undulator is about 2 W/m or lower with an aperture size of 6 mm for nominal NGLS preliminary design parameters.

Qiang, J; Corlett, J; Emma, P; Wu, J

2012-05-20

326

A High Load of Non-neutral Amino-Acid Polymorphisms Explains High Protein Diversity Despite Moderate Effective Population Size in a Marine Bivalve With Sweepstakes Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Marine bivalves show among the greatest allozyme diversity ever reported in Eukaryotes, putting them historically at the heart of the neutralist?selectionist controversy on the maintenance of genetic variation. Although it is now acknowledged that this high diversity is most probably a simple consequence of a large population size, convincing support for this explanation would require a rigorous assessment of the silent nucleotide diversity in natural populations of marine bivalves, which has not yet been done. This study investigated DNA sequence polymorphism in a set of 37 nuclear loci in wild samples of the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Silent diversity was found to be only moderate (0.7%), and there was no departure from demographic equilibrium under the Wright-Fisher model, suggesting that the effective population size might not be as large as might have been expected. In accordance with allozyme heterozygosity, nonsynonymous diversity was comparatively very high (0.3%), so that the nonsynonymous to silent diversity ratio reached a value rarely observed in any other organism. We estimated that one-quarter of amino acid-changing mutations behave as neutral in O. edulis, and as many as one-third are sufficiently weakly selected to segregate at low frequency in the polymorphism. Finally, we inferred that one oyster is expected to carry more than 4800 non-neutral alleles (or 4.2 cM?1). We conclude that a high load of segregating non-neutral amino-acid polymorphisms contributes to high protein diversity in O. edulis. The high fecundity of marine bivalves together with an unpredictable and highly variable success of reproduction and recruitment (sweepstakes reproduction) might produce a greater decoupling between Ne and N than in other organisms with lower fecundities, and we suggest this could explain why a higher segregating load could be maintained for a given silent mutation effective size. PMID:23390609

Harrang, Estelle; Lapègue, Sylvie; Morga, Benjamin; Bierne, Nicolas

2013-01-01

327

Reproductive ecology of Caribbean reef corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the processes of sexual reproduction by scleractinian reef corals. Earlier investigations had focused fortuitously on brooding (planulating) species, which resulted in the general misconception that brooding was the main form of larval development of reef corals. More recent work on Indo-Pacific species has shown broadcast spawning and short annual reproductive periods to predominate. This report presents the reproductive patterns of eleven Caribbean coral species and attempts to explain the adaptive features and selective pressures that have led to the evolution of the four reproductive patterns described to date: (a) hermaphroditic broadcasters; (b) gonochoric broadcasters; (c) hermaphroditic broadcasters; (b) gonochoric brooders. Both (a) and (b) correlate with large colony size and short annual spawning periods; and (c) and (d) correlate with small colony size, multiple planulating cycles per year, and occupation of unstable habitats. Selection for outcrossing between long-lived individuals is proposed as the reason for gonochorism and for synchronous spawning of hermaphroditic broadcasters, and also for the large amount of sperm produced by hermaphroditic brooders. Selection for high rates of local recruitment is proposed as the force behind the evolution of brooding by species inhabiting unstable habitats and suffering high rates of adult mortality.

Szmant, Alina M.

1986-08-01

328

Swine tracheobronchial lymph node mRNA responses in swine infected with a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide. Emergence in 2006 of a novel highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) isolate in China necessitated a comparative investigation into the host transcriptome response in tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 14...

329

Environmental constraints on the growth, photosynthesis and reproductive development of Dryas octopetala at a high Arctic polar semi-desert, Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities exist in high Arctic polar semidesert communities for colonisation of unvegetated ground by long-lived clonal plants such as Dryas octopetala. This can be achieved by lateral spread of vegetative ramets, or by sexual reproduction and seedling recruitment. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether these two means of proliferation show differential sensitivity to contrasting components of

P. A. Wookey; C. H. Robinson; A. N. Parsons; J. M. Welker; T. V. Callaghan; J. A. Lee

1995-01-01

330

NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON THE MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT  

EPA Science Inventory

NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Gerald A. LeBlanc, Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins ABSTRACT Environmental contaminants with estrogen...

331

Vitamin D - roles in women's reproductive health?  

PubMed Central

In the past few years a growing interest in vitamin D can be observed in the lay and biomedical literature due to findings demonstrating a low vitamin D status in the population. In addition to its importance for the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis recent epidemiologic studies have observed relationships between low vitamin D levels and multiple disease states. This secosteroid hormone also regulates the expression of a large number of genes in reproductive tissues implicating a role for vitamin D in female reproduction. In this report we summarize the recent evidence that vitamin D status influences female reproductive and pregnancy outcomes. Human and animal data suggest that low vitamin D status is associated with impaired fertility, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. Evidence from observational studies shows higher rates of preeclampsia, preterm birth, bacterial vaginosis and gestational diabetes in women with low vitamin D levels. However, confirmation of experimental observations establishing an association of vitamin D deficiency with adverse reproductive outcomes by high quality observational and large-scale randomized clinical trials is still lacking. The determination of optimal 25(OH)D3 levels in the reproductive period and the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve those levels for the numerous actions of vitamin D throughout a woman's life would have important public health implications. PMID:22047005

2011-01-01

332

Reproductive Timing in Marine Fishes: Variability, Temporal Scales, and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive timing can be defined as the temporal pattern of reproduction over a lifetime. Although reproductive timing is highly variable in marine fishes, certain traits are universal, including sexual maturity, undergoing one or more reproductive cycles, participating in one or more spawning events within a reproductive cycle, release of eggs or offspring, aging, and death. These traits commonly occur at

Susan K. Lowerre-Barbieri; Konstantinos Ganias; Fran Saborido-Rey; Hilario Murua; John R. Hunter

2011-01-01

333

Epidemiologic study of Holstein dairy cow performance and reproduction near a high-voltage direct - current powerline  

SciTech Connect

The development and operation of a high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission line in rural Minnesota generated public concern over potential adverse effects to nearby residents and their livestock. Electrical parameters near an HVDC line decline rapidly with distance, but effects on ambient space charge have been detected out to 1 mile. To identify potential adverse effects of HVDC line operation on livestock, case-control and cohort study methods were used to examine various indices of Holstein performance in relation to distance from the line and the onset of line operation. It was believed that these indices would reflect changes in physiologic function or overt health effects that might arise from the HVDC environment. High-quality performance data from existing Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) records were obtained for 97% of qualifying herds located within 10 miles of the line. The large number of animals and years of observation provided high statistical power to detect even small systematic changes in performance. No significant differences in milk production or reproductive capacity were associated with presumed exposure to the HVDC environment. The absence of measurable effects in a large sentinel animal population may have implications for the assessment of human health risks related to HVDC transmission lines.

Martin, F.B.; Bender, A.; Steuernagel, G.; Robinson, R.A.; Revsbech, R.; Sorensen, D.K.; Williamson, N.; Williams, A.

1986-01-01

334

Highly nonlinear defect-induced carrier recombination rates in semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defects in semiconductors can induce recombination of carriers and thus can strongly influence the efficiency and performance of solid-state devices. In the analysis of device performance, defect-induced recombination is often assumed to depend linearly on the carrier concentration or to be given by a sum of Shockley-Read-Hall expressions taken independently for each known defect level. Under these assumptions, defect-induced recombination increases with carrier concentration more slowly than both band-to-band radiative recombination and Auger recombination and becomes relatively less important at higher carrier concentrations. However, we show that defects with multiple defect levels can induce recombination with a highly nonlinear dependence on carrier concentration. For such defects, the usual assumptions about the relative importance of different recombination mechanisms at different carrier concentrations may fail. In order to demonstrate the potential impact of this phenomenon on realistic devices, we incorporate the defect-induced recombination rates obtained from our analysis into a microscopic InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) model. Our results indicate that a particular class of defects with plausible properties can induce a loss of optical efficiency at carrier concentrations relevant for high-power LED operation.

Modine, N. A.; Armstrong, A. M.; Crawford, M. H.; Chow, W. W.

2013-10-01

335

Metrology challenges for high-rate nanomanufacturing of polymer structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transfer of nanoscience accomplishments into commercial products is hindered by the lack of understanding of barriers to nanoscale manufacturing. We have developed a number of nanomanufacturing processes that leverage available high-rate plastics fabrication technologies. These processes include directed assembly of a variety of nanoelements, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, which are then transferred onto a polymer substrate for the fabrication of conformal/flexible electronic materials, among other applications. These assembly processes utilize both electric fields and/or chemical functionalization. Conducting polymers and carbon nanotubes have been successfully transferred to a polymer substrate in times less than 5 minutes, which is commercially relevant and can be utilized in a continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) process. Other processes include continuous high volume mixing of nanoelements (CNTs, etc) into polymers, multi-layer extrusion and 3D injection molding of polymer structures. These nanomanufacturing processes can be used for wide range of applications, including EMI shielding, flexible electronics, structural materials, and novel sensors (specifically for chem/bio detection). Current techniques to characterize the quality and efficacy of the processes are quite slow. Moreover, the instrumentation and metrology needs for these manufacturing processes are varied and challenging. Novel, rapid, in-line metrology to enable the commercialization of these processes is critically needed. This talk will explore the necessary measurement needs for polymer based nanomanufacturing processes for both step and continuous (reel to reel/roll to roll) processes.

