Sample records for high resolution autoradiography

  1. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography to determine microscopic distributions of B-10 in neutron capture therapy

    E-print Network

    Harris, Thomas C. (Thomas Cameron)

    2006-01-01

    The success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is heavily dependent on the microscopic distribution of B-10 in tissue. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography (HRQAR) is a potentially valuable analytical tool ...

  2. Mapping of Odor-Related Neuronal Activity in the Olfactory Bulb by High-Resolution 2-deoxyglucose Autoradiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doron Lancet; Charles A. Greer; John S. Kauer; Gordon M. Shepherd

    1982-01-01

    The spatial distribution of odor-induced neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station of the olfactory pathway, is believed to reflect important aspects of chemosensory coding. We report here the application of high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to the mapping of spatial patterns of metabolic activity at the level of single neurons in the olfactory bulb. It was found that

  3. Serial digital autoradiography with a silicon strip detector as a high resolution imaging modality for TRT dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Örbom; Magnus Dahlbom; Tove Olafsen; Anna M. Wu; Sven-Erik Strand

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the possibility of implementing serial autoradiography using a silicon strip detector as an imaging modality in pre-clinical radionuclide therapy research, in order to study the effect of non-uniform uptake on absorbed dose distribution and biological response. Tumor tissues expressing CD20 (B-cell lymphoma) or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; colorectal cancer) were excised from animals injected with mI-labelled

  4. High-resolution autoradiography in mouse brain and cerebellum 10 days after radiolabelled CDP-choline administration.

    PubMed

    Romero, A; Serratosa, J; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

    1983-01-01

    A dose of 5 microCi of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline, citicoline, Somazina) (methyl 14C) was administered to mice. Animals were sacrificed 10 days after administration and their brain and cerebellum isolated for autoradiography and electron microscopy. Sections were prepared in such a manner that a general topographic assignment of radioactivity distribution to different layers and brain structures could be made. Regarding the intracellular distribution of the different cellular types observed, Purkinje's cells exhibited in a density of focus emission higher than the others. PMID:6684467

  5. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1994-12-27

    A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

  6. Resolution, sensitivity and precision with autoradiography and small animal positron emission tomography: implications for functional brain

    E-print Network

    Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    in animal research. D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Positron emission tomographyResolution, sensitivity and precision with autoradiography and small animal positron emission tomography: implications for functional brain imaging in animal research Kathleen C. SchmidtT, Carolyn Beebe

  7. Neurotransmitter receptor localization: from autoradiography to imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Iván; Barreda-Gómez, Gabriel; González de San Román, Estibaliz; Veloso, Antonio; Fernández, José A; Giralt, M Teresa; Rodríguez-Puertas, Rafael

    2015-03-18

    Autoradiography is used to determine the anatomical distribution of biological molecules in human tissue and experimental animal models. This method is based on the analysis of the specific binding of radiolabeled compounds to locate neurotransmitter receptors or transporters in fresh frozen tissue slices. The anatomical resolution obtained by quantification of the radioligands has allowed the density of receptor proteins to be mapped over the last 40 years. The data yielded by autoradiography identify the receptors at their specific microscopic localization in the tissues and also in their native microenvironment, the intact cell membrane. Furthermore, in functional autoradiography, the effects of small molecules on the activity of G protein-coupled receptors are evaluated. More recently, autoradiography has been combined with membrane microarrays to improve the high-throughput screening of compounds. These technical advances have made autoradiography an essential analytical method for the progress of drug discovery. We include the future prospects and some preliminary results for imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) as a useful new method in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies, complementing autoradiographic studies. IMS results could also be presented as density maps of molecules, proteins, and metabolites in tissue sections that can be identified, localized, and quantified, with the advantage of avoiding any labeling of marker molecules. The limitations and future developments of these techniques are discussed here. PMID:25648777

  8. Fundamentals High Resolution

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    Fundamentals of High Resolution Pulse and Fourier Transform NMR Spectroscopy #12;#12;iii 1. ........................................................................................... 10 5. The Effects of Radio Frequency Fields

  9. Quantitative receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Boast, C.A.; Snowhill, E.W.; Altar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography addresses the topic of technical and scientific advances in the sphere of quantitative autoradiography. The volume opens with a overview of the field from a historical and critical perspective. Following is a detailed discussion of in vitro data obtained from a variety of neurotransmitter systems. The next section explores applications of autoradiography, and the final two chapters consider experimental models. Methodological considerations are emphasized, including the use of computers for image analysis.

  10. Very high resolution radiometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Aronson

    1974-01-01

    A primary sensor used in environmental and earth-resource observation, the Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) was designed for use on the ITOS D series spacecraft. The VHRR provides a 0.47 mile resolution made possible with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector cooled to approximately 105 K by a passive radiator cooler. The components of this system are described. The optical subsystem of the

  11. Effects of high-dose fenfluramine treatment on monoamine uptake sites in rat brain: Assessment using quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, N.M.; Mitchell, W.M.; Contrera, J.F.; De Souza, E.B. (NIDA Addiction Research Center, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative that in humans is used primarily as an anorectic agent in the treatment of obesity. In rats, subchronic high-dose d,l-fenfluramine treatment (24 mg/kg subcutaneously, twice daily for 4 days) causes long-lasting decreases in brain serotonin (5HT), its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and high-affinity 5HT uptake sites. Moreover, this high-dose treatment regimen causes both selective long-lasting decreases in fine-caliber 5HT-immunoreactive axons and appearance of other 5HT-immunoreactive axons with morphology characteristic of degenerating axons. Determination of the potential neurotoxic effects of fenfluramine treatment using immunohistochemistry is limited from the perspectives that staining is difficult to quantify and that it relies on presence of the antigen (in this case 5HT), and the 5HT-depleting effects of fenfluramine are well known. In the present study, we used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to assess, in detail, the density and regional distribution of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT and (3H)mazindol-labeled catecholamine uptake sites in response to the high-dose fenfluramine treatment described above. Because monoamine uptake sites are concentrated on monoamine-containing nerve terminals, decreases in uptake site density would provide a quantitative assessment of potential neurotoxicity resulting from this fenfluramine treatment regimen. Marked decreases in densities of (3H)paroxetine-labeled 5HT uptake sites occurred in brain regions in which fenfluramine treatment decreased the density of 5HT-like immunostaining when compared to saline-treated control rats. These included cerebral cortex, caudate putamen, hippocampus, thalamus, and medial hypothalamus.

  12. High-resolution echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1979-01-01

    High resolution computer aided ultrasound system provides two-and three-dimensional images of beating heart from many angles. System provides means for determining whether small blood vessels around the heart are blocked or if heart wall is moving normally without interference of dead and noncontracting muscle tissue.

  13. A new high resolution radioimager for the quantitative analysis of radiolabelled molecules in tissue section

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Laniece; Y. Charon; A. Cardona; L. Pinot; S. Maitrejean; R. Mastrippolito; B. Sandkamp; L. Valentin

    1998-01-01

    We present a high-speed, high-resolution imager of ? particles. It is devoted to be used in autoradiography experiments such as receptor binding or in situ hybridization experiments, either instead of, or in complement with autoradiographic film and emulsions. It allows the user to locate and perform quantitative analyses of (3H, 14C, 35S, 33P, 32P, 125I) labelled molecules with a 15

  14. High resolution infrared measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, B.; Cawley, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Sample ground based cloud radiance data from a high resolution infrared sensor are shown and the sensor characteristics are presented in detail. The purpose of the Infrared Analysis Measurement and Modeling Program (IRAMMP) is to establish a deterministic radiometric data base of cloud, sea, and littoral terrain clutter to be used to advance the design and development of Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems as well as other infrared devices. The sensor is a dual band radiometric sensor and its description, together with that of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), are given. A schematic diagram of the sensor optics is shown.

  15. Publications | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content High Resolution Electron Microscopy High Resolution Electron Microscopy Center for Cancer Research at the National Institutes of Health Main menu Home Research 3D Correlative Imaging Methods Development Protein Complexes Viral Entry Publications Image

  16. Gallery | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content High Resolution Electron Microscopy High Resolution Electron Microscopy Center for Cancer Research at the National Institutes of Health Main menu Home Research 3D Correlative Imaging Methods Development Protein Complexes Viral Entry Publications Image

  17. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  18. High resolution Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Vincent J.; Hays, Paul B.; Barnes, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution lidar system was implemented to measure winds in the lower atmosphere. The wind speed along the line of sight was determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the aerosol backscattered laser signal. The system in its present configuration is stable, and behaves as indicated by theoretical simulations. This system was built to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector system as a prototype for a spaceborne lidar. The detector system investigated consisted of a plane Fabry-Perot etalon, and a 12-ring anode detector. This system is generically similar to the Fabry-Perot interferometer developed for passive wind measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite. That this detector system performs well in a lidar configuration was demonstrated.

  19. High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi

    2005-02-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy provides fundamental information for understanding the effective ?-Nucleon interaction. Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-107 was designed to perform high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction of strangeness in four 1p-shell nuclei: 12C, 9Be, 16O, and 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in January and April-May 2004 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Significant modifications were made to the standard Hall A apparatus for this challenging experiment: two septum magnets and a RICH detector have been added to get reasonable counting rates and excellent particle identification, as required for the experiment. A description of the apparatus and the preliminary analysis results are presented here.

  20. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  1. ANL high-resolution injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P. Den; Billquist, P.; Liu, Z.

    1986-05-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne tandem linac accelerator system). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed.

  2. Double label autoradiography--an improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Wynford-Thomas, D.; LaMontagne, A.; Prescott, D.M.

    1986-10-01

    A convenient method for double-label autoradiography is described that uses an aqueous mountant, Gelutol (polyvinyl alcohol), which keeps the gelatin spacer in the final autoradiograph permanently swollen to a thickness of around 18 microns in contrast to its 5 microns thickness during exposure of the autoradiograph. This greatly improves optical discrimination between upper and lower layers without the loss of sensitivity or resolution that would result if a 18 microns spacer were used during exposure.

  3. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv ? HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv ? H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 ? HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 ? HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure broadening in He, O2, N2, and H2O bath gas was also examined. Measurements of the radical yield of HCHO photolysis were conducted by converting the H atom to OH through reaction with NO2 via (R5) and then detecting OH LIF using a Pulsed Laser Photolysis-Pulsed Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLP-PLIF) technique. (R5) H + NO2 ? NO + OH The resulting relative quantum yield was converted to an absolute yield by using Cl2 photolysis (and the subsequent reaction of the Cl atom with HCHO) coupled with a photofragment-LIF variation of the PLP-PLIF technique.

  4. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A. (San Ramon, CA); Oster, Yale (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  5. Gravitational instability with high resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1989-01-01

    A series of very high resolution simulations have been performed for gravitational clustering in two dimensions. It is shown that mass resolution, achieved by having large numbers of particles, is as important as spatial resolution. New objects arising inside pancakes are found, which are coherent with structure on much larger scales. The evolution of structure in hierarchical clustering models with a sufficiently flat power spectrum includes pancake-like structures, confirming the presence of filaments in cold dark matter universes.

  6. A high resolution TDC subsystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Geiges; K. Merle

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution TDC subsystem was developed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz. The TDC chip offers a time resolution of less than 300 ps and a programmable measurement range from O to 16 ?sec. The time measurement is done with a new, purely digital counting method. The chip can be operated in common start or common stop

  7. Research | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Our research program primarily focuses on the development of technologies for 3D imaging using electron microscopy techniques, and on the use of these technologies to image cells, viruses and proteins at high resolution.

  8. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  9. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M. [National Electrostatics Corp., Middleton, Wisconsin, U. S. A. 53562-0310 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  10. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  11. High-resolution acoustical imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kent Edward Eschenberg

    1989-01-01

    Pressure waves, detected by an array of receivers, can be analyzed to determine the location of the acoustic source, or the location of objects which the waves encountered along their path. High resolution methods which use a linear array to locate stationary objects which have scattered the pressure waves are examined. Several methods are explored through simulations in air. A

  12. High-resolution electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Employing scanning transmission electron microscope as interferometer, relative phases of diffraction maximums can be determined by analysis of dark field images. Synthetic aperture technique and Fourier-transform computer processing of amplitude and phase information provide high resolution images at approximately one angstrom.

  13. Localization and pharmacological characterization of high affinity binding sites for vasopressin and oxytocin in the rat brain by light microscopic autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tribollet, E; Barberis, C; Jard, S; Dubois-Dauphin, M; Dreifuss, J J

    1988-02-23

    Sites which bind tritiated vasopressin (AVP) with high affinity were detected in the brain of male, adult rats, by light microscopic autoradiography. Their anatomical localization differed markedly from that of high affinity binding sites for tritiated oxytocin (OT) determined in the same animal. Co-labelling was minimized by using low concentrations of [3H]AVP and [3H]OT. Binding of the former occurred predominantly in several structures of the limbic system (septum, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, accumbens nucleus), in two hypothalamic nuclei (suprachiasmatic and dorsal tuber) and in the area of the nucleus of the solitary tract. Binding of OT was evidenced in the olfactory tubercle, the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, the central amygdaloid nucleus and the ventral hippocampus. The ligand specificity of the binding sites was assessed in competition experiments. Synthetic structural analogues were used, allowing to discriminate OT receptors (OH[Thr4,Gly7]OT) from V2 receptors (dDAVP and d[Tyr(Me)2]VDAVP), V1 receptors ([Phe2,Orn8]VT) and V1b receptors (desGly9d(CH2)5AVP). Our main conclusions are, firstly, that AVP and OT binding sites can be readily distinguished, and that there is virtually no overlap in their distribution in the rat brain. Second, we showed that the sites which bind AVP with high affinity in the brain are V1 receptors, different both from the renal V2 receptors and from the anterior pituitary V1b receptors. Our results support the conjecture that AVP and OT play a role in interneuronal communication in the brain. PMID:2834008

  14. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  15. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  16. Welcome | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    For many years, electron microscopy has been used to image cells and tissues at high resolution. This technology, invented in the early 20th century, provided breakthrough information in the virology and cell biology fields. Over the last 15 to 20 years, however, rapid advances in imaging and computation technologies have expanded the usefulness of electron microscopy into new realms. Electron microscopy is now poised to close a critical "gap" in the structural biology field.

  17. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  18. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  19. High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun Workstations

    E-print Network

    Melvin, Stephen

    High Resolution Timing with Low Resolution Clocks and A Microsecond Resolution Timer for Sun for Sun 3 and Sun 4 workstations1. One can measure average service times without a high resolution clock?" 1. Introduction - Who Needs a Microsecond Clock Beginning with its Sun 3 workstations, Sun

  20. High-resolution image analysis.

    PubMed

    Preston, K

    1986-01-01

    In many departments of cytology, cytogenetics, hematology, and pathology, research projects using high-resolution computerized microscopy are now being mounted for computation of morphometric measurements on various structural components, as well as for determination of cellular DNA content. The majority of these measurements are made in a partially automated, computer-assisted mode, wherein there is strong interaction between the user and the computerized microscope. At the same time, full automation has been accomplished for both sample preparation and sample examination for clinical determination of the white blood cell differential count. At the time of writing, approximately 1,000 robot differential counting microscopes are in the field, analyzing images of human white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets at the overall rate of about 100,000 slides per day. This mammoth through-put represents a major accomplishment in the application of machine vision to automated microscopy for hematology. In other areas of automated high-resolution microscopy, such as cytology and cytogenetics, no commercial instruments are available (although a few metaphase-finding machines are available and other new machines have been announced during the past year). This is a disappointing product, considering the nearly half century of research effort in these areas. This paper provides examples of the state of the art in automation of cell analysis for blood smears, cervical smears, and chromosome preparations. Also treated are new developments in multi-resolution automated microscopy, where images are now being generated and analyzed by a single machine over a range of 64:1 magnification and from 10,000 X 20,000 to 500 X 500 in total picture elements (pixels). Examples of images of human lymph node and liver tissue are presented. Semi-automated systems are not treated, although there is mention of recent research in the automation of tissue analysis. PMID:3941268

  1. Former Lab Members | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content High Resolution Electron Microscopy High Resolution Electron Microscopy Center for Cancer Research at the National Institutes of Health Main menu Home Research 3D Correlative Imaging Methods Development Protein Complexes Viral Entry Publications Image

  2. Journal Covers | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content High Resolution Electron Microscopy High Resolution Electron Microscopy Center for Cancer Research at the National Institutes of Health Main menu Home Research 3D Correlative Imaging Methods Development Protein Complexes Viral Entry Publications Image

  3. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  4. High Resolution Thermography In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R. P.; Goff, M. R.; Culley, J. E.

    1988-10-01

    A high resolution medical thermal imaging system using an 8 element SPRI1E detector is described. Image processing is by an Intellect 100 processor and is controlled by a DEC LSI 11/23 minicomputer. Image storage is with a 170 Mbyte winchester disc together with archival storage on 12 inch diameter optical discs having a capacity of 1 Gbyte per side. The system is currently being evaluated for use in physiology and medicine. Applications outlined include the potential of thermographic screening to identify genetic carriers in X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XED), detailed vas-cular perfusion studies in health and disease and the relation-ship between cutaneous blood flow, neurological peripheral function and skin surface temperature.

  5. High resolution long range terrestrial imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Slater

    2005-01-01

    Achieving high resolution imagery of distant terrestrial objects from ground based sensors presents a unique technical challenge. The entire optical path is fully immersed in a dense and turbulent atmosphere, resulting in a significant loss of scene contrast and resolution. Although there are strong similarities to the problems of high resolution astronomical and space object imaging, there are also some

  6. High-resolution modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ege, Kerem; Boutillon, Xavier; David, Bertrand

    2009-09-01

    Usual modal analysis techniques are based on the Fourier transform. Due to the ?T ?f limitation, they perform poorly when the modal overlap ? exceeds 30%. A technique based on a high-resolution analysis algorithm and an order-detection method is presented here, with the aim of filling the gap between the low- and the high-frequency domains ( 30%

  7. A new system for computer-assisted quantitative receptor autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Segu, L; Rage, P; Boulenguez, P

    1990-03-01

    We have developed a computer-assisted analytic system for quantifying autoradiograms. The system was tested by studying the characteristics of high affinity serotonin binding sites (5-HT1) in rat brain sections, using [3H]5-HT as a radioligand. Autoradiographic data are digitized and transferred to a Macintosh II by means of a high speed, high resolution solid state camera. The physical characteristics of the device (uniformity, temporal stability, linearity) are such that the accuracy of the measurements obtained is highly satisfactory. The autoradiogram grey levels were measured and converted into radioligand concentrations (fmol/mg tissue) with the "BIOLAB" program which was specially written at our department in Macintosh Programming Workshop (MPW). The consistency of the measurements performed on small anatomical structures confirms the reliability of the system. The greatest discrepancies were due to the processing of the sections and also to the biological variability from one animal to another. The low cost of the device described, the high picture definition, the speed with which measurements can be obtained, the reliability of the system, and the original character of the program make it a valuable means to easier analyse quantitative autoradiography in pharmacological and physiological research. PMID:2329839

  8. A study of Cs-137 spatial distribution in soil thin sections by digital autoradiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobova, Elena; Dogadkin, Nikolay; Shiryaev, Andrey; Kolotov, Vladimir; Turkov, Victor

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have proved autoradiography to have high potential in detection of radiation in particles including geological objects [1-3]. We applied digital autoradiography based on usage of image plates to study Cs-137 microdistribution in thin sections of the podzolic sandy soil typical for the Chernobyl remote impact zone 25 years after the accident. The zone is noted for contamination of the so-called condensation type where the contribution of the "hot" fuel particles has been comparatively low. The initial 137Cs contamination level of the study plot approximated 40 Ci/km2. According to the soil core data twenty five years after the accident the main portion of cesium radioisotopes is still concentrated in the 10-20 cm thick surface layer. Thin sections have been prepared from the top 0-10 cm soil layer of the soil profile located on the shoulder of the relatively steep northern slope of the forested hill formed on the Iput river terrace ca 20 km to the east of the town of Novozybkov, Bryansk region. Undisturbed soil sample was impregnated with epoxy resin, then dissected in vertical triplicates and polished to obtain open surface. Autoradiography of the thin sections has clearly shown different patterns of Cs-137 distribution related to its concentration in organic material and on the surface of soil particles. High sensitivity and resolution of the applied technique enables to reveal concentration and dispersion zones on microscale level. Soil micro-morphology has shown to be helpful in deciphering soil components and properties responsible for Cs-137 retention in the soil top layer. References 1. Mihoko Hareyama, Noriyoshi Tsuchiya, Masahiro Takebe and Tadashi Chida. Two-dimensional measurement of natural radioactivity of granitic rocks by photostimulated luminescence technique Geochemical Journal, 2000, 34, 1- 9. 2. Zeissler C. J., R. M. Lindstrom, J. P. McKinley. Radioactive particle analysis by digital autoradiography. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 2001, 248, 2, 407-412. 3. Daniel Rufer and Frank Preusser. Potential of autoradiography to detect spatially resolved radiation patterns in the context of trapped charge dating. Geochronometria, 2009, 34, 1-13.

  9. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  10. Method for high resolution lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, E.

    1984-10-09

    A method for performing high resolution lithography. The first step involves disposing on a substructure having a surface layer to be patterned a layer of a resist material characterized by both substantial degradation sensitivity for incident ionizing radiation of a predetermined type and substantial instability of undegraded regions for a predetermined plasma etchant which attacks the surface layer. The next step is to expose a prearranged pattern of regions of the resist layer to the predetermined type of radiation to produce a corresponding pattern of degraded resist regions. Then the pattern of degraded resist regions is removed using a preselected developing solution. The next step is to modify the resist material to increase the stability thereof for the plasma etchant by exposing the developed resist layer to ionizing radiation of a type which has been predetermined to degrade the resist material and then baking the degraded resist layer. The final step is to etch the exposed regions of the surface layer using said plasma etchant.

  11. High Resolution Nanoimprint for Nanophotonics 

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Youwei

    2014-04-28

    resolution fabrication technique for SERS-active devices. The objective of this research is to explore the application of nanoimprint lithography in SERS-active devices. This work begins with two issues of nanoimprint lithography: mold fabrication...

  12. High-spatial-resolution remote sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomas Brandtberg; Timothy Warner

    Recent developments in high-spatial-resolution remote sensing have created a wide array of potential new forestry applications. High spatial resolution imagery allows a tree-scale of analysis, in which individual trees and their attributes are the focus of interest. This tree-scale remote sensing contrasts with the traditional community-scale remote sensing of medium resolution sensors such as Landsat. A variety of approaches have

  13. Contact | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    The long-term mission of our research program is to obtain an integrated, quantitative understanding of cells and viruses at molecular resolution. We take an interdisciplinary approach to this problem by combining novel technologies for 3D imaging with computational and cell biological tools.

  14. Publications | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Bartesaghi A, Merk A, Banerjee S, Matthies D, Wu X, Milne JLS, and Subramaniam S. 2.2 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of ?-galactosidase in complex with a cell-permeant inhibitor. Science. 2015 May 7; Epub ahead of print.

  15. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  16. High-resolution imaging using Hadamard Encoding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Fletcher; John C. Haselgrove; Lizann Bolinger

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution imaging techniques using noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are being pursued as in vivo cancer screening techniques in an attempt to eliminate the invasive nature of surgical biopsy. When acquiring high-resolution MR images for tissue screening, image fields of view have in the past been limited by the matrix sizes available in conventional MR scanners. We

  17. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron Sincrotron, CP 6192, 13083-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil); Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan [University of Guelph (Canada); Zanchet, Daniela [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron Sincrotron, CP 6192, 13083-971, Campinas SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  18. Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution

    E-print Network

    Reeder, Christopher Campbell

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

  19. Publications | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Imaging biological objects with electrons involves principles similar to those used in light microscopy, except that electrons are used for illumination instead of photons and the lenses are magnetic instead of being optical. In the last five decades, electron microscopy (EM) helped to reveal basic cell structures in great detail, allowing researchers to visualize internal structure at resolutions that were about 100 times better than that obtained by optical microscopy.

  20. The High Resolution Fly's Eye Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Sommers; J. Boyer; G. F. Chen; R. W. Clay; H. Y. Dai; B. R. Dawson; J. W. Elbert; Y. Ho; A. Huang; C. C. H. Jui; M. J. Kidd; D. B. Kieda; B. C. Knapp; S. Ko; C. G. Larsen; W. Lee; E. C. Loh; E. Mannel; T. A. O'Halloran; J. D. Smith; P. Sokolsky; J. K. K. Tang; S. B. Thomas; L. R. Wiencke; C. R. Wilkinson; S. Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) is under construction at Dugway, Utah. It measures the longitudinal development profiles of cosmic ray air showers by means of atmospheric scintillation light which is produced in proportion to the number of shower particles at each atmospheric depth. The new detector has greater sensitivity and higher resolution than the former Utah Fly's Eye because

  1. Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts

    E-print Network

    Gilleland, Eric

    Testing Competing High-Resolution Precipitation Forecasts Eric Gilleland Research Prediction Comparison Test D1 D2 D = D1 ­ D2 copyright NCAR 2013 Loss Differential Field #12;Spatial Prediction Comparison Test Introduced by Hering and Genton

  2. High-resolution imaging using Hadamard encoding.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, D W; Haselgrove, J C; Bolinger, L

    1999-12-01

    High-resolution imaging techniques using noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are being pursued as in vivo cancer screening techniques in an attempt to eliminate the invasive nature of surgical biopsy. When acquiring high-resolution MR images for tissue screening, image fields of view have in the past been limited by the matrix sizes available in conventional MR scanners. We present here a technique that uses aliasing to produce high resolution images with larger matrix sizes than are currently available. The image is allowed to alias in both the frequency encoding and phase encoding dimensions, and the individual, aliased fields of view are recovered by Hadamard encoding methods. These fields may then be tiled to obtain a composite image with high spatial resolution and a large field of view. The technique is demonstrated using two-dimensional and three-dimensional in vivo imaging of the human brain and breast. PMID:10609994

  3. High spatial resolution equilibrium reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Q.; Chu, M. S.; Lao, L. L.; Srinivasan, R.

    2011-09-01

    The extension of the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code to fine spatial-grid resolutions is discussed. The residue in the force-balance relation of the Grad-Shafranov (G-S) equation and the convergence property of these fine spatial-grid EFIT equilibria are studied in detail. The results suggest that fine spatial-grid equilibria generally better satisfy the force-balance constraint described by the G-S equation. Finer spatial-grid equilibria have typically smaller average error in satisfying the force-balance equation than coarse-grid equilibria and those extrapolated from coarse-grid results. Analysis of the equilibrium iteration algorithm employed in EFIT reveals that the iteration process is related to the spatial feedback stabilization of the plasma with flux control at various specified locations. Thus, for a converged equilibrium, axisymmetric stability is generally expected with feedback. The iteration error decreases self-similarly in the final stage of the iteration process and is related to the least stable axisymmetric mode in the feedback-stabilized equilibrium.

  4. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  5. High-resolution probes of low-resolution nuclei

    E-print Network

    R. J. Furnstahl

    2013-09-23

    Renormalization group (RG) methods used to soften Hamiltonians allow large-scale computational resources to be used to greater advantage in calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. These RG transformations lower the effective resolution of the nuclei, which raises questions about how to calculate and interpret high-momentum transfer probes of nuclear structure. Such experiments are conventionally explained in terms of short-range correlations, but these disappear with the evolution to low-momentum scales. We highlight the important issues and prospects in the context of recent developments in RG technology, with guidance from the analogous extraction of parton distributions.

  6. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Harten

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an apppropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory

  7. HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGING SYSTEMS - OVERVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jacobsen

    More and more high and very high resolution optical space sensors are available. Not in any case the systems are well known and the images are distributed over popular distributing channels or are accessible for any user. Several imaging satellites are announced for the near future. Not every announced satellite finally will be launched and some starts are failing. In

  8. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zombeck, M. V.; Braeuninger, H.; Ondrusch, A.; Predehl, P.

    1982-01-01

    The results of high angular resolution grazing incidence scattering measurements of highly polished, coated optical flats in the X-ray spectral range of 1.5 to 6.4 keV are reported. The interpretation of these results in terms of surface microtopography is presented and the implications for grazing incidence X-ray imaging are discussed.

  9. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  10. High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; King, T.V.V.; Klejwa, M.; Swayze, G.A.; Vergo, N.

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of minerals are studied as a function of spectral resolution in the range from 0.2 to 3.0 ??m. Selected absorption bands were studied at resolving powers (??/????) as high as 2240. At resolving powers of approximately 1000, many OH-bearing minerals show diagnostic sharp absorptions at the resolution limit. At low resolution, some minerals may not be distinguishable, but as the resolution is increased, most can be easily identified. As the resolution is increased, many minerals show fine structure, particularly in the OH-stretching overtone region near 1.4 ??m. The fine structure can enhance the ability to discriminate between minerals, and in some cases the fine structure can be used to determine elemental composition. The study shows that high-resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals may prove to be a very important tool in the laboratory, in the field using field-portable spectrometers, from aircraft, and from satellites looking at Earth or other planetary surfaces. -from Authors

  11. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Satellite Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This document in the form of viewslides, reviews various low-cost alternatives to high spatial resolution thermal satellite technologies. There exists no follow-on to Landsat 7 or ASTER high spatial resolution thermal systems. This document reviews the results of the investigation in to the use of new technologies to create a low-cost useful alternative. Three suggested technologies are examined. 1. Conventional microbolometer pushbroom modes offers potential for low cost Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) thermal or ASTER capability with at least 60-120 ground sampling distance (GSD). 2. Backscanning could produce MultiSpectral Thermal Imager performance without cooled detectors. 3. Cooled detector could produce hyperspectral thermal class system or extremely high spatial resolution class instrument.

  12. High Resolution Images from a Sequence of Low Resolution and Compressed

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    1 High Resolution Images from a Sequence of Low Resolution and Compressed Observations: A Review C images from a set of low resolution observations. These observations are acquired by either multiple, 18071 Granada, Spain. #12;2 I. Introduction Super-resolution is the task of estimating high resolution

  13. High resolution photoacoustic and photothermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. C.

    High resolution photoacoustic and photothermal imaging advances are described. Photoacoustic and photothermal theories were extended to include the effects of the highly focused optical power sources necessary for high resolution imaging. Three high frequency techniques (1 GHz) were demonstrated and used to characterize the material properties of solids. The formalism behind photothermal characterization of solids is established under general focusing conditions. An analysis of the frequency dependence of the photothermal response demonstrates that very high frequencies may be employed without loss of sensitivity if highly focused optical beams are used. Photothermal signal can be used to directly measure the thermal conductivity of solids on a microscopic scale. The three dimensional thermoacoustic field equation is derived and discussed. This equation is used to obtain the one dimensional thermoacoustic wave equation.

  14. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S; Alleyne, Andrew G; Georgiadis, John G; Ferreira, Placid M; Rogers, John A

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1 mum demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics. PMID:17676047

  15. HIGH RESOLUTION PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential environmental and health impact of PCBs must account not only for the integrated quantitation of the PCBs mixtures but also the concentrations of the specific congeners which are potentially toxic. The authors confirm the feasibility of high resolution PCB analysis ...

  16. High resolution aeromagnetic survey of Lake Superior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Teskey; M. D. Thomas; R. A. Gibb; S. D. Dods; K. Fadaie; R. P. Kucks; V. W. Chandler; J. D. Phillips

    1991-01-01

    A 57,000 line kilometer, high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was flown in 1987 as a contribution to the Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution (GLIMPCE). Existing aeromagnetic data from the United States and Canada were combined with the new data to produce a composite map and gridded data base of the Lake Superior region (Figure 1). Analysis of the new

  17. High-Resolution Model of the Microtubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Nogales; Michael Whittaker; Ronald A. Milligan; Kenneth H. Downing

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution model of the microtubule has been obtained by docking the crystal structure of tubulin into a 20 Å map of the microtubule. The excellent fit indicates the similarity of the tubulin conformation in both polymers and defines the orientation of the tubulin structure within the microtubule. Long C-terminal helices form the crest on the outside of the protofilament,

  18. High-resolution lensless Fouriertransform digital holography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Istvan Banyasz; Janos Kornis

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possibility of improving the resolution of digital holography. To achieve this goal we recorded digital holograms of microlines of width in the micrometer region in a lensless Fourier-transform setup. In such a way spatial frequency of the hologram can be reduced in high numerical aperture geometry. A He-Ne laser was used

  19. The IMAGE High-Resolution Data Set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Gurgiolo

    2000-01-01

    The entire IMAGE mission high resolution (level 0.5) data set is being archived in Universal Data Format (UDF). This data format is self-documenting, does not alter the incoming telemetry values, allows for easy access through a small number of generic software routines, and returns data in any physical unit for which an algorithm has been constructed. This paper discusses the

  20. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Mcintosh; J Joe Cordaro

    2008-01-01

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for

  1. Extragalactic science at very high spectral resolution

    E-print Network

    Eric Emsellem

    2004-09-27

    I briefly mention a few possible applications of very high spectral resolution spectroscopy with CRIRES to the study of nearby galaxies. This includes the fields of AGN, dynamically cold systems, super stellar and emission line clusters, and a more speculative program on the measurement of gravitational redshifts.

  2. High resolution imaging of space objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fienup

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a research effort to investigate a method of obtaining high resolution images of space objects using Earth-bound optical telescopes despite the turbulence of the atmosphere. The results of this research are an indication that by using an iterative reconstruction algorithm, it is feasible to reconstruct diffraction-limited images from the Fourier modulus (or autocorrelation) data

  3. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  4. High resolution GPR and its experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling; Zeng, Zhaofa; Wang, Munan; Wang, Zhenjiang

    2007-12-01

    We develop a high resolution ground penetrating radar system (LANRCS-GPR) based on the E5071B Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). This system takes advantage of a wideband and adjustable frequency domain ground penetrating radar system and adds the characteristics of a network analyzer with ultra-wideband and high precision measurement. It adopts the LAN mode to concatenate system control that reduces construction cost and makes the system easy to expand. The high resolution ground penetrating radar system carries out real time imaging using F-K migration with high calculation efficiency. The experiment results of the system indicate that the LANRCS-GPR system provides high resolution and precision, high signal-to-noise ratio, and great dynamic range. Furthermore, the LANRCSGPR system is flexible and reliable to operate with easy to expand system functions. The research and development of the LANRCS-GPR provide the theoretical and experimental foundation for future frequency domain ground penetrating radar production and also can serve as an experimental platform with high data gathering precision, enormous information capability, wide application, and convenient operation for electromagnetic wave research and electromagnetic exploration

  5. 10. High-Resolution TEM Imaging Spatial resolution is important for any microscopy. This chapter presents

    E-print Network

    10. High-Resolution TEM Imaging Spatial resolution is important for any microscopy. This chapter. Unfortunately, simple and convenient models of #12;524 10. High-Resolution TEM Imaging lenses and especially problems are possible with high-resolution imaging. These were chosen in part to show how much trust can

  6. High Resolution Sapphire Bragg Backscattering Monochromator

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, P. van der; Wille, H.-C. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Shvyd'ko, Yu. V. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, Il-60439 (United States)

    2007-01-19

    We present a temperature stabilised high resolution sapphire backscattering monochromator. The device consists of a sapphire crystal inside a cold nitrogen gas cooled, temperature stabilised chamber with a passively temperature stabilised screen. The achieved temperature stability of {+-}2mK allows for an energy resolution of {delta}E/E {<=} 10-7 at energies in the range of 30-70 keV. The device was developed for nuclear resonant scattering above 30 keV, where appropriate solutions did not exist until now.

  7. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  8. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Sheth, K.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-08-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 ?m, 4.6 ?m, 12 ?m, and 22 ?m. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  9. CONSTRUCTING A WISE HIGH RESOLUTION GALAXY ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Fowler, J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Petty, S.; Lake, S.; Wright, E. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cluver, M. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Benford, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blain, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, LE1 7RH Leicester (United Kingdom); Bridge, C.; Neill, James D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Donoso, E. [Spitzer Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Koribalski, B. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Seibert, M. [Observatories of the Carnegie Insititution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sheth, K. [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow. (United States); Stanford, S., E-mail: jarrett@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 {mu}m, 4.6 {mu}m, 12 {mu}m, and 22 {mu}m. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  10. High resolution electron crystallography of protein molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, R.M. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cell Biology]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Downing, K.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Electron diffraction data and high resolution images can now be used to obtain accurate, three-dimensional density maps of biological macromolecules. These density maps can be interpreted by building an atomic-resolution model of the structure into the experimental density. The Cowley-Moodie formalism of dynamical diffraction theory has been used to validate the use of kinematic diffraction theory, strictly the weak phase object approximation, in producing such 3-D density maps. Further improvements in the preparation of very flat specimens and in the retention of diffraction to a resolution of 0.2 nm or better could result in electron crystallography becoming as important a technique as x-ray crystallography currently is for the field of structural molecular biology.

  11. High-Resolution Photoelectron and Photoionization Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, F.

    2012-06-01

    Since its development in the late 1950s and early 1960s, photoelectron spectroscopy has established itself as an important method to study the electronic structure of molecules, their photoionization dynamics, and the structure and dynamics of molecular cations. In recent years, and particularly since the development of pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy, considerable progress has been made in the resolution that can be achieved by photoelectron spectroscopy. This progress relies on the systematic exploitation of the unusual physical properties of high Rydberg states and enables one today to resolve the rotational structure in the photoelectron spectra of even large molecules and the hyperfine structure in the photoelectron spectra of small molecules. This talk will begin with a brief historical review of photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the relationship between photoelectron spectroscopy, photoionization spectroscopy and the spectroscopy of high Rydberg states will be discussed. It will be explained how this relationship is currently exploited to improve the resolution achievable by PFI-ZEKE photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the physical principles that are at the heart of the latest methods related to high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy will be described together with their fundamental limitations. Depending on the resolution and the spectral range needed to address a specific scientific problem, a choice can be made between several different methods with spectral resolutions ranging from 30 GHz to better than 1 MHz. The talk will summarize the current state of the art in gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy and be illustrated by several examples, primarily taken from the research in my group, in which photoelectron spectroscopy has contributed to answer questions concerning the structure and dynamics of small-sized molecular cations. F. I. Vilesov, B. C. Kurbatov, and N. Terrenin, Soviet Phys. (Doklady) 6, 490 (1961) D. W. Turner and M. I. Al-Jobory, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 3007 (1962) G. Reiser, W. Habenicht, K. Müller-Dethlefs and E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 119 (1988) F. Merkt, S. Willitsch and U. Hollenstein, High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy, in: Handbook of high-resolution spectroscopy, eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt (Wiley, Chichester, 2011), Vol. III, pp 1617-1654

  12. Tight Frame Based Method for High-Resolution Image Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Shen, Zuowei

    Tight Frame Based Method for High-Resolution Image Reconstruction Jian-Feng Cai Raymond Chan Lixin Shen Zuowei Shen§ June 25, 2008 1 High-Resolution Image Reconstruction Model High-resolution image reconstruction is to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) image from multiple, under- sampled, shifted, degraded

  13. Transmitter sensitivity of neurons assayed by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikami, D.

    1981-05-22

    Ionic conductance channels that are opened by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synapses of sympathetic neurons are permeable to small organic amines. Uptake of a tritium-labeled amine through these channels can be measured by autoradiography. This provides a simple and direct way to assess the sensitivity of individual neurons to acetylcholine without using microelectrodes.

