Science.gov

Sample records for high response injection

  1. High strain-rate response of injectable PAA hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Ru; Wang, Shih-Han; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Juang, Yun-Ching; Yu, Fu-Ann; Tsai, Liren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials have been widely considered as potential soft tissue replacements because of their high permeability, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility, as well as their low coefficient of friction. Injectable (thermo-responsive) hydrogels can provide support and cushioning at irregularly shaped disease sites, and are thus suitable for use in treating osteoarthritis or degenerative disc disease. However, while some injectable hydrogels have been proven to sustain human body weight during daily activities, their mechanical properties under harsh dynamic conditions have not been well documented. A specified injectable polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel was prepared for this study. To simulate sudden impacts or unexpected shocks to the PAA hydrogel, the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique was utilized. The dynamic responses of various hydrogels at confined high strain rates (100-2590 s(-1)) were presented. Hydrogel specimens with 3.37, 6.75, and 13.5% acrylic acid (AAc) concentrations were tested in the following three different material conditions: raw, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) swollen, and PBS swollen with elevated temperature (37 °C). The dynamic bulk moduli of the hydrogels varied from 1.55 to 47.8 MPa depending on the given hydrogel's AAc concentration and swollen condition. PMID:25816201

  2. A harmonic injection SPWM method for the high-responsive PMSM control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wang; Shuanghui, Hao; Minghui, Hao; Baoyu, Song

    2016-01-01

    In a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) control system, usually, the phase voltage instruction is limited independently to prevent a three-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) wave from overflowing. This method decreases the efficiency of the bus voltage and causes voltage vector direction errors. To solve these problems, we propose a harmonic injection sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM). This method uses harmonic injected sinusoidal PWM to improve the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage, and consequently improve system performance. In this paper, we analyse the problem in terms of potential difference. The simulation results show that the proposed method can increase the utilisation ratio of the bus voltage up to 15.4%, and the voltage vector mode obtained with the proposed algorithm is larger than that obtained with the conventional one. The method with harmonic injection consequently improves current response, without affecting voltage vector accuracy. The experiment results validate the proposed method.

  3. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  4. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-04-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  5. High-pressure Injection Injuries of the Hand.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Tyler A

    2016-07-01

    High-pressure injection hand injuries are often overlooked, with severe complications owing to the acute inflammatory response. Prognosis for depends on the type of material injected, location of injection, involved pressure, and timing to surgical decompression and debridement. Acute management involves broad-spectrum antibiotics, tetanus prophylaxis, emergent decompression within 6 hours, and complete removal of the injected material. Most patients have residual sequelae of stiffness, pain, sensation loss, and difficulties in returning to work. The hand surgeon's role is prompt surgical intervention, early postoperative motion, and education of patient and staff regarding short- and long-term expectations. PMID:27241384

  6. High injection vs low injection behaviour of solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luque, A.; Araujo, G.L.; Calleja, M.J.

    1984-05-01

    An unitary model similar to the Ebers Moll one is presented to describe the behaviour of BSF cells working under either high or low injection. The model is applied to bifacial cells. The influence of the base resistivity on the front to back illumination short-circuit current is explained, as well as the cross-over presented by the I-V curve under front and back illuminations.

  7. Arctic stratospheric sulphur injections: radiative forcings and cloud responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, U.; Gasparini, B.; Miriam, K.; Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and climate projections show a high sensitivity of the Arctic climate to the increase in greenhouse gas emissions, known as the polar amplification. This study evaluates the options of counteracting the rising polar temperatures by stratospheric sulphur injections in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes.10 Mt of sulphur dioxide are emitted in a point emission source setup centred at the 100 hPa pressure level over Svalbard island (80°N,15°E). We perform simulations with the general circulation models ECHAM5, ECHAM6, and GISS ModelE. We study pulsed emission simulations that differ among themselves by the injection starting date (March-September), injection length (1, 30, or 90 day emission period), and the vertical resolution of the model (for ECHAM6). We find injections in April to be the most efficient in terms of the shortwave radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere over the Arctic region. The distribution of sulphate aerosol spreads out beyond the injection region, with a significant share reaching the Southern Hemisphere. Results from ModelE show high latitude injections could counteract the spring and summer temperature increase due to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Preliminary results with a more realistic description of clouds in ECHAM-HAM reveal a complex pattern of responses, most notably: a decrease in Northern Hemisphere cirrus clouds strengthening the effect of stratospheric aerosols in ECHAM5 a decrease in low-level clouds over the Arctic increasing the incoming solar radiation and causing a net positive radiative balance cirrus clouds are resilient to stratospheric sulphur injections in the absence of sulphate warming

