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1

High-Resolution Autoradiography of Malarial Parasites Treated with Chloroquine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electron microscope autoradiography was performed on the erythrocytic stages of the rodent malarial parasite, Plasmodium berghei, after exposure to 3H-chloroquine. 3H-chloroquine becomes selectively localized within the parasite food vacuoles one hour aft...

M. Aikawa

1971-01-01

2

Fine structural ribonucleoprotein components of the cell nucleus visualized after spreading and high resolution autoradiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the nuclear components was studied following mild lysis of mouse or Drosophila tissue culture cells and spreading of nuclear material. Particular attention was paid to nuclear ribonucleoprotein (RNP) constituents, which were analysed by high resolution autoradiography after [3H]uridine pulse labelling of cells. Comparison with the labelling kinetics of various in situ nuclear RNP constituents described previously

Stanislav Fakan; Marie E. Hughes

1989-01-01

3

Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of ? radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as 99mTc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range ?-rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007cpm/mm2 for 3H and 0.01 for 14C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 104) and spatial resolution (50?m for 3H or 99mTc to 150?m for 32P or 18F (?+)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitted during the interaction with an intensified CCD camera. This property may suggest new potential applications, particularly in the field of ?-rays selection according to their energy. This detector provides a new fast way to detect all ?-emitting isotopes in biological samples up to 20cm×25cm (electrophoresis gels, hybridization membranes, tissue sections on glass slides, TLC plates and any other planar two-dimension samples). It is ideal for tritium detection, 500 times faster than classical film, thus maximizing the research productivity. (2) A micro imager is based on contact imaging through a solid scintillator sheet. Light emitted is amplified through an image intensifier tube and is analyzed with a CCD camera. The full field of view is smaller than the first one (24mm×32mm) but a better spatial resolution is obtained (typically 15?m for 3H, 20?m for 14C and 35S). The specifications of this detector are: efficiency 50-100% depending on isotope, linear response over a dynamic range of 104, smallest activity detected: 0.4cpm/mm2 for 3H and 0.04cpm/mm2 for 14C. Using these detectors, quantification is much easier and more precise than that of the radiological film because of direct counting of radioactivity. However, this quantification imposes a few limitations among which are the necessity of fabrication and simultaneous measurement of standards. With new developments of these devices it is possible to detect in the same sample two different isotopes: 3H and 14C for example, which is very attractive to many researchers today.

Barthe, N.; Chatti, K.; Coulon, P.; Maîtrejean, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.

2004-07-01

4

High resolution track etch autoradiography  

DOEpatents

A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

1994-12-27

5

The spatial resolution of silicon-based electron detectors in beta-autoradiography.  

PubMed

Thin tissue autoradiography is an imaging modality where ex-vivo tissue sections are placed in direct contact with autoradiographic film. These tissue sections contain a radiolabelled ligand bound to a specific biomolecule under study. This radioligand emits beta - or beta+ particles ionizing silver halide crystals in the film. High spatial resolution autoradiograms are obtained using low energy radioisotopes, such as (3)H where an intrinsic 0.1-1 microm spatial resolution can be achieved. Several digital alternatives have been presented over the past few years to replace conventional film but their spatial resolution has yet to equal film, although silicon-based imaging technologies have demonstrated higher sensitivity compared to conventional film. It will be shown in this work how pixel size is a critical parameter for achieving high spatial resolution for low energy uncollimated beta imaging. In this work we also examine the confounding factors impeding silicon-based technologies with respect to spatial resolution. The study considers charge diffusion in silicon and detector noise, and this is applied to a range of radioisotopes typically used in autoradiography. Finally an optimal detector geometry to obtain the best possible spatial resolution for a specific technology and a specific radioisotope is suggested. PMID:20197603

Cabello, Jorge; Wells, Kevin

2010-03-02

6

Resolution of electron microscope autoradiography. IV. Application to analysis of autoradiographs  

PubMed Central

The previous publications of this series described the expected grain distributions around model radioactive structures in EM autoradiographs as a function of the specimen resolution. This family of expected distributions was called the "universal curves". In the present study, experiments on 14C-sources were compared, significant differences were found depending on the energy of the isotope. These differences were primarily in the tails of the distributions, and are therefore important in correcting for cross-scatter when analyzing electron microscope autoradiographs. Using the universal curves unique for 125I, 3H, and 14C, we designed three sets of transparent overlays, or "masks", one set for each of these isotopes. The masks can be used by an investigator in a manner similar to that suggested by Blackett and Parry to generate grain distributions in autoradiographs on the basis of any desired hypothesis regarding the levels of radioactivity in different structures. A subsequent comparison between these generated distributions and those obtained from the observed grains in these autoradiographs leads to a determination of the most likely levels of radioactivity in the tissue. A computer (described in an Appendix by Land and Salpeter) can be used to find the "best fit" levels of radioactivity in complex cases. The accuracy of the masks was checked on generated line sources for each of the three isotopes.

1978-01-01

7

High mass resolution SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a method to conduct SIMS analysis at high mass resolution ( m/? m>50,000), to facilitate the examination and study of complex organic and biomolecules on surfaces. The approach uses a primary-ion beam probe (rastered 25 keV Ga + ion source), providing high (100 nm) spatial resolution, and an ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell, capable of mass analysis at a resolution in excess of 10 5 and mass accuracy of less than 1.0 ppm. The apparatus includes a time-of-flight (ToF) mass analyzer, offering rapid chemical mapping at low ( m/? m<10,000) mass resolution to identify points of interest for subsequent high mass resolution analysis. To combine both ICR and ToF mass analysis in one instrument requires the sample to be near ground potential, to inject secondary ions into the grounded ICR cell at low enough kinetic energies to permit high trapping efficiency. Consequently, the optics and detector for ToF analysis must be electrically floating at the desired acceleration potential for the secondary ions. For high-resolution mass analysis, secondary ions are transmitted to the ICR cell, which is in line-of-sight to the sample and immersed in a homogeneous magnetic field (7 T). Initial results from the instrument show that it is possible to trap simple ions effectively for high-resolution analysis, but high-mass ions ( m/ z>300), although, readily detected by the ToF analyzer, are inefficiently transmitted to the ICR cell. This has stimulated the design of a new ion optics coupling arrangement, which provides a higher mass resolution over a wider mass range.

Maharrey, S.; Bastasz, R.; Behrens, R.; Highley, A.; Hoffer, S.; Kruppa, G.; Whaley, J.

2004-06-01

8

High resolution in solar physics  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on high resolution in solar physics. Topics covered include instrumentation developments, high resolution techniques of observation and data reduction, the high resolution structure of the sun, and theoretical interpretation of the small-scale solar features.

Muller, R.

1985-01-01

9

High resolution data acquisition  

DOEpatents

A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

Thornton, Glenn W. (Los Alamos, NM); Fuller, Kenneth R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

10

High resolution data acquisition  

DOEpatents

A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

1993-04-06

11

High resolution SNOM probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of nanotechnologies demands optical characterization and measurement techniques that yield information with resolutions well below the diffraction limit. This requires an increase of the resolution of scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs) from 50-70 nm commercially available nowadays in the visible range, to beneficial 30 nm, where ? is the wavelength of light in free space. High resolution SNOM probes would be crucial in measurements of point spread functions of superlenses based on negative refraction and characterization of plasmonic circuitry. The resolution of SNOMs is ?r = d + 2a, where d is the diameter of a radiating aperture of a tapered-fiber metal-coated probe and a is a skin depth, that is the distance the electromagnetic field penetrates the metal coating. The size of the radiated field does not exceed the diameter ?r when the aperture-sample distance h is kept constant by the shear-force tuning fork method. One of the resolution parameters, the skin depth a, depends on the metal that coats the dielectric probe and the shape of the metal rim. For Ag and Al, the values of a are on the level of 10nm, when measured on a flat metal surface illuminated with a plane wave. Thus, the other resolution parameter which we intend to decrease is a probe diameter d. The probe should radiate enough energy to be detected in a reasonable scanning measurement time. Recently, we proved that probe emission depends on the charge density induced on the probe rim. To increase this density we propose enhancement of the photon-plasmon coupling on the interface between the dielectric core and the metal coating. To this end we corrugate the interface. In this paper we analyze the role of parameters of the corrugations and report on attempts to fabricate them.

Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Wróbel, Piotr; Szoplik, Tomasz

2008-12-01

12

Laboratory evaluation of a high-resolution X-ray microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

High spatial resolution X-ray microscopes are being developed for autoradiography of laser fusion reactions and for relay optics, linking an X-ray telescope to focal plane instrumentation such as a photoelectric image detector or a spectrometer. The grazing-incidence optics consist of confocal axisymmetric ellipsoid and hyperboloid pairs. In both fields of application, high spatial resolution is required. The achievement of high

J. K. Silk

1979-01-01

13

High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Hypernuclear spectroscopy provides fundamental information for understanding the effective ?-Nucleon interaction. Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-107 was designed to perform high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction of strangeness in four 1p-shell nuclei: 12C, 9Be, 16O, and 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in January and April-May 2004 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Significant modifications were made to the standard Hall A apparatus for this challenging experiment: two septum magnets and a RICH detector have been added to get reasonable counting rates and excellent particle identification, as required for the experiment. A description of the apparatus and the preliminary analysis results are presented here.

F. Garibaldi

2005-02-01

14

High resolution ultrasonic densitometer  

SciTech Connect

The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

Dress, W.B.

1983-01-01

15

High resolution ultrasonic densitometer  

SciTech Connect

The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. Methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid are examined. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

Dress, W.B.

1983-01-01

16

High resolution ultrasonic densitometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indiction, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

Dress, W. B.

1983-11-01

17

Soluble compound electron microscope (EM) autoradiography: a resolution source to test redistribution of soluble tritiated compounds during processing  

SciTech Connect

The development of a resolution source that can be labeled with either a soluble or insoluble tritiated compound, and of a method for applying a dry, uniform monolayer of emulsion is reported. Influences due to redistribution of the soluble isotope during emulsion coating were measured by comparing the grain density distributions around the resolution source for soluble tritiated proline (3H-PRO) with that obtained for cross-linked tritiated bovine serum albumin (3H-BSA). The grain density distributions resulting from a standard method of emulsion application (partly gelled/loop method) are compared to that obtained from a dry stripping film. It was found that only the dry stripping film gave a grain distribution which was statistically not different for the soluble and insoluble specimens.

Harris, W.V.; Salpeter, M.M.

1983-04-01

18

High resolution nannoplankton biostratigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Non-conventional biostratigraphic techniques were successfully used in steering and maintaining two horizontally drilled North Sea wells (H{sup A}, H{sup B}) in a restricted target zone (upper third of the reservoir unit). The techniques were initially applied to well A (well nearest site of first horizontal well). Verification of these techniques in both the first horizontal well (HA), and well B (well nearest site of second horizontal well) eliminated the need for drilling coring, and logging a pilot hole in the HB (second horizontal well). This resulted in a significant savings to Phillips. These techniques, which provide high resolution nannoplankton zones with finer resolution than the conventional NN/NP or CN/CP zones, were used to subdivide the major Tertiary reservoir unit (reworked Cretaceous Zone, Field Layer ED) to the Ekofisk into three units. These techniques include: (a.) population dynamics, (b.) polar ordination, (c.) morphometric analyses, and (d.) synchronous variation of nannofossil assemblages and petrophysical parameters. (a.) The middle unit of the reworked Cretaceous zone was defined by a marked increase in the abundance of Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii plus the influx of reworked Campanian taxa. (b.) Polar ordination of the nannoplankton assemblages through layer ED verified the three subzones, plus the possibility of a fourth. (c.) Morphometric measurements of the reworked Cretaceous taxa Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis reflected the same three subdivisions. (d.) Two {open_quotes}spikes{close_quotes} in Thoracosphere-Calcispere abundance, which can be used as a proxy for silica abundance, flag two porosity-permeability partitions in the reservoir. These partitions occur at, or near, the subzone boundaries. The technology, techniques and zonal scheme, was tranferred to the Stavanger office and was subsequently used, on wellsite, by paleontologic consultants during the drilling of both horizontal wells.

Young, C.R. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

19

ANL high-resolution injector  

SciTech Connect

The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne tandem linac accelerator system). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed.

Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.; Liu, Z.

1986-05-01

20

Quantitative receptor autoradiography  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative receptor autoradiography addresses the topic of technical and scientific advances in the sphere of quantitative autoradiography. The volume opens with a overview of the field from a historical and critical perspective. Following is a detailed discussion of in vitro data obtained from a variety of neurotransmitter systems. The next section explores applications of autoradiography, and the final two chapters consider experimental models. Methodological considerations are emphasized, including the use of computers for image analysis.

Boast, C.A.; Snowhill, E.W.; Altar, C.A.

1986-01-01

21

A Very High Spatial Resolution Detector for Small Animal PET  

SciTech Connect

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is an in vivo analog of autoradiography and has the potential to become a powerful new tool in imaging biological processes in small laboratory animals. PET imaging of small animals can provide unique information that can help in advancement of human disease models as well as drug development. Clinical PET scanners used for human imaging are bulky, expensive and do not have adequate spatial resolution for small animal studies. Hence, dedicated, low cost instruments are required for conducting small animal studies with higher spatial resolution than what is currently achieved with clinical as well as dedicated small animal PET scanners. The goal of the proposed project is to investigate a new all solid-state detector design for small animal PET imaging. Exceptionally high spatial resolution, good timing resolution, and excellent energy resolution are expected from the proposed detector design. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance solid-state detectors that provide high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and timing characteristics. Energy resolution characteristics of the new detector were also investigated. The goal of the Phase II project is to advance the promising solid-state detector technology for small animal PET and determine its full potential. Detectors modules will be built and characterized and finally, a bench-top small animal PET system will be assembled and evaluated.

Kanai Shah, M.S.

2007-03-06

22

High resolution telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

Massie, N. A.; Oster, Y.

1990-05-01

23

High-spatial resolution LAPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial resolution, sensitivity, and accuracy are required for light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The purpose of this work is to provide an approach for the high spatial resolution of the LAPS. The novel LAPS devices were developed and fabricated with ultra-thin Si films on transparent substrates. The 0.5 ?m Si film was made on a sapphire substrate, and the

Yoshitaka Ito

1998-01-01

24

MicromachinedHigh-Resolution Accelerometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the high-resolution, micromachined accelerometers by enunciating the development of their mechanical components, the electronic circuitry and the microfabrication processes. A survey of the literature suggests that the research in this area is mostly focused on improving microfabrication and electronic circuitry. The resolution of the accelerometers is dependent on the sensitivity of the mechanical components as

Girish Krishnan; Chaitanya U. Kshirsagar; G. K. Ananthasuresh; Navakanta Bhat

25

Enhanced High Resolution RBS System  

SciTech Connect

Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M. [National Electrostatics Corp., Middleton, Wisconsin, U. S. A. 53562-0310 (United States)

2011-06-01

26

Digital autoradiography: film and electronic multitracer techniques for heart imaging.  

PubMed

A multitracer digital film autoradiography (DFA) and a single-tracer multiwire proportional chamber autoradiography (MWPCA) have been developed for the simultaneous study of regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism in the canine heart. Radioactive indicators of flow (plastic microspheres), metabolism (deoxy-2-D-glucose labeled either with (14)C or (3)H), and flow and metabolism ((201)T1), were used in the same experiment. Multiple tracers were discriminated by film autoradiography on the basis of their properties (particulate or nonparticulate, short or long half-life), and by multiple film exposure. A multiwire chamber was used for (3)H detection. Perfusional and metabolic maps were obtained in transverse microslices of the heart (40 mum thick) by digital image processing. The operation, the advantages and limits of the single techniques as well as their combined use are described. The two techniques are complementary: DFA, although time consuming and proportionality limited, allows the use of multiple tracers and it is mandatory for particulate tracer detection due to its high spatial resolution; MWPCA, in spite of a lower resolution provides a very fast and proportional detection as compared to DFA, but limited to only one tracer at the time. PMID:18234607

Coppini, G; Valli, G; Camici, P; L'abbate, A; Bellazzini, R; Massai, M M; Spandre, G

1984-01-01

27

Berkeley High-Resolution Ball  

SciTech Connect

Criteria for a high-resolution ..gamma..-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total ..gamma..-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the ..gamma.. rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus /sup 156/Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features.

Diamond, R.M.

1984-10-01

28

High Resolution Sonar Simulation Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model developed for a computer simulation of both side-looking and forward-looking high resolution sonar systems is described. The purpose of the simulation is to permit systematic examination of the effects of first-order parameter variati...

D. L. Folds N. F. Anderson

1977-01-01

29

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-08-01

30

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

SciTech Connect

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

Not Available

1992-01-01

31

High resolution tomographic instrument development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

32

High Resolution CMOS Current Comparators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2¿m CMOS current comparator prototype is presented with an input current comparison range of 140dB and virtual zero offset(?10pA). The circuit uses capacitive sensing for high resolution and nonlinear feedback to achieve small input voltage variations in the complete input current range. Operation speed for low current is abot two orders of magnitude larger than for conventional circuits. Simplified

R. Dominguez-Castro; A. Rodriguez-Vazquez; F. Medeiro; J. L. Huertas

1992-01-01

33

Image deconvolution in digital autoradiography  

PubMed Central

Digital autoradiography (DAR) is a powerful method to determine quantitatively the “small-scale” (i.e., submillimeter) distribution of a radiotracer within a tissue section. However, the limited spatial resolution of the DAR image, due to blurring by the point spread function (PSF), can result in a poor correlation with tissue histology and immunohistochemistry. The authors attempt to overcome this limitation by recovering the radiotracer distribution by image deconvolution using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm and a measured PSF obtained from a small radioactive source on hydrophobic microscope slide. Simulation studies have shown that the deconvolution algorithm reliably recovers the pixel values corresponding to the radioactivity distributions. As an example, the proposed image restoration approach has been tested with DAR images of different radiolabeled markers on tumor sections obtained from clinical and preclinical animal model studies. Digital autoradiograms following deconvolution show improved sharpness and contrast relative to the unprocessed autoradiograms.

Zhang, Mutian; Chen, Qing; Li, Xiao-Feng; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Ruan, Shutian; Zanzonico, Pat; Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John L.

2009-01-01

34

High resolution time interval counter  

DOEpatents

A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

Condreva, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

35

High-resolution immersion viewer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is about a field-sequential electro-stereoscopic virtual reality (VR) viewing device which incorporates electro-optical shutters, and lenses that aid accommodation and convergence. Each eye looks through a combination of prismatic and positive-diopter lenses, and the same shutters used in CrystalEyesR eyewear are used for image selection. This is the first lenticular stereoscope to employ the time-multiplexing technique with superimposed images and shutters functioning as a kind of electronic septum. The result is a product with relatively low cost, high resolution, and a wide field of view.

Lipton, Lenny

1994-04-01

36

High-resolution intravital microscopy.  

PubMed

Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology. Moreover, our striped-illumination approach is able to improve the resolution of any laser-scanning-microscope, including confocal microscopes, by simply choosing an appropriate detector. PMID:23251402

Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E; Niesner, Raluca

2012-12-14

37

High resolution time interval counter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

1995-05-01

38

A simple, high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple concept is described that uses volume phase holographic gratings as polarizing dispersers for a high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter. Although the idea has previously been mentioned in the literature as possible, such a concept has not been explored in detail. Performance analysis is presented for a VPHG spectropolarimeter concept that could be utilized for both solar and night-time astronomy. Instrumental peak efficiency can approach 100% with spectral dispersions permitting R~200,000 spectral resolution with diffraction limited telescopes. The instrument has 3-channels: two dispersed image planes with orthogonal polarization and an undispersed image plane. The concept has a range of versatility where it could be configured (with appropriate half-wave plates) for slit-fed spectroscopy or without slits for snapshot/hyperspectral/tomographic spectroscopic imaging. Multiplex gratings could also be used for the simultaneous recording of two separate spectral bands or multiple instruments could be daisy chained with beam splitters for further spectral coverage.

Barden, Samuel C.

2012-09-01

39

Double label autoradiography--an improvement  

SciTech Connect

A convenient method for double-label autoradiography is described that uses an aqueous mountant, Gelutol (polyvinyl alcohol), which keeps the gelatin spacer in the final autoradiograph permanently swollen to a thickness of around 18 microns in contrast to its 5 microns thickness during exposure of the autoradiograph. This greatly improves optical discrimination between upper and lower layers without the loss of sensitivity or resolution that would result if a 18 microns spacer were used during exposure.

Wynford-Thomas, D.; LaMontagne, A.; Prescott, D.M.

1986-10-01

40

High Resolution Spectroscopy of LINERs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy is a powefull tool to investigate the physical nature of the ionized warm plasma observed in the central regions of Galaxies. Previous analysis by using low resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Low Ionization Emission Regions (LINERs) has demonstrated their AGN nature on almost 90% of the cases (Gonzalez-Martin et al 2009). In this work we further investigate the nature of their warm ionized nebulae. By using RGS observations, available on the XMM-Newton archive, we have obtained good quality data for a sample of 10 LINERs. The analysis of these data allows us to classify them into three families based on the properties of the Fe-L lines distribution. We conclude that half of them present spectral features characteristic of what has been found in type 2 AGNs (Guainazzi & Bianchi 2007). In the other half the spectral properties are mainly linked to the warm plasma from the cluster in wich these galaxies reside.

Masegosa, Josefa; González-Martín, Omaira; Márquez, Isabel; Guainazzi, Matteo; Bianchi, Stefano

2012-09-01

41

High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, high-resolution electron energy-loss and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, and others. Material systems ranging from atomic layers of metals and semiconductors to biology related depositions are being investigated. In the case of biological materials, however, strict limitations to high-resolution applications are imposed by electron radiation damage considerations.

Poppa, Helmut [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2004-09-01

42

High-resolution slug testing.  

PubMed

The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases. PMID:15819943

Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

43

Autoradiography, MALDI-MS, and SIMS-MS Imaging in Pharmaceutical Discovery and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body autoradiography ((WBA) or quantitative WBA (QWBA)), microautoradiography (MARG), matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization\\u000a mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI), and secondary ion mass spectrometric imaging (SIMS-MSI) are high-resolution, molecular\\u000a imaging techniques used to study the tissue distribution of radiolabeled and nonlabeled compounds in ex vivo, in situ biological samples. WBA, which is the imaging of the whole-body of lab animals, and\\/or their organ

Eric G. Solon; Alain Schweitzer; Markus Stoeckli; Brendan Prideaux

2010-01-01

44

High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

2009-02-01

45

Planetary Atmospheres at High Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long millimeter through submillimeter bands are particularly well suited for studying the wide variety of planetary atmospheres in our solar system. Temperatures ranging from a few 10s to hundreds of degrees, coupled with typically high densities (relative to the ISM) mean that thermal ‘continuum’ emission can be strong and molecular rotational transitions can be well-populated. Large bodies (Jovian and terrestrial planets) can be reasonably well studied by current interferometers such as the Submillimeter Array, IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, yet many smaller bodies with atmospheres can only be crudely studied, primarily due to lack of sensitivity on baselines long enough to well resolve the object. Newly powerful interferometers such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array will usher in a new era of planetary atmospheric exploration. The vast sensitivity and spatial resolution of these arrays will increase our ability to image all bodies with extremely fine fidelity (due to the large number of antennas), and for study of smaller objects by resolving their disks into many pixels while providing the sensitivity necessary to detect narrow and/or weak line emission. New science topics will range from detailed mapping of HDO, ClO, and sulfur species in the mesosphere of Venus and PH3 and H2S in the upper tropospheres of the gas and ice giants, high SNR mapping of winds on Mars, Neptune and Titan, down to spectroscopic imaging of volcanic eruptions within the tenuous atmosphere on Io, resolved imaging of CO and other species in the atmosphere of Pluto, and even potentially detection of gases within the plumes of Enceladus.

Gurwell, M.; Butler, B.; Moullet, A.

2013-10-01

46

High resolution image reconstruction by simulated annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new technique for reconstructing a high resolution image from a sequence of lower resolution frames. The new technique is based on a Monte-Carlo type simulated annealing algorithm in which the reconstruction task is recast as an optimisation problem. The proposed method has the added advantage of not requiring the registration of the displacement of each low resolution frame.

Numnonda, Thanachart; Andrews, Mark; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

1994-05-01

47

High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout  

DOEpatents

A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

Levin, Craig S. (Santa Monica, CA); Hoffman, Edward J. (Los Angeles, CA)

2000-01-01

48

High Resolution Imaging with AEOS  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Air Force Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) which includes a 941 actuator adaptive optics system on a 3.7m telescope has recently been made available for astronomical programs. Operating at a wavelength of 750 nm, the diffraction-limited angular resolution of the system is 0.04 inches; currently, the magnitude limit is V {approx} 7 mag. At the distances of nearby open clusters, diffraction-limited images should resolve companions with separations as small as 4-6 AU--comparable to the Sun-Jupiter distance. The ability to study such close separations is critical, since most companions are expected to have separations in the few AU to tens of AU range. With the exceptional angular resolution of the current AEOS setup, but restricted target magnitude range, we are conducting a companion search of a large, well-defined sample of bright early-type stars in nearby open clusters and in the field. Our data set will both characterize this relatively new adaptive optics system and answer questions in binary star formation and stellar X-ray activity. We will discuss our experience using AEOS, the data analysis involved, and our initial results.

Patience, J; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E

2001-08-27

49

HIRIS - The High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (HIRIS) is a JPL facility instrument designed for NASA's Earth Observing System (Eos).It will have 10-nm wide spectral bands from 0.4-2.5 microns at 30 m spatial resolution over a 30 km swath. The spectral resolution allows identification of many minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, spectral changes associated with

Jeff Dozier

1988-01-01

50

Supernova Remnant 1987A at High Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present high resolution radio and X-ray observations of supernova remnant 1987A. VLBI imaging at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz taken in 2007 and 2008 with the Australian Long Baseline Array provides the highest resolution radio images of the remnant to date, revealing two extended lobes with an overall morphology consistent with observations at lower resolutions. We find evidence of small-scale

Chi-Yung Ng; T. M. Potter; L. Staveley-Smith; B. M. Gaensler; S. S. Murray; S. Tingay; C. Phillips; A. K. Tzioumis; G. Zanardo

2011-01-01

51

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOEpatents

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-05-26

52

High resolution image reconstruction by simulated annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for reconstructing a high resolution image from a sequence of lower resolution frames. The new technique is based on a Monte-Carlo type simulated annealing algorithm in which the reconstruction task is recast as an optimisation problem. The proposed method has the added advantage of not requiring the registration of the displacement of each low

Thanachart Numnonda; Mark Andrews; Ramakrishna Kakarala

1994-01-01

53

High-resolution sonography of breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of broad band transducers determined a great increase in spatial, contrast and vascular resolution of ultrasound probes dedicated to breast studies. Providing better definition of normal as well as pathologic features, high resolution sonography improves the specificity of the diagnosis for the majority of malignant nodules and allows a better definition of both local and regional staging. The

Giorgio Rizzatto; Roberta Chersevani; Michela Abbona; Vito Luigi Lombardo; Donatella Macorig

1997-01-01

54

High spatial resolution automated perimetry in glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAutomated perimetry is of fundamental importance in assessing visual function in glaucoma. A technique was evaluated to perform high spatial resolution automated perimetry to allow a more detailed assessment of the luminance sensitivity in selected regions of the visual field than is possible with conventional perimetry.METHODHigh spatial resolution perimetry was performed using a Humphrey automated perimeter by measuring luminance sensitivity

Mark C Westcott; Andrew I McNaught; David P Crabb; Frederick W Fitzke; Roger A Hitchings

1997-01-01

55

Stellar population models at high spectral resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new, high-to-intermediate spectral resolution stellar population models, based on four popular libraries of empirical stellar spectra, namely Pickles, ELODIE, STELIB and MILES. These new models are the same as our previous models, but with higher resolution and based on empirical stellar spectra, while keeping other ingredients the same including the stellar energetics, the atmospheric parameters and the treatment

C. Maraston; G. Strömbäck

2011-01-01

56

Preliminary High Spectral-Resolution PFNDAT.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The High Resolution Phase Function Database (HRPFNDAT) is a component of the Weather and Atmospheric Visualization Effects for Simulation (WAVES) suite. It is also usable with models such as the Electro-Optical Systems Atmospheric Effects Library (EOSAEL)...

A. Wetmore D. Ligon R. Kvavilashvili

2004-01-01

57

High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) has recently emerged as one of the most important techniques for probing physical and chemical properties of surfaces. Several factors account for the rapidly growing popularity of EELS and other sp...

J. L. Erskine

1987-01-01

58

Shotgun Lipidomics on High Resolution Mass Spectrometers  

PubMed Central

Despite their compositional complexity, lipidomes comprise a large number of isobaric species that cannot be distinguished by conventional low resolution mass spectrometry and therefore in-depth MS/MS analysis was required for their accurate quantification. Here we argue that the progress in high resolution mass spectrometry is changing the concept of lipidome characterization. Because exact masses of isobaric species belonging to different lipid classes are not necessarily identical, they can now be distinguished and directly quantified in total lipid extracts. By streamlining and simplifying the molecular characterization of lipidomes, high resolution mass spectrometry has developed into a generic tool for cell biology and molecular medicine.

Schwudke, Dominik; Schuhmann, Kai; Herzog, Ronny; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Shevchenko, Andrej

2011-01-01

59

Microcomputer-based digital image analysis system for quantitative autoradiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized image processing system utilizing an IBM-XT personal microcomputer with the capability of performing quantitative cerebral autoradiography is described. All of the system components are standard computer and optical hardware that can be easily assembled. The system has 512 horizontal by 512 vertical axis resolution with 8 bits per pixel (256 gray levels). Unlike other dedicated image processing systems,

T. J. Hoffman; W. A. Volkert; R. A. Holmes

1988-01-01

60

Carbon nanotube based high resolution holograms.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes are used as the smallest possible scattering element for diffracting light in a highly controlled manner to produce a 2D image. An array of carbon nanotubes is elegantly patterned to produce a high resolution hologram. In response to incident light on the hologram, a high contrast and wide field of view CAMBRIDGE image is produced. PMID:22936595

Butt, Haider; Montelongo, Yunuen; Butler, Tim; Rajesekharan, Ranjith; Dai, Qing; Shiva-Reddy, Sai G; Wilkinson, Timothy D; Amaratunga, Gehan A J

2012-08-31

61

High resolution x-ray crystal spectrographs  

SciTech Connect

Observation of x-ray line emissions are valuable for determining the thermodynamic state of the emitting plasma. For laser produced plasmas, diffraction crystals can be used to isolate x-ray monochromes to obtain high resolution spectral measurements. We will describe a versatile multi-crystal high resolution spectrograph used for photon energies from 0.5 to 6 keV. We will discuss a calculational package that tunes the response and sensitivity of the instrument and estimates the effect of source extent on spectral resolution. A scheme using fine slits to obtain spatial resolution with the basic instrument will also be described. An instrument is being built for Shiva diagnostics that incorporates a diffraction crystal and an x-ray streak camera. The design rationale for the crystal stage will be discussed.

Koppel, L.N.; Eckels, J.D.

1977-10-21

62

High Resolution Cinematography at High Temperature in the Electron Microscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Required microscope conditions and the technique of photography and development procedures are described, and means of improvement suggested for high resolution, high magnification 16 mm cinematography of chemical reactions at high temperature in the electron microscope. It is shown experimentally that, even with an externally mounted camera, resolutions of 12–15 Å can be achieved in practice at reaction temperatures of

Frank D. Lugton; Charles E. Warble

1970-01-01

63

Autoradiography and the Cell Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines the stages of a cell biology "pulse-chase" experiment in which the students apply autoradiography techniques to learn about the concept of the cell cycle. Includes (1) seed germination and plant growth; (2) radioactive labeling and fixation of root tips; (3) feulgen staining of root tips; (4) preparation of autoradiograms; and (5)…

Jones, C. Weldon

1992-01-01

64

Solar system events at high spatial resolution  

SciTech Connect

Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a high resolution image processing technique called speckle imaging the resolution limitation of the atmosphere can now be largely overcome. Over the past three years they have used speckle imaging to observe Titan, a moon of Saturn with an atmospheric density comparable to Earth's, Io, the volcanically active innermost moon of Jupiter, and Neptune, a gas giant outer planet which has continually changing planet-encircling storms. These observations were made at the world's largest telescope, the Keck telescope in Hawaii and represent the highest resolution infrared images of these objects ever taken.

Baines, K H; Gavel, D T; Getz, A M; Gibbartd, S G; MacIntosh, B; Max, C E; McKay, C P; Young, E F; de Pater, I

1999-02-19

65

Initial Results from SOI\\/MDI High Resolution Magnetograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on SoHO takes magnetogram s with resolutions of 1.2 (high resolution) and 4 (full disk) arcseconds. Movies of 16 hour duration have been constructed in full disk and high resolution mode. High resolution movies of the south polar region also have been obtained. In sums of nine high resolution magnetograms it is possible to detect

T. Tarbell; Z. Frank; C. Schrijver; R. Shine; J. Wolfson; I. Zayer; P. Scherrer; R. Bush; C. Deforest; T. Hoeksema

1996-01-01

66

Single shot high resolution digital holography.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a novel computational method for high resolution image recovery from a single digital hologram frame. The complex object field is obtained from the recorded hologram by solving a constrained optimization problem. This approach which is unlike the physical hologram replay process is shown to provide high quality image recovery even when the dc and the cross terms in the hologram overlap in the Fourier domain. Experimental results are shown for a Fresnel zone hologram of a resolution chart, intentionally recorded with a small off-axis reference beam angle. Excellent image recovery is observed without the presence of dc or twin image terms and with minimal speckle noise. PMID:23481715

Khare, Kedar; Ali, P T Samsheer; Joseph, Joby

2013-02-11

67

Diffusion limitations in high-resolution lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reduction of the resist thickness, needed for high resolution lithography, increases thin film effects. The PRIME-process is used as an example of high resolution lithography (structure width less than 0.2 micrometer). In the paper the influence of the resist thickness and the DNQ-diffusion is studied by simulations and experiments. As a result it is to conclude, that the diffusion of DNQ has to be minimized to about 20 nm caused by the lateral dimension of the structures.

Bauch, Lothar; Jagdhold, Ulrich A.; Boettcher, Monica; Mehliss, Georg G.

1996-06-01

68

RAPID DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY  

SciTech Connect

Disaster impact modeling and analysis uses huge volumes of image data that are produced immediately following a natural or an anthropogenic disaster event. Rapid damage assessment is the key to time critical decision support in disaster management to better utilize available response resources and accelerate recovery and relief efforts. But exploiting huge volumes of high resolution image data for identifying damaged areas with robust consistency in near real time is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique to identify areas of structural damage from high resolution optical satellite data using features based on image content.

Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2008-01-01

69

High-resolution NMR probe for high pressure studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specialized design features of high-resolution, high-pressure NMR probe are discussed. A new design of the high-pressure NMR\\u000a probe is presented. The achieved performance characteristics such as high resolution, high sensitivity, large sample volume,\\u000a variable temperature, and wide range of pressures up to 1000 MPa make this instrumentation well suited for studies of biochemical\\u000a systems.

P. Koziol; C. Reiner; J. Jonas

1996-01-01

70

High resolution photoelectron imaging of Au2(-).  

PubMed

We report high resolution photoelectron spectra of Au2(-) using a newly built photoelectron imaging apparatus. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron images are obtained for the ground state detachment transition of Au2(-) at various photon energies (442.80-670.18 nm) at a resolution of 3 cm(-1) for low energy electrons. Franck-Condon simulations yield the vibrational temperature of Au2(-) and the high resolution data yield accurate spectroscopic constants for the ground states of Au2 and Au2(-). The electron affinity of Au2 is measured to be 1.9393 ± 0.0006 eV. A more precise value for the Au2(-) dissociation energy is also obtained as 1.937 ± 0.005 eV. PMID:23676041

León, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

2013-05-14

71

Structural damage diagnosis using high resolution images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural damage diagnosis is a critical element for structural safety monitoring. This paper presents a new approach to diagnosing structural damage using high-resolution images by CCD camera. For minimum effort of instrumentation, this approach offers an unprecedentedly large amount of spatially intensive data to be used for diagnosis. A probabilistic data processing procedure is presented here for diagnosing structural condition.