Mead, Joey; Barry, Carol; Busnaina, Ahmed; Isaacs, Jacqueline

2012-10-01

336

Anti-D Antibodies Among Women ....... African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol 13 No 3 September 2009  

E-print Network

Anti-D Antibodies Among Women ....... African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol 13 No 3 September 2009 47 ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE High Prevalence of Anti-D Antibodies Among Women of Childbearing Age to determine anti-D and D-negative phenotype rates among Cameroonian women of reproductive age (15 ­ 44 years

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-03-04

338

New liquid cathode electrolytes in high rate cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The power limitations of liquid oxyhalide batteries were explored by examining the physical and electrical properties of new electrolytes. Conductivity, kinematic viscosity, and specific gravity of electrolytes were measured inside a specially adapted argon filled drybox. Liquid cathode oxyhalide electrolytes designed to enhance power density were tested first in demountable test cells and then, the most promising, in hermetically sealed high rate F size jellyroll cells. For F cells, the capacity on constant current discharge was measured at 3.5 and 12.5 mA/sq cm for fresh cells at 21 C and at 3.5 mA/sq cm for cells stored 4 weeks at 54 C then discharged at -30 C. An optimized cell design with thicker electrodes was developed for testing electrolytes with higher conductivity than LiAlCl4-SOCl2. The best capacity at 2A was achieved with LiGaCl4-SOCl2 or LiAlCl4-SOCl2. The best capacity at 7A was achieved with LiGaCl4-SOCl2. LiGaCl4 in SOCl2 was found to discharge at higher temperatures than LiAlCl4 in SOCl2. Imidazolium, aralkylammonium, and sulfonium chlorides were found to have high solubility and conductivity in thionyl chloride, but lithium was found to be passive in contact with these solutions and most metals corroded excessively. These salts mixed with aluminum chloride were much less aggressive and when mixed with lithium salts in addition gave high conductivity and test cell capacities.

Bailey, Jean W.; Kalisz, David W.; Blomgren, George E.

1990-03-01

339

REPRODUCTION WITHIN MARMOTINE GROUND SQUIRRELS (SCIURIDAE, XERINAE, MARMOTINI): PATTERNS  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTION WITHIN MARMOTINE GROUND SQUIRRELS (SCIURIDAE, XERINAE, MARMOTINI): PATTERNS AMONG The sciurid tribe Marmotini has a distinctive, highly specialized reproductive profile characterized genera of marmotines follow the reproductive profile of the tribe. In fact, included in the tribe

Hayssen, Virginia

340

High strain rate modeling of ceramics and ceramic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high strain rate response of an AlN/AlN/Al composite manufactured by Lanxide Armor Products, Inc., has been studied through normal and pressure-shear plate impact experiments. Differences in the measured shear resistance, as a function of the impact configuration, motivated the examination of the material response by means of a microcracking multiple-plane model and a continuum elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model. Numerical simulations of the normal impact experiments do not support microcracking as the dominant inelastic mechanism. By contrast, an elasto-viscoplastic description of the material behavior predicts the main features of the normal stress history and the thickness dependence of the Hugoniot elastic limit. Nonetheless, the elasto-viscoplastic model cannot reproduce both the normal and pressure-shear experiments with a single set of model parameters. The inadequacy of the continuum elasto-viscoplastic model seems to result from the isotropic assumption embodied in its formulation. The shear resistance measured in the pressure-shear experiments is adequately predicted by a microcracking multiple-plane model. The agreement seems to hinge in the continuous shearing of the material on a micro-localized fashion, i.e. only one orientation becomes dominant and controls the inelastic shear deformation rate. This event does not occur in the normal impact configuration, in which the amount of inelasticity is primarily controlled by the elastic compressibility of the material. These findings explain the higher sensitivity to damage and microplasticity observed in the pressure-shear configuration, as well as the softer material response recorded in this configuration.

Espinosa, H. D.

1994-07-01

341

High exposure rates of anticoagulant rodenticides in predatory bird species in intensively managed landscapes in Denmark.  

PubMed

The extensive use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodent control has led to widespread secondary exposure in nontarget predatory wildlife species. We investigated exposure rates and concentrations of five ARs in liver samples from five raptors and six owls from Denmark. A total of 430 birds were analysed. ARs were detected in 84-100 % of individual birds within each species. Multiple AR exposure was detected in 73 % of all birds. Average number of substances detected in individual birds was 2.2 with no differences between owls and raptors. Difenacoum, bromadiolone, and brodifacoum were the most prevalent substances and occurred in the highest concentrations. Second-generation ARs made up 96 % of the summed AR burden. Among the six core species (sample size >30), summed AR concentrations were lower in rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus) and long-eared owl (Asio otus) than in barn owl (Tyto alba), buzzard (B. buteo), kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and tawny owl (Strix aluco). There was a strong tendency for seasonal variations in the summed AR concentration with levels being lowest during autumn, which is probably related to an influx of less-exposed migrating birds from northern Scandinavia during autumn. High hepatic AR residue concentrations (>100 ng/g wet weight), which have been associated with symptoms of rodenticide poisoning and increased mortality, were recorded high frequencies (12.9-37.4 %) in five of the six core species. The results suggest that the present use of ARs in Denmark, at least locally, may have adverse effects on reproduction and, ultimately, population status in some raptors and owls. PMID:22588365

Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Lassen, Pia; Elmeros, Morten

2012-10-01

342

Rate of Change Knowledge in High School and College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rate of change has its basis in everyday experience like growth and motion and is a fundamental organizing idea for relationships between varying quantities. In this paper three types of rate of change knowledge for functions are discussed: global, interval, and point-wise. Each of these types of rate of change knowledge can be examined using…

Hauger, Garnet Smith

343

An infrared high rate video imager for various space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern spacecraft with high data transmission capabilities have opened up the possibility to fly video rate imagers in space. Several fields concerned with observations of transient phenomena can benefit significantly from imaging at video frame rate. Some applications are observations and characterization of bolides/meteors, sprites, lightning, volcanic eruptions, and impacts on airless bodies. Applications can be found both on low and high Earth orbiting spacecraft as well as on planetary and lunar orbiters. The optimum wavelength range varies depending on the application but we will focus here on the near infrared, partly since it allows exploration of a new field and partly because it, in many cases, allows operation both during day and night. Such an instrument has to our knowledge never flown in space so far. The only sensors of a similar kind fly on US defense satellites for monitoring launches of ballistic missiles. The data from these sensors, however, is largely inaccessible to scientists. We have developed a bread-board version of such an instrument, the SPOSH-IR. The instrument is based on an earlier technology development - SPOSH - a Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head, for operation in the visible range, but with the sensor replace by a cooled IR detector and new optics. The instrument is using a Sofradir 320x256 pixel HgCdTe detector array with 30µm pixel size, mounted directly on top of a four stage thermoelectric Peltier cooler. The detector-cooler combination is integrated into an evacuated closed package with a glass window on its front side. The detector has a sensitive range between 0.8 and 2.5 µm. The optical part is a seven lens design with a focal length of 6 mm and a FOV 90deg by 72 deg optimized for use at SWIR. The detector operates at 200K while the optics operates at ambient temperature. The optics and electronics for the bread-board has been designed and built by Jena-Optronik, Jena, Germany. This talk will present the design and the strong and the weak points as found through testing will be identified. Possible alternatives for improvements will be discussed and two flight applications will be outlined.

Svedhem, Hâkan; Koschny, Detlef

2010-05-01

344

High-rate deposition of high-quality Cu film with LPCVD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic process characteristics for Cu film deposition to be used in advanced ULSI interconnects have been studied by thermal LPCVD with liquid precursor Cu(hfac)(tmvs) (hexafluoro-acetylacetonate trimethyl-vinylsilane copper). For sufficient productivity in practical use, efforts were concentrated into obtaining high deposition rate with high film qualities of specific resistivity, surface flatness and adhesion. Three process chambers for preheating, TiN-PVD, and Cu-CVD functions were mounted on an ANELVA I-1060 single wafer cluster tool machine, where 6 inch wafers could be processed. Relationships between the deposition rate, specific resistivity, and Cu-CVD process parameters were analyzed using RSM (response surface methodology). Deposition rate over 100 nm/min was obtained at wafer temperature of 200°C, precursor flow rate of 0.67 g/min, carrier N 2 flow rate of 400 sccm, and purge Ar flow rate of 125 sccm with specific resistivity of about 1.8 ?? cm on TiN underlayer. This shows a promising process for future Cu interconnect technology.

Numajiri, K.; Goya, T.; Tobe, R.; Okada, O.; Hosokawa, N.; Mu, C.; Cox, N.; Scott, C.; Yu, J.

1996-07-01

345

High-order harmonic generation using a high-repetition-rate turnkey laser.  

PubMed

We generate high-order harmonics at high pulse repetition rates using a turnkey laser. High-order harmonics at 400 kHz are observed when argon is used as target gas. In neon, we achieve generation of photons with energies exceeding 90 eV (?13 nm) at 20 kHz. We measure a photon flux of up to 4.4 × 10(10) photons per second per harmonic in argon at 100 kHz. Many experiments employing high-order harmonics would benefit from higher repetition rates, and the user-friendly operation opens up for applications of coherent extreme ultra-violet pulses in new research areas. PMID:25554271

Lorek, E; Larsen, E W; Heyl, C M; Carlström, S; Pale?ek, D; Zigmantas, D; Mauritsson, J

2014-12-01

346

Reproductive Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in pairs to compare five aspects of an organism that reproduces sexually with one that reproduces asexually. A variety of organisms are profiled including sand scorpions, red kangaroos, and meadow garlic. As a class, students share their comparisons and generate a list of general characteristics for each mode of reproduction, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both. References are included for information on reproduction of various organisms.

2012-05-09

347

Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm high-magnification for predicting outcome of assisted reproduction treatment  

PubMed Central

Over the last years, major improvements in the field of male infertility diagnosis have been achieved. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic usefulness of sperm DNA integrity and sperm vacuolisation for predicting outcome in infertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments. A cohort study from 152 infertile couples undergoing sperm DNA fragmentation and high-magnification tests prior to an assisted reproduction treatment was designed. We found that the most predictive cutoff for pregnancy was 25.5% of DNA fragmentation with a negative predictive value of 72.7% (P=0.02). For the degree of vacuolisation, the best predictor of pregnancy was 73.5% of vacuolated sperm grades III+IV with a negative predictive value of 39.4% (P=0.09), which was not statistically significant. In conclusion, sperm DNA fragmentation greater than 25.5% could be associated with higher probability of failure IVF treatment. Regarding the results of the sperm analysis at high magnification, they do not allow us to predict whether or not patients will become pregnant. PMID:23912311

López, Gemma; Lafuente, Rafael; Checa, Miguel A; Carreras, Ramón; Brassesco, Mario

2013-01-01

348

High-k (k=30) amorphous hafnium oxide films from high rate room temperature deposition  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) is deposited by sputtering while achieving a very high k{approx}30. Structural characterization suggests that the high k is a consequence of a previously unreported cubiclike short range order in the amorphous HfO{sub x} (cubic k{approx}30). The films also possess a high electrical resistivity of 10{sup 14} {Omega} cm, a breakdown strength of 3 MV cm{sup -1}, and an optical gap of 6.0 eV. Deposition at room temperature and a high deposition rate ({approx}25 nm min{sup -1}) makes these high-k amorphous HfO{sub x} films highly advantageous for plastic electronics and high throughput manufacturing.