  8. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  9. Influence of temperature, needle gauge and injection rate on the size distribution, concentration and acoustic responses of ultrasound contrast agents at high frequency.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Panagakou, Ioanna; Sboros, Vassilis; Butler, Mairead B; Kenwright, David; Thomson, Adrian J W; Moran, Carmel M

    2016-08-01

    This paper investigated the influence of needle gauge (19G and 27G), injection rate (0.85ml·min(-1), 3ml·min(-1)) and temperature (room temperature (RT) and body temperature (BT)) on the mean diameter, concentration, acoustic attenuation, contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) and normalised subharmonic intensity (NSI) of three ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs): Definity, SonoVue and MicroMarker (untargeted). A broadband substitution technique was used to acquire the acoustic properties over the frequency range 17-31MHz with a preclinical ultrasound scanner Vevo770 (Visualsonics, Canada). Significant differences (P<0.001-P<0.05) between typical in vitro setting (19G needle, 3ml·min(-1) at RT) and typical in vivo setting (27G needle, 0.85ml·min(-1) at BT) were found for SonoVue and MicroMarker. Moreover we found that the mean volume-based diameter and concentration of both SonoVue and Definity reduced significantly when changing from typical in vitro to in vivo experimental set-ups, while those for MicroMarker did not significantly change. From our limited measurements of Definity, we found no significant change in attenuation, CTR and NSI with needle gauge. For SonoVue, all the measured acoustic properties (attenuation, CTR and NSI) reduced significantly when changing from typical in vitro to in vivo experimental conditions, while for MicroMarker, only the NSI reduced, with attenuation and CTR increasing significantly. These differences suggest that changes in physical compression and temperature are likely to alter the shell structure of the UCAs resulting in measureable and significant changes in the physical and high frequency acoustical properties of the contrast agents under typical in vitro and preclinical in vivo experimental conditions. PMID:27140502

  10. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  11. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  12. Microbial Response to Carbon Dioxide Injection in a Shallow Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rook, A.; Faehndrich, D.; O'Mullan, G.; Mailloux, B.; Matter, J.; Stute, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2007-12-01

    Extensive research is underway to investigate the geophysical and geochemical dynamics of subsurface carbon sequestration, but there has been only theoretical consideration of the microbial response. Microbial dynamics are capable of altering the range and rates of geochemical reactions in the subsurface. The goal of this field experiment is to link geochemical changes due to CO2 injection to alterations in the microbial community and to provide an initial characterization of the microbial response. A seven week push-pull experiment was conducted at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well. 200L of groundwater was extracted, bubbled with carbon dioxide, augmented with a bromide tracer, and injected to 230m depth below ground surface. The hydraulically isolated injection zone marked the contact area between dolerite sill and sedimentary rock. Samples were taken on a weekly basis. Geochemically, a drop in pH from 9.4 to 4.5 at injection was coupled with a release of Fe2+ from the formation. As neutralization and mixing caused pH to return toward background levels, Fe2+ concentrations decreased. The aquifer remained anoxic throughout the experiment. DNA was successfully extracted and the gene encoding 16S ribosomal RNA was amplified from all samples with the exception of the injection fluid. Sequencing from clone libraries and tRFLP analyses were used to characterize microbial dynamics during the seven week study. Whereas the number of microbial groups detected remained relatively constant over the course of the experiment, changes were observed in both the dominant microbes phylogenetic identity and relative abundance. Methane concentrations increased from background levels (below 50 nM) to 4.2 nM after injection, but initial attempts to amplify archaeal and methanogen-specific genes were unsuccessful, bringing into question the presence of a significant methanogenic population. These results confirm that there is a microbial response to carbon dioxide