Gongkang Fu; Adil G. Moosa

2001-01-01

72

High-resolution piezopolymer acoustic bearing estimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel acoustic sensor is described that utilizes two coincident, distributed, shaded PVDF piezopolymer sensors to provide high-resolution acoustic source bearing estimates. Sensor shading is accomplished by shaping the charge collection electrodes deposited on the sensing layer. When these two sensor shadings are matched via a derivative in space, the ratio of their signal outputs is linearly proportional to the

Shawn E. Burke; Joseph A. Paradiso

73

Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation,

J. R. Taylor

1987-01-01

74

High resolution FUV spectroscopy of EX Hydrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose to obtain high spectral resolution orbit- and spin-phase resolved FUV spectra of the intermediate polar EX Hya. These spectra will be used to (1) resolve the FUV emission lines into their various components to constrain the location of, and the physical conditions in, the line-emitting gas, (2) measure the strength and phasing of the narrow absorption features to

Christopher Mauche

2000-01-01

75

Sparse and accurate high resolution SAR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the usage of an adaptive method, the Iterative Adaptive Approach (IAA), in combination with a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate to reconstruct high resolution SAR images that are both sparse and accurate. IAA is a nonparametric weighted least squares algorithm that is robust and user parameter-free. IAA has been shown to reconstruct SAR images with excellent side lobes suppression and high resolution enhancement. We first reconstruct the SAR images using IAA, and then we enforce sparsity by using MAP with a sparsity inducing prior. By coupling these two methods, we can produce a sparse and accurate high resolution image that are conducive for feature extractions and target classification applications. In addition, we show how IAA can be made computationally efficient without sacrificing accuracies, a desirable property for SAR applications where the size of the problems is quite large. We demonstrate the success of our approach using the Air Force Research Lab's "Gotcha Volumetric SAR Data Set Version 1.0" challenge dataset. Via the widely used FFT, individual vehicles contained in the scene are barely recognizable due to the poor resolution and high side lobe nature of FFT. However with our approach clear edges, boundaries, and textures of the vehicles are obtained.

Vu, Duc; Zhao, Kexin; Rowe, William; Li, Jian

2012-05-01

76

High Resolution Observations of Emission Line Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the high resolution spectra of early-type emission line stars and peculiar binaries obtained with the new SARG spectrograph of the Italian Galileo Telescope and with other telescopes as well. Problems arising in the spectral analysis are discussed and scientific results are presented.

Viotti, Roberto F.; Claudi, Riccardo; Rossi, Corinne; Iijima, Takashi

77

A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

2011-01-01

78

Phoenix High Resolution Observations of Ultracool Dwarfs  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution K-band spectra of three ultracool dwarfs of spectral types M8, L4.5, and L8 were obtained from the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South 8-meter telescope. These observations yield the effective temperatures and surface gravities of these ultracool objects. Their spectral energy distributions are compared to brown dwarf model atmospheres with and without atmospheric dust.

J. A. Harvin; J. E. Gizis; A. Schweitzer

2004-01-01

79

Phoenix High Resolution Observations of Ultracool Dwarfs.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution K-band spectra of three ultracool dwarfs of spectral types M8, L4.5, and L8 were obtained from the Phoenix spectrograph on the Gemini South 8-meter telescope. These observations yield the effective temperatures and surface gravities of these ultracool objects. Their spectral energy distributions are compared to brown dwarf model atmospheres with and without atmospheric dust.

Harvin, J. A.; Gizis, J. E.; Schweitzer, A.

2004-12-01

80

Multistage architectures for high resolution digital potentiometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital potentiometers are extensively used for digitally controlled adjustments in mixed-signal systems. The demand for higher resolution and increased tuning accuracy is driving the research efforts toward developing multistage potentiometer architectures that employ special techniques for achieving high precision with fewer components. This paper describes such architectures and techniques.

Radu H. Iacob; Otilia Neagoe; Anca Manolescu

2009-01-01

81

HIGH RESOLUTION PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential environmental and health impact of PCBs must account not only for the integrated quantitation of the PCBs mixtures but also the concentrations of the specific congeners which are potentially toxic. The authors confirm the feasibility of high resolution PCB analysis ...

82

Recon .gurable High Resolution Network Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the result of development of the reconfigurable high resolution network camera (Proakis and Manolakis, 1989). The design goal was not just to build an end user product, but also to create both flexible and compact development platform suitable for experimenting with image processing and compression algorithms. To make this possible, Elphel model 313 camera has embedded computer running

Andrey Filippov

2003-01-01

83

Detectors for high resolution dynamic pet  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the motivation for high spatial resolution in dynamic positron emission tomography of the head and the technical problems in realizing this objective. We present recent progress in using small silicon photodiodes to measure the energy deposited by 511 keV photons in small BGO crystals with an energy resolution of 9.4% full-width at half-maximum. In conjunction with a suitable phototube coupled to a group of crystals, the photodiode signal to noise ratio is sufficient for the identification of individual crystals both for conventional and time-of-flight positron tomography.

Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

1983-05-01

84

High-resolution x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect

Beamline and spectrometer instrumentation for high-resolution x-ray scattering at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is described. The combination of photon intensity at the sample of approx. 10/sup 13/ photons/sec/10 mm/sup 2/ and the momentum-transfer resolution of ..delta..Q approx. 10/sup -4/ A/sup -1/ make this a unique facility. Examples are given of data obtained on two-dimensional phase transitions both in studies of thin (2 molecular layers) liquid-crystal films and rare-gas monolayers on pyrolytic-graphite substrates.

Moncton, D.E.; Brown, G.S.

1982-01-01

85

High Resolution Astrophysical X-ray Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of cosmic plasmas has undergone a revolution, since the launch of the Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories two years ago. Both carry diffraction grating spectrometers, which are now providing a stream of very high quality, completely novel data, on every kind of astrophysical object. I will discuss some of the more spectacular spectroscopic surprises, and show how both familiar and new diagnostics provide detailed information of a new order on the radiation sources.

Paerels, Frits

2002-10-01

86

High-Resolution Photoelectron and Photoionization Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its development in the late 1950s and early 1960s, photoelectron spectroscopy has established itself as an important method to study the electronic structure of molecules, their photoionization dynamics, and the structure and dynamics of molecular cations. In recent years, and particularly since the development of pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy, considerable progress has been made in the resolution that can be achieved by photoelectron spectroscopy. This progress relies on the systematic exploitation of the unusual physical properties of high Rydberg states and enables one today to resolve the rotational structure in the photoelectron spectra of even large molecules and the hyperfine structure in the photoelectron spectra of small molecules. This talk will begin with a brief historical review of photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the relationship between photoelectron spectroscopy, photoionization spectroscopy and the spectroscopy of high Rydberg states will be discussed. It will be explained how this relationship is currently exploited to improve the resolution achievable by PFI-ZEKE photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the physical principles that are at the heart of the latest methods related to high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy will be described together with their fundamental limitations. Depending on the resolution and the spectral range needed to address a specific scientific problem, a choice can be made between several different methods with spectral resolutions ranging from 30 GHz to better than 1 MHz. The talk will summarize the current state of the art in gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy and be illustrated by several examples, primarily taken from the research in my group, in which photoelectron spectroscopy has contributed to answer questions concerning the structure and dynamics of small-sized molecular cations. F. I. Vilesov, B. C. Kurbatov, and N. Terrenin, Soviet Phys. (Doklady) 6, 490 (1961) D. W. Turner and M. I. Al-Jobory, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 3007 (1962) G. Reiser, W. Habenicht, K. Müller-Dethlefs and E. W. Schlag, Chem. Phys. Lett. 152, 119 (1988) F. Merkt, S. Willitsch and U. Hollenstein, High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy, in: Handbook of high-resolution spectroscopy, eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt (Wiley, Chichester, 2011), Vol. III, pp 1617-1654

Merkt, F.

2012-06-01

87

Supernova Remnant 1987A at High Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution radio and X-ray observations of supernova remnant 1987A. VLBI imaging at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz taken in 2007 and 2008 with the Australian Long Baseline Array provides the highest resolution radio images of the remnant to date, revealing two extended lobes with an overall morphology consistent with observations at lower resolutions. We find evidence of small-scale features in the radio remnant, which possibly consist of discrete clumps near the inner surface of the shell. These features have spatial extent smaller than 0.2" and contribute less than 13% of the total remnant flux. We also report new X-ray observation taken in 2010 August with the High Resolution Camera onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Comparing to the 2008 April exposure with the same instrument, the remnant flux increased by 43% in the 0.08-10 kev range and the relative brightness of the X-ray lobes around the shell show significant variability. In particular, the western half of shell is now 15% brighter than the eastern half. No central compact object is found in the radio and X-ray images. We compare the detection limits to previous studies and discuss the physical implications. The Australia Long Baseline Array is part of the Australia Telescope which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

Ng, Chi-Yung; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murray, S. S.; Tingay, S.; Phillips, C.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Zanardo, G.

2011-01-01

88

High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis  

SciTech Connect

The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

Grubor, Nenad M.

2005-05-01

89

The other high resolution post accelerator approach  

SciTech Connect

There has been significant discussion in consideration of a high resolution mass separator followed by a RFQ and a linear accelerator as the basic format for IsoSpin Laboratory. There exists another strong possibility-namely a low-resolution mass separator coupled to a cyclotron. The major objection to this approach has been that the conversion from the +1 mass separator beam to a q/m beam of 1/4 to 1/3 is thought to be highly inefficient. Since we are in the fortunate position of having the two expensive components of this system available for tests (an on-line mass separator and an ECR source), we intend to couple these devices to actually measure these efficiencies and to test ideas for improving the efficiency. We present some specifics of this approach.

Moltz, D.M.; Tighe, R.J.; Rowe, M.W.; Ognibene, T.J.; Cerny, J.

1993-05-24

90

High-Resolution Sonography of Acute Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 7-month period high-resolution sonography was used in the evaluation of 68 patients with an equivocal clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The sonographic findings were correlated with surgical-pathologic outcome in 32 cases and with clinical follow-up in the remainder. This technique was found to be accurate in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis with a specificity of 95%, a sensitivity

Monzer M. Abu-Yousef; Jon J. Bleicher; James W. Maher; Luis F. Urdaneta; Edmund A. Franken; Amanda M. Metcalf

91

High-resolution laser scanning image system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution laser scanning image system (HRLSIS) is introduced in this paper. A 7 element f(theta) lens is designed, which linear distortion is less than 0.04% and MTF of all fields more than 0.5. Using a optical compensation method, pyramidal error of the rotating prism is less than 1'. Performance achieved by the HRLSIS is: length of scanning line

Zhonghou Wang; Hengjin Zhang

1996-01-01

92

A High Resolution Phase Shifting Interferometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Configuration, operation, and performance details of a high resolution phase shifting Twyman-Green interferometer are presented. The instrument was used for density relaxation experiments of very compressible liquid-vapor critical fluids.(A companion talk in the Nonequilibrium Phenomena session under Complex Fluids presents density equilibration work.) A sample assembly contained the cell, beam splitter, phase shifter, and mirrors inside a 6 cm diameter

Michael Bayda; Christoph Bartscher; Allen Wilkinson

1997-01-01

93

Development of a high resolution PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution positron emission tomograph (PET) for brain studies has been developed. It consists of five detector rings (240 BGOs\\/ring). New multisegment photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) were adopted for the system with 5-mm-wide BGOs. The system is designed to examine a patient sitting or lying down on a chair\\/bed couch. The functions of PMT auto gain control and real-time image display

T. Yamashita; H. Uchida; H. Okada; T. Kurono; T. Takemori; M. Watanabe; K. Shimizu; E. Yoshikawa; T. Ohmura; N. Satoh; E. Tanaka; N. Nohara; T. Tomitani; M. Yamamoto; H. Murayama; M. Endo

1990-01-01

94

High resolution infrared solar observations by balloon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented for balloon-borne solar observations in near- and intermediate infrared regions not accessible from the ground, with as high a resolution as possible. The stratospheric equipment used consists mainly of a 38.5-cm aperture telescope coupled to a 2.5-m focal length Ebert-Fastie grating spectrometer used in double pass with a narrow slit. The solar spectrum between 1.8697 and 1.8753

R. Zander

1976-01-01

95

Sampling for High-Resolution Soil Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When doing sensing for high-resolution soil mapping, one has to decide on the disposition of the sensor, which is a special\\u000a case of spatial sampling. To optimise the pattern of measurements, a cost model and a quality model are proposed. The quality\\u000a model reflects the coverage of the geographic space, and this is illustrated with some practical experiments. Optimisation\\u000a of

J. J. de Gruijter; A. B. McBratney; J. Taylor

96

High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate  

PubMed Central

The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Ivan; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutierrez, Robin; Cordova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocio; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

2010-01-01

97

High-Resolution Mapping in Manus Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-bottom seafloor mapping with precisely navigated deep submergence vehicles has become increasingly common in a range of oceanographic settings. Recent mapping efforts at deep-water hydrothermal vent sites have resulted in high-resolution (sub-meter) bathymetry datasets that can be used to identify morphological features associated with volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes. The resolution of these maps, and our ability to accurately quantify the complex morphologic details of hydrothermal structures has been limited by a number of variables including navigational accuracy, sonar settings (e.g. acoustic wavelength, sonar orientation, ping rate), survey parameters (e.g. altitude, speed), data density, and data processing techniques (e.g. gridding algorithms). We present the results of two near-bottom surveys conducted in August 2006 at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea-Australia-Canada Manus) hydrothermal field in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea, south of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Data were simultaneously acquired with two high-resolution multibeam sonar systems mounted on the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason 2. A Simrad SM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam system was mounted in down-looking mode, and an Imagenex DeltaT (675 kHz) multibeam system was mounted on the brow of the vehicle in a forward-looking orientation. Surveys were conducted in parallel survey lines at 15 m altitude (15 m line spacing), and the can be used to generate sub-meter resolution maps of the seafloor. The maps were assembled using a terrain registration algorithm designed to minimize the affects of navigation error. Together, these sonars provide a complementary dataset that allows us to better quantify the 3-dimensional morphological characteristics of complex hydrothermal vent structures. This information can be used to more accurately estimate the volume of hydrothermal deposits, and render a more complete environmental picture that is less hindered by occlusions and poor sonar coverage in highly complex terrain.

Roman, C. N.; Ferrini, V. L.

2006-12-01

98

High-resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The development of stimulated Raman spectroscopy over the past four years has clearly established the technique as a valuable tool in gas-phase Raman studies. In this brief article we have traced that development, detailed the capabilities of the stimulated Raman spectrometer, and surveyed a variety of applications of the system to problems in the gas phase. SRS is clearly most attractive in ultra-high-resolution (< 0.01 cm/sup -1/) studies that are beyond the reach of spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Collision broadening effects dictate that such studies be performed at low pressures in order to maximize sensitivity. Currently, sample pressures below approximately 5 Torr are required in order to achieve linewidths approaching our 0.002 cm/sup -1/ instrumental resolution. Sensitivity considerations have thus limited our studies at these low pressures to relatively strong Raman scattering modes. It is our expectation that in the near future the introduction of higher-power sources and a multi-pas cell will significantly change this situation by increasing the overall sensitivity of SRS by at least two orders of magnitude. This should open up a much wider range of possible applications, which should, in turn, establish SRS as the standard for high-resolution Raman studies. 43 references.

Esherick, P.; Owyoung, A.

1982-01-01

99

The SKA and "High-Resolution" Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"High-resolution", or "long-baseline", science with the SKA and its precursors covers a broad range of topics in astrophysics. In several research areas, the coupling between improved brightness sensitivity of the SKA and a sub-arcsecond resolution would uncover truly unique avenues and opportunities for studying extreme states of matter, vicinity of compact relativistic objects, and complex processes in astrophysical plasmas. At the same time, long baselines would secure excellent positional and astrometric measurements with the SKA and critically enhance SKA image fidelity at all scales. The latter aspect may also have a substantial impact on the survey speed of the SKA, thus affecting several key science projects of the instrument.

Lobanov, A. P.

100

A high energy resolution neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

A high energy resolution ({sigma}{le} 1 MeV) neutron detector has been constructed and tested for neutrons in the energy range 80 MeV to 125 MeV. The detector was designed for exclusive, n-p coincidence, quasifree scattering experiments. The design eliminates the need for long neutron flight paths necessary for comparable energy resolution time of flight (TOF) measurements. Unlike TOF measurements, this design allows for a relatively compact geometry (<3 m flight path) with a comparable efficiency solid angle product. The detector consists of thin organic scintillators in which the neutron elastically scatters from free protons. The scattered protons are tracked by alternating thin X and Y horizontal drift chambers and detected in an array of NaI. Results from a test run will be discussed along with possible extensions of this design for use as a polarimeter.

Carman, D.S.; Bland, L.C.; Li, P. [and others

1993-04-01

101

High resolution coherent control measurements on KRb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high resolution optimal control on KRb in a molecular beam. Isotopomer selective ionization is performed by closed loop experiments with a pulse shaper consisting of two liquid crystal masks with 640 pixels each. This yields a spectral resolution of 1.84 cm-1/pixel which is according to our knowledge the highest that have been used for coherent control measurements until now. The isotopomer ratio 124KRb/126KRb is optimized by pure and combined phase and amplitude modulation and the optimized pulse shapes indicate which isotopic composition of the heavier isotopomer mass 126KRb mainly contributes to our measurements. Moreover, the involved vibronic transitions are exposed in the optimized spectra.

Sauer, Franziska; Merli, Andrea; Wöste, Ludger; Lindinger, Albrecht

2007-04-01

102

Stellar population models at high spectral resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new, high-to-intermediate spectral resolution stellar population models, based on four popular libraries of empirical stellar spectra, namely Pickles, ELODIE, STELIB and MILES. These new models are the same as our previous models, but with higher resolution and based on empirical stellar spectra, while keeping other ingredients the same including the stellar energetics, the atmospheric parameters and the treatment of the thermally pulsating asymptotic giant branch and the horizontal branch morphology. We further compute very high resolution (R= 20 000) models based on the theoretical stellar library MARCS which extends to the near-infrared. We therefore provide merged high-resolution stellar population models, extending from ˜1000 to 25 000 Å, using our previously published high-resolution theoretical models which extended to the ultraviolet. We compare how these libraries perform in stellar population models and highlight spectral regions where discrepancies are found. We confirm our previous findings that the flux around the V band is lower (in a normalized sense) in models based on empirical libraries than in those based on the BaSeL-Kurucz library, which results in a bluer B-V colour. Most noticeably the theoretical library MARCS gives results fully consistent with the empirical libraries. This same effect is also found in other models using MILES, namely Vazdekis et al. and Conroy & Gunn, even though the latter authors reach the opposite conclusion. The bluer predicted B-V colour (by 0.05 mag in our models) is in better agreement with both the colours of luminous red galaxies and globular cluster data. We test the models on their ability to reproduce, through full spectral fitting, the ages and metallicities of Galactic globular clusters as derived from colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting and find overall good agreement. We also discuss extensively the Lick indices calculated directly on the integrated MILES-based spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and compare them with element ratio-sensitive index models. We find a good agreement between the two models, if the metallicity-dependent chemical pattern of the Milky Way stars is properly taken into account in this comparison. As a consequence, the ages and metallicities of Galactic globular clusters are not well reproduced when one uses straight the MILES-based indices, because subtle chemical effects on individual lines dominate the age derivation. The best agreement with the ages of the calibrating globular clusters is found with either element ratio-sensitive absorption-line models or the full SED fitting, for which no particular weight is given to selected lines.

Maraston, C.; Strömbäck, G.

2011-12-01

103

High resolution spectroscopy of RS CVn stars  

SciTech Connect

High resolution echelle-Reticon observations covering all orbital phases of the bright RS CVn stars sigma Gem and HR 5110 were obtained. Nine spectra with 0.16 A resolution show that the core of H..cap alpha.. in sigma Gem varies with orbital phase in agreement with the spot zones identified by Fried et al. (1983) and also that the H..cap alpha.. brightness of a zone changes in time. Neutral metal lines in the same echelle order have been studied to investigate the properties of the spots. A new method is described to determine spot areas and temperatures from temperature-sensitive metal lines. The lack of observed metal line variation in the normal spot zones requires a temperature difference between spot and photosphere greater than 1000/sup 0/K and spot area less than 20% of the disk. In an unusual event, a warmer short-lived spot appeared in the region between zones. Lines from the cool secondary of HR 5110 were detected on 16 spectra with resolution 0.3 A. New mass and light ratios (M/sub 2//M/sub 1/ = 0.54, F/sub 2//F/sub 1/ = 0.20) were determined. Effective temperatures of 6750/sup 0/K and 4700/sup 0/K for the primary and secondary, respectively, were estimated from the line spectrum.

Eker, Z.

1985-01-01

104

High-resolution amorphous silicon image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new prototype a-Si (amorphous silicon) x-ray image sensor developed at EG&G Reticon. The sensor consists of a 512 by 512 array of a-Si photodiodes placed on 100 micrometer centers. The active area measures 5 cm on a side. Each pixel is addressed by a pair of switching diodes rather than the more common TFT (thin film transistor) switch. This approach leads to a simplified all-diode design with excellent fill factor, large dynamic range and good performance. The sensor is intended primarily for high-resolution x-ray imaging applications. A scintillator in direct contact with the diode array is used to convert incident x-ray photons to visible light detectable by the a-Si photodiodes. Since the conversion takes place directly at the sensor surface, no bulky intermediate optics are needed. The entire sensor plus support electronics can be mounted in a package less than 3 cm thick. The paper describes the sensor performance in terms of dark current, image lag, sensitivity and dynamic range. The MTF of the sensor and attached scintillator is measured by exposing the device through a narrow slit illuminated by a 50 kV x-ray source. Good contrast and sensitivity are achieved even at the Nyquist limit of the sensor resolution. Several images demonstrating the resolution and sensitivity of the sensor are presented.

Graeve, Thorsten; Li, Youming; Fabans, Andrew; Huang, Wingo

1996-04-01

105

The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution  

SciTech Connect

Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 {angstrom} and 1860 {angstrom} at 2 {angstrom} resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 {angstrom} at 7 {angstrom} resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N{sub 2} c{prime}{sub 4} system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N{sub 2} Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N{sub 2} emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N{sub 2} densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O{sub 2} density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC{number sign}21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations.

Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Meier, R.R. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1990-04-01

106

Classification in high-resolution SAR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground surveillance and target recognition by radar has become increasingly important over the years. Modern digitally controlled radar systems have the ability to operate quasi simultaneously in two or more different modes, e.g. after detection of moving targets by MTI these target hypotheses are recorded by a high-resolution spotlight SAR. To classify the SAR signatures different techniques have been investigated. The objective of our work was to support the decision process in choosing the best combination of methods for the problem of ground target classification in high-resolution SAR images. The criteria of optimizing the classification are correctness (low false alarm rate (FAR)), robustness, and computational effort. The investigations have been carried out using the MSTAR public target dataset. In the paper we describe the examination of new classifier approaches like support vector machine (SVM) and relevance vector machine (RVM) in combination with superresolution methods like the CLEAN algorithm. For this purpose we have developed an experimental software system. Its processing chain consists of the following modules: preprocessing, feature extraction, and classification. The tests with the SVM have shown that without preprocessing too many support vectors (up to 50 %) are used. Therefore the RVM has been chosen to overcome this disadvantage. The preprocessing methods have been used to reduce the noise and to restore / extract the significant SAR signature. The result of our investigations is an assessment of the different methods and several method combinations. Based on these results the investigation will be extended by more realistic new datasets with a resolution as high as or higher than the MSTAR data.

Middelmann, Wolfgang; Thoennessen, Ulrich

2003-09-01

107

High Resolution Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis of Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Summary A technique has been developed for the separation of proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Due to its resolution and sensitivity, this technique is a powerful tool for the analysis and detection of proteins from complex biological sources. Proteins are separated according to isoelectric point by isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, and according to molecular weight by sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis in the second dimension. Since these two parameters are unrelated, it is possible to obtain an almost uniform distribution of protein spots across a two-dimensional gel. This technique has resolved 1100 different components from Escherichia coli and should be capable of resolving a maximum of 5000 proteins. A protein containing as little as one disintegration per min of either 14C or 35S can be detected by autoradiography. A protein which constitutes 10?4 to 10?5% of the total protein can be detected and quantified by autoradiography. The reproducibility of the separation is sufficient to permit each spot on one separation to be matched with a spot on a different separation. This technique provides a method for estimation (at the described sensitivities) of the number of proteins made by any biological system. This system can resolve proteins differing in a single charge and consequently can be used in the analysis of in vivo modifications resulting in a change in charge. Proteins whose charge is changed by missense mutations can be identified. A detailed description of the methods as well as the characteristics of this system are presented.

O'Farrell, Patrick H.

2010-01-01

108

High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

1995-09-23

109

Automatic testing of high resolution time digitizers  

SciTech Connect

An automated system for the testing and performance evaluation of high-resolution long-range time digitizers is described. The test system employs an IBM PC/XT or PC/AT personal computer together with appropriate hardware interfacing modules to control the digitizer under test. Precise timing intervals for testing are generated by a pulse calibration module driven by a programmable low phase noise frequency synthesizer. The time intervals measured by the digitizer are then compared under computer control with the actual intervals produced by the synthesizer for a sufficient number of cases to establish the digitizer performance. The hardware and software components used are discussed.

Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.

1988-02-01

110

Photoplethysmographic imaging of high spatial resolution.  

PubMed

We present a new method of formation photoplethysmographic images with high spatial resolution from video recordings of a living body in the reflection geometry. The method (patent pending) is based on lock-in amplification of every pixel of the recorded video frames. A reference function required for synchronous detection of cardiovascular pulse waves is formed from the same frames. The method is featured by ability to visualize dynamic changes in cardiovascular pulse wave during the cardiac (or respiratory) cycle. We demonstrate that the system is capable to detect the minimal irritations of the body such as gentle scratching of the skin by own finger. PMID:21483621

Kamshilin, Alexei A; Miridonov, Serguei; Teplov, Victor; Saarenheimo, Riku; Nippolainen, Ervin

2011-03-29

111

High-resolution color photographic reproductions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe a fine-art reproduction process that: captures painting information with high-resolution color photographs; scans the information into a 300 megabyte digital file; performs a 3D color calibration in a dedicated hardware color-transform circuit; makes a master positive color transparency and makes a reproduction on polaroid color print film. The master transparency can be used to expose a large number of images. This combines the efficiency of instant photography with the color fidelity of digital color transforms.

McCann, John J.

1997-03-01

112

High resolution optical fiber print head  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution printing head for a line printer using photographic recording medium has a plurality of modules connected to form a two dimensional printing array. Each module has three fiber optic ribbons bonded together to form a staggered array of fibers. An apertured mask is photolithographically attached to the two dimensional array so that there is one aperture positioned over each fiber. The aperture has a cross-section less than the fiber so there is no overlapping of output light from each fiber and the apertures are also staggered so that a three fold increase in line density is achieved over conventional single ribbon arrays.

Meier, M. J.

1986-05-01

113

Photoplethysmographic imaging of high spatial resolution  

PubMed Central

We present a new method of formation photoplethysmographic images with high spatial resolution from video recordings of a living body in the reflection geometry. The method (patent pending) is based on lock-in amplification of every pixel of the recorded video frames. A reference function required for synchronous detection of cardiovascular pulse waves is formed from the same frames. The method is featured by ability to visualize dynamic changes in cardiovascular pulse wave during the cardiac (or respiratory) cycle. We demonstrate that the system is capable to detect the minimal irritations of the body such as gentle scratching of the skin by own finger.

Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Miridonov, Serguei; Teplov, Victor; Saarenheimo, Riku; Nippolainen, Ervin

2011-01-01

114

High Resolution Standard Proximity Sensor (HRSPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the final results of the performances of the High Resolution Standard Proximity Sensor developed under a GSTP contract for ESA/ESTEC. The HRSPS is a general purpose displacement measuring system developed with the aim to replace the multitude of customised sensors used so far in scanning and pointing mechanisms. It will become the European standard nano-measuring system qualified for space mechanisms operating in closed loop control. The HRSPS offers either two independent single or a differential output(s) offering a resolution of 1 nanometer. Three different HRSPS covering three measuring ranges have been developed. This paper presents the test results and the final confirmation of the performances of the HRSPS. The majority of sensor designs available industrially and in the launcher field are not readily suitable for high reliability space / satellite applications. The HRSPS manufactured can be supplied in either high reliability FM's for satellites and also FM's for microgravity / ISS applications requiring Mil 883B/C type of components. The paper will present the first applications for microgravity and satellite applications.

Aeby, Hans-Peter; Blaser, Roger; Mancini, Nicolas; Mivelaz, Marcel; Perriard, Jacques

2001-09-01

115

High-Resolution Shadowing of Transfer RNA  

PubMed Central

High-resolution shadowing with metals that melt at high temperatures was used to study macromolecules. Molecules of transfer RNA shadowed with tantalum-tungsten are readily visualized in an electron microscope. Mounting procedures for tRNA were perfected that reproducibly gave uniform distributions of both monomeric and dimeric tRNA particles, and allowed a statistical assessment of their gross shapes and sizes. Monomeric tRNA yielded a fairly homogeneous population of rod-shaped particles, with axial dimensions of about 40 × 85 Å. Dimers of yeast alanine tRNA held together by hydrogen bonds and dimers constructed by covalent linkage of the amino-acid acceptor (3?-) termini of monomers both gave slightly more heterogeneous populations of particles. Yet, their structures were also basically rod shaped, with their lengths ranging to about twice that of the monomer; this result indicates an end-to-end arrangement of the monomeric units within both dimers. These results suggest that the amino-acid acceptor terminus and the anticodon region are at the ends of the rod-shaped, dehydrated tRNA monomer visible by electron microscopy, consistent with the generally accepted view of tRNA structure in solution suggested by other workers using other methods. This study demonstrates that high-resolution shadowing with tantalum-tungsten provides a means to examine the three-dimensional structures of relatively small biological macromolecules. Images

Abermann, Reinhard J.; Yoshikami, Doju

1972-01-01

116

High-resolution shadowing of transfer RNA.  

PubMed

High-resolution shadowing with metals that melt at high temperatures was used to study macromolecules. Molecules of transfer RNA shadowed with tantalum-tungsten are readily visualized in an electron microscope. Mounting procedures for tRNA were perfected that reproducibly gave uniform distributions of both monomeric and dimeric tRNA particles, and allowed a statistical assessment of their gross shapes and sizes. Monomeric tRNA yielded a fairly homogeneous population of rod-shaped particles, with axial dimensions of about 40 x 85 A. Dimers of yeast alanine tRNA held together by hydrogen bonds and dimers constructed by covalent linkage of the amino-acid acceptor (3'-) termini of monomers both gave slightly more heterogeneous populations of particles. Yet, their structures were also basically rod shaped, with their lengths ranging to about twice that of the monomer; this result indicates an end-to-end arrangement of the monomeric units within both dimers. These results suggest that the amino-acid acceptor terminus and the anticodon region are at the ends of the rod-shaped, dehydrated tRNA monomer visible by electron microscopy, consistent with the generally accepted view of tRNA structure in solution suggested by other workers using other methods. This study demonstrates that high-resolution shadowing with tantalum-tungsten provides a means to examine the three-dimensional structures of relatively small biological macromolecules. PMID:4504373

Abermann, R J; Yoshikami, D

1972-06-01

117

The High Time Resolution Universe Legacy Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme conditions found in and around pulsars make them fantastic natural laboratories, providing insights to a rich variety of aspects of fundamental physics and astronomy. To discovery more pulsars we have begun the High Time Resolution Universe Legacy (HTRU) survey; a blind survey of the northern sky with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope in Germany and a twin survey of the southern sky with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope in Australia. Blind pulsar surveys are the only way to significantly increase the known population of pulsars in an unbiased way. Surveys of this type allow us to remain sensitive to all varieties of pulsars, ranging from the slowly rotating isolated magnetars to exotic relativistic binary systems such as a theoretical pulsar-black hole binary. In particular, the HTRU survey uses multi-beam receivers and backends constructed with recent advancements in technology, providing unprecedentedly high time and frequency resolution. Here I will summarise the scientific motivation and the specifications of the HTRU survey. I will provide an overview of the standard pulsar searching pipeline, as well as the innovative segmented search technique which aims to increase our chances of discoveries of highly accelerated relativistic binary systems. I will discuss the computational challenges arising from the processing of the petabyte-sized HTRU survey data and our current progress in the survey.

Ng, Cherry

2011-07-01

118

Micromachined dispenser with high flow rate and high resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micromachined dispenser with a high flow rate and high resolution for chemical analysis is described. The flow rate as a function of the actuation frequency increases linearly up to a frequency of 700 Hz with a final value of about 148 ?l\\/s using water as a pump medium. The dispensing accuracy is better than 1% (coefficient of variance) at

Akira Koide; Yasuhiko Sasaki; Y. Yoshimura; Ryo Miyake; T. Terayama

2000-01-01

119

Crusta: Visualizing High-resolution Global Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual globes have become indispensable tools for visualizing, understanding and presenting data from Earth and other planetary bodies. The scientific community has invested much effort into exploiting existing globes to their fullest potential by refining and adapting their capabilities to better satisfy specific needs. For example, Google Earth provides users with the ability to view hillshade images derived from airborne LiDAR data such as the 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope data. However, because most available globes were not designed with the specific needs of geoscientists in mind, shortcomings are becoming increasingly evident in geoscience applications such as terrain visualization. In particular, earth scientists struggle to visualize digital elevation models with both high spatial resolution (0.5 - 1 square meters per sample) and large extent (>2000 square kilometers), such as those obtained with airborne LiDAR. To address the specific earth science need of real-time terrain visualization of LiDAR data, we are developing Crusta as part of a close collaboration involving earth and computer scientists. Crusta is a new virtual globe that differs from widely used globes by both providing accurate global data representation and the ability to easily visualize custom topographic and image data. As a result, Crusta enables real-time, interactive visualization of high resolution digital elevation data spanning thousands of square kilometers, such as the complete 2007 Northern California GeoEarthScope airborne LiDAR data set. To implement an accurate data representation and avoid distortion of the display at the poles, where other projections have singularities, Crusta represents the globe as a thirty-sided polyhedron. Each side of this polyhedron can be subdivided to an arbitrarily fine grid on the surface of the globe, which allows Crusta to accommodate input data of arbitrary resolution ranging from global (e.g., Blue Marble) to local (e.g., a tripod LiDAR survey). Use of the GDAL library facilitates importing a number of data formats into the Crusta-specific, multi-scale hierarchies that enable interactive visualization on platforms ranging from laptops to immersive geowalls and caves. In addition to the underlying data representation, we also designed Crusta to be dynamic. The shading of the terrain surface is computed in real-time and on the fly when a user manipulates the viewpoint. Likewise, Crusta allows dynamic adjustment of the vertical exaggeration for the display of the globe's surface over an unlimited range of scales. The combination of these two effects greatly improves the perception of shape in high-resolution digital elevation data, critically enhancing the observation of minute details within the context of larger areas

Bernardin, T. S.; Kreylos, O.; Bowles, C. J.; Cowgill, E.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.

2009-12-01

120

High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system  

PubMed Central

We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 µm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within ~0.5 deg (~100-150 µm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

2010-01-01

121

High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

2002-07-01

122

High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

2007-10-01

123

High resolution observations of Mercury's exosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the arrival of Messenger at Mercury in 2008 the only source of information available on Mercury s environment is observations done from ground based observatories These observations provided a now large data set on Mercury s exosphere and in particular of its sodium component originally discovered by Potter et al Science 1985 Two other elements have been discovered in the same way the potassium Potter et al Icarus 1986 and the calcium Bida et al 2000 All this information helped us to much better understand the formation of Mercury s exosphere Moreover it helps to design of the payload of the forthcoming Bepi-Colombo mission High resolution spectroscopy has been obtained on night 29 and 30 october 2005 at the 3 6-m NTT telescope of ESO La Silla Chile using the EMMI instrument in its echelle spectroscopy mode Configuration of Mercury was favourable with an angular diameter of 6 arcseconds and the planet close to quadrature The disk of the planet has been scanned for spatial variation of the exospheric species The large spectral range of EMMI 3850-8550 A and high resolution R 75000 allow simultaneous measurements of the integrated column density of Na and K as well as search for non-identified species of Mercury s exosphere Data will be presented and discussed

Doressoundiram, A.; Leblanc, F.; Foellmi, C.