Li, Flora M.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J. [Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering Division, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Dutson, James D.; Wakeham, Steve J.; Thwaites, Mike J. [Plasma Quest Ltd., Unit 1B, Rose Estate, Osborn Way, Hook, Hampshire RG27 9UT (United Kingdom)

2011-06-20

349

Asexual reproduction in holothurians.  

PubMed

Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

Dolmatov, Igor Yu

2014-01-01

350

Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians  

PubMed Central

Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. PMID:25405228

Dolmatov, Igor Yu.

2014-01-01

351

Steady State Microbunching for High Brilliance and High Repetition Rate Storage Ring-Based Light Sources  

SciTech Connect

Electron-based light sources have proven to be effective sources of high brilliance, high frequency radiation. Such sources are typically either linac-Free Electron Laser (FEL) or storage ring types. The linac-FEL type has high brilliance (because the beam is microbunched) but low repetition rate. The storage ring type has high repetition rate (rapid beam circulation) but comparatively low brilliance or coherence. We propose to explore the feasibility of a microbunched beam in a storage ring that promises high repetition rate and high brilliance. The steady-state-micro-bunch (SSMB) beam in storage ring could provide CW sources for THz, EUV, or soft X-rays. Several SSMB mechanisms have been suggested recently, and in this report, we review a number of these SSMB concepts as promising directions for high brilliance, high repetition rate light sources of the future. The trick of SSMB lies in the RF system, together with the associated synchrotron beam dynamics, of the storage ring. Considering various different RF arrangements, there could be considered a number of scenarios of the SSMB. In this report, we arrange these scenarios more or less in order of the envisioned degree of technical challenge to the RF system, and not in the chronological order of their original references. Once the stored beam is steady-state microbunched in a storage ring, it passes through a radiator repeatedly every turn (or few turns). The radiator extracts a small fraction of the beam energy as coherent radiation with a wavelength corresponding to the microbunched period of the beam. In contrast to an FEL, this radiator is not needed to generate the microbunching (as required e.g. by SASE FELs or seeded FELs), so the radiator can be comparatively simple and short.

Chao, Alex; Ratner, Daniel; /SLAC; Jiao, Yi; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

2012-09-06

352

High School to College-Going Rates: For Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges. Linear College-Going Rate, Combined College-Going Rate. Oklahoma High School Indicators Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report presents data on the rate of Oklahoma high school graduates going on to colleges within the state. Two kinds of rates are reported: (1) for students proceeding directly to college after high school graduation (linear), and (2) for students who have delayed college entry for a year or more after graduation. Tables present data on:…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

353

High School to College-Going Rates for Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges: Linear College-Going Rate, Combined College-Going Rate. Oklahoma High School Educational Indicators Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four tables report on college-going rates for high school graduates in Oklahoma from 1989 to 1993. The report cites the Oklahoma State Department of Education and the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education as data sources. The tables report on "Linear College-Going Rates" of those who go directly from Oklahoma high schools to Oklahoma…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

354

Preconception care: promoting reproductive planning  

PubMed Central

Introduction Preconception care recognizes that many adolescent girls and young women will be thrust into motherhood without the knowledge, skills or support they need. Sixty million adolescents give birth each year worldwide, even though pregnancy in adolescence has mortality rates at least twice as high as pregnancy in women aged 20-29 years. Reproductive planning and contraceptive use can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and sexually-transmitted infections in adolescent girls and women. Smaller families also mean better nutrition and development opportunities, yet 222 million couples continue to lack access to modern contraception. Method A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Comprehensive interventions can prevent first pregnancy in adolescence by 15% and repeat adolescent pregnancy by 37%. Such interventions should address underlying social and community factors, include sexual and reproductive health services, contraceptive provision; personal development programs and emphasizes completion of education. Appropriate birth spacing (18-24 months from birth to next pregnancy compared to short intervals <6 months) can significantly lower maternal mortality, preterm births, stillbirths, low birth weight and early neonatal deaths. Conclusion Improving adolescent health and preventing adolescent pregnancy; and promotion of birth spacing through increasing correct and consistent use of effective contraception are fundamental to preconception care. Promoting reproductive planning on a wider scale is closely interlinked with the reliable provision of effective contraception, however, innovative strategies will need to be devised, or existing strategies such as community-based health workers and peer educators may be expanded, to encourage girls and women to plan their families. PMID:25415259

2014-01-01

355

High temperature deformation and fracture behaviour of 316L stainless steel under high strain rate loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high temperature deformation and fracture behaviour of 316L stainless steel under high strain rate loading conditions are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1 × 10 3 s -1 to 5 × 10 3 s -1 and temperatures between 25 °C and 800 °C. The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of 316L stainless steel are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The fracture analysis results indicate that the 316L specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed 316L specimens are characterised by a dimple-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.

Lee, Woei-Shyan; Lin, Chi-Feng; Chen, Tao-Hsing; Luo, Wen-Zhen

2012-01-01

356

Oklahoma High School Indicators Project. High School to College-Going Rates for Oklahoma High School Graduates to Oklahoma Colleges: Linear College-Going Rate, Combined College-Going Rate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a single-year rate and a 3-year average of the Oklahoma college-going rate. The average linear college-going rate for Oklahoma colleges in 1993-94 was 43.9 percent of the Oklahoma high school graduates from 1990-91, 1991-92, and 1992-93. Of 1992-93 high school graduates, 44.7 percent went directly to an Oklahoma college the…

Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, Oklahoma City.

357

High-dose-rate brachytherapy in uterine cervical carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: High-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is in wide use for curative treatment of cervical cancer. The American Brachytherapy Society has recommended that the individual fraction size be <7.5 Gy and the range of fractions should be four to eight; however, many fractionation schedules, varying from institution to institution, are in use. We use 9 Gy/fraction of HDR in two to five fractions in patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We found that our results and toxicity were comparable to those reported in the literature and hereby present our experience with this fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: A total of 121 patients with Stage I-III carcinoma of the uterine cervix were treated with HDR brachytherapy between 1996 and 2000. The total number of patients analyzed was 113. The median patient age was 53 years, and the histopathologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 93% of patients. The patients were subdivided into Groups 1 and 2. In Group 1, 18 patients with Stage Ib-IIb disease, tumor size <4 cm, and preserved cervical anatomy underwent simultaneous external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions within 4 weeks with central shielding and HDR brachytherapy of 9 Gy/fraction, given weekly, and interdigitated with external beam radiotherapy. The 95 patients in Group 2, who had Stage IIb-IIIb disease underwent external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis to a dose of 46 Gy in 23 fractions within 4.5 weeks followed by two sessions of HDR intracavitary brachytherapy of 9 Gy each given 1 week apart. The follow-up range was 3-7 years (median, 36.4 months). Late toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The 5-year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rate was 74.5% and 62.0%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate at 5 years was 100% for Stage I, 80% for Stage II, and 67.2% for Stage III patients. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival rate was 88.8% for Stage I, 76.52% for Stage II, and 50.4% for Stage III patients. Local failure occurred in 2 (11.1%) of the 18 Group 1 patients and in 20 (21.0%) of the 95 Group 2 patients. Distant failure occurred in none of the Group 1 patients and in 8 (8.4%) of the 95 Group 2 patients. None of the patients developed Grade 3 rectal toxicity. Grade 3 bladder toxicity was observed in 2 patients. The actuarial risk of Grade 3 or worse late toxicity was 3.31%. Conclusion: The results of our study indicate that HDR brachytherapy at 9 Gy/fraction is both safe and effective in the management of carcinoma of the cervix, with good local control and a minimum of normal tissue toxicity.

Patel, Firuza D. [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)]. E-mail: patelfd@glide.net.in; Rai, Bhavana [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Mallick, Indranil [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India); Sharma, Suresh C. [Department of Radiotherapy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh (India)

2005-05-01

358

Coherent Detection of High-Rate Optical PPM Signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of coherent detection of high-rate pulse-position modulation (PPM) on a received laser beam has been conceived as a means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise and atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communication using focal-plane detector array technologies. In comparison with a receiver based on direct detection of the intensity modulation of a PPM signal, a receiver based on the present method of coherent detection performs well at much higher background levels. In principle, the coherent-detection receiver can exhibit quantum-limited performance despite atmospheric turbulence. The key components of such a receiver include standard receiver optics, a laser that serves as a local oscillator, a focal-plane array of photodetectors, and a signal-processing and data-acquisition assembly needed to sample the focal-plane fields and reconstruct the pulsed signal prior to detection. The received PPM-modulated laser beam and the local-oscillator beam are focused onto the photodetector array, where they are mixed in the detection process. The two lasers are of the same or nearly the same frequency. If the two lasers are of different frequencies, then the coherent detection process is characterized as heterodyne and, using traditional heterodyne-detection terminology, the difference between the two laser frequencies is denoted the intermediate frequency (IF). If the two laser beams are of the same frequency and remain aligned in phase, then the coherent detection process is characterized as homodyne (essentially, heterodyne detection at zero IF). As a result of the inherent squaring operation of each photodetector, the output current includes an IF component that contains the signal modulation. The amplitude of the IF component is proportional to the product of the local-oscillator signal amplitude and the PPM signal amplitude. Hence, by using a sufficiently strong local-oscillator signal, one can make the PPM-modulated IF signal strong enough to overcome thermal noise in the receiver circuits: this is what makes it possible to achieve near-quantum-limited detection in the presence of strong background. Following quantum-limited coherent detection, the outputs of the individual photodetectors are automatically aligned in phase by use of one or more adaptive array compensation algorithms [e.g., the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm]. Then the outputs are combined and the resulting signal is processed to extract the high-rate information, as though the PPM signal were received by a single photodetector. In a continuing series of experiments to test this method (see Fig. 1), the local oscillator has a wavelength of 1,064 nm, and another laser is used as a signal transmitter at a slightly different wavelength to establish an IF of about 6 MHz. There are 16 photodetectors in a 4 4 focal-plane array; the detector outputs are digitized at a sampling rate of 25 MHz, and the signals in digital form are combined by use of the LMS algorithm. Convergence of the adaptive combining algorithm in the presence of simulated atmospheric turbulence for optical PPM signals has already been demonstrated in the laboratory; the combined output is shown in Fig. 2(a), and Fig. 2(b) shows the behavior of the phase of the combining weights as a function of time (or samples). We observe that the phase of the weights has a sawtooth shape due to the continuously changing phase in the down-converted output, which is not exactly at zero frequency. Detailed performance analysis of this coherent free-space optical communication system in the presence of simulated atmospheric turbulence is currently under way.