  13. Injectable, porous, and cell-responsive gelatin cryogels

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, Sandeep T.; Ferrante, Thomas C.; Lewin, Sarah A.; Mooney, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of biomaterials-based therapies can be hindered by complications associated with surgical implant, motivating the development of materials systems that allow minimally invasive introduction into the host. In this study, we created cell-adhesive and degradable gelatin scaffolds that could be injected through a conventional needle while maintaining a predefined geometry and architecture. These scaffolds supported attachment, proliferation, and survival of cells in vitro and could be degraded by recombinant matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. Prefabricated gelatin cryogels rapidly reassumed their original shape when injected subcutaneously into mice and elicited only a minor host response following injection. Controlled release of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor from gelatin cryogels resulted in complete infiltration of the scaffold by immune cells and promoted matrix metalloproteinase production leading to cell-mediated degradation of the cryogel matrix. These findings suggest that gelatin cryogels could serve as a cell-responsive platform for biomaterial-based therapy. PMID:24345735

  14. A high-altitude barium radial injection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Deehr, C. S.; Romick, G. J.; Olson, J. V.; Roederer, J. G.; Sydora, R.

    1980-01-01

    A rocket launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, carried a new type of high-explosive barium shaped charge to 571 km, where detonation injected a thin disk of barium vapor with high velocity nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The TV images of the injection are spectacular, revealing three major regimes of expanding plasma which showed early instabilities in the neutral gas. The most unusual effect of the injection is a peculiar rayed barium-ion structure lying in the injection plane and centered on a 5 km 'black hole' surrounding the injection point. Preliminary electrostatic computer simulations show a similar rayed development.

  15. Injection molded high precision freeform optics for high volume applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Lars; Risse, Stefan; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    Injection molding offers a cost-efficient method for manufacturing high precision plastic optics for high-volume applications. Optical surfaces such as flats, spheres and also aspheres are meanwhile state-of-the-art in the field of plastic optics. The demand for surfaces without symmetric properties, commonly referred to as freeform surfaces, continues to rise. Currently, new mathematical approaches are under consideration which allow for new complex optical designs. Such novel optical designs strongly encourage development of new manufacturing methods. Specifically, new surface descriptions without an axis of symmetry, new ultra precision machining methods and non-symmetrical shrinkage compensation strategies have to be developed to produce freeform optical surfaces with high precision for high-volume applications. This paper will illustrate a deterministic and efficient way for the manufacturing of ultra precision injection molding tool inserts with submicron precision and show the manufacturing of replicated freeform surfaces with micrometer range shape accuracy at diameters up to 40 mm with a surface roughness of approximately 2 nm.

  16. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  17. Multiple-injection high-throughput gas chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Wes; Wang, Heather; Welch, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Multiple-injection techniques have been shown to be a simple way to perform high-throughput analysis where the entire experiment resides in a single chromatogram, simplifying the data analysis and interpretation. In this study, multiple-injection techniques are applied to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and mass detection to significantly increase sample throughput. The unique issues of implementing a traditional "Fast" injection mode of multiple-injection techniques with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are discussed. Stacked injections are also discussed as means to increase the throughput of longer methods where mass detection is unable to distinguish between analytes of the same mass and longer retentions are required to resolve components of interest. Multiple-injection techniques are shown to increase instrument throughput by up to 70% and to simplify data analysis, allowing hits in multiple parallel experiments to be identified easily. PMID:27292909

  18. Blast furnace coal injection system design for high rates

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden, B.

    1994-12-31

    Coal injection into blast furnaces is now well established as a basic technology. However, high rates of coal injection between 300 and 500 lb/thm (160 to 250 kg/thm) are a rarity. Special consideration must be given to the overall concept regarding strategic coal storage, expected equipment reliability, and back-up available to prevent furnace problems, should any of the coal feeding systems fail. British Steel and Simon Macawber now have considerable operational experience at high rates for sustained periods. The paper will discuss the points to be considered and describe the ATSI-Simon Macawber approach to providing a high level of confidence in the coal injection system.