124

High resolution wavefront measurement of aspheric optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the recently emerged large volume production of miniature aspheric lenses for a wide range of applications, a new fast fully automatic high resolution wavefront measurement instrument has been developed. The Shack-Hartmann based system with reproducibility better than 0.05 waves is able to measure highly aspheric optics and allows for real time comparison with design data. Integrated advanced analysis tools such as calculation of Zernike coefficients, 2D-Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Point Spread Function (PSF), Strehl-Ratio and the measurement of effective focal length (EFL) as well as flange focal length (FFL) allow for the direct verification of lens properties and can be used in a development as well as in a production environment.

Erichsen, I.; Krey, S.; Heinisch, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Dumitrescu, E.

2008-08-01

125

Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging  

DOEpatents

A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Sari-Sarraf, Hamed (Knoxville, TN); Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

2002-01-01

126

Multi-Resolution Design for Large-Scale and High-Resolution Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale and high-resolution monitoring systems are ideal for many visual surveillance applications. However, ex- isting approaches have insufficient resolution and low frame rate per second, or have high complexity and cost. We take inspiration from the human visual system and propose a multi-resolution design, e-Fovea, which provides peripheral vision with a steerable fovea that is in higher resolution. In this

Kuan-Wen Chen; Chih-Wei Lin; Tzu-Hsuan Chiu; Mike Yen-Yang Chen; Yi-Ping Hung

2011-01-01

127

High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhodium Monobromide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rhodium monobromide molecule, RhBr, has been created in our laser ablation pulsed jet apparatus by ablating a rhodium target rod in the presence of 1% CH_3Br seeded in He. A low-resolution survey spectrum from 415 to 850 nm indicated the presence of a number of bands belonging to RhBr. Thirteen of these band systems, mainly in the blue spectral region, have been recorded at high resolution with our cw dye laser. In addition, dispersed fluorescence spectra have been obtained for these bands. Not all of the bands have been fully analyzed to date, however, from those analyzed, the RhBr ground state has been determined to have ?=2 consistent with the isovalent RhCl molecule which has a ^3?_2 ground state. Vibrational and rotational analysis yields the following ground state parameters for the two isotopologues, Rh79Br and Rh81Br: ?''=260 Cm-1, B''(Rh79Br)=0.0655 Cm-1, and B''(Rh81Br)=0.0646 Cm-1. Further ground and excited state parameters will be presented at the conference. S. A. Shepard, A. G. Adam, R. Li, and W. J. Balfour J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 99-105 (2005)

Adam, A. G.; Allen, T. F.; Downie, L. E.; Granger, A. D.; Linton, C.; Tokaryk, D. W.

2011-06-01

128

High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallee de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Vriend, Nathalie; Brennan, Paul; Ash, Matt; Keylock, Chris

2013-04-01

129

Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a side, which spans approximately 2.2 deg. Two mosaics are provided for each pole: one corresponding to data acquired while periapsis was in the south, the other while periapsis was in the north. The CD-ROMs also contain ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files.

1998-10-01

130

Limits of simulation based high resolution EBSD.  

PubMed

High resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HREBSD) is a novel technique for a relative determination of both orientation and stress state in crystals through digital image correlation techniques. Recent works have tried to use simulated EBSD patterns as reference patterns to achieve the absolute orientation and stress state of crystals. However, a precise calibration of the pattern centre location is needed to avoid the occurrence of phantom stresses. A careful analysis of the projective transformation involved in the formation of EBSD patterns has permitted to understand these phantom stresses. This geometrical analysis has been confirmed by numerical simulations. The results indicate that certain combinations of crystal strain states and sample locations (pattern centre locations) lead to virtually identical EBSD patterns. This ambiguity makes the problem of solving the absolute stress state of a crystal unfeasible in a single-detector configuration. PMID:23676453

Alkorta, Jon

2013-04-17

131

Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (~25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 ?m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron resolution and a dose range over several orders of magnitude. This paper will give an overview of all dosimeters tested in the past at the ESRF with their advantages and drawbacks. These detectors comprise: Ionization chambers, Alanine Dosimeters, MOSFET detectors, Gafchromic® films, Radiochromic polymers, TLDs, Polymer gels, Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detectors (Al2O3:C, Mg single crystal detectors), OSL detectors and Floating Gate-based dosimetry system. The aim of such a comparison shall help with a decision on which of these approaches is most suitable for high resolution dose measurements in MRT. The principle of these detectors will be presented including a comparison for some dosimeters exposed with the same irradiation geometry, namely a 1×1 cm5 field size with microbeam exposures at the surface, 0.1 cm and 1 cm in depth of a PMMA phantom. For these test exposures, the most relevant irradiation parameters for future clinical trials have been chosen: 50 micron FWHM and 400 micron c-t-c distance. The experimental data are compared with Monte Carlo calculations.

Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

2010-07-01

132

High resolution X-ray imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory model of a high resolution X-ray imaging detector was developed and constructed. The detector is suitable as a focal plane instrument for an X-ray telescope for astronomical observations. The detector will be used to test such telescopes in the laboratory. The X-ray photons are detected through photoconversion and secondary multiplication by two cascaded microchannel plates. Position determination is accomplished by means of a crossed grid charge collector. The operation of this detector as well as its development are described. The theory of charge division by a resistance-coupled wire grid is discussed in detail. A theory of the sensitivity of the detector for soft X-rays is developed and is in good agreement with measurements.

Hartmann, H.; Predehl, P.

1981-10-01

133

Automatic testing of high resolution time digitizers  

SciTech Connect

An automated system for the testing and performance evaluation of high-resolution long-range time digitizers is described. The test system employs an IBM PC/XT or PC/AT personal computer together with appropriate hardware interfacing modules to control the digitizer under test. Precise timing intervals for testing are generated by a pulse calibration module driven by a programmable low phase noise frequency synthesizer. The time intervals measured by the digitizer are then compared under computer control with the actual intervals produced by the synthesizer for a sufficient number of cases to establish the digitizer performance. The hardware and software components used are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kolbe, W.F.; Turko, B.T.

1987-04-01

134

Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, J.R.

1987-04-01

135

High Resolution Observations of Interstellar Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-high resolution (R 500,000) spectroscopy of molecules in the interstellar medium can usually resolve the lines, and determine thermal or turbulent linewidths. Perhaps more importantly, individual velocity components can be isolated which allows considerably more precise comparisons of observations to theoretical models since column densities of individual components can be derived. To date, only relatively few studies have been carried out on molecules whereas the studies of atomic species has been more comprehensive. The study of Crane et al.( APJSupp. 1995, 99,107) resolved all the CH and CH+ lines along me 20 sight lines. This study has revealed interesting trends among these species. Follow-up observations of these sight lines is in progress for other species. Comparison with atomic data and the potential for future studies will be discussed.

Crane, P.

2000-05-01

136

High-Resolution Transcriptome of Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like) and alternative (M2-like) polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7) as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226) cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

Xue, Jia; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Vorholt, Daniela; Krebs, Wolfgang; Sommer, Daniel; Sander, Jil; Mertens, Christina; Nino-Castro, Andrea; Schmidt, Susanne V.; Schultze, Joachim L.

2012-01-01

137

High-resolution observations of Cepheus A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New high-resolution 6-cm observations have been made of Cepheus A using MERLIN, and combined with new VLA observations at 3.6cm. The angular resolution with the latter was 200 mas, and with MERLIN was 60 mas, except for isolated unresolved sources where 33 mas wasachieved. Unresolved objects at 60 mas were observed in Sources 2, 3,and in particular 9 which also was not resolved at 33 mas. There is no evidence for any other object as small as this with any significant flux density, although Source 8 was quiescent at the time. The upper limit to the size of Source 9 sets a minimum brightness temperature of 4.3x 10^5 K, and adds credence to a previous suggestion that it is a gyrosynchrotron source. The compact objects of Sources 2 and 3 are thought to be produced by mass outflow from stars, which could be of spectral type B0 - B1, but this is uncertain. The powerhouse for the molecular outflow is discussed. Sources 8 and 9, which are the highly time-dependent objects,appear at the centre of the disruption of the high-density gas, and their estimated high temperature of 10^7 - 10^8 K indicates that they could produce high-velocity winds. On the other hand, the OH masers surrounding Source 2(ii) show an outward velocity of about 10 kms^-1, which is small, but higher velocity winds could tunnel through adjacent spaces, and even be responsible for the 300 km s^-1 'bullet'of Source 7. An extrapolation of the orthogonals to the IR polarization vectors is not accurate enough to pinpoint the source of the IR radiation, but it is estimated that Sources 2(ii) and 3(d)(ii) could supply the illumination. It is concluded that the two phenomena of molecular outflow and IR luminosity are not necessarily associated with one type of object only, but could be manifestations of two different types of object.

Hughes, V. A.; Cohen, R. J.; Garrington, S.

1995-01-01

138

Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

1998-10-01

139

Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This compact disk (CD) is part of the Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar image mosaics developed by Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS). These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. The geometric control is provided by the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD are compiled from polar data (latitudes greater than 80 degrees), and are presented in the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel at the pole, a resolution 5 times greater than that (150 m/pixel) of the corresponding UV/Vis polar basemap. This 5:1 scale ratio is in keeping with the sub-polar mosaic, in which the HiRes and UV/Vis mosaics had scales of 20 m/pixel and 100 m/pixel, respectively. The equal-area property of the stereographic projection made this preferable for the HiRes polar mosaic rather than the basemap's orthographic projection. Thus, a necessary first step in constructing the mosaic was the reprojection of the UV/Vis basemap to the stereographic projection. The HiRes polar data can be naturally grouped according to the orbital periapsis, which was in the south during the first half of the mapping mission and in the north during the second half. Images in each group have generally uniform intrinsic resolution, illumination, exposure and gain. Rather than mingle data from the two periapsis epochs, separate mosaics are provided for each, a total of 4 polar mosaics. The mosaics are divided into 100 square tiles of 2250 pixels (approximately 2.2 deg near the pole) on a side. Not all squares of this grid contain HiRes mosaic data, some inevitably since a square is not a perfect representation of a (latitude) circle, others due to the lack of HiRes data. This CD also contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

1998-10-01

140

High resolution temperature insensitive interrogation technique for FBG sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we propose a high resolution temperature insensitive interrogation technique for FBG sensors where one FBG acts as an edge filter to interrogate a separate FBG sensor. A high resolution of better than 5?? in strain measurement range from 0 to 1100?? and the best resolution of better than 1?? were verified by experiments. An error of only

Qiang Wu; Yuliya Semenova; An Sun; Pengfei Wang; Gerald Farrell

2010-01-01

141

High Resolution Temperature Insensitive Interrogation Technique for FBG Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we propose a high resolution temperature insensitive interrogation technique for FBG sensors where one FBG acts as an edge filter to interrogate a separate FBG sensor. A high resolution of better than 5 ?? in strain measurement range from 0 to 1100 ?? and the best resolution of better than 1 ?? were verified by experiments. An

Qiang Wu; Yuliya Semenova; An Sun; Pengfei Wang; Gerald Farrell

2009-01-01

142

Advances in high-resolution image simulation  

SciTech Connect

Continuing advances in hardware and software have improved both the speed and the range of computations that can be made to simulate high resolution electron microscope (HREM) images from various structures. Use of image display systems and array processors have made the image simulation procedure much more interactive while laser printers provide a fast high-quality hard copy output. Use of array processors has enabled the rewriting of electron scattering algorithms to include convergence effects (previously only considered after the scattered electron beams had emerged from the specimen) and upper-layer-line effects. With an array processor it is faster to compute effects of spatial and temporal coherence in real space, rather than use approximation solutions derived from series expansion in reciprocal space. With a frame buffer and suitable software the use has the facility to change parameters and view the results of the change almost immediately. Selected images can then be directed to hard copy output, in contrast with batch methods where series of hard copy images are produced and then selected from. Given a microdensitometer for input of experimental images from plates, or a video camera attached to the electron microscope and a frame buffer, split screen comparisons between experimental and computed images are possible, including independent control of image contrast, magnification and orientation. 23 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

O'Keefe, M.A.; Kilaas, R.

1988-09-01

143

High-resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of providing a digital electronic replacement for conventional photography of paintings, a scanner has been constructed based on a 3000 X 2300 pel resolution camera which is moved precisely over a 1 meter square area. Successive patches are assembled to form a mosaic which covers the whole area at c. 20 pels\\/mm resolution, which is sufficient to

Kirk Martinez; John Cupitt; David R. Saunders

1993-01-01

144

Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

1998-10-01

145

Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This compact disk (CD) is part of the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) effort to mosaic Clementine I high resolution (HiRes) camera lunar images. These mosaics were developed through calibration and semi-automated registration against the recently released geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic, which is available through the PDS, as CD-ROM volumes CL_3001-3015. The HiRes mosaics are compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution observations from the HiRes imaging system onboard the Clementine Spacecraft. These mosaics are spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel. The geometric control is provided by the 100 m/pixel U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Clementine Basemap Mosaic compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity largely caused by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The mosaics on this CD were compiled from sub-polar data (latitudes 80 degrees South to 80 degrees North; -80 to +80) within the longitude range 0-30 deg E. The mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 degrees of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. This CD contains ancillary data files that support the HiRes mosaic. These files include browse images with UV/Vis context stored in a Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format, index files ('imgindx.tab' and 'srcindx.tab') that tabulate the contents of the CD, and documentation files. For more information on the contents and organization of the CD volume set refer to the "FILES, DIRECTORIES AND DISK CONTENTS" section of this document. The image files are organized according to NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. An image file (tile) is organized as a PDS labeled file containing an "image object".

Malin, Michael; Revine, Michael

1998-10-01

146

Generating high-resolution data using hints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe an artistic project that uses scientific tools to convey a sense of place. Detail is an important element in creating an artistic sense of place. This detail must be consistent with what we know about the correlation between topography and its surface appearance. The vegetation and exposed rock in the mountains of the North Slope of the Brooks Range are distinctly correlated with the digital terrain. Analysis of elevation, slope, and aspect generates tools used to create a probability mapping between the terrain and the appearance of the surface. Digital painting techniques create texture maps that we wrap around 3D models of the terrain. We use these models in our animation of a traverse of the landscape. These techniques aid in the development of high resolution geometry. A persistent theme in this process is the use of visual metaphor and visual thinking. Active geomorphology and the viscous flow of vegetation characterize the northeastern mountains of the Brooks Range. The vegetation exists, not so much in competition, but in response to solar energy niches. Colony ecology is significant. The surface creeps in response to the flow of water and ice. The ecology and topography appear unmodified by human hands. One gets the impression that the forces of nature are consistently and clearly expressed. Our art uses science to create a representation of this dynamic landscape.

Brody, Bill; Boyd, Ernst; Olmsted, Coert

1997-03-01

147

Very high resolution photofragmentation-translational spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We have designed and constructed a new higher resolution molecular beam apparatus, specifically for studying laser induced dissociation under collision free conditions. The photochemistry of acetylene at 193 nm has been studied. By finding the maximum release of translational energy of the products C/sub 2/H and H, D/sub 0/(C/sub 2/H-H) was derived with high accuracy and precision. Resolved structure in the product's translational energy distribution sheds lights on the vibronic properties of the C/sub 2/H radical. The heat of formation of the vinyl radical was determined by studying the photodissociation of vinylbromide at 193 nm. The collision free unimolecular decomposition of three nitroalkanes: nitromethane, nitroethane and 2-nitropropane, was investigated using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD). The isomerization of CH/sub 3/NO/sub 2/ to CH/sub 3/ONO was observed for the first time and raises interesting questions about the primary decomposition pathways of other nitro-containing molecules. Through a novel application of RRKM theory, the barrier height to isomerization was found to be approx.5 kcal/mol lower than the C-N bond energy in nitromethane. 126 refs., 38 figs., 11 tabs.

Wodtke, A.M.

1986-11-01

148

High spatial resolution probes for neurobiology applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Position-sensitive biological neural networks, such as the brain and the retina, require position-sensitive detection methods to identify, map and study their behavior. Traditionally, planar microelectrodes have been employed to record the cell's electrical activity with device limitations arising from the electrode's 2-D nature. Described here is the development and characterization of an array of electrically conductive micro-needles aimed at addressing the limitations of planar electrodes. The capability of this array to penetrate neural tissue improves the electrode-cell electrical interface and allows more complicated 3-D networks of neurons, such as those found in brain slices, to be studied. State-of-the-art semiconductor fabrication techniques were used to etch and passivate conformally the metal coat and fill high aspect ratio holes in silicon. These are subsequently transformed into needles with conductive tips. This process has enabled the fabrication of arrays of unprecedented dimensions: 61 hexagonally close-packed electrodes, ˜200 ?m tall with 60 ?m spacing. Electroplating the tungsten tips with platinum ensure suitable impedance values (˜600 k? at 1 kHz) for the recording of neuronal signals. Without compromising spatial resolution of the neuronal recordings, this array adds a new and exciting dimension to the study of biological neural networks.

Gunning, D. E.; Kenney, C. J.; Litke, A. M.; Mathieson, K.

2009-06-01

149

Development of high resolution spectropolarimeter, LIPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a Cassegrain optical spectropolarimeter, LIPS. LIPS employs an echelle-type spectrograph to get a high spectral resolution of R > 7,000. LIPS consists of three instrumental units, a polarimeter, a spectrometer, and a detector. One serious problem was the appearance of 'spectral ripple' generated in the Pancharatnam type super-achromatic half-wave plate (PWP). We found out through laboratory works and numerical simulations that the ripple is caused by the interference among layers in the half-wave plate. In stead of PWP, we adopted a new type of super-achromatic half-wave plate composed of five polymethyl-methacrylate layers, which was manufactured by Astropribor Company in Ukraine. This wave plate greatly reduces reflection at the boundaries among layers, which results in significant reduction of ripple. Since the spring of 2001, we have carried out engineering observations with LIPS at IRS and UH88. We conclude from these observations that LIPS have achieved the accuracy of ?P < 0.1 %.

Ikeda, Yuji; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Kentaro; Kawabata, Koji S.; Seki, Munezo; Hirata, Ryuko; Okazaki, Akira

2003-02-01

150

Intracellular membrane traffic at high resolution.  

PubMed

Membrane traffic between organelles is essential for a multitude of processes that maintain cell homeostasis. Many steps in these tightly regulated trafficking pathways take place in microdomains on the membranes of organelles, which require analysis at nanometer resolution. Electron microscopy (EM) can visualize these processes in detail and is mainly responsible for our current view of morphology on the subcellular level. This review discusses how EM can be applied to solve many questions of intracellular membrane traffic, with a focus on the endosomal system. We describe the expansion of the technique from purely morphological analysis to cryo-immuno-EM, correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM), and 3D electron tomography. In this review we go into some technical details of these various techniques. Furthermore, we provide a full protocol for immunolabeling on Lowicryl sections of high-pressure frozen cells as well as a detailed description of a simple CLEM method that can be applied to answer many membrane trafficking questions. We believe that these EM-based techniques are important tools to expand our understanding of the molecular details of endosomal sorting and intracellular membrane traffic in general. PMID:20869541

van Weering, Jan R T; Brown, Edward; Sharp, Thomas H; Mantell, Judith; Cullen, Peter J; Verkade, Paul

2010-01-01

151

High Resolution Laboratory Studies for Astronomical Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding astronomical observations of molecules requires detailed spectroscopic data that can only be derived from laboratory studies. These data, including accurate transition frequencies, intensities, broadening coefficients, and collisional rates are essential for the proper characterization of the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of astronomical sources. Equally important is the comprehensive spectroscopic characterization of astronomical molecules in multiple wavelength regions. A strong effort is in place in the JPL Molecular Spectroscopy Group to provide fundamental knowledge to support ground-, aircraft-, and space-based astronomical spectroscopy. A synopsis of the high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy of astronomical molecules at JPL is presented, highlighting benchmark studies that span wavelengths from the radio to the optical. The systems under study include molecules that are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium and/or exoplanetary atmospheres (CH4, CO2, H2O, and NH3), as well as ones that have recently been shown to be important constituents of the interstellar gas (O2, CH3OH, H3O+, and HCl+).

Gupta, Harshal; Brown, L. R.; Drouin, B. J.; Miller, C. E.; Pearson, J. C.; Sung, K.; Yu, S.

2012-05-01

152

Nested High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis  

PubMed Central

JAK2 exon 12 mutations are found in myeloproliferative disorders characterized by erythrocytosis. Lying in a 33-bp region and conserving the open reading frame, they often present a low allelic burden (<10%), which excludes screening with techniques such as allele-specific PCR or different sequencing protocols. High-resolution melting (HRM), a fast in-tube method, seems the most accurate routine technique for that. We describe a reliable and powerful nested HRM technique, independent of DNA preparation and with technical sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 93% to 100%) and specificity of 96.7% (95% CI, 89.7% to 96.7%). Screening a cohort of 10 idiopathic erythrocytosis, 28 polycythemia vera, and 7 secondary erythrocytosis cases allowed the detection of 15 mutants, including 9 different mutations, of which 3 were unreported, all in the polycythemia vera group, and presented a characteristic profile: pure erythrocytosis associated with low serum erythropoietin. Threshold detection level ranged from 1% to 3% allelic burden, depending on the mutation. All of the HRM positive signals were found mutated by sequencing. Six of them (40%), however, required cloning before sequencing, because of low allelic burden. Classic techniques such as genomic sequencing may therefore miss patients with mutations. Given its sensitivity, HRM (and nested HRM) can be used in routine diagnosis and seems to be the most efficient of current techniques for detection of JAK2 exon 12 mutations.

Carillo, Serge; Henry, Laurent; Lippert, Eric; Girodon, Francois; Guiraud, Isabelle; Richard, Celine; Dubois Galopin, Frederique; Cleyrat, Cedric; Jourdan, Eric; Kralovics, Robert; Hermouet, Sylvie; Lavabre-Bertrand, Thierry

2011-01-01

153

High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging  

DOEpatents

A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

1999-12-07

154

High Resolution Pulse Compression Imaging Using Super Resolution FM-Chirp Correlation Method (SCM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the issue of the super-resolution pulse compression technique (PCT) for ultrasound imaging. Time resolution of multiple ultrasonic echoes using the FM-Chirp PCT is limited by the bandwidth of the sweep-frequency. That is, the resolution depends on the sharpness of auto-correlation function. We propose the Super resolution FM-Chirp correlation Method (SCM) and evaluate its performance. This method is based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm. Our simulations were made for the model assuming multiple signals reflected from some scatterers. We confirmed that SCM detects time delay of complicated reflected signals successfully with high resolution.

Fujiwara, M.; Okubo, K.; Tagawa, N.

155

Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3

Yongfeng Yang; Purushottam A. Dokhale; Robert W. Silverman; Kanai S. Shah; Mickel A. McClish; Richard Farrell; Gerald Entine; Simon R. Cherry

2006-01-01

156

The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 â« and 1860 â« at 2 â« resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 â« at 7 â« resolution on this flight and

M. D. Morrison; C. W. Bowers; P. D. Feldman; R. R. Meier

1990-01-01

157

High-spatial-resolution streak image tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new streak tube was designed to provide improved spatial resolution across a large-diameter photocathode to obtain more spatial information. The first version of the tube did not employ an accelerator electrode. Tube design goals were achieved when operating at 30 kV. Spatial resolutions of 19 line pairs per millimeter (lp\\/mm) or better were measured across a 1-in.-diameter photocathode at

C. K. Hinrichs; R. W. Olsen

1985-01-01

158

High resolution electron spin resonance microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NMR microscopy is routinely employed in fields of science such as biology, botany, and materials science to observe magnetic parameters and transport phenomena in small scale structures. Despite extensive efforts, the resolution of this method is limited (>10?m for short acquisition times), and thus cannot answer many key questions in these fields. We show, through theoretical prediction and initial experiments, that ESR microscopy, although much less developed, can improve upon the resolution limits of NMR, and successfully undertake the 1?m resolution challenge. Our theoretical predictions demonstrate that existing ESR technology, along with advanced imaging probe design (resonator and gradient coils), using solutions of narrow linewidth radicals (the trityl family), should yield 64×64 pixels 2D images (with z slice selection) with a resolution of 1×1×10?m at ~60GHz in less than 1h of acquisition. Our initial imaging results, conducted by CW ESR at X-band, support these theoretical predictions and already improve upon the previously reported state-of-the-art for 2D ESR image resolution achieving ~10×10?m, in just several minutes of acquisition time. We analyze how future progress, which includes improved resonators, increased frequency of measurement, and advanced pulsed techniques, should achieve the goal of micron resolution.

Blank, Aharon; Dunnam, Curt R.; Borbat, Peter P.; Freed, Jack H.

2003-11-01

159

Microscintigraphy with high resolution collimators and radiographic detectors  

SciTech Connect

The potential use of high resolution collimators with standard radiographic detectors in place of conventional gamma cameras for high resolution microscintigraphy is presented. Polycapillary multiple hole collimators are shown to provide 10-100 micron scale spatial resolution. A series of images from arrays of {sup 125}I brachytherapy seeds in Lucite phantoms display resolution better than 0.1 mm with good sensitivity and a 30 mm field of view. In addition to application to brachytherapy seed localization, such ''cellular'' level resolution is necessary for high-resolution in vivo imaging in mouse models. The system could also enable the use of a wider variety of isotopes, including much lower photon energy isotopes in nuclear medicine, as the high resolution collimator allows more flexibility in detector constraints.

Mail, N.; MacDonald, C. A.; Gibson, W. M. [Center for X-ray Optics, University at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); X-ray Optical System Inc., East Greenbush, New York 12061 (United States)

2009-02-15

160

Microscintigraphy with high resolution collimators and radiographic detectors.  

PubMed

The potential use of high resolution collimators with standard radiographic detectors in place of conventional gamma cameras for high resolution microscintigraphy is presented. Polycapillary multiple hole collimators are shown to provide 10-100 micron scale spatial resolution. A series of images from arrays of 125I brachytherapy seeds in Lucite phantoms display resolution better than 0.1 mm with good sensitivity and a 30 mm field of view. In addition to application to brachytherapy seed localization, such "cellular" level resolution is necessary for high-resolution in vivo imaging in mouse models. The system could also enable the use of a wider variety of isotopes, including much lower photon energy isotopes in nuclear medicine, as the high resolution collimator allows more flexibility in detector constraints. PMID:19292006

Mail, N; MacDonald, C A; Gibson, W M

2009-02-01

161

Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D spherical models. We also applied the above mentioned method to a high resolution (~ 1 km) 2D mantle convection model with temperature, pressure and phase dependent rheology including several phase transitions. We focus on a model of a subducting lithospheric slab which is subject to strong folding at the bottom of the mantle's D" region which includes the postperovskite phase boundary. For a detailed description of this model we refer to poster [Mantel convection models of the D" region, U17] [Saad, 2003] Saad, Y. (2003). Iterative methods for sparse linear systems. [Sala, 2006] Sala. M (2006) An Object-Oriented Framework for the Development of Scalable Parallel Multilevel Preconditioners. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, 32 (3), 2006 [Patankar, 1980] Patankar, S. V.(1980) Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere, Washington.

Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

2007-12-01

162

High-resolution enabled TMT 8-plexing.  

PubMed

Isobaric mass tag-based quantitative proteomics strategies such as iTRAQ and TMT utilize reporter ions in the low-mass range of tandem MS spectra for relative quantification. The number of samples that can be compared in a single experiment (multiplexing) is limited by the number of different reporter ions that can be generated by differential stable isotope incorporation ((15)N, (13)C) across the reporter and the mass balancing parts of the reagents. Here, we demonstrate that a higher multiplexing rate can be achieved by utilizing the 6 mDa mass difference between (15)N- and (13)C-containing reporter fragments, in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Two variants of the TMT127 and TMT129 reagents are available; these are distinguished by the position and the nature of the incorporated stable isotope in the reporter portions of the labels (TMT127L, (12)C(8)H(16)(15)N(1)(+); TMT127H, (12)C(7)(13)C(1)H(16)(14)N(1)(+); TMT129L, (12)C(6)(13)C(2)H(16)(15)N(1)(+); and TMT129H, (12)C(5)(13)C(3)H(16)(14)N(1)(+)). We demonstrate that these variants can be baseline-resolved in Orbitrap Elite higher-energy collision-induced dissociation spectra recorded with a 96 ms transient enabling comparable dynamic range, precision, and accuracy of quantification as 1 Da spaced reporter ions. The increased multiplexing rate enabled determination of inhibitor potencies in chemoproteomic kinase assays covering a wider range of compound concentrations in a single experiment, compared to conventional 6-plex TMT-based assays. PMID:22881393

Werner, Thilo; Becher, Isabelle; Sweetman, Gavain; Doce, Carola; Savitski, Mikhail M; Bantscheff, Marcus

2012-08-08

163

The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) began a decade of planned observations to search for signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin with inaugural ceremonies at two sites on October 12, 1992. At Goldstone, California the Sky Survey began executing precisely controlled scanning patterns on the celestial sphere using a new beam waveguide 34m antenna operating at a frequency near 8500 MHz (X-band). At Arecibo, Puerto Rico the Targeted Search began tracking GL615.1A, one of 24 solar-type stars selected for these inaugural observations, using the NAIC 300m radio telescope operating in a band of frequencies centered at 1406 MHz. Since the initiation of the search, the Sky Survey has completed X-band observations of several dozen sky-frames measuring 30(deg) times 1.5(deg) . In addition, observations of selected areas of the galactic plane have been observed in several frequency bands (1400 MHz and 1600 MHz) using a 26m antenna located near the 34m antenna. The Targeted Search has completed the first 200 hours of observations at Arecibo covering some 300 MHz of bandwidth. This paper summarizes the results of the observations to date, including a synopsis of the interference observed at the Goldstone and Arecibo sites, and a discussion of techniques that will be used to improve future observations. The HRMS program is managed by the Ames Research Center in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The results presented in this paper represent the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers at these two institutions as well as the SETI Institute, Silicon Engines Inc., John C. Reykjalin Inc., Sverdrup Technology, Sterling Federal Systems, Cornell University, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the American Astronomical Society, Arecibo Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, the University of Washington, UC Berkeley, California Institute of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Innovative Systems, and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

Tarter, J. C.; Gulkis, S.

1993-05-01

164

High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr3:Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr3:Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBrxI3-x:Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr3 and LaI3) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBrxCl3-x:Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr3 and LaCl3) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr3:Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce is lower than that for LaBr3:Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl3 is lower than that of LaBr3), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBrxCl3-x:Ce than LaBr3:Ce since in some instances (for example, CdxZn1-xTe), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu2+ and Pr3+, tried in LaBr3 host crystals, the Eu2+ doped samples exhibited low light output. This was mostly because a large fraction of light was emitted via very slow decay components (>50 �¯��­s) and as a result was not included in the light estimation performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy where the typical amplifier integration time used is <12 �¯��­s. The origin of these slow component(s) is most likely related to the presence of defects caused by charge imbalance in the crystals. The charge imbalance occurs when the Eu2+ ions replace the La3+ ions in crystal lattice. This charge neutrality can be restored by codoping the Eu2+ doped LaBr3 crystals with ions such as Hf4+. The Pr3+ doped LaBr3 crystals provided exciting results. They exhibited very high light yield (85,000 photons/MeV) and good energy resolution. While the decay time of LaBr3:Pr is much slower than that for LaBr3:Ce, it is fast enough for many nuclear waste cleanup applications. Furthermore, it should be possible to increase the speed of LaBr3:Pr by adjusting its Pr3+ concentration. The most exciting feature of LaBr3:Pr is that it emits in red-region and is therefore, well suited for silicon photodiode readout. In fact, LaBr3:Pr is the brightest scintillator in the red-region and its light yield is ~15% higher than the light yield of LaBr3 doped with Ce. Overall, the Phase I research has been very successful and has lead to better understanding of the lanthanum halide and related scintillators. It has also opened up some promising avenues to optimize the performance of these exciting scintillators. Based on the Phase I results, we have clearly demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed approach.

Mr. Kanai Shah; Mr. William Higgins; Dr. Edgar V. Van Loef

2006-01-23

165

High Resolution Simulation in the Eastern Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particularly important research domain is referred to the forest-atmosphere interaction, since the flow in the region immediately above the vegetation is complex and has characteristics still not well known. One of these characteristics is the existence, in some situations, of relative maxima in the wind velocity vertical profiles, the "low level jets" (LLJ), in regions less than 1 km distant from the surface. They may contribute to intensify the mixture in the surface and in the region where they occur. It is possible that the presence of such phenomenon introduce additional difficulties in the parameterization of the forest-atmosphere exchange processes. Therefore, it is entirely reasonable the study of LLJs in order to determine the conditions of their occurrence and to investigate the consequences of their existence in the characteristics of the Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) structure near the surface. This work presents the results of numerical simulations with the model BRAMS (Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) for the study of LLJs in the Eastern Amazonia. The numerical simulations presented contained 3 nested grids with a horizontal spacing of 45, 15 and 5 km. The vertical resolution was variable with an initial spacing of 100m in the lowest layer of the model, increasing upward by the factor of 1.2 until the vertical spacing reaches 1000m. In the model, 12 soil layers were defined until the depth of 4m. The vegetation coverage distribution used was produced by CPTEC (Sestini et al., 2002). The model's initialization was variable, each 6 hours, with the analysis of CPTEC's global model, the radiosondes and surface data. The simulation used the models of surface and vegetation, radiation, cloud microphysics, deep convective parameterization of Grell and shallow convection parameterization. The temporal vertical distribution of the wind speed obtained from the radiosondes launched at each 3 hours in Caxiuana and those produced by the BRAMS model shows that the numerical simulation reproduced both LLJs of November 13 and 14 at, 06 UTC. However, their magnitude was about 2 and 3 m/s lower and their height was higher than what was observed. In order to verify the origin of the LLJ, the variability of the wind at the jet level, during the numerical simulation in grid 1, was analyzed. In the afternoon, it was observed the increase in wind speed at the Atlantic Coast associated to sea breeze circulation. Nonetheless, at 00 UTC, this maximum speed center penetrated the continent and reached the region of Caxiuanã. Indeed, this circulation was under a canalization effect due to the rivers distribution. On November 13, the sea breeze formed again. However, the circulation on this day was relatively weak. The numerical simulations with this high resolution model indicated the occurrence of low level jets. Nevertheless, it did not reproduce in detail some of the observed characteristics of the flow. An important aspect revealed by the simulations with BRAMS was the origin of the jets, which is associated to a phenomenon of canalization of the flow above zones where there are some of the great rivers in the Northeast of Para.

Cohen, J.; Sa, L.; Nogueira, D.; Gandu, A.

2006-05-01

166

High resolution bragg focusing optics for synchrotron monochromators and analyzers  

SciTech Connect

A number of different applications for high resolution Bragg Focusing Optics are reviewed. Applications include Sagittal Focusing, Energy Dispersive optics for x-ray absorption and diffraction, a curved analyzer-multichannel detector method for efficient acquisition of powder and small angle scattering data, the use of Backscattering Analyzers for very high resolution inelastic scattering, and curved crystals for high energy applications.

Knapp, G.S.; Beno, M.A.; Gofron, K.J.

1997-07-01

167

High resolution instruments based on X-ray multilayer gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

New possibilities in the development of spectral instruments with high resolution and efficiency are opened up by the X-ray multilayer gratings. The main advantage of such gratings in the range of the soft X-ray radiation is their greater operating angles and high reflection coefficients. The high spectral resolution is provided by the large number of operating grooves with the same

V. I. Erofeev; N. V. Kovalenko; E. P. Kruglyakov; O. K. Myskinand; N. I. Chkhalo

1999-01-01

168

High-energy resolution, high-angular acceptance crystal monochromator  

SciTech Connect

The design principles, construction and characterization of a 4- bounce dispersive crystal monochromator is discussed. This monochromator is designed to reduce the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to 10--50 meV level, without sacrificing angular acceptance. This is achieved by combining an asymmetrically-cut, low order reflection with a symmetrically-cut, high order reflection in a nested configuration. This monochromator is being used as a beam conditioner for nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation to produce x-rays with {mu}eV{minus}neV resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

Toellner, T.S.; Mooney, T.; Alp, E.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Shastri, S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics

1992-06-01

169

High-energy resolution, high-angular acceptance crystal monochromator  

SciTech Connect

The design principles, construction and characterization of a 4- bounce dispersive crystal monochromator is discussed. This monochromator is designed to reduce the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to 10--50 meV level, without sacrificing angular acceptance. This is achieved by combining an asymmetrically-cut, low order reflection with a symmetrically-cut, high order reflection in a nested configuration. This monochromator is being used as a beam conditioner for nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation to produce x-rays with [mu]eV[minus]neV resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

Toellner, T.S.; Mooney, T.; Alp, E.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Shastri, S. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics)

1992-06-01

170

Interstellar D1 Line at High Resolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations at a resolving power or a velocity resolution are reported of the interstellar D(sub 1) line of Na I in the spectra of gamma Cas, delta Ori, epsilon Ori, pi Sco, delta Cyg, and alpha Cyg. An echelle grating was used in a double-pass configura...