  14. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  15. High-resolution, high-pressure NMR studies of proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, J; Ballard, L; Nash, D

    1998-01-01

    Advanced high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NMR techniques, combined with high pressure capability, represents a powerful new tool in the study of proteins. This contribution is organized in the following way. First, the specialized instrumentation needed for high-pressure NMR experiments is discussed, with specific emphasis on the design features and performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, high-resolution, variable-temperature NMR probe operating at 500 MHz and at pressures of up to 500 MPa. An overview of several recent studies using 1D and 2D high-resolution, high-pressure NMR spectroscopy to investigate the pressure-induced reversible unfolding and pressure-assisted cold denaturation of lysozyme, ribonuclease A, and ubiquitin is presented. Specifically, the relationship between the residual secondary structure of pressure-assisted, cold-denatured states and the structure of early folding intermediates is discussed. PMID:9649405

  16. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grubor, Nenad M.

    2005-05-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  17. High resolution spectrometers for planetary spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J. L.; Vinogradov, I.; Kalinnikov, Yu.; Nevejans, D.; Neefs, E.; Le Barbu, T.; Durry, G.; Fedorova, A.; Grigoriev, A.

    Spectral measurements with high resolution give access to planetary atmospheres when observing from the Earth. Very high spectral resolution allows Doppler separation of the spectral lines in the planetary atmosphere from telluric ones, thus enabling to detect and to measure minor constituents and isotopic composition. These measurements, however, are generally full-disk averaged; also it is difficult to measure molecules abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. Therefore, spacecraft measurements at high spectral resolution are of great value in planetary missions. A review of spectrometers used in deep space missions and on the Earth orbit will be given; in particular, solar occultation high-resolution measurements will be addressed. The mass of existing state-of-the-art instruments (several tens to hundreds of kilograms) prevents them from being sent toward other planets. Even in the remote sensing of the Earth the tendencies are that compact and lightweight instrumentation has more chances to be flown. A new concept of a high-resolution near-IR spectrometer consisting of an echelle grating combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for separation of diffraction orders, is developed for space-borne studies of planetary atmospheres. An AOTF spectrometer with lower resolution (no echelle grating, ? v/?? s? 1200, mass 800 g) has been qualified and is now operational on the Mars Express orbiter. New compact design within the mass budget of 3-5 kg allows to reach the resolving power ? v/?? s of 20000-30000. A spectrometer, based on this principle, SOIR (Solar Occultation InfraRed) is being built for Venus Express (2005) ESA mission to study atmospheric structure and composition above clouds. The concept and the potential of such instrument for the studies of Mars and the Earth atmospheres, in particular, measurements of isotopes of water in the atmosphere, either in solar occultation profiling, or (on the Earth) observing solar glint for integral quantities of the components. Small size of hardware makes the instrument ideal for micro-satellites, which are now agile enough to provide necessary pointing for solar occultation or glint observations.

  18. SOHO - A high resolution solar physics mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaire, P.

    1991-01-01

    The present study discusses SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), a satellite with a pointing stability of 1 arcsec that will be launched in 1995 to the L1 Lagrangian point between the sun and the earth. In situ measurements, at approximately 1 AU, are to trace the results of solar wind expansion. The SOHO mission aims are discussed: to obtain long and uninterrupted series of solar oscillation measurements either in flux or in velocity in order to sound the solar interior using high resolution in the frequency domain; to probe the upper atmosphere with high-resolution UV/EUV imager/spectrometers and UV/visible coronagraphs and photometers in order to bring new constraints on the coronal heating; and to measure in situ the solar wind flow in front of the earth and thus establish the link between the sun and the near-earth environment. The satellite and instrumentation are reviewed in relation to the specific capabilities that they offer.

  19. High resolution light microscopy in renal pathology.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, E O; Flores, T R

    1981-11-01

    Seven hundred renal specimens embedded in epoxy resins and stained with polychromatic stains were compared with paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H & E), Perodic and Schiff, (PAS), silver, and trichrome stains. High resolution of light microscopy, never in wax histopathology, may be obtained by the use of plastic embedding and polychromatic stains. Cell boundaries, intracellular organelles, basement membranes, different cellular types, apposition of different substances, and other pathologic changes were readily recognized in a single P + P (Plastic section stained with Polychromatic stains) section, whereas paraffin sections usually needed special stains. The same plastic block may be used for transmission electron microscopy. Slightly elevated cost, special training of the technician and pathologist, and some few remaining technical difficulties are the disadvantages of this method. High resolution light microscopy methods are recommended for routine renal biopsies. PMID:7027785

  20. High-resolution, multicolor organic LED displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Jordan; N. Armstrong; D. Savage; Ching Tang

    1998-01-01

    We are developing high-resolution, multicolor displays based on the integration of fluorescent color filter arrays and monocolor organic light emitting diode arrays. A single organic light emitting diode pixel produces blue light which is absorbed by a fluorescent sub-pixel. The sub-pixel re-emits the absorbed light in a lower energy spectral range and thus converts the blue light to green or

  1. ORIENTATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL SPACE IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    High resolution space images like IKONOS, QuickBird and OrbView-3 today compete with classical aerial images. The information contents of the space images can be compared with aerial photos having a scale up to 1:30000, but also the geometric conditions should be on a similar level. For QuickBird and OrbView-3 close to original images as well as images projected to a

  2. Conversational high resolution mass spectrographic data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romiez, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 program is described which reduces the data obtained from a high resolution mass spectrograph. The program (1) calculates an accurate mass for each line on the photoplate, and (2) assigns elemental compositions to each accurate mass. The program is intended for use in a time-shared computing environment and makes use of the conversational aspects of time-sharing operating systems.

  3. Ploidy measurements by high-resolution cytometry.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, M; Bartels, P H; Dytch, H E; Wied, G L

    1985-06-01

    Technology has made DNA ploidy assessment a clinically and economically feasible procedure, 30 years after its clinical potential was established. This paper reviews the history of ploidy measurements, DNA cytophotometry, DNA interpretation and the prognostic value of nuclear DNA analysis in various anatomic sites. Emphasis is placed on static high-resolution cytometry, not flow cytometric methods, with a description given of the systems for rapid DNA cytometry developed as part of the TICAS Project at the University of Chicago. PMID:4026948

  4. WAVELET ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION

    E-print Network

    Shen, Zuowei

    WAVELET ALGORITHMS FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION RAYMOND H. CHAN, TONY F. CHAN, LIXIN. 24, No. 4, pp. 1408­1432 Abstract. High-resolution image reconstruction refers to the reconstruction of high-resolution images from multiple low-resolution, shifted, degraded samples of a true image

  5. Estimation of High Resolution Images and Registration Parameters

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    Estimation of High Resolution Images and Registration Parameters from Low Resolution Observations@ece.nwu.edu Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of reconstructing a high resolution image from a set of undersampled and degraded frames, all of them obtained from high resolution images with unknown shifting

  6. CrIS High Resolution Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, C. L.; Strow, L. L.; Motteler, H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Tobin, D. C.; Martin, G.; Gumley, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CrIS hyperspectral sounder flying on Suomi-NPPpresently has reduced spectral resolution in the mid-wave andshort-wave spectral bands due to truncation of the interferograms inorbit. CrIS has occasionally downlinked full interferograms for thesebands (0.8 cm max path, or 0.625 cm-1 point spacing) for a feworbits up to a full day. Starting Oct.1, 2014 CrIS will be commandedto download full interferograms continuously for the remainder of themission, although NOAA will not immediately produce high-spectralresolution Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Although the originalmotivation for operating in high-resolution mode was improved spectralcalibration, these new data will also improve (1) vertical sensitivityto water vapor, and (2) greatly increase the CrIS sensitivity tocarbon monoxide. This should improve (1) NWP data assimilation ofwater vapor and (2) provide long-term continuity of carbon monoxideretrievals begun with MOPITT on EOS-TERRA and AIRS on EOS-AQUA. Wehave developed a SDR algorithm to produce calibrated high-spectralresolution radiances which includes several improvements to theexisting CrIS SDR algorithm, and will present validation of thesehigh-spectral resolution radiances using a variety of techniques,including bias evaluation versus NWP model data and inter-comparisonsto AIRS and IASI using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs). Theauthors are presently working to implement this algorithm for NASASuomi NPP Program production of Earth System Data Records.

  7. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  8. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhenium Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Hall, Ryan M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The first spectroscopic study of rhenium carbide, ReC, has been performed using both low and high resolution techniques to collect rotationally resolved electronic spectra from 420 to 500nm. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and dispersed fluorescence (DF) techniques were employed. ReC was formed in our laser ablation molecular jet apparatus by ablating a rhenium target rod in the presence of 1% methane in helium. The low resolution spectrum identified four bands of an electronic system belonging to ReC, three of which have been studied so far. Extensive hyperfine structure composed of six hyperfine components was observed in the high resolution spectrum, as well as a clear distinction between the 187ReC and 185ReC isotopologues. The data seems consistent with a ^4? - ^4?- transition, as was predicted before experimentation. Dispersed fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the ground state vibrational frequency (?e"=994.4 ± 0.3 wn), and to identify a low-lying electronically excited state at Te"=1118.4 ± 0.4 wn with a vibrational frequency of ?e"=984 ± 2 wn. Personal communication, F. Grein, University of New Brunswick

  9. Comparative Very-High-Resolution VUV Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.; Baldwin, K. G. H.; Dooley, P. M.; Waring, K.

    Despite their importance to the photochemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere, and many experimental studies, previous characterization of the Schumann-Runge (SR) bands of O2, B3 ? u- <- X3 ?_g^- (v, 0) (1750-2050 Å) has been limited by poor experimental resolution. In addition, our understanding of the SR spectrum is incomplete, many rovibrational transitions in the perturbed region of the spectrum [B(v > 15)] remaining unassigned. We review new very-high-resolution measurements of the O2 photoabsorption cross section in the SR bands. Tunable, narrow-bandwidth background vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for the measurements ( 7 × 105 resolving power) was generated by the two-photon-resonant difference-frequency four-wave mixing in Xe of excimer-pumped dye-laser radiation. With the aid of these cross-section measurements, rovibrational and line-shape analyses have led to new insights into the molecular structure and predissociation dynamics of O2. The current VUV laser-spectroscopic measurements are shown to compare favourably with results from two other very-high-resolution experimental techniques, namely laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and VUV Fourier-transform spectroscopy, the latter performed using a synchrotron source.

  10. Applied high resolution digital control for universal precision systems

    E-print Network

    Gawlik, Aaron John

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and characterization of a high-resolution analog interface for dSPACE digital control systems and a high-resolution, high-speed data acquisition and control system. These designs are intended ...

  11. MAMS - A high spatial resolution multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Robert J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) is an airborne scanner which collects imagery in eight visible and three IR bands, with ground resolution of 100 m at a nominal aircraft altitude of 20 km. The visible channels provide continuous spectral coverage from 0.42 to 1.05 microns, and the IR channels measure upwelling and reflected radiation at combinations of 3.7, 6.5, 11.1, and 12.5 microns. These include channels nearly identical to the Landsat TM channels 1-4, and similar to those on the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) and AVHRR instruments. The high spatial resolution permits investigation of surface thermal and atmospheric water vapor structure at scales not available from current stabilities. Significant modifications have been made since engineering flights in 1985 to improve the radiometric performance. The increased data quality and recent multidisciplinary applications of this data are presented.

  12. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  13. Daily High-Resolution-Blended Analyses for Sea Surface Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas M. Smith; Chunying Liu; Dudley B. Chelton; Kenneth S. Casey; Michael G. Schlax

    2007-01-01

    Two new high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) analysis products have been developed using optimum interpolation (OI). The analyses have a spatial grid resolution of 0.25° and a temporal resolution of 1 day. One product uses the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) infrared satellite SST data. The other uses AVHRR and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on the NASA Earth

  14. High resolution image formation from low resolution frames using Delaunay triangulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Surapong Lertrattanapanich; Nirmal K. Bose

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm based on spatial tessellation and approximation of each triangle patch in the Delaunay (1934) triangulation (with smoothness constraints) by a bivariate polynomial is advanced to construct a high resolution (HR) high quality image from a set of low resolution (LR) frames. The high resolution algorithm is accompanied by a site-insertion algorithm for update of the initial HR image

  15. Trade-offs between Angular and Spatial Resolution in High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Trade-offs between Angular and Spatial Resolution in High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging. Jack Jr4 , Arthur W. Toga1 , Paul M. Thompson1 1 Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Dept. of Neurology, UCLA question for DTI is how to allocate the scanning time: higher spatial resolution or more angular resolution

  16. High Spectral Resolution Lidar: System Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek Vivekanandan, J.; Morley, Bruce; Spuler, Scott; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    One of the unique features of the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) is simultaneous measurements of backscatter and extinction of atmosphere. It separates molecular scattering from aerosol and cloud particle backscatter based on their Doppler spectrum width. Scattering from aerosol and cloud particle are referred as Mie scattering. Molecular or Rayleigh scattering is used as a reference for estimating aerosol extinction and backscatter cross-section. Absolute accuracy of the backscattered signals and their separation into Rayleigh and Mie scattering depends on spectral purity of the transmitted signals, accurate measurement of transmit power, and precise performance of filters. Internal calibration is used to characterize optical subsystems Descriptions of high spectral resolution lidar system and its measurement technique can be found in Eloronta (2005) and Hair et al.(2001). Four photon counting detectors are used to measure the backscatter from the combined Rayleigh and molecular scattering (high and low gain), molecular scattering and cross-polarized signal. All of the detectors are sensitive to crosstalk or leakage through the optical filters used to separate the received signals and special data files are used to remove these effects as much as possible. Received signals are normalized with respect to the combined channel response to Mie and Rayleigh scattering. The laser transmit frequency is continually monitored and tuned to the 1109 Iodine absorption line. Aerosol backscatter cross-section is measured by referencing the aerosol return signal to the molecular return signal. Extinction measurements are calculated based on the differences between the expected (theoretical) and actual change in the molecular return. In this paper an overview of calibration of the HSRL is presented. References: Eloranta, E. W., High Spectral Resolution Lidar in Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Klaus Weitkamp editor, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2005. Hair, JW; Caldwell, LM; Krueger, D. A.Krueger, and C.Y. She 2001: High-spectral-resolution lidar with iodine-vapor filters: measurement of atmospheric-state and aerosol profiles. Appl. Optics, 40, 5280-5294.

  17. The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Meier, R.R. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1990-04-01

    Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 {angstrom} and 1860 {angstrom} at 2 {angstrom} resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 {angstrom} at 7 {angstrom} resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N{sub 2} c{prime}{sub 4} system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N{sub 2} Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N{sub 2} emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N{sub 2} densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O{sub 2} density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC{number sign}21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations.

  18. High-resolution images from low-resolution compressed video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Andrew Segall; Rafael Molina; Aggelos K. Katsaggelos

    2003-01-01

    Surveys the field of super resolution (SR) processing for compressed video. The introduction of motion vectors, compression noise, and additional redundancies within the image sequence makes this problem fertile ground for novel processing methods. In conducting this survey, though, we develop and present all techniques within the Bayesian framework. This adds consistency to the presentation and facilitates comparison between the

  19. Localization of beta-adrenergic receptors in transmural slices of myocardium with quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Murphree, S.S.; Saffitz, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    Alterations in the density of myocardial ..beta..-adrenergic receptors (..beta..AR) induced by ischemia may be important in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic heart disease. Conventional binding assays in tissue homogenates lack the anatomic resolution required for cell-specific analysis of early alterations in receptor density induced by ischemia. Accordingly, the authors have developed methods for localization of ..beta..AR in transmural slices of feline left ventricle with quantitative autoradiography. Frozen sections were incubated with /sup 125/I-iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) +/- Z-propranolol for 60 min at 37/sup 0/. Non-specifically bound radioactivity was removed by rinsing the sections for 60 min at 22/sup 0/. At saturating concentrations of ICYP, > 90% specific binding was achieved. Specific binding was rapid, saturable, of high affinity and proportional to section thickness (B/sub max/ = 26.5 +/- 6.4 fmol/mg tissue protein; K/sub d/ = 10.0 +/- 2.1 pM; N = 14). Agonist binding showed the rank order of potency expected for ..beta..AR (IC/sub 50/ = 0.12 ..mu..M, isoproterenol; .18 ..mu..M, norepinephrine; .54 ..mu..M, epinephrine) and demonstrated stereo-selectivity (IC/sub 50/ = .013 ..mu..M, Z-isoproterenol; 9.5 ..mu..M, d-isoproterenol). Quantitative autoradiography with both film and emulsion methods will permit regional analysis of ..beta..AR density in large transmural sections as well as cell-specific analysis at the microscopic level.

  20. Automatic testing of high resolution time digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.

    1988-02-01

    An automated system for the testing and performance evaluation of high-resolution long-range time digitizers is described. The test system employs an IBM PC/XT or PC/AT personal computer together with appropriate hardware interfacing modules to control the digitizer under test. Precise timing intervals for testing are generated by a pulse calibration module driven by a programmable low phase noise frequency synthesizer. The time intervals measured by the digitizer are then compared under computer control with the actual intervals produced by the synthesizer for a sufficient number of cases to establish the digitizer performance. The hardware and software components used are discussed.

  1. High Resolution Feshbach Spectroscopy of Cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Cheng; Vuleti?, Vladan; Kerman, Andrew J.; Chu, Steven

    2000-09-01

    We measure high-resolution Feshbach resonance spectra for ultracold cesium atoms colliding in different hyperfine and magnetic sublevels. More than 25 resonances are observed for magnetic fields up to 230 G and their positions are measured with an accuracy down to 0.03 G. From these spectra several ground-state molecular interaction parameters can be extracted with sufficient accuracy to permit for the first time an unambiguous and accurate determination of cesium's ultracold collision properties [P. J. Leo, C. J. Williams, and P. S. Julienne, following Letter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2721 (2000)].

  2. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  3. Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for ( sup 125 I) iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlert, D.R.; Gackenheimer, S.L.; Mais, D.E.; Robertson, D.W. (Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1991-05-01

    We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide (N-(2-((((cyclohexylamino)carbonyl)amino)sulfonyl)ethyl)-5-{sup 125}I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels.

  4. HIV: The Initial Invasion | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to main content High Resolution Electron Microscopy High Resolution Electron Microscopy Center for Cancer Research at the National Institutes of Health Main menu Home Research 3D Correlative Imaging Methods Development Protein Complexes Viral Entry Publications Image

  5. High resolution spectroscopy of M subdwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpurohit, A. S.; Reylé, C.; Schultheis, M.; Allard, F.

    2013-11-01

    M subdwarfs are metal poor and cool stars. They are important probes of the old galactic populations. However, they remain elusive due to their low luminosity. Observational and modeling efforts are required to fully understand the physics and to investigate the effect of metallicity in their cool atmospheres. We perform a detail study of a sample of subdwarfs to determine their stellar parameters and constrain the atmosphere models. We present UVES/VLT high resolution spectra of 21 M subdwarfs. Our atlas covers the optical region from 6400Å up to the near infrared at 10000Å. We show spectral details of cool atmospheres at very high resolution (R˜ 40 000) and compare with synthetic spectra computed from the recent BT-Settl atmosphere models. Our comparison shows that molecular features (TiO, VO, CaH), and atomic features (Fe, Ti, Na, K) are well fitted by current models. We produce an effective temperature versus spectral type relation all over the subdwarf spectral sequence.

  6. High resolution guided wave pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    Commercial guided wave inspection systems provide rapid screening of pipes, but limited sizing capability for small defects. However, accurate detection and sizing of small defects is essential for assessing the integrity of inaccessible pipe regions where guided waves provide the only possible inspection mechanism. In this paper an array-based approach is presented that allows guided waves to be focused on both transmission and reception to produce a high resolution image of a length of pipe. In the image, it is shown that a signal to coherent noise ratio of over 40 dB with respect to the reflected signal from a free end of pipe can be obtained, even taking into account typical levels of experimental uncertainty in terms of transducer positioning, wave velocity etc. The combination of an image with high resolution and a 40 dB dynamic range enables the detection of very small defects. It also allows the in-plane shape of defects over a certain size to be observed directly. Simulations are used to estimate the detection and sizing capability of the system for crack-like defects. Results are presented from a prototype system that uses EMATs to fully focus pipe guided wave modes on both transmission and reception in a 12 inch diameter stainless steel pipe. The 40 dB signal to coherent noise ratio is obtained experimentally and a 2 mm diameter (0.08 wavelengths) half-thickness hole is shown to be detectable.

  7. Miranda High Resolution of Large Fault

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This high-resolution image of Miranda was acquired by Voyager 2 on Jan. 24, 1986, when the spacecraft was 36,250 kilometers (22,500 miles) from the Uranian moon. In this clear-filter, narrow-angle image, Miranda displays a dramatically varied surface. Well shown at this resolution of 660 meters (2,160 feet) are numerous ridges and valleys -- a topography that was probably produced by compressional tectonics. Cutting across the ridges and valleys are many faults. The largest fault scarp, or cliff, is seen below and right of center; it shows grooves probably made by the contact of the fault blocks as they rubbed against each other (leaving what are known as slickensides). Movement of the down-dropped block is shown by the offset of the ridges. The fault may be 5 km (3 mi) high, or higher than the walls of the Grand Canyon on Earth. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  8. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  9. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  10. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    Progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology requires tools that enable the imaging and manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular scale. During the last two decades or so, scanning probe-based techniques have proven to be particularly versatile in this regard. Among the various probe-based approaches, atomic force microscopy (AFM) stands out in many ways, including the total number of citations and the breadth of possible applications, ranging from materials characterization to nanofabrication and biological studies. However, while nanometer scale operation in different environments became routine, atomic resolution imaging remained elusive for a long time. The reason for this initial deficiency was that contact with the sample blunts atomically sharp tips, which are mandatory for successful atomic resolution imaging. This problem was overcome in the mid-1990s with the introduction of noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), which represents a version of AFM where the cantilever is oscillated close to the sample surface without actually 'touching' it. This allows the preservation of the atomic sharpness of the tip while interaction-induced changes in the cantilever's resonance frequency are used to quantify the tip-sample distance. Since then, progress has been steady and includes the development of commercial instruments as well as the addition of many new capabilities beyond imaging, such as the identification and manipulation of individual atoms. A series of annual international conferences, starting in Osaka in 1998, have contributed significantly to this outstanding performance. The program of the most recent conference from this series, held in Madrid on 15-19 September 2008, reflects the maturity of this field, with an increasing number of groups developing strong activities that involve novel approaches and applications covering areas well beyond the original vacuum-based imaging. In this special issue of Nanotechnology we present a selection of original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons. PMID:19531843

  11. High resolution wavefront measurement of aspheric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erichsen, I.; Krey, S.; Heinisch, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2008-08-01

    With the recently emerged large volume production of miniature aspheric lenses for a wide range of applications, a new fast fully automatic high resolution wavefront measurement instrument has been developed. The Shack-Hartmann based system with reproducibility better than 0.05 waves is able to measure highly aspheric optics and allows for real time comparison with design data. Integrated advanced analysis tools such as calculation of Zernike coefficients, 2D-Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Point Spread Function (PSF), Strehl-Ratio and the measurement of effective focal length (EFL) as well as flange focal length (FFL) allow for the direct verification of lens properties and can be used in a development as well as in a production environment.

  12. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  13. HIGH-RESOLUTION PIEZOPOLYMER ACOUSTIC BEARING ESTIMATOR Shawn E. Burke

    E-print Network

    HIGH-RESOLUTION PIEZOPOLYMER ACOUSTIC BEARING ESTIMATOR Shawn E. Burke The Center for Photonics of Massachusetts, Lowell #12;High-resolution piezopolymer acoustic bearing estimator Shawn E. Burke The Center, distributed, shaded PVDF piezopolymer sensors to provide high-resolution acoustic source bearing estimates

  14. Tight Frame Based Method for High-Resolution Image Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Chan, Raymond

    Tight Frame Based Method for High-Resolution Image Reconstruction Jian-Feng Cai Raymond Chan Lixin the problem of high-resolution image reconstruction and the associated matrix representation of the filters for various boundary extensions. We then propose three algorithms for high-resolution image reconstruction

  15. Qualitative Spatial Reasoning for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Qualitative Spatial Reasoning for High Resolution Remote Sensing Image Analysis Jordi Inglada.michel@c-s.fr Abstract High resolution remote sensing images allow us to access new kinds of information. Classical Connection Calculus for the analysis of high resolution remote sensing images is presented. A graph based

  16. Neutron reflectometry and high-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, U.; Quagliato, S. J.; Iyengar, L. R.; Crow, Morris L.; Malik, S. S.; Steyerl, Albert

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the thermal neutron reflectometer recently installed at the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center (RINSC) and presents first results. The reflectometer utilizes a narrow 'pencil beam' with an adjustable angle of incidence on the horizontal sample surface. It permits reflection studies with the neutron beam slanting upward or downward in the range up to 0.03 radians allowing measurements to be made from above or from below (e.g., through the sample substrate). We report the results of measurements of specular reflectivity for liquid D2O, for Fomblin oil, and for a polarizing super-mirror. These results are in good agreement with expectation. We also discuss a proposed high resolution imaging device for ultracold neutrons ((Delta) Qz equals 10-9 angstroms-1). This resolution would constitute an improvement of two orders of magnitude beyond the currently available techniques. The imaging system utilizes a pair of hyperbolic mirrors and a flat horizontal mirror surface represented by a lake of Fomblin liquid.

  17. Design of High Resolution High Sensitivity EMCCD Camera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaohua Yang; Ming'an Guo; Binkang Li; Jingtao Xia; Qunshu Wang; Fengrong Sun

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution and high sensitivity camera was developed using back illuminated, frame transfer on-chip electron multiplying gain CCD(EMCCD) with 1024x1024 pixels named CCD201 from E2V technologies. The CCD timing generated by a CPLD affords the normal EMCCD diver timing via a vertical clock driver chip EL7156. A programmable control voltage power source is adopted for the electron multiplying voltage

  18. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a side, which spans approximately 2.2 deg. Two mosaics are provided for each pole: one corresponding to data acquired while periapsis was in the south, the other while periapsis was in the north. The CD-ROMs also contain ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files.

  19. High resolution CO imaging of high redshift QSO host galaxies

    E-print Network

    F. Walter; D. A. Riechers; C. L. Carilli; F. Bertoldi; A. Weiss; P. Cox

    2006-08-08

    We review recent high-resolution CO observations of distant QSOs obtained at the Very Large Array. The aim of these observations is to resolve the molecular gas distribution in these extreme objects both spatially and in velocity space. They provide unique information regarding the small-scale distribution, the extent, and the brightness temperatures of the molecular gas in these early systems. E.g., the structure and dynamics of the molecular gas may reveal whether or not mergers can be the cause of the ongoing starburst activity. The observations also allow for a first estimate of the dynamical gas mass. Currently, only the VLA is able to obtain resolutions in CO of up to 0.15" which is needed to resolve typical galactic structures of sizes ~1 kpc. We present new high-resolution VLA imaging of high-z QSOs (BRI 1335-0417, APM 08279+5255 and J1148+5251). These observations pave the road to future ALMA observations where resolutions of order 0.1'' will be obtained routinely.

  20. RCW 49: high-resolution ATCA observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Roberta; Umana, Grazia; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Boulanger, Francois; Dickinson, Clive

    2008-10-01

    Giant, luminous, HII regions are ideal laboratories for studies of the early stages of massive star formation. However, for these objects, there is a surprising paucity of high-resolution data at cm wavelengths, especially in the Southern hemisphere. We propose radio continuum and recombination lines observations of RCW 49, one of the most luminous and massive HII regions of the Southern hemisphere which, combined with newly released data of unprecedented quality at other frequencies, will allow to shed light on the mistery of star formation. In addition, the Cosmic Imager Background (CBI) has found, in this source, signatures of microwave excess. Therefore, the proposed observations will also provide an important insight into the anomalous emission paradigm.

  1. Automatic testing of high resolution time digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.

    1987-04-01

    An automated system for the testing and performance evaluation of high-resolution long-range time digitizers is described. The test system employs an IBM PC/XT or PC/AT personal computer together with appropriate hardware interfacing modules to control the digitizer under test. Precise timing intervals for testing are generated by a pulse calibration module driven by a programmable low phase noise frequency synthesizer. The time intervals measured by the digitizer are then compared under computer control with the actual intervals produced by the synthesizer for a sufficient number of cases to establish the digitizer performance. The hardware and software components used are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. High resolution analysis of satellite gradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite gravity gradiometry is a technique now under development which, by the middle of the next decade, may be used for the high resolution charting from space of the gravity field of the earth and, afterwards, of other planets. Some data analysis schemes are reviewed for getting detailed gravity maps from gradiometry on both a global and a local basis. It also presents estimates of the likely accuracies of such maps, in terms of normalized spherical harmonics expansions, both using gradiometry alone and in combination with data from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver carried on the same spacecraft. It compares these accuracies with those of current and future maps obtained from other data (conventional tracking, satellite-satellite tracking, etc.), and also with the spectra of various signals of geophysical interest.

  3. Limits of simulation based high resolution EBSD.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Jon

    2013-08-01

    High resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HREBSD) is a novel technique for a relative determination of both orientation and stress state in crystals through digital image correlation techniques. Recent works have tried to use simulated EBSD patterns as reference patterns to achieve the absolute orientation and stress state of crystals. However, a precise calibration of the pattern centre location is needed to avoid the occurrence of phantom stresses. A careful analysis of the projective transformation involved in the formation of EBSD patterns has permitted to understand these phantom stresses. This geometrical analysis has been confirmed by numerical simulations. The results indicate that certain combinations of crystal strain states and sample locations (pattern centre locations) lead to virtually identical EBSD patterns. This ambiguity makes the problem of solving the absolute stress state of a crystal unfeasible in a single-detector configuration. PMID:23676453

  4. Rapid mapping of high resolution SAR scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Acqua, F.; Gamba, P.; Lisini, G.

    This paper describes a semi-automatic procedure for cartographic mapping using high resolution SAR and interferometric SAR data. Various two-dimensional features are extracted and combined in order to achieve a basic yet effective recognition of the elements in the scene. Many relevant elements of the landscape are automatically extracted without requiring any deep interaction with the operator. Being based on geometric models assuming regularity of shapes and patterns, the procedure is well suited for detecting man-made features, such as the road network (outside and inside human settlements) and built-up areas. It can be used, however, to extract natural features, focusing on different geometric models. Moreover, extracted elements of the scene can be grouped into higher level ones, such as crossroads, bridges and overpasses, through data fusion at the feature level, because the procedure is characterized by a multi-scale, object-based approach.

  5. High-Resolution Anamorphic SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Durko, Heather L.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-ray imaging system that combines a high-resolution silicon detector with two sets of movable, half-keel-edged copper-tungsten blades configured as crossed slits. These apertures can be positioned independently between the object and detector, producing an anamorphic image in which the axial and transaxial magnifications are not constrained to be equal. The detector is a 60 mm × 60 mm, one-millimeter-thick, one-megapixel silicon double-sided strip detector with a strip pitch of 59 ?m. The flexible nature of this system allows the application of adaptive imaging techniques. We present system details; calibration, acquisition, and reconstruction methods; and imaging results.

  6. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J. [Landauer, Inc., Stillwater Crystal Growth Division, Stillwater OK, 74074 (United States); Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Radiation Physics and Dosimetry, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, PL 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Berg, A.; Wieland, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum f. Biomedizinische Technik und Physik (Austria); Doran, S. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Kamlowski, A. [Bruker Biospin, Rheinstetten (Germany); Cellere, G. [DEI, Department of Information Engineering, via Gradenigo, 6/B, 35131 PADOVA (Italy) and Applied Materials Baccini Via Postumia Ovest, 244, 31050 San Biagio di Callalta, Treviso; Paccagnella, A. [DEI, Department of Information Engineering, via Gradenigo, 6/B, 35131 PADOVA (Italy); Siegbahn, E. A. [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, 17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron resolution and a dose range over several orders of magnitude. This paper will give an overview of all dosimeters tested in the past at the ESRF with their advantages and drawbacks. These detectors comprise: Ionization chambers, Alanine Dosimeters, MOSFET detectors, Gafchromic registered films, Radiochromic polymers, TLDs, Polymer gels, Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, Mg single crystal detectors), OSL detectors and Floating Gate-based dosimetry system. The aim of such a comparison shall help with a decision on which of these approaches is most suitable for high resolution dose measurements in MRT. The principle of these detectors will be presented including a comparison for some dosimeters exposed with the same irradiation geometry, namely a 1x1 cm{sup 5} field size with microbeam exposures at the surface, 0.1 cm and 1 cm in depth of a PMMA phantom. For these test exposures, the most relevant irradiation parameters for future clinical trials have been chosen: 50 micron FWHM and 400 micron c-t-c distance. The experimental data are compared with Monte Carlo calculations.

  7. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 ?m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron resolution and a dose range over several orders of magnitude. This paper will give an overview of all dosimeters tested in the past at the ESRF with their advantages and drawbacks. These detectors comprise: Ionization chambers, Alanine Dosimeters, MOSFET detectors, Gafchromic® films, Radiochromic polymers, TLDs, Polymer gels, Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (Al2O3:C, Mg single crystal detectors), OSL detectors and Floating Gate-based dosimetry system. The aim of such a comparison shall help with a decision on which of these approaches is most suitable for high resolution dose measurements in MRT. The principle of these detectors will be presented including a comparison for some dosimeters exposed with the same irradiation geometry, namely a 1×1 cm5 field size with microbeam exposures at the surface, 0.1 cm and 1 cm in depth of a PMMA phantom. For these test exposures, the most relevant irradiation parameters for future clinical trials have been chosen: 50 micron FWHM and 400 micron c-t-c distance. The experimental data are compared with Monte Carlo calculations.

  8. High-Resolution Transcriptome of Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jia; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Vorholt, Daniela; Krebs, Wolfgang; Sommer, Daniel; Sander, Jil; Mertens, Christina; Nino-Castro, Andrea; Schmidt, Susanne V.; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like) and alternative (M2-like) polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7) as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226) cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease. PMID:23029029

  9. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Marc; Mallmann, Michael R; Xue, Jia; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Vorholt, Daniela; Krebs, Wolfgang; Sommer, Daniel; Sander, Jil; Mertens, Christina; Nino-Castro, Andrea; Schmidt, Susanne V; Schultze, Joachim L

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like) and alternative (M2-like) polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7) as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226) cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease. PMID:23029029

  10. Minimally invasive diagnostic imaging using high resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    E-print Network

    Herz, Paul Richard, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Advances in medical imaging have given researchers unprecedented capabilities to visualize, characterize and understand biological systems. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a high speed, high resolution imaging technique ...

  11. Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    E-print Network

    Yang, Changhuei

    Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy Guoan Zheng*, Roarke Horstmeyer, termed Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM), which iteratively stitches together a number of variably illuminated, low-resolution intensity images in Fourier space to produce a wide-field, high-resolution complex

  12. AUTOMATIC ROAD EXTRACTION FROM MULTISPECTRAL HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Bacher; Helmut Mayer

    In this paper we propose an approach for automatic road extraction from high resolution multispectral imagery, such as IKONOS or Quickbird, in rural areas. While aerial imagery usually consists of 3 spectral bands, high resolution satellite data comprises 4 spectral bands with a better radiometric quality compared to film, but a worse geometric resolution. Therefore, strongly making use of the

  13. Experiments on High Resolution Images Towards Outdoor Scene Classification

    E-print Network

    Mirmehdi, Majid

    Experiments on High Resolution Images Towards Outdoor Scene Classification A. Monadjemi, B. T resolution images to increase texture classification accuracy when used in combination with lower frequency to establish if high resolution images would provide a sufficient increase in texture information to justify

  14. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution radiometer

    E-print Network

    Heidinger, Andrew

    Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate advanced very high resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data. This method employs selective criteria to reproduce by MODIS on a pixel by pixel basis for coincident and co-located scenes. Unlike AVHRR, MODIS employs

  15. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

    1998-10-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  16. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

    1998-10-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  17. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  18. Feasibility study of an avalanche photodiode readout for a high resolution PET with nsec time resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, C.; Ziegler, S. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik Rechts der Isar] [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik Rechts der Isar; Bradbury, S.M.; Holl, I.; Lorenz, E. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Renker, D. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    A feasibility study for a high resolution positron emission tomograph, based on 9.5 x 4 x 4 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals viewed by 3 mm diameter avalanche photodiodes, has been carried out. Using a Na{sup 22} source the authors determined a spatial resolution of 2.3 {+-} 0.1 mm, an energy resolution around 15 % and a time resolution of 2.6 nsec. Possible configurations for larger scale tests and a tomograph are given.

  19. Feasibility study of an avalanche photodiode readout for a high resolution PET with nsec time resolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Schmelz; S. M. Bradbury; I. Holl; E. Lorenz; D. Renker; S. Ziegler

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study for a high resolution positron emission tomograph, based on 9.5×4×4 mm3 LSO crystals viewed by 3 mm diameter avalanche photodiodes, has been carried out. Using a Na22 source we determined a spatial resolution of 2.3±0.1 mm, an energy resolution around 15 % and a time resolution of 2.6 nsec. Possible configurations for larger scale tests and a

  20. The measurement of grain boundary diffusion by the method of autoradiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Renouf

    1970-01-01

    The method of autoradiography is used in the quantitative measurement of grain boundary diffusion. The autoradiographic image is examined using the Joyce-Loebl isodensitracer to produce an accurate two-dimensional density map of the grain boundary region sufficient in detail to allow a more extensive analysis of grain boundary diffusion. Tracer diffusion of the very high, medium and very low energy isotopes

  1. Stapes model using high-resolution ?CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jong Dae; Puria, Sunil

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the biomechanics of the middle ear is important for surgical reconstructions. As the output of the middle ear, the stapes plays a key role in transferring acoustic vibrations to the cochlea. In order to develop anatomically-based mathematical models, which are needed to improve our understanding of stapes dynamics, detailed morphometry of the stapes is required. High-resolution micro-CT imaging techniques were used to generate three-dimensional reconstructions of cadaveric temporal bones from 5 species commonly used in experimental middle ear research: the chinchilla, human (relatively mid-frequency hearing limit), cat, guinea pig, and gerbil (relatively high-frequency hearing limit). From the standard discretizations of micro-CT images and corresponding 3-D volume reconstructions, the centers of mass, principle axes, stapes head areas and stapes footplate areas were calculated. Mechanical relationships were estimated between the capitulum area and the footplate area and inter-species comparisons were performed between the cross-sectional shapes of the anterior and posterior crura. Quantitative dynamic properties were estimated from the rigid body motion calculations. The parameters estimated in this study will be useful for building biocomputational models of the stapes for a variety of species.

  2. High-speed segmentation-driven high-resolution matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrand, Fredrik; Ahlberg, Carl; Ekström, Mikael; Spampinato, Giacomo

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a segmentation-based approach for matching of high-resolution stereo images in real time. The approach employs direct region matching in a raster scan fashion influenced by scanline approaches, but with pixel decoupling. To enable real-time performance it is implemented as a heterogeneous system of an FPGA and a sequential processor. Additionally, the approach is designed for low resource usage in order to qualify as part of unified image processing in an embedded system.