  19. Rapid assessment and response to injecting drug use in Madras, south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar; Mudaliar; Thyagarajan; Kumar; Selvanayagam; Daniels

    2000-03-01

    HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) is preventable, and in order to develop appropriate interventions, an assessment was carried out at Madras, South India using the Rapid Assessment and Response Guide on Injecting Drug Use developed by WHO. Data were collected with multiple methods from multiple sources using the principles of triangulation and induction. A total of 100 IDUs were interviewed. These interviews were complemented by focus groups and observations. A community advisory board ensured community ownership and participation. Findings showed that heroin, buprenorphine, diazepam and avil were the drugs most commonly injected. The use of pharmaceutical preparations as a 'cocktail' was also prevalent. Drug injectors interviewed were males, and most (81%) were from low-income groups living in slums. Direct (69%) as well as indirect sharing (94%) was common. Such unhygienic injecting practices, and the lack of access to sterile water, contribute to the high incidence of adverse health consequences. Compared with the buprenorphine injectors, heroin injectors were more likely to share injecting equipment (P=0.0022), inject more frequently (P=0.0013), have more drug using network members (P=0.0104), frequent 'shooting' locations (P=0.002), use the dealer's place to inject (P=0.0317), and face threats of arrest (P=0.0023). Many buprenorphine injectors managed their life without serious crises, and seemed to adopt a 'natural' harm reduction response. Sexual risk behaviour was prevalent among opioid users, and a history of commercial sex was associated with daily alcohol use (P=0.0221). The assessment led to an action plan which was presented and endorsed in an advocacy meeting by key stake-holders and decision-makers. The critical importance of implementing quality, accessible, community-oriented, and effective HIV interventions with the capacity to reach the majority of IDUs is discussed. Public health responses to injecting drug use must target changes

  20. High permeability heavy oil reservoir nitrogen injection EOR research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining; Wang, Ruihe; Han, Guoqing; An, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen chemically very unreactive under normal showed great inertia. It is difficult to burn , dry, non-explosive , non-toxic , non-corrosive , and thus the use of safe and reliable. Coefficient of variation of nitrogen increases with increasing pressure , less affected by temperature . Under the same conditions, the ratio of the nitrogen gas formation volume factor carbon dioxide gas is high, about three times the carbon dioxide , the greater the elastic expansion of nitrogen play a beneficial role in flooding . EOR project trends increase the number of oil and gas injection gas injection from the calendar view, carbon dioxide miscible flooding gas injection EOR is the focus of the flue gas project currently has less to carry , nitrogen flooding is still subject to considerable attention. Note the nitrogen requirements of the basic conditions for enhanced oil recovery from major tectonic conditions , reservoir properties of crude nature of the gas injection timing and other aspects to consider , for different reservoir injected in different ways. Oilfield against a thick , high permeability and other characteristics, to improve oil recovery by injecting nitrogen indoor experiments conducted nitrogen injection process factors and supporting technical studies ; and introduced the field of nitrogen injection EOR field test conditions .

  1. High-pressure injection injury with river water.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M I

    1978-06-01

    A case of high pressure injection and laceration of the calf with river water is reported, the first such case appearing in the literature. As with high pressure injection of grease, paint, paint thinner, mineral spirits, diesel oil, gasoline, and turpentine, this injury is a surgical emergency. All patients must be admitted for surgical debridement, irrigation, parenteral antibiotics, and observation. River water, contaminated by sewage and industrial wastes, has great irritative and infective potential. PMID:661048

  2. Geomechanical Reservoir Response to CO2 Injection at SNØHVIT, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaramonte, L.; White, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Pressure build-up during a large-scale CO2 injection increases the potential for seal failure, fault reactivation, leakage and induced microseismicity. Careful geomechanical analysis is necessary to predict and potentially manage these effects. In the present work we investigate the geomechanical reservoir response to the CO2 injection in the Tubåen Fm at the Snøhvit site taking into account the potential compartmentalization of the storage reservoir and the in situ stress uncertainty. Compartmentalization has been suspected due to the unexpected pressure rise during operations in the storage reservoir, which led to a considerable decrease in the estimated total capacity and to the abandonment of injection operations in the Tubåen Fm. The high uncertainty in the in situ stress field makes predictions difficult, and therefore uncertainty quantification analysis is a vital component of this work. The Snøhvit gas field is located offshore in the northern Norwegian Sea (Barents Sea). CO2 is injected in the Tubåen Fm. at approximately 2600 m depth. The Tubåen Fm. corresponds to a delta plain environment dominated by fluvial distributary channels which potentially contribute to the suspected compartmentalization. Structurally the area is extensively faulted, with a dominant east-west-trending fault system, and other faults at high angles to this trend, leading to complex fault interactions. This makes fault compartmentalization a strong possibility as well. Given the injection pressure history, geometry of major faults, available estimates of the in situ stress tensor, and reservoir characteristics, we investigate the geomechanical response of the system to the CO2 injection, focusing in particular on addressing the potential reservoir compartmentalization and its impacts on injection performance, CO2 distribution and migration outside of the storage interval. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National