L. M. Hobbs D. E. Welty

1990-01-01

171

High Resolution Mapping of Pluto's Albedo Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This proposal requests time to map Pluto's albedo distribution, using the highest possible resolution of the CYCLE 4 HST. Maps will be made in several key UV and visible bandpasses. Our scientific objectives are to (a) study the distribution of light and dark areas, (b) make the first disk-resolved estimates of Pluto's limb darkening, and (c) compositional discriminate pure from

S. Stern

1994-01-01

172

High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has

Jang-Ung Park; Matt Hardy; Seong Jun Kang; Kira Barton; Kurt Adair; Deep Kishore Mukhopadhyay; Chang Young Lee; Michael S. Strano; Andrew G. Alleyne; John G. Georgiadis; Placid M. Ferreira; John A. Rogers

2007-01-01

173

Solar system events at high spatial resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until relatively recent advances in technology, astronomical observations from the ground were limited in image resolution by the blurring effects of earth's atmosphere. The blur extent, ranging typically from 0.5 to 2 seconds of arc at the best astronomical sights, precluded ground-based observations of the details of the solar system's moons, asteroids, and outermost planets. With the maturing of a

K H Baines; D T Gavel; A M Getz; S G Gibbartd; B MacIntosh; C E Max; C P McKay; E F Young; I de Pater

1999-01-01

174

High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function inversion results. In fact, we observe that the inversion results are independent at the starting model and converges well to the same final model. We don't observe a significant change at the first order discontinuities of model (e.g. Moho depth), but we obtain better defined depths to low velocity layers.

Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

2004-09-03

175

Quantitative autoradiography of TRH receptors in discrete brain regions of different mammalian species  

SciTech Connect

The results clearly show marked heterogeneity and ubiquity of the CNS distribution of TRH receptors across several mammalian species including man. The use of high resolution autoradiography coupled with image analysis has permitted the visualization and quantification of TRH receptor density in even very small regions and nuclei of the CNS. This technique will undoubtedly help elucidate the other areas of TRH receptor localization that have thus far escaped detection in mammals and that are yet to be studied in lower vertebrates. Although an attempt has been made to correlate the presence of the peptide, its receptors, and its possible physiological functions, only further detailed physiological/behavioral investigations will ultimately unravel and support the diverse neurotransmitter and trophic roles of TRH in CNS and endocrine function. 130 references.

Sharif, N.A.

1989-01-01

176

High resolution x-ray microscope  

SciTech Connect

The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens (CRL) made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, compared to images with a spherical lens and without the multilayer optics. The resolution was measured using a 155-element parabolic CRL and a multilayer condenser with the microspot tube. The experiment demonstrates about 1.1 {mu}m resolution.

Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I. [Adelphi Technology, Inc. 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Kurchatova 7, Minsk 220064 (Belarus)

2007-04-30

177

EDITORIAL: High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology requires tools that enable the imaging and manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular scale. During the last two decades or so, scanning probe-based techniques have proven to be particularly versatile in this regard. Among the various probe-based approaches, atomic force microscopy (AFM) stands out in many ways, including the total number of citations and the breadth of possible applications, ranging from materials characterization to nanofabrication and biological studies. However, while nanometer scale operation in different environments became routine, atomic resolution imaging remained elusive for a long time. The reason for this initial deficiency was that contact with the sample blunts atomically sharp tips, which are mandatory for successful atomic resolution imaging. This problem was overcome in the mid-1990s with the introduction of noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), which represents a version of AFM where the cantilever is oscillated close to the sample surface without actually 'touching' it. This allows the preservation of the atomic sharpness of the tip while interaction-induced changes in the cantilever's resonance frequency are used to quantify the tip-sample distance. Since then, progress has been steady and includes the development of commercial instruments as well as the addition of many new capabilities beyond imaging, such as the identification and manipulation of individual atoms. A series of annual international conferences, starting in Osaka in 1998, have contributed significantly to this outstanding performance. The program of the most recent conference from this series, held in Madrid on 15-19 September 2008, reflects the maturity of this field, with an increasing number of groups developing strong activities that involve novel approaches and applications covering areas well beyond the original vacuum-based imaging. In this special issue of Nanotechnology we present a selection of original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

2009-06-01

178

A broadband, high-resolution spatial heterodyne spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and performance parameters of a broadband, high-resolution spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) with a transmitting beamsplitter are described. This Mark 1 SHS achieves more than a factor of five in continuous wavenumber coverage with a resolving power in hundreds of thousands. Progress toward an all reflection, broadband, high-resolution Mark 2 SHS is reported.

Lawler, J. E.; Harlander, J.; Roesler, F. L.; Labby, Z.

2009-05-01

179

High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and how ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.

Pallavicini, R.

2002-07-01

180

Prediction of high-resolution flowfields for rotorcraft aeroacoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the vortex wake of a helicopter is described. This approach makes it possible to obtain highly accurate resolution of the flowfield experienced by the tail rotor with modest computational effort relative to alternative models. A full-span free wake model of the main rotor in a scheme is presented which reconstructs high resolution flow solutions from preliminary

Todd R. Quackenbush; Donald B. Bliss

1991-01-01

181

Towards high-resolution imaging from underwater vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large area mapping at high resolution underwater continues to be constrained by sensor-level environmental constraints and the mismatch between available navigation and sensor accuracy. In this paper, advances are presented that exploit aspects of the sensing modality, and consistency and redundancy within local sensor measurements to build high-resolution optical and acoustic maps that are a consistent representation of the environment.

Hanumant Singh; Christopher N. Roman; Oscar Pizarro; Ryan M. Eustice; Ali Can

2007-01-01

182

A METHOD FOR INTRACELLULAR AUTORADIOGRAPHY IN THE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE  

PubMed Central

A technic is described for high resolution intracellular autoradiography in the electron microscope. Cultures of LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells were incubated for 72 hours in a medium containing 0.4 µcurie per ml of thymidine-H3. After labeling, the cells were fixed with osmium tetroxide and embedded in methacrylate. Ultrathin sections of the labeled tissue were taken up on Formvar-coated and carbon-stabilized electron microscope grids. A 150 to 450 A layer of silver metal was then evaporated onto the tissue. The coated grids were exposed to bromine vapor for 1.5 to 2 minutes under red light, allowed to dry for 1 minute, and then covered with a thin film of 1 per cent aqueous gelatin applied by means of a fine wire loop lowered over the grid supported on a glass peg. For autoradiographic exposure, the grids were stored 50 days in a light-proof container at 4°C with calcium chloride desiccant. Development was carried out for 5 minutes at 20°C in Promicrol (May and Baker, England) diluted 1:1 with water, followed by a 1 minute water wash and fixation for 2.5 minutes in 15 per cent aqueous sodium thiosulphate. After removal of the gelatin by immersion for 16 hours in water at 37°C, the autoradiograms were dried and examined in the electron microscope. Ultrastructural detail was fairly well defined and the cytoplasm of each labeled cell was covered with an electron opaque deposit of silver, suggesting that a polynucleotide containing thymidine may be synthesized in the cytoplasm. The matter is discussed.

Silk, M. H.; Hawtrey, A. O.; Spence, I. M.; Gear, J. H. S.

1961-01-01

183

Waveform digitization for high resolution timing detectors with silicon photomultipliers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of time resolution studies with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) read out with high bandwidth constant fraction discrimination electronics were presented earlier [1-3]. Here we describe the application of fast waveform digitization readout based on the DRS4 chip [4], a switched capacitor array (SCA) produced by the Paul Scherrer Institute, to further our goal of developing high time resolution detectors based on SiPMs. The influence of the SiPM signal shape on the time resolution was investigated. Different algorithms to obtain the best time resolution are described, and test beam results are presented.

Ronzhin, A.; Albrow, M. G.; Los, S.; Ramberg, E.; Guo, Y.; Kim, H.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Mazzillo, M.; Carbone, B.; Condorelli, G.; Fallica, P.; Piana, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Valvo, G.; Ritt, S.

2012-03-01

184

HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOEMISSION STUDIES OF COMPLEX MATERIALS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent instrumentation developments in photoemission are providing new insights into the physics of complex materials. With increased energy and momentum resolution, it has become possible to examine in detail different contributions to the self-energy or inverse lifetime of the photohole created in the photoexcitation process, Employing momentum distribution and energy distribution curves, a detailed study of the optimally doped cuprate, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub g+{delta}}, shows that the material behaves like a non-Fermi liquid with no evidence for the quasi-particles characteristic of a Fermi liquid.

JOHNSON,P.D.

1999-10-13

185

HIGH RESOLUTION PHOTOEMISSION STUDIES OF COMPLEX MATERIALS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent instrumentation developments in photoemission are providing new insights into the physics of complex materials. With increased energy and momentum resolution, it has become possible to examine in detail different contributions to the self-energy or inverse lifetime of the photohole created in the photoexcitation process. Employing momentum distribution and energy distribution curves, a detailed study of the optimally doped cuprate, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}, shows that the material behaves like a non-Fermi liquid with no evidence for the quasi-particles characteristic of a Fermi liquid.

JOHNSON,P.D.; VALLA,T.; FEDOROV,A.; REISFELD,G.; HULBERT,S.L.

1999-10-13

186

Interactive Software for Simulation of High Resolution TEM Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new highly interactive and user friendly software package for simulation and processing of high resolution transmission electron micrographs has been developed at the National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. De...

R. Kilaas

1987-01-01

187

Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

2010-05-01

188

High-resolution X-ray Multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Two new approaches are taken in multilayer fabrication to help bridge the gap in bandwidth between traditional multilayers (1 to 2%) and perfect crystals (0.01%). The first approach is based on creating many layers of low-contrast Al2O3/ B4C materials. The second approach is based on using multilayer structures with a small d-spacing using traditional W/B4C and Mo/B4C materials. With 8 keV x-rays on the Chess A2 beamline, we measured a bandwidth of 0.27% with a reflectivity of 40% and a Darwin width of 17 arc seconds from a 26 A d-spacing multilayer with 800 bi-layers of Al2O3/B4C using the low-contrast approach. On the other hand, the short period approach with a W/B4C multilayer and a 14.8 A d-spacing showed a resolution of 0.5 % and a reflectivity of 58.5%. Two more Mo/B4C samples with d-spacings of 15 A and 20 A showed energy resolutions of 0.25% and 0.52% with corresponding reflectivities of 39% and 66%. Thus we observe that both methods can produce useful x-ray optical components.

Martynov, V.V.; Platonov, Yu. [Osmic Inc., 1900 Taylor Rd., Auburn Hills, MI 48326 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [CHESS, Wilson Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bilderback, D.H. [CHESS, Wilson Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); School of Applied and Engineering, Clark Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2004-05-12

189

High Resolution LTS-SQUID Microscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature samples with sub-millimeter resolution. In our design, hand wound niobium pickup coils were coupled to commercially available low-temperature SQUID sensors. The SQUID sensor and the pickup coil are in the vacuum space of the cryostat separated typically less than 50?m by a thin sapphire window from the room-temperature sample. A computerized non-magnetic scanning stage with sub-micron resolution in combination with a tripod leveling system allows samples to be scanned within 10?m of the sapphire window. For a 20-turn 500?m diameter pickup coil, we achieved a field sensitivity of 350fT\\cdotHz-1/2 for frequencies above 1 Hz, and 1pT\\cdotHz-1/2 for a 10-turn 250mm coil. The SQUID microscope was used to image the distribution of time-dependent stimulus and action currents in anisotropic cardiac tissue, the remanent magnetization of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 during thermal demagnetisation, and the magnetic susceptibility of biogenic magnetite in the beak of homing pigeons.

Baudenbacher, Franz; Peters, Nicholas; Wikswo, John

2000-03-01

190

Comparison of 3D Maximum A Posteriori and Filtered Backprojection algorithms for high resolution animal imaging in microPET  

SciTech Connect

We have evaluated the performance of two three dimensional reconstruction algorithms with data acquired from microPET, a high resolution tomograph dedicated to small animal imaging. The first was a linear filtered-backprojection algorithm (FBP) with reprojection of the missing data and the second was a statistical maximum-aposteriori probability algorithm (MAP). The two algorithms were evaluated in terms of their resolution performance, both in phantoms and in vivo. Sixty independent realizations of a phantom simulating the brain of a baby monkey were acquired, each containing 3 million counts. Each of these realizations was reconstructed independently with both algorithms. The ensemble of the sixty reconstructed realizations was used to estimate the standard deviation as a measure of the noise for each reconstruction algorithm. More detail was recovered in the MAP reconstruction without an increase in noise relative to FBP. Studies in a simple cylindrical compartment phantom demonstrated improved recovery of known activity ratios with MAP. Finally in vivo studies also demonstrated a clear improvement in spatial resolution using the MAP algorithm. The quantitative accuracy of the MAP reconstruction was also evaluated by comparison with autoradiography and direct well counting of tissue samples and was shown to be superior.

Chatziioannou, A.; Qi, J.; Moore, A.; Annala, A.; Nguyen, K.; Leahy, R.M.; Cherry, S.R.

2000-01-01

191

High-resolution climate simulation of the last glacial maximum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) is simulated with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model, the\\u000a NCAR CCM3 at spectral truncation of T170, corresponding to a grid cell size of roughly 75 km. The purpose of the study is\\u000a to assess whether there are significant benefits from the higher resolution simulation compared to the lower resolution simulation\\u000a associated with

Seong-Joong Kim; Thomas J. Crowley; David J. Erickson; Bala Govindasamy; Phillip B. Duffy; Bang Yong Lee

2008-01-01

192

A high resolution HI survey of M31  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first results of a new high resolution 21-cm HI line survey of M31 made with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope are presented. Five areas were mapped, covering the galaxy except for the extreme northern and southern parts, at a resolution of (Delta)(alpha) x (Delta)(delta) x (Delta)(V) = 24 x 36 arcsec x 8.2 km\\/s. The spatial resolution corresponds to

E. Brinks

1983-01-01

193

High Resolution Phase Velocity Measurements in Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An acoustical path length modulation (PLM) method is currently being developed to measure phase velocity with a resolution of 1 ppm. Experimentally this is accomplished by forming a resonant cavity with a moving reflector attached to a piezoelectric bimorph. The change in the path length is determined by measuring capacitance between the (moving) electrode attached to the reflector and a fixed electrode. A 10 MHz x-cut quartz transducer generates the acoustical signal which is multiply reflected at the walls which define the cavity. The signal from the reflected wave is retrieved by the same transducer using a bridge type continuous wave spectrometer. This set up is essentially a Fabry-Perot interferometer for acoustical waves. Using the PLM method, it will be possible to measure the precursory affect of superfluid He^3 in the normal state, the so called fluctuation effect.

Calleja, E. M.; Carlson, D. F.; Qi, S.; Cancino, J.; Lee, Y.

2005-03-01

194

High Spectral Resolution With Multilayer Gratings  

SciTech Connect

The improvement of spectral resolution brought about by the use of multilayer grating (MG) instead of multilayer mirror (MM) is analyzed. The spectrum of a complex sample containing various elements excited under electron irradiation is studied. This sample is a pellet made by pressing powders of Cu and compounds with Fe and F atoms. The MM is a Mo/B{sub 4}C periodic multilayer with a period of about 6 nm; for the MG a grating of 1 {mu}m period has been etched in the MM. It is shown that the MG can easily resolve the F Kalpha and Fe Lalpha emissions, separated by about 30 eV, whereas the MM is unable to give such a performance. A comparison with an EDS (SDD) detector is also given. It is also shown that the MG can improve the detection limit. Finally the role of the slit placed in front of the detector is discussed.

Andre, J.-M.; Le Guen, K.; Jonnard, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matiere et Rayonnement, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2010-04-06

195

Robust Tips for High Resolution Chemical Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) combines scanning probe microscopy with Raman spectroscopy, taking advantage of apertureless near-field optics. A plasmonic structure at the apex of a sharp tip provides signal amplification required for chemical imaging. Plasmonic structure characteristics such as roughness, shape, and radius determine the spatial resolution and signal enhancement. Unfortunately, noble metal nanostructures have limited lifetimes due to mechanical, chemical, and thermal degradation. Lifetime extension requires slowing degradation processes while minimizing unfavorable influences on the optical response. An ultrathin SiOx protective coating provides lifetime improvement of silver plasmonic nanostructures on SPM tips. Controlled physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Al can be used to create ultrathin (˜2-3 nm) Al2O3 coatings that improve significantly the stability and wear resistance of plasmonics structures without substantial degradation of optical properties. Such a coating completely prevented decay in plasmonic activity after 40 days of use.

Barrios, Carlos; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sokolov, Alexei; Foster, Mark

2009-03-01

196

High Spectral Resolution With Multilayer Gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The improvement of spectral resolution brought about by the use of multilayer grating (MG) instead of multilayer mirror (MM) is analyzed. The spectrum of a complex sample containing various elements excited under electron irradiation is studied. This sample is a pellet made by pressing powders of Cu and compounds with Fe and F atoms. The MM is a Mo/B4C periodic multilayer with a period of about 6 nm; for the MG a grating of 1 ?m period has been etched in the MM. It is shown that the MG can easily resolve the F K? and Fe L? emissions, separated by about 30 eV, whereas the MM is unable to give such a performance. A comparison with an EDS (SDD) detector is also given. It is also shown that the MG can improve the detection limit. Finally the role of the slit placed in front of the detector is discussed.

André, J.-M.; Le Guen, K.; Jonnard, P.

2010-04-01

197

High resolution airborne geophysics at hazardous waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, a high resolution helicopter geophysical survey was conducted over portions of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The 1800 line kilometer survey included multi-frequency electromagnetic and magnetic sensors. The areas covered by the high resolution portion of the survey were selected on the basis of their importance to the environmental restoration effort and on data obtained from the reconnaissance phase of the airborne survey in which electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data were collected over the entire Oak Ridge Reservation in 1992--1993. The high resolution phase had lower sensor heights, more and higher EM frequencies, and tighter line spacings than did the reconnaissance survey. When flying over exceptionally clear areas, the high resolution bird came within a few meters of the ground surface. Unfortunately, even sparse trees and power or phone lines could prevent the bird from being towed safely at low altitude, and over such areas it was more usual for it to be flown at about the same altitude as the bird in the reconnaissance survey, about 30m. Even so, the magnetometers used in the high resolution phase were 20m closer to the ground than in the reconnaissance phase because they were mounted on the tail of the bird rather than on the tow cable above the bird. The EM frequencies used in the high resolution survey ranged from 7400Hz to 67000Hz. Only the horizontal coplanar loop configuration was used in the high resolution flyovers.

Beard, L.P.; Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chong Foo, M.; Gamey, T.J. [Aerodat, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1995-06-01

198

Role Conflict Resolution Behavior of High School Principals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the role conflict reso lution behavior of high school principals. The investigation focused on five distinct resolution modes, underlying reason, legitimacy, and sanction variables, and the issue of hierarchical aspects of conflict episodes. Findings prompted development of a reconceptualized model of role conflict resolution. Richard Hatley is Associate Pro fessor of Administration,

Richard V. Hatley; Buddy R. Pennington

1975-01-01

199

High-resolution observations of the solar photosphere and chromosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the sun are almost always impaired by the turbulent motion of air in Earth's atmosphere. The turbulence would limit the theoretical resolution of modern large telescopes to that of amateur telescopes without additional tools. Today however, high-resolution data of the Sun are necessary to invesitgate its small-scale structure. This structure is likely to be connected to the radially

Friedrich Wöger

2007-01-01

200

Fast high-resolution appearance editing using superimposed projections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system that superimposes multiple projections onto an object of arbitrary shape and color to produce high-resolution appearance changes. Our system produces appearances at an improved resolution compared to prior works and can change appearances at near interactive rates. Three main components are central to our system. First, the problem of computing compensation images is formulated as a

Daniel G. Aliaga; Yu Hong Yeung; Alvin Law; Behzad Sajadi; Aditi Majumder

2012-01-01

201

High resolution data base for use with MAP  

SciTech Connect

A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

1987-05-05

202

A cell biologist's guide to high resolution imaging.  

PubMed

Fluorescence microscopy is particularly well suited to the study of cell biology, due to its noninvasive nature, high sensitivity detection of specific molecules, and high spatial and temporal resolution. In recent years, there has been an important transition from imaging the static distributions of molecules as a snapshot in time in fixed material to live-cell imaging of the dynamics of molecules in cells: in essence visualizing biochemical processes in living cells. Furthermore, in the last 5 years, there have been important advances in so-called "super-resolution" imaging methods that have overcome the resolution limits imposed by the diffraction of light in optical systems. Live-cell imaging is now beginning to deliver in unprecedented detail, bridging the resolution gap between electron microscopy and light microscopy. We discuss the various factors that limit the spatial and temporal resolution of microscopy and how to overcome them, how to best prepare specimens for high resolution imaging, and the choice of fluorochromes. We also summarize the pros and cons of the different super-resolution techniques and introduce some of the key data analysis tasks that a cell biologist employing high resolution microscopy is typically interested in. PMID:22264528

Ball, Graeme; Parton, Richard M; Hamilton, Russell S; Davis, Ilan

2012-01-01

203

High-Resolution Fluorometer for Mapping Microscale Phytoplankton Distributions  

PubMed Central

A new high-resolution, in situ profiling fluorometer maps fluorescence distributions with a spatial resolution of 0.5 to 1.5 mm to a depth of 70 m in the open ocean. We report centimeter-scale patterns for phytoplankton distributions associated with gradients exhibiting 10- to 30-fold changes in fluorescence in contrasting marine ecosystems.

Doubell, Mark J.; Seuront, Laurent; Seymour, Justin R.; Patten, Nicole L.; Mitchell, James G.

2006-01-01

204

Mapping cognitive brain function with modern high-resolution electroencephalography  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temporal resolution is necessary to resolve the rapidly changing patterns of brain activity that underlie mental function. While electroencephalography (EEG) provides temporal resolution in the millisecond range, which would seem to make it an ideal complement to other imaging modalities, traditional EEG technology and practice provides insufficient spatial detail to identify relationships between brain electrical events and structures and

Alan Gevins; Harrison Leong; Michael E. Smith; Jian Le; Robert Du

1995-01-01

205

High-resolution photoacoustic thermal-wave microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments on photoacoustic thermal-wave microscopy are presented, for the first time, at high resolution. Using piezoelectric detection and a modulation frequency of 185 kHz, a thermal-wave resolution of approximately 7 microns is obtained. It is shown that the photoacoustic phase signal provides true thermal-wave imaging even in the presence of surface features with strong optical contrast.

Rosencwaig, A.; Busse, G.

1980-05-01

206

High-resolution photoacoustic thermal-wave microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on photoacoustic thermal-wave microscopy are presented, for the first time, at high resolution. Using piezoelectric detection and a modulation frequency of 185 kHz, a thermal-wave resolution of approximately 7 microns is obtained. It is shown that the photoacoustic phase signal provides true thermal-wave imaging even in the presence of surface features with strong optical contrast.

Allan Rosencwaig; G. Busse

1980-01-01

207

Very high resolution optical spectrometry by stimulated Brillouin scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we demonstrate very high-resolution optical spectrometry based on stimulated Brillouin scattering between a swept-tuned laser and a test optical signal. Measurement principles are presented along with spectral measurements of unmodulated and modulated optical sources showing 0.08-pm resolution and 80-dB dynamic range.

J. M. Subías Domingo; J. Pelayo; F. Villuendas; C. D. Heras; E. Pellejer

2005-01-01

208

Algorithms for automatic interpretation of high resolution mass spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated interpretation of high-resolution mass spectra in a reliable and efficient manner represents a highly challenging\\u000a computational problem. This work aims at developing methods for reducing a high-resolution mass spectrum into its monoisotopic\\u000a peak list, and automatically assigning observed masses to known fragment ion masses if the protein sequence is available.\\u000a The methods are compiled into a suite of data

Parminder Kaur; Peter B. O’Connor

2006-01-01

209

Nowcasting for a high-resolution weather radar network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term prediction (nowcasting) of high-impact weather events can lead to significant improvement in warnings and advisories and is of great practical importance. Nowcasting using weather radar reflectivity data has been shown to be particularly useful. The Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) radar network provides high-resolution reflectivity data amenable to producing valuable nowcasts. The high-resolution nature of CASA data

Evan Ruzanski

2010-01-01

210

High-resolution spectrographs on medium-diameter telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of high-resolution spectroscopic observations on telescopes with diameters of D = 0.5-1.5 m is considered. Examples of the optimum technical solutions and survivability of certain telescopes and methods of observation are given in retrospect. Improvements in the technique of spectroscopy allow one to also consider the potential of those instruments that were not originally intended for use in high-resolution spectroscopy. Arguments in favor of using medium-diameter telescopes in modern high-resolution spectroscopy are discussed. This review is connected to the 100th anniversary of the 122-cm telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory.

Panchuk, V. E.; Klochkova, V. G.

2013-06-01

211

Very high resolution spectroscopy of high Rydberg states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic and molecular Rydberg states in the range of principal quantum number n=100-500 have unusual properties: The classical orbits are extremely large (diameter larger than 1 ? m); the Rydberg electron is very weakly bound (by less than 1 meV); moreover, atoms and molecules in high Rydberg states are extremely sensitive to their environment and respond strongly to even small perturbations such as those induced by weak (stray) electric fields or particles located in their vicinity (T.F. Gallagher, Rydberg atoms) (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994),Rydberg states of atoms and molecules, Eds. R.F. Stebbings and F.B. Dunning (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983). The unusual properties of high Rydberg states are at the origin of the success of several new spectroscopic techniques, such as pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy and mass-analysed theshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy, that have been developed recently to study molecular ions (K. Müller- Dethlefs and E. W. Schlag, Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem.) 42, 109 (1991), F. Merkt Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 675 (1997). These techniques, which are used in an increasing number of laboratories, rely on the pulsed field ionization of high Rydberg states (n=100-500) located immediately below successive ionization thresholds in a molecule. Although possible impacts of uncontrolled external perturbations on the appearance of PFI-ZEKE spectra have been inferred recently (W.A. Chupka, J. Chem. Phys.) 98 4520 (1993), F. Merkt and R.N. Zare, J. Chem. Phys. 101 3495 (1994), these remain very difficult to assess: The experimental efforts needed to reduce, or at least quantify, the effects of stray electric fields and external perturbations on Rydberg states beyond n=100 are considerable and have not even been attempted so far by PFI-ZEKE and MATI spectroscopists. To fill in this gap, a new instrument has been developed to obtain very high resolution (250 kHz) spectra of molecular and atomic Rydberg states in the range of principal quantum number n=30-300 using a double resonance technique. Key components of the instrument are a high-resolution, broadly tunable (10-20 eV) extreme ultraviolett (XUV) laser system and a frequency stabilized source of millimeter waves. Selected results illustrating the capabilities of this instrument will be presented. First, a simple procedure (M. T. Frey, X. Ling, B. G. Lindsay, K. A. Smith and F. B. Dunning, Rev. Sci. Instrum.) 64 3649 (1993), based on the analysis of spectral line shifts of high Rydberg states as a function of electric field strength, is used to measure stray electric fields with an absolute accuracy of 50 ? V/cm and to subsequently compensate them, enabling the reduction of stray electric fields to less than 50 ?V/cm. Second, the analysis of spectral line shapes as a function of laser power is used to obtain distributions of electric field strengths as a function of the ion concentration in the experimental volume. Third, fully resolved Stark maps of high Rydberg states of krypton are obtained at n? 100 below the ^2P_3/2 ionization threshold. Finally, high precision measurement of the fine-structure splittings in p, d and f Rydberg states of the argon and the krypton atoms are reported. The hyperfine structure in high Rydberg states of the ^83Kr isotope has also been fully resolved. The implications of these results for PFI-ZEKE and MATI spectroscopy will be discussed.

Merkt, F.

1998-05-01

212

High-resolution tomographic imaging of microvessels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer belongs to the primary diseases these days. Although different successful treatments including surgery, chemical, pharmacological, and radiation therapies are established, the aggressive proliferation of cancerous cells and the related formation of blood vessels has to be better understood to develop more powerful strategies against the different kinds of cancer. Angiogenesis is one of the crucial steps for the survival and metastasis formation of malignant tumors. Although therapeutic strategies attempting to inhibit these processes are being developed, the biological regulation is still unclear. This study concentrates on the three-dimensional morphology of vessels formed in a mouse tumor xenograft model post mortem. Synchrotron radiation-based micro computed tomography (SR?CT) could provide the necessary information that is essential for validating the simulations. Using mouse and human brain tissue, the different approaches to extract the vessel tree from SR?CT data are discussed. These approaches include corrosion casting, the application of contrast agents such as barium sulfate, tissue embedding, all of them regarded as materials science based. Alternatively, phase contrast tomography was used, which gave rise to promising results but still not reaches the spatial resolution to uncover the smallest capillaries.

Müller, Bert; Lang, Sabrina; Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Germann, Marco; Pfeiffer, Franz; David, Christian; Weitkamp, Timm

2008-09-01

213

GLASS CERAMICS FOR HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGING  

SciTech Connect

Glass-ceramic materials are being developed for use in digital mammography systems. The materials are transparent x-ray storage phosphors, which are potentially less expensive than competing materials with superior performance. The materials do not suffer from loss of resolution and increased noise due to light scattering from grain boundaries, as do the currently available polycrystalline materials. The glass ceramics are based on Eu2+ -doped fluorochlorozirconate glasses. These can be heat treated to nucleate Eudoped barium chloride nanocrystals. The glass ceramic converts ionizing radiation (typically x-rays) into stable electronhole pairs that can be read by scanning a stimulating light beam across the glass to cause photostimulated luminescence (PSL) emission. Measurements on the materials are ongoing to elucidate structure-property relationships developed as a result of introducing rare-earth ions and modifying process conditions. Image quality measurements indicate that the current material competes with state-of-the-art x-ray imaging plates. The paper presents results on structure, properties and future directions of the materials described above.

Johnson, Jackie A. [University of Tennessee Space Institute; Weber, Rick [Materials Development, Inc., Evanston, IL; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; SCHWEIZER, Stefan [Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics, 06120 Halle, Germany

2008-01-01

214

High-resolution electronic particle detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-energy physics currently presents a heavy demand on high-accuracy particle detectors in the micrometer or tens of micrometer range. The most important developments in the measurement of momenta of charged particles in detectors being used around high-energy colliders are based on solid-state or gaseous electronics and are the subject of this review. In the field of gaseous detectors, it appears

Georges Charpak; Fabio Sauli

1984-01-01

215

High resolution flexible 3-RRR planar parallel micro-stage in near singular configuration for resolution improvement. Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing level of requirements in terms of performance, accuracy, repeatability and resolution in the semiconductors industry leads to several technological problems; among them the positioning accuracy and resolution are peculiarly important. In this paper, we address the crucial issue of high resolution and fast positioning mechanisms. We propose a novel type of high resolution and fast positioning mechanism, based

S. Ronchi; S. Krut; F. Pierrot; A. Fournier

2005-01-01

216

Sensitivity study of reliable, high-throughput resolution metricsfor photoresists  

SciTech Connect

The resolution of chemically amplified resists is becoming an increasing concern, especially for lithography in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regime. Large-scale screening and performance-based down-selection is currently underway to identify resist platforms that can support shrinking feature sizes. Resist screening efforts, however, are hampered by the absence of reliable resolution metrics that can objectively quantify resist resolution in a high-throughput fashion. Here we examine two high-throughput metrics for resist resolution determination. After summarizing their details and justifying their utility, we characterize the sensitivity of both metrics to two of the main experimental uncertainties associated with lithographic exposure tools, namely: limited focus control and limited knowledge of optical aberrations. For an implementation at EUV wavelengths, we report aberration and focus limited error bars in extracted resolution of {approx} 1.25 nm RMS for both metrics making them attractive candidates for future screening and down-selection efforts.

Anderson, Christopher N.; Naulleau, Patrick P.

2007-07-30

217

High resolution simulation of the South Asian monsoon using a variable resolution global climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the feasibility of using a variable resolution global general circulation model (GCM), with telescopic zooming and enhanced resolution (~35 km) over South Asia, to better understand regional aspects of the South Asian monsoon rainfall distribution and the interactions between monsoon circulation and precipitation. For this purpose, two sets of ten member realizations are produced with and without zooming using the LMDZ (Laboratoire Meteorologie Dynamique and Z stands for zoom) GCM. The simulations without zoom correspond to a uniform 1° × 1° grid with the same total number of grid points as in the zoom version. So the grid of the zoomed simulations is finer inside the region of interest but coarser outside. The use of these finer and coarser resolution ensemble members allows us to examine the impact of resolution on the overall quality of the simulated regional monsoon fields. It is found that the monsoon simulation with high-resolution zooming greatly improves the representation of the southwesterly monsoon flow and the heavy precipitation along the narrow orography of the Western Ghats, the northeastern mountain slopes and northern Bay of Bengal (BOB). A realistic Monsoon Trough (MT) is also noticed in the zoomed simulation, together with remarkable improvements in representing the associated precipitation and circulation features, as well as the large-scale organization of meso-scale convective systems over the MT region. Additionally, a more reasonable simulation of the monsoon synoptic disturbances (lows and disturbances) along the MT is noted in the high-resolution zoomed simulation. On the other hand, the no-zoom version has limitations in capturing the depressions and their movement, so that the MT zone is relatively dry in this case. Overall, the results from this work demonstrate the usefulness of the high-resolution variable resolution LMDZ model in realistically capturing the interactions among the monsoon large-scale dynamics, the synoptic systems and the meso-scale convective systems, which are essential elements of the South Asian monsoon system.

P Sabin, T.; Krishnan, R.; Ghattas, Josefine; Denvil, Sebastien; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Hourdin, Frederic; Pascal, Terray

2013-07-01

218

Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of

E. Braeuer-Krisch; A. Rosenfeld; M. Lerch; M. Petasecca; M. Akselrod; J. Sykora; J. Bartz; M. Ptaszkiewicz; P. Olko; A. Berg; M. Wieland; S. Doran; T. Brochard; A. Kamlowski; G. Cellere; A. Paccagnella; E. A. Siegbahn; Y. Prezado; I. Martinez-Rovira; A. Bravin; L. Dusseau; P. Berkvens

2010-01-01

219

High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

2003-08-01

220

High Resolution Rapidly Programmable Masking for Functional Electronic Blocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to provide new low-cost programmable maskmaker of high resolution. A study and investigation phase, in progress, includes the areas of maskmaking requirements, positioning systems, and optical techniques. The study and inv...

M. Sobottke R. Cady C. Kruer L. Brownsey

1964-01-01

221

Gabor Segmentation of High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the use of Gabor filters and a radial basis function (RBF) network for segmentation of high resolution (1 foot by 1 foot) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Processing involved correlation between the SAR imagery and Gabor fu...

M. A. Hazlett

1991-01-01

222

Optimal Wavelet Denoising for High Range Resolution Radar Classification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Noncooperative identification (NCTI) of airborne targets is a top priority for the Air Force and this thesis makes a significant contribution to that area. High range resolution radar (HRR) provides an attractive means to perform NCTI. When measured HRR d...

B. M. Huether

1999-01-01

223

High-resolution photoionization of Xe+ ions: Experiment and theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution photoionization measurements of Xe+ ions have been performed at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, California, USA. The experimental cross sections are compared with results from Dirac-Coulomb R-matrix calculations.