  3. High power, high resolution terahertz spectroscopy technologies and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dong Ho; Graber, Benjamin; Kim, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Since a large number of molecules' resonance frequencies lie within terahertz frequencies, terahertz spectroscopy is a highly useful tool for scientific investigation of various materials. At the same time one can use the same technology for the identification of hidden materials. Despite these potential applications presently terahertz spectroscopy is largely underutilized, and it is mostly being used in the laboratory environment. This is in part largely due to the fact that no portable, high power, high resolution spectrometer is currently available. So we have been developing a high power, wideband terahertz source. The terahertz source is capable to produce a relatively high power (>2 mW), wideband (0.1 - 3 THz) terahertz beam. In addition to the source we have optimized and calibrated an electro-optic (EO) detector, of which sensitivity is 10-13 W/(Hz)1/2. Recently, by utilizing these terahertz source and detector, we have constructed a high power, high resolution terahertz spectrometer, and carried out various experiments to understand resonance spectra of water vapor, chemicals and ionized air. Also we constructed a modified terahertz spectrometer for a stand-off detection applications. In this presentation I will discuss our experimental achievements and progresses. Supported by DTRA.

  4. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

    1998-10-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  5. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

    1998-10-01

    This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

  6. Receptor microscopic autoradiography for the study of percutaneous absorption, in vivo skin penetration, and cellular–intercellular deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naohiko Hayakawa; Naoki Kubota; Nobuo Imai; Walter E. Stumpf

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microscopic autoradiography with cellular resolution and preservation of in vivo conditions is potentially the method of choice to gain detailed information about sites of deposition and retention in the epidermis and of penetration to the dermis after topical application of drugs. We tested this using 3H-Maxacalcitol. Methods: Dorsal skin of adult rats was treated in vivo with ointment containing

  7. The High Time Resolution Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, D.

    2013-11-01

    Pulsars are laboratories for extreme physics unachievable on Earth. As individual sources and possible orbital companions can be used to study magnetospheric, emission, and superfluid physics, general relativistic effects, and stellar and binary evolution. As populations they exhibit a wide range of sub-types, with parameters varying by many orders of magnitude signifying fundamental differences in their evolutionary history and potential uses. There are currently around 2200 known pulsars in the Milky Way, the Magellanic clouds, and globular clusters, most of which have been discovered with radio survey observations. These observations, as well as being suitable for detecting the repeating signals from pulsars, are well suited for identifying other transient astronomical radio bursts that last just a few milliseconds that either singular in nature, or rarely repeating. Prior to the work of this thesis non-repeating radio transients at extragalactic distances had possibly been discovered, however with just one example status a real astronomical sources was in doubt. Finding more of these sources was a vital to proving they were real and to open up the universe for millisecond-duration radio astronomy. The High Time Resolution Universe survey uses the multibeam receiver on the 64-m Parkes radio telescope to search the whole visible sky for pulsars and transients. The temporal and spectral resolution of the receiver and the digital back-end enable the detection of relatively faint, and distant radio sources. From the Parkes telescope a large portion of the Galactic plane can be seen, a rich hunting ground for radio pulsars of all types, while previously poorly surveyed regions away from the Galactic plane are also covered. I have made a number of pulsar discoveries in the survey, including some rare systems. These include PSR J1226-6208, a possible double neutron star system in a remarkably circular orbit, PSR J1431-471 which is being eclipsed by its companion with each orbit, PSR J1729-2117 which is an unusual isolated recycled pulsar, and PSR J2322-2650 which has a companion of very low mass - just 7 × 10^{-4} {M}_{?}, amongst others. I begin this thesis with the study of these pulsars and discuss their histories. In addition, I demonstrate that optical observations of the companions to some of the newly discovered pulsars in the High Time Resolution Universe survey may result in a measurement of their age and that of the pulsar. I have discovered five new extragalactic single radio bursts, confirming them as an astronomical population. These appear to occur frequently, with a rate of 1.0^{+0.6}_{-0.5} × 10^4 sky^{-1} day^{-1}. The sources are likely at cosmological distances - with redshifts between 0.45 and 1.45, making them more than half way to the Big Bang in the most distant case. This implies their luminosities must be enormous, 10^{31} to 10^{33} J emitted in just a few milliseconds. Their source is unknown but I present an analysis of the options. I also perform a population simulation of the bursts which demonstrates how their intrinsic spectrum could be measured, even for unlocalised FRBs: early indications are that the spectral index of FRBs < 0.

  8. Climate Simulations with a Variable-Resolution GCM: Stretched Cubed-Sphere High Resolution Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, C. Y.; Harris, L.; Lin, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Variable-resolution GCM with enhanced resolution over the region of interest is an adaptive approach to self-consistent interactions between global and regional phenomena. A stretched cubed-sphere High Resolution Atmosphere Model (HiRAM) is constructed using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) finite-volume dynamical core. The horizontal grid spacing in the stretched cubed-sphere is smoothly transformed from the center of highest-resolution region to the center of coarsest-resolution region. Three 30-yr AMIP type simulations were performed in this study; one C384 uniformed cubed-sphere grid, and two stretched cubed-sphere grid with stretching factor 2.5. Two stretched-grid experiments further set the center of highest-resolution region in Taiwan (C384R2.5TW) and Oklahoma City (C384R2.5OKC), respectively. The horizontal resolution in this C384R2.5 stretched grid ranges from 10km to 65km. Three climate simulations were compared against re-analysis data to understand the effect of horizontal resolution on both the simulated global climate and regional features. The global mean climatology in stretched-grid AMIP simulations shows no unrealistic drift comparing to the uniform-grid simulation and observation. Regional orographic precipitation is better simulated in the high-resolution region. High resolution also shows improvement in typhoon/hurricane simulation. In western Pacific basin, high resolution improves simulated typhoon intensity. For weak and moderate typhoons, there is no strong trend with enhancing resolution. But for strong typhoon, there is high correlation between enhancing resolution with typhoon intensity. By comparing simulations with IBTrACS ?International Best Track Archieve for Climate Stewardship? in different basins, HiRAM demonstrates the reduction of simulated typhoon/hurricane numbers with enhancement of horizontal resolution.

  9. High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, D. E.; Kenney, C. J.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

    2009-06-01

    Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ˜200 ?m tall with 60 ?m spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (˜600 k? at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

  10. Intracellular membrane traffic at high resolution

    PubMed Central

    van Weering, Jan R.T.; Brown, Edward; Sharp, Thomas H.; Mantell, Judith; Cullen, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    I. Abstract Membrane traffic between organelles is essential for a multitude of processes that maintain cell homeostasis. Many steps in these tightly regulated trafficking pathways take place in microdomains on the membranes of organelles, which require analysis at nanometer resolution. Electron Microscopy (EM) can visualize these processes in detail and is mainly responsible for our current view of morphology on the subcellular level. This review discusses how EM can be applied to solve many questions of intracellular membrane traffic, with a focus on the endosomal system. We describe the expansion of the technique from purely morphological analysis to cryo-immuno-EM, Correlative Light Electron Microscopy (CLEM) and 3D electron tomography. In this review we go into some technical details of these various techniques. Furthermore, we provide a full protocol for immunolabeling on Lowicryl sections of high-pressure frozen cells as well as a detailed description of a simple CLEM method that can be applied to answer many membrane trafficking questions. We believe that these EM-based techniques are important tools to expand our understanding of the molecular details of endosomal sorting and intracellular membrane traffic in general. PMID:20869541

  11. High-resolution ion mobility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugourd, Ph.; Hudgins, R. R.; Clemmer, D. E.; Jarrold, M. F.

    1997-02-01

    Gas phase ion mobility measurements can resolve structural isomers for polyatomic ions and provide information about their geometries. A new experimental apparatus for performing high-resolution ion mobility measurements is described. The apparatus consists of a pulsed laser vaporization/desorption source coupled through an ion gate to a 63-cm-long drift tube. The ion gate is a critical component that prevents the diffusion of neutral species from the source into the drift tube. Ions travel along the drift tube under the influence of a uniform electric field. At the end of the drift tube some of the ions exit through a small aperture. They are focused into a quadrupole mass spectrometer, where they are mass analyzed, and then detected by an off-axis collision dynode and by dual microchannel plates. The apparatus is operated with a drift voltage of up to 14 000 V and a helium buffer gas pressure of around 500 Torr. The resolving power for ion mobility measurements is over an order of magnitude higher than has been achieved using conventional injected-ion drift tube techniques. Examples of the application of the new apparatus in resolving isomers of laser desorbed metallofullerenes, in studying silicon clusters generated by laser vaporization, and in following the isomerization of small nanocrystalline (NaCl)nCl- clusters as a function of temperature, are presented.

  12. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  13. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  14. Laser wavelength comparison by high resolution interferometry.

    PubMed

    Layer, H P; Deslattes, R D; Schweitzer, W G

    1976-03-01

    High resolution interferometry has been used to determine the wavelength ratio between two molecularly stabilized He-Ne lasers, one locked to a methane absorption at 3.39 microm and the other locked to the k peak of (129)I(2) at 633 nm. An optical beat frequency technique gave fractional orders while a microwave sideband method yielded the integer parts. Conventional (third derivative) peak seeking servoes stabilized both laser and cavity lengths. Reproducibility of the electronic control system and optics was a few parts in 10(12), while systematic errors associated with curvature of the cavity mirrors limited the accuracy of the wavelength ratio measurement to 2 parts in 10(10). The measured wavelength ratio of the methane stabilized He-Ne laser at 3.39 microm [P(7) line, nu(3) band] to the (129)I(2) (k peak) stabilized He-Ne laser at 633 nm was 5.359 049 260 6 (0.000 2 ppm). This ratio agrees with that calculated from the (lower accuracy) results of earlier wavelength measurements made relative to the (86)Kr standard. Its higher accuracy thus permits a provisional extension of the frequency scale based on the cesium oscillator into the visible spectrum. PMID:20165049

  15. Europa Ice Cliffs-High Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa shows cliffs along the edges of high-standing ice plates. The washboard texture of the older terrain has been broken into plates which are separated by material with a jumbled texture. The cliffs themselves are rough and broadly scalloped, and smooth debris shed from the cliff faces is piled along the base. For scale, the height of the cliffs and size of the scalloped indentations are comparable to the famous cliff face of Mount Rushmore in South Dakota.

    This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by the solid state imaging system (camera) on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. North is to the top right of the picture, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. This image, centered at approximately 8 degrees north latitude and 273 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 1.5 kilometers by 4 kilometers (0.9 miles by 2.4 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  16. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of plasmodesmata.

    PubMed

    Brecknock, Sarah; Dibbayawan, Teresa P; Vesk, Maret; Vesk, Peter A; Faulkner, Christine; Barton, Deborah A; Overall, Robyn L

    2011-10-01

    Symplastic transport occurs between neighbouring plant cells through functionally and structurally dynamic channels called plasmodesmata (PD). Relatively little is known about the composition of PD or the mechanisms that facilitate molecular transport into neighbouring cells. While transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides 2-dimensional information about the structural components of PD, 3-dimensional information is difficult to extract from ultrathin sections. This study has exploited high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) to reveal the 3-dimensional morphology of PD in the cell walls of algae, ferns and higher plants. Varied patterns of PD were observed in the walls, ranging from uniformly distributed individual PD to discrete clusters. Occasionally the thick walls of the giant alga Chara were fractured, revealing the surface morphology of PD within. External structures such as spokes, spirals and mesh were observed surrounding the PD. Enzymatic digestions of cell wall components indicate that cellulose or pectin either compose or stabilise the extracellular spokes. Occasionally, the PD were fractured open and desmotubule-like structures and other particles were observed in their central regions. Our observations add weight to the argument that Chara PD contain desmotubules and are morphologically similar to higher plant PD. PMID:21626150

  17. DISLOCATION IMAGES IN HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    385 DISLOCATION IMAGES IN HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY R. M. STERN Department images, although it is obvious that the resolution in the back scattered image is 3-5 times poorer than in the back scattered image, but it should be noted that the resolution in the thick sample is further reduced

  18. High Spatial Resolution Commercial Satellite Imaging Product Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Blonski, Slawomir; Ross, Kenton W.; Stnaley, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's Remote Sensing group has been characterizing privately owned high spatial resolution multispectral imaging systems, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3. Natural and man made targets were used for spatial resolution, radiometric, and geopositional characterizations. Higher spatial resolution also presents significant adjacency effects for accurate reliable radiometry.

  19. Fundamental constants and high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Rahmani, H.; Whitmore, J. B.; Wendt, M.; Centurion, M.; Molaro, P.; Srianand, R.; Murphy, M. T.; Petitjean, P.; Agafonova, I. I.; D'Odorico, S.; Evans, T. M.; Levshakov, S. A.; Lopez, S.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Reimers, D.; Vladilo, G.

    2014-01-01

    Absorption-line systems detected in high resolution quasar spectra can be used to compare the value of dimensionless fundamental constants such as the fine-structure constant, ?, and the proton-to-electron mass ratio, ? = m_p/m_e, as measured in remote regions of the Universe to their value today on Earth. In recent years, some evidence has emerged of small temporal and also spatial variations in ? on cosmological scales which may reach a fractional level of ? 10 ppm (parts per million). We are conducting a Large Programme of observations with the Very Large Telescope's Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and are obtaining high-resolution ({R ? 60 000}) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ? 100) spectra calibrated specifically to study the variations of the fundamental constants. We here provide a general overview of the Large Programme and report on the first results for these two constants, discussed in detail in Molaro et al. (2013) and Rahmani et al. (2013). A stringent bound for ??/? is obtained for the absorber at z_abs = 1.6919 towards HE 2217-2818. The absorption profile is complex with several very narrow features, and is modeled with 32 velocity components. The relative variation in ? in this system is +1.3± 2.4_stat ± 1.0_sys ppm if Al II ? 1670 Å and three Fe II transitions are used, and +1.1 ± 2.6_stat ppm in a slightly different analysis with only Fe II transitions used. This is one of the tightest bounds on ?-variation from an individual absorber and reveals no evidence for variation in ? at the 3-ppm precision level (1? confidence). The expectation at this sky position of the recently-reported dipolar variation of ? is (3.2-5.4)±1.7 ppm depending on dipole model used and this constraint of ??/? at face value is not supporting this expectation but not inconsistent with it at the 3? level. For the proton-to-electron mass ratio the analysis of the H_2 absorption lines of the z_abs ? 2.4018 damped Ly? system towards HE 0027-1836 provides ??/? = (-7.6 ± 8.1_stat ± 6.3_sys) ppm which is also consistent with a null variation. The cross-correlation analysis between individual exposures taken over three years and comparison with almost simultaneous asteroid observations revealed the presence of a possible wavelength dependent velocity drift as well as of inter-order distortions which probably dominate the systematic error and are a significant obstacle to achieve more accurate measurements. Based on observations obtained with UVES at the the 8.2 m Kueyen ESO telescope programme L185.A-0745.

  20. Ultra-high-resolution brain SPECT imaging: simulation results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rogulski; H. B. Barber; H. H. Barrett; R. L. Shoemaker; J. M. Woolfenden

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional hemispherical SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) brain imager with a multiple-pinhole coded aperture and modular scintillation detectors has been built. This instrument achieves a reconstructed volume resolution of 4-5 mm. Very high detector spatial resolution can even further improve reconstructed resolution. The authors have designed a novel submillimeter-resolution gamma-ray detector using a hybrid combination of a semiconductor

  1. The High-Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg is less than b is less than 4.7 deg), along with the molecular clouds in Orion, rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga, has been produced at 60 and 100 microns from IRAS data. The atlas consists of resolution-enhanced co-added images with 1 min - 2 min resolution and co-added images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory H(sub I) line/21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) Galactic plane surveys, which both have similar (approx. 1 min) resolution to the IRAS atlas, provides a powerful tool for studying the interstellar medium, star formation, and large-scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the atlas.

  2. Ultra?high resolution array painting facilitates breakpoint sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, S M; Kalaitzopoulos, D; Burford, D C; Prigmore, E; Selzer, R R; Ng, B L; Matthews, N S W; Porter, K M; Curley, R; Lindsay, S J; Baptista, J; Richmond, T A; Carter, N P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe a considerably advanced method of array painting, which allows the rapid, ultra?high resolution mapping of translocation breakpoints such that rearrangement junction fragments can be amplified directly and sequenced. Method Ultra?high resolution array painting involves the hybridisation of probes generated by the amplification of small numbers of flow?sorted derivative chromosomes to oligonucleotide arrays designed to tile breakpoint regions at extremely high resolution. Results and discussion How ultra?high resolution array painting of four balanced translocation cases rapidly and efficiently maps breakpoints to a point where junction fragments can be amplified easily and sequenced is demonstrated. With this new development, breakpoints can be mapped using just two array experiments: the first using whole?genome array painting to tiling resolution large insert clone arrays, the second using ultra?high?resolution oligonucleotide arrays targeted to the breakpoint regions. In this way, breakpoints can be mapped and then sequenced in a few weeks. PMID:16971479

  3. High resolution aeromagnetic survey of Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teskey, D. J.; Thomas, M. D.; Gibb, R. A.; Dods, S. D.; Fadaie, K.; Kucks, R. P.; Chandler, V. W.; Phillips, J. D.

    A 57,000 line kilometer, high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was flown in 1987 as a contribution to the Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution (GLIMPCE). Existing aeromagnetic data from the United States and Canada were combined with the new data to produce a composite map and gridded data base of the Lake Superior region (Figure 1). Analysis of the new data permits more accurate definition of faults and contacts within the Midcontinent Rift system (MCR). The aeromagnetic map provides important information supplemental to the seismic profiles acquired under the GLIMPCE program in 1986, allowing lateral extension of the seismic interpretation. In particular, modeling of the data provides an independent assessment of a reflection seismic model derived along line A (Figure 2). The profile and gridded digital data are available to geoscientists through the Geophysical Data Centre of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), while the gridded data are available from the USGS-EROS Data Center. GLIMPCE was established in 1985 to study the nature and genesis of the crust in the Great Lakes region. Program participants include the GSC, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), provincial and state surveys, and Canadian and American universities. In the Lake Superior area, a major objective of the program is to develop thermal, tectonic, and petrogenetic models for the evolution of the MCR and to evaluate these in the broader context of the tectonic evolution of the North American continent. Pre-1982 geological and geophysical knowledge of the MCR in the Lake Superior region has been summarized by Wold and Hinze [1982]. The Lake Superior region provides a unique window on this Proterozoic rift system, exposing igneous rock of the Keweenawan Supergroup that disappears under Paleozoic cover to the southwest.

  4. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Mr. Kanai Shah; Mr. William Higgins; Dr. Edgar V. Van Loef

    2006-01-23

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr3:Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr3:Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBrxI3-x:Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr3 and LaI3) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBrxCl3-x:Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr3 and LaCl3) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr3:Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce is lower than that for LaBr3:Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl3 is lower than that of LaBr3), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce than LaBr3:Ce since in some instances (for example, CdxZn1-xTe), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu2+ and Pr3+, tried in LaBr3 host crystals, the Eu2+ doped samples exhibited low light output. This was mostly because a large fraction of light was emitted via very slow decay components (>50 �¯��­s) and as a result was not included in the light estimation performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy where the typical amplifier integration time used is <12 �¯��­s. The origin of these slow component(s) is most likely related to the presence of defects caused by charge imbalance in the crystals. The charge imbalance occurs when the Eu2+ ions replace the La3+ ions in crystal lattice. This charge neutrality can be restored by codoping the Eu2+ doped LaBr3 crystals with ions such as Hf4+. The Pr3+ doped LaBr3 crystals provided exciting results. They exhibited very high light yield (85,000 photons/MeV) and good energy resolution. While the decay time of LaBr3:Pr is much slower than that for LaBr3:Ce, it is fast enough for many nuclear waste cleanup applications. Furthermore, it should be possible to increase the speed of LaBr3:Pr by adjusting its Pr3+ concentration. The most exciting feature of LaBr3:Pr is that it emits in red-region and is therefore, well suited for silicon photodiode readout. In fact, LaBr3:Pr is the brightest scintillator in the red-region and its light yield is ~15% higher than the light yield of LaBr3 doped with Ce. Overall, the Phase I research has been very successful and has lead to better understanding of the lanthanum halide and related scintillators. It has also opened up some promising avenues to optimize the performance of these exciting scintillators. Based on the Phase I results, we have clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  5. High spatial resolution restoration of IRAS images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasdalen, Gary L.; Inguva, R.; Dyck, H. Melvin; Canterna, R.; Hackwell, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A general technique to improve the spatial resolution of the IRAS AO data was developed at The Aerospace Corporation using the Maximum Entropy algorithm of Skilling and Gull. The technique has been applied to a variety of fields and several individual AO MACROS. With this general technique, resolutions of 15 arcsec were achieved in 12 and 25 micron images and 30 arcsec in 60 and 100 micron images. Results on galactic plane fields show that both photometric and positional accuracy achieved in the general IRAS survey are also achieved in the reconstructed images.

  6. A Novel Approach to High Resolution Fetal Brain MR Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Rousseau; Orit A. Glenn; Bistra Iordanova; Claudia E. Rodríguez-carranza; Daniel Vigneron; A. James Barkovich; Colin Studholme

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This paper describes a novel approach to forming high resolution MR images of the human fetal brain. It addresses the key\\u000a problem of motion of the fetus by proposing a registration refined compounding of multiple sets of orthogonal fast 2D MRI\\u000a slices, that are currently acquired for clinical studies, into a single high resolution MRI volume. A robust multi-resolution\\u000a slice

  7. High Resolution Monochromatic X-Ray Tomography Using Synchrotron Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsumi Hirano; Katsuhisa Usami

    1989-01-01

    We have improved the spatial resolution of X-ray computed tomographic (CT) images using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and a high resolution X-ray sensing pickup tube as a two-dimensional detector. The developed CT imaging system was used to observe nondestructively fine structures, such as cracks, and the chemical component distribution in a ceramic. A high resolution of 10 mum was obtained. The

  8. GCP REQUIREMENT FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE MAPPING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Toutin; R. Chénier

    ABSTRACT: High-resolution images have to be geometrically and precisely processed with ground information, such as ground control points (GCPs) and digital elevation models (DEM) to generate accurate map products and 3D geospatial information. Consequently, the 3D multi-sensor physical model developed at Canada Centre for Remote Sensing for medium-resolution satellite images was adapted for these new high-resolution data, such as SPOT-5,

  9. GCP REQUIREMENT FOR HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE MAPPING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chénierb

    High-resolution images have to be geometrically and precisely processed with ground information, such as ground control points (GCPs) and digital elevation models (DEM) to generate accurate map products and 3D geospatial information. Consequently, the 3D multi-sensor physical model developed at Canada Centre for Remote Sensing for medium-resolution satellite images was adapted for these new high-resolution data, such as SPOT-5, EROS,

  10. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function inversion results. In fact, we observe that the inversion results are independent at the starting model and converges well to the same final model. We don't observe a significant change at the first order discontinuities of model (e.g. Moho depth), but we obtain better defined depths to low velocity layers.

  11. Design of high-resolution Fourier transform lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Xing Zhong; Guang Jin

    2007-01-01

    With the development of optical information processing, high-resolution Fourier transform lens has often been used in holographic data storage system, spatial filtering and observation of particles. This paper studies the optical design method of high-resolution Fourier transform optical lenses system, which could be used in particles observation and holographic data storage system. According to Fourier transform relation between object and

  12. Polarisation parameters from wide-band high resolution radar imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Herdeg; U. Fuchs; H. Wendel

    1990-01-01

    It is demonstrate that polarimetric high-resolution experiments are able to produce images of distinct scattering centers whose properties can be examined by means of the theory of optimal polarizations. The results are in excellent quantitative agreement with simulations based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD). Polarimetric high-resolution experiments thus enable the investigation of isolated canonical scattering mechanisms which are

  13. Detection of Underground Marlpit Quarries Using High Resolution Seismic

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Detection of Underground Marlpit Quarries Using High Resolution Seismic B. Piwakowski* (Ecole of high resolution reflection seismic for the detection and location of underground marlpit quarries a real danger both for population and building activities. The experiments are carried out at three sites

  14. High-resolution Brillouin gain spectroscopy in fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Faris, G.W.; Jusinski, L.E.; Dyer, M.J.; Bischel, W.K.; Hickman, A.P. (Molecular Physics Laboratory, SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025 (USA))

    1990-06-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first high-resolution Brillouin gain spectrum in a solid. Resonances corresponding to longitudinal (compressional) and transverse (shear) acoustic waves in fused silica are observed with good resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Absolute gain coefficients, linewidths, and Brillouin frequency shifts are measured. The agreement with previously measured values is good.

  15. CHARM2: An updated Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Richichi; I. Percheron; M. Khristoforova

    2005-01-01

    We present an update of the Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM, Richichi & Percheron \\\\cite{CHARM}, A&A, 386, 492), which includes results available until July 2004. CHARM2 is a compilation of direct measurements by high angular resolution methods, as well as indirect estimates of stellar diameters. Its main goal is to provide a reference list of sources which can

  16. Gegenbauer High Resolution Reconstruction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Renaut, Rosemary

    Gegenbauer High Resolution Reconstruction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Jim Estipona and Prasanna K or dark rings seen at the borders of abrupt intensity change on the images. Gegenbauer High Resolution Velamuru Advisors: Dr. Rick Archibald, Dr. Rosemary Renaut Abstract- A variety of image artifacts

  17. High-resolution rotational spectroscopy of NNOH+ , Ar D

    E-print Network

    complexes have been observed by Fourier transform microwave (FTM) spectroscopy at high spectral resolution of several ions or ion complexes have been re-examined at high spectral res- olution by FTM spectroscopy or by FTM spectroscopy, but at a lower resolution using the perpendicular configuration. For all but Ar Á Á

  18. HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE SOIL MOISTURE MAPPING Jeffrey Walker1

    E-print Network

    Walker, Jeff

    farms [1]. This is the first airborne remote sensing study to provide such high resolution soil moisture microwave remote sensing provides a viable tool for high resolution soil moisture mapping across large areas. #12;Figure 2: Time sequence of remotely sensed (top 2 rows) and ground measured (bottom 2 rows) soil

  19. Blind deconvolution for high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vohnsen; P. Artal

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the potential of image deconvolution techniques, either in combination or as a substitute for adaptive optics, in a high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). After reviewing the validity of standard hypotheses and the a priori information, we implement two deconvolution algorithms to be applied to experimental retinal images recorded with our own high-resolution research SLO. Despite the important

  20. High spatial resolution tomographic reconstruction from STEM high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    : A technique for high spatial resolution three dimensional reconstruction from STEM HAADF images using electron) high angle annular dark field (HAADF) images to achieve high spatial resolution 3D reconstructionHigh spatial resolution tomographic reconstruction from STEM high angle annular dark field (HAADF

  1. EDITORIAL: High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-06-01

    Progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology requires tools that enable the imaging and manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular scale. During the last two decades or so, scanning probe-based techniques have proven to be particularly versatile in this regard. Among the various probe-based approaches, atomic force microscopy (AFM) stands out in many ways, including the total number of citations and the breadth of possible applications, ranging from materials characterization to nanofabrication and biological studies. However, while nanometer scale operation in different environments became routine, atomic resolution imaging remained elusive for a long time. The reason for this initial deficiency was that contact with the sample blunts atomically sharp tips, which are mandatory for successful atomic resolution imaging. This problem was overcome in the mid-1990s with the introduction of noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), which represents a version of AFM where the cantilever is oscillated close to the sample surface without actually 'touching' it. This allows the preservation of the atomic sharpness of the tip while interaction-induced changes in the cantilever's resonance frequency are used to quantify the tip-sample distance. Since then, progress has been steady and includes the development of commercial instruments as well as the addition of many new capabilities beyond imaging, such as the identification and manipulation of individual atoms. A series of annual international conferences, starting in Osaka in 1998, have contributed significantly to this outstanding performance. The program of the most recent conference from this series, held in Madrid on 15-19 September 2008, reflects the maturity of this field, with an increasing number of groups developing strong activities that involve novel approaches and applications covering areas well beyond the original vacuum-based imaging. In this special issue of Nanotechnology we present a selection of original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  2. High resolution temperature insensitive interrogation technique for FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Semenova, Yuliya; Sun, An; Wang, Pengfei; Farrell, Gerald

    2010-06-01

    In this letter, we propose a high resolution temperature insensitive interrogation technique for FBG sensors where one FBG acts as an edge filter to interrogate a separate FBG sensor. A high resolution of better than 5 ?? in strain measurement range from 0 to 1100 ?? and the best resolution of better than 1 ?? were verified by experiments. An error of only ±2.2 ?? is achieved over a temperature range from 15 to 50 °C, indicating that this strain interrogation technique is temperature insensitive. Using an altered system configuration, the temperature was also measured simultaneously with a resolution better than 0.2 °C.

  3. Modified Noise Power Ratio testing of high resolution digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    A broadband, full signal range, side-by-side (tandem) test method for estimating the internal noise performance of high resolution digitizers is described and illustrated. The technique involves a re-definition of the traditional Noise Power Ratio (NPR) test, a change that not only makes this test applicable to higher resolution systems than was previously practical, but also enhances its value and flexibility. Since coherence analysis is the basis of this new definition, and since the application of coherence procedures to high resolution data poses several problems, this report discusses these problems and their resolution.

  4. Implications of high resolution to near-field optical microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lukas Novotny; Bert Hecht; Dieter W. Pohl

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents problems inherent to high-resolution near-field optical microscopy. It is shown on an easily understandable level, that high lateral confinement of optical fields (a prerequisite for high-resolution microscopy) leads to a fast decay of the fields. Consequently, the optical probe has to be brought very close to the sample surface, increasing the sensitivity to artifacts. Highly confined optical

  5. Survey of currently available high-resolution raster graphics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are data obtained on high-resolution raster graphics engines currently available on the market. The data were obtained through survey responses received from various vendors and also from product literature. The questionnaire developed for this survey was basically a list of characteristics desired in a high performance color raster graphics system which could perform real-time aircraft simulations. Several vendors responded to the survey, with most reporting on their most advanced high-performance, high-resolution raster graphics engine.

  6. Comparative Very-High-Resolution VUV Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Lewis; S. T. Gibson; K. G. H. Baldwin; P. M. Dooley; K. Waring

    2002-01-01

    Despite their importance to the photochemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere, and many experimental studies, previous characterization of the Schumann-Runge (SR) bands of O2, B3 Sigma u- <- X3 Sigma_g^- (v, 0) (1750-2050 Å) has been limited by poor experimental resolution. In addition, our understanding of the SR spectrum is incomplete, many rovibrational transitions in the perturbed region of the spectrum

  7. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  8. High-resolution climate simulation of the last glacial maximum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong-Joong Kim; Thomas J. Crowley; David J. Erickson; Bala Govindasamy; Phillip B. Duffy; Bang Yong Lee

    2008-01-01

    The climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) is simulated with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model, the\\u000a NCAR CCM3 at spectral truncation of T170, corresponding to a grid cell size of roughly 75 km. The purpose of the study is\\u000a to assess whether there are significant benefits from the higher resolution simulation compared to the lower resolution simulation\\u000a associated with

  9. Orbit Adjustment for EROS A1 High Resolution Satellite Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang-Chien CHEN; Tee-Ann TEO

    As the resolution of satellite images is improving, the applications of satellite images become widespread. Orientation modeling is an indispensable step in the processing for satellite. EROS A1 is a high resolution imaging satellite. Its linear array pushbroom imager is with 1.8meter resolution on ground. EROS A1 is a sun-synchronous satellite and sampling with asynchronous mode. The main purpose of

  10. High-resolution model of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Hudson; S. J. Ostro; D. J. Scheeresc

    2003-01-01

    A model of the shape of Toutatis based on “high-resolution” radar images obtained in 1992 and 1996 consists of 39,996 triangular facets of roughly equal area, defined by the locations of 20,000 vertices. These define the average spatial resolution of the model as approximately 34 m, significantly finer than Hudson and Ostro’s (1995, Science 270, 84–86) model (1600 vertices, resolution

  11. High Resolution Imaging of Structure and Diffusion Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    High Resolution Imaging of Structure and Diffusion Gregory S. Boebinger, National High Magnetic resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow us to examine biological tissues and materials structures with adjacent layers. #12;High Resolution Imaging of Structure and Diffusion Gregory S. Boebinger, National High

  12. High-speed high-resolution plasma spectroscopy using spatial-multiplex coherence imaging techniques

    E-print Network

    Howard, John

    High-speed high-resolution plasma spectroscopy using spatial-multiplex coherence imaging techniques and appropriate image plane masks. Because the information is captured simultaneously, it is well-suited to high-spectral-resolution dimensional high-resolution imaging. In the case of a Doppler broadened multiplet, the fringe visibility

  13. Medusae Fossae Formation - High Resolution Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An exotic terrain of wind-eroded ridges and residual smooth surfaces are seen in one of the highest resolution images ever taken of Mars from orbit. The Medusae Fossae formation is believed to be formed of the fragmental ejecta of huge explosive volcanic eruptions. When subjected to intense wind-blasting over hundreds of millions of years, this material erodes easily once the uppermost tougher crust is breached. The crust, or cap rock, can be seen in the upper right part of the picture. The finely-spaced ridges are similar to features on Earth called yardangs, which are formed by intense winds plucking individual grains from, and by wind-driven sand blasting particles off, sedimentary deposits.

    The image was taken on October 30, 1997 at 11:05 AM PST, shortly after the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft's 31st closest approach to Mars. The image covers an area 3.6 X 21.5 km (2.2 X 13.4 miles) at 3.6 m (12 feet) per picture element--craters only 11 m (36 feet, about the size of a swimming pool) across can be seen. The best Viking view of the area (VO 1 387S34) has a resolution of 240 m/pixel, or 67 times lower resolution than the MOC frame.

    Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. DSCOVR High Time Resolution Solar Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), previously known as Triana, spacecraft is expected to be launched in late 2014. It will carry a fluxgate magnetometer, Faraday Cup solar wind detector and a top-hat electron electrostatic analyzer. The Faraday Cup will provide an unprecedented 10 vectors/sec time resolution measurement of the solar wind proton and alpha reduced distribution functions. Coupled with the 40 vector/sec vector magnetometer measurements, the identification of specific wave modes in the solar wind will be possible for the first time. The science objectives and data products of the mission will be discussed.

  15. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  16. Data distribution strategies for high-resolution displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Chen; Yuqun Chen; Adam Finkelstein; Thomas A. Funkhouser; Kai Li; Zhiyan Liu; Rudrajit Samanta; Grant Wallace

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale and high-resolution displays are increasingly being used for next-generation interactive 3D graphics applications, including large-scale data visualization, immersive virtual environments, and collaborative design. These systems must include a very high- performance and scalable 3D rendering subsystem in order to generate high-resolution im- ages at real-time frame rates. We are investigating how to build such a system using only inexpensive

  17. High Resolution Chemical Study of ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Douglas, Susanne; Kuhlman, Kimberly R.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the chemistry of a sample of the SNC meteorite ALH84001 using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an energy dispersive chemical analytical detector and a focused ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometer (FIB-SIMS). Here we present the chemical data, both spectra and images, from two techniques that do not require sample preparation with a conductive coating, thus eliminating the possibility of preparation-induced textural artifacts. The FIB-SIMS instrument includes a column optimized for SEM with a quadrupole type mass spectrometer. Its spatial and spectral resolution are 20 nm and 0.4 AMU, respectively. The spatial resolution of the ESEM for chemical analysis is about 100 nm. Limits of detection for both instruments are mass dependent. Both the ESEM and the FIB-SIMS instrument revealed contrasting surficial features; crumbled, weathered appearance of the matrix in some regions as well as a rather ubiquitous presence of euhedral halite crystals, often associated with cracks or holes in the surface of the rock. Other halogen elements present in the vicinity of the NaCl crystals include K and Br. In this report, elemental inventories are shown as mass spectra and as X-ray maps.

  18. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    NAG5-5020 covered a period of 7.5 years during which a great deal of progress was made in x-ray optical techniques under this grant. We survived peer review numerous times during the effort to keep the grant going. In 1994, when the grant started we were actively pursuing the application of spherical mirrors to improving x-ray telescopes. We had found that x-ray detectors were becoming rapidly more sophisticated and affordable, but that x-ray telescopes were only being improved through the intense application of money within the AXAF program. Clearly new techniques for the future were needed. We were successful in developing and testing at the HELSTF facility in New Mexico a four reflection coma-corrected telescope made from spheres. We were able to demonstrate 0.3 arcsecond resolution, almost to the diffraction limit of the system. The community as a whole was, at that time, not particularly interested in looking past AXAF (Chandra) and the effort needed to evolve. Since we had reached the diffraction limit using non-Wolter optics we then decided to see if we could build an x-ray interferometer in the laboratory. In the lab the potential for improved resolution was substantial. If synthetic aperture telescopes could be built in space, then orders of magnitude improvement would become feasible. In 1998 NASA, under the direction of Dr Nick White of Goddard, started a study to assess the potential and feasibility of x-ray interferometry in space. My work became of central interest to the committee because it indicated that such was possible. In early 1999 we had the breakthrough that allowed us build a practical interferometer. By using flats and hooking up with the Marshall Space Flight Center facilities we were able to demonstrate fringes at 1.25keV on a one millimeter baseline. This actual laboratory demonstration provided the solid proof of concept that NASA needed. As the year progressed the future of x-ray astronomy jelled around the Maxim program. Maxim is a set of two major x-ray astronomy missions based on the concepts I developed and demonstrated under this SR&T grant. The first Maxim is to image the sky at 100 micro-arcsecond resolution. That is one thousand times higher resolution than Hubble. The full Maxim has the ultimate goal of imaging the event horizon of a black hole in an active galactic nucleus (ALAN). This will require 0.1 micro-arcsecond resolution - one million times higher than Hubble! Nonetheless, using the techniques developed under this grant, it has become possible. Maxim Pathfinder is now in the NASA planning for a new start in approximately 20 10. The full Maxim is carried as a vision mission for the post 2015 timeframe. Finally, this grant is the evolved version of the SR&T grant we carried during the 1980s and up to 1994. At that point in time this grant was also working on x-ray optics, but concentrating on x-ray spectroscopy. The techniques developed by 1990 were not chosen for use on Chandra or XMM-Newton because they were too new. During the last year, however, the Constellation-X mission recognized the need for better spectroscopy techniques and tapped our expertise. We were able to support the initial work on Con-X through this program. It now appears that the off-plane mount will be used in Con-X, increasing performance and decreasing cost and risk.

  19. Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy

    E-print Network

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Ultra-High Resolution Imaging by Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy Samuel T-field visible light microscopy suffers from limited resolution. A new method for fluorescence imaging has been-nm) laser and are then fluorescent when excited at a lower frequency. The fluorescence is imaged

  20. Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Subías Domingo; J. Pelayo; F. Villuendas; C. D. Heras; E. Pellejer

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate very high-resolution optical spectrometry based on stimulated Brillouin scattering between a swept-tuned laser and a test optical signal. Measurement principles are presented along with spectral measurements of unmodulated and modulated optical sources showing 0.08-pm resolution and 80-dB dynamic range.