  3. High performance channel injection sealant invention abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High performance channel sealant is based on NASA patented cyano and diamidoximine-terminated perfluoroalkylene ether prepolymers that are thermally condensed and cross linked. The sealant contains asbestos and, in its preferred embodiments, Lithofrax, to lower its thermal expansion coefficient and a phenolic metal deactivator. Extensive evaluation shows the sealant is extremely resistant to thermal degradation with an onset point of 280 C. The materials have a volatile content of 0.18%, excellent flexibility, and adherence properties, and fuel resistance. No corrosibility to aluminum or titanium was observed.

  4. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  5. Innovations in high-pressure liquid injection technique for gas chromatography: pressurized liquid injection system.

    PubMed

    Luong, Jim; Gras, Ronda; Tymko, Richard

    2003-01-01

    In gas chromatography (GC), highly volatile liquefied hydrocarbons are commonly injected using devices such as high-pressure syringes, piston valves, liquid rotary sampling valves, or vaporizing regulators. Although these techniques are adequate in some cases, there are known deficiencies. A new generation of sampling valve has been recently innovated and commercialized. Some of the highlights of the pressurized liquid injection system (PLIS) include compact size, the capability to directly couple to an injection port without the need for preinjection vaporization and transfer lines, and sample sizes ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 micro L. Although the valve has a specification of helium leak-free rating of 82.7 bar (1200 psig), the valve passes a hydrostatic pressure test of up to 414 bar (6000 psig). In the unheated version of PLIS, vaporization of solutes occur mainly because of the sheering effect of carrier gas in combination with thermal energy drawn from an injection port or a heated adaptor. This was found to be adequate for solutes with high to medium volatility of up to nC14 hydrocarbon. A higher molecular weight range of up to nC44 hydrocarbon can be achieved with the implementation of a heated version of PLIS, in which the channel of the shaft can be resistively heated at a rate of up to 400 degrees C/s. With its first introduction in May 2002, PLIS has gained acceptance amongst practitioners in GC because it addresses a key unarticulated need in sample introduction/enrichment and by specifically targeting many deficiencies encountered in contemporary high-pressure injection devices. In this paper, the design and performance of the various valve systems of PLIS, as well as industrial chromatographic applications, is presented. PMID:14629794

  6. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  7. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  8. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  9. Minority carrier injection and current–voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes at high injection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnatsakanov, Tigran T.; Levinshtein, Michael E.; Tandoev, Alexey G.; Yurkov, Sergey N.; Palmour, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Transport phenomena in Schottky diodes are analyzed at high injection levels of minority carriers. It is shown that the correct description of these phenomena requires that the mode of diffusion stimulated by the quasi-neutral drift (DSQD) should be considered. An analytical expression for current-voltage characteristics of a Schottky diode at high injection levels is derived. The expression predicts a seemingly paradoxical result: the higher the base doping level, the higher the voltage drop across a diode at the same current density. The analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. The results may be important for analyses of SiC Junction Barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes at very high current densities (surge current mode).