Vilnrotter, Victor; Fernandez, Michela Munoz

2006-01-01

359

Cassini High Rate Detector V5.0  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Rate Detector (HRD) from the University of Chicago is an independent part of the CDA instrument on the Cassini Orbiter that measures the dust flux and particle mass distribution of dust particles hitting the HRD detectors. This data set includes all data from the HRD through the end of 2008. Please refer to Srama et al. (2004) for a detailed HRD description. --Apple-Mail-2--243167724 Content-Type: text/plain; charset=US-ASCII; format=flowed; delsp=yes Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit On Aug 5, 2008, at 1:54 PM, Carolyn Stern Grant wrote: >> I am preparing to send you a new batch of publications for >> inclusion in the ADS system. I notice that I never got a response >> from you to the following question. Should I send the publications >> in >> the format we have used in the past, or would you like us to change >> our software to fix this problem? (see your earlier message >> attached.) > > Hi Carol, > > Go ahead and use the format you've used in the past. > > Thanks, > -Carolyn > ************************************************************************* > Carolyn Stern Grant Astrophysics Data System (ADS) > stern@cfa.harvard.edu Center for Astrophysics > 617-495-7154 (voicemail) 60 Garden Street MS 67 > 617-495-7356 fax Cambridge, MA 02138 > ************************************************************************* > > --Apple-Mail-2--243167724--

Economou, T.; Didonna, P.

2009-06-01

360

Strain rate viscoelastic analysis of soft and highly hydrated biomaterials  

PubMed Central

Measuring the viscoelastic behavior of highly hydrated biological materials is challenging because of their intrinsic softness and labile nature. In these materials, it is difficult to avoid prestress and therefore to establish precise initial stress and strain conditions for lumped parameter estimation using creep or stress-relaxation (SR) tests. We describe a method ( or epsilon dot method) for deriving the viscoelastic parameters of soft hydrated biomaterials which avoids prestress and can be used to rapidly test degradable samples. Standard mechanical tests are first performed compressing samples using different strain rates. The dataset obtained is then analyzed to mathematically derive the material's viscoelastic parameters. In this work a stable elastomer, polydimethylsiloxane, and a labile hydrogel, gelatin, were first tested using the, in parallel SR was used to compare lumped parameter estimation. After demonstrating that the elastic parameters are equivalent and that the estimation of short-time constants is more precise using the proposed method, the viscoelastic behavior of porcine liver was investigated using this approach. The results show that the constitutive parameters of hepatic tissue can be quickly quantified without the application of any prestress and before the onset of time-dependent degradation phenomena. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 3352–3360, 2014 PMID:23946054

Tirella, A; Mattei, G; Ahluwalia, A

2014-01-01

361

An All-Digital High Data-Rate Parallel Receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The all-digital, high data-rate parallel receiver that is currently being developed jointly by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is presented. The role of JPL has been to analyze and simulate the receiver architecture and subsystems. Implementation of the receiver using field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and subsequent application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design take place at GSFC. The parallel receiver architecture that is currently being implemented differs from the original multirate filter-bank-based parallel architecture that was first developed by JPL. This alternate parallel receiver (APRX) is essentially a frequency-domain implementation of detection filtering and symbol-timing correction and is significantly easier to implement than the original version of the parallel receiver (PRX). It is shown that the APRX is equivalent to both the PRX and the conventional serial receiver in terms of performance. Results on the effect of analog antialiasing filter bandwidth and analog-to-digital sampling offset on the receiver performance are presented, along with discussion and results of the frequency-domain digital data-transition tracking-loop simulation.

Srinivasan, M.; Chen, C.-C.; Grebowsky, G.; Gray, A.

1997-07-01

362

High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.  

PubMed

High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3. PMID:22546797

Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

2012-01-01

363

Gene expression rate comparison for multiple high-throughput datasets.  

PubMed

Microarray provides genome-wide transcript profiles, whereas RNA-seq is an alternative approach applied for transcript discovery and genome annotation. Both high-throughput techniques show quantitative measurement of gene expression. To explore differential gene expression rates and understand biological functions, the authors designed a system which utilises annotations from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biological pathways and Gene Ontology (GO) associations for integrating multiple RNA-seq or microarray datasets. The developed system is initiated by either estimating gene expression levels from mapping next generation sequencing short reads onto reference genomes or performing intensity analysis from microarray raw images. Normalisation procedures on expression levels are evaluated and compared through different approaches including Reads Per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (RPKM) and housekeeping gene selection. Such gene expression levels are shown in different colour shades and graphically displayed in designed temporal pathways. To enhance importance of functional relationships of clustered genes, representative GO terms associated with differentially expressed gene cluster are visually illustrated in a tag cloud representation. PMID:24067413

Chen, Chien-Ming; Shih, Tsan-Huang; Pai, Tun-Wen; Liu, Zhen-Long; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Hu, Chin-Hwa

2013-10-01

364

Smart Payload Development for High Data Rate Instrument Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the development of smart payloads instruments systems with high data rates. On-board computation has become a bottleneck for advanced science instrument and engineering capabilities. In order to improve the computation capability on board, smart payloads have been proposed. A smart payload is a Localized instrument, that can offload the flight processor of extensive computing cycles, simplify the interfaces, and minimize the dependency of the instrument on the flight system. This has been proposed for the Mars mission, Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (MATMOS). The design of this system is discussed; the features of the Virtex-4, are discussed, and the technical approach is reviewed. The proposed Hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology has been shown to deliver breakthrough performance by tightly coupling hardware and software. Smart Payload designs for instruments such as MATMOS can meet science data return requirements with more competitive use of available on-board resources and can provide algorithm acceleration in hardware leading to implementation of better (more advanced) algorithms in on-board systems for improved science data return

Pingree, Paula J.; Norton, Charles D.

2007-01-01

365

TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation  

SciTech Connect

The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

David Matlock; John Speer

2005-03-31

366

Plants: Reproduction 96 PLANTS: REPRODUCTION  

E-print Network

and bottom, as in orchid flowers or bean flowers (Figure 3). Figure 2. #12;Plants: Reproduction 98 Because red, whereas bee-pollinated flowers tend to be yellow or blue, because bees see these colors. Moth

Koptur, Suzanne

367

A High Peculiarity Rate for Type Ia SNe  

E-print Network

We have compiled a sample of 90 SNe Ia from 1997 to 1999 (up to SN 1999da) and studied the peculiarity rate of SN 1991T, SN 1991bg and SN 1986G-like objects. A Monte Carlo code is written to study the observational biases involved in the evaluation of the intrinsic peculiarity rate of SNe Ia. We found that the peculiarity rate of SNe Ia is higher than 30% and the luminosity function of SNe Ia is flat.

W. D. Li; A. V. Filippenko; A. G. Riess; J. Y. Hu; Y. L. Qiu

1999-12-16

368

Characterization of Composites Response at High Rates of Loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the proposed research is to experimentally study the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites. The experimental data provide the information needed for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Two types of epoxy were tested each in tension and shear at various strain rate that ranges from 5x10(exp -5), to 700/s. The results show that both the strain rate and the mode of loading affect the epoxy response.

Gilat, Amos

2002-01-01

369

Estimation of MERS-Coronavirus Reproductive Number and Case Fatality Rate for the Spring 2014 Saudi Arabia Outbreak: Insights from Publicly Available Data  

PubMed Central

Background: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was initially recognized as a source of severe respiratory illness and renal failure in 2012. Prior to 2014, MERS-CoV was mostly associated with sporadic cases of human illness, of presumed zoonotic origin, though chains of person-to-person transmission in the healthcare setting were reported. In spring 2014, large healthcare-associated outbreaks of MERS-CoV infection occurred in Jeddah and Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To date the epidemiological information published by public health investigators in affected jurisdictions has been relatively limited. However, it is important that the global public health community have access to information on the basic epidemiological features of the outbreak to date, including the basic reproduction number (R0) and best estimates of case-fatality rates (CFR). We sought to address these gaps using a publicly available line listing of MERS-CoV cases. Methods: R0 was estimated using the incidence decay with exponential adjustment (“IDEA”) method, while period-specific case fatality rates that incorporated non-attributed death data were estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. Results: 707 cases were available for evaluation. 52% of cases were identified as primary, with the rest being secondary. IDEA model fits suggested a higher R0 in Jeddah (3.5-6.7) than in Riyadh (2.0-2.8); control parameters suggested more rapid reduction in transmission in the former city than the latter. The model accurately projected final size and end date of the Riyadh outbreak based on information available prior to the outbreak peak; for Jeddah, these projections were possible once the outbreak peaked. Overall case-fatality was 40%; depending on the timing of 171 deaths unlinked to case data, outbreak CFR could be higher, lower, or equivalent to pre-outbreak CFR. Conclusions: Notwithstanding imperfect data, inferences about MERS-CoV epidemiology important for public health preparedness are possible using publicly available data sources. The R0 estimated in Riyadh appears similar to that seen for SARS-CoV, but CFR appears higher, and indirect evidence suggests control activities ended these outbreaks. These data suggest this disease should be regarded with equal or greater concern than the related SARS-CoV. PMID:25685622

Majumder, Maimuna S.; Rivers, Caitlin; Lofgren, Eric; Fisman, David

2014-01-01

370

High Strain-Rate Response of High Purity Aluminum at Temperatures Approaching Melt  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature, pressure-shear plate impact experiments were conducted to investigate the rate-controlling mechanisms of the plastic response of high-purity aluminum at high strain rates (10{sup 6} s{sup -1}) and at temperatures approaching melt. Since the melting temperature of aluminum is pressure dependent, and a typical pressure-shear plate impact experiment subjects the sample to large pressures (2 GPa-7 GPa), a pressure-release type experiment was used to reduce the pressure in order to measure the shearing resistance at temperatures up to 95% of the current melting temperature. The measured shearing resistance was remarkably large (50 MPa at a shear strain of 2.5) for temperatures this near melt. Numerical simulations conducted using a version of the Nemat-Nasser/Isaacs constitutive equation, modified to model the mechanism of geometric softening, appear to capture adequately the hardening/softening behavior observed experimentally.