  1. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of plant chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Wanner; H. Formanek; R. Martin; R. G. Herrmann

    1991-01-01

    A preparation technique for high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy of plant chromosomes is described. The technique was optimized to use standard squash preparations of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes from root tips of barley, wheat, and rye. After light microscopic observation and documentation, the same object can be investigated with a 100-fold higher resolution using a field emission scanning

  2. Improved efficiency of high resolution thermal and cold neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.; Dawson, M.

    2011-02-01

    Spatial resolution and detection efficiency of neutron imaging detectors are the crucial parameters defining the ultimate resolution in neutron radiography, micro-tomography and other non-destructive testing techniques. The most widely used neutron imaging systems use a neutron-sensitive scintillation screen lens coupled to a CCD or a CMOS sensor. The highest spatial resolution in those devices is achieved using very thin scintillation screens which reduce image blurring due to light spreading in the scintillator. Thus high spatial resolution and high detection efficiency usually could not be achieved in the same device. Neutron counting detectors using neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) overcome that deficiency by providing a long neutron absorption path (˜mm scale) and preserving events within a single sub-10 ?m pore. At the same time, each neutron in those detectors can be time-tagged with ˜1 ?s accuracy. The latest 10B and gadolinium-doped MCPs developed by Nova Scientific were tested at the cold neutron facility ICON of Paul Scherrer Institute and proved to be capable of imaging cold neutrons with 70% detection efficiency. Neutron radiography and micro-tomography confirmed the high spatial resolution capabilities of the latest generation of high efficiency microchannel plates. The high spatial and temporal resolution of our neutron counting detectors allows for high resolution micro-tomography, novel studies of material composition, texture, phase and strain through Bragg edge imaging as well as dynamic studies of magnetic fields inside of thick samples, exploiting the neutron spin interactions with magnetic fields.

  3. Avalanche photodiodes for high-resolution UV imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Richwine, Robert A.; Egerton, E. James; Puri, Yash R.; Dupuis, Russell D.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Balcerak, Raymond S.

    2011-10-01

    High resolution imaging in the UV band has a lot of applications in Defense and Commercial Applications. The shortest wavelength is desired for spatial resolution which allows for small pixels and large formats. UVAPD's have been demonstrated as discrete devices demonstrating gain. The next frontier is to develop UV APD arrays with high gain to demonstrate high resolution imaging. We also disuses our recent efforts on development of APD's using MOCVD of GaN/ AlGaN. We present an analytical model that can predict sensor performance in the UV band using p-i-n or APD detectors with and without gain and other detector and sensor parameters for a desired UV band of interest. SNR's can be modeled from illuminated targets at various distances with high resolution under standard MODTRAN atmospheres in the UV band using detector arrays with unity gain and with high gain APD along with continuous or pulsed UV lasers.

  4. High Resolution Multimode Fiber Image Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    The research emphasis is on developing a cost-effective method of recovering image information from small, closely confined spaces using multimode fibers. The state-of-the-art good quality-viewing fiber, which can currently be used for performing this function, is a 0.5 mm diameter bundle containing 6000 pixels at a cost of $10,000 per fiber bundle. However, these fiber bundles are very fragile and can easily break during surgical use, thereby making instrument reliability and replacement cost,a major impediment to their routine use in many applications. The advantage of working with a single multimode fiber is that it is significantly less expensive and mechanically more robust. In addition, careful choice of numerical aperture allows a higher image resolution (roughly 750,000 pixels) with a 0.5 mm diameter multimode fiber.

  5. High Resolution X-ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster

    2002-01-01

    NAG5-5020 covered a period of 7.5 years during which a great deal of progress was made in x-ray optical techniques under this grant. We survived peer review numerous times during the effort to keep the grant going. In 1994, when the grant started we were actively pursuing the application of spherical mirrors to improving x-ray telescopes. We had found that x-ray detectors were becoming rapidly more sophisticated and affordable, but that x-ray telescopes were only being improved through the intense application of money within the AXAF program. Clearly new techniques for the future were needed. We were successful in developing and testing at the HELSTF facility in New Mexico a four reflection coma-corrected telescope made from spheres. We were able to demonstrate 0.3 arcsecond resolution, almost to the diffraction limit of the system. The community as a whole was, at that time, not particularly interested in looking past AXAF (Chandra) and the effort needed to evolve. Since we had reached the diffraction limit using non-Wolter optics we then decided to see if we could build an x-ray interferometer in the laboratory. In the lab the potential for improved resolution was substantial. If synthetic aperture telescopes could be built in space, then orders of magnitude improvement would become feasible. In 1998 NASA, under the direction of Dr. Nick White of Goddard, started a study to assess the potential and feasibility of x-ray interferometry in space. My work became of central interest to the committee because it indicated that such was possible. In early 1999 we had the breakthrough that allowed us build a practical interferometer. By using flats and hooking up with the Marshall Space Flight Center facilities we were able to demonstrate fringes at 1.25keV on a one millimeter baseline. This actual laboratory demonstration provided the solid proof of concept that NASA needed.

  6. A Multi-resolution Image Understanding System Based on Multi-agent Architecture for High-resolution Images

    E-print Network

    Yanai, Keiji

    A Multi-resolution Image Understanding System Based on Multi-agent Architecture for High-resolution processing time and memory for image understanding. In this paper, we propose an integrated system of multi-resolution analysis and multi-agent-based image understanding system for high-resolution images. We implemented

  7. Sensitivity study of reliable, high-throughput resolution metricsfor photoresists

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2007-07-30

    The resolution of chemically amplified resists is becoming an increasing concern, especially for lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime. Large-scale screening and performance-based down-selection is currently underway to identify resist platforms that can support shrinking feature sizes. Resist screening efforts, however, are hampered by the absence of reliable resolution metrics that can objectively quantify resist resolution in a high-throughput fashion. Here we examine two high-throughput metrics for resist resolution determination. After summarizing their details and justifying their utility, we characterize the sensitivity of both metrics to two of the main experimental uncertainties associated with lithographic exposure tools, namely: limited focus control and limited knowledge of optical aberrations. For an implementation at EUV wavelengths, we report aberration and focus limited error bars in extracted resolution of {approx} 1.25 nm RMS for both metrics making them attractive candidates for future screening and down-selection efforts.

  8. HIGH RESOLUTION, MRI-BASED, SEGMENTED, COMPUTERIZED HEAD PHANTOM.

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient specific for routine use; therefore, our high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model

  9. Ring artifact correction for high-resolution micro CT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiannis Kyriakou; Daniel Prell; Willi A Kalender

    2009-01-01

    In high-resolution micro CT using flat detectors (FD), imperfect or defect detector elements may cause concentric-ring artifacts due to their continuous over- or underestimation of attenuation values, which often disturb image quality. We here present a dedicated image-based ring artifact correction method for high-resolution micro CT, based on median filtering of the reconstructed image and working on a transformed version

  10. AVHRR/1-FM Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer is discussed. The program covers design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical/structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was developed for use on the program. The flight model program objectives were to fabricate, assemble and test four of the advanced very high resolution radiometers along with a bench cooler and collimator.

  11. High-resolution dual-modality photoacoustic ocular imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ning; Ye, Shuoqi; Ren, Qiushi; Li, Changhui

    2014-04-15

    We have developed a prototype ocular imaging system that integrates optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy and high-frequency ultrasound imaging. The system can perform high-resolution ocular imaging from the anterior region down to the fundus. It has successfully imaged murine eyes in vivo, including iris, lens, retina, and retinal pigment epithelium. Our results demonstrate that this system shows strong potential for the diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases. PMID:24979016

  12. High resolution G-banded chromosomes of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, J R; Moore, M M; Hozier, J C

    1987-01-01

    High resolution G-banded mouse chromosomes were prepared using an actinomycin D and acridine orange pretreatment protocol, resulting in late prophase mouse chromosomes which reveal over twice the number of bands as compared with mid metaphase. These elongated chromosomes, described here in detail and used to construct a precise schematic representation of the late prophase banding patterns, should be generally useful in high resolution mouse chromosome analysis. PMID:3652818

  13. Sapphire analyzers for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Yavas, H.; Alp, E.; Sinn, H.; Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Shvydko, Y.; Toellner, T.; Khachatryan, R.; Billinge, S.; Hasan, Z.; Sturhahn, W.; Michigan State Univ.; Princeton Univ.; DESY

    2007-11-11

    We present a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) analyzer for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with 31-meV energy resolution. The analyzer is designed for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the CuK{sub a} absorption edge near 8990 eV. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring phonon excitations in beryllium because of its known dynamical structure and high counting rates.

  14. High resolution CO images of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meixner, M.; Puchalsky, R.; Blitz, L.; Wright, M.

    1990-01-01

    The CO (J = 1-0) emission of three Seyfert galaxies, NGC 3227, NGC 7469, and NGC 5033 was imaged. The CO emission in NGC 3227 and NGC 7469 appears as compact structures centered on the active nuclei, containing substantial fractions of the single-dish flux. In NGC 3227, 10 percent of the CO flux detected by the interferometer is contained within the ionized narrow-line region. The unresolved molecular gas concentrations in the nucleus of NGC 3227 imply a CO mass of 65 million solar masses concentrated within a diameter less than 50 pc. The CO emission in NGC 5033 is not detected at this resolution, implying a CO structure size of 20 to 60 arcsec. Continuum emission at 2.7 mm is not detected in any of the three galaxies. In the center of NGC 7469, the H2 mass is comparable to the dynamical mass. Kinematic studies of the detected gas reveal a rotational motion of the gas in NGC 3227 and NGC 7469, allowing identification of the gas in NGC 7469 with a nuclear starburst. These data are consistent with the idea that interactions between galaxies cause gas to concentrate in their nuclei thereby feeding starburst and Seyfert activity.

  15. High-Resolution MOC Image of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image of Phobos, the inner and larger of the two moons of Mars, was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor on August 19, 1998. This image shows a close-up of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, 10 kilometers (6 miles) in diameter. Individual boulders are visible on the near rim of the crater, and are presumed to be ejecta blocks from the impact that formed Stickney. Some of these boulders are enormous - more than 50 meters (160 feet) across. Also crossing at and near the rim of Stickney are shallow, elongated depressions called grooves. This crater is nearly half the size of Phobos and these grooves may be fractures caused by its formation. Phobos was observed by both the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). This image is one of the highest resolution images (4 meters or 13 feet per picture element or pixel) ever obtained of the Martian satellite.

    Malin Space Science Systems, Inc. and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer is operated by Arizona State University and was built by Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  16. Road Extraction from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkaya, M.

    2012-07-01

    Roads are significant objects of an infrastructure and the extraction of roads from aerial and satellite images are important for different applications such as automated map generation and change detection. Roads are also important to detect other structures such as buildings and urban areas. In this paper, the road extraction approach is based on Active Contour Models for 1-meter resolution gray level images. Active Contour Models contains Snake Approach. During applications, the road structure was separated as salient-roads, non-salient roads and crossings and extraction of these is provided by using Ribbon Snake and Ziplock Snake methods. These methods are derived from traditional snake model. Finally, various experimental results were presented. Ribbon and Ziplock Snake methods were compared for both salient and non-salient roads. Also these methods were used to extract roads in an image. While Ribbon snake is described for extraction of salient roads in an image, Ziplock snake is applied for extraction of non-salient roads. Beside these, some constant variables in literature were redefined and expressed in a formula as depending on snake approach and a new approach for extraction of crossroads were described and tried.

  17. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Braeuer-Krisch; A. Rosenfeld; M. Lerch; M. Petasecca; M. Akselrod; J. Sykora; J. Bartz; M. Ptaszkiewicz; P. Olko; A. Berg; M. Wieland; S. Doran; T. Brochard; A. Kamlowski; G. Cellere; A. Paccagnella; E. A. Siegbahn; Y. Prezado; I. Martinez-Rovira; A. Bravin; L. Dusseau; P. Berkvens

    2010-01-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of

  18. Detailed analysis of the TIMES and TIMES0 high-resolution MAS methods for high-resolution proton NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xingyu; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Thankamony, Aany Sofia Lilly; Nishiyama, Yusuke; Gan, Zhehong; Madhu, P. K.; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2012-10-01

    We analyze and compare the specifications of TIMES and TIMES0 proton high-resolution NMR methods for solid-state samples. This comparison is performed in terms of resolution versus magic-angle spinning (MAS) spinning speed, ?R, rf-field amplitude, ?1, and tilt-angle for the effective rf-field, ?p. The chemical-shift and homo-nuclear dipolar scaling factors are calculated for both methods. For all MAS speeds, the best resolution is always observed with rf-field of ?1 ? 120-130 kHz. At slow MAS speed (?R ? 10 kHz), the best resolution is observed for a tilt-angle of ?P ? 90°. At moderate spinning speed (15 ? ?R ? 35 kHz), ?P ? 55° gives the best resolution. At higher MAS speed (?R ? 60 kHz), with TIMES and TIMES0 the best resolution is obtained for ?P ? 40°; but we then recommend TIMES0, owing to its simpler set-up. We also show that in addition to the usual high rf-field regime (?1 ? 120-130 kHz), another low rf-regime (?1 ? 40-50 kHz) exists at MAS speed higher than ?R ? 60 kHz, which also gives a good 1H resolution. This low rf-regime should be useful for multi-dimensional analyses of bio-molecules with 1H detection under high-resolution, in order to limit the heating of the sample.

  19. High-resolution Urban Image Classification Using Extended Features

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution image classification poses several challenges because the typical object size is much larger than the pixel resolution. Any given pixel (spectral features at that location) by itself is not a good indicator of the object it belongs to without looking at the broader spatial footprint. Therefore most modern machine learning approaches that are based on per-pixel spectral features are not very effective in high- resolution urban image classification. One way to overcome this problem is to extract features that exploit spatial contextual information. In this study, we evaluated several features in- cluding edge density, texture, and morphology. Several machine learning schemes were tested on the features extracted from a very high-resolution remote sensing image and results were presented.

  20. Lossy coding techniques for high-resolution images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Sagrista, Joan; Fernandez-Cordoba, Cristina; Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Garcia-Vilchez, Fernando; Minguillon, Julia

    2004-02-01

    High resolution images are nowadays a common source of data for many different applications; let us consider, for instance, hyperspectral images for remote sensing and geographic information systems. This kind of images allows for exhaustive analysis and provides good classification performance due to their high resolution (either bits per pixel, spatial, or spectral resolution). Nevertheless, this same high resolution, as well as their huge size, imposes a large demand of memory capability and channel bandwidth. To deal with this problem, lossy encoding of such images may be devised. Well known lossless and lossy image coding techniques have been used, but remote sensing and geographic information systems applications have some particular requirements that are not taken into account by the classical methods. There is therefore a need to investigate new approaches of image coding for these applications.

  1. 2D optoacoustic array for high resolution imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ashkenazi; R. S. Witte; K. Kim; S.-W. Huang; Y. Hou; M. O'Donnell

    2006-01-01

    An optoacoustic detector denotes the detection of acoustic signals by optical devices. Recent advances in fabrication techniques and the availability of high power tunable laser sources have greatly accelerated the development of efficient optoacoustic detectors. The unique advantages of optoacoustic technology are of special interest in applications that require high resolution imaging. For these applications optoacoustic technology enables high frequency

  2. Clinical usability of a compact high resolution detector for high resolution and quantitative SPECT imaging in a selected small ROI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Zeniya; Hiroshi Watabe; Hiroyuki Kudo; Yoshiyuki Hirano; Kotaro Minato; Hidehiro Iida

    2008-01-01

    SPECT using compact high resolution detector or pinhole collimator allows to image physiological functions with high spatial resolution. However, when field-of-view (FOV) is smaller than the object, the projection data are truncated by radioisotope outside FOV. The truncation causes artifact and overestimation, which decreases quantitative accuracy. Recently Defrise et al proposed a new truncation-compensated reconstruction method, that is, the truncated

  3. High-resolution quantitative imaging of mammalian and bacterial cells using stable isotope mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lechene, Claude; Hillion, Francois; McMahon, Greg; Benson, Douglas; Kleinfeld, Alan M; Kampf, J Patrick; Distel, Daniel; Luyten, Yvette; Bonventre, Joseph; Hentschel, Dirk; Park, Kwon Moo; Ito, Susumu; Schwartz, Martin; Benichou, Gilles; Slodzian, Georges

    2006-01-01

    Background Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an important tool for investigating isotopic composition in the chemical and materials sciences, but its use in biology has been limited by technical considerations. Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS), which combines a new generation of SIMS instrument with sophisticated ion optics, labeling with stable isotopes, and quantitative image-analysis software, was developed to study biological materials. Results The new instrument allows the production of mass images of high lateral resolution (down to 33 nm), as well as the counting or imaging of several isotopes simultaneously. As MIMS can distinguish between ions of very similar mass, such as 12C15N- and 13C14N-, it enables the precise and reproducible measurement of isotope ratios, and thus of the levels of enrichment in specific isotopic labels, within volumes of less than a cubic micrometer. The sensitivity of MIMS is at least 1,000 times that of 14C autoradiography. The depth resolution can be smaller than 1 nm because only a few atomic layers are needed to create an atomic mass image. We illustrate the use of MIMS to image unlabeled mammalian cultured cells and tissue sections; to analyze fatty-acid transport in adipocyte lipid droplets using 13C-oleic acid; to examine nitrogen fixation in bacteria using 15N gaseous nitrogen; to measure levels of protein renewal in the cochlea and in post-ischemic kidney cells using 15N-leucine; to study DNA and RNA co-distribution and uridine incorporation in the nucleolus using 15N-uridine and 81Br of bromodeoxyuridine or 14C-thymidine; to reveal domains in cultured endothelial cells using the native isotopes 12C, 16O, 14N and 31P; and to track a few 15N-labeled donor spleen cells in the lymph nodes of the host mouse. Conclusion MIMS makes it possible for the first time to both image and quantify molecules labeled with stable or radioactive isotopes within subcellular compartments. PMID:17010211

  4. Multi-Resolution Variational Analysis (MRVA): High-resolution data fusion over global surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Multi-Resolution Variational Analysis method was developed to merge satellite sea surface temperature (SST) measurements with drastically different spatial resolution and coverage. MRVA is a hybrid of the variational analysis technique used commonly in geophysical data interpolation/assimilation and multiresolution analysis technique based on orthonormal wavelet decomposition, where the former addresses the irregular-sampling and uncertainty estimation issues while the latter provides a mathematical framework to control the interpolation scale (internal resolution) for each data set as well as inter-sensor bias corrections. Satellite-based SST data are indeed irregularly-sampled by different sensor types. The microwave (MW) sensors have typically coarser 25-km resolution than the infra-red (IR) sensors which can resolve down to a 1-km scale. However, the IR-based measurements are prone to data voids due to cloud contamination, which does not affect MW sensors nearly as much. Scientific and operational needs for the SST data cover a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, a regional or global mean is often examined over a long time period in climate studies, while SST snapshots of sub-kilometer resolution may be required in biological applications. The focus of the Multi-scale Ultra-high Resolution (MUR) SST analysis project is to produce a high-resolution daily SST field based on the satellite retrieval data to address these variety of needs. The MRVA method was applied to merge these satellite data to produce the MUR SST analysis over a 1-km global grid at a daily frequency. The power spectral density of SST displays a self-similar (power-law) characteristic, and MUR SST shows consistency with this characteristic over a wider range of wavenumber spectrum due to its higher internal resolution. Capability to reproduce such empirical characteristics is a strength of the MRVA technique.

  5. Digital pulse processing in high resolution, high throughput, gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey Georgiev; Werner Gast

    1993-01-01

    A new method for processing signals produced by high resolution, large volume semiconductor detectors is described. These detectors, to be used in the next generation of spectrometer arrays for nuclear research (i.e., EUROBALL, etc.), present a set of problems, such as resolution degradation due to charge trapping and ballistic deficit effects, poor resolution at a high count rate, long term

  6. Super high-resolution mesoscale weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Tsuyuki, T.; Seko, H.; Kimura, F.; Tokioka, T.; Kuroda, T.; Duc, L.; Ito, K.; Oizumi, T.; Chen, G.; Ito, J.; the Spire Field 3 Mesoscale Nwp Group

    2013-08-01

    A five-year research project of high performance regional numerical weather prediction is underway as one of the five research fields of the Strategic Programs for Innovative Research (SPIRE). The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate feasibility of precise prediction of severe weather phenomena using the K-computer. Three sub-themes of the project are shown with achievements at the present and developments in the near future.

  7. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  8. [Extracting municipal solid waste dumps based on high resolution images].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Li; Du, Shi-Hong; Guo, Zhou

    2013-08-01

    The dramatically increasing informal MSW dumps are endangering the urban environment. Remote sensing (RS) technologies are more efficient to monitor and manage municipal solid wastes (MSW) than traditional survey-based methods. In high spatial resolution remotely sensed images, these irregularly distributed dumps have complex compositions and strong heterogeneities, thus it is still hard to extract them automatically no matter the pixel-or object-based image analysis method is used. Therefore, based on the analysis of MSW characteristics, the present study develops a multiresolution strategy to extract MSW dumps by combining image features at both high resolution and resampled low heterogeneity images, while the high resolution images can provide detailed information and the low resolution images can suppress the strong heterogeneities of informal MSW dumps. Taking the QuickBird image covering part of Beijing as an example, this multi-resolution strategy produced a high accuracy (75%), indicating that this multi-resolution strategy is quite effective for extracting the open-air informal MSW dumps. PMID:24159838

  9. High-resolution climate simulation of the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) is simulated with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model, the NCAR CCM3 at spectral truncation of T170, corresponding to a grid cell size of roughly 75 km. The purpose of the study is to assess whether there are significant benefits from the higher resolution simulation compared to the lower resolution simulation associated with the role of topography. The LGM simulations were forced with modified CLIMAP sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures (SST) reduced by 1 C, ice sheet topography, reduced CO{sub 2}, and 21,000 BP orbital parameters. The high-resolution model captures modern climate reasonably well, in particular the distribution of heavy precipitation in the tropical Pacific. For the ice age case, surface temperature simulated by the high-resolution model agrees better with those of proxy estimates than does the low-resolution model. Despite the fact that tropical SSTs were only 2.1 C less than the control run, there are many lowland tropical land areas 4-6 C colder than present. Comparison of T170 model results with the best constrained proxy temperature estimates (noble gas concentrations in groundwater) now yield no significant differences between model and observations. There are also significant upland temperature changes in the best resolved tropical mountain belt (the Andes). We provisionally attribute this result in part as resulting from decreased lateral mixing between ocean and land in a model with more model grid cells. A longstanding model-data discrepancy therefore appears to be resolved without invoking any unusual model physics. The response of the Asian summer monsoon can also be more clearly linked to local geography in the high-resolution model than in the low-resolution model; this distinction should enable more confident validation of climate proxy data with the high-resolution model. Elsewhere, an inferred salinity increase in the subtropical North Atlantic may have significant implications for ocean circulation changes during the LGM. A large part of the Amazon and Congo Basins are simulated to be substantially drier in the ice age - consistent with many (but not all) paleo data. These results suggest that there are considerable benefits derived from high-resolution model regarding regional climate responses, and that observationalists can now compare their results with models that resolve geography at a resolution comparable to that which the proxy data represent.

  10. A miniature high-resolution accelerometer utilizing electron tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockstad, Howard K.; Kenny, T. W.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.

    1992-01-01

    New methods have been developed to implement high-resolution position sensors based on electron tunneling. These methods allow miniaturization while utilizing the position sensitivity of electron tunneling to give high resolution. A single-element tunneling accelerometer giving a displacement resolution of 0.002 A/sq rt Hz at 10 Hz, corresponding to an acceleration resolution of 5 x 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz, is described. A new dual-element tunneling structure which overcomes the narrow bandwidth limitations of a single-element structure is described. A sensor with an operating range of 5 Hz to 10 kHz, which can have applications as an acoustic sensor, is discussed. Noise is analyzed for fundamental thermal vibration of the suspended masses and is compared to electronic noise. It is shown that miniature tunnel accelerometers can achieve resolution such that thermal noise in the suspended masses is the dominant cause of the resolution limit. With a proof mass of order 100 mg, noise analysis predicts limiting resolutions approaching 10 exp -9 g/sq rt Hz in a 300 Hz band and 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz at 1 kHz.

  11. Optical autofocus for high resolution laser photoplotting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Jose; Crespo, Daniel; Jimenez, Isidoro; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2005-07-01

    An all optical autofocus has been designed and tested for tight line width control in a high NA laser photoplotter system. The laser system is based in a GaN semiconductor laser with power 30 mW and wavelength 405 nm. The advantage of using this laser, despite the relatively long wavenlength, is compactness and easy for high frequency modulation. The autofocus system is based in a secondary 635 nm GaAlAs laser without need for wavelength, neither power stabilization. The two beams are delivered coaxially through the focusing lens by means of a dichroic beamsplitter. Focusing lens need no correction for chromatic aberration, as this is compensed by appropriate autofocus beam divergence. After reflection in the sample, the autofocus beam is separated from the returning writing beam and then guided to a collimation sensor, in which defocus of about 1/20 of the Rayleigh range of the writing beam can be detected and compensated by an analogue PID electronic control. Stable linewidth within 5% is achieved with different numerical aperture focusing lenses.

  12. A procedure for high resolution satellite imagery quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Mattia; De Vendictis, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Data products generated from High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) are routinely evaluated during the so-called in-orbit test period, in order to verify if their quality fits the desired features and, if necessary, to obtain the image correction parameters to be used at the ground processing center. Nevertheless, it is often useful to have tools to evaluate image quality also at the final user level. Image quality is defined by some parameters, such as the radiometric resolution and its accuracy, represented by the noise level, and the geometric resolution and sharpness, described by the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). This paper proposes a procedure to evaluate these image quality parameters; the procedure was implemented in a suitable software and tested on high resolution imagery acquired by the QuickBird, WorldView-1 and Cartosat-1 satellites. PMID:22412312

  13. High-resolution retinal imaging: enhancement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit; Iftimia, Nicusor; Akula, James D.; Fulton, Anne B.; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2015-03-01

    AO has achieved success in a range of applications in ophthalmology where microstructures need to be identified, counted, and mapped. Multiple images are averaged to improve the SNR or analyzed for temporal dynamics. For small patches, image registration by cross-correlation is straightforward. Larger images require more sophisticated registration techniques. Strip-based registration has been used successfully for photoreceptor mosaic alignment in small patches; however, if the deformations along long strips are not simple displacements, averaging will actually degrade the images. We have applied non-rigid registration that significantly improves the quality of processed images for mapping cones and rods, and microvasculature in dark-field imaging. Local grid deformations account for local image stretching and compression due to a number of causes. Individual blood cells can be traced along capillaries in high-speed imaging (130 fps) and flow dynamics can be analyzed.

  14. High spectral resolution image of 'Stripe'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Another early target for the full-color capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was the rock Stripe, named for the vertical, red band on its face. Regions with different color properties include the rock face (blue), bright soil in the background (green), darker intermediate colored soil in front of the rock (red), and the vertical stripe.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. HIGH RESOLUTION ANALOG / DIGITAL POWER SUPPLY CONTROLLER

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedko, Evgeny A

    2003-05-21

    Corrector magnets for the SPEAR-3 synchrotron radiation source require precision, high-speed control for use with beam-based orbit feedback. A new Controller Analog/Digital Interface card (CANDI) has been developed for these purposes. The CANDI has a 24-bit DAC for current control and three 24-bit {Delta}-{Sigma} ADCs to monitor current and voltages. The ADCs can be read and the DAC updated at the 4 kHz rate needed for feedback control. A precision 16-bit DAC provides on-board calibration. Programmable multiplexers control internal signal routing for calibration, testing, and measurement. Feedback can be closed internally on current setpoint, externally on supply current, or beam position. Prototype and production tests are reported in this paper. Noise is better than 17 effective bits in a 10 mHz to 2 kHz bandwidth. Linearity and temperature stability are excellent.

  16. Applications of high-resolution remote sensing image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Leckie, D.; Miller, J.; Buxton, R.

    1990-01-01

    There are many situations in which the image resolution of satellite data is insufficient to provide the detail required for resource management and environmental monitoring. This paper will focus on applications of high-resolution (0.4 to 10 m) airborne multispectral and imaging spectrometer data acquired in Canada using the MEIS II multispectral line imager and the PMI imaging spectrometer. Applications discussed will include forestry, mapping, and geobotany.

  17. Broad band radar for high resolution observation of precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoo Ushio; Eiichi Yoshikawa; Tomoaki Mega; Takeshi Morimoto; Zen-Ichiro Kawasaki

    2008-01-01

    A new high resolution Ku-band Doppler radar with scanning capability for meteorological applications has been developed. With the new system design, the radar can accurately measure the radar reflectivity factor with 4-m resolution at the lowest usable height of 60 m from short distance (e.g., minimum detectable reflectivity at 60 m is 5 dBz) to a few km (e.g., min.

  18. High-resolution global upper mantle structure and plate tectonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Shen Zhang; Toshiro Tanimoto

    1993-01-01

    A global high-resolution S wave velocity model RG5.5 is obtained for the upper 500 km of Earth's mantle using a 5 x 5 deg equal-area block parameterization. The data set consists of some 18,000 seismograms associated with 971 events with magnitudes larger than 5.5. Fundamental modes are used with periods from 75 to 250 s. The horizontal resolution length is

  19. High spectral resolution image of Barnacle Bill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The rover Sojourner's first target for measurement by the Alpha-Proton-Xray Spectrometer (APXS) was the rock named Barnacle Bill, located close to the ramp down which the rover made its egress from the lander. The full spectral capability of the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), consisting of 13 wavelength filters, was used to characterize the rock's surface. The measured area is relatively dark, and is shown in blue. Nearby on the rock surface, soil material is trapped in pits (shown in red).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  20. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom)] [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia)] [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom)] [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)] [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland) [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The benefits are expected to be more substantial for more energetic positron emitting isotopes such as Oxygen-15 and Rubidium-82.

  1. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Lin, Yong; Martin, Sara F.; Panasenco, Olga; Romashets, Eugene P.

    2013-08-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal, for high-resolution telescopes, will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can serve as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly, one after another, using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch open telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points in the guider image which indicates the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. Automatic production of flats is also programmed. For the first time, mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions. The mosaic movies show larger regions of the solar disk in high resolution and fill a gap between available whole-sun images with limited spatial resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  2. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liu, Cheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  3. Development of high resolution TDC ASICs at GSI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holger Flemming; Harald Deppe

    2007-01-01

    Based on the long experience on high precision time measurement systems at GSI the GSI ASIC design group is developing a new TDC ASIC for CBM one of the next generation large scale experiments at GSI. The main requirement on the TDC is the high timing resolution < 20 ps. The data acquisition architecture has to be event driven. Two

  4. Automatic generation of high resolution urban zone digital elevation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Gabet; G. Giraudon; L. Renouard

    1997-01-01

    Our paper presents an automatic generation of high resolution urban digital elevation models (DEMs) based on a highly redundant correlation process. We will discuss the difficulties of such a task by commenting on the state of the art, and we propose an approach in three main steps. In the first step, the image acquisition specification as image sequences leads to

  5. High-resolution infrared image reconstruction using multiple randomly shifted low-resolution aliased frames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad S. Alam; John G. Bognar; Russell C. Hardie; Brian J. Yasuda

    1997-01-01

    Forward looking infrared (FLIR) detector arrays generally produce spatially undersampled images because the FLIR arrays can not be made dense enough to yield a sufficiently high spatial sampling frequency. Multi-frame techniques, such as microscanning, are an effective means of reducing aliasing and increasing resolution in images produced by staring imaging systems. These techniques involve interlacing a set of image frames

  6. Studying Thermoelectric Oxides using High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Figure 4: a) Atomic resolution Z-

    E-print Network

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    Studying Thermoelectric Oxides using High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy 0 the environmental impact, and deliver energy continuously, such as thermo-electric power generation, have often been overlooked. Thermo-electric (TE) power applications offer a potentially cheap, pollution- and maintenance

  7. Lynx: A High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, A.W.; Hensley, W.H.; Pace, F.; Stence, J.; Tsunoda, S.I.; Walker, B.C.; Woodring, M.

    1999-03-08

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or Prowler II platforms manufactured by GA Aeronautical Systems, Inc. The Lynx production weight is less than 120 lb. and has a slant range of 30 km (in 4 mm/hr rain). It has operator selectable resolution and is capable of 0.1 m resolution in spotlight mode and 0.3 m resolution in stripmap mode. In ground moving target indicator mode, the minimum detectable velocity is 6 knots with a minimum target cross-section of 10 dBsm. In coherent change detection mode, Lynx makes registered, complex image comparisons either of 0.1 m resolution (minimum) spotlight images or of 0.3 m resolution (minimum) strip images. The Lynx user interface features a view manager that allows it to pan and zoom like a video camera. Lynx was developed under corporate finding from GA and will be manufactured by GA for both military and commercial applications. The Lynx system architecture will be presented and some of its unique features will be described. Imagery at the finest resolutions in both spotlight and strip modes have been obtained and will also be presented.

  8. High-resolution DEM Effects on Geophysical Flow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. R.; Bursik, M. I.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical mass flow models are numerical models that approximate pyroclastic flow events and can be used to assess the volcanic hazards certain areas may face. One such model, TITAN2D, approximates granular-flow physics based on a depth-averaged analytical model using inputs of basal and internal friction, material volume at a coordinate point, and a GIS in the form of a digital elevation model (DEM). The volume of modeled material propagates over the DEM in a way that is governed by the slope and curvature of the DEM surface and the basal and internal friction angles. Results from TITAN2D are highly dependent upon the inputs to the model. Here we focus on a single input: the DEM, which can vary in resolution. High resolution DEMs are advantageous in that they contain more surface details than lower-resolution models, presumably allowing modeled flows to propagate in a way more true to the real surface. However, very high resolution DEMs can create undesirable artifacts in the slope and curvature that corrupt flow calculations. With high-resolution DEMs becoming more widely available and preferable for use, determining the point at which high resolution data is less advantageous compared to lower resolution data becomes important. We find that in cases of high resolution, integer-valued DEMs, very high-resolution is detrimental to good model outputs when moderate-to-low (<10-15°) slope angles are involved. At these slope angles, multiple adjacent DEM cell elevation values are equal due to the need for the DEM to approximate the low slope with a limited set of integer values for elevation. The first derivative of the elevation surface thus becomes zero. In these cases, flow propagation is inhibited by these spurious zero-slope conditions. Here we present evidence for this "terracing effect" from 1) a mathematically defined simulated elevation model, to demonstrate the terracing effects of integer valued data, and 2) a real-world DEM where terracing must be addressed. We discuss the effect on the flow model output and present possible solutions for rectification of the problem.

  9. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  10. High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy Using Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    During the past 13 years high resolution X ray spectrometers have been developed that use cryogenically cooled microcalorimeters. These devices have inherently high signal-to-noise by operating at temperatures below 0.1 K and can achieve an energy resolution of < 10 eV over the 0.1-10 keV band. Existing devices use doped semiconductor thermometers and typically employ HgTe absorbers. The energy resolution depends on achieving a low heat capacity for the device. For soft X ray applications a relatively thin absorber (approximately 1 micrometer) may be used and an energy resolution of approximately 7 eV has been achieved. For applications up to approximately 10 keV an absorber thickness of approximately 10 micrometer is required and the energy resolution is typically approximately 12 eV. Improvements to the energy resolution in this energy band could be achieved if the problems of thermalizing X rays in low heat capacity superconductors can be overcome. The recent work on transition edge thermometers by Irwin et nl. looks particularly promising because of the higher sensitivity achievable from a sharp superconducting transition. The relatively low impedance of such a device permits the use of a low noise SQUID amplifier for readout. This would also significantly reduce the cryogen heat load compared with JFETs required by higher impedance semiconductor thermometers.

  11. High spatial resolution measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkey, J. B.; Burnham, E. A.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    High spatial resolution experimental tube wall pressure measurements of ram accelerator gas dynamic phenomena are presented. The projectile resembles the centerbody of a ramjet and travels supersonically through a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture, with the tube acting as the outer cowling. Pressure data are recorded as the projectile passes by sensors mounted in the tube wall at various locations along the tube. Data obtained by using a special highly instrumented section of tube has allowed the recording of gas dynamic phenomena with a spatial resolution on the order of one tenth the projectile length. High spatial resolution tube wall pressure data from the three regimes of propulsion studied to date (subdetonative, transdetonative, and superdetonative) are presented and reveal the 3D character of the flowfield induced by projectile fins and the canting of the projectile body relative to the tube wall. Also presented for comparison to the experimental data are calculations made with an inviscid, 3D CFD code.

  12. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinizadeh, A.; Schwander, P.; Dashti, A.; Fung, R.; D'Souza, R. M.; Ourmazd, A.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nano-crystalline objects. PMID:24914154

  13. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots.

    PubMed

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Schwander, P; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2014-07-17

    The advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nano-crystalline objects. PMID:24914154

  14. Achieving High Resolution Timer Events in Virtualized Environment

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Blazej; Chydzinski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Machine Monitors (VMM) have become popular in different application areas. Some applications may require to generate the timer events with high resolution and precision. This however may be challenging due to the complexity of VMMs. In this paper we focus on the timer functionality provided by five different VMMs—Xen, KVM, Qemu, VirtualBox and VMWare. Firstly, we evaluate resolutions and precisions of their timer events. Apparently, provided resolutions and precisions are far too low for some applications (e.g. networking applications with the quality of service). Then, using Xen virtualization we demonstrate the improved timer design that greatly enhances both the resolution and precision of achieved timer events. PMID:26177366

  15. High Resolution Urban Feature Extraction for Global Population Mapping using High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The advent of high spatial resolution satellite imagery like Quick Bird (0.6 meter) and IKONOS (1 meter) has provided a new data source for high resolution urban land cover mapping. Extracting accurate urban regions from high resolution images has many applications and is essential to the population mapping efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) LandScan population distribution program. This paper discusses an automated parallel algorithm that has been implemented on a high performance computing environment to extract urban regions from high resolution images using texture and spectral features

  16. HRSC: the High Resolution Stereo Camera of Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.

    2004-08-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), originally developed for the Russian-led Mars-96 mission, was selected as part of the Orbiter payload for ESA's Mars Express mission. The HRSC is a pushbroom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel in the focal plane. Its unique feature is the ability to obtain near-simultaneous imaging data of a specific site at high resolution, with along-track triple stereo, four colours and five different phase angles, thus avoiding any time-dependent variations of the observational conditions. An additional Super-Resolution Channel (SRC) - a framing device - will yield nested images in the metre-resolution range for detailed photogeologic studies. The spatial resolution from the nominal periapsis altitude of 250 km will be 10 m px-1, with an image swath of 53 km, for the HRSC and 2.3 m px-1 for the SRC. During the mission's nominal operational lifetime of 1 martian year (2 Earth years) and assuming an average HRSC data transfer share of 40%, it will be possible to cover at least 50% of the martian surface at a spatial resolution of ?15 m px-1. More than 70% of the surface can be observed at a spatial resolution of ?30 m px-1, while more than 1% will be imaged at better than 2.5 m px-1. The HRSC will thus close the gap between the medium- to low-resolution coverage and the very high-resolution images of the Mars Observer Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor mission and the in situ observations and measurements by landers. The HRSC will make a major contribution to the study of martian geosciences, with special emphasis on the evolution of the surface in general, the evolution of volcanism, and the role of water throughout martian history. The instrument will obtain images containing morphologic and topographic information at high spatial and vertical resolution, allowing the improvement of the cartographic base down to scales of 1:50000. The experiment will also address atmospheric phenomena and atmosphere-surface interactions, and will provide urgently needed support for current and furture lander missions as well as for exobiological studies. The goals of HRSC on Mars Express will not be met by any other planned mission or instrument.