  10. High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology to measure cell mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Hale, Christopher M; Chen, Wei-Chiang; Lee, Jerry S H; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology is a method for the quantitative study of cell mechanics. Cell mechanics are measured by ballistic injection of submicron particles into the cytoplasm of living cells and tracking the spontaneous displacement of the particles at high spatial resolution. The trajectories of the cytoplasm-embedded particles are transformed into mean-squared displacements, which are subsequently transformed into frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli and time-dependent creep compliance of the cytoplasm. This method allows for the study of a wide range of cellular conditions, including cells inside a 3D matrix, cell subjected to shear flows and biochemical stimuli, and cells in a live animal. Ballistic injection lasts <1 min and is followed by overnight incubation. Multiple particle tracking for one cell lasts <1 min. Forty cells can be examined in <1 h. PMID:22222790

  11. Injection molding of optics for high volume consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schipper, Rien

    2012-03-01

    For high volume consumer products using optical technology, plastics injection molding is a very suitable technology. In optical component fabrication, astonishing results are be booked. However, to achieve success, excellent performance is needed in mastering different technologies such as polymer processing, evaporated coatings, tool making, ultra-precision turning of metals and optical metrology.

  12. Injection drug users trained by overdose prevention programs: Responses to witnessed overdoses

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Wagner, Karla D.; Silva, Karol; Kecojevic, Aleksander; Iverson, Ellen; McNeely, Miles; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the growing public health problem of drug overdose, community-based organizations have initiated overdose prevention programs (OPP), which distribute naloxone, an opioid antagonist, and teach overdose response techniques. Injection drug users (IDUs) have been targeted for this intervention due to their high risk for drug overdose. Limited research attention has focused on factors that may inhibit or prevent IDUs who have been trained by OPPs to undertake recommended response techniques when responding to a drug overdose. IDUs (n=30) trained by two OPPs in Los Angeles were interviewed in 2010–11 about responses to their most recently witnessed drug overdose using an instrument containing both open and closed-ended questions. Among the 30 witnessed overdose events, the victim recovered in 29 cases while the outcome was unknown in one case. Participants responded to overdoses using a variety of techniques taught by OPP. Injecting the victim with naloxone was the most common recommended response while other recommended responses included stimulating the victim with knuckles, calling 911, and giving rescue breathing. Barriers preventing participants from employing recommended response techniques in certain circumstances included prior successes using folk remedies to revive a victim, concerns over attracting police to the scene, and issues surrounding access to or use of naloxone. Practical solutions, such as developing booster sessions to augment OPP, are encouraged to increase the likelihood that trained participants respond to a drug overdose with the full range of recommended techniques. PMID:22847602

  13. Availability of high-pressure safety injection system in PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.H.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of typical variations in configuration of the design of the High Pressure Injection (HPSI) System on system unavailability. The HPSI systems in seventeen nuclear power plants were reviewed for variations in design, systems operation, testing and maintenance policies, and possible sources for common cause failures. The power plants reviewed include PWRs with two, three and four loop Reactor Coolant Systems and cover all three PWR vendors. As a result of this effort, the following five representative configurations (along with some variations) were identified and their unavailability to initiate injection was estimated.

  14. Effect of cavitation in high-pressure direct injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboulhasanzadeh, Bahman; Johnsen, Eric

    2015-11-01

    As we move toward higher pressures for Gasoline Direct Injection and Diesel Direct Injection, cavitation has become an important issue. To better understand the effect of cavitation on the nozzle flow and primary atomization, we use a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin approach using multi-GPU parallelism to simulate the compressible flow inside and outside the nozzle. Phase change is included using the six-equations model. We investigate the effect of nozzle geometry on cavitation inside the injector and on primary atomization outside the nozzle.

  15. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  16. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, XianLu Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-15

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H− ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H− ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H− ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H− beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  17. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. F.; Gan, W. L.; Kwon, J.; Luo, F. L.; Lim, G. J.; Wang, J. B.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-04-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~1012 A/m2. Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 1011 A/m2. Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation – first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line.

  18. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. F.; Gan, W. L.; Kwon, J.; Luo, F. L.; Lim, G. J.; Wang, J. B.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~1012 A/m2. Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 1011 A/m2. Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation – first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line. PMID:27098108

  19. Highly Efficient Domain Walls Injection in Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S F; Gan, W L; Kwon, J; Luo, F L; Lim, G J; Wang, J B; Lew, W S