Grunschel, S E; Clifton, R J; Jiao, T

2010-01-28

371

High-pitch dual-source CT coronary angiography: systolic data acquisition at high heart rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To assess the effect of systolic data acquisition for electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered high-pitch computed tomography (CT)\\u000a on motion artefacts of coronary arteries in patients with high heart rates (HRs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighty consecutive patients (15 women, age 67?±?14 years) with HR??70 bpm underwent CT angiography of the thoracic aorta (CTA)\\u000a on 128-slice dual-source CT in ECG-triggered high-pitch acquisition mode (pitch?=?3.2) set at 60% (group A,

Robert Goetti; Gudrun Feuchtner; Paul Stolzmann; Lotus Desbiolles; Michael Alexander Fischer; Christoph Karlo; Stephan Baumueller; Hans Scheffel; Hatem Alkadhi; Sebastian Leschka

2010-01-01

372

Predictive Model of Rat Reproductive Toxicity from ToxCast High Throughput Screening  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA ToxCast research program uses high throughput screening for bioactivity profiling and predicting the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals. ToxCast Phase-I tested 309 well-characterized chemicals in over 500 assays for a wide range of molecular targets and cellular respo...

373

High growth rate homoepitaxial diamond film deposition at high temperatures by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The deposition of high quality diamond films at high linear growth rates and substrate temperatures for microwave-plasma chemical vapor deposition is disclosed. The linear growth rate achieved for this process is generally greater than 50 .mu.m/hr for high quality films, as compared to rates of less than 5 .mu.m/hr generally reported for MPCVD processes.

Vohra, Yogesh K. (Inventor); McCauley, Thomas S. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

374

Synergistic effects of sequential infection with highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs. Coinfection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) and PCV2 in the field has recently become extensive in some Asian countries. A synergistic pathogenicity between PRRSV and PCV2 infections has previously been reported. However, the consequences of the sequential infection of pigs with these two viruses are unknown. Methods Thirty 35-day-old piglets were randomly divided into six groups (n = 5 each): HP-PRRSV/PCV2 (group 1, inoculated with HP-PRRSV, then inoculated with PCV2 one week later), PCV2/HP-PRRSV (group 2, inoculated with PCV2, then inoculated with HP-PRRSV one week later), HP-PRRSV+PCV2 (group 3, inoculated with HP-PRRSV and PCV2 concurrently), HP-PRRSV (group 4, inoculated with HP-PRRSV), PCV2 (group 5, inoculated with PCV2), and the control (group 6, uninfected). This experiment lasted 28 days. Clinical symptoms and rectal temperatures were recorded each day after inoculation, body weight was recorded weekly, and serum samples were obtained for viral nucleic acid quantification and antibody titration. Variations in CD3+, CD4+ CD8–, CD3+, CD4–, and CD8+ cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The serum concentrations of interferon ? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and macrophage granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were determined. Pathological changes in different tissues from the experimentally infected pigs were recorded. Results The piglets in group 1 had the highest viral loads, the lowest antibody titers, the most-severe clinical signs, and the highest mortality (3/5, 60%; the mortality in the other groups was 0%), and interstitial pneumonia was more severe in this group compare to the other HP-PRRSV infected groups. The serum levels of IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10, and GM-CSF varied (increased or decreased) most widely in group 1, as did each immunocyte subgroup. Conclusions HP-PRRSV infection followed by PCV2 infection enhanced the replication of both viruses in the experimental piglets and led to more-severe clinical signs and lesions, indicating greater synergistic effects during the sequential infection of piglets with HP-PRRSV and then PCV2. PMID:23971711

2013-01-01

375

Reproductive Hazards in the Lab Reproductive Hazards  

E-print Network

and pesticides have been shown to have effects on human reproductive systems. Organic solvents, such as xyleneReproductive Hazards in the Lab Reproductive Hazards The term reproductive hazard refers to agents (radiation, x-rays, chemicals or biologicals) that affect the reproductive health of women or men to have

de Lijser, Peter

376

Evolution of plastic anisotropy for high-strain-rate computations  

SciTech Connect

A model for anisotropic material strength, and for changes in the anisotropy due to plastic strain, is described. This model has been developed for use in high-rate, explicit, Lagrangian multidimensional continuum-mechanics codes. The model handles anisotropies in single-phase materials, in particular the anisotropies due to crystallographic texture--preferred orientations of the single-crystal grains. Textural anisotropies, and the changes in these anisotropies, depend overwhelmingly no the crystal structure of the material and on the deformation history. The changes, particularly for a complex deformations, are not amenable to simple analytical forms. To handle this problem, the material model described here includes a texture code, or micromechanical calculation, coupled to a continuum code. The texture code updates grain orientations as a function of tensor plastic strain, and calculates the yield strength in different directions. A yield function is fitted to these yield points. For each computational cell in the continuum simulation, the texture code tracks a particular set of grain orientations. The orientations will change due to the tensor strain history, and the yield function will change accordingly. Hence, the continuum code supplies a tensor strain to the texture code, and the texture code supplies an updated yield function to the continuum code. Since significant texture changes require relatively large strains--typically, a few percent or more--the texture code is not called very often, and the increase in computer time is not excessive. The model was implemented, using a finite-element continuum code and a texture code specialized for hexagonal-close-packed crystal structures. The results for several uniaxial stress problems and an explosive-forming problem are shown.

Schiferl, S.K.; Maudlin, P.J.

1994-12-01

377

Characterization of Composites Response at High Rates of Deformation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the proposed research is to experimentally study the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of IM-7/977-2 carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites. The experimental data will provide the information needed for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength model for this material that can subsequently be used in design.

Gilat, Amos

2001-01-01

378

ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE  

E-print Network

ABORTED FRUITS OF OPUNTIA MICRODASYS (CACTACEAE): INSURANCE AGAINST REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE 1 N, but plantlet provenance did not. The high fruit abortion rate resulting from environmental and maternal effects provided suitable conditions for establishment of plantlets. Key words: clonal propagation; fruit abortion

Mandujano, María del Carmen

379

Genetic structure is associated with phenotypic divergence in floral traits and reproductive investment in a high-altitude orchid from the iron quadrangle, southeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the role of Neotropical montane landscapes in shaping genetic connectivity and local adaptation is essential for understanding the evolutionary processes that have shaped the extraordinary species diversity in these regions. In the present study, we examined the landscape genetics, estimated genetic diversity, and explored genetic relationships with morphological variability and reproductive strategies in seven natural populations of Cattleya liliputana (Orchidaceae). Nuclear microsatellite markers were used for genetic analyses. Spatial Bayesian clustering and population-based analyses revealed significant genetic structuring and high genetic diversity (He = 0.733 ± 0.03). Strong differentiation was found between populations over short spatial scales (FST = 0.138, p < 0.001), reflecting the landscape discontinuity and isolation. Monmonier´s maximum difference algorithm, Bayesian analysis on STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified one major genetic discontinuity between populations. Divergent genetic groups showed phenotypic divergence in flower traits and reproductive strategies. Increased sexual reproductive effort was associated with rock outcrop type and may be a response to adverse conditions for growth and vegetative reproduction. Here we discuss the effect of restricted gene flow, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity as drivers of population differentiation in Neotropical montane rock outcrops. PMID:25756994

Leles, Bruno; Chaves, Anderson V; Russo, Philip; Batista, João A N; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

2015-01-01

380

Genetic Structure Is Associated with Phenotypic Divergence in Floral Traits and Reproductive Investment in a High-Altitude Orchid from the Iron Quadrangle, Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the role of Neotropical montane landscapes in shaping genetic connectivity and local adaptation is essential for understanding the evolutionary processes that have shaped the extraordinary species diversity in these regions. In the present study, we examined the landscape genetics, estimated genetic diversity, and explored genetic relationships with morphological variability and reproductive strategies in seven natural populations of Cattleya liliputana (Orchidaceae). Nuclear microsatellite markers were used for genetic analyses. Spatial Bayesian clustering and population-based analyses revealed significant genetic structuring and high genetic diversity (He = 0.733 ± 0.03). Strong differentiation was found between populations over short spatial scales (FST = 0.138, p < 0.001), reflecting the landscape discontinuity and isolation. Monmonier´s maximum difference algorithm, Bayesian analysis on STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified one major genetic discontinuity between populations. Divergent genetic groups showed phenotypic divergence in flower traits and reproductive strategies. Increased sexual reproductive effort was associated with rock outcrop type and may be a response to adverse conditions for growth and vegetative reproduction. Here we discuss the effect of restricted gene flow, local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity as drivers of population differentiation in Neotropical montane rock outcrops. PMID:25756994

Leles, Bruno; Chaves, Anderson V.; Russo, Philip; Batista, João A. N.; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

2015-01-01

381

Evaluation of the Infestation Rate of Blaesoxipha alcedo in the Carrion Roller Scarab Canthon cyanellus cyanellus and Its Effect on Reproductive Behavior.  