  17. On the application and extension of Harten's high resolution scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extensions of a second order high resolution explicit method for the numerical computation of weak solutions of one dimensonal hyperbolic conservation laws are discussed. The main objectives were (1) to examine the shock resoluton of Harten's method for a two dimensional shock reflection problem, (2) to study the use of a high resolution scheme as a post-processor to an approximate steady state solution, and (3) to construct an implicit in the delta-form using Harten's scheme for the explicit operator and a simplified iteration matrix for the implicit operator.

  18. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Buban, James P.; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D.; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM. PMID:19915208

  19. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Kasameyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria are presented for seismic networks. An analysis of a small swarm near Mammoth Lakes, California, demonstrates these relationships and the usefulness of high-resolution seismic studies. A small network is currently monitoring the Mammoth-Pacific geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo as it begins production.

  20. 3D Correlative Imaging | High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    Cancer.gov

    One key area of interest for the lab has been to close the 3D imaging gap, finding ways to image whole cells and tissues at high resolution. Focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM, or otherwise known as ion abrasion scanning electron microscopy, IA-SEM) uses a scanning electron beam to image the face of a fixed, resin-embedded sample, and an ion beam to remove “slices” of the sample, resulting in a sequential stack of high resolution images.

  1. Theoretical Problems in High Resolution Solar Physics, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, G. (editor); Spicer, D. S. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Science Working Group for the High Resolution Solar Observatory (HRSO) laid plans beginning in 1984 for a series of workshops designed to stimulate a broadbased input from the scientific community to the HRSO mission. These workshops have the dual objectives of encouraging an early start on the difficult theoretical problems in radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics that will be posed by the HRSO data, and maintaining current discussions of results in high resolution solar studies. This workshop was the second in the series. The workshop format presented invited review papers during the formal sessions and contributed poster papers for discussions during open periods. Both are presented.

  2. A cloud mask methodology for high resolution remote sensing data combining information from high and medium resolution optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedano, Fernando; Kempeneers, Pieter; Strobl, Peter; Kucera, Jan; Vogt, Peter; Seebach, Lucia; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesús

    2011-09-01

    This study presents a novel cloud masking approach for high resolution remote sensing images in the context of land cover mapping. As an advantage to traditional methods, the approach does not rely on thermal bands and it is applicable to images from most high resolution earth observation remote sensing sensors. The methodology couples pixel-based seed identification and object-based region growing. The seed identification stage relies on pixel value comparison between high resolution images and cloud free composites at lower spatial resolution from almost simultaneously acquired dates. The methodology was tested taking SPOT4-HRVIR, SPOT5-HRG and IRS-LISS III as high resolution images and cloud free MODIS composites as reference images. The selected scenes included a wide range of cloud types and surface features. The resulting cloud masks were evaluated through visual comparison. They were also compared with ad-hoc independently generated cloud masks and with the automatic cloud cover assessment algorithm (ACCA). In general the results showed an agreement in detected clouds higher than 95% for clouds larger than 50 ha. The approach produced consistent results identifying and mapping clouds of different type and size over various land surfaces including natural vegetation, agriculture land, built-up areas, water bodies and snow.

  3. Unsupervised Feature Learning for High-Resolution Satellite Image Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The rich data provided by high-resolution satellite imagery allow us to directly model geospatial neighborhoods by understanding their spatial and structural patterns. In this paper we explore an unsupervised feature learning approach to model geospatial neighborhoods for classification purposes. While pixel and object based classification approaches are widely used for satellite image analysis, often these approaches exploit the high-fidelity image data in a limited way. In this paper we extract low-level features to characterize the local neighborhood patterns. We exploit the unlabeled feature measurements in a novel way to learn a set of basis functions to derive new features. The derived sparse feature representation obtained by encoding the measured features in terms of the learned basis function set yields superior classification performance. We applied our technique on two challenging image datasets: ORNL dataset representing one-meter spatial resolution satellite imagery representing five land-use categories and, UCMERCED dataset consisting of 21 different categories representing sub-meter resolution overhead imagery. Our results are highly promising and, in the case of UCMERCED dataset we outperform the best results obtained for this dataset. We show that our feature extraction and learning methods are highly effective in developing a detection system that can be used to automatically scan large-scale high-resolution satellite imagery for detecting large-facility.

  4. HEADTOME III: A high quantitation and high resolution brain positron emission tomograph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kanno; S. Miura; M. Murakami; K. Uemura; Y. Hirose; S. Takahashi

    1984-01-01

    HEADTOME III, a high quantitation and high resolution positron emission tomograph (PET) has been developed. HEADTOME III was basically designed as a brain PET of 3 rings 5 planes. Each ring (75 cm diam) consists of 160 BGOs (13.4 x 25 x 40 mm). Shadow masks and septa can be used independently, corresponding to low (LR) and high resolution mode

  5. Parallelization and Algorithmic Enhancements of High Resolution IRAS Image Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Yu; Prince, Thomas A.; Tereby, Susan; Beichman, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite caried out a nearly complete survey of the infrared sky, and the survey data are important for the study of many astrophysical phenomena. However, many data sets at other wavelengths have higher resolutions than that of the co-added IRAS maps, and high resolution IRAS images are strongly desired both for their own information content and their usefulness in correlation. The HIRES program was developed by the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) to produce high resolution (approx. 1') images from IRAS data using the Maximum Correlation Method (MCM). We describe the port of HIRES to the Intel Paragon, a massively parallel supercomputer, other software developments for mass production of HIRES images, and the IRAS Galaxy Atlas, a project to map the Galactic plane at 60 and 100(micro)m.

  6. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan (editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  7. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  8. High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Pierre; Dierolf, Martin; Menzel, Andreas; Bunk, Oliver; David, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2008-07-01

    Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) are two popular microscopy techniques that have evolved quite independently. CDI promises to reach resolutions below 10 nanometers, but the reconstruction procedures put stringent requirements on data quality and sample preparation. In contrast, STXM features straightforward data analysis, but its resolution is limited by the spot size on the specimen. We demonstrate a ptychographic imaging method that bridges the gap between CDI and STXM by measuring complete diffraction patterns at each point of a STXM scan. The high penetration power of x-rays in combination with the high spatial resolution will allow investigation of a wide range of complex mesoscopic life and material science specimens, such as embedded semiconductor devices or cellular networks.

  9. Application of superlattice multipliers for high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Paveliev, D. G.; Koschurinov, Y. I.; Ustinov, V. M.; Zhucov, A. E.

    2007-04-01

    Frequency multipliers based on superlattice (SL) devices as nonlinear elements have been developed as radiation sources for a terahertz (THz) laboratory spectrometer. Input frequencies of 100 and 250 GHz from backward wave oscillators have been multiplied up to the 11th harmonic, producing usable frequencies up to 2.7 THz. Even at these high frequencies the output power is sufficient for laboratory spectroscopy. Comparisons to conventional high-resolution microwave spectroscopy methods reveal several superior features of this new device such as very high line frequency accuracies, broadband tunability, high output power levels at odd harmonics of the input frequency up to high orders, and a robust applicability.

  10. Lake surface water temperature retrieval using advanced very high resolution radiometer and

    E-print Network

    Wunderle, Stefan

    Lake surface water temperature retrieval using advanced very high resolution radiometer high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sea surface temperature algorithms to derive operational lake surface water temperature (LSWT). A validation study

  11. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy: Unraveling the Secrets of Interstellar Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy M. Ziurys

    2008-01-01

    At present, over 140 different chemical compounds have been identified in interstellar and circumstellar gas. Such observations have offered a unique avenue by which to probe the cold, dense regions in our Galaxy and in external galaxies. Because these molecules are primarily present in colder material, they are usually studied at high spectral resolutions (1 part in 106-107) via their

  12. High-resolution ion mobility measurements Ph. Dugourd,a)

    E-print Network

    Clemmer, David E.

    mobility spectrometry,3,4 developed by Cohen and Karasek in 1970. Ion mobility spec- trometry has been usedHigh-resolution ion mobility measurements Ph. Dugourd,a) R. R. Hudgins, D. E. Clemmer,b) and M. F; accepted for publication 28 October 1996 Gas phase ion mobility measurements can resolve structural isomers

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION FORWARD AND INVERSE EARTHQUAKE MODELING ON TERASCALE COMPUTERS

    E-print Network

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    their lifetimes is an essential first step in designing earthquake-resistant facilities and retrofitting existingHIGH RESOLUTION FORWARD AND INVERSE EARTHQUAKE MODELING ON TERASCALE COMPUTERS VOLKAN AKC¸ ELIK, JULIO L ´OPEZ¶, DAVID O'HALLARON , TIANKAI TU, AND JOHN URBANIC Abstract. For earthquake simulations

  14. Protecting Privacy from Continuous High-resolution Satellite Surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soon Ae Chun; Vijayalakshmi Atluri

    2000-01-01

    Privacy refers to controlling the dissemination and use of personal data, including information that is knowingly disclosed, as well as data that are unintentionally revealed as a byproduct of the use of information technologies. This paper argues that the high resolution geospatial images of our earth's surface, produced from the earth observing satellites, can make a person visually exposed, resulting

  15. Infrastructure Inventory Compilation Using Single High Resolution Satellite Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pooya Sarabandi; Anne S. Kiremidjian; Ronald T. Eguchi

    This paper introduces a methodological approach for rapidly obtaining spatial and structural information from a single high-resolution satellite image, using rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) as a camera replacement model. Geometric information defining the sensor's orientation is used in conjunction with the RPC projection model to generate an accurate digital elevation model (DEM). This paper describes how the location (longitude and

  16. MULTIDIMENSIONAL VERY HIGH RESOLUTION SAR INTERFEROMETRY FOR MONITORING ENERGETIC STRUCTURES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MULTIDIMENSIONAL VERY HIGH RESOLUTION SAR INTERFEROMETRY FOR MONITORING ENERGETIC STRUCTURES G and tracking by repeat-pass SAR interferometry by coupling sub-band / sub-aperture decomposition prior to the GLRT-LQ detector. The proposed method is tested with spaceborne InSAR images provided by the TerraSAR

  17. A high resolution workstation prototype for diagnosis of digital mammograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Quiles; Pablo G. Tahoces; Miguel Souto; Juan J. Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The development of a total digital high resolution mammography display system must meet a number of requirements that remain a challenge nowadays, most probably because of the special nature of breast imaging. In this paper, we discuss our particular approach to address some problems concerning the complexity of soft-copy diagnosis in digital mammography, such as image quality and user interface

  18. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Smith; P. Kasameyer

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria

  19. Statistical Analysis of High-Resolution SAR Ground Clutter Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria S. Greco; Fulvio Gini

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling high-resolution synthetic aperture radar clutter data from different vegetated areas. We analyzed moving and stationary target recognition (MSTAR) data sets focusing on histograms, moments, and covariance of clutter amplitude, texture, and speckle. The most celebrated statistical models are tested on real data of grass field or wood and trees to validate the

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  1. High resolution image processing of geophysical data with diffraction tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Witten; W. C. King; J. R. Ursic

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a method of detection and imaging that has as its input the data collected from the most commonly employed geophysical tools. The method makes use of the Generalized Projection Slice Theorem (GPST) in the analysis of these data to yield results ranging from greatly improved detection to high resolution images of subsurface features and buried objects. Detection

  2. High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomach

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Scott

    High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomach Kevin H. Hobbs (Panulirus interruptus) stomach and identified on this image the previously defined stomach ossicles. These data are the first coordinate-based, three-dimensional description of the stomach and are a necessary

  3. High spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    . This new chirped (c-CARS) technique should prove useful for chemically-selective imaging applicationsHigh spectral resolution multiplex CARS spectroscopy using chirped pulses K.P. Knutsen, J (CARS) spectra with a fem- tosecond laser system is presented. A linearly chirped and stretched ($10 ps

  4. High-Resolution Computed Tomography Study of the Cranium of

    E-print Network

    Allman, John M.

    High-Resolution Computed Tomography Study of the Cranium of a Fossil Anthropoid Primate of these characteristics may have important implications for brain evolution. Here computed tomography is used to examine in the evolutionary development of anthropoids did these characteristics evolve? We recently used X-ray computed

  5. Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer

    E-print Network

    Long, David G.

    Greenland Observed at High Resolution by the Seasat Scatterometer D.G. Long', P.J. Hardin2, and RA to SASS data for the study of Greenland's ice sheet. We present a time series of the radar backscatter images over Greenland covering the time period July-September 1978. The images provide an island

  6. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging

    E-print Network

    Dainty, Chris

    Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging Betul Sahin,1, Barbara@gmail.com Abstract: Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate

  7. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph: In-Orbit Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Heap; J. C. Brandt; C. E. Randall; K. G. Carpenter; D. S. Leckrone; S. P. Maran; A. M. Smith; E. A. Beaver; A. Boggess; D. C. Ebbets; H. W. Garner; J. B. Hutchings; M. Jura; J. L. Linsky; B. D. Savage; J. A. Cardelli; L. M. Trafton; F. M. Walter; R. J. Weymann; T. B. Ake; D. M. Crenshaw; E. M. Malumuth; R. D. Robinson; J. L. Sandoval; S. N. Shore; G. M. Wahlgren; F. Bruhweiler; D. J. Lindler; R. L. Gilliland; S. J. Hulbert; D. R. Soderblom

    1995-01-01

    The in-orbit performance of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is presented. This report covers the pre-COSTAR period, when instrument performance was limited by the effects of spherical aberration of the telescope's primary mirror. The digicon detectors provide a linear response to count rates spanning over six orders of magnitude, ranging from the normal background

  8. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  9. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  10. 4D Cardiac Reconstruction Using High Resolution CT Images

    E-print Network

    Huang, Junzhou

    and global function features. Many cardiac reconstruction methods have been developed to build 3D models4D Cardiac Reconstruction Using High Resolution CT Images Mingchen Gao1 , Junzhou Huang1 , Shaoting University, 660 First Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, USA Abstract. Recent developments on the 320 multi

  11. Changing tropical water vapour transports in high resolution

    E-print Network

    Zahn, Matthias

    Changing tropical water vapour transports in high resolution atmospheric data Matthias Zahn supervised by Richard Allan ESSC University of Reading m.zahn@reading.ac.uk March 22, 2012 fg:logo #12;My in a series of papers (e.g. GRL[Zahn and von Storch(2008)], Nature[Zahn and von Storch(2010)]) Hydrological

  12. A novel high resolution, wide swath SAR system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suess; B. Grafmueller; R. Zahn

    2001-01-01

    A novel SAR system architecture is presented. It allows to combine a high azimuth resolution with a wide imaged swath width. The architecture and the required on board signal processing is described. Finally two examples systems and their image performance are presented

  13. Landmine detection in high resolution 3D GPR images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. E. Ligthart; A. G. Yarovoy; F. Roth; L. P. Ligthart

    2004-01-01

    This work describes a novel landmine detection and classification algorithm for high resolution 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR) images. The algorithm was tested on data measured with a video impulse radar (VIR) system developed by the International Research Centre for Telecommunications-transmission and Radar (IRCTR). The algorithm detected all landmines (including the difficult to detect M14 mines) and classified almost all

  14. Fluid interaction with high-resolution wall-size displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Guimbretière; Maureen C. Stone; Terry Winograd

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes new interaction techniques for direct pen-based interaction on the Interactive Mural, a large (6?x3.5?) high resolution (64 dpi) display. They have been tested in a digital brainstorming tool that has been used by groups of professional product designers. Our \\

  15. CHARM: A Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Richichi; I. Percheron

    2002-01-01

    The Catalog of High Angular Resolution Measurements (CHARM) includes most of the measurements obtained by the techniques of lunar occultations and long-baseline interferometry at visual and infrared wavelengths, which have appeared in the literature or have otherwise been made public until mid-2001. A total of 2432 measurements of 1625 sources are included, along with extensive auxiliary information. In particular, visual

  16. Structural investigations of copper nanorods by high-resolution TEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lisiecki; A. Filankembo; H. Sack-Kongehl; K. Weiss; M.-P. Pileni; J. Urban

    2000-01-01

    Well-defined long Cu rods having a length of the order of 1 mum and diameters of several nanometers were prepared by reduction of copper compounds. After deposition on amorphous carbon films, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction were performed in order to explain the structure of the rods. By applying computer simulations with multislice calculations, the particle structure was

  17. High-resolution light microscopy for interpretation of renal biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto O. Hoffmann

    1995-01-01

    Routine transmission electron microscopy is recommended for all renal biopsies. However, most of the diagnostic lesions in renal pathology are 0.2 µm or larger, and are therefore visible by light microscopy. These lesions are difficult to evaluate in paraffin sections due to problems inherent in the method itself. Full utilization of the resolving power of the light microscope or high-resolution

  18. High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    High-resolution three- dimensional imaging of large specimens with light sheet­based microscopy living specimens. Light sheet­based microscopy, such as SPIM is a new method for imaging large fluorescent samples1. To achieve optical sectioning, the sample is illuminated with a sheet of light

  19. Lynx: a high-resolution synthetic aperture radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan I. Tsunoda; F. Pace; J. Stence; M. Woodring; William H. Hensley; Armin W. Doerry; Bruce C. Walker

    1999-01-01

    Lynx is a high resolution, synthetic aperture radar that has been designed and built by Sandia National Laboratories in collaboration with General Atomics (GA). Although Lynx may be operated on a wide variety of manned and unmanned platforms, it is primarily intended to be fielded on unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it may be operated on the Predator, I-GNAT, or

  20. Correlating ribosome function with high-resolution structures

    E-print Network

    Yonath, Ada E.

    the eubacteria Thermus thermophilus, T30S [3,4], and the entire ribosome from the same source, T70S [5 by a complex apparatus comprising ribosomes, mRNA, tRNAs and accessory protein factors. The ribosome (Box 1Correlating ribosome function with high-resolution structures Anat Bashan and Ada Yonath Department

  1. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  2. High resolution observations of the sodium emission from the Moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Cremonese; S. Verani

    1997-01-01

    High resolution spectroscopy of the Moon's atmosphere allows to analyze the closest layers to the lunar surface giving the possibility to get information on the source and the evolution of the atmospheric atoms and their distribution with respect to the latitude. The sodium emission, that is one of the main components of the atmosphere, is easier to study thanks to

  3. Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Véronique Delouille; Pierre Chainais; J.-F. Hochedez

    2008-01-01

    Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO), InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI) having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km)2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon

  4. High Resolution Digital Imaging of Paintings: The Vasari Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Kirk

    1991-01-01

    Describes VASARI (the Visual Art System for Archiving and Retrieval of Images), a project funded by the European Community to show the feasibility of high resolution colormetric imaging directly from paintings. The hardware and software used in the system are explained, storage on optical disks is described, and initial results are reported. (five…

  5. Small animal imaging with high resolution single photon emission tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D. Acton; Hank F. Kung

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging of small animals in vivo is vital in the study of mouse and rat models of human diseases, and will provide important clues to the pathogenesis, progression and treatment of many disorders. Functional imaging of small animals using ultra-high resolution single photon emission tomography (SPECT) should be a valuable tool in the molecular imaging armamentarium. SPECT has been

  6. Communications: Nanomagnetic shielding: High-resolution NMR in carbon allotropes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kim; E. Abou-Hamad; A. Rubio; T. Gberg; A. V. Talyzin; D. Boesch; S. Aloni; A. Zettl; D. E. Luzzi; C. Goze-Bac

    2010-01-01

    The understanding and control of the magnetic properties of carbon-based materials is of fundamental relevance in applications in nano- and biosciences. Ring currents do play a basic role in those systems. In particular the inner cavities of nanotubes offer an ideal environment to investigate the magnetism of synthetic materials at the nanoscale. Here, by means of 13C high resolution NMR

  7. High-resolution electron microscopic study of salivary calculus.

    PubMed

    Tohda, H; Yamakura, K; Yanagisawa, T

    1995-10-01

    The present study was performed to examine crystals in salivary calculus by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and electron diffraction analyses. Microradiography (MR) showed that the calculus had three nuclei and showed complex shapes and mineralization. Hydroxyapatite (HA), in a variety of sizes and distributions, and the intermingling of HA and whitlockite (WH) at well-calcified areas, were observed. PMID:8568452

  8. DETERMINISTIC EXTRACTION OF BUILDING PARAMETERS FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Franceschetti; Raffaella Guida; Antonio Iodice; Daniele Riccio; Giuseppe Ruello

    Urban structure detection, in terms of both geometric and elec tromagnetic features, from a single High Resolution (HR) SAR image is, nowadays, an interesting still open challenge. Within this framework a possible approach to extract informati on from a single HR SAR image is presented. We first defi ne a set of geometric and radiometric parameters measurable on a SAR

  9. Developing a High-Resolution Texas Water and Climate

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Developing a High-Resolution Texas Water and Climate Prediction Model 1 Water Forum II on Texas and remote sensing global data sets. 3 #12;Hyperresolution regional land surface modeling for Texas · Hyperresolution: O(100 m) CONUS; O(10 m) Texas · Need for hyperresolution: Texas food production; water resources

  10. Shallow water High Resolution Bathymetric Side Scan Sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaodong Liu; Weiqing Zhu; Changle Fang; Wen Xu; Fangsheng Zhang; Yujia Sun

    2007-01-01

    With about 2 years' work, the Instituted of Acoustic, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IACAS) and the Teledyne RD Technology (Shanghai) Inc. (RDT) have developed the Shallow water High Resolution Bathymetric Side Scan Sonar (SBSSS). It is mainly composed of sonar deck control unit, sonar housing (include electronic unit and watertight pod) and two sonar arrays. The SBSSS can obtain the

  11. High Resolution Wavenumber Standards for the Infrared. (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guelachvili, G.; Birk, M.; Borde, C. J.; Brault, J. W.; Brown, L. R.; Carli, B.; Cole, A. R. H.; Evenson, K. M.; Fayt, A.; Hausamann, D.; Johns, J. W. C.; Kauppinen, J.; Kou, Q.; Maki, A. G.; Rao, K. N.; Toth, R. A.; Urban, W.; Valentin, A.; Verges, J.; Wagner, G.; Wappelhorst, M. H.; Wells, J. S.; Winnewisser, B. P.; Winnewisser, M.

    1995-01-01

    The calibration of high resolution infrared spectra is generally more precise than accurate. This is the case even when they are recorded with Fourier transform interferometers. This presentation aims at improving the accuracy of wavenumber measurements in the infrared by recommending a selection of spectral lines as wavenumber standards for absolute calibration.

  12. Object Extraction from High-Resolution Multisensor Image Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olaf Hellwich; Christian Wiedemann

    2000-01-01

    An approach to the combined extraction of linear as well as areal objects from multisensor image data based on a feature- and object-level fusion is proposed. Data source s are high-resolution panchromatic digital orthoimages, multispectral image data, and interferometric SAR data. Rural test areas consisting of a road network, agricultural fields, and small villages were investigated. Road networks are extracted

  13. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hashimoto; K. Nakajima; M. Suzuki; K. Sasakawa; K. Kimura

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate

  14. Comparative genomic hybridization: Tools for high resolution analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Knapp; R. Antonacci; B. Haddad

    1994-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful FISH-based technique that allows detection and mapping of genome imbalances using genomic DNA as probe. Limitations are resolution (limited by the use of metaphase chromosomes as target and by the high noise generated by the technique), sensitivity (imbalances as large as 10 Mb or more may remain undetected), and cumbersome analysis. We have

  15. Phase diversity techniques for high-resolution active imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Johnson; Matthew E. Goda; Victor L. Gamiz

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of space-based objects is, and has been, a topic of significant interest. Considerable effort has been expended to develop techniques for compensating or correcting image degradations caused by unknown aberrations, resulting in many successful approaches. However, current techniques are limited to scenarios where the object of interest is either naturally illuminated or is itself radiating. Active illumination using

  16. High-resolution EUS in children with eosinophilic “allergic” esophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor L. Fox; Samuel Nurko; Jonathan E. Teitelbaum; Kamran Badizadegan; Glenn T. Furuta

    2003-01-01

    Background: The pathophysiology of dysphagia associated with eosinophilic esophagitis is unknown. This study investigated possible anatomic alterations in children with eosinophilic esophagitis in comparison with healthy children by using high-resolution EUS to precisely measure individual tissue layers of the esophagus. Methods: Children with eosinophilic esophagitis (n = 11) and control children (n = 8) without esophagitis were prospectively evaluated by

  17. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during ARCTAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Ferrare; C. A. Hostetler; J. W. Hair; A. Cook; D. Harper; S. P. Burton; M. D. Obland; R. Rogers; A. J. Swanson; A. D. Clarke; C. S. McNaughton; Y. Shinozuka; J. Redemann; J. M. Livingston; P. B. Russell; C. A. Brock; D. A. Lack; K. D. Froyd; J. A. Ogren; B. Andrews; A. Laskin; R. Moffet; M. K. Gilles; A. Nenes; T. L. Lathem; P. Liu

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 aircraft measured aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm) profiles during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. HSRL data were acquired during 15 science flights

  18. High resolution far infrared polarimeter for plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Prunty; M. C. Sexton; E. Zilli

    1992-01-01

    A method for the Faraday rotation angle measurement in RFX is described, which does not require an interferometric structure, resulting in a considerable simplification of the diagnostic apparatus. It incorporates the same principle of operation as is employed in a high resolution polarimeter for visible wavelengths. The test on the bench performed at the Far Infrared wavelength of interest (lambda=118.8

  19. High resolution far infrared polarimeter for plasma diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Prunty; M. C. Sexton; E. Zilli

    1992-01-01

    A method for the Faraday rotation angle measurement in RFX is described, which does not require an interferometric structure, resulting in a considerable simplification of the diagnostic apparatus. It incorporates the same principle of operation as is employed in a high resolution polarimeter for visible wavelengths. The test on the bench performed at the Far Infrared wavelength of interest (?=118.8

  20. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  1. SOME USES OF AUTORADIOGRAPHY IN THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fodor

    1959-01-01

    The history and principles of autoradiography are reviewed. and some ; examples are cited of its uses in the metallurgical industry. A detailed account ; of tracer studies for determining the origin of non-metallic inclusions in steel ; is based on an article by A.M. Samarin in Neue Huette. Vol. 2 (1957), No. 2-3, ; page 69. The laboratory of

  2. Digital autoradiography using room temperature CCD and CMOS imaging technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Cabello; Alexis Bailey; Ian Kitchen; Mark Prydderch; Andy Clark; Renato Turchetta; Kevin Wells

    2007-01-01

    CCD (charged coupled device) and CMOS imaging technologies can be applied to thin tissue autoradiography as potential imaging alternatives to using conventional film. In this work, we compare two particular devices: a CCD operating in slow scan mode and a CMOS-based active pixel sensor, operating at near video rates. Both imaging sensors have been operated at room temperature using direct

  3. Developments in high resolution NMR of inorganic solids

    SciTech Connect

    Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    From the foundations laid by the pioneering work of J.S. Waugh at M.I.T., a number of advances in resolution and sensitivity have contributed to modem solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and its applications to materials science. Among the recent developments at Berkeley aimed at high resolution spectroscopy in solids are multiple-quantum NMR, cross polarization of quadrupoles, multiple-axis spinning methods, zero field magnetic resonance and optically pumped xenon NMR of surfaces. Following the lecture we shall hear an update on the condition of Hartmann and Hahn.

  4. High-resolution imaging of globular cluster cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, N.; Piotto, G.; Djorgovski, S.

    1990-01-01

    An approach based on the maximum entropy method aimed at increasing angular resolution to study globular cluster cores is presented. To perform the image restoration the Gull-Skilling (1989) MEMSYS-3 code for maximum entropy reconstruction of arbitrary data sets was used. This software was recently applied to restoration of ESO images of the R136 object in the core of the 30 Doradus nebula. It was demonstrated that the software made it possible to restore an image at subpixel spatial scales which facilitates the detection of very high-resolution structure in the restored image.

  5. Solutions on high-resolution multiple configuration system sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Guo, Chunjie; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-11-01

    For aim to achieve an improved resolution in modern image domain, a method of continuous zoom multiple configuration, with a core optics is attempt to establish model by novel principle on energy transfer and high accuracy localization, by which the system resolution can be improved with a level in nano meters. A comparative study on traditional vs modern methods can demonstrate that the dialectical relationship and their balance is important, among Merit function, Optimization algorithms and Model parameterization. The effect of system evaluated criterion that MTF, REA, RMS etc. can support our arguments qualitatively.

  6. High Resolution Allelotype of Microdissected Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwok-Wai Lo; Peter M. L. Teo; Angela Bik-Yu Hui; Yuen-Shan Tsang; Sylvia Yat-Yee Chan; Ko-Fung Mak; Joseph C. K. Lee; Dolly P. Huang

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in South China but is rare in other parts of the world. To better understand the molecular basis of this cancer, we performed high-resolution allelotyping on 27 microdissected primary tumors using 382 microsatellite markers. We have detected high frequencies of allelic imbalance on 3p (96.3%), 9p (85.2%), 9q (88.9%), 11q (74.1%), 12q (70.4%),

  7. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten König

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with

  8. Ceres: High-Resolution Mapping and Determination of Physical Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Parker

    2003-01-01

    We propose a modest, 6-orbit HST ACS\\/HRC program to fully map the asteroid 1 Ceres for the first time. These high signal-to-noise, high resolution maps will be obtained in three ACS filter bandpasses from the visible to the UV. The goals of our program are to advance knowledge about Ceres dramatically, to resolve certain longstanding issues regarding Ceres, and to

  9. High-resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurae scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme.

  10. Ultrafast high-resolution magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    André, Marion; Piotto, Martial; Caldarelli, Stefano; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-06-21

    We demonstrate the acquisition of ultrafast 2D NMR spectra of semi-solid samples, with a high-resolution magic-angle-spinning setup. Using a recent double-quantum NMR pulse sequence in optimised synchronisation conditions, high-quality 2D spectra can be recorded for a sample under magic-angle spinning. An illustration is given with a semi-solid sample of banana pulp. PMID:25946235

  11. A spectrometer for high-resolution and high-contrast Brillouin spectroscopy in the ultraviolet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Benassi; Roberto Eramo; Andrea Giugni; Michele Nardone; Marco Sampoli

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiple-grating spectrometer designed for high-resolution and high-contrast low-frequency scattering spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, as well as in the visible spectral regions. The instrument has a resolution better than 1 GHz and a contrast of about 1×10-10 both in the visible and in the UV range, thus doubling the highest resolution achieved by double-monochromator double-pass spectrometers such as

  12. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research.

  13. Photoacoustic lymphatic imaging with high spatial-temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Martel, Catherine; Yao, Junjie; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Zou, Jun; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Wang, Lihong V

    2014-11-01

    Despite its critical function in coordinating the egress of inflammatory and immune cells out of tissues and maintaining fluid balance, the causative role of lymphatic network dysfunction in pathological settings is still understudied. Engineered-animal models and better noninvasive high spatial-temporal resolution imaging techniques in both preclinical and clinical studies will help to improve our understanding of different lymphatic-related pathologic disorders. Our aim was to take advantage of our newly optimized noninvasive wide-field fast-scanning photoacoustic (PA) microcopy system to coordinately image the lymphatic vasculature and its flow dynamics, while maintaining high resolution and detection sensitivity. Here, by combining the optical-resolution PA microscopy with a fast-scanning water-immersible microelectromechanical system scanning mirror, we have imaged the lymph dynamics over a large field-of-view, with high spatial resolution and advanced detection sensitivity. Depending on the application, lymphatic vessels (LV) were spectrally or temporally differentiated from blood vessels. Validation experiments were performed on phantoms and in vivo to identify the LV. Lymphatic flow dynamics in nonpathological and pathological conditions were also visualized. These results indicate that our newly developed PA microscopy is a promising tool for lymphatic-related biological research. PMID:25408958

  14. Tuning and scanning control system for high resolution alexandrite lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James C.; Schwemmer, Geary K.

    1988-01-01

    An alexandrite laser is spectrally narrowed and tuned by the use of three optical elements. Each element provides a successively higher degree of spectral resolution. The digitally controlled tuning and scanning control servo system simultaneously positions all three optical elements to provide continuous high resolution laser spectral tuning. The user may select manual, single, or continuous modes of automated scanning of ranges up to 3.00/cm and at scan rates up to 3.85/cm/min. Scanning over an extended range of up to 9.999/cm may be achieved if the highest resolution optic is removed from the system. The control system is also capable of being remotely operated by another computer or controller via standard RS-232 serial data link.

  15. High resolution multispectral camera system for ERTS A & B.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. P.; Beck, G. A.; Barletta, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    A very-high resolution multispectral television camera system is being developed for use on the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) program. There are three cameras in the system, each viewing the same area but operating in the blue-green, red, and near-infrared spectral bands. In the laboratory the cameras' limiting resolution is 4500 TV lines over the 25 + 25-mm image format of the return beam vidicon (RBV). A model was developed to predict the resolving power performance of the RBV camera under realistic conditions. To verify the model, tests were conducted using the RBV camera, a laser-beam image reproducer and a series of AF tribar test patterns of known values of contrast. As a more graphic demonstration, simulated multispectral images were generated using color-IR photographs from Apollo 9. The measured signal-to-noise, resolution, and spectral characteristics of the ERTS Flight A and Flight B three-camera systems are presented in conclusion.

  16. Bendable X-ray Optics for High Resolution Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; Broadway, D.

    2014-01-01

    Current state-of the-art for x-ray optics fabrication calls for either the polishing of massive substrates into high-angular-resolution mirrors or the replication of thin, lower-resolution, mirrors from perfectly figured mandrels. Future X-ray Missions will require a change in this optics fabrication paradigm in order to achieve sub-arcsecond resolution in light-weight optics. One possible approach to this is to start with perfectly flat, light-weight surface, bend it into a perfect cone, form the desired mirror figure by material deposition, and insert the resulting mirror into a telescope structure. Such an approach is currently being investigated at MSFC, and a status report will be presented detailing the results of finite element analyses, bending tests and differential deposition experiments.

  17. MOTION ESTIMATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FROM COMPRESSED VIDEO SEQUENCES

    E-print Network

    Granada, Universidad de

    MOTION ESTIMATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FROM COMPRESSED VIDEO SEQUENCES L University, Evanston, IL 60208-3118 ABSTRACT In order to obtain a high resolution image from a com- pressed Super resolution algorithms increase the resolution of an image without changing the resolution

  18. High resolution meteorological modellingof the Inn Valley atmosphere, Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, I.; Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.

    2009-09-01

    Orography and local meteorology play a major role in Alpine valleys, as they are linked with valley and slope wind systems, stagnation and recirculation, temperature inversions and turbulence. Thus, they have a strong influence of transport and dilution of pollutants in the valley, affecting human health, and sound propagation. Shallow stable layers at the valley floor and low wind speed conditions, especially in autumn and winter, trap pollutants and thus cause unfavourable dispersion conditions , possibly leading to exceedances of air pollution limits. Moreover, under certain synoptic conditions such as persistent high-pressure systems inversion conditions prevail for days. Emissions may accumulate in the valley from day to day and thus critical levels of pollutants may be reached. With the current computer capabilities, numerical meteorological models and particle dispersion models are powerful tools to investigate such situations and their impact on emission-side measures. However, alpine valleys and other complex topographical areas require very high resolutions to ensure accurate representation of the physical processes. Typically, the highest resolutions used nowadays in episodic simulations with models such as, e.g., RAMS, WRF, or MM5, are around 1 km. This still smooths the orography, cutting the peaks and raising the valley bottoms. In this work a comparison of the simulation of the valley atmosphere with two meteorological models, MM5 and WRF, with high horizontal (0.6 km to 0.2 km) and vertical resolutions (35 to 39 half-s levels) is carried out for selected scenarios in which levels of pollutants exceeded air pollution limits. For a better representation of the orography SRTM 3" topography data is used in MM5 for resolutions below 1 km (~ resolution of SRTM 30" data), WRF will be tested only with SRTM 30" due to computational time constraints. The evolution of the valley atmosphere is studied using different PBL schemes available in the models as well as land-use representations. Rawinsonde data of the Innsbruck airport station and observation data of Innsbruck University and Patscherkofel will be used for comparison. These high-resolution simulations are very demanding in computational terms. Therefore, an evaluation of the computer demands of each of the simulations is also carried out. In order to asses the influence of this high resolution meteorological modelling on air quality conditions, further work with a dispersion model/chemistry model will be carried out and compared to observations (see contribution by Arnold et al., this session).

  19. Performance characterization of a new high resolution PET scintillation detector

    PubMed Central

    Foudray, A M K; Olcott, P D

    2013-01-01

    Performance of a new high resolution PET detection concept is presented. In this new concept, annihilation radiation enters the scintillator detectors edge-on. Each detector module comprises two 8 × 8 LYSO scintillator arrays of 0.91 × 0.91 × 1 mm3 crystals coupled to two position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) mounted on a flex circuit. Appropriate crystal segmentation allows the recording of all three spatial coordinates of the interaction(s) simultaneously with submillimeter resolution. We report an average energy resolution of 14.6 ± 1.7% for 511 keV photons at FWHM. Coincident time resolution was determined to be 2.98 ± 0.13 ns FWHM on average. The coincidence point spread function (PSF) has an average FWHM of 0.837 ± 0.049 mm (using a 500 ?m spherical source) and is uniform across the arrays. Both PSF and coincident time resolution degrade when Compton interactions are included in the data. Different blurring factors were evaluated theoretically, resulting in a calculated PSF of 0.793 mm, in good agreement with the measured value. PMID:20844332

  20. Development of High Resolution Scintillator Systems Based on Photocell Technology

    SciTech Connect

    W.J. Kernan; L.A. Franks; M. Groza; A. Burger

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic scintillator/photomultiplier-based spectrometers are the systems of choice for a multitude of X-ray and gamma radiation measurement applications. Despite widespread use, they have numerous shortcomings. The most serious shortcoming is the relatively poor energy resolution that makes isotope identification problematic, particularly in the case of trace quantities. Energy resolution in scintillator/photomultiplier tube (PMT) spectrometers is governed by a combination of the crystal intrinsic resolution that includes non-linearity effects, photomultiplier statistics, and the variability in the probability of a scintillation photon generating a photoelectron at the photocathode. It is evident that energy resolution in these systems is linked to both the physics of light generation in the scintillator and the characteristics of the PMT. PMTs also present design problems, especially in the case of handheld and portable instruments, due to their considerable weight and volume. Additionally, PMTs require well-regulated high voltage, and are vulnerable to magnetic fields. The objective of this work is to provide instrument designers of scintillation-based gamma-ray spectrometers with superior energy resolution and greatly reduced weight and volume. It is planned to achieve this advancement by optimizing the performance of a new class of inorganic scintillators by matching their emission spectra with the enhanced quantum efficiency of certain photocells.