    2016-01-01

    Electrical injection of magnetic domain walls in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire is crucial for data bit writing in domain wall-based magnetic memory and logic devices. Conventionally, the current pulse required to nucleate a domain wall is approximately ~10(12) A/m(2). Here, we demonstrate an energy efficient structure to inject domain walls. Under an applied electric potential, our proposed Π-shaped stripline generates a highly concentrated current distribution. This creates a highly localized magnetic field that quickly initiates the nucleation of a magnetic domain. The formation and motion of the resulting domain walls can then be electrically detected by means of Ta Hall bars across the nanowire. Our measurements show that the Π-shaped stripline can deterministically write a magnetic data bit in 15 ns even with a relatively low current density of 5.34 × 10(11) A/m(2). Micromagnetic simulations reveal the evolution of the domain nucleation - first, by the formation of a pair of magnetic bubbles, then followed by their rapid expansion into a single domain. Finally, we also demonstrate experimentally that our injection geometry can perform bit writing using only about 30% of the electrical energy as compared to a conventional injection line. PMID:27098108

  20. DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

  1. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    PubMed

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. PMID:27012440

  2. Electrostatic charging of spacecraft in response to electron beam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Hwang, K. S.

    1989-01-01

    Electron beam injections from spacecraft now constitute a major activity in space research. Here, the charging level of a conducting surface when an electron beam is injected from it is investigated. Injections into both vacuum and an ambient plasma are considered. When a Maxwellian beam is injected into vacuum, the surface changes to a potential much greater than the average beam energy. The dependence of this excess is examined by considering beams with water-bag types of velocity distribution functions in which no electron has a velocity V(max) above a certain value. The electric field distribution in the electron sheath near the surface is determined by the pressure distribution. Thus, the surface potential is determined not only by V(max) but by all the beam parameters. The ambient plasma reduces the charging level and causes an oscillation in the surface potential. The oscillation frequency is the electron-plasma frequency associated with the ambient plasma.

  3. 'It's your life!': injecting drug users, individual responsibility and hepatitis C prevention.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Suzanne

    2004-04-01

    Health promotion materials on hepatitis C prevention and safe injecting enjoin injecting drug users to produce ethical selves through relatively rigid social and hygiene-related conduct. This article examines a sample of safe injecting and hepatitis C prevention health promotion materials, and interview data gathered from injecting drug users, to consider the ways in which the notion of individual responsibility functions within them. I argue that the primacy of the individual in western culture is indeed reflected in hepatitis C and safe injecting materials and, that for a range of reasons, injecting drug users also make use of notions of individual responsibility. The article concludes by considering the social and health implications of this individualist approach to injecting drug use and health promotion, and by suggesting ways in which effective materials which do not focus solely on the individual can be created. PMID:15068637

  4. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Gel, Aytekin; Syamlal, M; Guenther, Chris; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  5. Injectable polyHIPEs as high-porosity bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Moglia, Robert S; Holm, Jennifer L; Sears, Nicholas A; Wilson, Caitlin J; Harrison, Dawn M; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2011-10-10

    Polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (polyHIPEs) is a relatively new method for the production of high-porosity scaffolds. The tunable architecture of these polyHIPE foams makes them attractive candidates for tissue engineered bone grafts. Previously studied polyHIPE systems require either toxic diluents or high cure temperatures which prohibit their use as an injectable bone graft. In contrast, we have developed an injectable polyHIPE that cures at physiological temperatures to a rigid, high-porosity foam. First, a biodegradable macromer, propylene fumarate dimethacrylate (PFDMA), was synthesized that has appropriate viscosity and hydrophobicity for emulsification. The process of surfactant selection is detailed with particular focus on the key structural features of both polymer (logP values, hydrogen bond acceptor sites) and surfactant (HLB values, hydrogen bond donor sites) that enable stable HIPE formation. Incubation of HIPEs at 37 °C was used to initiate radical cross-linking of the unsaturated double bond of the methacrylate groups to polymerize the continuous phase and lock in the emulsion geometry. The resulting polyHIPEs exhibited ~75% porosity, pore sizes ranging from 4 to 29 μm, and an average compressive modulus and strength of 33 and 5 MPa, respectively. These findings highlight the great potential of these scaffolds as injectable, tissue engineered bone grafts. PMID:21861465