Aguilar, A.; Alna'washi, G.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Carr, A.; Esteves, D. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Mülled, A.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Red, E.; Schippers, S.; Sterling, N. C.; Ballance, C. P.; McLaughlin, B. M.

2012-11-01

224

High Resolution Sensing Techniques for Slope Stability Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), conducted a four-phase evaluation of high resolution remote sensing techniques for application to problems of determining slope stability. The first two phases,...

R. L. Jesch R. B . Johnson D. R. Belsher A. D. Yaghjian M. C. Steppe

1979-01-01

225

Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates i...

H. Abramowicz H. Czyrkowski A. Derlicki M. Krzyzanowski I. Kudla

1991-01-01

226

High resolution microtomography for density and spatial infomation ...  

Treesearch

Title: High resolution microtomography for density and spatial infomation about ... The sample is mounted on a translation stage with which to center the ... to perform the rotation during data collection and a motorized goniometer head for small ...

227

High Resolution Radar Polarimetric Observations of the Lunar South Pole  

Microsoft Academic Search

New high resolution radar observations of the lunar south pole have provided images of the circular polarization ratio that support the hypothesis that any water ice present must be widely disseminated in the lunar regolith.

D. B. Campbell; B. A. Campbell; L. M. Carter; J. L. Margot; N. J. S. Stacy

2006-01-01

228

High Resolution Alpha Spectroscopy by Liquid Scintillation Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of high-resolution liquid scintillation spectroscopy is described as an inexpensive and rapid method for the determination of radium-226 (an identified health hazard) and other alpha-emitting radionuclides in environmental water samples. Procedure...

E. G. Coombs

1980-01-01

229

Automated Segmentation of Scleroderma in High Resolution CT Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we describe a system implemented to automatically classify and quantitatively measure the extent of a lung disease called Scleroderma using High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) imagery. Scleroderma is a disease characterized by a slow...

F. L. Fortson D. Lynch J. Newell

2003-01-01

230

Infrared Land Surface Remote Sensing using High Spectral Resolution Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors will describe results of combining high spectral resolution infrared observations with high spatial resolution observations to provide an improved assessment of land surface characteristics. In particular, the high spectral resolution observations of the airborne Scanning-High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS)and NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) will be used to derive land surface temperature and infrared emissivity measurements. The MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) observations will be used to quantify the sub-pixel land surface variability. Ground truth observations from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer will be presented. The remote sensing techniques will be extended to the satellite based observations of the Interferometeric Monitor for greenhouse Gases (IMG) as well as to simulations of the AIRS and MODIS measurements from the NASA EOS Aqua platform.

Knuteson, R.; Deslover, D.; Larar, A.; Osborne, B.; Revercomb, H.; Short, J.; Smith, W.; Tanamachi, R.

231

Microbeam X-Ray Standing Wave and High Resolution Diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Post-focusing collimating optics are introduced as a tool to condition X-ray microbeams for the use in high-resolution X-ray diffraction and scattering techniques. As an example, a one-bounce imaging capillary and miniature Si(004) channel-cut crystal were used to produce a microbeam with 10 {mu}m size and an ultimate angular resolution of 2.5 arc sec. This beam was used to measure the strain in semiconductor microstructures by using X-ray high resolution diffraction and standing wave techniques to {delta}d/d < 5x10-4.

Kazimirov, A.; Bilderback, D.H.; Huang, R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Sirenko, A. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

2004-05-12

232

Molybdenum nitride nanoparticles — high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and size of molybdenum nitride nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Typical sizes of the particles were between 3 and 5 nm and they were mostly clustered together. High-resolution lattice imaging shows that the particles are single crystalline in nature and defect free. Two different phases of molybdenum nitride, ?-Mo2N (cubic) and ?-MoN (hexagonal) were identified.

J. Chaudhuri; L. Nyakiti; R. Lee; Y. Ma; P. Li; Q. L. Cui; L. H. Shen

2007-01-01

233

Exogenous lipoid pneumonia: high-resolution CT findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to assess high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of exogenous lipoid pneumonia. High-resolution\\u000a computed tomography was obtained in 25 patients with proven exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from aspiration of squalene\\u000a (derived from shark liver oil). Diagnosis was based on biopsy (n = 9), bronchoalveolar lavage (n = 8), or sputum cytology and clinical findings

J. S. Lee; J.-G. Im; K. S. Song; J. B. Seo; T.-H. Lim

1999-01-01

234

Towards a High-Resolution Global Coupled Navy Prediction System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of our recent work has been to complete the global high-resolution ocean and the eddy-permitting coupled ice\\/ocean simulations using the Los Alamos Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model and the sea ice model (CICE), as well as the first reanalysis using the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) and POP (SODA POP 1.2). The high-resolution (0.1degree) global ocean model was

Julie L. McClean; Detelina Ivanova; P. Thoppill; M. Maltrud; E. Hunke; W. Lipscomb; J. Carton; B. Giese

2005-01-01

235

The Scientific Impact of High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new era of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy began with the launches of Chandra and XMM-Newton in 1999. In the same way Chandra represents a factor of 100 improvement in spatial resolution compared to ASCA, the High and Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometers (HETGS\\/LETGS) aboard Chandra and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Netwon represent factors of 5-400 improvement in

C. R. Canizares; D. Huenemoerder; H. Marshall; M. Nowak; N. S. Schulz

2006-01-01

236

High Resolution HI Study of IC 10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed study of the properties of the HI gas in and around the Local Group galaxy IC 10. Our observations show that the HI kinematics in the disk are highly complex. In addition we find evidence of infall from the large, extended HI halo into the disk of IC 10. Previously known to have a relatively high star formation rate as well as complex gas kinematics, IC 10 presents an interesting laboratory in which to study both the relationship between star formation and the ISM and the role of extended HI gas in determining the characteristics of the galactic disk.

Hodge, P.; Wilcots, E.; Miller, B.

1994-12-01

237

High Resolution Atlas of Mg II Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An atlas of high dispersion Mg II profiles for standard stars of spectral types B0 through G9 is presented. The atlas contains plots of the Mg II profiles for approximately 65 stars and associated equivalent width measurements for both absorption and emis...

R. Ewald J. Y. Nichols-bohlin Y. Kondo

1990-01-01

238

Ultra High Resolution Dynamic Foveal Vision Display.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Navy Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will be used to fabricate, measure, and test a novel optical design for use in a new type of ultra-high-definition (UHD) head mounted virtual reality display (HMD) that can incorporate a UHD AOI...

J. B. Eichenlaub

2010-01-01

239

High resolution applications in nondestructive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioscopy and computed tomography in medical applications are well established and have reached a high level of development. Compared to medical applications industrial nondestructive-testing (NDT) has to deal with a large variety of different materials and material combinations, densities and density dynamics, geometries and structures which need to be inspected. This large variation necessitates the use and intelligent combination of

Norman Uhlmann; Frank Nachtrab; Michael Salamon; Susanne Burtzlaff; Theobald Fuchs; Randolf Hanke

2008-01-01

240

High resolution urban feature extraction for global population mapping using high performance computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of high spatial resolution satellite imagery like Quick Bird (0.6 meter) and IKONOS (1 meter) has provided a new data source for high resolution urban land cover mapping. Extracting accurate urban regions from high resolution images has many applications and is essential to the population mapping efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) LandScan population distribution program. This

Veeraraghavan Vijayaraj; Eddie A Bright; Budhendra L Bhaduri

2007-01-01

241

Super high-resolution mesoscale weather prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A five-year research project of high performance regional numerical weather prediction is underway as one of the five research fields of the Strategic Programs for Innovative Research (SPIRE). The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate feasibility of precise prediction of severe weather phenomena using the K-computer. Three sub-themes of the project are shown with achievements at the present and developments in the near future.

Saito, K.; Tsuyuki, T.; Seko, H.; Kimura, F.; Tokioka, T.; Kuroda, T.; Duc, L.; Ito, K.; Oizumi, T.; Chen, G.; Ito, J.; the Spire Field 3 Mesoscale Nwp Group

2013-08-01

242

Microbeam High Angular Resolution Diffraction Applied to Optoelectronic Devices  

SciTech Connect

Collimating perfect crystal optics in a combination with the X-ray focusing optics has been applied to perform high angular resolution microbeam diffraction and scattering experiments on micron-size optoelectronic devices produced by modern semiconductor technology. At CHESS, we used capillary optics and perfect Si/Ge crystal(s) arrangement to perform X-ray standing waves, high angular-resolution diffraction and high resolution reciprocal space mapping analysis. At the APS, 2ID-D microscope beamline, we employed a phase zone plate producing a beam with the size of 240 nm in the horizontal plane and 350 nm in the vertical (diffraction) plane and a perfect Si (004) analyzer crystal to perform diffraction analysis of selectively grown InGaAsP and InGaAlAs-based waveguides with arc sec angular resolution.

Kazimirov, A.; Bilderback, D. H. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Sirenko, A. A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Cai, Z.-H.; Lai, B. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, IL 60439 (United States)

2007-01-19

243

High-resolution signal synthesis for time-frequency distributions  

SciTech Connect

Bilinear time-frequency distributions (TFDs) offer improved resolution over linear nine-frequency representations (TFRs), but many TFDs are costly to evaluate and are not associated with signal synthesis algorithms. Recently, the spectrogram (SP) decomposition and weighted reversal correlator decomposition have been used to define low-cost, high-resolution TFDs. In this paper, we show that the vector-valued square-root'' of a TFD (VVTFR) provides a representational underpinning for the TFD. By synthesizing signals from modified VVTFRs, we define high-resolution signal synthesis algorithms associated with TFDs. The signal analysis and synthesis packages can be implemented as weighted sums of SP/short-time Fourier Transform signal analysis and synthesis packages, which are widely available, allowing the interested non-specialist easy access to high-resolution methods.

Cunningham, G.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Williams, W.J. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

1993-01-01

244

High-resolution signal synthesis for time-frequency distributions  

SciTech Connect

Bilinear time-frequency distributions (TFDs) offer improved resolution over linear nine-frequency representations (TFRs), but many TFDs are costly to evaluate and are not associated with signal synthesis algorithms. Recently, the spectrogram (SP) decomposition and weighted reversal correlator decomposition have been used to define low-cost, high-resolution TFDs. In this paper, we show that the vector-valued ``square-root`` of a TFD (VVTFR) provides a representational underpinning for the TFD. By synthesizing signals from modified VVTFRs, we define high-resolution signal synthesis algorithms associated with TFDs. The signal analysis and synthesis packages can be implemented as weighted sums of SP/short-time Fourier Transform signal analysis and synthesis packages, which are widely available, allowing the interested non-specialist easy access to high-resolution methods.

Cunningham, G.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Williams, W.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

1993-03-01

245

Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for ( sup 125 I) iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide (N-(2-((((cyclohexylamino)carbonyl)amino)sulfonyl)ethyl)-5-{sup 125}I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of ({sup 125}I)iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels.

Gehlert, D.R.; Gackenheimer, S.L.; Mais, D.E.; Robertson, D.W. (Eli Lilly and Co., Indianapolis, IN (USA))

1991-05-01

246

High-resolution ultrafast eye tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an eye tracking system that combines optical and electronic image processing for the precise measurement of eye movement parameters, including direction, speed, and acceleration. The system applies optical joint Fourier transform correlator and novelty filtering to measure the cross-correlation peak displacement caused by eye movements using magnified images of iris landmark patterns. This permits a 0.026 degree(s) accuracy of eye displacement measurements within a 6 degree(s) tracking range, or a 0.1 degree(s) accuracy within a 20 degree(s) range. Using digital micromirror device SLMs in the Fourier transform optical system, an inverse Fourier transform DSP module, and a high-speed digital camera, the eye tracking system will make it possible to detect and characterize saccadic intrusions in smooth pursuit eye movement.

Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Vasiliev, Anatoly A.; Kim, Dai H.; Savant, Gajendra D.

1997-12-01

247

Extraction of high-resolution frames from video sequences.  

PubMed

The human visual system appears to be capable of temporally integrating information in a video sequence in such a way that the perceived spatial resolution of a sequence appears much higher than the spatial resolution of an individual frame. While the mechanisms in the human visual system that do this are unknown, the effect is not too surprising given that temporally adjacent frames in a video sequence contain slightly different, but unique, information. This paper addresses the use of both the spatial and temporal information present in a short image sequence to create a single high-resolution video frame. A novel observation model based on motion compensated subsampling is proposed for a video sequence. Since the reconstruction problem is ill-posed, Bayesian restoration with a discontinuity-preserving prior image model is used to extract a high-resolution video still given a short low-resolution sequence. Estimates computed from a low-resolution image sequence containing a subpixel camera pan show dramatic visual and quantitative improvements over bilinear, cubic B-spline, and Bayesian single frame interpolations. Visual and quantitative improvements are also shown for an image sequence containing objects moving with independent trajectories. Finally, the video frame extraction algorithm is used for the motion-compensated scan conversion of interlaced video data, with a visual comparison to the resolution enhancement obtained from progressively scanned frames. PMID:18285187

Schultz, R R; Stevenson, R L

1996-01-01

248

High resolution positron tomography using PCR-I  

SciTech Connect

PCR-I is a high resolution positron tomograph developed by the Physics Research Laboratory of the Massachusetts General Hospital to explore resolution limits of positron tomographs. PCR-I currently obtains images with 4.8 mm FWHM resolution at the center. Plane thickness may be varied between 5 and 10 mm. The instrument uses analog coding to obtain high resolution images without mechanical motion. This permits rapid dynamic imaging and gated cardiac imaging as well as conventional high resolution imaging. A series of studies has been carried out to demonstrate the ability of PCR-I to image structures in small animals. F-18 in the rat skeleton is clearly defined and various structures such as the spinal processes can be clearly resolved. A sequence of images at different spacing provides a three-dimensional reconstruction of the rat skeleton. Blood volume and palmitic acid have been imaged in the dog heart. Again, the sequence of images provides a clear delineation of the three dimensional nature of the blood pools and of the surrounding musculature. Blood flow, blood volume and glucose metabolism have been studied in the monkey brain. Structures within the brain of the Resus monkey can be clearly resolved. Increased activity resulting from induced seizures in the squirrel monkey have been observed and delineated. All of these studies indicate areas of future animal and clinical research using the high resolution tomograph, PCR-I.

Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.; Sandrew, B.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Livni, E.; Kizuka, H.

1984-01-01

249

High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency (˜70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 ?m and a temporal resolution of ˜1 ?s—combined with the virtual absence of readout noise—make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual ˜400 ?m grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a ˜700 ?m thick metal casing.

Tremsin, A. S.; McPhate, J. B.; Vallerga, J. V.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Feller, W. B.; Lehmann, E.; Butler, L. G.; Dawson, M.

2011-10-01

250

[Extracting municipal solid waste dumps based on high resolution images].  

PubMed

The dramatically increasing informal MSW dumps are endangering the urban environment. Remote sensing (RS) technologies are more efficient to monitor and manage municipal solid wastes (MSW) than traditional survey-based methods. In high spatial resolution remotely sensed images, these irregularly distributed dumps have complex compositions and strong heterogeneities, thus it is still hard to extract them automatically no matter the pixel-or object-based image analysis method is used. Therefore, based on the analysis of MSW characteristics, the present study develops a multiresolution strategy to extract MSW dumps by combining image features at both high resolution and resampled low heterogeneity images, while the high resolution images can provide detailed information and the low resolution images can suppress the strong heterogeneities of informal MSW dumps. Taking the QuickBird image covering part of Beijing as an example, this multi-resolution strategy produced a high accuracy (75%), indicating that this multi-resolution strategy is quite effective for extracting the open-air informal MSW dumps. PMID:24159838

Zhang, Fang-Li; Du, Shi-Hong; Guo, Zhou

2013-08-01

251

Spectral consistent satellite image fusion: using a high resolution panchromatic and low resolution multi-spectral images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several widely used methods have been proposed for fusing high resolution panchromatic data and lower resolution multi-channel data. However, many of these methods fail to maintain spectral consistency of the fused high resolution image, which is of high importance to many of the applications based on satellite data. Additionally, most conventional methods are loosely connected to the image forming physics

Ari Vesteinsson; Johannes R. Sveinsson; Jon Atli Benediktsson; Henrik Aanaes

2005-01-01

252

High-energy resolution alpha spectrometry using cryogenic detectors.  

PubMed

Applications such as environment monitoring implying alpha emitters activity measurement associated with isotope identification, require high-energy resolution detectors. Conventional silicon detectors are inexpensive therefore widely used, although intrinsically limited in energy resolution. Thermal detection principle of cryogenic detectors introduces a breakthrough in alpha particle measurement. For the first time, spectra with 5.5 keV FWHM energy resolution have been obtained for several external alpha emitting sources using a copper-germanium bolometer specially developed for alpha spectrometry. PMID:16618545

Leblanc, E; Coron, N; Leblanc, J; de Marcillac, P; Bouchard, J; Plagnard, J

2006-04-18

253

Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System  

SciTech Connect

It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {micro}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {micro}m.

Walston, S; Boogert, S; Chung, C; Fitsos, P; Frisch, J; Gronberg, J; Hayano, H; Honda, Y; Kolomensky, Y; Lyapin, A; Malton, S; May, J; McCormick, D; Meller, R; Miller, D; Orimoto, T; Ross, M; Slater, M; Smith, S; Smith, T; Terunuma, N; Thomson, M; Urakawa, J; Vogel, V; Ward, D; White, G

2006-12-18

254

High-resolution Real-Time Radiography (RTR) system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution real-time radiography (RTR) system was designed for aerospace component X-ray inspections in the 20 to 300 kV range. Particulate and glass X-ray converters, image intensifiers, and video camera components were performance tested for resolution greater than 10 lp/mm, dynamic range greater than 1000, contrast sensitivity of 1 percent, and image size of 12 x12 in. A breadboard RTR system, constructed with optimized components, produced 1024 x 1024 pixels per image with 8 bits per pixel. Computer controlled optical zooming achieved horizontal fields of view from 12.8 to 0.5 in. and corresponding resolutions of 3 to 80 pixels mm. Conceptual high-resolution RTR prototype systems were designed using the test results.

Klynn, L. M.; Barry, R. C.; Barker, M. D.; Bueno, C.; Maple, T. G.

1987-07-01

255

Performance of a High Resolution Cavity Beam Position Monitor System  

SciTech Connect

It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than one nanometer. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 {mu}rad over a dynamic range of approximately {+-} 20 {mu}m.

Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Joe; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David John; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; /Fermilab /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Cambridge U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Cornell U., LNS /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /SLAC /Caltech /KEK, Tsukuba

2007-06-08

256

High-resolution radiography by means of a hodoscope  

DOEpatents

The fast neutron hodoscope, a device that produces neutron radiographs with coarse space resolution in a short time, is modified to produce neutron or gamma radiographs of relatively thick samples and with high space resolution. The modification comprises motorizing a neutron and gamma collimator to permit a controlled scanning pattern, simultaneous collection of data in a number of hodoscope channels over a period of time, and computerized image reconstruction of the data thus gathered.

De Volpi, Alexander (Hinsdale, IL)

1978-01-01

257

The Suzaku High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) has been designed to provide the Suzaku Observatory with non-dispersive, high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. As designed, the instrument covers the energy range 0.3 to 12keV, which encompasses the most diagnostically rich part of the X-ray band. The sensor consists of a 32-channel array of X-ray microcalorimeters, each with an energy resolution of about 6eV. The very low

Richard L. Kelley; Kazuhisa Mitsuda; Christine A. Allen; Petar Arsenovic; Michael D. Audley; Thomas G. Bialas; Kevin R. Boyce; Robert F. Boyle; Susan R. Breon; Gregory V. Brown; Jean Cottam; Michael J. Dipirro; Ryuichi Fujimoto; Tae Furusho; Keith C. Gendreau; Gene G. Gochar; Oscar Gonzalez; Masayuki Hirabayashi; Stephen S. Holt; Hajime Inoue; Manabu Ishida; Yoshitaka Ishisaki; Carol S. Jones; Ritva Keski-Kuha; Caroline A. Kilbourne; Dan McCammon; Umeyo Morita; S. Harvey Moseley; Brent Mott; Katsuhiro Narasaki; Yoshiaki Ogawara; Takaya Ohashi; Naomi Ota; John S. Panek; F. Scott Porter; Aristides Serlemitsos; Peter J. Shirron; Gary A. Sneiderman; Andrew E. Szymkowiak; Yoh Takei; June L. Tveekrem; Stephen M. Volz; Mikio Yamamoto; Noriko Y. Yamasaki

2007-01-01

258

Active high resolution time delay estimation for large BT signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different high-resolution time-delay estimation (HRTDE) methods, a temporal method and a frequency method, specially adapted to large bandwidth duration (BT) product time-resolvent signals, are described. The performance gain of these methods is shown to be about four times better in comparison with the classical time-delay resolution methods. The frequency HRTDE method is applied to real data obtained from an

Marie-Agnks Pallas; Genevike Jourdain

1991-01-01

259

Reflection Mode Imaging with High Resolution X-rayMicroscopy  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first demonstration of imaging microstructures with soft x-ray microscopy operating in reflection geometry. X-ray microscopy in reflection mode combines the high resolution available with x-ray optics, the ability to image thick samples, and to directly image surfaces and interfaces. Future experiments with this geometry will include tuning the incident angle to obtain depth resolution. In combination with XMCD as magnetic contrast mechanism this mode will allow studies of deep buried magnetic interfaces.

Denbeaux, Greg; Fischer, Peter; Salmassi, Farhad; Dunn, Kathleen; Evertsen, James

2005-04-02

260

Recursive reconstruction of high resolution image from noisy undersampled multiframes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several applications it is required to reconstruct a high-resolution noise-free image from multipath frames of undersampled low-resolution noisy images. Using the aliasing relationship between the undersamples frames and the reference image, an algorithm based on weighted recursive least-squares theory is developed in the wavenumber domain. This algorithm is efficient because interpolation and noise removal are performed recursively, and is

S. P. Kim; N. K. Bose; H. M. Valenzuela

1990-01-01

261

Infrared emission high spectral resolution atlas of the stratospheric limb  

SciTech Connect

An atlas of high resolution infrared emission spectra identifies a number of gaseous atmospheric features significant to stratospheric chemistry in the 770--900- and 1100--1360-cm/sup -1/ regions at six zenith angles from 86.7 to 95.1/sup 0/. A balloon-borne Michelson interferometer was flown to obtain /similar to/0.03-cm/sup -1/ resolution spectra. Two 10-cm/sup -1/ extracts are presented here.

Maquire, W.C.; Kunde, V.G.; Herath, L.W.

1989-03-15

262

In vivo fluorescence imaging with high-resolution microlenses  

PubMed Central

Micro-optics are increasingly used for minimally invasive in vivo imaging, in miniaturized microscopes and in lab-on-a-chip devices. Owing to optical aberrations and lower numerical apertures, a main class of microlens, gradient refractive index lenses, has not achieved resolution comparable to conventional microscopy. Here we describe high-resolution microlenses, and illustrate two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal neurons and dual-color nonlinear optical imaging of neuromuscular junctions in live mice.

Barretto, Robert P J; Messerschmidt, Bernhard; Schnitzer, Mark J

2010-01-01

263

Detecting Frequency of Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensors with High Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for detecting the frequency of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with high resolution to realize an inexpensive and easy-expanding array sensor system. The principle of proposed method is measuring the difference of the resonant frequency of a reference QCM and the QCM with sensory film (sensor probe) with a resolution of 0.1-0.2 Hz installed in a

Shigeki Ogawa; Michiko Seyama; Hiroki Kuwano

2010-01-01

264

High-resolution global upper mantle structure and plate tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global high-resolution S wave velocity model RG5.5 is obtained for the upper 500 km of Earth's mantle using a 5 x 5 deg equal-area block parameterization. The data set consists of some 18,000 seismograms associated with 971 events with magnitudes larger than 5.5. Fundamental modes are used with periods from 75 to 250 s. The horizontal resolution length is

Yu-Shen Zhang; Toshiro Tanimoto

1993-01-01

265

High resolution XPS characterization of chemical functionalised MWCNTs and SWCNTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution XPS analysis of chemical functionalised multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) was done with ESCA300 (overall instrument resolution of 0.35eV). Information to the degree of functionalisation was ascertained by argon ion bombardment of the samples followed by XPS analysis to detect the functional groups, the percentage atomic concentration of various elements present and whether

T. I. T. Okpalugo; P. Papakonstantinou; H. Murphy; J. McLaughlin; N. M. D. Brown

2005-01-01

266

Digital pulse processing in high resolution, high throughput, gamma-ray spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for processing signals produced by high resolution, large volume semiconductor detectors is described. These detectors, to be used in the next generation of spectrometer arrays for nuclear research (i.e., EUROBALL, etc.), present a set of problems, such as resolution degradation due to charge trapping and ballistic deficit effects, poor resolution at a high count rate, long term

Andrey Georgiev; Werner Gast

1993-01-01

267

High Resolution Narrow-Field Versus Low Resolution Widefield Observations of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing evidence that small-scale phenomena occurring in the inner regions of galaxies are related to large-scale phenomena such as, merging or violent interactions between galaxies. The aim of this communication is to illustrate the complementarity between high-resolution, small-field telescopes and Schmidt-type telescopes for the study of this phenomenology.

Capaccioli, M.; Davoust, E.; Lelievre, G.; Nieto, J. L.

268

High resolution BPMS with integrated gain correction system  

SciTech Connect

High resolution beam position monitors (BPM) are an essential tool to achieve and reproduce a low vertical beam emittance at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The ATF damping ring (DR) BPMs are currently upgraded with new high resolution read-out electronics. Based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, the upgrade includes an automatic gain calibration system to correct for slow drift effects and ensure high reproducible beam position readings. The concept and its technical realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

Wendt, M.; Briegel, C.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Voy, D.; /Fermilab; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2009-08-01

269

High resolution electron microscopic characterization of interfaces in ceramics  

SciTech Connect

High resolution electron microscopy (HREM) is useful in bringing out the microstructural variations, such as structural details at grain boundaries, at very high resolutions, even at atomic levels. An important aspect is the examination of the surface irregularities at the boundary regions which provide information on the transformation characteristics of the phases. In this paper, we present data on the microstructural characteristics of some high temperature ceramics (silicon nitride, mullite, and aluminum nitride) with particular emphasis on the detection of grain boundary amorphous phases. Furthermore, the HREM technique is reevaluated with reference to other techniques.

Sarikaya, M.; Aksay, I.A.; Thomas, G.

1984-08-01

270

Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal, for high-resolution telescopes, will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can serve as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly, one after another, using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch open telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points in the guider image which indicates the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. Automatic production of flats is also programmed. For the first time, mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions. The mosaic movies show larger regions of the solar disk in high resolution and fill a gap between available whole-sun images with limited spatial resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Lin, Yong; Martin, Sara F.; Panasenco, Olga; Romashets, Eugene P.

2013-08-01

271

EVALUATION OF REMOTELY SENSED HIGH RESOLUTION ELEVATION DATA IN TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is high potential for increasing the quality, efficiency, and effectiveness in presentation and planning of many varied NRCS business activities including conservation practices utilizing spatial analysis processes with remotely sensed high resolution elevation data. Prior to implementation of elevation derivatives into production activities using GIS processes and models, how well the surface generated captures reality needs to be evaluated.

Waylon Dwain Daniels; J. Steven Nechero; Dennis Williamson

272

A high resolution computed tomographic system for industrial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a high-resolution computed tomography system designed especially for industrial examinations. This system has been used to examine aircraft engine turbine blades for dimensional accuracy, high-performance ceramics for density distributions and defects, and components from the automotive industry. Results of these measurements are presented.

Nuding, W.; Grimm, R.; Link, R.; Wiacker, H.; Munro, John J., III

273

Shallow Water High Resolution MultiBeam Echo Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Shallow water High Resolution Multi-Beam Echo Sounder (SHMBES), which will be used widely in modern ocean exploration and underwater engineering. It is highly synthesized and developed on the basis of many new techniques such as theories of underwater acoustic and modern signal processing, Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), DSP array processing, etc. It is mainly composed

Haisen Li; Bin Yao; Tian Zhou; Yukuo Wei; Baowei Chen; Xiao Liu; Haixin Yu; Ningning Weng

2008-01-01

274

High spectral resolution measurements for the ARM Program  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the design and fabrication of high spectral resolution FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) instrumentation for the CART sites of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The ultimate objective of this grant is to develop three different types of instruments, named the AERI, AERI-X, and SORT. The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) is the simplest. It will be available for early deployment at the first ARM site and will be deployable at several locations in the extended network to give horizontal coverage. The AERI will be an 0.5 cm{sup {minus}1} resolution instrument, which measures accurately calibrated radiance spectra for radiation studies and for remote sensing of atmospheric state variables. The AERI-X and the SORTI are higher spectral resolution instruments for obtaining the highest practical resolution for spectroscopy at the ARM central sites. The AERI-X, like the AERI will measure atmospheric emitted radiance, but with resolutions as high as 0.1 cm{sup {minus}1}. The Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer will measure the total transmission of the atmosphere by tracking the sun through changes in atmospheric air mass. The large solar signal makes it practical for this instrument to offer the ultimate in spectral resolution, about 0.002 cm{sup {minus}1}.

Revercomb, H.E.

1992-05-22

275

High speed, low noise, fine resolution TDI CCD imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method employed to design a 2048 by 96 time-delay-and-integration (TDI) CCD imager is described. Design tradeoffs are emphasized, such as those between pixel pitch, dead space between pixels in the horizontal direction, high speed, high photosensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. A high-speed on-chip output amplifier design and the efficacious use of buried channel MOSFETs are also shown.

Chamberlain, Savvas G.; Washkurak, William D.

276

Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction  

SciTech Connect

High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

1999-07-27

277

Evaluating multi-scale precipitation forecasts using high resolution analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAL (Structure, Amplitude, Location) method is used for verification of precipitation forecasts at horizontal grid spacings ranging from 2.5 km to 25 km, using a high-resolution 1 km precipitation analysis as a reference. The verification focuses on a summertime period with predominantly convective precipitation. The verification domain contains lowland as well as alpine areas. Evaluation of the individual SAL components shows that with regard to area mean values (A) the benefit of high resolutions models becomes apparent only in high impact weather situations. For the summertime period studied, the subjective impression of better structured precipitation fields (S) in higher resolution models can generally be confirmed. The most significant improvement appears to be associated with explicit simulation of deep convection.

Wittmann, C.; Haiden, T.; Kann, A.

2010-07-01

278

Ultrastable high-resolution spectrographs for large telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This short contribution presents the demanding requirements of scientific cases for ultra-high stability spectrography, from the study of subtle radial velocity changes induced by asteroseismology to the ones produced by extra-solar planetary companions. The analysis of physical conditions in cool interstellar clouds is presented as a typical application of ultra-high resolution spectrography. The main technical challenges associated with such instruments are outlined, including focal stations and light feeding methods. As a possible way to combine both modes in a single instrument, we describe a design case for the ultra-stable high resolution spectrograph that we are proposing for the Gemini south telescope, specified to detect radial velocity variations down to one meter per second and also to achieve near diffraction- limited spectral resolution approaching one million. This versatile instrument would occupy an insulated room in the pier of the telescope and would be fed initially by an optical fiber coming from the Cassegrain focal station.

Diego, Francisco; Crawford, Ian A.; Walker, David D.

1998-07-01

279

The theory and practice of high resolution scanning electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in instrumentation have produced the first commercial examples of what can justifiably be called High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopes. The key components of such instruments are a cold field emission gun, a small-gap immersion probe-forming lens, and a clean dry-pumped vacuum. The performance of these microscopes is characterized by several major features including a spatial resolution, in secondary electron mode on solid specimens, which can exceed 1nm on a routine basis; an incident probe current density of the order of 10{sup 6} amps/cm{sup 2}; and the ability to maintain these levels of performance over an accelerating voltage range of from 1 to 30keV. This combination of high resolution, high probe current, low contamination and flexible electron-optical conditions provides many new opportunitites for the application of the SEM to materials science, physics, and the life sciences. 27 refs., 14 figs.

Joy, D.C. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA) Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

280

High-resolution investigations of edge effects in neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edge enhancement is the main effect measured by the so-called inline or propagation-based neutron phase contrast imaging method. The effect has originally been explained by diffraction, and high spatial coherence has been claimed to be a necessary precondition. However, edge enhancement has also been found in conventional imaging with high resolution. In such cases the effects can produce artefacts and hinder quantification. In this letter the edge effects at cylindrical shaped samples and long straight edges have been studied in detail. The enhancement can be explained by refraction and total reflection. Using high-resolution imaging, where spatial resolutions better than 50 ?m could be achieved, refraction and total reflection peaks - similar to diffraction patterns - could be separated and distinguished.

Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Kühne, G.; Frei, G.; Manke, I.

2009-06-01

281

Broadband THz high-resolution interferometry using coherent synchrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In storage rings, short electron bunches can produce an intense THz radiation called Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR). The flux of this emission between 250 and 750 GHz is very advantageous for spectroscopy, but intensity fluctuations lead to artifacts in the FTIR spectra and, until now, prevented the use of CSR for high-resolution measurements. At SOLEIL, we found stable CSR conditions for which the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) allows for measurements at high resolution. Moreover, we developed an artifact correction system, based on a simultaneous detection of the input and the output signals of the interferometer, which allows improving further the signal-to-noise ratio. The stable CSR combined with this ingenious technique allowed us to record for the first time high-resolution FTIR spectra in the sub-THz range, with an exceptional S/N of 100 in a few hours.

Barros, J.; Manceron, L.; Brubach, J.-B.; Evain, C.; Couprie, M.-E.; Tordeux, M.-A.; Labat, M.; Bielawski, S.; Szwaj, C.; Ursu, R.; Roy, P.

2012-10-01

282

Structural Information, Resolution, and Noise in High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy Topographs  

PubMed Central

AFM has developed into a powerful tool in structural biology, providing topographs of proteins under close-to-native conditions and featuring an outstanding signal/noise ratio. However, the imaging mechanism exhibits particularities: fast and slow scan axis represent two independent image acquisition axes. Additionally, unknown tip geometry and tip-sample interaction render the contrast transfer function nondefinable. Hence, the interpretation of AFM topographs remained difficult. How can noise and distortions present in AFM images be quantified? How does the number of molecule topographs merged influence the structural information provided by averages? What is the resolution of topographs? Here, we find that in high-resolution AFM topographs, many molecule images are only slightly disturbed by noise, distortions, and tip-sample interactions. To identify these high-quality particles, we propose a selection criterion based on the internal symmetry of the imaged protein. We introduce a novel feature-based resolution analysis and show that AFM topographs of different proteins contain structural information beginning at different resolution thresholds: 10 Å (AqpZ), 12 Å (AQP0), 13 Å (AQP2), and 20 Å (light-harvesting-complex-2). Importantly, we highlight that the best single-molecule images are more accurate molecular representations than ensemble averages, because averaging downsizes the z-dimension and “blurs” structural details.

Fechner, Peter; Boudier, Thomas; Mangenot, Stephanie; Jaroslawski, Szymon; Sturgis, James N.; Scheuring, Simon

2009-01-01

283

76 FR 56735 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution Survey in Nantucket Sound, MA AGENCY: National...to pre-construction high resolution survey activities. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal...seals, incidental to high resolution survey activities. Upon receipt of...

2011-09-14

284

76 FR 80891 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution Survey in Nantucket Sound, MA AGENCY: National...to pre-construction high resolution survey activities in Nantucket Sound. DATES...conducting a high resolution geophysical survey in Nantucket Sound. Upon receipt of...

2011-12-27

285

78 FR 19217 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution Survey in Nantucket Sound, MA AGENCY: National...to pre-construction high resolution survey activities in Nantucket Sound. DATES...mammals incidental to high resolution survey activities. NMFS determined that...

2013-03-29

286

High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

Buban, James P.; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D.; Stahlberg, Henning

2010-01-01

287

High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

288

Progress in high-resolution x-ray holographic microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Among the various types of x-ray microscopes that have been demonstrated, the holographic microscope has had the largest gap between promise and performance. The difficulties of fabricating x-ray optical elements have led some to view holography as the most attractive method for obtaining the ultimate in high resolution x-ray micrographs; however, we know of no investigations prior to 1987 that clearly demonstrated submicron resolution in reconstructed images. Previous efforts suffered from problems such as limited resolution and dynamic range in the recording media, low coherent x-ray flux, and aberrations and diffraction limits in visible light reconstruction. We have addressed the recording limitations through the use of an undulator x-ray source and high-resolution photoresist recording media. For improved results in the readout and reconstruction steps, we have employed metal shadowing and transmission electron microscopy, along with numerical reconstruction techniques. We believe that this approach will allow holography to emerge as a practical method of high-resolution x-ray microscopy. 30 refs., 4 figs.

Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Howells, M.; McQuaid, K.; Rothman, S.; Feder, R.; Sayre, D.

1987-07-01

289

Quantifying and containing the curse of high resolution coronal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future missions such as Solar Orbiter (SO), InterHelioprobe, or Solar Probe aim at approaching the Sun closer than ever before, with on board some high resolution imagers (HRI) having a subsecond cadence and a pixel area of about (80 km)2 at the Sun during perihelion. In order to guarantee their scientific success, it is necessary to evaluate if the photon counts available at these resolution and cadence will provide a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For example, if the inhomogeneities in the Quiet Sun emission prevail at higher resolution, one may hope to locally have more photon counts than in the case of a uniform source. It is relevant to quantify how inhomogeneous the quiet corona will be for a pixel pitch that is about 20 times smaller than in the case of SoHO/EIT, and 5 times smaller than TRACE. We perform a first step in this direction by analyzing and characterizing the spatial intermittency of Quiet Sun images thanks to a multifractal analysis. We identify the parameters that specify the scale-invariance behavior. This identification allows next to select a family of multifractal processes, namely the Compound Poisson Cascades, that can synthesize artificial images having some of the scale-invariance properties observed on the recorded images. The prevalence of self-similarity in Quiet Sun coronal images makes it relevant to study the ratio between the SNR present at SoHO/EIT images and in coarsened images. SoHO/EIT images thus play the role of "high resolution" images, whereas the "low-resolution" coarsened images are rebinned so as to simulate a smaller angular resolution and/or a larger distance to the Sun. For a fixed difference in angular resolution and in Spacecraft-Sun distance, we determine the proportion of pixels having a SNR preserved at high resolution given a particular increase in effective area. If scale-invariance continues to prevail at smaller scales, the conclusion reached with SoHO/EIT images can be transposed to the situation where the resolution is increased from SoHO/EIT to SO/HRI resolution at perihelion.

Delouille, V.; Chainais, P.; Hochedez, J.-F.

2008-10-01

290

A new type of high-resolution neutron spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movement of a neutron interferometer transverse to the incoming beam produces an interference pattern in velocity space. A change of the neutron velocity due to the scattering in the sample leads to an observable change in the interference pattern. Such a spectrometer has an extremely high-energy resolution approaching the picoelectronvolt region that is a few orders of magnitude higher than the resolution achievable by neutron spin-echo (NSE) spectrometers. Similar to NSE spectrometers, the resolution is not connected with the monochromatization of the incoming beam. However, in contrast to NSE spectrometers the operation of the proposed spectrometer does not necessarily require a polarized neutron beam. By decoupling the polarization and the resolution new possibilities are opened for the study of magnetic phenomena in solids, where the NSE method is principally not applicable because of neutron precession in the sample. The use of the proposed technique in a low-resolution mode can be useful in combination with triple-axis spectrometers allowing a dramatic improvement in their energy resolution without the use of polarized neutrons, and hence avoiding the problem of parasitic magnetic fields.

Ioffe, A.

2000-06-01

291

Collaborative Visualization using High-Resolution Tiled Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision situation-rooms and research laboratories in which all the walls are made from seamless ultra-high-resolution displays fed by data streamed over ultra-high-speed networks from distantly located visualization, storage servers, and high definition video cameras [1,6]. It will allow local and distributed groups of researchers to work together on large amounts of distributed heterogeneous datasets. From working with our collaborators

Luc Renambot; Byungil Jeong; Ratko Jagodic; Andrew Johnson; Jason Leigh

292

A high resolution scintillating fiber gamma-ray telescope.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillating fibers coupled to position sensitive photomultipliers have good angular precision and good energy resolution in detecting gamma-rays. Scintillating fibers stacked up into scintillating fiber planes U, V and W that are rotated by 60° angle relative to each other and coupled to position sensitive photomultipliers can be used as high resolution imaging gamma-ray detectors. With this arrangement the Compton electron or pair production point can be determined by the scintillation photons reaching the photomultipliers. A 3-dimensional conversion point accuracy is expected to be ?rms ? 1 mm. The authors are presenting the design of a large area gamma-ray detector with high angular and energy resolution for space based experiments, using scintillating fibers and recently developed position sensitive photomultiplier tubes.

Atac, M.; Cline, D. B.; Park, J.; Fenyves, E. J.; Chaney, R. C.; Hammack, H.

293

An Introduction to High Resolution Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution coherent multidimensional spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze and assign peaks for molecules that have resisted spectral analysis. Molecules that yield heavily congested and seemingly patternless spectra using conventional methods can yield 2D spectra that have recognizable patterns. The off-diagonal region of the coherent 2D plot shows only cross-peaks that are related by rotational selection rules. The resulting patterns facilitate peak assignment if they are sufficiently resolved. For systems that are not well-resolved, coherent 3D spectra may be generated to further improve resolution and provide selectivity. This presentation will provide an introduction to high resolution coherent 2D and 3D spectroscopies.

Chen, Peter C.; Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

2013-06-01

294

HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry in clinical laboratory?  

PubMed

To date, GC-MS and LC-tandem MS techniques emerged quite frequently in laboratory medicine. However, high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) analyzers remain almost ignored, even though in academic environment, they become more largely used. The main objective of this work is to present and illustrate with several applications, current high resolution mass spectrometric systems which could be useful for clinical applications. Among these systems are the Time-of-Flight (TOF) and Orbitrap instruments. Orbitrap has the advantage of higher resolution but suffers from a slower data acquisition, whereas TOF systems display the opposite characteristics. Both systems could provide accurate mass data and possible structural elucidation, very useful in large scale screening, in different medical areas (clinical or environmental toxicology, anti-doping controls, …). Provided there are further improvements in quantification performances, there is no doubt such HRMS instruments will find their place in clinical laboratories. PMID:20727871

Jiwan, Jean-Louis Habib; Wallemacq, Pierre; Hérent, Marie-France

2010-08-18

295

High angular resolution millimeter observations of circumstellar disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this lecture, we review the properties of protoplanetary disks as derived from high angular resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths. We discuss how the combination of several different high angular resolution techniques allow us to probe different regions of the disk around young stellar objects and to derive the properties of the dust when combined with sophisticated disk models. The picture that emerges is that the dust in circumstellar disks surrounding pre-main sequence stars is in many cases significantly evolved compared to the dust in molecular clouds and the interstellar medium. It is however still difficult to derive a consistent picture and timeline for dust evolution in disks as the observations are still limited to small samples of objects. We also review the evidence for and properties of disks around high-mass young stellar objects and the implications on their formation mechanisms. The study of massive YSOs is complicated by their short lifetimes and larger average distances. In most cases high angular resolution data at millimeter wavelengths are the only method to probe the structure of disks in these objects. We provide a summary of the characteristics of available high angular resolution millimeter and submillimeter observatories. We also describe the characteristics of the ALMA observatory being constructed in the Chilean Andes. ALMA is going to be the world leading observatory at millimeter wavelengths in the coming decades, the project is now in its main construction phase with early science activities envisaged for 2010 and full science operations for 2012.

Testi, Leonard; Leurini, Silvia

2008-06-01

296

High Resolution Urban Feature Extraction for Global Population Mapping using High Performance Computing  

SciTech Connect

The advent of high spatial resolution satellite imagery like Quick Bird (0.6 meter) and IKONOS (1 meter) has provided a new data source for high resolution urban land cover mapping. Extracting accurate urban regions from high resolution images has many applications and is essential to the population mapping efforts of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) LandScan population distribution program. This paper discusses an automated parallel algorithm that has been implemented on a high performance computing environment to extract urban regions from high resolution images using texture and spectral features

Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2007-01-01

297

Imaging performance of a DEPFET pixel Bioscope system in Tritium autoradiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Bioscope system based on a 64×64-matrix of DEPFET pixels has been developed for real-time digital autoradiography in biomedical applications. It provides very good energy and spatial resolution at the same time. The DEPFET pixel cells consist of p-channel JFETs integrated into the high-ohmic n-silicon substrate. This leads to a very low noise performance at room temperature. Two dedicated ASIC chips have been developed for steering and readout of the pixel matrix. The measured system noise of (69±4)e at 35C is mostly due to sensor leakage current and can be largely reduced by cooling or a faster readout. The spatial resolution is examined by measurements with a laser as well as with a dedicated test chart and is determined to be (6.7±0.7)?m for 6 keV-X-rays and 4.3±0.8?m for 22 keV-X-rays. The measurements are compared to simulation results with different reconstruction algorithms. Due to the thin entrance window at the detector backside and the low noise performance, a detection of low-energy ?-emitters such as 3H is possible. Measurements with 3H-labeled biological samples were taken. The ability of the DEPFET pixel Bioscope to separate different radiolabels in the same sample is demonstrated by a measurement with 3H and 14C.

Ulrici, J.; Fischer, P.; Klein, P.; Lutz, G.; Neeser, W.; Richter, R.; Strüder, L.; Trimpl, M.; Wermes, N.

2005-08-01

298

Mid-infrared high-resolution spectrograph for SPICA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminary optical design and layout for the mid-infrared (4-18 ?m) high-resolution spectrograph for SPICA, Japanese next-generation space IR observatory with 3.5 m telescope. MIR high-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful probe to study gas-phase molecules/atoms in a variety of astronomical objects. Space observation provides a great opportunity to study many molecular lines especially in between the atmospheric windows. SPICA gives us a chance to realize MIR high-resolution spectroscopy from space with the large telescope aperture. The major technical challenge is the size of the spectrograph, which tends to be too large for space. We hope to overcome this problem with a novel MIR immersion grating, which can make the instrument smaller by a factor of the refractive index of the grating material. We plan to fabricate a large pitch ZnSe (n = 2.4) immersion grating with the fly-cutting technique at LLNL (see Poster paper 7018-183 by Ikeda et al.1 and 7018-181 by Kuzmenko et al.2 in the proceedings of this conference). We show our preliminary spectrograph designs with a spectral resolution of ~30,000 in 4-8 ?m (short mode) and 12-18 ?m (long mode). The instrument size can be as small as 200 × 400 mm thanks to the MIR immersion gratings. With unprecedented spectral resolution in space, which is 10-times higher than ISO-SWS, the high-resolution spectrograph for SPICA (SPICA-HIRES) could be a unique instrument that can provide most sensitive and clear spectra of this kind.

Kobayashi, Naoto; Ikeda, Yuji; Kawakita, Hideyo; Enya, Keigo; Nakagawa, Takao; Kataza, Hirokazu; Matsuhara, Hideo; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Tokoro, Hitoshi

2008-08-01

299

High-resolution precipitation and temperature downscaling for glacier models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial resolution gap between global or regional climate models and the requirements for local impact studies motivates the need for climate downscaling. For impact studies that involve glacier modelling, the sparsity or complete absence of climate monitoring activities within the regions of interest presents a substantial additional challenge. Downscaling methods for this application must be independent of climate observations and cannot rely on tuning to station data. We present new, computationally-efficient methods for downscaling precipitation and temperature to the high spatial resolutions required to force mountain glacier models. Our precipitation downscaling is based on an existing linear theory for orographic precipitation, which we modify for large study regions by including moist air tracking. Temperature is downscaled using an interpolation scheme that reconstructs the vertical temperature structure to estimate surface temperatures from upper air data. Both methods are able to produce output on km to sub-km spatial resolution, yet do not require tuning to station measurements. By comparing our downscaled precipitation (1 km resolution) and temperature (200 m resolution) fields to station measurements in southern British Columbia, we evaluate their performance regionally and through the annual cycle. Precipitation is improved by as much as 30% (median relative error) over the input reanalysis data and temperature is reconstructed with a mean bias of 0.5°C at locations with high vertical relief. Both methods perform best in mountainous terrain, where glaciers tend to be concentrated.

Jarosch, Alexander H.; Anslow, Faron S.; Clarke, Garry K. C.

2012-01-01

300

Upcoming challenges in high-resolution CT below 1 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides the pixel size of the detector and the size of the focal spot the resolution of a computed tomography (CT) setup depends especially on the spatial stability of all components. In this publication we present the performance of our sub-?-CT components and the limitations resulting from spatial instability of the system. We will show that it is possible to overcome these limitations and reach resolution in the range of 500 nm. The experimental setup is based on high-resolution imaging detectors, a multifocus X-ray tube and a high-precision manipulation system. Our research contains measurements of the effective focal spot size using a resolution test mask and of the long-term stability of the focal spot position due to thermal expansion of the focusing unit. Also the stability of the X-ray intensity that affects the quality of CT will be corrected by additional bright image correction during the measurement. Due to the measured instabilities correction of the original images is necessary to achieve highest resolution. Solutions and results will be presented.

Salamon, M.; Burtzlaff, S.; Voland, V.; Sukowski, F.; Uhlmann, N.

2009-08-01

301

High Resolution Survey of the Disk of M31.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes research activities funded for SAO Proposal P3481-5-95, 'Monitoring the Center of M31'. Related activities for SAO Proposal P3486- 5-95, 'A High-Resolution Survey of the Disk of M31' are also described. The research involved the data...

F. A. Primini

2000-01-01

302

A high resolution phosphor screen for XUV detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an XUV detector with a spatial resolution of about 6 microns designed to fly on the normal incidence X-ray telescope (NIXT) rocket package. The telescope is a 254 mm diameter Ritchey-Chretien system which relies on unusually high accuracy multilayer coatings to image active regions on the sun. The coatings are reflective in a narrow band centered on

B. J. Sams III; L. Golub; K. Kalata

1988-01-01

303

A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

2006-01-01

304

High-resolution solar spectroscopy in the undergraduate physics laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The richness of the solar spectrum at visible wavelengths makes it ideally suited for many laboratory exercises in optical spectroscopy. A number of such experiments taking advantage of a high-resolution scanning spectrometer are described as they have been performed by seniors at Middlebury College. Physical principles emphasized include optical depth, the nature of molecular spectra, the Doppler effect, and the

Stephen J. Ratcliff; Darcy K. Noss; Jeffrey S. Dunham; Eric B. Anthony; John H. Cooley; Alberto Alvarez

1992-01-01

305

HIGH RESOLUTION G-BANDED CHROMOSOMES OF THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

High resolution G-banded mouse chromosomes were prepared using an actinomycin D and acridine orange pretreatment protocol, resulting in late prophase mouse chromosomes which reveal over twice the number of bands as compared to mid-metaphase. These elongated chromosomes, described...

306

High resolution Wigner distribution using chirp Z-transform analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chirp Z-transform is used in the Wigner distribution for high resolution spectrum analysis. It has the capability to zoom onto the area of the signal of interest, which makes it a very useful spectral analysis tool for analyzing nonstationary time-varying signals. This capability results in a more reliable and accurate spectral analysis on the time-frequency plane

Soo-Chang Pei; Ing-Ing Yang

1991-01-01

307

Gemini high-resolution optical spectrograph conceptual design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multiplexed moderate resolution (R = 34,000) and a single object high resolution (R = 90,000) spectroscopic facility for the entire 340 - 950nm wavelength region has been designed for Gemini. The result is a high throughput, versatile instrument that will enable precision spectroscopy for decades to come. The extended wavelength coverage for these relatively high spectral resolutions is achieved by use of an Echelle grating with VPH cross-dispersers and for the R = 90,000 mode utilization of an image slicer. The design incorporates a fast, efficient, reliable system for acquiring targets over the7 arcmin field of Gemini. This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study instrument group of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics has been commissioned by the Gemini Observatory as one of the three competing organizations to conduct a conceptual design study for a new Gemini High-Resolution Optical Spectrograph (GHOS). This paper outlines the science case development and requirements flow-down process that leads to the configuration of the HIA instrument and describes the overall GHOS conceptual design. In addition, this paper discusses design trades examined during the conceptual design study.

Szeto, Kei; McConnachie, Alan; Anthony, André; Bohlender, David; Crampton, David; Desaulniers, Pierre; Dunn, Jennifer; Hardy, Tim; Hill, Alexis; Monin, Dmitry; Pazder, John; Schwab, Christian; Spano, Paola; Starkenburg, Else; Thibault, Simon; Walker, Gordon; Venn, Kim; Zhang, Hu

2012-09-01

308

A new type of high-resolution neutron spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement of a neutron interferometer transverse to the incoming beam produces an interference pattern in velocity space. A change of the neutron velocity due to the scattering in the sample leads to an observable change in the interference pattern. Such a spectrometer has an extremely high-energy resolution approaching the picoelectronvolt region that is a few orders of magnitude higher

Alexander Ioffe

2000-01-01

309

Segmentation of a High Resolution Urban Scene Using Texture Operators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a study aimed at segmenting a high resolution black and white image of Sunnyvale, California. In this study regions were classified as belonging to any one of nine classes, residential, commercial/industrial, mobile home, water, dry l...

R. W. Conners M. M. Trivedi C. A. Harlow

1982-01-01

310

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, MOD 2 Engineering Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced High Resolution Radiometer, Mod 2 (AVHRR/2) is a modification of the original AVHRR (AVHRR/1) to expand the number of channels from four to five and provide additional sensing in the infrared region. A comparison of the spectral regions emplo...

1980-01-01

311

High-Resolution, Large-Area, Nano Imprint Lithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains results from four different basic research projects under the Phase I of US-Korea NBIT Program (2007-2010). It is the 2nd year results covering research results from 2008-2009. It begins with the fourth report, 'High-resolution, Lar...

K. Kim M. Jo S. Park Y. Lee

2009-01-01

312

High-Resolution Seismic Reflection to Monitor Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution seismic reflection has proven a valuable tool detecting changes in fluid composition, rock petrophysical properties, and structures critical to reservoir production management and groundwater protection in Kansas. Surface seismic reflection is not a method that lends itself to direct detection and delineation of boundaries between different fluid compositions in porous media. However, time-lapse seismic does appear to have been

R. D. Miller; A. E. Raef; J. L. Lambrecht; A. P. Byrnes

2006-01-01

313

High energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect

A brief review is presented of various aspects of high energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering based on synchrotron sources. We show what kinematical advantages are provided by the photon probe and propose mirror and monochromator designs to achieve an optically efficient beam line for inelastic x-ray scattering.

Hastings, J.B.; Moncton, D.E.; Fujii

1984-01-01

314

Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope has been developed. The system incorporates a fixed linear polarizer in the illumination path and a rotatory quarter-wave plate and another fixed linear polarizer in the registration path. Retinal areas that are smaller than those provided by commercial instruments can be imaged. Series of four fundus images for independent polarization states in the

Juan M. Bueno; Brian Vohnsen

2005-01-01

315

HIGH RESOLUTION VERTICLE PROFILES OF PH IN RECENT SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

High resolution (0.1 cm sampling interval) profiles of pH were obtained from some recent estuarine (Long Island Sound, Chesapeake Bay) and freshwater (Lake Erie) sediments and from laboratory microcosms containing homogenized Lake Erie sediment (both with and without tubificid ol...

316

High spatial resolution radar altimetry for global Earth topography mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the work performed by Alenia Aerospazio in the design of new radar altimeter systems suitable for high spatial resolution Earth topography observation. The instrument concept proposed is based on the application of synthetic aperture processing and interferometric techniques to a conventional Ku band pulse limited system. The major design features and expected performance are briefly presented

G. Angino; F. Impagnatiello; C. Zelli

1997-01-01

317

High Range Resolution (HRR) profiling within low elevation search mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the high range resolution (HRR) profiling technique for generating the target range profile while the radar is in the low elevation search mode. The major advantage of this concept is reuse of the moving target detection (MTD) radar data for formulating the target range profile to provide the early target classification, discrimination, and identification (CDI)

Fabio Bonanni; Claudio Ponzi; Quoc Henry Pham

2008-01-01

318

High resolution dynamical mapping of social interactions with active RFID  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an experimental framework to gather data on face-to-face social in- teractions between individuals, with a high spatial and temporal resolution. We use active Radio Frequency Identication (RFID) devices that assess contacts with one another by exchanging low- power radio packets. When individuals wear the beacons as a badge, a persistent radio contact between the RFID

Alain Barrat; Ciro Cattuto; Vittoria Colizza; Jean-Francois Pinton; Wouter Van Den Broeck; Alessandro Vespignani

2008-01-01

319

Imaging of plant microtubules with high resolution scanning electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary High resolution scanning electron microscopy was used to obtain images of cortical microtubules and associated structures in onion root tips. Specimens were prepared using a modified quick-freeze deep-etch technique utilising cytosolic extraction with saponin and conductive staining with osmium.

P. A. Vesk; D. G. Rayns; M. Vesk

1994-01-01

320

Lunar Orbiter Revived: Very High Resolution Views of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Program report on the progress of the Lunar Orbiter filmstrip scanning, archiving and processing efforts. We describe the status of the global mosaic and describe additional work on very high resolution data of the Moon's near side acquired at low altitude.

L. Weller; B. Redding; T. L. Becker; L. Gaddis; R. Sucharski; D. Soltesz; D. A. Cook; B. A. Archinal; A. Bennett; T. McDaniel

2006-01-01

321

Lunar Orbiter Revived: Very High Resolution Views of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

U.S. Geological Survey Astrogeology Program report on the progress of the Lunar Orbiter filmstrip scanning, archiving and processing efforts. We describe the status of the global mosaic and describe additional work on very high resolution data of the Moon's near side acquired at low altitude.

Weller, L.; Redding, B.; Becker, T. L.; Gaddis, L.; Sucharski, R.; Soltesz, D.; Cook, D. A.; Archinal, B. A.; Bennett, A.; McDaniel, T.

2006-03-01

322

Wavelet Denoising for Multilead High Resolution ECG Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the application of wavelet denoising in noise reduction of multichannel high resolution ECG signals. In particular, the influence of the selection of wavelet function and the choice of decomposition level on efficiency of denoising process were considered and whole procedures of noise reduction were implemented in MatLab environment. The Fast Wavelet Transform

M. Kania; M. Fereniec; R. Maniewski

2007-01-01

323

Current developments in high resolution x-ray measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in high resolution x-ray measurements are reviewed. Among the more interesting developments are sub-1000A˚ x-ray images, multilayer x-ray interfernce coatings, free standing transmission gratings, 20 psec soft x-ray streak cameras, normal incidence x-ray mirrors, and tabulated atomic scattering factors.

D. T. Attwood; N. M. Ceglio; H. M. Medecki; H. I. Smith; A. M. Hawryluk; T. W. Jr. Barbee; W. K. Warburton; J. H. Underwood; B. L. Henke; T. H. P. Chang; M. Hatzakis; D. P. Kern; P. J. Coane; W. W. Molzen; A. J. Speth; G. L. Stradling; D. W. Sweeney

1982-01-01

324

High resolution electron energy loss studies of surface vibrations  

SciTech Connect

New experimental studies of surface vibrational properties of materials with high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) are reported. This document summarizes recent progress on surface phonon dispersion measurements on copper (001); silver (001) and (111); oxygen adsorption on ultrathin films of cobalt and nickel; aluminum on silicon (111); and copper-oxide based superconductors.

Kesmodel, L.L.

1992-05-01

325

A computerized high resolution underwater ultrasound triangulation mapping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computerized high resolution ultrasound underwater triangulation mapping system has been developed for the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. This system determines the position of a mobile ultrasound transmitter using a stationary calibration ultrasound transmitter and three ultrasound receivers. All three receivers and both transmitters are hardlinked to the surface via data lines connected to an IBM PC portable computer. The

D. Hahn; G. Williams; M. Wilcox; P. Wilcox

1985-01-01

326

Laser direct writing of rotationally symmetric high-resolution structures.  

PubMed

We present a laser direct writing system for the efficient fabrication of high-resolution axicon structures. The setup makes use of scanning beam interference lithography incorporated with a fringe locking scheme for tight fringe phase control and allows us to fabricate large area structures with a period down to 450 nm. PMID:22086024

Haefner, Matthias; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang

2011-11-01

327

High Resolution X-ray Views of Solar System Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade Chandra, and XMM-Newton, have revealed the beauty and multiplicity of X-ray emissions in our solar system: high resolution data, in both spectral and spatial domains, have been crucial in disentangling the physical processes at work. The talk will review the main findings in this area at the boundary between astrophysics and planetary science, and will show

Graziella Branduardi-Raymont

2011-01-01

328

High Resolution Magnetostratigraphy from Plio-Pleistocene Sediments, Armenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pleistocene geology of Armenia is dominated by the widespread occurrence of lacustrine diatomites. The onset of diatomite deposition in southern Armenia started at about 2 Myr. The importance of these sediments stems from the fact that they provide a high resolution archive of environmental conditions, especially during the emergence of early man in the region some 1.8 Myr ago

U. Kirscher; V. Bachtadse; A. A. Bruch; I. Gabrielyan

2008-01-01

329

Urban road extraction from high-resolution optical satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many approaches have been exploited for automatic urban road extraction. Most of these approaches are based on edge and line detecting algorithms. In this paper, a new integrated system for automatic extraction of main roads in high-resolution optical satellite images is present. Firstly, a multi-scale greylevel morphological cleaning algorithm is proposed to reduce the grey deviation of

Hui Long; Zhongming Zhao

2005-01-01

330

Oil spill detection using a coastal high-resolution radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we propose a new GLRT technique to detect oil spills dipping into a non Gaussian clutter using a coastal (VTS) radar with high resolution and working in X- band. Analyzing a real dataset stored by the IPIX radar in Canada, we show that a non-coherent integration of the received pulses in the slow time domain, particularly over

Fabrizio Santi; Pierfrancesco Lombardo; Debora Pastina

2011-01-01

331

High resolution flow field prediction for tail rotor aeroacoustics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of tail rotor noise due to the impingement of the main rotor wake poses a significant challenge to current analysis methods in rotorcraft aeroacoustics. This paper describes the development of a new treatment of the tail rotor aerodynamic environment that permits highly accurate resolution of the incident flow field with modest computational effort relative to alternative models. The

Todd R. Quackenbush; Donald B. Bliss

1989-01-01

332

A high resolution tower shadow model for downwind wind turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high resolution model for tower shadow effects on horizontal axis wind turbines has been developed which involves the use of a prescribed wake vortex model and an efficient near wake dynamic model of the vorticity trailed from the blade. The prescribed wake model is applied at first stage of the modelling strategy to provide basic information on blade aerodynamics.

Tongguang Wang; Frank N. Coton

2001-01-01

333

EVALUATING HIGH RESOLUTION QUICKBIRD SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR ESTIMATING COTTON YIELD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High spatial resolution imagery from recently launched satellite sensors offers new opportunities for crop management. The objective of this study was to evaluate QuickBird satellite imagery for mapping plant growth and yield variability in cotton fields. A QuickBird image scene with 2.8 m resolutio...

334

USING HIGH RESOLUTION QUICKBIRD SATELLITE IMAGERY FOR COTTON YIELD ESTIMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High spatial resolution imagery from recently launched satellite sensors offers new opportunities for crop management and agricultural applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate QuickBird satellite imagery for mapping plant growth and yield variability in cotton fields. A QuickBird im...

335

IDENTIFICATION OF URBAN CHARACTERISTIC USING IKONOS HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use patterns are fragile and sophisticated in Taiwan. In order to rapidly derive detail information of land use\\/land cover, it is necessary to employ remote sensing techniques because of its broad area coverage and fast data acquirement. The purposes of this research are to use high-resolution satellite images, such as IKONOS, to obtain urban land use information, and to

Ching-Yi Kuo; Tien-Yin Chou; Re-Yang Lee

2001-01-01

336

Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) recently developed an airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to measure aerosol distributions and optical properties. The HSRL technique takes advantage of the spectral distribution of the lidar return signal to discriminate aerosol and molecular signals and thereby measure aerosol extinction and backscatter independently. The LaRC instrument employs the HSRL technique to measure aerosol backscatter

R. Ferrare; C. Hostetler; J. Hair; A. Cook; D. Harper; L. Kleinman; A. Clarke; P. Russell; J. Redemann; J. Livingston; J. Szykman; J. Al-Saadi

2007-01-01

337

Adaptive high-resolution simulation of realistic gaseous detonation waves  

SciTech Connect

The numerical approximation of detonation waves in gaseous combustible mixtures is extremely demanding since a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. A dynamically adaptive high-resolution finite volume method is described that has enabled accurately resolved computational investigations of the transient behavior of regularly oscillating detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in realistic two-dimensional geometry.

Deiterding, Ralf [ORNL

2007-01-01

338

Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references.

Wen, S.L. (Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Academia Sinica (China))

1989-01-01

339

An overview of high-resolution synthetic stellar libraries.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the main properties of seven libraries of synthetic stellar spectral energy distributions at high resolution (Brott & Hauschildt, MARCS, Munari et al., Martins et al., Coelho et al., UVBLUE, and BLUERED). We also show a qualitative comparison of the spectral behaviour of these grids.

Bertone, E.

340

Preparation of cell membranes for high resolution imaging by AFM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of cell membrane structure by atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been limited because of the softness of cell membranes. Here, we utilize a new technique of sample preparation to lay red blood cell membranes on the top of a mica surface to obtain high resolution images by in-situ AFM on both sides of cell membranes. Our results indicate that

Hongda Wang; Xian Hao; Yuping Shan; Junguang Jiang; Mingjun Cai; Xin Shang

2010-01-01

341

Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

2012-01-01

342

High resolution archaeology at Verberie: Limits and interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verberie is a late Palaeolithic site with high resolution in the preservation of archaeological materials and their spatial configuration. While excellent preservation offers great promise for the interpretation of past human behavior, it cannot be assumed that this is a totally pristine site. Post?depositional pedogenetic processes have eradicated stratigraphic bedding of the sediments, leaving a methodological challenge for the archaeologists

Françoise Audouze; James G. Enloe

1997-01-01

343

HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS  

SciTech Connect

This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

SCHOFIELD JS

2007-10-04

344

Signal processing methods to improve high resolution ECG signal averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent signal averaging as a method to enhance signal to noise ratio (SNR) relies on the determination of a fiducial point for temporal alignment of signals. Various alignment methods have been proposed but they produce alignment errors when the signal is corrupted with noise, resulting in a low-pass filtering effect on the averaged signal. In high resolution ECG, alignment errors

Luis G. Herrera-Bendezu; Bart G. Denys; P. S. Reddy

1992-01-01

345

Extraction of coral bleaching by using high resolution satellite imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, we propose the technique of extracting the coral bleaching from a satellite image, carry out the simulation experiment in order to verify the effectiveness. It is an image of Taketomi-island in Japan photographed by high resolution satellite IKONOS. The sample pixels are extracted from each area in coral bleaching, dead coral, living coral, sand in sea, deep

Kenshi Shinya; Tsutomu Nagayoshi; Dongshik Kang; Hayao Miyagi

2004-01-01

346

Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

Zeidman, B. (ed.)

1981-01-01

347

XUV Source for Ultra-High Resolution Photoionization Spectroscopy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tunable vuv-xuv laser system with good pulse energy (>100mJ in the visible) and narrow bandwidth (<210MHz in the xuv) was built in order to do ultra-high resolution photoionization spectroscopy. The capabilities of this system have been demonstrated wit...

E. Cromwell A. H. Kung T. Trickl Y. T. Lee

1988-01-01

348

XUV source for ultra-high resolution photoionization spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A tunable vuv-xuv laser system with good pulse energy (>100mJ in the visible) and narrow bandwidth (<210MHz in the xuv) was built in order to do ultra-high resolution photoionization spectroscopy. The capabilities of this system have been demonstrated with a study of isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting in Kr Rydbeg levels.

Cromwell, E.; Kung, A.H.; Trickl, T.; Lee, Y.T.

1988-01-01

349

The benefits of high resolution mass spectrometry in environmental analysis.  

PubMed

The benefits of high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) are well known and widely realized in various applications; however, HRMS is very rarely utilized in environmental GC/MS analyses. It is assumed that low resolution GC/MS provides adequate and reliable results in the majority of cases dealing with priority pollutants and other volatile and semivolatile compounds. As environmental issues become more and more important in modern society and new generations of high resolution and high mass accuracy mass spectrometers become available, it is quite reasonable to expect improvements in sensitivity, reliability and quantity of information provided by GC/MS analyses. This article demonstrates the advantages of high resolution GC/MS for qualitative and quantitative environmental analyses including targeted and non-targeted approaches as well as de novo structural elucidation of analytes not present in commercial libraries. Most of the examples presented here involve the GC/MS analysis of snow samples collected in 2012 and 2013 in Moscow, Russia. PMID:24087826

Lebedev, Albert T; Polyakova, Olga V; Mazur, Dmitry M; Artaev, Viatcheslav B

2013-10-15

350

Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

2012-01-01

351

Progress report on NASA's high resolution microwave survey targeted search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high resolution microwave survey (HRMS) will use existing radio telescopes around the world to search for evidence of extraterrestrial technologies. A sky survey and a targeted search will be done. Results of the first 206 hours of targeted search observations are given and were used for the verification of equipment function and of software intended to automatically recognize and discriminate against terrestrial interference.

Tarter, Jill C.

1993-10-01

352

High-resolution lithography based on selective removal of atoms  

SciTech Connect

A new method of high-resolution lithography based on selective removal of atoms is described. Drawbacks of lift-off lithography in comparison with the method proposed are pointed out and test structures of metal (Mo) stripes with a thickness of 50 nm are obtained.

Domantovskii, A. G.; Gurovich, B. A.; Maslakov, K. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2006-12-15

353

Fluid interaction with high-resolution wall-size displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes new interaction techniques for direct pen-based interaction on the Interactive Mural, a large (6?x3.5?) high resolution (64 dpi) display. They have been tested in a digital brainstorming tool that has been used by groups of professional product designers. Our \\

François Guimbretière; Maureen C. Stone; Terry Winograd

2001-01-01

354

Vehicles detection from very high resolution satellite imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates an inductive learning approach classification technique for vehicle detection and enumeration on very high resolution imagery. It tests pre-processing procedures applied to different images with different atmospheric conditions and automatic detection algorithms for detection and enumeration. This work contributes to the longer term objective that is beyond the scope of this paper to use vehicles counts to

A. Gerhardinger; D. Ehrlich; M. Pesaresi

2005-01-01

355

3D high resolution pure optical photoacoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of pure optical photoacoustic microscopy(POPAM) was proposed based on optical rastering of a focused excitation beam and optically sensing the photoacoustic signal using a microring resonator fabricated by a nanoimprinting technique. After some refinedment of in the resonator structure and mold fabrication, an ultrahigh Q factor of 3.0×105 was achieved which provided high sensitivity with a noise equivalent detectable pressure(NEDP) value of 29Pa. This NEDP is much lower than the hundreds of Pascals achieved with existing optical resonant structures such as etalons, fiber gratings and dielectric multilayer interference filters available for acoustic measurement. The featured high sensitivity allowed the microring resonator to detect the weak photoacoustic signals from micro- or submicroscale objects. The inherent superbroad bandwidth of the optical microring resonator combined with an optically focused scanning beam provided POPAM of high resolution in the axial as well as both lateral directions while the axial resolution of conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) suffers from the limited bandwidth of PZT detectors. Furthermore, the broadband microring resonator showed similar sensitivity to that of our most sensitive PZT detector. The current POPAM system provides a lateral resolution of 5?m and an axial resolution of 8?m, comparable to that achieved by optical microscopy while presenting the unique contrast of optical absorption and functional information complementing other optical modalities. The 3D structure of microvasculature, including capillary networks, and even individual red blood cells have been discerned successfully in the proof-of-concept experiments on mouse bladders ex vivo and mouse ears in vivo. The potential of approximately GHz bandwidth of the microring resonator also might allow much higher resolution than shown here in microscopy of optical absorption and acoustic propagation properties at depths in unfrozen tissue specimens or thicker tissue sections not now imageable with current optical or acoustic microscopes of comparable resolution.