  1. Deep-towed High Resolution multichannel seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsset, B.; Menut, E.; Ker, S.; Thomas, Y.; Regnault, J.-P.; Leon, P.; Martinossi, H.; Artzner, L.; Chenot, D.; Dentrecolas, S.; Spychalski, B.; Mellier, G.; Sultan, N.

    2014-11-01

    High Resolution (220-1050 Hz) seismic acquisition performed in deep water using deep-towed systems provides unrivalled lateral resolution when compared to conventional surface seismic. The lateral resolution of these acquisitions is controlled by the width of the first Fresnel zone, taking advantage of their positions close to the sea bottom. No current existing deep towed equipment can benefit from seismic imaging processing techniques to improve this resolution as a consequence of positioning inaccuracies. The technological developments of a digital deep-towed multichannel streamer are presented with a particular attention to positioning: each hydrophone incorporates a pitch, roll and heading sensor in order to monitor the constant deformation of the streamer in operation. The sea trials took place in July 2013 in the Mediterranean Sea. Pre-stack depth migration applied to the deep-towed multichannel data illustrates the potential of this emerging methodology in terms of penetration (12 dB improvement in Signal/Noise) and lateral resolution (mean signal wavelength: 3 m) when compared with deep-towed single-channel acquisition.

  2. Spatial resolution effects on the assessment of evapotranspiration in olive orchards using high resolution thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Cristina; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Allen, Richard G.

    2013-04-01

    The use of remote sensing techniques for estimating surface energy balance and water consumption has significantly improved the characterization of the agricultural systems by determining accurate information about crop evapotranspiration and stress, mainly for extensive crops. However the use of these methodologies for woody crops has been low due to the difficulty in the accurate characterization of these crops, mainly caused by a coarse resolution of the imagery provided by the most widely used satellites (such as Landsat 5 and 7). The coarse spatial resolution provided by these satellite sensors aggregates into a single pixel the tree crown, sunlit and shaded soil components. These surfaces can each exhibit huge differences in temperature, albedo and vegetation indexes calculated in the visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared regions. Recent studies have found that the use of energy balance approaches can provide useful results for non-homogeneous crops (Santos et al., 2012) but detailed analysis is required to determine the effect of the spatial resolution and the aggregation of the scene components in these heterogeneous canopies. In this study a comparison between different spatial resolutions has been conducted using images from Landsat 7 (with thermal resolution of 60m) and from an airborne thermal (with resolution of 80 cm) flown over olive orchards at different dates coincident with the Landsat overpass. The high resolution thermal imagery was resampled at different scales to generate images with spatial resolution ranging from 0.8 m up to 120m (thermal resolution for Landsat 5 images). The selection of the study area was made to avoid those areas with missing Landsat 7 data caused by SLC-off gaps. The selected area has a total area of around 2500 ha and is located in Southern Spain, in the province of Malaga. The selected area is mainly cultivated with olive orchards with different crop practices (rainfed, irrigated, high density, young and adult olive, etc.). The METRIC surface energy balance approach (Allen et al., 2007) was applied for evapotranspiration assessment using the data provided by Landsat 7 and using the images from the airborne flights for three days during the summer of 2012. The flights and the Landsat 7 dates were coincident in order to avoid any difference in temperature or crop characteristic. The application of METRIC was made using detailed information from the olive orchards (mainly evapotranspiration and stress indexes) at different spatial resolutions to determine the errors generated by the aggregation process required when satellite images are considered in these studies. Recommendations are given on how to decompose the bulk surface temperature of Landsat into the component crown and soil (shaded and sunlit) components. References Allen RG, Tasumi M, Trezza R (2007) Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) - Model. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering ASCE 133(4):380-394 Santos C, Lorite IJ, Allen RG, Tasumi M (2012) Aerodynamic Parameterization of the Satellite-Based Energy Balance (METRIC) Model for ET Estimation in Rainfed Olive Orchards of Andalusia, Spain. Water Resources Management 26:3267-3283

  3. The Impact of Parameter and Forcing Resolution on Data Assimilation and High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, J. L.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Tao, W.; Kumar, S.; Lang, S.; Tian, Y.; Zeng, X.

    2006-05-01

    In the last 15 years a relative explosion in computational abilities has occurred. This increase has allowed modelers of the earth system to increase the resolution of their models, as well as the level of sophistication of the parameterizations employed by these models. Satellites have also followed this trend with an increasing number and resolution of the various products provided by these platforms. These products are frequently used to initialize state of the land surface. In addition, global and regional atmospheric weather forecast products are now being offered with grid mesh sizes nearly 2 orders of magnitude finer than their counterparts of 15 years earlier. These datasets are generally used to initialize atmosphere models designed for research into atmospheric processes. It is commonly assumed that the assimilation of finer resolution data and a reduction in down-scaling will lead to increased skill in coupled land-atmospheric models. This study begins to examine this assumption by using a high resolution coupled land-atmosphere modeling system to examine the effects of parameter and forcing resolution on data assimilation and cloud resolving convective modeling. A series of land-surface 15-year integrations are performed in order to assess the impact of parameter and forcing resolution on the assimilated land-surface state. Two different parameter database resolutions are used to initialize soil classes in the land surface data assimilation system over a 500 by 500 km horizontal domain using 1km grid spacing. The domain is centered near the Oklahoma-Texas panhandle region. The land surface model is forced with 2 widely different resolutions of radiation and precipitation fields. A total of 8 integrations are employed to cover all possible combinations of the soils forcing data, allowing the investigators to determine the pure effect of resolution for soil, radiation, and precipitation, as well as the non-linear interaction between combinations of 2 factors and their triple interactions. In the next series of land-atmosphere integrations the LSM integrations are used to initialize a coupled Land Information System (LIS) and 3D cloud resolving atmospheric modeling system. In a previous study it was found that the initial conditions from the aforementioned 15 year integrations showed strong temporal and spatial response to the resolution of the forcing data. In this study a series of 24 hour simulations are conducted employing the different initial land-surface conditions from the 8 spin-up integrations. Three case days were chosen from the International H2O Project (IHOP), a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States from 13 May to 25 June 2002. The case days are chosen in order to span strong to weak synoptic forcing. Data collected during the campaign is then used to evaluate the performance of the coupled integrations and the simulated atmospheric and land surface fields of temperature, humidity, wind, soil moisture, and heat fluxes. Finally, the factor separation technique will be applied to results to see the effects of parameter and forcing resolution, as well as their interactions, on the model simulations.

  4. High Resolution Optical Spectra of HBC 722 after Outburst

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Gak; Sung, Hyun-Il; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Sung, Hwankyung; Green, Joel D; Jeon, Young-Beom

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of our high resolution optical spectroscopic monitoring campaign ($\\lambda$ = 3800 -- 8800 A, R = 30000 -- 45000) of the new FU Orionis-type object HBC 722. We observed HBC 722 with the BOES 1.8-m telescope between 2010 November 26 and 2010 December 29 and FU Orionis itself on 2011 January 26. We detect a number of previously unreported high-resolution K I and Ca II lines beyond 7500 A. We resolve the H$\\alpha$ and Ca II line profiles into three velocity components, which we attribute to both disk and outflow. The increased accretion during outburst can heat the disk to produce the relatively narrow absorption feature and launch outflows appearing as high velocity blue and redshifted broad features.

  5. High real-space resolution structure of materials by high-energy x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Petkov, V.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Heising, J.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Shastri, S.; Kycia, S.

    1999-12-10

    Results of high-energy synchrotrons radiation experiments are presented demonstrating the advantages of the atomic Pair Distribution Function technique in determining the structure of materials with high resolution.

  6. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

    DOEpatents

    McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-16

    A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

  7. The spatially heterodyned spectrometer: A for high resolution Raman spectroscopy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannell, Christopher N.; Zhang, Bill G.; Reed, Murray K.

    2015-03-01

    The spatially heterodyned spectrometer (SHS) is one of a class of interesting Static Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FSTS) which offers particular advantages when high spectral resolution is required over a relatively narrow design wavelength range, and high light throughput is needed. The technique was invented by Harlander and Roesler in 1990, and have been under development in various embodiments since; the original applications were astronomical but other application areas are continually appearing. We have investigated a field-widened SHS in terms of its fundamental spectral resolution and its sensitivity. The light grasp of the SHS is very large compared to "standard" dispersive spectrometer hoverer one must be careful to distinguish between light grasp and sensitivity; our prototype device used a 3mm liquid light guide as the input optic, operating at f/1.4, and was constructed with off-the-shelf optical components, apart from the field widening prisms which were custom made. It demonstrated a S/N ratio of unity with an input power of tens of femto-Watts in a sub-resolution spectral feature, and a spectral resolution of 2.9 wave numbers, operating between 790nm and 940nm. The exposure time was of the order of 60 seconds or greater. We conclude that this arrangement would be an excellent tool for analysis of Raman spectra.

  8. High resolution 3D fluorescence tomography using ballistic photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jie; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Kwong, Jessica; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a ballistic-photon based approach for improving the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography using time-domain measurements. This approach uses early photon information contained in measured time-of-fight distributions originating from fluorescence emission. The time point spread functions (TPSF) from both excitation light and emission light are acquired with gated single photon Avalanche detector (SPAD) and time-correlated single photon counting after a short laser pulse. To determine the ballistic photons for reconstruction, the lifetime of the fluorophore and the time gate from the excitation profiles will be used for calibration, and then the time gate of the fluorescence profile can be defined by a simple time convolution. By mimicking first generation CT data acquisition, the sourcedetector pair will translate across and also rotate around the subject. The measurement from each source-detector position will be reshaped into a histogram that can be used by a simple back-projection algorithm in order to reconstruct high resolution fluorescence images. Finally, from these 2D sectioning slides, a 3D inclusion can be reconstructed accurately. To validate the approach, simulation of light transport is performed for biological tissue-like media with embedded fluorescent inclusion by solving the diffusion equation with Finite Element Method using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation. The reconstruction results from simulation studies have confirmed that this approach drastically improves the spatial resolution of fluorescence tomography. Moreover, all the results have shown the feasibility of this technique for high resolution small animal imaging up to several centimeters.

  9. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 ?bar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 ?bar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (?_2 to ?_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  10. Coregistration of high-resolution Mars orbital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2015-04-01

    The systematic orbital imaging of the Martian surface started 4 decades ago from NASA's Viking Orbiter 1 & 2 missions, which were launched in August 1975, and acquired orbital images of the planet between 1976 and 1980. The result of this reconnaissance was the first medium-resolution (i.e. ? 300m/pixel) global map of Mars, as well as a variety of high-resolution images (reaching up to 8m/pixel) of special regions of interest. Over the last two decades NASA has sent 3 more spacecraft with onboard instruments for high-resolution orbital imaging: Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) having onboard the Mars Orbital Camera - Narrow Angle (MOC-NA), Mars Odyssey having onboard the Thermal Emission Imaging System - Visual (THEMIS-VIS) and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) having on board two distinct high-resolution cameras, Context Camera (CTX) and High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). Moreover, ESA has the multispectral High resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) onboard ESA's Mars Express with resolution up to 12.5m since 2004. Overall, this set of cameras have acquired more than 400,000 high-resolution images, i.e. with resolution better than 100m and as fine as 25 cm/pixel. Notwithstanding the high spatial resolution of the available NASA orbital products, their accuracy of areo-referencing is often very poor. As a matter of fact, due to pointing inconsistencies, usually form errors in roll attitude, the acquired products may actually image areas tens of kilometers far away from the point that they are supposed to be looking at. On the other hand, since 2004, the ESA Mars Express has been acquiring stereo images through the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), with resolution that is usually 12.5-25 metres per pixel. The achieved coverage is more than 64% for images with resolution finer than 20 m/pixel, while for ~40% of Mars, Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) have been produced with are co-registered with MOLA [Gwinner et al., 2010]. The HRSC images and DTMs represent the best available 3D reference frame for Mars showing co-registration with MOLA<25m (loc.cit.). In our work, the reference generated by HRSC terrain corrected orthorectified images is used as a common reference frame to co-register all available high-resolution orbital NASA products into a common 3D coordinate system, thus allowing the examination of the changes that happen on the surface of Mars over time (such as seasonal flows [McEwen et al., 2011] or new impact craters [Byrne, et al., 2009]). In order to accomplish such a tedious manual task, we have developed an automatic co-registration pipeline that produces orthorectified versions of the NASA images in realistic time (i.e. from ~15 minutes to 10 hours per image depending on size). In the first step of this pipeline, tie-points are extracted from the target NASA image and the reference HRSC image or image mosaic. Subsequently, the HRSC areo-reference information is used to transform the HRSC tie-points pixel coordinates into 3D "world" coordinates. This way, a correspondence between the pixel coordinates of the target NASA image and the 3D "world" coordinates is established for each tie-point. This set of correspondences is used to estimate a non-rigid, 3D to 2D transformation model, which transforms the target image into the HRSC reference coordinate system. Finally, correlation of the transformed target image and the HRSC image is employed to fine-tune the orthorectification results, thus generating results with sub-pixel accuracy. This method, which has been proven to be accurate, robust to resolution differences and reliable when dealing with partially degraded data and fast, will be presented, along with some example co-registration results that have been achieved by using it. Acknowledgements: The research leading to these results has received partial funding from the STFC "MSSL Consolidated Grant" ST/K000977/1 and partial support from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement n° 607379. References: [1]

  11. High Resolution Measurements and Electronic Structure Calculations of a Diazanaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruet, Sébastien; Goubet, Manuel; Pirali, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been suspected to be the carriers of so called Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs). Most of the results published in the literature report rotationally unresolved spectra of pure carbon as well as heteroatom-containing PAHs species. To date for this class of molecules, the principal source of rotational informations is ruled by microwave (MW) spectroscopy while high resolution measurements reporting rotational structure of the infrared (IR) vibrational bands are very scarce. Recently, some high resolution techniques provided interesting new results to rotationally resolve the IR and far-IR bands of these large carbonated molecules of astrophysical interest. One of them is to use the bright synchrotron radiation as IR continuum source of a high resolution Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometer. We report the very complementary analysis of the [1,6] naphthyridine (a N-bearing PAH) for which we recorded the microwave spectrum at the PhLAM laboratory (Lille) and the high resolution far-infrared spectrum on the AILES beamline at synchrotron facility SOLEIL. MW spectroscopy provided highly accurate rotational constants in the ground state to perform Ground State Combinations Differences (GSCD) allowing the analysis of the two most intense FT-FIR bands in the 50-900 wn range. Moreover, during this presentation the negative value of the inertial defect in the GS of the molecule will be discussed. A. Leger, J. L. Puget, Astron. Astrophys. 137, L5-L8 (1984) L. J. Allamandola et al. Astrophys. J. 290, L25-L28 (1985). Z. Kisiel et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 217, 115 (2003) S. Thorwirth et al. Astrophys. J. 662, 1309 (2007) D. McNaughton et al. J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154305 (2011). S. Albert et al. Faraday Discuss. 150, 71-99 (2011) B. E. Brumfield et al. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1985-1988 (2012) O. Pirali et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10141 (2013).

  12. High-resolution SIT TV tube for subnanosecond image shuttering

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; Vine, B.H.; Aeby, I.; Dunbar, D.L.; King, N.S.P.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Thayer, N.N.; Noel, B.W.

    1984-09-01

    A new ultrafast high-resolution image shutter tube with reasonable gain and shuttering efficiency has been designed and tested. The design uses a grid-gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) image section and a high-speed focus projection and scan (FPS) vidicon read-out section in one envelope to eliminate resolution losses from external coupling. The design features low-gate-interface capacity, a high-conductivity shutter grid, and a segmented low-resistivity photocathode for optimum gating speed. Optical gate widths as short as 400 ps +- 100 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window with spatial resolution as high as 15 lp/mm have been measured. Some design criteria, most of the electrical and optical performance data for several variations in the basic design, and a comparison (of several key response functions) with similarly tested 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) are included.

  13. [Farmland parcel extraction based on high resolution remote sensing image].

    PubMed

    Hu, Tan-Gao; Zhu, Wen-Quan; Yang, Xiao-Qiong; Pan, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Jin-Shui

    2009-10-01

    A new method of farmland parcel extraction from high resolution remote sensing image based on wavelet and watershed segmentation was proposed in the present paper. First, classification results were used to enhance the contrast of gray-scale value of typical pixels in the original image using the high resolution remote sensing image's spectral information. Second, wavelet transform and watershed segmentation were applied to the enhanced image, then improved region merger algorithm was used to solve the problem of over-segmentation. Finally, inverse wavelet transform was taken to get the reconstructed image, then Canny operator was introduced to add the edge information, and the result of farmland parcel segmentation was obtained. To validate the proposed approach, experiments on Quickbird images were performed, we rapidly extracted the farmland parcel from the test image, and the results had a high accuracy. Despite it had a lot to do in extracting the small size parcels, on the whole the method this paper proposed had a very good robustness. Compared with the traditional methods, it had the following advantages: (1) it was an automatic extraction method, did not need too much manual intervention, and could extract the large area of farmland parcels accurately and effectively. (2) It was a very good solution to the problem of over-segmentation by using improved region merger algorithm, and improved the accuracy of the extraction. All these indicated that the proposed approach was an effective farmland parcel extraction method based on high resolution remote sensing image. PMID:20038042

  14. High Resolution, Real-Time Interferometer for Coherent Beam Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, Sandel; Blanaru, Constantin; Ursescu, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Piston errors introduced during the pumping of high energy amplifiers in the laser chains are estimated to produce significant distortion and dramatically reduce the intensity of the combined beam resulted from the Coherent Beam Combination (CBC) of ultra intense short pulses. For monitoring the phase and optical path shift, we developed a high resolution real time interferometer. Based on the code counting method, the device is suitable for high speed/real time measurements and is immune to vibrations which might appear in the laser system. The device consists of an analog stage which generates the counting code, later processed by the microprocessor unit (CPU). The analog stage ensures 20 nm resolution, 2 m/s optical path variation speed measurements and has low sensitivity to variations of quadrature signals amplitude. The CPU is based on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD), with 8 ns processing time of the signals. The algorithm provides simultaneously measurements with increasing speed for lower resolution (20 nm at 2 m/s, 40 nm at 4 m/s and 80 nm at 8 m/s), making the system fault tolerant at high speed fluctuations of the optical path. The device contains also a digital-to-analog converter stage, making the instrument suitable for implementation of closed loop control.

  15. Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

    2007-01-01

    We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

  16. High-brightness and high-resolution projection CRT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zulun Lin; Jianbo Cheng; Kangcheng Qi; Quan Jiang; Guogao Huang

    1998-01-01

    A new 3-in. projection CRT that YAG(Y3Al5O12) single crystal is used for the substrate of the phosphor screen has been developed. This phosphor screen has a number of unusual properties. The substrate has a very high coefficient of thermal conductivity and a high transparency. To obtain matched sealing, a low melting point solder has been developed to combine the substrate

  17. High-resolution dot-matrix hologram generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarkov, Boban; Gruji?, Dušan; Panteli?, Dejan

    2012-05-01

    Holography is a technique that enables us to permanently record three-dimensional (3D) colour pictures. Owing to their sub-micron structure, holograms are remarkable safety devices that are very difficult to counterfeit. Dot-matrix technology, which is one of the commonly used methods, is a substantial obstacle to all types of fraudulent activities. This kind of hologram is mainly used for the purpose of protection against forgery of cheques, cards, passports, etc. Such a high-resolution technique also enables the engineering of 2D and 3D structures, potentially leading to the construction of metamaterials. In this paper, we describe high-resolution holographic structures obtained by dot-matrix devices of novel construction.

  18. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    E-print Network

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Agnello, Adriano; Auger, Matthew W; Liao, Kai; Marshall, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as "Einstein Rings" in high resolution images. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope $\\gamma'$ of the...

  19. Airborne laser scanning for high-resolution mapping of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, Bea; Schenk, Toni; Krabill, William; Wilson, Terry; Lyons, William; McKenzie, Garry; Hallam, Cheryl; Manizade, Serdar; Paulsen, Timothy

    In order to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning for topographic mapping in Antarctica and to establish calibration/validation sites for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter mission, NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) joined forces to collect high-resolution airborne laser scanning data.In a two-week campaign during the 2001-2002 austral summer, NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system was used to collect data over several sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica (Figure 1a). From the recorded signals, NASA computed laser points and The Ohio State University (OSU) completed the elaborate computation/verification of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in 2003. This article reports about the DEM generation and some exemplary results from scientists using the geomorphologic information from the DEMs during the 2003-2004 field season.

  20. High resolution computed tomography of advanced composite and ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, R. N.; Klima, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced composite and ceramic materials are being developed for use in many new defense and commercial applications. In order to achieve the desired mechanical properties of these materials, the structural elements must be carefully analyzed and engineered. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of high resolution computed tomography (CT) as a macrostructural analysis tool for advanced composite and ceramic materials. Several samples were scanned using a laboratory high resolution CT scanner. Samples were also destructively analyzed at the locations of the scans and the nondestructive and destructive results were compared. The study provides useful information outlining the strengths and limitations of this technique and the prospects for further research in this area.

  1. X-ray high-resolution vascular network imaging.

    PubMed

    Plouraboue, F; Cloetens, P; Fonta, C; Steyer, A; Lauwers, F; Marc-Vergnes, J P

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first application of high-resolution X-ray synchrotron tomography to the imaging of large microvascular networks in biological tissue samples. This technique offers the opportunity of analysing the full three-dimensional vascular network from the micrometre to the millimetre scale. This paper presents the specific sample preparation method and the X-ray imaging procedure. Either barium or iron was injected as contrast agent in the vascular network. The impact of the composition and concentration of the injected solution on the X-ray synchrotron tomography images has been studied. Two imaging modes, attenuation and phase contrast, are compared. Synchrotron high-resolution computed tomography offers new prospects in the three-dimensional imaging of in situ biological vascular networks. PMID:15315500

  2. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cells Using Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhang, Wei; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of cells can reveal valuable information about their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to provide high-resolution images from the surface of biological samples. However, samples need to be dehydrated and coated with conductive materials for SEM imaging. Besides, immobilizing non-adherent cells during processing and analysis is challenging and requires complex fixation protocols. In this work, we developed a novel dielectrophoresis based microfluidic platform for interfacing non-adherent cells with high-resolution SEM at low vacuum mode. The system enables rapid immobilization and dehydration of samples without deposition of chemical residues over the cell surface. Moreover, it enables the on-chip chemical stimulation and fixation of immobilized cells with minimum dislodgement. These advantages were demonstrated for comparing the morphological changes of non-budding and budding yeast cells following Lyticase treatment. PMID:25089528

  3. High Spatial Resolution Remotely Sensed Data for Ecosystem Characterization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MICHAEL A. WULDER, RONALD J. HALL, NICHOLAS C. COOPS, and STEVEN E. FRANKLIN (; )

    2004-06-01

    This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience magazine presents technical aspects of remote sensing for images at high spatial resolution. Characterization of ecosystem structure, diversity, and function is increasingly desired at finer spatial and temporal scales than have been derived in the past. Many ecological applications require detailed data representing large spatial extents, but these data are often unavailable or are impractical to gather using field-based techniques. Remote sensing offers an option for collecting data that can represent broad spatial extents with detailed attribute characterizations. Remotely sensed data are also appropriate for use in studies across spatial scales, in conjunction with field-collected data. This article presents the pertinent technical aspects of remote sensing for images at high spatial resolution (i.e., with a pixel size of 16 square meters or less), existing and future options for the processing and analysis of remotely sensed data, and attributes that can be estimated with these data for forest ecosystems.

  4. High-resolution AFM in liquid: what about the tip?

    PubMed

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-03-13

    Atomic Force Microscopy relies on a nanoscale tip to image and probe samples, often down to the sub-nanometre level. The measurement process depends on the precise geometry and chemical nature of the tip apex, and is therefore difficult to control. In the current issue of Nanotechnology, Akrami and co-workers show that, for measurements in aqueous solutions and on flat samples, the presence of stable hydration sites at the tip apex is key to achieving high-resolution images. These sites can be created on commercial tips using a simple preparation strategy that prevents build-up of interfering contaminants. The findings by Akrami et al also suggest a possible way forward to control the influence of the tip on high-resolution measurements. PMID:25687326

  5. High-resolution AFM in liquid: what about the tip?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2015-03-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy relies on a nanoscale tip to image and probe samples, often down to the sub-nanometre level. The measurement process depends on the precise geometry and chemical nature of the tip apex, and is therefore difficult to control. In the current issue of Nanotechnology, Akrami and co-workers show that, for measurements in aqueous solutions and on flat samples, the presence of stable hydration sites at the tip apex is key to achieving high-resolution images. These sites can be created on commercial tips using a simple preparation strategy that prevents build-up of interfering contaminants. The findings by Akrami et al also suggest a possible way forward to control the influence of the tip on high-resolution measurements.

  6. Chromatic Modulator for High Resolution CCD or APS Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor); Hull, Anthony B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system for providing high-resolution color separation in electronic imaging. Comb drives controllably oscillate a red-green-blue (RGB) color strip filter system (or otherwise) over an electronic imaging system such as a charge-coupled device (CCD) or active pixel sensor (APS). The color filter is modulated over the imaging array at a rate three or more times the frame rate of the imaging array. In so doing, the underlying active imaging elements are then able to detect separate color-separated images, which are then combined to provide a color-accurate frame which is then recorded as the representation of the recorded image. High pixel resolution is maintained. Registration is obtained between the color strip filter and the underlying imaging array through the use of electrostatic comb drives in conjunction with a spring suspension system.

  7. Fabricating High-Resolution X-Ray Collimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Michael; Atkinson, James E.; Fraser, Iain; Klinger, Jill

    2008-01-01

    A process and method for fabricating multi-grid, high-resolution rotating modulation collimators for arcsecond and sub-arcsecond x-ray and gamma-ray imaging involves photochemical machining and precision stack lamination. The special fixturing and etching techniques that have been developed are used for the fabrication of multiple high-resolution grids on a single array substrate. This technology has application in solar and astrophysics and in a number of medical imaging applications including mammography, computed tomography (CT), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and gamma cameras used in nuclear medicine. This collimator improvement can also be used in non-destructive testing, hydrodynamic weapons testing, and microbeam radiation therapy.

  8. SLAM combining ToF and high-resolution cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Castaneda; Diana Mateus; Nassir Navab

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an extension to the Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (MonoSLAM) method that relies on the images provided by a combined high resolution Time of Flight (HR-ToF) sensor. In its standard formulation MonoSLAM estimates the depth of each tracked feature as the camera moves. This depth estimation depends both on the quality of the feature tracking and the

  9. High-Resolution Water Vapor Mapping from Interferometric Radar Measurements.

    PubMed

    Hanssen; Weckwerth; Zebker; Klees

    1999-02-26

    Spaceborne radar interferometric delay measurements were used to infer high-resolution maps of integrated atmospheric water vapor, which can be readily related to meteorological phenomena. Maps of the water vapor distribution associated with a precipitating cloud, a partly precipitating cold front, and horizontal convective rolls reveal quantitative measures that are not observed with conventional methods, and suggest that such radar observations can be used for forecasting and to study atmospheric dynamics. PMID:10037594

  10. Ultra-high-resolution small-animal SPECT imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. van der Have

    2007-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the development of the first two in a series of dedicated ultra-high resolution Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems (U-SPECT-I and II) for the imaging of distributions of radio-isotope labeled tracers in small laboratory animals such as mice and rats. After an explanation of the history of pinhole imaging and the basics

  11. Cavity detection using high-resolution seismic reflection methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Branham; D. W. Steeples

    1988-01-01

    Surface collapse over abandoned sub-surface coal mines continues to be a problem in many parts of the world. High-resolution P-wave reflection seismology was successfully used to locate water-filled cavities in a 1-m (3-ft) thick coal seam at depths of 9 m (29 ft) in southeastern Kansas. A dominant frequency of 275 Hz was attained enabling us to delineate the top

  12. High time resolution study of interplanetary parameter correlations with AE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Baker; E. W. Jr. Hones; J. B. Payne; W. C. Feldman

    1981-01-01

    Using the earth-orbiting spacecraft IMP-8, we have performed a high time-resolution (2.5-min) study of the linear cross-correlations of a quantitative indicator of magnetospheric substorm activity, the auroral electrojet (AE) index, with several interplanetary (IP) parameters. The present study includes all available satellite data (from an eight-month period) rather than selecting a small number of substorm events, or a relatively small

  13. PHAROS - Proposal for a high-angular-resolution optical survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenaway, A. H.; Smith, D. Mack

    A 2 mW laser source at cis-lunar altitudes provides sufficient illumination for adaptive-optic calibration of ground-based telescopes. Orbital parameters to permit such a satellite to be used for high-angular-resolution imaging from La Palma are examined. The apparent motion of the satellite is sufficiently slow to permit 60-min integrations on some low-declination astronomical objects.

  14. Preserving amplitude in high-resolution marine geophysical profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald J. Krotser

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution seismic and side-scan sonar images built up by stacking density-modulated line traces can properly represent signal amplitude in terms of image density. Faithful representation is possible only if signal amplitude is maintained at all steps in processing, including compensation for spherical spreading loss and conversion of the amplified signal to image density on the electrically or photographically sensitive paper

  15. Comparison and analysis of fusion algorithms of high resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guangjun; Huang, Xiaobo; Dai, Chenguang

    2008-03-01

    The fusion techniques have been developed quickly in recent years and become an important remote sensing research topic. This paper systematically discusses the technique used in pixel level image fusion including IHS transform, YIQ transform, HLS transform, HSV transform, PCA transform, HPF transform and wavelet transform image fusion method. Then a fusion experiment of IKONOS image is made to compares the different merging methods from spectral quality and the spatial quality in order to choose the suitable method for the high resolution image.

  16. High-resolution lensless Fourier transform holography for microstructure imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Zhao; Dayong Wang; Huaying Wang; Jianjun Xie

    2007-01-01

    Digital holography combines the advantages of the optical holography and the computers. It can implement an all-digital processing and has the quasi real-time property. With lensless Fourier transform recording architecture, the limited bandwidth of CCD camera can be utilized sufficiently, and the sampling theorem is satisfied easily. Therefore, high-resolution can be achieved. So it is preferred in the microstructure imaging.

  17. Using High Resolution Balloon Photography to Provide Topographic Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Russell; T. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    For site-scale projects, the Bureau of Reclamation has used low altitude balloon photogrammetry to obtain high-resolution photographs and detailed topographic information. These data are collected in a fraction of the time and effort it would take to obtain a similar level of detail using traditional methods. This is accomplished at a significantly reduced cost compared to flying LiDAR or aerial

  18. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chritin, N.; Schmickler, H.; Soby, L.; /CERN; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  19. Progress Toward A Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korendyke, Clarence M.; Vourlidas, A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Klimchuck, J.

    2007-07-01

    Recent imaging at arcsecond (TRACE) and sub-arcsecond (VAULT) spatial resolution clearly show that structures with fine spatial scales play a key role in the physics of the upper solar atmosphere. Both theoretical and observational considerations point to the importance of small spatial scales, impulsive energy release, strong dynamics, and extreme plasma nonuniformity. Fundamental questions regarding the nature, structure, properties and dynamics of loops and filamentary structures in the upper atmosphere have been raised. To address these questions, we are developing a next generation, VEry high angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) as a sounding rocket instrument. VERIS will obtain the necessary high spatial resolution, high fidelity measurements of plasma temperatures, densities and velocities. With broad simultaneous temperature coverage, the VERIS observations will directly address unresolved issues relating to interconnections of various temperature solar plasmas. VERIS will provide the first ever subarcsecond spectra of transition region and coronal structures. It will do so with a sufficient spectral resolution of to allow centroided Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Finally, in addition to the spectra, VERIS will simultaneously obtain spectrally pure slot images (10x150 arcsec) in the +/-1 grating orders, which can be combined to make instantaneous line-of-sight velocity maps with 8km/s accuracy over an unprecedented field of view. The VERIS program is beginning the second year of its three year development cycle. All design activities and reviews are complete. Fabrication of all major components has begun. Brassboard electronics cards have been fabricated, assembled and tested. The paper presents the essential scientific characteristics of the instrument.

  20. High-resolution satellite image segmentation using Hölder exponents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debasish Chakraborty; Gautam Kumar Sen; Sugata Hazra

    2009-01-01

    Texture in high-resolution satellite images requires substantial amendment in the conventional segmentation algorithms. A\\u000a measure is proposed to compute the Hölder exponent (HE) to assess the roughness or smoothness around each pixel of the image.\\u000a The localized singularity information is incorporated in computing the HE. An optimum window size is evaluated so that HE\\u000a reacts to localized singularity. A two-step

  1. 8500-8750{AA} high resolution spectroscopy (Munari+, 1999)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Munari; L. Tomasella

    1999-01-01

    We present an Echelle+CCD high resolution spectroscopic atlas mapping the MKK classification system over the wavelength interval lambda 8500-8750 A, centered on the near-IR triplet of Ca II. Table 2 lists all the 131 program stars with basic informations (magnitudes, coordinates, spectral types, metallicities, rotational velocities, variabilities) and the journal of observations; Table 3 shows our mapping of the MKK

  2. High-Resolution Optoelectronic Shaft-Angle Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic encoder measures absolute angle to which shaft has been rotated. Costs little more than older, less capable encoders do, yet measures absolute angles at high resolution and does not lose absolute-angle data because generates those data anew with each reading at up to 1,000 times per second. It accumulates increments to measure total angular interval through which shaft has been turned (including unlimited number of complete turns), as long as power remains on.

  3. GENERATION OF DTM FROM STEREO HIGH RESOLUTION SENSORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Toutin

    Digital terrain models (DTMs) were extracted from high-resolution stereo images (SPOT-5, EROS-A, IKONOS-II and QuickBird) using a three-dimensional universal physical model developed at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada. DEMs were generated using an area-based multi-scale image matching method and then compared to 0.2-m accurate lidar elevation data. Elevation linear errors with 68% confidence level (LE68) of

  4. High-resolution CT of lesions of the optic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Peyster, R.G.; Hoover, E.D.; Hershey, B.L.; Haskin, M.E.

    1983-05-01

    The optic nerves are well demonstrated by high-resolution computed tomography. Involvement of the optic nerve by optic gliomas and optic nerve sheath meningiomas is well known. However, nonneoplastic processes such as increased intracranial pressure, optic neuritis, Grave ophthalmopathy, and orbital pseudotumor may also alter the appearance of the optic nerve/sheath on computed tomography. Certain clinical and computed tomographic features permit distinction of these nonneoplastic tumefactions from tumors.

  5. Topological Analysis of High-Resolution CMB Maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Wandelt; Eric Hivon; Kris M. Gorski

    1998-01-01

    We report the development of numerical tools for the topological analysis of sub--degree resolution, all--sky maps. Software to be released in the HEALFAST (V0.9) package defines neighbour relationships for the HEALPIX tessellation of the sphere. We apply this routine to a fast extrema search which scales strictly linearly in the number of pixels, $N_{p}$. We also present a highly efficient

  6. High Resolution Wavenumber Standards for the Infrared. (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guelachvili, G.; Birk, M.; Bord, C.; Brault, J.; Brown, L.; Carli, B.; Cole, A.; Evenson, D.; Fayt, A.; Hausamann, D.; Johns, J.; Kauppinen, J.; Kou, Q.; Maki, A.; Narahari Rao, K.; Toth, R.; Urban, W.; Valentin, A.; Vergs, J.; Wagner, G.; Winnewisser, B.; Winnewisser, M.

    1995-01-01

    The calibration of high resolution infrared spectra is generally more precise than accurate even when they are recorded with Fourier interferometers. In order to improve the consistency of the spectral measurements, an IUPAC project has been undertaken. Its aim was to recommend a selection of spectral lines as wavenumber standards for absolute calibration in the infrared. This paper will report the final recommendations in the spectral range extending from about 4 to about 7000 cm(be).

  7. High resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectrometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parr, A. C.; Southworth, S. H.; Dehmer, J. L.; Holland, D. M. P.

    1984-05-01

    The design and construction details for a new high resolution, angle-resolved electron spectrometer system specifically designed for use on the National Bureau of Standards' synchrotron radiation facility (SURF-II) are described. The system features two 10.2 cm mean-radius hemispherical electron energy analyzers in a cryogenically-pumped, magnetically-shielded chamber and may be used to measure vibrationally resolved photoelectron branching ratios and angular distributions from small molecules.

  8. Local structure in perovskite relaxor ferroelectrics: high-resolution 93

    E-print Network

    Vold, Robert

    Local structure in perovskite relaxor ferroelectrics: high-resolution 93 Nb 3QMAS NMR Donghua H in capacitors, sensors, actuators, and transduc- ers [1,2]. Most relaxors have ABO3 pseudo-perovskite structure to paraelectric phase transition [4]. In PSN-type perovskites, for example PbSc1=2Ta1=2O3 (PST), the 1:1 long

  9. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy in atoms and molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Berrah; O. Nayandin; S. E. Conton-Rogan; E. Kukk; A. A. Wills; T. W. Gorczyca; G. Snell; Chien-Nan Liu; J. D. Bozek; M. Wiedenhoeft

    2001-01-01

    New features are revealed by critically combining high photon resolution from the Advances Light Source and differential photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. Two LS-forbidden doubly-excited resonances have been observed in the 3p-13\\/2,1\\/2 partial cross-sections of Ar which exhibit mirroring profiles, resulting in complete cancellation in the total photoionization cross-section as was predicted by Liu and Starace [Phys. Rev. A 59, R1731 (1999)].