PubMed

This study documents Blaesoxipha alcedo (Aldrich; Diptera: Sarcophagidae) parasitizing the necrophagous ball roller beetle Canthon cyanellus cyanellus LeConte collected over 2?yr, and evaluates the reproductive behavior of parasitized beetles. Up to 52% of the beetles collected in the field had been parasitized and exhibited modified sexual behavior. In general, 21% of the males and 24% of the females had been parasitized. The number of parasitized males peaked in August 2000 (52%), but that of females peaked in May 2001 (52%). The lowest percentage of parasitized males (7%) was recorded in September 2000, June 2001, and July 2001; for females, parasitism was lowest in June 2000 (10%). The larva of this sarcophagid fly penetrates the host through the tegumentary membrane, leaving a scar. The larvae feed on the gonads of male and female C. c. cyanellus, castrating them, causing the loss of their ability to recognize individuals of the opposite sex, preventing reproduction, and lowering overall reproductive success. PMID:25347831

Ortiz Domínguez, Maribel; Favila, Mario E

2014-01-01

382

The High Cost of South Carolina's Low Graduation Rate. School Choice Issues in the State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented a crisis in South Carolina's high school graduation rate. While state officials report a graduation rate above 70 percent, researchers from South Carolina and elsewhere place the rate just above 50 percent, with rates among minority students lower than 50 percent. South Carolina's graduation rate is the worst of all 50…

Gottlob, Brian J.

2007-01-01

383

A test of the reproductive cost hypothesis for sexual size dimorphism in Yarrow's spiny lizard Sceloporus jarrovii.  

PubMed

1. Trade-offs between reproduction and growth are central assumptions of life-history theory, but their implications for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) are poorly understood. 2. Adult male Yarrow's spiny lizards Sceloporus jarrovii average 10% larger than adult females. In a low-altitude (1700 m) population, this SSD develops because males grow more quickly than females during the first year of life, particularly during the first female reproductive season. This study tests the hypothesis that SSD develops because female growth is constrained by energetic costs of reproduction. 3. To test for a growth cost of reproduction, I compared growth rates of free-living females that differed, either naturally or experimentally, in reproductive status. Females that naturally delayed reproduction until their second year grew more quickly than females that reproduced as yearlings, and ovariectomized yearlings grew more quickly and to larger sizes than reproductive controls. 4. To determine whether SSD develops in the absence of this inferred reproductive cost, I also studied a high-altitude (2500 m) population in which all females delay reproduction until their second year. Sex differences in growth trajectories were similar to those observed at low altitude, such that males averaged 10% larger than females even prior to female reproduction. 5. Although female growth may be constrained by reproduction, multiple lines of evidence indicate that this cost is insufficient to explain the full magnitude of SSD in S. jarrovii. First, differences in growth of reproductive and nonreproductive females are not observed until the final month of gestation, by which time SSD is already well developed. Second, the growth benefit accruing from experimental inhibition of reproduction accounts for only 32% of the natural sex difference in body size. Finally, SSD develops well in advance of female reproduction in a high-altitude population with delayed maturation. PMID:17032368

Cox, R M

2006-11-01

384

Seasonal migration to high latitudes results in major reproductive benefits in an insect  

PubMed Central

Little is known of the population dynamics of long-range insect migrants, and it has been suggested that the annual journeys of billions of nonhardy insects to exploit temperate zones during summer represent a sink from which future generations seldom return (the “Pied Piper” effect). We combine data from entomological radars and ground-based light traps to show that annual migrations are highly adaptive in the noctuid moth Autographa gamma (silver Y), a major agricultural pest. We estimate that 10–240 million immigrants reach the United Kingdom each spring, but that summer breeding results in a fourfold increase in the abundance of the subsequent generation of adults, all of which emigrate southward in the fall. Trajectory simulations show that 80% of emigrants will reach regions suitable for winter breeding in the Mediterranean Basin, for which our population dynamics model predicts a winter carrying capacity only 20% of that of northern Europe during the summer. We conclude not only that poleward insect migrations in spring result in major population increases, but also that the persistence of such species is dependent on summer breeding in high-latitude regions, which requires a fundamental change in our understanding of insect migration. PMID:22927392

Chapman, Jason W.; Bell, James R.; Burgin, Laura E.; Reynolds, Donald R.; Pettersson, Lars B.; Hill, Jane K.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Thomas, Jeremy A.

2012-01-01

385

Threshold detector produces narrow pulses at high repetition rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid state device generates fixed width output pulses from variable width input pulses in the nanosecond range. The circuit produces pulse repetition rates in the megacycle range and exhibits low power drain.

Garrahan, N. M.

1965-01-01

386

Studies of the CMS tracker at high trigger rate  

E-print Network

During the latter months of 2006 and the first half of 2007, the CMS Tracker was assembled and operated at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. During this period the performance of the tracker at trigger rates up to ...

Chan, M.

387

23 CFR 1313.7 - Requirements for a high fatality rate state.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Requirements for a high fatality rate state. 1313.7 Section...PROGRAMS § 1313.7 Requirements for a high fatality rate state. To qualify for a grant as a high fatality rate State, the State shall...

2010-04-01

388

Sensitive, high-strain, high-rate bodily motion sensors based on graphene-rubber composites.  

PubMed

Monitoring of human bodily motion requires wearable sensors that can detect position, velocity and acceleration. They should be cheap, lightweight, mechanically compliant and display reasonable sensitivity at high strains and strain rates. No reported material has simultaneously demonstrated all the above requirements. Here we describe a simple method to infuse liquid-exfoliated graphene into natural rubber to create conducting composites. These materials are excellent strain sensors displaying 10(4)-fold increases in resistance and working at strains exceeding 800%. The sensitivity is reasonably high, with gauge factors of up to 35 observed. More importantly, these sensors can effectively track dynamic strain, working well at vibration frequencies of at least 160 Hz. At 60 Hz, we could monitor strains of at least 6% at strain rates exceeding 6000%/s. We have used these composites as bodily motion sensors, effectively monitoring joint and muscle motion as well and breathing and pulse. PMID:25100211

Boland, Conor S; Khan, Umar; Backes, Claudia; O'Neill, Arlene; McCauley, Joe; Duane, Shane; Shanker, Ravi; Liu, Yang; Jurewicz, Izabela; Dalton, Alan B; Coleman, Jonathan N

2014-09-23

389

Versatile high rate plasma deposition and processing with very high frequency excitation  

SciTech Connect

The interest in plasma deposition using very high frequency (VHF) excitation arose after the preparation of a-Si:H at high growth rates was demonstrated. Subsequently the improved process flexibility and the control of material properties offered by the variation of the plasma excitation frequency was recognized. The preparation of amorphous and microcrystalline thin films in a VHF-plasma is described. The increased growth rates have been attributed to an enhancement of film precursor formation at VHF, to the decreased sheath thickness as well as to an enhancement of the surface reactivity by positive ions. Plasma diagnostic investigations show that the parameters mainly affected by the excitation frequency are the ion flux to the electrodes as well as the sheaths potentials and widths, rather than the plasma density. 55 refs., 13 figs.

Heintze, M.

1997-07-01

390

Carbonation rates of concretes containing high volume of pozzolanic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project studies the influence of fly ash and slag replacement on the carbonation rate of the concrete. The experimental work includes samples of pure Portland cement concrete (CEM I 42,5 R), blast-furnace slag concrete (CEM III-B), and fly ash blended concrete. To reveal the effect of curing on carbonation rate, the concretes were exposed to various submerged curing periods

Kritsada Sisomphon; Lutz Franke

2007-01-01

391

Development of high strain rate equations for stainless steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic response of four types of stainless steel sheet was investigated at different strain rates from 10-2 up to 103 s-1. The results from the tensile tests were used to evaluate the parameters in three different multiplicative strain rate equations of the type used in crashworthiness calculations. A new type of sigmoid constitutive equation is proposed for one grade of stainless steel.

Andersson, R.; Syk, M.; Powell, J.; Magnusson, G.

2005-10-01

392

High rate properties of porcine skull bone tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent studies have shown the importance of understanding the nature of blast injuries. Traditionally, the lungs and other air filled organs were the focus of these injuries but it is being discovered that some level of brain trauma may result after encountering a blast. These injuries are referred to as traumatic brain injuries, or TBI. There has been many clinical studies and statistical analyses done concerning these injuries, but there is still no physical understanding of the problem. In order to develop a model of how this injury can occur, rate dependent material properties of the tissues the stress wave will travel through are needed. In this study, the compressive response of porcine skull bone through the thickness direction was experimentally determined over a wide range of rates, ranging from 0.001 sec -1 to approximately 3000 sec-1. The results reveal that for most mechanical properties there is a clear rate dependence of the material. However, only one subset of the skull section appeared to have a rate dependent initial modulus, with the rest showing no significant statistical dependence on loading rate. Other mechanical properties appeared to be affected by the loading rate, including the strain energy density.

Herwig, Kyle Jeffry

393

High frame rate PtSi CCD infrared sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using 2?m design rule and silicon technology, PtSi128×128 high frame rate (500frame/second) progressive scan CCD devices has been designed, fabricated and applied. The CCD devices is of vertical 3 phases, horizontal 4 phases,3 level ,interline transfer and optimized optical cavity configuration. The pixel number is 128×128.The pixel size is 30×30 ?m2.The factor of fulfill is about 27%. The guard ring is designed as 3?m. The interlace between guard ring and platinum silicide zone is 1?m. The channel stop is 2?m .The collection diode is 4.5×5?m2.The barrier between vertical CCD and platinum silicide is 3×5?m2.The width of vertical CCD is 9?m. The vertical super notch is not adopted. But accessional phosphorus ion is implanted in order to enhance charge capacity. The interlace between vertical 3 phases poly silicon is 1?m. The vertical clock frequency is 62.5 KHz. The width of horizontal CCD is 40?m. The notch is 3?m .It is selectable. The interlace between 4 phases poly silicon is also 1?m. The 4 phases poly silicon is fabricated by 3 layer poly silicon because of vertical 3 phases. The horizontal clock frequency is 10 MHz. The configuration of output amplifier is two stage source follower amplifier. LDD is adopted. The bandwidth of output amplifier is designed as 40 MHz. The sensitive of output amplifier is 4 ?v/e. 90nm gate oxide and 70nm nitride layers are fabricated first. Than LOCOS,B diffusion, Buried channel, Notch(selectable), VCCD, Barrier, Channel stop, Poly1,Poly2,Poly3,Collecton diode, Guard ring, Source and drain, Platinum silicide , hole, aluminium are orderly fabricated. Parameter test is under 500 frame/second .NETD is 0.6K.Dynamic range is 64dB.Non-uniformity is 0.7%(corrected).The number of defect is zero.