Xie, Zhixing; Chen, Sung-Liang; Ling, Tao; Guo, L. Jay; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

2012-02-01

356

High-resolution SHARAQ spectrometer at RI Beam Factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-resolution SHARAQ spectrometer and the dedicated beam-line have been constructed at the RI beam factory. Cathode-readout drift chambers placed at the focal plane of SHARAQ and multi-wire drift chambers in the beam-line worked satisfactorily for heavy ion beams with Z = 1-7 at 200-250 MeV/nucleon. By introducing a dispersion matched operation of the beam-line, we have achieved a momentum resolution of ?p/p = 1/8100 for a primary beam of 14N beam with a momentum spread of ±0.1%.

Uesaka, T.; Michimasa, S.; Ota, S.; Saito, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Sasamoto, Y.; Miki, K.; Noji, S.; Tokieda, H.; Miya, H.; Kawase, S.; Shimoura, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Sakai, H.; Yako, K.; Itoh, S.; Kawabata, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeda, H.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Sasano, M.; Baba, H.; Itahashi, K.; Berg, G. P. A.; Bazin, D.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M.

2011-09-01

357

High resolution near edge x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

A technique to suppress the core-hole lifetime broadening in near- edge x-ray spectroscopy is presented. A simple theoretical explanation based on total energy conservation in the fluorescence process is given to explain the improved resolution. The experimental arrangement is shown together with an application to the L{sub III} edge of dysprosium. Furthermore, the application of high-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy in the study of magnetism is presented. The spin-resolved absorption spectra from MnF{sub 2} are shown as an example.

Haemaelaeinen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Berman, L.E.; Kao, C.C.; Hastings, J.B.

1992-12-01

358

High-resolution beam steering using microlens arrays.  

PubMed

Imaging or beam-steering systems employing a periodic array of microlenses or micromirrors suffer from diffraction problems resulting from the destructive interference of the beam segments produced by the array. Simple formulas are derived for beam steering with segmented apertures that do not suffer from diffraction problems because of the introduction of a moving linear phase shifter such as a prescan lens before the periodic structure. The technique substantially increases the resolution of imaging systems that employ microlens arrays or micromirror arrays. Theoretical, numerical, and experimental results demonstrating the high-resolution imaging concept using microlens arrays are presented. PMID:16969403

Akatay, Ata; Ataman, Caglar; Urey, Hakan

2006-10-01

359

High Resolution 3d Brain PET with Hybrid Photon Detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a high resolution 3 dimensional brain PET is presented. Thanks to its novel geometry a 3D measurement of the gamma interaction point in the detector is possible. Each 3D PET camera module consists of a matrix of long scintillation crystals, axially oriented, readout on both sides by Hybrid Photon Detectors. This concept leads to an image reconstruction free of parallax error and provides a uniform spatial and energy resolution over the whole sensitive volume. Furthermore it allows to enhance sensitivity by reconstructing a substantial fraction of the gamma quanta that underwent Compton scattering in the detectors.

Llatas, M. Chamizo; Braem, A.; Chesi, E.; Joram, C.; Mathot, S.; Seguinot, J.; Weilhammer, P.; Garibaldi, F.; Nappi, E.; Schoenahl, F.; Zaidi, H.

2004-07-01

360

Precipitation Sensing in GEO Orbit with High Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now casting of precipitation in geostationary orbit is a strongly requirements , two of difficults are antenna and radiometer receiver,it should satisfies high spatial and time resolution, this paper present two satellites with large scale feed array cofiguration get over 600 spot beams cove 3.5% China area, work in 118GHz for atmospheric temperature vertical profille and 183GHz for humidity vertical profille, two satellites consists of interferometric synthetic aperture it can satisfies weather nowcasting both spatial and time resolution in suspect zone for now casting requirements.

You, Rui

2012-07-01

361

SPRED spectrograph upgrade: high resolution grating and improved absolute calibrations  

SciTech Connect

Two improvements to the SPRED multichannel VUV spectrographs used on the TFTR and PBX tokamaks have been made: (1) A new 2100-g/mm grating covering the 100 to 320 A region with 0.4 A resolution (FWHM) has been added to the existing 450 g/mm grating (100 to 1100 A with 2 A resolution), and (2) the TFTR SPRED has been absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation from the NBS SURF II facility, while the PBX system has been calibrated using conventional branching ratios along with line ratios from charge-exchange-recombination-excited lines. The availability of high resolution spectra in the 100 to 320 A range provides improved measurements of metallic ion emissions and, when the instrument views across a neutral beam as in PBX, allows carbon and oxygen densities to be measured via charge exchange recombination spectroscopy.

Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Jaehnig, K.P.; Ramsey, A.T.

1986-05-01

362

High resolution grazing incidence telescopes for the EUV-regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the aim of building high-resolution grazing incidence telescopes for the EUV regime, much work has been done over the past two decades to improve the angular resolution of an X-ray mirror and to understand its point spread function. Based on the performance data of the best X-ray optics (ATMS-054), Einstein-Observatory, MPI, EXOSAT), the requirements for building an EUV telescope with sub-arcsec angular resolution are estimated, and problem areas in manufacturing these telescopes are discussed. In particular, the effect of an imperfect mirror system on imaging quality is discussed, with consideration to both surface microroughness and macroscopic manufacturing tolerances. Finally, values of optical fabrication tolerances for existing X-ray mirrors are given, and means of improving these values are outlined

Aschenbach, B.

1981-12-01

363

High-resolution Imaging Techniques for the Assessment of Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The importance of assessing the bone’s microarchitectural make-up in addition to its mineral density in the context of osteoporosis has been emphasized in a number of publications. The high spatial resolution required to resolve the bone’s microstructure in a clinically feasible scan time is challenging. Currently, the best suited modalities meeting these requirements in vivo are high-resolution peripheral quantitative imaging (HR-pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas HR-pQCT is limited to peripheral skeleton regions like the wrist and ankle, MRI can also image other sites like the proximal femur but usually with lower spatial resolution. In addition Multidetector-CT has been used for high-resolution imaging of trabecular bone structure, however, the radiation dose is a limiting factor. This article provides an overview of the different modalities, technical requirements and recent developments in this emerging field. Details regarding imaging protocols as well as image post-processing methods for bone structure quantification are discussed.

Krug, Roland; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

2010-01-01

364

High resolution three-dimensional prostate ultrasound imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on the application of ultrasound elastography to prostate cancer detection using a high resolution three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging system. The imaging was performed at a relatively high frequency (14 MHz), yielding very fine resolution that is optimal for prostate ultrasound imaging. The fine resolution achieved aids in locating smaller lesions than are normally detectable. Elasticity was measured with a quantitative and automatically controlled "Synthetic Digital Rectal Examination (SDRE)" wherein a smoothly increasing force was applied by injecting water, controlled by an electronic syringe pump, into a latex cover over the transrectal transducer. The lesion identified as stiffened tissue was visually enhanced by colorizing and superimposing it over the conventional B-mode image. Experimental results using a tissue-mimicking phantom demonstrated that the reconstruction accuracy of the I-Beam transducer resulted in less than 15% volumetric error. Thus, this high resolution 3D prostate elastography is possible and may provide reliable and accurate determination of the size and the location of cancers, which may result in improved specificity and sensitivity of cancer detection.

Li, Yinbo; Patil, Abhay; Hossack, John A.

2006-03-01

365

Ultra high resolution soft x-ray tomography  

SciTech Connect

Ultra high resolution three dimensional images of a microscopic test object were made with soft x-rays using a scanning transmission x-ray microscope. The test object consisted of two different patterns of gold bars on silicon nitride windows that were separated by {approximately}5{mu}m. A series of nine 2-D images of the object were recorded at angles between {minus}50 to +55 degrees with respect to the beam axis. The projections were then combined tomographically to form a 3-D image by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) algorithm. A transverse resolution of {approximately}1000 {Angstrom} was observed. Artifacts in the reconstruction limited the overall depth resolution to {approximately}6000 {Angstrom}, however some features were clearly reconstructed with a depth resolution of {approximately}1000 {Angstrom}. A specially modified ART algorithm and a constrained conjugate gradient (CCG) code were also developed as improvements over the standard ART algorithm. Both of these methods made significant improvements in the overall depth resolution bringing it down to {approximately}1200 {Angstrom} overall. Preliminary projection data sets were also recorded with both dry and re-hydrated human sperm cells over a similar angular range.

Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E.; Goodman, D.M. [and others

1995-07-19

366

Cortical Surface Reconstruction from High-Resolution MR Brain Images  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of the cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance (MR) images is an important step in quantitative analysis of the human brain structure, for example, in sulcal morphometry and in studies of cortical thickness. Existing cortical reconstruction approaches are typically optimized for standard resolution (~1?mm) data and are not directly applicable to higher resolution images. A new PDE-based method is presented for the automated cortical reconstruction that is computationally efficient and scales well with grid resolution, and thus is particularly suitable for high-resolution MR images with submillimeter voxel size. The method uses a mathematical model of a field in an inhomogeneous dielectric. This field mapping, similarly to a Laplacian mapping, has nice laminar properties in the cortical layer, and helps to identify the unresolved boundaries between cortical banks in narrow sulci. The pial cortical surface is reconstructed by advection along the field gradient as a geometric deformable model constrained by topology-preserving level set approach. The method's performance is illustrated on exvivo images with 0.25–0.35?mm isotropic voxels. The method is further evaluated by cross-comparison with results of the FreeSurfer software on standard resolution data sets from the OASIS database featuring pairs of repeated scans for 20 healthy young subjects.

Osechinskiy, Sergey; Kruggel, Frithjof

2012-01-01

367

Accelerated High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Using Hydrogen  

PubMed Central

The resolving power of differential ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) was dramatically increased recently by carrier gases comprising up to 75% He or various vapors, enabling many new applications. However, the need for resolution of complex mixtures is virtually open-ended and many topical analyses demand yet finer separations. Also, the resolving power gains are often at the expense of speed, in particular making high-resolution FAIMS incompatible with online liquid-phase separations. Here, we report FAIMS employing hydrogen, specifically in mixtures with N2 containing up to 90% H2. Such compositions raise the mobilities of all ions and thus the resolving power beyond that previously feasible, while avoiding the electrical breakdown inevitable in He-rich mixtures. The increases in resolving power and ensuing peak resolution are especially significant at H2 fractions above ~50%. Higher resolution can be exchanged for acceleration of the analyses by up to ~4 times, at least. For more mobile species such as multiply-charged peptides, this exchange is presently forced by the constraints of existing FAIMS devices, but future designs optimized for H2 should consistently improve resolution for all analytes.

Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Smith, Richard D.

2011-01-01

368

Precipitation bias correction of very high resolution regional climate models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional climate models are prone to biases in precipitation that are problematic for use in impact models such as hydrology models. A large number of methods have already been proposed aimed at correcting various moments of the rainfall distribution. They all require that the model produce the same or a higher number of rain days than the observational datasets, which are usually gridded datasets. Models have traditionally met this condition because their spatial resolution was coarser than the observational grids. But recent climate simulations use higher resolution than the gridded observational products and the models are likely to produce fewer rain days than the gridded observations. In this study, model output from a simulation at 2 km resolution are compared with gridded and in-situ observational datasets to determine whether the new scenario calls for revised methodologies. The gridded observations are found to be inadequate to correct the high-resolution model at daily timescales. A histogram equalisation bias correction method is selected and adapted to the use of stations, alleviating the problems associated with relatively low-resolution observational grids. The method is efficient at bias correcting both seasonal and daily characteristics of precipitation, providing more accurate information that is crucial for impact assessment studies.

Argüeso, D.; Evans, J. P.; Fita, L.

2013-06-01

369

Spontaneous Raman scattering as a high resolution XUV radiation source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A type of high resolution XUV radiation source is described which is based upon spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering of tunable incident laser radiation from atoms excited to metastable levels. The theory of the source is summarized and two sets of experiments using He (1s2s)(1)S atoms, produced in a cw hollow cathode and in a pulsed high power microwave discharge, are discussed.

J. E. Rothenberg; J. F. Young; S. E. Harris

1983-01-01

370

High-resolution pipelined analog-to-digital conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research addresses techniques for implementing area-efficient medium- to high-speed and high-resolution CMOS analog-to-digital (A\\/D) converters for use in the receivers for digital telecommunication systems and for general-purpose data-acquisition applications. Simple analog and digital correction techniques for reducing the effects of most of the matching errors are studied. These techniques can replace costly trimming and complicated self-calibrating techniques for many

Sutarja

1988-01-01

371

A high-resolution spectral atlas of carbon stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a spectral atlas of six bright carbon stars (U Hya, TX Psc, RZ Peg, V Oph, Y CVn, and UV Cam) observed with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at coude using the 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory. These data are of high resolution (0.13 A at 6100 A) and high signal-to-noise. The spectral range spans from 5080 to

Cecilia Barnbaum

1994-01-01

372

Colorado High-resolution Echelle Stellar Spectrograph (CHESS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the design of a new high-efficiency, high-resolution far ultraviolet echelle spectrograph. Our project concentrates on utilizing new technologies for gratings and detectors to reduce the impact of scattered light and maximize quantum efficiency over a large bandpass. This program will enable advances in a vast number of astrophysical subjects. Topics ranging from protoplanetary disks to the intergalactic medium can be addressed by incorporating such a spectrograph into a future, long-duration mission.

Beasley, Matthew; Burgh, Eric; France, Kevin

2010-07-01

373

Neural Solutions for High Range Resolution Radar Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the application of neural networks to Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) using a High Range Resolution radar\\u000a is studied. Both Multi-layer Perceptrons (MLP) and Radial Basis Function Networks (RBFN) have been used. RBFNs can achieve\\u000a very good results with a considerably small size of the training set, but they require a high number of radial basis functions\\u000a to

Roberto Gil-pita; Pilar Jarabo Amores; Raul Vicen-bueno; Manuel Rosa-zurera

2003-01-01

374

High resolution alpha spectroscopy by liquid scintillation techniques. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of high-resolution liquid scintillation spectroscopy is described as an inexpensive and rapid method for the determination of radium-226 (an identified health hazard) and other alpha-emitting radionuclides in environmental water samples. Procedures are reported for measuring radium-226, uranium-238, and uranium-234, affording positive identification, high sensitivity due to pulse shape discrimination, and rapid sample preparation. No environmental water samples examined

Coombs

1980-01-01

375

e-Fovea: a multi-resolution approach with steerable focus to large-scale and high-resolution monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents e-Fovea, a system that combines both multi-resolution camera input and multi-resolution steerable projector output to support large-scale and high-resolution visual monitoring. e-Fovea utilizes a design similar to the human eyes, which provides peripheral vision with a steerable fovea that is in higher resolution. e-Fovea is implemented using a steerable telephoto camera and a wide-angle camera. The telephoto

Kuan-Wen Chen; Chih-Wei Lin; Mike Y. Chen; Yi-Ping Hung

2010-01-01

376

High Resolution Topography for Thermal Modeling on Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a year, NASA's Dawn mission has been providing fascinating data on Vesta. Surface temperatures and thermal parameters are being derived using measurements by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) (Capria et al., 2012). However, the spatial distribution of temperatures is complex due to significant albedo variations over short distance scales and extensive cratering that generates shadows and complex surface features over small spatial scales. This results in VIR pixels that have sub-pixel variations in the temperature that are difficult to deconvolve. Here we report the benefits of using high-resolution topographic modeling when interpreting the thermal component of the VIR observations. Stereo-photoclinometry has been used for years to derive accurate shape models of planetary surfaces. It uses high-resolution images to determine both the surface reflectance and the incidence and emission angles for every pixel of every image. Using this data, we construct both the local surface topography (known as maplets) as well as reflectance values for the Cornelia crater on Vesta (-9.7 Lat, 225 Lon), a fresh crater that has sharp relief and significant variations in albedo. Using this terrain model, we construct high-resolution, time-resolved insolation maps accounting for Bond albedo, incidence angle and shadowing effects of near-by features. From these maps, we calculate the temperature of the surface and subsurface using a 1-D thermal conduction model. This time-resolved model allows us to calculate the temperature at 3 times the spatial resolution for all regions of Cornelia crater at the time when VIR collected its observations. By combining the thermal flux for all the high-resolution points within a single VIR pixel element, we generate a thermal spectrum that accurately models the VIR data because they reflect slope inflections that are generated by sub-pixel temperature variations.

Palmer, Eric; Sykes, M. V.; Gaskell, R. W.; Li, J.

2012-10-01

377

Multiplex Amplicon Genotyping by High-Resolution Melting  

PubMed Central

High-resolution amplicon melting is a simple method for genotyping that uses only generic PCR primers and a saturating DNA dye. Multiplex amplicon genotyping has previously been reported in a single color, but two instruments were required: a carousel-based rapid cycler and a high-resolution melting instrument for capillaries. Manual transfer of capillaries between instruments and sequential melting of each capillary at 0.1°C/s seriously limited the throughput. In this report, a single instrument that combines rapid-cycle real-time PCR with high-resolution melting [LightScanner-32 (LS-32), Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT] was used for multiplex amplicon genotyping. The four most common mutations associated with thrombophilia, F5 (factor V Leiden 1691G>A), F2 (prothrombin 20210G>A), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; 1298A>C and 677C>T) were genotyped in a single homogeneous assay with internal controls to adjust for minor chemistry and instrument variation. Forty temperature cycles required 9.2 min, and each capillary required 2.2 min by melting at 0.3°C/s, 3× the prior rate. Sample volume was reduced from 20 ?l to 10 ?l. In a blinded study of 109 samples (436 genotypes), complete concordance with standard assays was obtained. In addition, the rare variant MTHFR 1317T>C was genotyped correctly when present. The LS-32 simplifies more complex high-resolution melting assays by reducing hands-on manipulation, total time of analysis, and reagent cost while maintaining the resolution necessary for multiplex amplicon genotyping.

Seipp, Michael T.; Durtschi, Jacob D.; Voelkerding, Karl V.; Wittwer, Carl T.

2009-01-01

378

The Scientific Impact of High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new era of high resolution X-ray spectroscopy began with the launches of Chandra and XMM-Newton in 1999. In the same way Chandra represents a factor of 100 improvement in spatial resolution compared to ASCA, the High and Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometers (HETGS/LETGS) aboard Chandra and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) aboard XMM-Netwon represent factors of 5-400 improvement in X-ray spectral resolution. This overview talk for a special session on high resolution X-ray spectroscopy will discuss the dramatic science impact made possible by this advancement in capability. We will briefly discuss the technical capabilities of these instruments, and specifically address how for certain science goals, gratings observations actually are "less expensive" than comparable signal-to-noise CCD observations. More importantly, we will discuss those kinds of measurements that are only achievable with high resolution spectroscopy. These include line-of-sight velocities (as small as 30 km s^{-1}!), velocity widths, detailed plasma diagnostics via line strengths and ratios, and detection of weak absorption lines. These have allowed sensitive studies of astrophysical plasmas in a wide variety of contexts: magnetically confined winds in stars, accretion flows and outflows in binaries and active galactic nuclei, and even studies of the inter-stellar and inter-galactic media. Doppler velocities have been used to make three-dimensional images of supernova remnants. More detailed discussions of the impact of gratings studies in these and other science areas will be the focus of the remainder of this special session.

Canizares, C. R.; Huenemoerder, D.; Marshall, H.; Nowak, M.; Schulz, N. S.

2006-09-01

379

Drugs in the brain--cellular imaging with receptor microscopic autoradiography.  

PubMed

For cell and tissue localization of drugs, receptor microscopic autoradiography is reviewed, including its development history, multiple testing, extensive applications and significant discoveries. This sensitive high-resolution imaging method is based on the use of radiolabeled compounds (esp. tagged with (3)H or (125)I), preservation through freezing of in vivo localization of tissue constituents, cutting thin frozen sections, and close contact with the recording nuclear emulsion. After extensive testing of the utility of this method, the distribution of radiolabeled compounds has been identified and characterized for estradiol, progestagens, adrenal steroids, thyroid hormone, ecdysteroids, vitamin D, retinoic acid, metabolic indicators glucose and 2-deoxyglucose, as well as extracellular space indicators. Target cells and associated tissues have been characterized with special stains, fluorescing compounds, or combined autoradiography-immunocytochemistry with antibodies to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, GABA, enkephalin, specific receptor proteins, or other cellular products. Blood-brain barrier and brain entries via capillary endothelium, ependyma, or circumventricular recess organs have been visualized for (3)H-dexamethasone, (210)Pb lead, and (3)H-1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3). With this histopharmacologic approach, cellular details and tissue integrative overviews can be assessed in the same preparation. As a result, information has been gained that would have been difficult or impossible otherwise. Maps of brain drug distribution have been developed and relevant target circuits have been recognized. Examples include the stria terminalis that links septal-amygdaloid-thalamic-hypothalamic structures and telencephalic limbic system components which extend as the periventricular autonomic-neuroendocrine ABC (Allocortex-Brainstem-Circuitry) system into the mid- and hindbrain. Discoveries with radiolabeled substances challenged existing paradigms, engendering new concepts and providing seminal incentives for further research toward understanding drug actions. Most notable are discoveries made during the 1980s with vitamin D in the brain together with over 50 target tissues that challenged the century-old doctrine of vitamin D's main role as 'the calcitropic hormone', when the new data made it apparent that the main biological function of this multifunctional sunshine hormone rather is maintenance of life and adapting vital functions to the solar environment. In the brain, vitamin D, in close relation to sex and adrenal steroids, participates in the regulation of the secretion of neuro-endocrines, such as, serotonin, dopamine, nerve growth factor, acetyl choline, with importance in prophylaxis and therapy of neuro-psychiatric disorders. Histochemical imaging with high cellular-subcellular resolution is necessary for obtaining detailed information, as this review indicates. New spectrometric methods, like MALDI-MSI, are unlikely to furnish the same information as receptor microautoradiography does, but can provide important correlative molecular information. PMID:22240062

Stumpf, Walter E

2012-01-10

380

Receptor microscopic autoradiography for the study of percutaneous absorption, in vivo skin penetration, and cellular–intercellular deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Microscopic autoradiography with cellular resolution and preservation of in vivo conditions is potentially the method of choice to gain detailed information about sites of deposition and retention in the epidermis and of penetration to the dermis after topical application of drugs. We tested this using 3H-Maxacalcitol. Methods: Dorsal skin of adult rats was treated in vivo with ointment containing

Naohiko Hayakawa; Naoki Kubota; Nobuo Imai; Walter E. Stumpf

2004-01-01

381

High resolution infrared datasets useful for validating stratospheric models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important objective of the High Speed Research Program (HSRP) is to support research in the atmospheric sciences that will improve the basic understanding of the circulation and chemistry of the stratosphere and lead to an interim assessment of the impact of a projected fleet of High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT's) on the stratosphere. As part of this work, critical comparisons between models and existing high quality measurements are planned. These comparisons will be used to test the reliability of current atmospheric chemistry models. Two suitable sets of high resolution infrared measurements are discussed.

Rinsland, Curtis P.

1992-04-01

382

Robust probes for high resolution chemical detection and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are needs for both high resolution imaging and high sensitivity detection/analysis of surface chemistry on a nanometer scale. These needs can be addressed with Raman spectroscopy coupled with schemes that provide extraordinary enhancement of the Raman signal, namely surface enhanced (SERS) and tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Advances in applications of high resolution imaging and high sensitivity detection will be enabled by two specific improvements: increased signal enhancement and increased robustness of the plasmonic structures needed to achieve enhancement. Robustness and stability are especially important for those plasmonic structures made of silver that usually provide the best enhancements. Here we focus particularly on TERS, in which a plasmonic structure is placed on a scanning probe microscope tip in order to achieve high lateral resolution imaging. We have demonstrated that aluminum oxide protected silver plasmonic structures show significantly increased robustness against chemical and mechanical degradation when compared to unprotected analogues without loss of enhancement. A 2-3 nm thick coating of aluminum oxide prevents chemical attack of the underlying silver film for three months in a desiccator, significantly increasing the storage life of current probes. The same protective coating also extends the scanning life of the probe when the probe is used to image a hard patterned silicon substrate.

Agapov, Rebecca L.; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Foster, Mark D.

2012-05-01

383

Parameterizing convection in high-resolution global atmospheric models (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Representing the effects of atmospheric convection in global models has been, and remains, one of the major obstacles facing climate researchers. As the horizontal resolution used in global climate simulations increases to scales much finer than 100 km, problems related to convection show no signs of diminishing. This talk will present results from high resolution global atmospheric models, as well as cloud resolving model results, and satellite measurements from the CloudSat and TRMM instruments. These results suggest that climate simulations at high horizontal resolutions may in fact present new challenges to convection parameterization. Tropical cyclone simulations conducted at ¼o (or ~25 km) resolution show that standard climate-style convection parameterizations may interfere with the organization and strengthening of tropical systems. A three-way comparison of cloud resolving model (CRM) results, satellite data, and global simulations, suggests that assumptions about scale-separation and statistical equilibrium between convection and the resolved flow begin to break down for spatial scales smaller than 100 km. Quantities such as convective cloud height exhibit large variance when sorted into regimes with similar background meteorology. Simply put, a one-to-one relationship between convective parameters and resolved model fields may not exist, even approximately, for scales smaller than 100km. Possible remedies, including a stochastic component for parameterized convection, based on CRM results and satellite measurements, are discussed

Bacmeister, J. T.; Tao, W.; Lee, M.; Skamarock, W. C.; Mittal, R.

2009-12-01

384

High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials  

SciTech Connect

This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1997-11-01

385

Calorimeters for very high resolution x-ray spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our work following the invention of the x-ray calorimeter, we improved the resolution to 7.3 eV, at which point our emphasis changed from demonstration to application. Our recent calorimeter development effort has proceeded along two tracks, one for soft (<1 keV) x-rays and the other for broad band (0.5-12 keV) x-ray spectroscopy. We have achieved 10-15 eV resolution with 0.25 mm2 pixels with HgTe absorbers providing high quantum efficiency through 12 keV, and we have achieved 7-10 eV resolution with 1 mm2 pixels with HgTe absorbers providing high quantum efficiency through 1 keV. Our future calorimeter development will continue to be guided by the different demands of soft x-ray and hard x-ray band experiments. In the soft band, improvements to the existing technology should improve the uniformity of performance across an array and improve the spectral resolution, to perhaps as good as 2 eV. Major improvement in the hard band will require the development of alternative thermometers to replace the ion-implanted silicon thermistors now used. We will summarize the status of the technology and will report the results of our latest development efforts.

Stahle, C. K.; Kelley, R. L.; Moseley, S. H.; Mott, D. B.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Gendreau, K. C.; Porter, F. S.; McCammon, D.; Juda, M.; Zhang, J.

1997-01-01

386

High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors  

DOEpatents

A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2001-01-16

387

A New High Precision Low Offset Dynamic Comparator for High Resolution High Speed ADCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new low offset dynamic comparator for high resolution high speed analog-to-digital application has been designed. Inputs are reconfigured from the typical differential pair comparator such that near equal current distribution in the input transistors can be achieved for a meta-stable point of the comparator. Restricted signal swing clock for the tail current is also used to ensure constant currents

Vipul Katyal; Randall L. Geiger; Degang J. Chen

2006-01-01

388

Continuous online field deployable high precision and high resolution water isotope analysis from ice cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important features of ice cores as climate and atmospheric paleoarchives is their potential for high temporal resolution. The measurement of chemical impurities in ice cores that fully exploits this high resolution has become standard with the advent of Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) from continuously melted ice core segments, often performed in the field. Meanwhile, the measurement

Vasileios Gkinis; Trevor Popp; Sigfus Johnsen; Thomas Blunier; Christopher Stowasser; Ernesto Kettner

2010-01-01

389

Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging  

PubMed Central

Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

2012-01-01

390

High-resolution SIT TV tube for subnanosecond image shuttering  

SciTech Connect

A new ultrafast high-resolution image shutter tube with reasonable gain and shuttering efficiency has been designed and tested. The design uses a grid-gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) image section and a high-speed focus projection and scan (FPS) vidicon read-out section in one envelope to eliminate resolution losses from external coupling. The design features low-gate-interface capacity, a high-conductivity shutter grid, and a segmented low-resistivity photocathode for optimum gating speed. Optical gate widths as short as 400 ps +- 100 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window with spatial resolution as high as 15 lp/mm have been measured. Some design criteria, most of the electrical and optical performance data for several variations in the basic design, and a comparison (of several key response functions) with similarly tested 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) are included.

Yates, G.J.; Vine, B.H.; Aeby, I.; Dunbar, D.L.; King, N.S.P.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Thayer, N.N.; Noel, B.W.

1984-09-01

391

High-resolution 3D digital models of artworks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the shape of an artwork usually requires a high-resolution instrumentation, in order to catch small details such as chisel marks, sculptural relieves, surface cracks, etc. 3D scanning techniques, together with new modeling software tools, allow a high fidelity reproduction of an artwork: these can be applied either to support and document its repair or for the realization of 3D archives and virtual museums. Starting from a high-resolution digital model of an object, a further step could be its reproduction by means of fast-prototyping techniques like stereo-lithography or electro-erosion. This work is aimed at showing the performance of a high-resolution laser scanner devoted to Cultural Heritage applications. The device is portable and very versatile, in order to allow in situ applications, accurate and reliable, so to capture intricate details. This laser profilometer has been used in a few surveys, the most significant of which are the monitoring the various phases of the restoration process of an ellenistic bronze (the Minerva of Arezzo, Florence), the cataloguing of some archaeological findings (from the Grotta della Poesia, Lecce) and the documenting of wooden panels surface conditions (the "Madonna del Cardellino" by Raffaello and "La Tebaide" by Beato Angelico).

Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca; Scopigno, Roberto

2003-10-01

392

High Resolution Imaging of Kepler Exo-planet Target Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Kepler mission will be launched in Feb. 2009 and begin science operations 1 month later. Kepler's main science focus is to identify earth-like exo-planets vis photometric transit detection. ``Hot Jupiters" will be found in the hundreds (using current ground- based statistics) but Earth-sized planets (up to 2.5 Earth radii) will be more difficult. A Earth-sized planet transiting a G2V star shows a drop in the light signal of only 10^-5. During the few hour event, many samples are obtained by the Kepler mission. These, as well as re- observation of 2 or more additional transits, will provide the basis for a candidate detection. To take the list of candidates and move them to probable or certain exo-planets, a decision tree of false positive elimination will occur. Kepler science team members have distributed the many false positive elimination tasks to a subset of the membership - this proposal is to explore and use high-resolution imaging from WIYN to search for faint background sources that may be eclipsing binaries masquerading as small planet transit events. We plan to use two types of high resolution imaging at WIYN - Speckle observations with the SPECKLE imager and high-speed, tip-tilt corrected video photometry with the OPTIC imager. Both provide high resolution images, each with some advantages and disadvantages.

Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott

2008-08-01

393

Towards Ultra-High Resolution Models of Climate and Weather  

SciTech Connect

We present a speculative extrapolation of the performance aspects of an atmospheric general circulation model to ultra-high resolution and describe alternative technological paths to realize integration of such a model in the relatively near future. Due to a superlinear scaling of the computational burden dictated by stability criterion, the solution of the equations of motion dominate the calculation at ultra-high resolutions. From this extrapolation, it is estimated that a credible kilometer scale atmospheric model would require at least a sustained ten petaflop computer to provide scientifically useful climate simulations. Our design study portends an alternate strategy for practical power-efficient implementations of petaflop scale systems. Embedded processor technology could be exploited to tailor a custom machine designed to ultra-high climate model specifications at relatively affordable cost and power considerations. The major conceptual changes required by a kilometer scale climate model are certain to be difficult to implement. Although the hardware, software, and algorithms are all equally critical in conducting ultra-high climate resolution studies, it is likely that the necessary petaflop computing technology will be available in advance of a credible kilometer scale climate model.

Wehner, Michael; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John

2007-01-01

394

The Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer (APEX): A High Resolution Spectroscopic Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics and structure of stellar atmospheres and coronae are complex and strongly bound to the life cycle of stars, from their birth and descent to the main sequence, to their final stages in which the interstellar medium is enriched and stars proceed along various paths to a cooling compact object. Now EUVE, Chandra, and XMM-Newton have moved astronomical spectroscopy into the soft X-ray and EUV wavebands, where hot (105-108 K) plasmas radiate most strongly. High-resolution spectroscopy allows the identification of weak emission lines, the measurement of Doppler shifts and line profiles, and the detection of narrow absorption features. We present a mission concept for APEX (Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Explorer), a SMEX-class instrument that employs multilayer-grating spectrometers to achieve both high effective area and high spectral resolution at ultra-soft X-ray and EUV wavelengths. A prototype instrument has already been built and flown successfully on a sounding rocket. A high-resolution spectrum of the white dwarf G191-B2B was obtained.

Wood, Kent; Cruddace, Raymond; Kowalski, Michael; Yentis, Daryl; Gursky Barbee, Herb, Jr.; Goldstein, William; Kordas, Joseph; Fritz, Gilbert; Barstow, Martin; Bannister, Nigel; Lapington, John

2002-04-01

395

High-resolution SIT TV tube for subnanosecond image shuttering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ultrafast high-resolution image shutter tube with reasonable gain and shuttering efficiency has been designed and tested. The design uses a grid-gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) image section and a high-speed focus projection and scan (FPS) vidicon read-out section in one envelope to eliminate resolution losses from external coupling. The design features low-gate-interface capacity, a high-conductivity shutter grid, and a segmented low-resistivity photocathode for optimum gating speed. Optical gate widths as short as 400 ps + or - 100 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window with spatial resolution as high as 15 1p/mm have been measured. Some design criteria, most of the electrical and optical performance data for several variations in the basic design, and a comparison (of several key response functions) with similarly tested 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) are included.

Yates, G. J.; Vine, B. H.; Aeby, I.; Dunbar, D. L.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Thayer, N. N.; Noel, B. W.

1984-09-01

396

High-brightness uniform-resolution 5-megapixel CRT monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an advanced black and white CRT monitor to meet the needs of critical users in government, medical and commercial applications. A CRT, deflection system and video amplifier are being developed, with attention to system integration and cost-effective design. The work is being carried out in cooperation with AVP/Megascan for transfer to a commercial product. The design parameters for this monitor have been established by analysis and simulations, taking into account limitations for a practical system. The studies show the need for both high brightness and uniform high resolution for the most demanding users, such as image analysts and radiologists. Our goal is 2 K X 2.5 K resolvable spots with 200 fL peak luminance and < 5% variation in resolution. A monitor simulator has been used to determine optimum video bandwidth, spot size and shape. Extensive modeling has been used to design a high resolution, high current gun and a minimum spot growth yoke. We will describe results of the component developments, the simulations, and the status of the work.

Lurie, Michael; Bechis, Dennis J.

1992-07-01

397

High Resolution Melting Applications for Clinical Laboratory Medicine  

PubMed Central

Separation of the two strands of DNA with heat (melting) is a fundamental property of DNA that is conveniently monitored with fluorescence. Conventional melting is performed after PCR on any real-time instrument to monitor product purity (dsDNA dyes) and sequence (hybridization probes). Recent advances include high-resolution instruments and saturating DNA dyes that distinguish many different species. For example, mutation scanning (identifying heterozygotes) by melting is closed-tube and has similar or superior sensitivity and specificity compared to methods that require physical separation. With high resolution melting, SNPs can be genotyped without probes and more complex regions can be typed with unlabeled hybridization probes. Highly polymorphic HLA loci can be melted to establish sequence identity for transplantation matching. Simultaneous genotyping with one or more unlabeled probes and mutation scanning of the entire amplicon can be performed at the same time in the same tube, vastly decreasing or eliminating the need for re-sequencing in genetic analysis. High-resolution PCR product melting is homogeneous, closed-tube, rapid (1–5 min), non-destructive and does not require covalently-labeled fluorescent probes. In the clinical laboratory, it is an ideal format for in-house testing, with minimal cost and time requirements for new assay development.

Erali, Maria; Voelkerding, Karl V.; Wittwer, Carl T.