  10. A high-resolution chirp transform spectrometer for microwave measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hartogh; G. K. Hartmann

    1990-01-01

    A microwave heterodyne spectrometer consists of a radiometer front-end and a real-time spectrum analyzer back-end. Common spectrometer types are filterbanks, autocorrelators and acousto-optic spectrometers (AOS). In this paper a high-resolution chirp transform spectrometer using reflective array compressor (RAC) filters with a time bandwidth product of 6400 is presented. The spectrometer has 1600 channels within a 40 MHz input bandwidth and

  11. High resolution tuning system for pulsed dye lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro A. Hnilo; Francisco A. Manzano; Oscar E. Martinez

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical requirements of a 0.15-pm wavelength-scan resolution in high-precision tuning multimode pulsed dye laser oscillators are presently satisfied by placing a prism at the minimum deviation angle in the dye laser cavity; it thereby acts as an optical reductor of the variation in the angle between the tuning mirror and the grating. Since the reduction factor varies with angle

  12. Urban Road Extraction from High-Resolution Optical Satellite Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Naouai; Atef Hamouda; Christiane Weber

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Road extraction research has always been an active research on automatic identification of remote sensing images. With the\\u000a availability of high spatial resolution images from new generation commercial sensors, how to extract roads quickly, accurately\\u000a and automatically has been a cutting-edge problem in remote sensing related fields. In this paper, we present a novel road\\u000a extraction approach which uses a

  13. High range resolution MMW radar target recognition approaches with application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songhua He; Wenfeng Zhang; Guirong Guo

    1996-01-01

    In our work summarized in this paper, a systematic study is performed about theoretical approaches and techniques for high resolution radar target recognition in guidance application. The method of Doppler compensation for moving target discrimination and the method of rule-based pattern recognition for vehicle-sized target identification are firstly introduced. Then the pattern recognition approach based on adaptive matched-filters is studied

  14. High resolution chromosome banding in the Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Satoh; M. C. Yoshida; M. Sasaki

    1989-01-01

    High resolution banded chromosomes were prepared from a synchronized culture of rat fibroblasts. A maximum of 457 bands per haploid chromosome set were observed. This represents a two-fold increase when compared to the number of bands visualized in mid-metaphases using standard procedures. By reference to both G- and Q-banded karyotypes, we constructed improved idiograms of rat chromosomes at 300- and

  15. Synthesizing a Virtual Imager with a Large Field of View and a High Resolution for Micromanipulation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synthesizing a Virtual Imager with a Large Field of View and a High Resolution: a high resolution imager for local view and a low resolution imager for global view. We are developing: a microimager for the high resolution and a basic imager for the large field of view [4]. The drawbacks

  16. Image-Derived Input Function for Human Brain Using High Resolution PET Imaging with [11

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    Image-Derived Input Function for Human Brain Using High Resolution PET Imaging with [11 C was to test seven previously published image-input methods in state-of-the-art high resolution PET brain images. Images were obtained with a High Resolution Research Tomograph plus a resolution

  17. Tensor-based methods for numerical homogenization from high-resolution images$

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tensor-based methods for numerical homogenization from high-resolution images$ L. Giraldi, A. Nouy resolution images. We first introduce specific numerical treatments for the translation of image With the development of affordable high resolution imaging techniques, such as X-ray microtomography, high resolution

  18. High-resolution imaging of cardiac biomagnetic fields using a low-transition-temperature superconducting quantum

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    High-resolution imaging of cardiac biomagnetic fields using a low-scale spatial resolution. High resolution imag- ing of biomagnetic fields will ultimately lead to a better un- fore the achievable sensitivity of a few pT/Hz 1/2 is best suited for high-resolution imaging

  19. Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 142, 505521, 2013 EXTENDED HIGH RESOLUTION RANGE PROFILE-

    E-print Network

    Myung, Noh-Hoon

    range resolution and high frequency resolution. By high range resolution, the information on the aircraft structure can be obtained from the HRRP. With high frequency resolution, the JEM [6­11], one component. The signal eccentricity also served as an auxiliary means of CEMD-based micro-Doppler extraction

  20. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy: Unraveling the Secrets of Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2008-05-01

    At present, over 140 different chemical compounds have been identified in interstellar and circumstellar gas. Such observations have offered a unique avenue by which to probe the cold, dense regions in our Galaxy and in external galaxies. Because these molecules are primarily present in colder material, they are usually studied at high spectral resolutions (1 part in 106-107) via their pure rotational transitions, which typically occur at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. Such studies cannot be carried out, however, without the input of high resolution laboratory spectroscopy. Such measurements provide the "fingerprint” spectral pattern critical for accurate astronomical identifications. Because of the complexity of current interstellar spectra and the propensity of unidentified features, precise laboratory data are essential. Current methods employed in the laboratory for high resolution measurements include millimeter/sub-mm direct absorption, velocity modulation, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (FTMW). Each of these experimental techniques has certain unique advantages, which will be discussed. Also of importance are the synthetic methods utilized to create the radicals, ions, and other transient species typically found in interstellar space. Such molecules are generated in DC and AC glow discharges, pulsed supersonic jet expansions, and using Broida-type ovens. In addition, spectral analyses can be quite complex, in particular if there are low lying excited torsional or electronic states, or if molecular inversion is present. Recent laboratory results for potential interstellar species will also be presented, in particular those for negative ions, phosphorus-bearing radicals, and organic "prebiotic” species.

  1. HIGH-RESOLUTION CH OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRANSLUCENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Chastain, Raymond J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 368 Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr. Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Cotten, David; Magnani, Loris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    We present high-resolution (1.'3 x 1.'6) observations of the CH {sup 2}{pi}{sub 1/2} (F = 1-1) emission line at 3335 MHz in two high-latitude translucent clouds, MBM 3 and 40. At the assumed cloud distances, the angular resolution corresponds to {approx}0.05 pc, nearly an order of magnitude better than previous studies. Comparisons of the CH emission with previously obtained CO(1-0) data are difficult to interpret: the CO and CH line emission correlates in MBM 40 but not in MBM 3. In both clouds, there is a spatial offset in the peak emission, and perhaps in velocity for MBM 40. The difference in emission characteristics for the two tracers are noticeable in these two nearby clouds because of the high spatial resolution. Since both CH and CO are deemed to be reliable tracers of H{sub 2}, our results indicate that more care should be taken when using one of these tracers to determine the mass of a nearby molecular cloud.

  2. High-spatial-resolution soliton DOFS for smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Muping; Tang, Weizhong; Zhou, Wen

    1998-07-01

    From the advantage and defect of current distributed optical- fiber sensors (DOFS) schemes, it could be seen that most of schemes except distributed anti-Stokes Ratio Thermometry (DART) are only possible in experiment, but unpractical. But DART is not able to be used on small and fine things especially for smart structures, because of its poor spatial resolution. As we all know that the relaxation time of Raman scattering is in the femtosecond range, and a optical pulse with width > 1 ps will not receive gain reducing, so the potential spatial resolution of DART can be smaller than 0.1 m, even 1 mm (for a pulse with width < 10 ps). Considering these, we firstly propose a novel scheme of DOFS based on spontaneous Raman back-scattering and the effect of high-order soliton, which uses time-correlated single photon counting as detector. The first-order and high-order solitons' effect in the system are theoretically investigated, and it is found that it is able to improve the spatial resolution observably by using high-order soliton in relatively short sensing distance (< 1 km). In the end, the possibility and difficulties of realizing the system based on present-day level of devices are considered.

  3. High Resolution Cluster Pressure Profile Measurements with MUSTANG and Bolocam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Charles; Mason, Brian S.; Sayers, Jack; Young, Alexander; Dicker, Simon; Mroczkowski, Tony; Reese, Erik D.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Devlin, Mark J.; Korngut, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Accurate high-resolution intracluster medium (ICM) pressure profiles will help further constrain cosmological parameters as well as baryonic physics in the cores of clusters of galaxies. MUSTANG, a 90 GHz bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) is among the highest resolution (9' FWHM) instruments at 90 GHz, and is among the best instruments to observe the ICM given its sensitivity. We present results from a sub-sample of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova with Hubble (CLASH) clusters of galaxies observed with both MUSTANG and Bolocam. Bolocam, a 150 GHz bolometer array on the CSO with 58' FWHM, and MUSTANG data probe different, and highly complementary, angular (size) scales. We jointly fit spherical electron pressure profiles to the two datasets and find that the addition of the high resolution MUSTANG data can considerably improve constraints on the pressure profiles. A major asset of our fitting algorithm is the ability to uniquely fit for contaminants such as point sources, and thus allowing us to determine the signal from the underlying ICM. We compare our best fit profiles to X-ray determined pressure profiles (provided by ACCEPT), where we find good agreement. Finally we investigate the implications of our results and describe ongoing work to extend this analysis to the full set of CLASH clusters viewable by the GBT, and to obtain even better results with the MUSTANG-1.5 camera

  4. High-resolution mapping of neuronal activity by thallium autometallography.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Zuschratter, Werner; Scheich, Henning

    2004-10-01

    Different methods are available for imaging neuronal activity in the mammalian brain with a spatial resolution sufficiently high to detect activation patterns at the level of individual functional modules such as cortical columns. Severe difficulties exist, however, in visualizing the different degree of activity of each individual neuron within such a module, and mapping neuronal activity with a spatial resolution of single axons has remained impossible thus far. Here, we present a novel method for mapping neuronal activity that is able to visualize activation patterns with light and electron microscopical resolution. The method is based on the tight coupling of neuronal activity and potassium (K(+)) uptake. We have injected Mongolian gerbils with the K(+) analogue thallium (Tl(+)), stimulated the animals with pure tones of different frequencies and analyzed, by an autometallographic method, the Tl(+) distribution in the auditory cortex (AC). We find tonotopically organized columns of increased Tl(+)-uptake in AC. Within columns, the spatial patterns of neuronal activity as revealed by thallium autometallography are highly elaborated. Tl(+)-uptake differs in different layers, sublayers, and cell types, being especially high in large multipolar inhibitory interneurons in layer IV. A prominent feature of the columnar activation pattern is the presence of vertical modules of minicolumnar dimensions. Clusters of layer Vb pyramidal cells and their apical dendrite bundles are clearly visible in the center of the columns. PMID:15488413

  5. A high-resolution study of isotopic compositions of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Kim, Songyi; Han, Yeongcheol; Oh, Yoon Seok; Kim, Young-Hee; Kim, Hyerin; Ham, Ji-Young; Choi, Hye-Bin; Na, Un-Sung; Koh, Dong-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Isotopic compositions of precipitation have been used to understand moisture transport in the atmosphere and interactions between precipitation and groundwater. Isotopic compositions of speleothems and ice cores, so called, "paleoarchives", can be utilized to interpret climate of the past and global circulation models (GCMs), which are able to explain the paleoarchives, can be validated by the precipitation isotopes. The developments of stable isotope analyzers make high-resolution isotopic studies feasible and a high-resolution study of precipitation isotopes is needed. For this study, precipitation samples were collected for every 5 to 15 minutes, depending on precipitation rates, using an auto-sampler for precipitation isotopes near coastal area. The isotopic compositions of precipitation range from -5.7‰ (-40.1‰)) to -10.8‰ (-74.3‰)) for oxygen (hydrogen). The slope of ?18O-?D diagram for the whole period is 6.8, but that of each storm is 5.1, 4.2, 7.9 and 7.7, respectively. It indicates that evaporation occurred during the first two storms, while the latter two storms did not experience any evaporation. The isotopic fractionations of precipitation has significant implications for the water cycle and high-resolution data of precipitation isotopes will be needed for the future studies related to the precipitation isotopes.

  6. Quantification of Murine Pancreatic Tumors by High Resolution Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Sastra, Stephen A.; Olive, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ultrasonography is a powerful imaging modality that enables non-invasive, real time visualization of abdominal organs and tissues. This technology may be adapted for use in mice through the utilization of higher frequency transducers, allowing for extremely high resolution imaging of the mouse pancreas. This technique is particularly well-suited to pancreas imaging due to the ultrasonographic properties of the normal mouse pancreas, easily accessible imaging planes for the head and tail of the mouse pancreas, and the comparative difficulty in imaging the mouse pancreas with other technologies. A suite of measurements tools is available to characterize the normal and diseased states of tissues. Of particular utility for cancer applications is the ability to use tomography to construct a 3D tumor volume, enabling longitudinal imaging studies to track tumor development, or response to therapies. Here, we describe a detailed method for performing high resolution ultrasound to detect and measure pancreatic lesions in a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic ductal using the VisualSonics Vevo2100 High Resolution Ultrasound System. The method includes preparation of the animal for imaging, 2D and 3D image acquisition, and post-acquisition analysis of tumors volumes. The combined procedure has been utilized extensively by our group and others for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (1–4). PMID:23359158

  7. High-resolution absolute position detection using a multiple grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Ulrich; Drabarek, Pawel; Kuehnle, Goetz; Tiziani, Hans J.

    1996-08-01

    To control electro-mechanical engines, high-resolution linear and rotary encoders are needed. Interferometric methods (grating interferometers) promise a resolution of a few nanometers, but have an ambiguity range of some microns. Incremental encoders increase the absolute measurement range by counting the signal periods starting from a defined initial point. In many applications, however, it is not possible to move to this initial point, so that absolute encoders have to be used. Absolute encoders generally have a scale with two or more tracks placed next to each other. Therefore, they use a two-dimensional grating structure to measure a one-dimensional position. We present a new method, which uses a one-dimensional structure to determine the position in one dimension. It is based on a grating with a large grating period up to some millimeters, having the same diffraction efficiency in several predefined diffraction orders (multiple grating). By combining the phase signals of the different diffraction orders, it is possible to establish the position in an absolute range of the grating period with a resolution like incremental grating interferometers. The principal functionality was demonstrated by applying the multiple grating in a heterodyne grating interferometer. The heterodyne frequency was generated by a frequency modulated laser in an unbalanced interferometer. In experimental measurements an absolute range of 8 mm was obtained while achieving a resolution of 10 nm.

  8. A database of high and medium-resolution stellar spectra

    E-print Network

    Philippe Prugniel; Caroline Soubiran

    2001-01-22

    We present a database of 908 spectra of 709 stars obtained with the ELODIE spectrograph at Observatoire de Haute-Provence. 52 orders of the echelle spectra have been carefully fitted together to provide continuous, high-resolution spectra in the wavelength range 410 nm - 680 nm. The archive provides a large coverage of the space of atmospheric parameters : Teff from 3700 K to 13600 K, logg from 0.03 to 5.86 and [Fe/H] from -2.8 to +0.7. At the nominal resolution, R=42000, the mean signal-to-noise ratio is 150 per pixel. The spectra given at this resolution are normalized to their pseudo-continuum and are intended to serve for abundance studies, spectral classification and tests of stellar atmosphere models. A lower resolution version of the archive, at R=10000, is calibrated in physical flux with a broad-band photometric precision of 2.5% and narrow-band precision of 0.5%. It is scoped for stellar population synthesis of galaxies and clusters, and for kinematical investigations of stellar systems.

  9. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  10. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOEpatents

    Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

    1996-06-04

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  11. Individual tree detection based on densities of high points of high resolution airborne lidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Z. Abd Rahman; B. G. H. Gorte

    2008-01-01

    The retrieval of individual tree location from Airborne LiDAR has focused largely on utilizing canopy height. However, high resolution Airborne LiDAR offers another source of information for tree detection. This paper presents a new method for tree detection based on high points’ densities from a high resolution Airborne LiDAR. The advantage of this method is that individual trees are detected

  12. High-resolution free-electron laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Szarmes, E.B.

    1992-01-01

    The broad and continuous turnability of the rf linac-driven free-electron laser (FEL), coupled with its high power picosecond time structure, has greatly enhanced the research capabilities in the field of infrared spectroscopy. However, the duration of the optical pulses is often too long to probe ultrafast processes, and the spectral structure of the optical beam, with closely spaced longitudinal modes in a bandwidth determined by the Fourier transform of the short pulses, poses a significant limitation for experiments requiring high spectral resolution. The temporal resolution can be improved by operating the FEL with electron pulses whose energy varies linearly with time; the resulting optical pulses possess substantial frequency chirps and are susceptible to pulse compression in an external dispersive delay line. The spectral resolution can be enhanced by using an intracavity Michelson interferometer to couple successive optical pulses so that they build up from noise with a definite phase relationship; the longitudinal modes in the output beam are then separated by the rf frequency of the linac and can be individually filtered for applications in high resolution spectroscopy. This dissertation develops small signal analyses for each of these modes of operation, and reports the results of numerical pulse propagation simulations whose parameters were chosen to guide the design of feasible experiments on the Mark III FEL. Chirp-pulse simulations using modest energy chirps have demonstrated a x15 compression ratio at saturated power levels for 3.4 ps optical pulses at 3.35 [mu]m, and coupled pulse simulations have indicated substantial longitudinal mode reduction on microsecond time scales. The author also developed a derivation of FEL coupled mode equations using conventional mode locked laser theory, and solved them numerically in the frequency domain. Finally, the author reports the first operation of a Michelson mirror resonator on the Mark III FEL.

  13. High resolution array in the clinical approach to chromosomal phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Filges, Isabel; Suda, Luzia; Weber, Peter; Datta, Alexandre N; Fischer, Dirk; Dill, Patricia; Glanzmann, Réné; Benzing, Jörg; Hegi, Lukas; Wenzel, Friedel; Huber, Andreas R; Mori, Andrea Capone; Miny, Peter; Röthlisberger, Benno

    2012-03-10

    Array genomic hybridization (AGH) has recently been implemented as a diagnostic tool for the detection of submicroscopic copy number variants (CNVs) in patients with developmental disorders. However, there is no consensus regarding the choice of the platform, the minimal resolution needed and systematic interpretation of CNVs. We report our experience in the clinical diagnostic use of high resolution AGH up to 100 kb on 131 patients with chromosomal phenotypes but previously normal karyotype. We evaluated the usefulness in our clinics and laboratories by the detection rate of causal CNVs and CNVs of unknown clinical significance and to what extent their interpretation would challenge the systematic use of high-resolution arrays in clinical application. Prioritizing phenotype-genotype correlation in our interpretation strategy to criteria previously described, we identified 33 (25.2%) potentially pathogenic aberrations. 16 aberrations were confirmed pathogenic (16.4% syndromic, 8.5% non-syndromic patients); 9 were new and individual aberrations, 3 of them were pathogenic although inherited and one is as small as approx 200 kb. 13 of 16 further CNVs of unknown significance were classified likely benign, for 3 the significance remained unclear. High resolution array allows the detection of up to 12.2% of pathogenic aberrations in a diagnostic clinical setting. Although the majority of aberrations are larger, the detection of small causal aberrations may be relevant for family counseling. The number of remaining unclear CNVs is limited. Careful phenotype-genotype correlations of the individual CNVs and clinical features are challenging but remain a hallmark for CNV interpretation. PMID:22240311

  14. High-Resolution Protein Structure Determination by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J.; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R. Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P.; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Montanez, Paul A.; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J.; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J.; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y.; Hunter, Mark S.; Johansson, Linda C.; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C. H.; Chapman, Henry N.; Schlichting, Ilme

    2013-01-01

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules. PMID:22653729

  15. High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography.

    PubMed

    Boutet, Sébastien; Lomb, Lukas; Williams, Garth J; Barends, Thomas R M; Aquila, Andrew; Doak, R Bruce; Weierstall, Uwe; DePonte, Daniel P; Steinbrener, Jan; Shoeman, Robert L; Messerschmidt, Marc; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Kassemeyer, Stephan; Kirian, Richard A; Seibert, M Marvin; Montanez, Paul A; Kenney, Chris; Herbst, Ryan; Hart, Philip; Pines, Jack; Haller, Gunther; Gruner, Sol M; Philipp, Hugh T; Tate, Mark W; Hromalik, Marianne; Koerner, Lucas J; van Bakel, Niels; Morse, John; Ghonsalves, Wilfred; Arnlund, David; Bogan, Michael J; Caleman, Carl; Fromme, Raimund; Hampton, Christina Y; Hunter, Mark S; Johansson, Linda C; Katona, Gergely; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V; Nass, Karol; Redecke, Lars; Stellato, Francesco; Timneanu, Nicusor; Wang, Dingjie; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Schafer, Donald; Defever, James; Neutze, Richard; Fromme, Petra; Spence, John C H; Chapman, Henry N; Schlichting, Ilme

    2012-07-20

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules. PMID:22653729

  16. X-ray high-resolution diffraction using refractive lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Schilling, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Refractive x-ray lenses have recently been applied for imaging and scanning microscopy with hard x rays. We report the application of refractive lenses in an optical scheme for high-resolution x-ray diffraction, performed at a high brilliance synchrotron radiation source. An experimental proof of principle and a theoretical discussion are presented. In particular, we observe the x-ray diffraction pattern from a two-dimensional photonic crystal with 4.2?m periodicity, which normally is employed to scatter light in the infrared.

  17. High resolution upgrade of the ATF damping ring BPM system

    SciTech Connect

    Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Frisch, J.; May, J.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Seryi, A.; Smith, T.; Woodley, M.; /SLAC; Briegel, C.; Dysert, R.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) upgrade at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring has been accomplished in its first stage, carried out by a KEK/FNAL/SLAC collaboration under the umbrella of the global ILC R&D effort. The upgrade consists of a high resolution, high reproducibility read-out system, based on analog and digital downconversion techniques, digital signal processing, and also tests a new automatic gain error correction schema. The technical concept and realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  18. High-Resolution and Animal Imaging Instrumentation and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcari, Nicola; Guerra, AlbertoDel

    During the last decade we have observed a growing interest in "in vivo" imaging techniques for small animals. This is due to the necessity of studying biochemical processes at a molecular level for pharmacology, genetic, and pathology investigations. This field of research is usually called "molecular imaging."Advances in biological understanding have been accompanied by technological advances in instrumentation and techniques and image-reconstruction software, resulting in improved image quality, visibility, and interpretation. The main technological challenge is then the design of systems with high spatial resolution and high sensitivity.

  19. Vectorial shearing interferometer with a high resolution phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Torales, G.; Flores, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Vectorial shearing interferometer has been used to measure small and large non-rotationally symmetrical wavefronts aberrations. This interferometric system encompasses large and differential wavefront displacements using a high accuracy rotation system incorporated in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The rotation system is based on the Risley prism arrangement and it is controlled with an electronic servomotor system by means of an auto-tuning algorithm. We present the servo-mechanical system, electronic interface and algorithms to control the performance of the high resolution rotation device that is used to control the wavefront phase shifting.

  20. High-resolution high-speed panoramic cardiac imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Evertson (In Memoriam), Dale W.; Holcomb, Mark R.; Eames, Matthew D.C.; Bray, Mark-Anthony P.; Sidorov, Veniamin Y.; Xu, Junkai; Wingard, Holley; Dobrovolny, Hana M.; Woods, Marcella C.; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Wikswo, John P.

    2008-01-01

    A panoramic cardiac imaging system consisting of three high-speed CCD cameras has been developed to image the surface electrophysiology of a rabbit heart via fluorescence imaging using a voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye. A robust, unique mechanical system was designed to accommodate the three cameras and to adapt to the requirements of future experiments. A unified computer interface was created for this application – a single workstation controls all three CCD cameras, illumination, and stimulation, and the stepping motor rotates the heart. The geometric reconstruction algorithms were adapted from a previous cardiac imaging system. We demonstrate the system by imaging a polymorphic cardiac tachycardia. PMID:18334422

  1. High-Resolution Video Synthesis from Mixed-Resolution Video Based on the Estimate-and-Correct Method

    E-print Network

    Cooperstock, Jeremy R.

    . The high- and low-resolution frames represent the same scene and are used respectively to capture high-frequency solution is to employ an auxiliary light source to illuminate the scene. This may be limited only to cer

  2. High resolution coherent three dimensional spectroscopy of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Thresa A.; Muthike, Angelar K.; Robinson, Jessica E.; Chen, Peter C.

    2015-06-01

    Expansion from coherent 2D spectroscopy to coherent 3D spectroscopy can provide significant advantages when studying molecules that have heavily perturbed energy levels. This paper illustrates such advantages by demonstrating how high resolution coherent 3D (HRC3D) spectroscopy can be used to study a portion of the visible spectrum of nitrogen dioxide. High resolution coherent 2D spectra usually contain rotational and vibrational patterns that are easy to analyze, but severe congestion and complexity preclude its effective use for many parts of the NO2 spectrum. HRC3D spectroscopy appears to be much more effective; multidimensional rotational and vibrational patterns produced by this new technique are easy to identify even in the presence of strong perturbations. A method for assigning peaks, which is based upon analyzing the resulting multidimensional patterns, has been developed. The higher level of multidimensionality is useful for reducing uncertainty in peak assignments, improving spectral resolution, providing simultaneous information on multiple levels and states, and predicting, verifying, and categorizing peaks.

  3. High-resolution multimodal clinical multiphoton tomography of skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2011-03-01

    This review focuses on multimodal multiphoton tomography based on near infrared femtosecond lasers. Clinical multiphoton tomographs for 3D high-resolution in vivo imaging have been placed into the market several years ago. The second generation of this Prism-Award winning High-Tech skin imaging tool (MPTflex) was introduced in 2010. The same year, the world's first clinical CARS studies have been performed with a hybrid multimodal multiphoton tomograph. In particular, non-fluorescent lipids and water as well as mitochondrial fluorescent NAD(P)H, fluorescent elastin, keratin, and melanin as well as SHG-active collagen has been imaged with submicron resolution in patients suffering from psoriasis. Further multimodal approaches include the combination of multiphoton tomographs with low-resolution wide-field systems such as ultrasound, optoacoustical, OCT, and dermoscopy systems. Multiphoton tomographs are currently employed in Australia, Japan, the US, and in several European countries for early diagnosis of skin cancer, optimization of treatment strategies, and cosmetic research including long-term testing of sunscreen nanoparticles as well as anti-aging products.

  4. High resolution coherent three dimensional spectroscopy of NO2.

    PubMed

    Wells, Thresa A; Muthike, Angelar K; Robinson, Jessica E; Chen, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    Expansion from coherent 2D spectroscopy to coherent 3D spectroscopy can provide significant advantages when studying molecules that have heavily perturbed energy levels. This paper illustrates such advantages by demonstrating how high resolution coherent 3D (HRC3D) spectroscopy can be used to study a portion of the visible spectrum of nitrogen dioxide. High resolution coherent 2D spectra usually contain rotational and vibrational patterns that are easy to analyze, but severe congestion and complexity preclude its effective use for many parts of the NO2 spectrum. HRC3D spectroscopy appears to be much more effective; multidimensional rotational and vibrational patterns produced by this new technique are easy to identify even in the presence of strong perturbations. A method for assigning peaks, which is based upon analyzing the resulting multidimensional patterns, has been developed. The higher level of multidimensionality is useful for reducing uncertainty in peak assignments, improving spectral resolution, providing simultaneous information on multiple levels and states, and predicting, verifying, and categorizing peaks. PMID:26049446

  5. A New Thermal Method for High-resolution Aquifer Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Knobbe, S.; Butler, J. J.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial variations in flow and transport properties play an important role in solute movement in aquifer systems. A major challenge has been to develop field methods that allow information about these variations to be obtained at the resolution needed to characterize transport in heterogeneous formations. Recently, we have developed a new thermal method that holds considerable promise for obtaining high-resolution information about aquifer structure and, potentially, groundwater flux in an efficient fashion. This new approach, which is based on Raman scattering distributed temperature sensing along fiber optic cables deployed below the water table, was applied to a field site located in the floodplain of the Kansas River in the central United States. Results indicate that the temperature profiles obtained using this method are remarkably consistent with hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates obtained through other means at the same location and provide new insights into the factors controlling the relatively large K variations observed within the sand and gravel aquifer at this site. The temperature profiles were significantly changed when a nearby pump was turned on, particularly in the vicinity of the vertical interval of the pump intake, demonstrating the convergence of groundwater flow on the pump intake. The high resolution possible with distributed temperature sensing enables this new method to provide a more detailed representation of aquifer dynamics and structure than previous approaches.

  6. Advancing Cyberinfrastructure to support high resolution water resources modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Ogden, F. L.; Jones, N.; Horsburgh, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Addressing the problem of how the availability and quality of water resources at large scales are sensitive to climate variability, watershed alterations and management activities requires computational resources that combine data from multiple sources and support integrated modeling. Related cyberinfrastructure challenges include: 1) how can we best structure data and computer models to address this scientific problem through the use of high-performance and data-intensive computing, and 2) how can we do this in a way that discipline scientists without extensive computational and algorithmic knowledge and experience can take advantage of advances in cyberinfrastructure? This presentation will describe a new system called CI-WATER that is being developed to address these challenges and advance high resolution water resources modeling in the Western U.S. We are building on existing tools that enable collaboration to develop model and data interfaces that link integrated system models running within an HPC environment to multiple data sources. Our goal is to enhance the use of computational simulation and data-intensive modeling to better understand water resources. Addressing water resource problems in the Western U.S. requires simulation of natural and engineered systems, as well as representation of legal (water rights) and institutional constraints alongside the representation of physical processes. We are establishing data services to represent the engineered infrastructure and legal and institutional systems in a way that they can be used with high resolution multi-physics watershed modeling at high spatial resolution. These services will enable incorporation of location-specific information on water management infrastructure and systems into the assessment of regional water availability in the face of growing demands, uncertain future meteorological forcings, and existing prior-appropriations water rights. This presentation will discuss the informatics challenges involved with data management and easy-to-use access to high performance computing being tackled in this project.

  7. High Resolution, High Precision I-Line Stepper Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanazawa, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Kurosaki, T.; Hashimoto, N.; Nonogaki, S.

    1985-06-01

    Currently, the integrated MOS dynamic RAM has as many as 256 thousand memory cells per chip based on 2 pm photolithography. Figure 1 shows the history and the prospects for progress in microfabrication technology. Feature size versus year, as reported by Bossung in 1978, is shown, as developed from independent analysis by Moore, Noyce and Gnostic concept. Circles numbered 1 and 2 show that 64K- and 256K-bit RAMs were developed in 1981 and 1984, and that their feature sizes were 3?m and 2?m, respectively. It is significant that the predictions and the real developments are so close. Furthermore, since the basic process for 3 M-bit RAMs based on 1.3?m microlithography has already been reported in conference, it is highly likely that they will become commercially available around 1987, as predicted by the circle numbered 3 based on 1.3?m microlithography.

  8. Ultra-high-resolution brain SPECT imaging: simulation results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rogulski; H. B. Barber; H. H. Barrett; R. L. Shoemaker; J. M. Woolfenden

    1993-01-01

    The spatial resolution in a reconstructed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image is influenced by the intrinsic resolution of the detector, and the photon-counting efficiency of SPECT systems is also determined by the intrinsic resolution. The authors demonstrate that improvements in detector resolution can lead to both improved spatial resolution in the image and improved counting efficiency compared to

  9. High resolution XUV spectroscopy of x-ray laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.; Carter, M.R.; Da Silva, L.B.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Scofield, J.H.; Shimkaveg, G.; Walling, R.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Batson, P.J.; Chapman, K.L.; Underwood, J.H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-09-05

    This paper discusses recent progress in LLNL's high resolution XUV spectroscopy efforts with x-ray laser plasmas. We describe the instrumentation used, and we present preliminary time-resolved data on the spectral profiles of several XUV (extreme ultraviolet) lines from Ne-like Se and Ne-like Y x-ray lasers which have been obtained with instrumental resolutions ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}) of {approximately}10,000. The Se data indicates that the 206.4 {Angstrom} J = 2 -- 1 laser line narrows below the expected 400 eV Doppler width (35 m{Angstrom}) when amplified through {approximately}6 gain lengths, while the Y data shows no evidence of the J = 0--1 laser predicted to be nearly resonant with the J = 2 -- 1 laser at 154.9 {Angstrom}.

  10. High resolution XUV spectroscopy of x-ray laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.A.; Carter, M.R.; Da Silva, L.B.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Scofield, J.H.; Shimkaveg, G.; Walling, R.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Batson, P.J.; Chapman, K.L.; Underwood, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-09-05

    This paper discusses recent progress in LLNL`s high resolution XUV spectroscopy efforts with x-ray laser plasmas. We describe the instrumentation used, and we present preliminary time-resolved data on the spectral profiles of several XUV (extreme ultraviolet) lines from Ne-like Se and Ne-like Y x-ray lasers which have been obtained with instrumental resolutions ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}) of {approximately}10,000. The Se data indicates that the 206.4 {Angstrom} J = 2 -- 1 laser line narrows below the expected 400 eV Doppler width (35 m{Angstrom}) when amplified through {approximately}6 gain lengths, while the Y data shows no evidence of the J = 0--1 laser predicted to be nearly resonant with the J = 2 -- 1 laser at 154.9 {Angstrom}.

  11. High-resolution ultrasound imaging of the eye – a review

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Ronald H

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the physics, technology and clinical application of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) of the eye, in which frequencies of 35 MHz and above provide over a threefold improvement in resolution compared with conventional ophthalmic ultrasound systems. UBM allows imaging of anatomy and pathology involving the anterior segment, including regions obscured by overlying optically opaque anatomic or pathologic structures. UBM provides diagnostically significant information in conditions such as glaucoma, cysts and neoplasms, trauma and foreign bodies. UBM also can provide crucial biometric information regarding anterior segment structures, including the cornea and its constituent layers and the anterior and posterior chambers. Although UBM has now been in use for over 15 years, new technologies, including transducer arrays, pulse encoding and combination of ultrasound with light, offer the potential for significant advances in high-resolution diagnostic imaging of the eye. PMID:19138310

  12. High-resolution computed tomography of the normal larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, P.M.; Korobkin, M.

    1983-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides a unique method of evaluating abnormalities of the larynx by virture of its cross-sectional images. Several reports have demonstrated its utility in staging laryngeal carcinoma and defining the extent of injury in cases of laryngeal trauma. In order to appreciate subtle abnormalities of the larynx, a thorough understanding of the normal structures in this small anatomic area is crucial. Although previous studies have defined the normal CT anatomy of the larynx, many of the CT-anatomic correlations of the normal larynx used earlier-generation CT scanners with relatively poor resolution or were limited to transaxial images. High-resolution transaxial, coronal, and sagittal CT in vivo images are correlated with line drawings displaying normal laryngeal anatomy. The exquisite anatomic detail apparent in these images provides a sound basis for understanding subtle abnormalities in pathologic cases. (JMT)

  13. High-Resolution Multiphoton Imaging of Tumors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Entenberg, David; Segall, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the individual steps in metastasis is crucial if insights at the molecular level are to be linked to the cell biology of cancer. A technical hurdle to achieving the analysis of the individual steps of metastasis is the fact that, at the gross level, tumors are heterogeneous in both animal models and patients. Human primary tumors show extensive variation in all properties ranging from growth and morphology of the tumor through tumor-cell density in the blood and formation and growth of metastases. Methods capable of the direct visualization and analysis of tumor-cell behavior at single-cell resolution in vivo have become crucial in advancing the understanding of mechanisms of metastasis, the definition of microenvironment, and the markers related to both. This article discusses the use of high-resolution multiphoton imaging of tumors (specifically breast tumors in mice) in vivo. PMID:21969629

  14. Quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding to mu opioid receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, K.N.; Knapp, R.J.; Gehlert, D.R.; Lui, G.K.; Yamamura, M.S.; Roeske, L.C.; Hruby, V.J.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)H-D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 ((/sup 3/H)CTOP), a potent and highly selective mu opioid antagonist, was used to localize the mu receptors in rat brain by light microscopic autoradiography. Radioligand binding studies with (/sup 3/H)CTOP using slide-mounted tissue sections of rat brain produced a Kd value of 1.1 nM with a Bmax value of 79.1 fmol/mg protein. Mu opioid agonists and antagonists inhibited (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding with high affinity (IC50 values of 0.2-2.4nM), while the delta agonist DPDPE, delta antagonist ICI 174,864, and kappa agonist U 69,593 were very weak inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding. Light microscopic autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding sites revealed regions of high density and regions of moderate labeling. The cerebral cortex showed a low density of (/sup 3/H)CTOP binding.

  15. Evaluation of a High-Resolution Regional Climate Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyere, C. L.; Tye, M. R.; Keellings, D.; Jaye, A.

    2014-12-01

    A high-resolution Regional Climate Ensemble is used to investigate the limits of predictability of climate simulations, with a focus on high-impact weather. A diverse set of approaches are being applied to examine the impact of the different physics parameterizations on the simulated climate and high-impact weather statistics and to determine the physics combinations that result in realistic scenarios. In this paper we focus on the ensemble members' ability to correctly simulate current climate variability in terms of: 1) extreme temperature and precipitation over different regions, and 2) tropical cyclone statistics. A twenty-four member physics ensemble of climate simulations has been generated using the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting Model (Skamarock et al. 2008). The ensemble model has been run over an extended North American domain of approximately 25° S to 70° N and from the African coast to the East Pacific, and at sufficient resolution to capture high-impact weather events. Skamarock, W., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. Barker, M. G. Duda, X. Huang, and W. Wang, 2008: A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-475+STR. Boulder, CO.

  16. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (?), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (?), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  17. High resolution multispectral camera system for ERTS A & B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. P.; Beck, G. A.; Barletta, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A very high resolution multispectral television camera system has been developed for NASA for use on the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) program. There are three cameras in the system, each viewing the same area but operating in the blue-green, red, and near-infrared spectral bands. In the laboratory the cameras' limiting resolution is 4500 TV lines over the 25 x 25-mm image format of the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV). Analysis of typical ERTS scenes shows that actual contrast ratios will be much lower than those of laboratory test targets. A model was developed to predict the resolving power performance of the RBV camera under realistic conditions. To verify the model, tests were conducted using the RBV camera, a laser-beam image reproducer and a series of AF tribar test patterns of known values of contrast. As a more graphic demonstration, simulated multispectral images were generated using color-IR photographs from Apollo 9. The measured signal-to-noise, resolution, and spectral characteristics of the ERTS Flight A and Flight B three-camera systems are presented in conclusion.

  18. High-resolution and broadband all-fiber spectrometers

    E-print Network

    Redding, Brandon; Seifert, Martin; Cao, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The development of optical fibers has revolutionized telecommunications by enabling long-distance broad-band transmission with minimal loss. In turn, the ubiquity of high-quality low-cost fibers enabled a number of additional applications, including fiber sensors, fiber lasers, and imaging fiber bundles. Recently, we showed that a mutlimode optical fiber can also function as a spectrometer by measuring the wavelength-dependent speckle pattern formed by interference between the guided modes. Here, we reach a record resolution of 1 pm at wavelength 1500 nm using a 100 meter long multimode fiber, outperforming the state-of-the-art grating spectrometers. we also achieved broad-band operation with a 4 cm long fiber, covering 400 nm - 750 nm with 1 nm resolution. The fiber spectrometer, consisting of the fiber which can be coiled to a small volume and a monochrome camera that records the speckle pattern, is compact, lightweight, and low cost while providing ultrahigh resolution, broad bandwidth and low loss.

  19. High resolution shear wave reflection surveying for hydrogeological investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. J.; Clark, J. C.

    1992-08-01

    The high resolution S-wave method has been developed to be a powerful tool in mapping subsurface lithology and in conducting groundwater investigations. The research has demonstrated that the resolution obtainable using S-waves in a Coastal Plain environment is more than double than that obtained using conventional reflection, which already offers a higher resolution than any other surface method. Where the mapping of thin clay layers functioning as aquitards or thin sand layers functioning as aquifers are critical to the understanding of groundwater flow, S-wave reflections offer unparalleled possibilities for nondestructive exploration. The field experiment at Cooke Crossroads, South Carolina enabled the detection and mapping of beds in the thickness range of one to three feet. The S-wave reflection technique, in combination with conventional P-wave reflection, has potential to directly detect confined and unconfined aquifers. This is a breakthrough technology that still requires additional research before it can be applied on a commercial basis. Aquifer systems were interpreted from the test data at Cooke Crossroads consistent with theoretical model. Additional research is need in assessing the theoretical response of P- and S-waves to subsurface interfaces within unconsolidated sediments of varying moisture content and lithology. More theoretical modeling and in situ testing are needed to bring our knowledge of these phenomena to the level that oil and gas researchers have done for fluids in sandstones.

  20. Mars 1:500k high resolution map bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. M.; Edwards, K.; Grecu, A.; Redding, B.; Wasserman, A.; Bennett, A.

    1997-03-01

    The Mars 1:500k map bases are high-resolution black and white digital photomosaics generated to support the Mars Geologic Mapping Program. The Viking Orbiter images are used to map areas of scientific interest. The final products provided to the mapper include a cutline plot indicating image location and resolution, digital files, and a package consisting of a brownline, cronapaque, cronaflex, ozalid, and continuous tone photographic print. The mosaics are compiled by digital methods. The Planetary Imaging Cartography System (PICS) software, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, was used to process the digital mosaics. The Integrated Software for Imaging Spectrometers (ISIS) software within the UNIX environment will be used starting this year to replace PICS. Currently, ISIS runs on SUN and Alpha platforms. The images are processed through reseau mark, and systematic and random noise artifact removal, radiometric correction, geometric control, and tone matching, to produce an even-toned controlled photomosaic. The maps are geometrically controlled to the Mars Digital Image Model and mosaicked at a resolution of 1024 pixels/deg or 58 m/pixel.