Weng, Xue-tao; Tang, Zhun-lie; Zhou, Jian-yong; Cheng, Hong-bing; Peng, Xiu-Hua

2009-07-01

394

High-repetition-rate high-power variable-bandwidth dye laser  

SciTech Connect

An efficient high-repetition-rate dye laser is described which has a bandwidth that can be tailored to match typical atomic inhomogeneous linewidths. The dye laser is pumped by a 4-kHz 2--6 mJ/pulse copper vapor laser. The total efficiency of the dye laser (oscillator and amplifier) is 45% for rhodamine 6G and 30% for rhodamine B.

Lavi, S.; Amit, M.; Bialolanker, G.; Miron, E.; Levin, L.A.

1985-07-01

395

Your Reproductive Health  

MedlinePLUS

... your body Your reproductive health How the female reproductive system works Vaginal infections What is PCOS? Puberty Getting ... Your reproductive health What, exactly, is the female reproductive system? It is all the parts of your body ...

396

Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction  

SciTech Connect

This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism.

Luckey, T.D.

1986-11-01

397

Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

398

High strain rate properties of unidirectional composites, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental methods were developed for testing and characterization of composite materials at strain rates ranging from quasi-static to over 500 s(sup -1). Three materials were characterized, two graphite/epoxies and a graphite/S-glass/epoxy. Properties were obtained by testing thin rings 10.16 cm (4 in.) in diameter, 2.54 cm (1 in.) wide, and six to eight plies thick under internal pressure. Unidirectional 0 degree, 90 degree, and 10 degree off-axis rings were tested to obtain longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear properties. In the dynamic tests internal pressure was applied explosively through a liquid and the pressure was measured with a calibrated steel ring. Strains in the calibration and specimen rings were recorded with a digital processing oscilloscope. The data were processed and the equation of motion solved numerically by the mini-computer attached to the oscilloscope. Results were obtained and plotted in the form of dynamic stress-strain curves. Longitudinal properties which are governed by the fibers do not vary much with strain rate with only a moderate (up to 20 percent) increase in modulus. Transverse modulus and strength increase sharply with strain rate reaching values up to three times the static values. The in-plane shear modulus and shear strength increase noticeably with strain rate by up to approximately 65 percent. In all cases ultimate strains do not vary significantly with strain rates.

Daniel, I. M.

1991-01-01

399

Alternate reproductive strategies in the California gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We analysed 6 years of reproduction data for 176 California gulls (Larus californicus) surviving from 1980 to 1988. Using a statistical model adapted from Rao's (1958) and Tucker's (1966) generalized growth curve analysis, we reconstructed the reproductive patterns of gulls aged from 0 to 26 years. Individuals were highly consistent in following one of two patterns of reproduction. In a

B. H. Pugesek; P. Wood

1992-01-01

400

Concepts and measures of reproductive morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual and methodological framework developed by an interdisciplinary group of researchers to diagnose reproductive morbidity at the community level. The paper also presents a determinants structure that delineates the health and social factors hypothesized to influence reproductive morbidity. The high prevalence of reproductive- morbidity conditions revealed by implementation of the study framework in two villages of

Huda Zurayk; Hind Khattab; Nabil Younis; Mawaheb El-Mouelhy

1993-01-01

401

High rate science data handling on Space Station Freedom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study by NASA's User Information System Working Group for Space Station Freedom (SSF) has determined that the proposed onboard Data Management System, as initially configured, will be incapable of handling the data-generation rates typical of numerous scientific sensor payloads; many of these generate data at rates in excess of 10 Mbps, and there are at least four cases of rates in excess of 300 Mbps. The SSF Working Group has accordingly suggested an alternative conceptual architecture based on technology expected to achieve space-qualified status by 1995. The architecture encompasses recorders with rapid data-ingest capabilities and massive storage capabilities, optical delay lines allowing the recording of only the phenomena of interest, and data flow-compressing image processors.

Handley, Thomas H., Jr.; Masline, Richard C.

1990-01-01

402

Low smear CCD camera for high frame rates  

SciTech Connect

A small versatile CCD camera is described. Frame readout times from one second to milliseconds can be changed continuously or at random by a programmable clock. A very large range of light intensity is thus covered without the need for a mechanical aperture control. The camera can be reset at any time and then restarted at a different frame rate after the pause of a selected duration. Sony, Inc. ICX016AL sensor was found especially suitable for clock rates up to 50 MHz. Image smear, blooming and noise are substantially lower than in earlier interline transfer CCD sensors. Critical circuits are also described and measured data presented. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Turko, B.T.; Yates, G.J.

1988-04-01

403

Low smear CCD camera for high frame rates  

SciTech Connect

A small versatile CCD camera is described. Frame readout times from one second to milliseconds can be changed continuously or at random by a programmable clock. A very large range of light intensity is thus covered without the need for a mechanical aperture control. The camera can be reset at any time and then restarted at a different frame rate after the pause of a selected duration. Sony, Inc. ICX016AL sensor was found especially suitable for clock rates up to 50 MHz. Image smear, blooming and noise are substantially lower than in earlier interline transfer CCD sensors. Critical circuits are also described and measured data presented.

Turko, B.T.; Yates, G.J.

1989-02-01

404

Fabrication of superconducting materials by high-energy - high-rate processing  

SciTech Connect

Techniques involving high energy-high rate processing were employed to fabricate superconducting materials. A homopolar generator (HPG), producing low voltage-high current electrical discharges of short duration, was used to consolidate powders through pulsed resistive heating, and a railgun, powered by a capacitor bank, was used to prepare thin films from source material accelerated electromagnetically to a substrate at ambient temperature. Bulk Nb-Ge samples formed by reactive sintering during the powder consolidation by the application of the HPG contain various phases (NbGe{sub 2}, Nb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} and {beta}), and some evidence of Nb{sub 3}Ge exists. Thin films, synthesized by railgun deposition of Nb and Ge, contain hexagonal Nb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, as well as NbO{sub 2} and/or NbO and Nb particles in some cases, but Nb{sub 3}Ge is absent. Production of high-T{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (123 compound) by conventional solid-state reaction and consolidation of this compound by high energy-high rate processing were examined under different experimental conditions. Calcining the precursor powders at 900{degree}C does not produce single-phase 123 compounds, whereas high-quality 123 phase forms on calcining at 925 and 950{degree}C. The best consolidated sample exhibits a resistive superconducting transition at 91.1 K with a transition width less than 1 K.

Lee, S.J.

1988-01-01

405

Models of Evolution of Reproductive Isolation  

PubMed Central

Mathematical models are presented for the evolution of postmating and premating reproductive isolation. In the case of postmating isolation it is assumed that hybrid sterility or inviability is caused by incompatibility of alleles at one or two loci, and evolution of reproductive isolation occurs by random fixation of different incompatibility alleles in different populations. Mutations are assumed to occur following either the stepwise mutation model or the infinite-allele model. Computer simulations by using Itô's stochastic differential equations have shown that in the model used the reproductive isolation mechanism evolves faster in small populations than in large populations when the mutation rate remains the same. In populations of a given size it evolves faster when the number of loci involved is large than when this is small. In general, however, evolution of isolation mechanisms is a very slow process, and it would take thousands to millions of generations if the mutation rate is of the order of 10-5 per generation. Since gene substitution occurs as a stochastic process, the time required for the establishment of reproductive isolation has a large variance. Although the average time of evolution of isolation mechanisms is very long, substitution of incompatibility genes in a population occurs rather quickly once it starts. The intrapopulational fertility or viability is always very high. In the model of premating isolation it is assumed that mating preference or compatibility is determined by male- and female-limited characters, each of which is controlled by a single locus with multiple alleles, and mating occurs only when the male and female characters are compatible with each other. Computer simulations have shown that the dynamics of evolution of premating isolation mechanism is very similar to that of postmating isolation mechanism, and the mean and variance of the time required for establishment of premating isolation are very large. Theoretical predictions obtained from the present study about the speed of evolution of reproductive isolation are consistent with empirical data available from vertebrate organisms. PMID:6840540

Nei, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Takeo; Wu, Chung-I

1983-01-01

406

Female Reproductive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

Hodge, N. J.

407

Male Reproductive System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

Turkington, B. A.

408

REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Throughout history, humans have celebrated the beauty and fertility of flowering plants. In addition to their aesthetic appeal, flowers contain the reproductive organs of the plant and are therefore essential for sexual propagation of plant life. Our dependence on flowering is illustrated by the die...

409

High-bit-rate continuous-variable quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we demonstrate that a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol relying on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states features secret key rates that cannot be achieved with standard qubit discrete-variable QKD protocols. Notably, we report a practical postprocessing that allows us to extract more than 1 bit of secret key per channel use.

Jouguet, Paul; Elkouss, David; Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien

2014-10-01

410

High Identification Rates of Endogenous Neuropeptides from Mouse Xiaozhe Zhang,*,  

E-print Network

of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, CH-1700, Switzerland Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences to enhance the identification rates of neuropeptides from brain tissue. Our integrated approach used mixing and hormones, are involved in diverse physiological and behavioral processes, such as food intake, sleep

411

Evidence of Markov properties of high frequency exchange rate data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a stochastic analysis of a data set consisting of 106 quotes of the US Dollar–German Mark exchange rate. Evidence is given that the price changes x(?) upon different delay times ? can be described as a Markov process evolving in ?. Thus, the ?-dependence of the probability density function (pdf) p(x,?) on the delay time ? can be

Ch. Renner; J. Peinke; R. Friedrich

2001-01-01

412

High strain-rate testing of parachute materials  

SciTech Connect

Research at Sandia National Laboratories has shown a strain rate dependence of many materials used in the production of parachutes. Differences in strength of 30% have been found between strain rates of 12 sec{sup {minus}1} and slow rates normally used to define material properties for lightweight nylon cloth. These structures are sometimes deployed in a rapid fashion and the loading is experienced in milliseconds; the production of material data in the same loading regime is required for full understanding of material response. Also, material behavior suitable for structural analysis of these structures is required for successful analysis. This is especially important when different materials are used in the same fabric structure. Determining the distribution of load to various portions of a nylon and Kevlar parachute requires the correct moduli and material behavior in the analytical model. The effect of strain rate on the material properties of nylon and Kevlar components commonly used in parachute construction are reported in this paper. These properties are suitable for use in analytical models of these fabric structures.