2008-01-01

398

Observations of Sprites Using High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 15 years since the accidental discovery of optical flashes above thunderstorms [Franz et al, 1990], now commonly termed sprites, the wide variety of spatial and temporal characteristics exhibited by these phenomena has challenged modeling efforts. The highly dynamic and variable structures observed in sprites can be classified either in terms of basic geometric descriptions (``cylinders," ``tendrils," ``branches," etc.) or by their apparent relation to features previously observed in laboratory gas discharges (i.e. ``streamers" and ``diffuse glow"). High-resolution imagery shows that the lower portion of a sprite typically consists of downward branching filaments, or positive streamers, while the middle to upper portions are made up of upward branching filaments, or negative streamers. The topmost part of a sprite is generally amorphous, or diffuse glow. Filamentary structures (streamers) have been observed to range in width from ˜20 - 200 m with the radius having some altitude dependence. Much of the observed streamer and diffuse glow structure can be explained in terms of conventional electrical gas discharge physics. Some features such as beads and low-altitude diffuse glows, however, are currently unexplained by any sprite model. This presentation describes the spatio-temporal characteristics of several sprites with various features as observed by 1) a high-spatial-resolution telescope, previously described in Gerken et al. [2000], with spatial resolution down to tens of meters, and ˜17 ms temporal resolution; and 2) similar events observed by a high-temporal-resolution ``high speed imager" with 1 ms temporal and approximately 300 m spatial resolution, previously described in Stenbaek-Nielsen et al. [2000]. Franz. R. C., R. J. Nemzek, and J. R. Winckler, Television image of a large upward electrical discharge above a thunderstorm, Science, 249, 48, 1990. Gerken, E. A., U. S. Inan, and C. P. Barrington-Leigh, Telescopic imaging of sprites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2637, 2000. Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C., D. R. Moudry, E. M. Wescott, D. D. Sentman, and F. T. Sao Sabbas, Sprites and possible mesospheric effects, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3829, 2000.

Gerken, E.; Moudry, D.

2004-12-01

399

Multiparameter Flow Cytometry: Advances in High Resolution Analysis  

PubMed Central

Over the past 40 years, flow cytometry has emerged as a leading, application-rich technology that supports high-resolution characterization of individual cells which function in complex cellular networks such as the immune system. This brief overview highlights advances in multiparameter flow cytometric technologies and reagent applications for characterization and functional analysis of cells modulating the immune network. These advances significantly support high-throughput and high-content analyses and enable an integrated understanding of the cellular and molecular interactions that underlie complex biological systems.

O'Donnell, Erika A; Ernst, David N

2013-01-01

400

Holographic Imaging: A Versatile Tool for High Angular Resolution Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speckle holography can be used to reconstruct high angular resolution images from long series of short exposures if the point spread function (PSF) from each frame can be measured reliably. We show that through use of multiple reference stars and iterative PSF subtraction, we can obtain highly accurate PSFs. The technique is optimised for crowded fields and results in images with excellent cosmetics and high Strehl ratio from the optical to the mid-infrared regimes. With examples from NACO, VISIR, and HAWK-I we show that holography opens up novel and unforeseen possibilities and can be an attractive alternative to adaptive optics.

Schödel, R.; Girard, J. H.

2012-12-01

401

High resolution imaging systems for inertial confinement fusion experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The path to successful inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires to observe and control the micro balloon deformations. This will be achieved using X-ray microscope among other diagnostics. A high resolution, high energy X-ray microscope involving state-of-the-art toroidal mirrors and multilayer coatings is described. Years of experiments and experience have led to a small-scale X-ray plasma imager that proves the feasibility of all the features required for a LMJ diagnostic: spatial resolution of 5?m, broad bandwidth, millimetric field of view (FOV). Using the feedback given by this diagnostic, a prototype for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) experiments has been designed. The experimental results of the first diagnostic and the concepts of the second are discussed.

Dennetiere, D.; Audebert, P.; Bahr, R.; Bole, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Brannon, B.; Girard, F.; Pien, G.; Troussel, Ph.

2012-10-01

402

Application of high-resolution RS image in settlement extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popularity of high resolution image makes it possible to interpret the internal land use condition within settlement. The categorization of settlement is firstly made as rural (mountain, plain) and urban (city village, living block) areas. Then object-based and generic network image processing methods are primarily used in the extraction from the merged Quickbird and SPOT high resolution image. With mathematical as well as geometrical model, indices such as building density, floor area ratio, green ratio and space ratio are extracted accordingly. Meanwhile, land use map, field survey and cadastral map are employed for the estimation and accuracy assessment. In the end, analysis and comparison are made for land use condition within settlement.

Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yanfang; Liu, Yaolin; Li, Xing; Tang, Ya

2009-10-01

403

High resolution 4-dimension imaging of metanephric embryonic kidney morphogenesis.  

PubMed

High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of fixed embryonic kidney tissues has advanced considerably in the past decade. Here we developed a new process for imaging whole metanephric organ culture at cell resolution in three dimensions over time. This technique combines the use of the newly available generation of infrared-optimized long working distance, high numerical aperture objectives and multiphoton fluorescence microscopy with a new system for vital staining of metanephric organ cultures with bodipy ceramide. This allows all cells in the organ culture to be visualized over time, enabling detailed observation of tissue morphogenesis. Thus, our method offers a powerful new approach for visualizing and understanding early events in renal development and for extending observations made in genetically manipulated models. PMID:23325081

Clendenon, Sherry G; Ward, Heather H; Dunn, Kenneth W; Bacallao, Robert

2013-01-16

404

Ultra-high resolution, absolute position sensors for cryostatic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in new technology, optical pattern recognition encoders at NASA have resulted in high speed, reliable, compact position sensors for use in cryostatic space flight mechanisms. New encoder scale patterns and image processing algorithms combine with digital signal processors (DSP) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) logic elements to enable encoders with conversion rates in excess of 1.5 kHz (suitable for high speed servo motion control for mechanisms), linear resolutions of less than 10 nm, and angular resolutions in the single digit milli-arcseconds in relatively compact packages. Fiber optic light guides allow encoders to function in cryostats with extremely low power dissipation. Ambient test data for fiber optic configurations suitable for cryogenic environments are presented. Cryostatic test capabilities under development are discussed. Potential applications exist for NGST and other infrared and sub-millimeter missions, such as fine guidance sensing, attitude control, mirror segment position sensing, and mirror scanning.

Leviton, Douglas B.; Frey, Brad

2003-03-01

405

Two Pi solid angle high resolution optical system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is a wide field surveillance, monocentric, refractive optical system with inherent features being, non-mechanical, compact, high resolution, a field of view up to two Pi steradians solid angle. The optics design uses a single optical system and multiple flat image collection devices. Multiple fiber plates translate and map the image off of the curved image surface to the flat image collection devices. The fiber plates also act to translate the image into a larger volume as compared to the curved image surface, allowing required volume for the multiple image collection devices. This invention uses a single refractive optical system with multiple CCD or CMOS detectors. Advantages over prior art are simple optical system, rugged optics, high resolution and single optics which is easily manufactured.

Stark; Daniel Lee (San Jose, CA)

2013-07-16

406

Dynamical downscaling inter-comparison for high resolution climate reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the scope of the project: "High-resolution Rainfall EroSivity analysis and fORecasTing - RESORT", an evaluation of various methods of dynamic downscaling is presented. The methods evaluated range from the classic method of nesting a regional model results in a global model, in this case the ECMWF reanalysis, to more recently proposed methods, which consist in using Newtonian relaxation methods in order to nudge the results of the regional model to the reanalysis. The method with better results involves using a system of variational data assimilation to incorporate observational data with results from the regional model. The climatology of a simulation of 5 years using this method is tested against observations on mainland Portugal and the ocean in the area of the Portuguese Continental Shelf, which shows that the method developed is suitable for the reconstruction of high resolution climate over continental Portugal.

Ferreira, J.; Rocha, A.; Castanheira, J. M.; Carvalho, A. C.

2012-04-01

407

A novel high resolution ion wide angle spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A novel ion wide angle spectrometer (iWASP) has been developed, which is capable of measuring angularly resolved energy distributions of protons and a second ion species, such as carbon C{sup 6+}, simultaneously. The energy resolution for protons and carbon ions is better than 10% at {approx}50 MeV/nucleon and thus suitable for the study of novel laser-ion acceleration schemes aiming for ultrahigh particle energies. A wedged magnet design enables an acceptance angle of 30 deg. ({approx}524 mrad) and high angular accuracy in the {mu}rad range. First, results obtained at the LANL Trident laser facility are presented demonstrating high energy and angular resolution of this novel iWASP.

Jung, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hoerlein, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gautier, D. C.; Letzring, S.; Albright, B. J.; Shah, R.; Palaniyappan, S.; Yin, L.; Fernandez, J. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kiefer, D.; Habs, D. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Allinger, K. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hegelich, B. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2011-04-15

408

High Resolution Terahertz Spectroscopy with Quantum Cascade Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution terahertz (THz) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for laboratory purposes as well as for remote sensing in astronomy, planetary research, and Earth observation. THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are promising sources for implementation into THz spectrometers, in particular at frequencies above 3 THz, which is the least explored portion of the THz region. One application of QCLs in THz spectroscopy is in absorption spectrometers, where they can replace less powerful and somewhat cumbersome sources based on frequency mixing with gas lasers. Another one is using a QCL as local oscillator in a heterodyne spectrometer for remote sensing. This article will review the state-of-the art in high resolution THz spectroscopy with QCLs.

Hübers, H.-W.; Eichholz, R.; Pavlov, S. G.; Richter, H.

2013-06-01

409

Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss past, present and future spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping of Earth and planetary surfaces. Previous spaceborne-laser-altimeters projected and imaged a single laser spot for surface-height measurements. In contrast, the recent Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) uses a non-scanning multi-beam system for surface topography mapping. The multi-beam instrument facilitates surface slope measurement and reduces the time-to-completion for global high-resolution topographic mapping. We discuss our first-year progress on a three-year swath-mapping laser-altimetry Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). Our IIP is a technology development program supporting the LIdar Surface Topography (LIST) space-flight mission that is a third-tier mission as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) for NASA's Earth Science programs.

Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Valett, Susan; Cavanaugh, John; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

2010-02-01

410

High-spectral-resolution time-frequency distribution kernels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new class of time-frequency kernels is introduced. Members in this class satisfy the desired time-frequency distribution properties and simultaneously provide local autocorrelation functions (LAF) which are amenable to high resolution techniques over periods of stationarities. These high spectral resolution kernels map the sinusoids in time into damped/undamped sinusoidal bilinear data products over the LAF lag variable. The damped sinusoids represent cross-terms. Using SVD-based backward linear prediction techniques, the signal zeros, the cross-term zeros, and the extraneous zeros, respectively, lie on, outside, and inside the unit circle, providing a mechanism to distinguish between different types of components. It is shown that the binomial kernel introduced is a member of this class.

Amin, Moeness G.; Williams, William J.

1992-11-01

411

Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution ERDA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, we have developed a new detector system for a magnetic spectrometer to reduce the background noise in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The detector system consists of a MCP detector for ion detection, which has a thin Mylar foil in front of the detector, and an electron detector to detect secondary electrons emitted by the ions upon impact on the Mylar foil. By measuring the ion signal in coincidence with the electron signal, the dark noise of the ion detector can be efficiently rejected. This new detector system is used to improve the sensitivity of high-resolution elastic recoil detection. The detection limit of 0.08 at.% is achieved for the boron depth profiling in Si.

Hashimoto, H.; Fujita, S.; Nakajima, K.; Suzuki, M.; Sasakawa, K.; Kimura, K.

2012-02-01

412

High Spatial Resolution Remotely Sensed Data for Ecosystem Characterization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience magazine presents technical aspects of remote sensing for images at high spatial resolution. Characterization of ecosystem structure, diversity, and function is increasingly desired at finer spatial and temporal scales than have been derived in the past. Many ecological applications require detailed data representing large spatial extents, but these data are often unavailable or are impractical to gather using field-based techniques. Remote sensing offers an option for collecting data that can represent broad spatial extents with detailed attribute characterizations. Remotely sensed data are also appropriate for use in studies across spatial scales, in conjunction with field-collected data. This article presents the pertinent technical aspects of remote sensing for images at high spatial resolution (i.e., with a pixel size of 16 square meters or less), existing and future options for the processing and analysis of remotely sensed data, and attributes that can be estimated with these data for forest ecosystems.

MICHAEL A. WULDER, RONALD J. HALL, NICHOLAS C. COOPS, and STEVEN E. FRANKLIN (;)

2004-06-01

413

High-resolution spectroscopy using direct reactions of RI beams  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear spectroscopy via direct reactions of RI beams is discussed especially for focusing on charge exchange reactions of unstable nuclei. As an example, study of isospin multiplets of drip-line nuclei is presented discussing neutron halo phenomena studied by proton decay of isobaric analog states populated by the (p,n) reaction around 70 A MeV. The SHARAQ project is presented along high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy using RI beams at 150-350 A MeV, where the characteristics of exothemic charge exchange reactions are discussed. The present status of construction of the SHARAQ spectrometer and the high-resolution beam line in the RIBF at RIKEN are presented.

Shimoura, Susumu [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2009-05-04

414

High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas  

SciTech Connect

High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

1995-01-01

415

High-resolution climatology of lightning in Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning pose a significant threat to life, property and economy. Hence, the detailed knowledge of the occurrence of lightning is important. A high-resolution climatology allows assessing the local risk of lightning. A 5-year analysis (including data of >30 million strokes measured by the LIghtning detection NETwork LINET) of the spatial and temporal occurrence of lightning in Germany and neighbouring areas is presented. The analysis on a high-resolution grid with spatial resolution of 1 km enables identifying local features, e.g. this resolution is high enough to identify TV towers which trigger lightning. The data set allows studying local effects, e.g. the influence of orography on the occurrence of thunderstorms. The analysis reveals spatial and temporal patterns. The highest numbers of lightning strokes occur in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany; further local maxima exist in low mountain ranges. The lowest number of lightning is present in areas of the North Sea and Baltic Sea. Despite a high year-to-year variability of lightning rates, on average a clear annual cycle (maximum June to August) and diurnal cycle (maximum in the afternoon) is present. Additionally to this well-known annual and diurnal pattern, the data show that those are intertwined: the diurnal cycle has an annual cycle, visible in the time of daily maximum which occurs later in the afternoon in summer compared to spring and autumn. Furthermore an annual cycle of mean IC height, i.e. rising IC height during the year with a maximum in late summer, is shown.

Wapler, Kathrin

2013-04-01

416

Theoretical analysis of high-resolution digital mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a high-resolution charge coupled device-based full-field digital mammography imager was analysed using a mathematical framework based on an adaptation of cascaded linear systems theory described by other investigators. This work has been conducted in order to understand the impact of various design parameters on the physical performance characteristics of the imager. Specifically, the effect of pixel size,

Sankararaman Suryanarayanan; Andrew Karellas; Srinivasan Vedantham; Ioannis Sechopoulos

2006-01-01

417

High-Resolution Far-Infrared Observations of DR 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new, high angular resolution two-color maps of the compact H II region DR 21 at 50 mum and 100 mum made with the 0.91 m telescope of NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). From the maps we estimate the total fluxes of DR 21 at 50 mum and 100 mum to be 1.5 × 104 Jy and 3.8 ×

Cecilia Colome; Paul M. Harvey; Daniel F. Lester; Murray F. Campbell; Harold M. Butner

1995-01-01

418

High-resolution genomic profiles of human lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, yet there exists a limited view of the genetic lesions driving this disease. In this study, an integrated high-resolution survey of regional amplifications and deletions, coupled with gene-expression profiling of non-small-cell lung cancer subtypes, adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), identified 93 focal copy-number alterations, of which 21 span <0.5 megabases

Giovanni Tonon; Kwok-Kin Wong; Gautam Maulik; Cameron Brennan; Bin Feng; Yunyu Zhang; Deepak B. Khatry; Alexei Protopopov; Mingjian James You; Andrew J. Aguirre; Eric S. Martin; Zhaohui Yang; Hongbin Ji; Lynda Chin; Ronald A. DePinho

2005-01-01

419

Channel network extraction from high resolution topography using wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of high resolution topography from LIDAR offers new opportunities for objectively extracting the channels directly from a DEM using local topographic information, instead of inferring them indirectly based on global criteria, such as area or area-slope threshold relationships. Here we introduce the use of wavelet filtering to delineate threshold curvatures for defining valleys and threshold slope-direction-change for defining

Bruno Lashermes; Efi Foufoula-Georgiou; William E. Dietrich

2007-01-01

420

High Time-Resolution Astronomy on the 10-m SALT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a brief description of the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube (BVIT) detector system, which is a user instrument on the 10-m Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and include some preliminary observational results gained in mid-2011. The data show that BVIT is capable of revealing emission features occurring on time-scales of < 0.1 sec, thus opening up for the general user a window of high time-resolution astronomy at visible wavelengths.

Welsh, Barry; Anderson, David; McPhate, Jason; Vallerga, John; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Buckley, David; Gulbis, Amanda; Kotze, Marissa; Potter, Stephen

2012-04-01

421

High resolution energy loss research: Si compounds and ceramics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses both experimental and theoretical work on silicon compounds and ceramics. High resolution energy loss research on liquid-phase reaction zones in wurtzite silicon carbide alloys, energy loss and x-ray analysis of major constituents in silicon oxynitride ceramics, instrumentation, electron energy loss core edge theory for crystals, electronic structure of amorphous solids, and proposed research are some of the topics summarized in this report. (JL)

Carpenter, R.W.; Lin, S.H.

1988-01-01

422

Azimuth and elevation computation in high resolution DOA estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of high-resolution direction finding methods for determining the two-dimensional DOA (directions of arrival) of a number of plane waves impinging on a sensor array are discussed. The array consists of triplets of sensors that are identical, as an extension of the one-dimensional ESPRIT scenario to two dimensions. Algorithms that yield the correct parameter pairs while avoiding an extensive

A. J. van der Veen; P. B. Ober; E. F. Deprettere

1992-01-01

423

High Spectral Resolution Atlas of Comet 122P/DEVICO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This data set presents an atlas of 12,219 identified and 4,055 unidentified spectral lines from high resolution spectra of comet 122P/deVico. The spectra were obtained at the McDonald Observatory using the 2D Coude cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph (CS2) at the Coude f/32.5 focus of the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope.

Cochran, A. L.; Farnham, T.; Raugh, A. C.

2010-01-01

424

Nested high-resolution modelling of the greenland summit region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics and thermodynamics of the vicinity of Summit, the highest point of the Greenland ice sheet at 72° 34?N, 37° 38?W,\\u000a is simulated over two climate cycles until the present with a high-resolution regional model coupled to a large-scale model\\u000a of the entire Greenland ice sheet. For the computation of the age of ice, two different methods are applied,

Ralf Greve; Bernd Mügge; Dambaru Baral; Olaf Albrecht; Alexey Savvin

1999-01-01

425

Coordinated Studies of High-Resolution Marine Methane Hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution Studies of marine methane hydrates based on Long-Base-Line (LBL) acoustic navigation allow investigators to collocate direct samples (e.g., cores, heatflow, water-samples, etc.) with remote measurements such as conventional and deep-tow seismic data. Examples are presented based on work done on the Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island using the Naval Research Laboratory's DTAGS (Deep-Towed Acoustics\\/Geophysics system), coring, water samples

J. F. Gettrust; W. T. Wood

2003-01-01

426

MULTICHANNEL HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH DEVELOPED IN MATLAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution measurement of ECG signals is necessary prerequisite for advanced diagnostic methods of various cardiovascular diseases. Diagnostic information contained in surface potential maps computed from multi-lead ECG signals is much more detailed than from standard 12-lead ECG or Frank VCG lead system. For measurement of required ECG signals with necessary quality we designed special multichannel electrocardiograph (ProCardio-8). The system

S. Karas; V. Rosik; M. Tyšler

427

FASTTRAC I: A High Resolution Infrared Tip-Tilt Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Astronomical Adaptive Optics (CAAO) at Steward Observatory is implementing instrumentation to enable high resolution imaging in the infrared. The FASTTRAC I instrumentation suite achieves diffraction limited imaging (or spectroscopy) in the near infrared (1-2.4 microns ) by rapid (100 Hz) tip-tilt correction in typical seeing conditions (ro=10 cm at 0.5 microns ). FASTTRAC I removes image motion by rapidly steering a reactionless tip-tilt secondary mirror cell which economically accommodates existing IR secondaries at both the Observatory's 2.3m and 1.5m Cassegrains. Image motion is reduced to less than 0.05" rms during long exposures resulting in final image resolutions of 0.2-0.6" FWHM. Science targets can be acquired by utilizing faint visible (<= 17(th) V) or infrared (<= 8(th) K) guide stars (a unique dual capability). These guide stars must be within a 3' FOV which allows nearly full sky coverage for science target acquisition. A few examples of science targets already acquired by FASTTRAC I are: the first real time images (J, H, & K) of the massive black hole candidate Sgr A* FWHM <= 0.5", the first high resolution HeI (2.06 microns ) image of the Galactic Center, high resolution infrared images of faint (K ~ 22) field galaxies imaged by HST in the visible, Seyfert galaxy morphologies, and high redshift sub-arcsecond gravitational lenses. We will soon obtain tip-tilt corrected near infrared spectra of Sgr A* and other interesting infrared sources. This research is supported by grants from the NSF (AST 88-22465; AST 92-03336) and NASA (NAGW-2254). L.M. Close is supported by a NSERC Fellowship.

Close, Laird M.; Wittman, David; McCarthy, Donald W.; Rieke, Marica

1994-12-01

428

Comparison and analysis of fusion algorithms of high resolution imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fusion techniques have been developed quickly in recent years and become an important remote sensing research topic. This paper systematically discusses the technique used in pixel level image fusion including IHS transform, YIQ transform, HLS transform, HSV transform, PCA transform, HPF transform and wavelet transform image fusion method. Then a fusion experiment of IKONOS image is made to compares the different merging methods from spectral quality and the spatial quality in order to choose the suitable method for the high resolution image.

Dong, Guangjun; Huang, Xiaobo; Dai, Chenguang

2008-03-01

429

High resolution laser-interferometric probing of SAW devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements on the surface-acoustic wave profiles in various SAW devices have been performed with a scanning laser interferometer. SAW profiles at frequencies up to 1 GHz are obtained with our interferometer. Fast automatic computer control enables high-resolution scans with a large number of measuring points at speeds up to 10 000 points\\/hour. Our interferometer can detect below one Angstrom vibrations

J. Knuuttila; P. Tikka; T. Thorvaldsson; K.-Y. Hashimoto; M. M. Salomaa

1998-01-01

430

Correlation analysis of high-resolution ocean microwave radiometric images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent remote sensing studies have shown that a high-resolution passive microwave imaging technique enables detailed observations of ocean variables. Multi-channel sets of ocean microwave radiometric images (OMIs) were obtained using the NOAA airborne Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) that operated at five frequencies: 10.7, 18.7, 21.5, 37, and 89 GHz and two polarizations. Radiometric features such as mosaic spot-type structures were

Victor Raizer

2004-01-01

431

Chronic pneumonitis of infancy: high-resolution CT findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare entity. We report the chest radiography and high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in an infant with histopathologically confirmed CPI. The child was admitted for intensive care 18 h after birth and died at 39 days of age. On HRCT there was diffuse ground-glass change, interlobular septal thickening and discrete centrilobular nodules. An accurate diagnosis

Øystein E. Olsen; Neil J. Sebire; Adam Jaffe; Catherine M. Owens

2004-01-01

432

Variability of high-resolution crop reflectance spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-spectral-resolution reflectance spectra from ground and helicopter measurements of agricultural crops and soils were analyzed to determine spectral variability in the visible and near-infrared (0 4-2 38 ?m), using a procedure previously applied to thermal infrared emittance spectra of the atmosphere and to reflectance spectra of soil samples. Five spectral basis functions were sufficient to describe separately the ground and helicopter data,

J. C. PRICE

1992-01-01

433

A high position resolution X-ray detector: an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed and successfully tested a prototype of a new high position resolution hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin-wall lead glass capillary plate converter of X-rays combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber operating in various gas mixtures at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to

C. Iacobaeus; T. Francke; B. Lund-Jensen; J. Ostling; P. Pavlopoulos; Vladimir Peskov; F. Tokanai

2006-01-01

434

High-Resolution Inset Head-Mounted Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to inset superimposition in a high-resolution head-mounted display ~HMD! is pre- sented. The approach is innovative in its use of optoelectronic, nonmechanical devices in place of scanning mechanical devices commonly adopted previously. A paraxial layout of the overall HMD system is presented, and the benefit of employing hybrid refractive-diffractive optics for the optical component that generates the

Jannick P. Rolland; Akitoshi Yoshida; Larry D. Davis; John H. Reif

1998-01-01

435

High-Resolution Microcalorimeters for X-ray Microanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcalorimeters represent the current state-of-the-art in x- ray detection for high-resolution microanalysis. In this device the energy of x-rays emitted from regions of a sample or circuit excited by an electron beam is determined by measuring the increase in temperature caused by the absorption of an x-ray in the microcalorimeter, normally held at temperatures well below 1 K by a

B. L. Zink

2005-01-01

436

8500-8750{AA} high resolution spectroscopy (Munari+, 1999)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an Echelle+CCD high resolution spectroscopic atlas mapping the MKK classification system over the wavelength interval lambda 8500-8750 A, centered on the near-IR triplet of Ca II. Table 2 lists all the 131 program stars with basic informations (magnitudes, coordinates, spectral types, metallicities, rotational velocities, variabilities) and the journal of observations; Table 3 shows our mapping of the MKK

U. Munari; L. Tomasella

1999-01-01

437

Compressed Voxels for High-Resolution Phantom Simulations in GATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We report here on a technique to implement high-resolution objects with voxels having variable dimensions (compressed) for\\u000a the reduction of memory and central processing unit (CPU) requirements in Monte Carlo simulations. The technique, which was\\u000a implemented in GATE, the GEANT4 application for positron emission tomography\\/single photon emission computed tomography (PET\\/SPECT)\\u000a imaging simulations, was developed in response to our need for

Richard Taschereau; Arion F. Chatziioannou

2008-01-01

438

High time resolution study of interplanetary parameter correlations with AE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the earth-orbiting spacecraft IMP-8, we have performed a high time-resolution (2.5-min) study of the linear cross-correlations of a quantitative indicator of magnetospheric substorm activity, the auroral electrojet (AE) index, with several interplanetary (IP) parameters. The present study includes all available satellite data (from an eight-month period) rather than selecting a small number of substorm events, or a relatively small

D. N. Baker; E. W. Jr. Hones; J. B. Payne; W. C. Feldman

1981-01-01

439

High resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS), volume 1, book 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following topics are presented with respect to the high resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS) that is to be used as an instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): (1) an instrument overview; (2) an instrument description; (3) the instrument's conceptual design; (4) technical risks and offsets; (5) instrument reliability; (6) commands and telemetry; (7) mass and power budgets; (8) integration and test program; (9) program implementation; and (10) phase CD schedule.

1990-10-01

440

High-Resolution Genotyping by Amplicon Melting Analysis Using LCGreen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: High-resolution amplicon melting analy- sis was recently introduced as a closed-tube method for genotyping and mutation scanning (Gundry et al. Clin Chem 2003;49:396 - 406). The technique required a fluo- rescently labeled primer and was limited to the detec- tion of mutations residing in the melting domain of the labeled primer. Our aim was to develop a closed-tube system

Carl T. Wittwer; Gudrun H. Reed; Cameron N. Gundry; Joshua G. Vandersteen; Robert J. Pryor

441

High resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS), volume 1, book 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following topics are presented with respect to the high resolution microwave spectrometer sounder (HIMSS) that is to be used as an instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): (1) preliminary program plans; (2) contract end item (CEI) specification; and (3) the instrument interface description document. Under the preliminary program plans section, plans dealing with the following subject areas are discussed: spares, performance assurance, configuration management, software implementation, contamination, calibration management, and verification.

1990-10-01

442

Detector characteristics of CCDs for high resolution gamma ray imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a high resolution gamma ray imager for use in Nuclear Medicine at energies up to ?150 keV. The imager is based upon a charge coupled device (CCD) coated with a polycrystalline scintillator to improve the detection efficiency. Three CCDs from E2V Ltd, bearing 100 ?m, 300 ?m and 500 ?m layers of Gd2O2S(Tb) (GADOX) have been tested.

W. J. Ryder; R. J. Ott; J. E. Lees; A. Keay; D. Bassford; G. W. Fraser

2002-01-01

443

X-band frequency synthesizer with high frequency resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high frequency resolution X-band frequency source composed of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) and a phase locked loop (PLL) is proposed in the paper. The DDS provides signals as the reference of the PLL, which generates a stable and low phase noise X-band signal. Hardware design is given with an ADF4002 and an AD9858. Experimental measurements of the frequency

Shengwu Yu; Jinping Xu; Zhihao Shen

2012-01-01

444

High Angular Resolution Electron Detection in the Inner Heliosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of low-energy (<5keV) electron distribution functions in the inner heliosphere is of prime importance for understanding solar wind acceleration and heating processes. Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions will provide the high-angular resolution electron measurements which are needed for improving our understanding of the sources of fast and slow solar wind, of the distribution of open and closed magnetic field structures, and of the origin and evolution of electron strahl. We present the main characteristics of the high-angular resolution electron detector that has been developed, prototyped, and tested at LPP for the Solar Orbiter mission. Our detector is using a pixelated anode that is HV coupled to a low power multi-channel hard-rad full custom ASIC that performs charge amplification and discrimination from noise. Using embedded capacitance technology, it provides a generic ultra-compact and low mass solution for high-angular resolution electron measurements in solar system plasmas.

Berthomier, M.; Zouganelis, I.; Techer, J.; Leblanc, F.; Verdeil, C.

2011-12-01

445

Improved design for high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry.  

PubMed

An improved design for high resolution electrospray ionization ion mobility spectrometry (ESI-IMS) was developed by making some salient modifications to the IMS cell and its performance was investigated. To enhance desolvation of electrospray droplets at high sample flow rates in this new design, volume of the desolvation region was decreased by reducing its diameter and the entrance position of the desolvation gas was shifted to the end of the desolvation region (near the ion gate). In addition, the ESI source (both needle and counter electrode) was positioned outside of the heating oven of the IMS. This modification made it possible to use the instrument at higher temperatures, and preventing needle clogging in the electrospray process. The ion mobility spectra of different chemical compounds were obtained. The resolving power and resolution of the instrument were increased by about 15-30% relative to previous design. In this work, the baseline separation of the two adjacent ion peaks of morphine and those of codeine was achieved for the first time with resolutions of 1.5 and 1.3, respectively. These four ion peaks were well separated from each other using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) rather than nitrogen as the drift gas. Finally, the analytical parameters obtained for ethion, metalaxyl, and tributylamine indicated the high performance of the instrument for quantitative analysis. PMID:19159776

Jafari, M T

2008-10-17

446

Thin polymer etalon arrays for high-resolution photoacoustic imaging  

PubMed Central

Thin polymer etalons are demonstrated as high-frequency ultrasound sensors for three-dimensional (3-D) high-resolution photoacoustic imaging. The etalon, a Fabry-Perot optical resonator, consists of a thin polymer slab sandwiched between two gold layers. It is probed with a scanning continuous-wave (CW) laser for ultrasound array detection. Detection bandwidth of a 20-?m-diam array element exceeds 50 MHz, and the ultrasound sensitivity is comparable to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) equivalents of similar size. In a typical photoacoustic imaging setup, a pulsed laser beam illuminates the imaging target, where optical energy is absorbed and acoustic waves are generated through the thermoelastic effect. An ultrasound detection array is formed by scanning the probing laser beam on the etalon surface in either a 1-D or a 2-D configuration, which produces 2-D or 3-D images, respectively. Axial and lateral resolutions have been demonstrated to be better than 20 ?m. Detailed characterizations of the optical and acoustical properties of the etalon, as well as photoacoustic imaging results, suggest that thin polymer etalon arrays can be used as ultrasound detectors for 3-D high-resolution photoacoustic imaging applications.

Hou, Yang; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Ashkenazi, Shai; Witte, Russell; O'Donnell, Matthew

2009-01-01

447

High-resolution multielement solid-state detectors  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in multielement solid-state detector systems for high rate, high resolution x-ray spectroscopy at noncryogenic temperatures will be described in this paper. A 16-channel silicon detector system, designed and built at BNL, has been recently operated in the NSLS machine beam {number_sign}X19A, showing an average energy resolution of less than 250 eV FWHM, which is adequate to discriminate the fluorescence trace element against the background of elastically scattered photons in a typical EXAFS application. A larger, 128 channel system, will soon permit a higher overall count rate: {approx_gt}10{sup 6} counts per second. It is shown that, in order to achieve high resolution with a solid-state detector, special care must be spent in the detector-preamplifier assembly. A low noise detectorpreamplifier may be obtained integrating the front-end devices (an FET and/or a feedback capacitor) with the detector itself. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Pullia, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci, 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Furenlid, L.; Kraner, H.; Pietraski, P.; Siddons, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

1996-09-01

448

Modeling high-resolution broadband discourse in complex adaptive systems.  

PubMed

Numerous researchers and practitioners have turned to complexity science to better understand human systems. Simulation can be used to observe how the microlevel actions of many human agents create emergent structures and novel behavior in complex adaptive systems. In such simulations, communication between human agents is often modeled simply as message passing, where a message or text may transfer data, trigger action, or inform context. Human communication involves more than the transmission of texts and messages, however. Such a perspective is likely to limit the effectiveness and insight that we can gain from simulations, and complexity science itself. In this paper, we propose a model of how close analysis of discursive processes between individuals (high-resolution), which occur simultaneously across a human system (broadband), dynamically evolve. We propose six different processes that describe how evolutionary variation can occur in texts-recontextualization, pruning, chunking, merging, appropriation, and mutation. These process models can facilitate the simulation of high-resolution, broadband discourse processes, and can aid in the analysis of data from such processes. Examples are used to illustrate each process. We make the tentative suggestion that discourse may evolve to the "edge of chaos." We conclude with a discussion concerning how high-resolution, broadband discourse data could actually be collected. PMID:12876447

Dooley, Kevin J; Corman, Steven R; McPhee, Robert D; Kuhn, Timothy

2003-01-01

449

High real-space resolution structure of materials by high-energy x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

Results of high-energy synchrotrons radiation experiments are presented demonstrating the advantages of the atomic Pair Distribution Function technique in determining the structure of materials with high resolution.

Petkov, V.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Heising, J.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Shastri, S.; Kycia, S.

1999-12-10

450

High resolution array in the clinical approach to chromosomal phenotypes.  

PubMed

Array genomic hybridization (AGH) has recently been implemented as a diagnostic tool for the detection of submicroscopic copy number variants (CNVs) in patients with developmental disorders. However, there is no consensus regarding the choice of the platform, the minimal resolution needed and systematic interpretation of CNVs. We report our experience in the clinical diagnostic use of high resolution AGH up to 100 kb on 131 patients with chromosomal phenotypes but previously normal karyotype. We evaluated the usefulness in our clinics and laboratories by the detection rate of causal CNVs and CNVs of unknown clinical significance and to what extent their interpretation would challenge the systematic use of high-resolution arrays in clinical application. Prioritizing phenotype-genotype correlation in our interpretation strategy to criteria previously described, we identified 33 (25.2%) potentially pathogenic aberrations. 16 aberrations were confirmed pathogenic (16.4% syndromic, 8.5% non-syndromic patients); 9 were new and individual aberrations, 3 of them were pathogenic although inherited and one is as small as approx 200 kb. 13 of 16 further CNVs of unknown significance were classified likely benign, for 3 the significance remained unclear. High resolution array allows the detection of up to 12.2% of pathogenic aberrations in a diagnostic clinical setting. Although the majority of aberrations are larger, the detection of small causal aberrations may be relevant for family counseling. The number of remaining unclear CNVs is limited. Careful phenotype-genotype correlations of the individual CNVs and clinical features are challenging but remain a hallmark for CNV interpretation. PMID:22240311

Filges, Isabel; Suda, Luzia; Weber, Peter; Datta, Alexandre N; Fischer, Dirk; Dill, Patricia; Glanzmann, Réné; Benzing, Jörg; Hegi, Lukas; Wenzel, Friedel; Huber, Andreas R; Mori, Andrea Capone; Miny, Peter; Röthlisberger, Benno

2012-01-03

451

High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator  

DOEpatents

A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

1996-06-04

452

High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator  

DOEpatents

A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

1996-06-04

453

High-Resolution Protein Structure Determination by Serial Femtosecond Crystallography  

PubMed Central

Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well