  1. Computational analysis of high resolution unsteady airloads for rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Lam, C.-M. Gordon; Wachspress, Daniel A.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    The study of helicopter aerodynamic loading for acoustics applications requires the application of efficient yet accurate simulations of the velocity field induced by the rotor's vortex wake. This report summarizes work to date on the development of such an analysis, which builds on the Constant Vorticity Contour (CVC) free wake model, previously implemented for the study of vibratory loading in the RotorCRAFT computer code. The present effort has focused on implementation of an airload reconstruction approach that computes high resolution airload solutions of rotor/rotor-wake interactions required for acoustics computations. Supplementary efforts on the development of improved vortex core modeling, unsteady aerodynamic effects, higher spatial resolution of rotor loading, and fast vortex wake implementations have substantially enhanced the capabilities of the resulting software, denoted RotorCRAFT/AA (AeroAcoustics). Results of validation calculations using recently acquired model rotor data show that by employing airload reconstruction it is possible to apply the CVC wake analysis with temporal and spatial resolution suitable for acoustics applications while reducing the computation time required by one to two orders of magnitude relative to that required by direct calculations. Promising correlation with this body of airload and noise data has been obtained for a variety of rotor configurations and operating conditions.

  2. High energy resolution with transparent ceramic garnet scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepy, N. J.; Seeley, Z. M.; Payne, S. A.; Beck, P. R.; Swanberg, E. L.; Hunter, S.; Ahle, L.; Fisher, S. E.; Melcher, C.; Wei, H.; Stefanik, T.; Chung, Y.-S.; Kindem, J.

    2014-09-01

    Breakthrough energy resolution, R(662keV) < 4%, has been achieved with an oxide scintillator, Cerium-doped Gadolinium Yttrium Gallium Aluminum Garnet, or GYGAG(Ce). Transparent ceramic GYGAG(Ce), has a peak emission wavelength of 550 nm that is better matched to Silicon photodetectors than to standard PMTs. We are therefore developing a spectrometer based on pixelated GYGAG(Ce) on a Silicon photodiode array that can provide R(662 keV) = 3.6%. In comparison, with large 1-2 in3 size GYGAG(Ce) ceramics we obtain R(662 keV) = 4.6% with PMT readout. We find that ceramic GYGAG(Ce) of a given stoichiometric chemical composition can exhibit very different scintillation properties, depending on sintering conditions and post-anneal treatments. Among the characteristics of transparent ceramic garnet scintillators that can be controlled by fabrication conditions are: scintillation decay components and their amplitudes, intensity and duration of afterglow, thermoluminescence glow curve peak positions and amplitudes, integrated light yield, light yield non-proportionality - as measured in the Scintillator Light Yield Non-Proportionality Characterization Instrument (SLYNCI), and energy resolution for gamma spectroscopy. Garnet samples exhibiting a significant fraction of Cerium dopant in the tetravalent valence also exhibit: faster overall scintillation decay, very low afterglow, high light yield, but poor light yield proportionality and degraded energy resolution.

  3. High-resolution analytical TEM of nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R

    2002-10-01

    This paper briefly reviews the potential applicability of analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to elucidate both structural and chemical peculiarities of materials at high lateral resolution. Examples of analytical TEM investigations performed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) are presented for different materials systems including metals, ceramics, and compound semiconductors. In particular, results are given of imaging the element distribution in the interface region between gamma matrix and gamma' precipitate in the nickel-based superalloy SC16 by energy-filtered TEM. For core-shell structured BaTiO(3) particles the chemical composition and even the chemical bonding were revealed by EELS at a resolution of about 1 nm. A sub-nanometer resolution is demonstrated by energy-selective images of the Ga distribution in the surrounding of (In,Ga)As quantum dots. Moreover, the element distribution in (Al,Ga)As/AlAs multilayers with linear concentration gradients in a range of about 10 nm was investigated by EDXS line-profile analyses and EFTEM. PMID:12397484

  4. Synergy Between Ground Measurements and High Spatial Resolution Imagery to Validate Medium Spatial Resolution Land Surface Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Morisette, J.; Baret, F.; Privette, J.

    2005-12-01

    Currently, several biophysical variables such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR) and the surface albedo are derived from remote sensing observations acquired with medium spatial resolution sensors (250m to 7km). Because of their high temporal frequency and their important spatial coverage, these products are very useful to describe the mass and energy fluxes between the earth surface and the atmosphere. Since these variables are required for an important range of investigations and applications, it is important to assess their accuracy. Validation activity consists in evaluating by independent means the quality of the land surface products estimated from coarse resolution sensors. Validation methods consist in generating a ground truth map of these products at high spatial resolution. These maps are produced by using ground measurements of the biophysical variable and radiometric data from a high spatial resolution sensor (10m-30m). The relationship between a biophysical variable and radiometric imagery, called the transfer function, allows extending the local ground measurements to the entire high spatial resolution image. The resulting biophysical variable map is aggregated to be compared with the medium spatial resolution satellite biophysical products. Several geometrical issues influence the validation results: - the registration accuracy of the local ground measurements relative to the high spatial resolution image - the difference of spatial support between the ground measurement support and the high spatial resolution pixel - the registration accuracy between the high and medium resolution images - the point spread function (PSF) associated to the medium spatial resolution image This work proposes a methodology to account for these sources of uncertainties within the validation process. First, these problems are investigated at the field measurement scale. The registration accuracy between ground measurement located by GPS and high spatial resolution pixel is modeled by a Gaussian random variable. For each possible relative position, the ground measurement is related to the radiometric data for the surrounding area weighted by the ground measurement spatial support area. A Monte Carlo simulation scheme accounting for the positional accuracy provides the probability distribution function of the parameters defining the transfer function. Second, registration error is investigated when aggregated high spatial resolution image is compared with coarse resolution image. The registration error is minimized by getting the best geometrical match between the two images using correlation techniques. Finally, the importance of the PSF associated to the medium spatial resolution biophysical products is evaluated using data from MODIS and VEGETATION sensors. This investigation is applied to several validation sites expressing a range of spatial heterogeneity.

  5. Defining Extreme Climate Indices Using High Resolution Regional Climate Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bat?beniz, Fulden; Önol, Bar??

    2014-05-01

    In this study, high resolution regional climate simulation (horizontal grid spacing 10-km) has been analyzed to determine extreme weather events which have been observed more frequent and severe in recent decades. The climate indices related to extreme weather events and their possible trends have been evaluated and calculated using the daily rainfall and temperature simulations for the period of 1961-2008. ICTP-RegCM3 has been used to produce double-nested simulations (from 50-km to 10-km ) and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis have been applied for the lateral forcing. The climate indices defined by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) have been selected for estimation of extreme climatic events over Turkey and the surrounding region. All the extreme indices analyzed in the study are chosen from climate indices which affects human life directly or indirectly. Extreme hot days (TX35), summer Days (SU), warm Nights (TN90p), very wet days (R95p), excessive heavy rainy days (RR20), consecutive dry days (CDD) have been calculated as major climate indices and additional indices will be evaluated. The comparisons for each indices between the high resolution simulation and observations have been examined to detect deficiencies of the model. More than 180 meteorological stations over Turkey have been applied for station versus corresponding grid-point comparison. Q-Q plot analysis demonstrates that the simulation and observations are highly consistent for both extreme daily rainfall and extreme daily temperature and most of the stations are statistically significant. In addition, the results have been also analyzed to investigate inter-annual and decadal variability and to define frequency and intensity change in extreme events due to human-induced climate change. Regional climate simulation at 10 km spatial resolution eliminates most of the difficulties arise from the spatial scale in terms of extreme weather events.

  6. Landslide detection using very high-resolution satellite imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Yuzo; Konishi, Tomohisa

    2012-10-01

    The heavy rain induced by the 12th typhoon caused landslide disaster at Kii Peninsula in the middle part of Japan. We propose a quick response method for landslide disaster mapping using very high resolution (VHR) satellite imageries. Especially, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is effective because it has the capability of all weather and day/night observation. In this study, multi-temporal COSMO-SkyMed imageries were used to detect the landslide areas. It was difficult to detect the landslide areas using only backscatter change pattern derived from pre- and post-disaster COSMOSkyMed imageries. Thus, the authors adopted a correlation analysis which the moving window was selected for the correlation coefficient calculation. Low value of the correlation coefficient reflects land cover change between pre- and post-disaster imageries. This analysis is effective for the detection of landslides using SAR data. The detected landslide areas were compared with the area detected by EROS-B high resolution optical image. In addition, we have developed 3D viewing system for geospatial visualizing of the damaged area using these satellite image data with digital elevation model. The 3D viewing system has the performance of geographic measurement with respect to elevation height, area and volume calculation, and cross section drawing including landscape viewing and image layer construction using a mobile personal computer with interactive operation. As the result, it was verified that a quick response for the detection of landslide disaster at the initial stage could be effectively performed using optical and SAR very high resolution satellite data by means of 3D viewing system.

  7. High-resolution SIMS depth profiling of nanolayers.

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, S. V.; Zinovev, A. V.; Tripa, C. E.; Pellin, M. J.; Peng, Q.; Elam, J. W.; Veryovkin, I. V. (Energy Systems); ( MSD)

    2012-10-15

    Although the fundamental physical limits for depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry are well understood in theory, the experimental work to achieve and demonstrate them is still ongoing. We report results of high-resolution TOF SIMS (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) depth profiling experiments on a nanolayered structure, a stack of 16 alternating MgO and ZnO {approx}5.5 nm layers grown on a Si substrate by atomic layer deposition. The measurements were performed using a newly developed approach implementing a low-energy direct current normally incident Ar{sup +} ion beam for ion milling (250 eV and 500 eV energy), in combination with a pulsed 5 keV Ar{sup +} ion beam at 60{sup o} incidence for TOF SIMS analysis. By this optimized arrangement, a noticeably improved version of the dual-beam (DB) approach to TOF SIMS depth profiling is introduced, which can be dubbed gentleDB. The mixing-roughness-information model was applied to detailed analysis of experimental results. It revealed that the gentleDB approach allows ultimate depth resolution by confining the ion beam mixing length to about two monolayers. This corresponds to the escape depth of secondary ions, the fundamental depth resolution limitation in SIMS. Other parameters deduced from the measured depth profiles indicated that a single layer thickness is equal to 6 nm so that the 'flat' layer thickness d is 3 nm and the interfacial roughness {sigma} is 1.5 nm, thus yielding d + 2{sigma} = 6 nm. We have demonstrated that gentleDB TOF SIMS depth profiling with noble gas ion beams is capable of revealing the structural features of a stack of nanolayers, resolving its original surface and estimating the roughness of interlayer interfaces, information which is difficult to obtain by traditional approaches.

  8. Towards high resolution soil property maps for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürz, Christoph; Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, such as soil texture, soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, or soil depth are important inputs for hydrologic catchment modelling. However, the availability of such data in Austria is often insufficient to fulfill requirements of well-established hydrological models. Either, soil data is available in sufficient spatial resolution but only covers a small extent of the considered area, or the data is comprehensive but rather coarse in its spatial resolution. Furthermore, the level of detail and quality of the data differs between the available data sets. In order to generate a comprehensive soil data set for whole Austria that includes main soil physical properties, as well as soil depth and organic carbon content in a high spatial resolution (10x10 to 100x100m²) several available soil data bases are merged and harmonized. Starting point is a high resolution soil texture map that only covers agricultural areas and is available due to Austrian land appraisal. Soil physical properties for those areas are derived by applying pedotransfer functions (e.g. Saxton and Rawls, 2006) resulting in expectation values and quantiles of the respective property for each soil texture class. For agricultural areas where no texture information is available, the most likely soil texture is assigned applying a Bayesian network approach incorporating information such as elevation, soil slope, soil type, or hydro-geology at different spatial scales. Soil data for forested areas, that cover a large extent of the state territory, are rather sparse in Austria. For such areas a similar approach as for agricultural areas is applied by using a Bayesian network for prediction of the soil texture. Additionally, information to various soil parameters taken from literature is incorporated. For areas that are covered by land use different to agriculture or forestry, such as bare rock surfaces, or wetland areas, solely literature information is used to assign soil physical parameters to the soil data set. Soil depth is only available in a very coarse spatial resolution. By correlating this information with altitude and slope steepness, soil depth data is refined. An evaluation of the Bayesian network predictions will be performed within a cross-validation framework.

  9. Using a high spatial resolution tactile sensor for intention detection.

    PubMed

    Castellini, Claudio; Koiva, Risto

    2013-06-01

    Intention detection is the interpretation of biological signals with the aim of automatically, reliably and naturally understanding what a human subject desires to do. Although intention detection is not restricted to disabled people, such methods can be crucial in improving a patient's life, e.g., aiding control of a robotic wheelchair or of a self-powered prosthesis. Traditionally, intention detection is done using, e.g., gaze tracking, surface electromyography and electroencephalography. In this paper we present exciting initial results of an experiment aimed at intention detection using a high-spatial-resolution, high-dynamic-range tactile sensor. The tactile image of the ventral side of the forearm of 9 able-bodied participants was recorded during a variable-force task stimulated at the fingertip. Both the forces at the fingertip and at the forearm were synchronously recorded. We show that a standard dimensionality reduction technique (Principal Component Analysis) plus a Support Vector Machine attain almost perfect detection accuracy of the direction and the intensity of the intended force. This paves the way for high spatial resolution tactile sensors to be used as a means for intention detection. PMID:24187184

  10. Multilayer, high resolution, ion-bombardment-tolerant electron resist system

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, B.D.; Buhrman, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    A multilayer, high resolution electron resist system, which withstands ion bombardment, has been developed. This system consists of four layers which are, from top to bottom: AZ1350B, a thin metal interlayer, PMMA, and a copolymer of PMMA. The bottom two layers define the actual pattern dimensions. Two independent developers have been chosen for these two layers in order to obtain controllably undercut resist profiles ideal for liftoff applications, while maintaining high resolution in the upper PMMA layer. The top two layers of the four-level system serve to provide a protective metal coating which prevents crosslinking of the underlying polymer layer. This allows processing involving ion bombardment, such as ion milling or reactive ion etching. Without this protective metal layer, difficulty is often encountered in liftoff processing after ion bombardment, due to the presence of a thin crosslinked polymer layer which resists solvent penetration. This resist system has been used in conjunction with reactive ion beam oxidation to fabricate high quality, small area, niobium--lead alloy tunnel junctions in an edge geometry. Using a standard Cambridge EBMF-2 microfabricator, junctions with linewidths as small as 0.25 ..mu..m have been produced. With the edge geometry, this corresponds to junction areas smaller than 4 x 10/sup -10/ cm/sup 2/.

  11. High resolution combat simulations for the future battlefield

    SciTech Connect

    Toms, R.M.

    1992-07-10

    Military contingencies, weapons systems, operational concepts and force compositions are changing rapidly and qualitatively. The role of combat simulations is becoming increasingly important. Computerized simulations will be replacing the majority of field exercises. Distributed wargaming will likely be the major mechanism for joint and combined theater level coordination and training. The new battlefield environment will require high resolution simulations that accurately represent attrition, maneuver, time synchronization, command and control, RSTA and advanced weapons effects. The technological potential exists for greatly enhanced operational decision aids that could revolutionize command and control operations. It is critical that future simulations be designed to meet the new and emerging requirements induced by potential future battlefield situations. In a future battlefield there is apt to be considerable variability in the scope, disposition and capabilities of the forces, of the time of a confrontation and even in who the combatants might be. This is in contrast to the traditional European battlefield scenario that has guided simulation and model designers throughout the cold war period. Large scale simulations developed for cold war scenarios have tended to be highly aggregated with respect to combat factors such as the environment, time, spatial disposition of forces and attrition adjudication. In addition, these simulations generally employ expected value methodologies that mask the inherent statistical uncertainties in outcomes. Improvements in computational hardware, algorithms, software and distributed architectures now make it feasible to develop high resolution stochastic simulations for large scale battlefields.

  12. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  13. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  14. Overshooting Convection from High-resolution NEXRAD Observations 

    E-print Network

    Solomon, David

    2014-01-09

    by NOAA. Black box designates the geographical area encompassed in this study. 6 4.1 Comparison of ERA-Interim high-resolution calculated tropopause height to NOAA balloon sonde tropopause height. Red lines denote a ±1 km boundary around perfect agreement... at individual radar sites depends on several conditions including: operating status, scan strategy, range of the target volume from the radar, 5 Figure 2.1: Map of NEXRAD radar coverage below 10,000 feet provided by NOAA. Black box designates the geographical...

  15. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, Johan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bettencourt, Luis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chute, Ryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balakireva, Lyudmila [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  16. Delineating cell-matrix interaction at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Shang You; Crocker, John; Janmey, Paul

    2011-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that mechanic cues affect a wide variety of cells and can sometimes override biochemical cues to control cell division, cell death and even specify stem cell differentiation lineage. To understand how cells interact physically with their surrounding matrix, it is imperative to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of forces and molecular players as cells undergo contractile activity. We examine human mesenchymal stem cell contractility at high temporal and spatial resolution on soft and hard substrates. We acknowledge NIH 5R01GM083272-03 funding.

  17. Ultra-high resolution crystal structure of recombinant caprine ?-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Crowther, Jennifer M; Lassé, Moritz; Suzuki, Hironori; Kessans, Sarah A; Loo, Trevor S; Norris, Gillian E; Hodgkinson, Alison J; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Dobson, Renwick C J

    2014-11-01

    ?-Lactoglobulin (?lg) is the most abundant whey protein in the milks of ruminant animals. While bovine ?lg has been subjected to a vast array of studies, little is known about the caprine ortholog. We present an ultra-high resolution crystal structure of caprine ?lg complemented by analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering data. In both solution and crystalline states caprine ?lg is dimeric (K(D)<5 ?M); however, our data suggest a flexible quaternary arrangement of subunits within the dimer. These structural findings will provide insight into relationships among structural, processing, nutritional and immunological characteristics that distinguish cow's and goat's milk. PMID:25241165

  18. Development of nuclear spectroscopy systems using high resolution semiconductor detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hien, Dinh Sy

    1996-02-01

    Two kinds of spectrometers have been developed at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. In this paper an XRF spectrometer and Compton suppression and pair spectrometers have been described. The XRF spectrometer consists of Si(Li) detector and Dalat Electronics. Compton suppression and pair spectrometers consist of a 20% high purity germanium gamma ray detector inserted into two large NaI(TI) shielding detectors, coupled with Compton suppression and pair electronics of Dalat. Improving the resolution of XRF spectrometer and increasing the peak to Compton ratio of gamma ray spectrometers have been done at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. Block diagram of systems and results of testing spectroscopy systems have been given.

  19. High Resolution Spectra of Novae and the Quadratic Zeeman Effect

    E-print Network

    Robert Williams; Elena Mason

    2006-02-27

    High resolution spectra of novae after outburst reveal distinctive characteristics in the line profiles and intensities. The higher Balmer lines are often broader than the lower members of the series, and the relative profiles and intensities of the [O I] \\lambda\\lambda6300, 6364 doublet differ from normal values. We suggest these features may be caused by the Quadratic Zeeman Effect from magnetic fields exceeding B=10^6 gauss. Taken together the emission and absorption lines point to multiple origins for the ejecta on both the erupting white dwarf and the cool secondary star.

  20. Topological Analysis of High-Resolution CMB Maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D. Wandelt; Eric Hivon; Kris M. Gorski

    1998-01-01

    We report the development of numerical tools for the topological analysis of\\u000asub--degree resolution, all--sky maps. Software to be released in the HEALFAST\\u000a(V0.9) package defines neighbour relationships for the HEALPIX tessellation of\\u000athe sphere. We apply this routine to a fast extrema search which scales\\u000astrictly linearly in the number of pixels, $N_{p}$. We also present a highly\\u000aefficient

  1. Topological Analysis of High-Resolution CMB Maps

    E-print Network

    Benjamin D. Wandelt; Eric Hivon; Kris M. Gorski

    1998-03-30

    We report the development of numerical tools for the topological analysis of sub--degree resolution, all--sky maps. Software to be released in the HEALFAST (V0.9) package defines neighbour relationships for the HEALPIX tessellation of the sphere. We apply this routine to a fast extrema search which scales strictly linearly in the number of pixels, $N_{p}$. We also present a highly efficient algorithm for simulating the gradient vector and curvature tensor fields ``on--the--fly'' with the temperature map, needing only of order $N_{p} \\log_2 N_{p}$ more operations.

  2. Topological Analysis of High-Resolution CMB Maps

    E-print Network

    Wandelt, B D; Gorksi, K M; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Hivon, Eric; Gorksi, Kris M.

    1998-01-01

    We report the development of numerical tools for the topological analysis of sub--degree resolution, all--sky maps. Software to be released in the HEALFAST (V0.9) package defines neighbour relationships for the HEALPIX tessellation of the sphere. We apply this routine to a fast extrema search which scales strictly linearly in the number of pixels, $N_{p}$. We also present a highly efficient algorithm for simulating the gradient vector and curvature tensor fields ``on--the--fly'' with the temperature map, needing only of order $N_{p}

  3. High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale meteorological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David B.; Flament, Pierre; Bernstein, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article high-resolution satellite imagery from a variety of meteorological and environmental satellites is compared. Digital datasets from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Landsat, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites were archived as part of the 1990 Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) and form the basis of the comparisons. During HaRP, GOES geostationary satellite coverage was marginal, so the main emphasis is on the polar-orbiting satellites.

  4. High-resolution line-scanning optical coherence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Huang, Shu-Wei; Aguirre, Aaron D; Fujimoto, James G

    2007-07-15

    An optical coherence microscopy system based on line illumination and detection is demonstrated. The system uses a Linnik-type interferometer illuminated by a broadband Ti:sapphire laser and detected by a high-speed, line-scan CCD camera. This approach is less sensitive to incoherent scattering and sample motion than full-field imaging. Spatial resolutions of approximately 2 microm x approximately 3 microm(transverse x axial) are achieved. The sensitivity of the system is 93 dB with averaging over 30 line scans. En face real time, cellular-level imaging of biological tissues is demonstrated at approximately 2 frames/s. PMID:17632613

  5. Quantitative high-resolution melting analysis for detecting adulterations.

    PubMed

    Mader, Eduard; Ruzicka, Joana; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Admixtures of different plant species are a common problem in raw materials for medicinal use. Two exemplary assays were developed to admixtures in Helleborus niger with high-resolution melting analysis. HRM proved to be a very sensitive tool in detecting admixtures, able to detect a ratio of 1:1000 with unknown species, and of 1:200,000 with Veratrum nigrum. The example proves the ability of HRM for quantification in multiplex PCR. The method is not limited to detecting adulterations. It can also be used to quantify a specific target by integrating a second amplicon in the assay as internal standard. PMID:20946863

  6. POWERWALL: International Workshop on Interactive, Ultra-High-Resolution Displays

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, Chris; Endert, Alexander; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; Hornbaek, Kasper; North, Chris

    2013-04-27

    Ultra-high-resolution (Powerwall) displays are becoming increasingly popular due to the ever decreasing cost of hardware. As a result they are appearing more frequently in research institutes, and making the jump out of the lab and into industry. Due to the amount of work in this research area that has been published in CHI over the last few years, we felt that this confernece would be the ideal host for the first opportunity for both academics and practitioners in this field to get together.

  7. High resolution metal loss in non-aqueous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hemblade, B.J.; Davies, J.R. [Cormon Ltd., Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom); Sutton, J. [Phasor Measurements, Mid-Holmwood (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    The oil industry has many high value hydrocarbon applications requiring corrosion rate monitoring for real-time problem solving and control. Electrochemical techniques are capable of high resolution, instantaneous determination of corrosion rate in aqueous (conductive) environments, but if incorrectly applied in the presence of hydrocarbons, their performance is limited, generally problematical and often unreliable. The industry also seeks improved working life of sensors without significantly compromising performance. Metal loss technology exists today that provides either high sensitivity but with short life, or conversely, long life but with substantially reduced sensitivity. The paper discusses the limitations of existing on-line technologies and describes the performance of a new, emerging, technology which the authors believe promises unrivaled sensitivity combined with long sensor life.

  8. High-resolution chemical sensor for unattended underwater networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adornato, Lori; Kaltenbacher, Eric A.; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu; Easley, Regina

    2008-10-01

    Autonomous underwater sensors are the best solution for continuous detection of chemical species in aquatic systems. The Spectrophotometric Elemental Analysis System (SEAS), an in situ instrument that incorporates both fluorescence and colorimetric techniques, provides high-resolution time-series measurements of a wide variety of analytes. The use of Teflon AF2400 long-pathlength optical cells allows for sub-parts-per-billion detection limits. User-defined sampling frequencies up to 1 Hz facilitate measurements of chemical concentrations on highly resolved temporal and spatial scales. Due to its modular construction, SEAS can be adapted for operation in littoral or open ocean regions. We present a high-level overview of the instrument's design along with data from moored deployments and deep water casts.

  9. The fabrication scheme of a high resolution and high aspect ratio UV-nanoimprint mold.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kipil; Wi, Jung-Sub; Nam, Sung-Wook; Park, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Jae-Jong; Kim, Ki-Bum

    2009-12-01

    We propose a new scheme of fabricating molds for UV-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) that is both high resolution and has a high aspect ratio. The scheme involves the utilization of a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) electron beam resist for high resolution patterning and the sputter-deposited alpha-Si layer that defines the high-aspect-ratio mold pattern obtained from the high etch selectivity between the HSQ and the alpha-Si. We obtained high resolution line patterns and dot patterns with feature sizes of 40 nm and 25 nm, respectively. The aspect ratio of the patterns was about 3.5 for line patterns and about 5 for dot patterns. These molds also demonstrate successful UV-nanoimprint patterning. PMID:19893150

  10. Frontiers in High- Resolution X- Ray Diagnostics of Plasmas 4.High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunieda, Hideyo

    Astrophysical plasmas are of great interest in light of their extreme physical conditions, such as high temperature (> million K) and low density (<1 atom cm-3). However, high resolution spectroscopy of astrophysical plasmas has never been carried out. Two giant x-ray observatories, Chandra (NASA) and Newton (ESA) were launched in 1999 with grating systems. E/dE of about1,000 below 1 keV provides us with high quality spectroscopy data of various sources. This report describes the new data from stars, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei and cluster of galaxies, and discuss its implications. Line ratios of different species give the abundance, while those of different ionization states indicate the ionization parameters. The ratios of resonance, forbidden and intercombination lines indicate the ionization temperature and density of plasmas. Observed shifts of line energies are due to the bulk motion of the plasmas at velocities up to 1,000 km/s. Grating spectrometers can easily obtain clear results from point sources, though they are not adequate to perform high resolution spectroscopy of diffuse sources such as SNR and cluster of galaxies.

  11. High Speed, High Resolution and Low Power Approaches for SAR A\\/D Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingyuan Tong; Yintang Yang; Zhangming Zhu; Yan Xiao; Jianming Chen

    2009-01-01

    Through the review and analysis of traditional and some recently reported conversion methods in SAR A\\/D converters, high speed, high resolution and low power approaches for SAR A\\/D converter are discussed. Based on SMIC 65 nm CMOS technology, two typical low power methods reported in previous works are validated by circuit design and simulation. Design challenges and considerations of high

  12. High-resolution free-electron laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szarmes, Eric Brent

    The broad and continuous turnability of the rf linac-driven free-electron laser (FEL), coupled with its high power picosecond time structure, has greatly enhanced the research capabilities in the field of infrared spectroscopy. However, the duration of the optical pulses is often too long to probe ultrafast processes that occur on time scales of a few tens to a few hundreds of femtoseconds, and the spectral structure of the optical beam, with closely spaced longitudinal modes in a bandwidth determined by the Fourier transform of the short pulses, poses a significant limitation of experiments requiring high spectral resolution. The temporal resolution can be improved by operating the FEL with electron pulses whose energy varies linearly with time; the resulting optical pulses possess substantial frequency chirps and are susceptible to pulse compression in an external dispersive delay line. The spectral resolution can be enhanced by using an intracavity Michelson interferometer to couple successive optical pulses so that they build up from noise with a definite phase relationship; the longitudinal modes in the output beam are then separated by the rf frequency of the linac and can be individually filtered for applications in high resolution spectroscopy. In this dissertation, I develop small signal analyses for each of these modes of operation, and report the results of numerical pulse propagation simulations whose parameters were chosen to guide the design of feasible experiments on the Mark III FEL. Chirped-pulse simulations using modest energy chirps have demonstrated a x15 compression ratio at saturated power levels for 3.4 ps optical pulses at 3.35 microns, and coupled pulse simulations have indicated substantial longitudinal mode reduction on microsecond time scales. I also develop a simplified derivation of the FEL coupled mode equations using conventional mode locked laser theory, and solve them numerically in the frequency domain to describe the detuning properties of the Michelson resonator FEL. Finally, I report the first operation of a Michelson mirror resonator on the Mark III FEL, and present indirect evidence for phase locked operation using a beamsplitter reflectance of only 1.4 percent.

  13. High resolution remote sensing of water surface patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodget, A.; Visser, F.; Maddock, I.; Carbonneau, P.

    2012-12-01

    The assessment of in-stream habitat availability within fluvial environments in the UK traditionally includes the mapping of patterns which appear on the surface of the water, known as 'surface flow types' (SFTs). The UK's River Habitat Survey identifies ten key SFTs, including categories such as rippled flow, upwelling, broken standing waves and smooth flow. SFTs result from the interaction between the underlying channel morphology, water depth and velocity and reflect the local flow hydraulics. It has been shown that SFTs can be both biologically and hydraulically distinct. SFT mapping is usually conducted from the river banks where estimates of spatial coverage are made by eye. This approach is affected by user subjectivity and inaccuracies in the spatial extent of mapped units. Remote sensing and specifically the recent developments in unmanned aerial systems (UAS) may now offer an alternative approach for SFT mapping, with the capability for rapid and repeatable collection of very high resolution imagery from low altitudes, under bespoke flight conditions. This PhD research is aimed at investigating the mapping of SFTs using high resolution optical imagery (less than 10cm) collected from a helicopter-based UAS flown at low altitudes (less than 100m). This paper presents the initial findings from a series of structured experiments on the River Arrow, a small lowland river in Warwickshire, UK. These experiments investigate the potential for mapping SFTs from still and video imagery of different spatial resolutions collected at different flying altitudes and from different viewing angles (i.e. vertical and oblique). Imagery is processed using 3D mosaicking software to create orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEM). The types of image analysis which are tested include a simple, manual visual assessment undertaken in a GIS environment, based on the high resolution optical imagery. In addition, an object-based image analysis approach which makes use of the spectral and textural images properties is tested using Definiens eCognition software. Where possible, the DEM of the water surface topography is also analysed for identifying SFTs. The site is revisited in order to assess the temporal variability of SFTs as relating to changes in flow level, and the potential for variability in identifying SFTs from imagery as relating to changes in lighting and weather conditions.

  14. Special issue on high-resolution optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Peter J. S.; Davis, Ilan; Galbraith, Catherine G.; Stemmer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The pace of development in the field of advanced microscopy is truly breath-taking, and is leading to major breakthroughs in our understanding of molecular machines and cell function. This special issue of Journal of Optics draws attention to a number of interesting approaches, ranging from fluorescence and imaging of unlabelled cells, to computational methods, all of which are describing the ever increasing detail of the dynamic behaviour of molecules in the living cell. This is a field which traditionally, and currently, demonstrates a marvellous interplay between the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology, where apparent boundaries to resolution dissolve and living cells are viewed in ever more clarity. It is fertile ground for those interested in optics and non-conventional imaging to contribute high-impact outputs in the fields of cell biology and biomedicine. The series of articles presented here has been selected to demonstrate this interdisciplinarity and to encourage all those with a background in the physical sciences to 'dip their toes' into the exciting and dynamic discoveries surrounding cell function. Although single molecule super-resolution microscopy is commercially available, specimen preparation and interpretation of single molecule data remain a major challenge for scientists wanting to adopt the techniques. The paper by Allen and Davidson [1] provides a much needed detailed introduction to the practical aspects of stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, including sample preparation, image acquisition and image analysis, as well as a brief description of the different variants of single molecule localization microscopy. Since super-resolution microscopy is no longer restricted to three-dimensional imaging of fixed samples, the review by Fiolka [2] is a timely introduction to techniques that have been successfully applied to four-dimensional live cell super-resolution microscopy. The combination of multiple high-resolution techniques, such as the combination of light sheet and structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which efficiently utilize photon budget and avoid illuminating regions of the specimen not currently being imaged, hold the greatest promise for future biological applications. Therefore, the combined setup for SIM and single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) described by Rossberger et al [3] will be very helpful and stimulating to advanced microscopists in further modifying their setups. The SIM image helps in identifying artefacts in SMLM reconstruction, e.g. when two active fluorophores are close together and get rejected as 'out-of-focus'. This combined setup is another way to facilitate imaging live samples. The article by Thomas et al [4] presents another advance for biological super-resolution imaging with a new approach to reconstruct optically sectioned images using structured illumination. The method produces images with higher spatial resolution and greater signal to noise compared to existing approaches. This algorithm demonstrates great promise for reconstructing biological images where the signal intensities are inherently lower. Shevchuk et al [5] present a non-optic near field approach to imaging with a review of scanning ion-conductance microscopy. This is a powerful alternative approach for examining the surface dynamics of living cells including exo and endocytosis, unlabelled, and at the level of the single event. Here they present the first data on combining this approach with fluorescence confocal microscopy—adding that extra dimension. Different approaches to label-free live cell imaging are presented in the papers by Patel et al [6], Mehta and Oldenbourg [7], as well as Rogers and Zheludev [8]. All three papers bring home the excitement of looking at live cell dynamics without reporters—Patel et al [6] review both the potential of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and biological applications, where specific biomolecules are detected on the basis of their biophysical properties. Polarized light microscopy as presented by Mehta and Oldenbou

  15. High Resolution Atmospheric Modeling for Wind Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Bulaevskaya, V; Glascoe, L; Singer, M

    2010-03-18

    The ability of the WRF atmospheric model to forecast wind speed over the Nysted wind park was investigated as a function of time. It was found that in the time period we considered (August 1-19, 2008), the model is able to predict wind speeds reasonably accurately for 48 hours ahead, but that its forecast skill deteriorates rapidly after 48 hours. In addition, a preliminary analysis was carried out to investigate the impact of vertical grid resolution on the forecast skill. Our preliminary finding is that increasing vertical grid resolution does not have a significant impact on the forecast skill of the WRF model over Nysted wind park during the period we considered. Additional simulations during this period, as well as during other time periods, will be run in order to validate the results presented here. Wind speed is a difficult parameter to forecast due the interaction of large and small length scale forcing. To accurately forecast the wind speed at a given location, the model must correctly forecast the movement and strength of synoptic systems, as well as the local influence of topography / land use on the wind speed. For example, small deviations in the forecast track or strength of a large-scale low pressure system can result in significant forecast errors for local wind speeds. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary baseline of a high-resolution limited area model forecast performance against observations from the Nysted wind park. Validating the numerical weather prediction model performance for past forecasts will give a reasonable measure of expected forecast skill over the Nysted wind park. Also, since the Nysted Wind Park is over water and some distance from the influence of terrain, the impact of high vertical grid spacing for wind speed forecast skill will also be investigated.

  16. The AT20G high-angular-resolution catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhetri, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Jones, P. A.; Ricci, R.

    2013-09-01

    We present the high-angular-resolution catalogue for the Australia Telescope 20 GHz (AT20G) survey, using the high-angular-resolution 6-km antenna data at the baselines of ˜4500 m of the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have used the data to produce the visibility catalogue that separates the compact active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the extended radio sources at the 0.15 arcsec angular scale, corresponding to the linear size scale of 1 kpc at redshifts higher than 0.7. We find the radio population at 20 GHz to be dominated by compact AGNs constituting 77 per cent of the total sources in the AT20G. We introduce the visibility-spectra diagnostic plot, produced using the AT20G cross-matches with lower frequency radio surveys at 1 GHz [the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS)], that separates the 20 GHz population into distinct sub-populations of the compact AGNs, the compact steep-spectrum (CSS) sources, the extended AGN-powered sources and extended flat-spectrum sources. The extended flat-spectrum sources include a local thermal emitting population of high-latitude planetary nebulae and also gravitational lens and binary black hole candidates among the AGNs. We find a smooth transition in properties between the CSS sources and the AGN populations. The visibility catalogue, together with the main AT20G survey, provides an estimate of angular size scales for sources in the AT20G and an estimate of the flux arising from central cores of extended radio sources. The identification of the compact AGNs in the AT20G survey provides high-quality calibrators for high-frequency radio telescope arrays and very large baseline interferometry observations.

  17. High resolution photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions via slow photoelectron imaging

    E-print Network

    Neumark, Daniel M.

    High resolution photodetachment spectroscopy of negative ions via slow photoelectron imaging, Berkeley, California 94720 Received 15 June 2004; accepted 8 July 2004 A technique for high resolution anion photodetachment spectroscopy is presented that combines velocity map imaging and anion threshold

  18. A GUINIER CAMERA FOR SR POWDER DIFFRACTION: HIGH RESOLUTION AND HIGH THROUGHPUT.

    SciTech Connect

    SIDDONS,D.P.; HULBERT, S.L.; STEPHENS, P.W.

    2006-05-28

    The paper describe a new powder diffraction instrument for synchrotron radiation sources which combines the high throughput of a position-sensitive detector system with the high resolution normally only provided by a crystal analyzer. It uses the Guinier geometry which is traditionally used with an x-ray tube source. This geometry adapts well to the synchrotron source, provided proper beam conditioning is applied. The high brightness of the SR source allows a high resolution to be achieved. When combined with a photon-counting silicon microstrip detector array, the system becomes a powerful instrument for radiation-sensitive samples or time-dependent phase transition studies.

  19. Limiting liability via high-resolution image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwade, L. E.; Overlin, Trudy K.

    1997-01-01

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as 'evidence ready,' even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  20. High-resolution simulations of forced compressible isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannathan, Shriram; Donzis, Diego

    2011-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of compressible turbulent flows are several times more expensive than their incompressible counterparts. Therefore, using large computing resources efficiently is even more pressing when studying compressible turbulence. A highly scalable code is presented which is used to perform simulations aimed at understanding fundamental turbulent processes. The code, which is based on a 2D domain decomposition, is shown to scale well up to 128k cores. To attain a statistically stationary state a new scheme is developed which involves large-scale stochastic forcing (solenoidal or dilatational) and a procedure to keep mean internal energy constant. The resulting flows show characteristics consistent with results in the literature. The attainable Reynolds and turbulent Mach numbers for given computational resources depend on the number of grid points and the degree to which the smallest scales are resolved that are given by Kolmogorov scales. A systematic comparison of simulations at different resolutions suggests that the resolution needed depends on the particular statistic being considered. The resulting database is used to investigate small-scale universality, the scaling of spectra of velocity, density and temperature fields, structure functions and the trends towards high-Reynolds number asymptotes. Differences with incompressible results are highlighted.