Gwinn, K.W.; Totten, J.J.; Waye, D.E.

1994-12-31

413

Microchannel plate operation at high count rates: new results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an experimental study of two distinct microchannel plate (MCP) detector configurations with extended dynamic range. First, we report on measurements made with single MCPs of very low resistance (?500 k?) bonded to a Peltier cooler. Stable, reproducible operation for a rear-cooled MCP with 10 ?m diameter channels of length-to-diameter ratio 60:1 was achieved for biases up to 1320 V. At this point, the MCP strip current was 5.1 mA and the rate of internal heat generation, 0.78 W cm -2. A maximum count rate of 10 8 cm -2 s -1, limited by the available intensity of UV illumination, was observed, coupled to a dark noise count rate of less than 1 cm -2 s -1. Second, we describe a substantial (up to 20-fold) improvement in count rate capability for two-stage MCP multipliers incorporating plates with gold, rather than nichrome, electrodes. We also present, in support of the experimental study, a thermal model of bonded, conductively-cooled MCPs which we use to determine critical parameters for stable detector operation.

Tremsin, A. S.; Pearson, J. F.; Fraser, G. W.; Feller, W. B.; White, P.

1996-02-01

414

High strain-rate testing of parachute materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research at Sandia National Laboratories has shown a strain rate dependence of many materials used in the production of parachutes. Differences in strength of 30% have been found between strain rates of 12/s and slow rates normally used to define material properties for lightweight nylon cloth. These structures are sometimes deployed in a rapid fashion and the loading is experienced in milliseconds; the production of material data in the same loading regime is required for full understanding of material response. Also, material behavior suitable for structural analysis of these structures is required for successful analysis. This is especially important when different materials are used in the same fabric structure. Determining the distribution of load to various portions of a nylon and Kevlar parachute requires the correct moduli and material behavior in the analytical model. The effect of strain rate on the material properties of nylon and Kevlar components commonly used in parachute construction are reported in this paper. These properties are suitable for use in analytical models of these fabric structures.

Gwinn, Kenneth W.; Totten, John J.; Waye, Donald E.

1994-12-01

415

High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium  

SciTech Connect

The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

2007-11-01

416

High invertase activity in tomato reproductive organs correlates with enhanced sucrose import into, and heat tolerance of, young fruit.  

PubMed

Heat stress can cause severe crop yield losses by impairing reproductive development. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined patterns of carbon allocation and activities of sucrose cleavage enzymes in heat-tolerant (HT) and -sensitive (HS) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) lines subjected to normal (control) and heat stress temperatures. At the control temperature of 25/20 °C (day/night) the HT line exhibited higher cell wall invertase (CWIN) activity in flowers and young fruits and partitioned more sucrose to fruits but less to vegetative tissues as compared to the HS line, independent of leaf photosynthetic capacity. Upon 2-, 4-, or 24-h exposure to day or night temperatures of 5 °C or more above 25/20 °C, cell wall (CWIN) and vacuolar invertases (VIN), but not sucrose synthase (SuSy), activities in young fruit of the HT line were significantly higher than those of the HS line. The HT line had a higher level of transcript of a CWIN gene, Lin7, in 5-day fruit than the HS line under control and heat stress temperatures. Interestingly, heat induced transcription of an invertase inhibitor gene, INVINH1, but reduced its protein abundance. Transcript levels of LePLDa1, encoding phospholipase D, which degrades cell membranes, was less in the HT line than in the HS line after exposure to heat stress. The data indicate that high invertase activity of, and increased sucrose import into, young tomato fruit could contribute to their heat tolerance through increasing sink strength and sugar signalling activities, possibly regulating a programmed cell death pathway. PMID:22105847

Li, Zhimiao; Palmer, William M; Martin, Antony P; Wang, Rongqing; Rainsford, Frederick; Jin, Ye; Patrick, John W; Yang, Yuejian; Ruan, Yong-Ling

2012-02-01

417

Highly divergent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus incorporate multiple isoforms of nonstructural protein 2 into virions.  

PubMed

Viral structural proteins form the critical intermediary between viral infection cycles within and between hosts, function to initiate entry, participate in immediate early viral replication steps, and are major targets for the host adaptive immune response. We report the identification of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) as a novel structural component of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) particle. A set of custom ?-nsp2 antibodies targeting conserved epitopes within four distinct regions of nsp2 (the PLP2 protease domain [OTU], the hypervariable domain [HV], the putative transmembrane domain [TM], and the C-terminal region [C]) were obtained commercially and validated in PRRSV-infected cells. Highly purified cell-free virions of several PRRSV strains were isolated through multiple rounds of differential density gradient centrifugation and analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and Western blot assays using the ?-nsp2 antibodies. Purified viral preparations were found to contain pleomorphic, predominantly spherical virions of uniform size (57.9 nm ± 8.1 nm diameter; n = 50), consistent with the expected size of PRRSV particles. Analysis by IEM indicated the presence of nsp2 associated with the viral particle of diverse strains of PRRSV. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of nsp2 in purified viral samples and revealed that multiple nsp2 isoforms were associated with the virion. Finally, a recombinant PRRSV genome containing a myc-tagged nsp2 was used to generate purified virus, and these particles were also shown to harbor myc-tagged nsp2 isoforms. Together, these data identify nsp2 as a virion-associated structural PRRSV protein and reveal that nsp2 exists in or on viral particles as multiple isoforms. PMID:24089566

Kappes, Matthew A; Miller, Cathy L; Faaberg, Kay S

2013-12-01

418

Achieving High Rates and High Uniformity in Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical mechanical polishing of Copper (Cu-CMP) is a complex and poorly understood process. Despite this, it is widely used throughout the semiconductor and microelectronics industries, and makes up a significant portion of wafer processing costs. In these contexts, desirable polishing outcomes such as a high rate of removal from the copper surface, and high removal rate uniformity, are achieved largely by trial-and-error. In this study, the same outcomes are pursued through a systematic investigation of polishing lubrication characteristics and abrasive and oxidiser concentrations in the polishing slurry. A strong link between lubrication characteristics, quantified by the dimensionless Sommerfield number, and the uniformity of polishing is demonstrated. A mechanism for the observed relationship is proposed, based on an adaptation of hydrodynamic lubrication theory. The overall rate of removal is maximized by polishing in a slurry containing oxidiser and abrasives in a synergistic ratio. Polishing away from this ratio has additional effects on the overall quality of the surface produced. Transport of slurry across the polishing pad is investigated by using tracers; the results demonstrate that slurry usage can be reduced in many circumstances with no impact on overall polishing outcomes, reducing overall processing costs. These findings are combined to design a polishing process, with good results.

Nolan, Lucy Marjorie

419

Data compression techniques applied to high resolution high frame rate video technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is presented of video data compression applied to microgravity space experiments using High Resolution High Frame Rate Video Technology (HHVT). An extensive survey of methods of video data compression, described in the open literature, was conducted. The survey examines compression methods employing digital computing. The results of the survey are presented. They include a description of each method and assessment of image degradation and video data parameters. An assessment is made of present and near term future technology for implementation of video data compression in high speed imaging system. Results of the assessment are discussed and summarized. The results of a study of a baseline HHVT video system, and approaches for implementation of video data compression, are presented. Case studies of three microgravity experiments are presented and specific compression techniques and implementations are recommended.

Hartz, William G.; Alexovich, Robert E.; Neustadter, Marc S.

1989-01-01

420

Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, we describe how to highly optimize a computer unified device architecture based platform to perform real-time processing of optical coherence tomography interferometric data and three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric rendering using a commercially available, cost-effective, graphics processing unit (GPU). The maximum complete attainable axial scan processing rate, including memory transfer and displaying B-scan frame, was 2.24 MHz for 16 bits pixel depth and 2048 fast Fourier transform size; the maximum 3-D volumetric rendering rate, including B-scan, en face view display, and 3-D rendering, was ˜23 volumes/second (volume size: 1024×256×200). To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest processing rate reported to date with a single-chip GPU and the first implementation of real-time video-rate volumetric optical coherence tomography (OCT) processing and rendering that is capable of matching the acquisition rates of ultrahigh-speed OCT.

Jian, Yifan; Wong, Kevin; Sarunic, Marinko V.

2013-02-01

421

Comparison of traditional low-dose-rate to optimized and nonoptimized high-dose-rate tandem and ovoid dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Few dose specification guidelines exist when attempting to perform high-dose-rate (HDR) dosimetry. The purpose of this study was to model low-dose-rate (LDR) dosimetry, using parameters common in HDR dosimetry, to achieve the “pear-shape” dose distribution achieved with LDR tandem and ovoid applications.Methods and Materials: Radiographs of Fletcher-Suit LDR applicators and Nucletron “Fletcher-like” HDR applicators were taken with the applicators

William E Decker; Beth Erickson; Katherine Albano; Michael Gillin

2001-01-01

422

High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter crew seat. Characterization tests were carried out on the LMEAS using a 40 vol% MRF used in the previous magnetorheometer tests. These were analyzed using both flow curves and apparent viscosity vs. Mason number diagrams. The nondimensionalized Mason number analysis resulted in data for all conditions of temperature, fluid composition, and shear rate, to collapse onto a single characteristic or master curve. Significantly, the temperature corrected Mason number results from both the bench top magnetorheometer and full scale rotary vane MREA collapse to the same master curve. This enhances the ability of designers of MRFs and MREAs to safely and effectively apply characterization data collected in low shear rate, controlled temperature environments to operational environments that may be completely different. Finally, the Searle cell magnetorheometer was modified with an enforced eccentricity to work in both squeeze and shear modes simultaneously to achieve so called squeeze strengthening of the working MRF, thereby increasing the apparent yield stress and the specific energy absorption. By squeezing the active MR fluid, particles undergo compression-assisted aggregation into stronger, more robust columns which resist shear better than single chains. A hybrid model describing the squeeze strengthening behavior is developed, and recommendations are made for using squeeze strengthening to improve practical MREA devices.

Becnel, Andrew C.

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Evolution of Population with Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Changing Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Mon