  6. Injectable PolyHIPEs as High Porosity Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Moglia, Robert S.; Holm, Jennifer L.; Sears, Nicholas A.; Wilson, Caitlin J.; Harrison, Dawn M.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (polyHIPEs) is a relatively new method for the production of high porosity scaffolds. The tunable architecture of these polyHIPE foams make them attractive candidates for tissue engineered bone grafts. Previously studied polyHIPE systems require either toxic diluents or high cure temperatures which prohibit their use as an injectable bone graft. In contrast, we have developed an injectable polyHIPE that cures at physiological temperatures to a rigid, high-porosity foam. First, a biodegradable macromer, propylene fumarate dimethacrylate (PFDMA), was synthesized that has appropriate viscosity and hydrophobicity for emulsification. The process of surfactant selection is detailed with particular focus on the key structural features of both polymer (log P values, hydrogen bond acceptor sites) and surfactant (HLB values, hydrogen bond donor sites) that enable stable HIPE formation. Incubation of HIPEs at 37°C was used to initiate radical crosslinking of the unsaturated double bond of the methacrylate groups to polymerize the continuous phase and lock in the emulsion geometry. The resulting polyHIPEs exhibited ~75% porosity, pore sizes ranging from 4 to 29 μm, and an average compressive modulus and strength of 33 and 5 MPa, respectively. These findings highlight the great potential of these scaffolds as injectable, tissue engineered bone grafts. PMID:21861465

  7. Electron injection dynamics in high-potential porphyrin photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Milot, Rebecca L; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2015-05-19

    promising sensitizers because their high reduction potentials are compatible with the energy requirements of water oxidation. TRTS of free-base and metalated pentafluorophenyl porphyrins reveal inefficient electron injection into TiO2 nanoparticles but more efficient electron injection into SnO2 nanoparticles. With SnO2, injection time scales depend strongly on the identity of the central substituent and are affected by competition with excited-state deactivation processes. Heavy or paramagnetic metal ions increase the electron injection time scale by roughly one order of magnitude relative to free-base or Zn(2+) porphyrins due to the possibility of electron injection from longer-lived, lower-lying triplet states. Furthermore, electron injection efficiency loosely correlates with DSSC performance. The carboxylate anchoring group is commonly used to bind DSSC sensitizers to metal oxide surfaces but typically is not stable under the aqueous and oxidative conditions required for water oxidation. Electron injection efficiency of several water-stable alternatives, including phosphonic acid, hydroxamic acid, acetylacetone, and boronic acid, were evaluated using TRTS, and hydroxamate was found to perform as well as the carboxylate. The next challenge is incorporating a water oxidation catalyst into the design. An early example, in which an Ir-based precatalyst is cosensitized with a fluorinated porphyrin, reveals decreased electron injection efficiency despite an increase in photocurrent. Future research will seek to better understand and address these difficulties. PMID:25938858

  8. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  9. Cardiovascular responses produced by central injection of hydrogen peroxide in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Máximo Cardoso, Leonardo; de Almeida Colombari, Débora Simões; Vanderlei Menani, José; Alves Chianca, Deoclécio; Colombari, Eduardo

    2006-12-11

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to modulate neuronal synaptic transmission and may play a role on the autonomic control of the cardiovascular system. In this study we investigated the effects produced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) injected alone or combined with the anti-oxidant agent N-acetil-l-cysteine (NAC) or catalase into the fourth brain ventricle (4th V) on mean arterial pressure and heart rate of conscious rats. Moreover the involvement of the autonomic nervous system on the cardiovascular responses to H(2)O(2) into the 4th V was also investigated. Male Holtzman rats (280-320 g) with a stainless steel cannula implanted into the 4th V and polyethylene cannulas inserted into the femoral artery and vein were used. Injections of H(2)O(2) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 micromol/0.2 microL, n=6) into the 4th V produced transient (for 10 min) dose-dependent pressor responses. The 1.0 and 1.5 micromol doses of H(2)O(2) also produced a long lasting bradycardia (at least 24 h with the high dose of H(2)O(2)). Prior injection of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (250 nmol/1 microL/rat) into the 4th V blockade the pressor response and attenuated the bradycardic response to H(2)O(2) (1 micromol/0.5 microL/rat, n=7) into the 4th V. Intravenous (i.v.) atropine methyl bromide (1.0 mg/kg, n=11) abolished the bradycardia but did not affect the pressor response to H(2)O(2). Prazosin hydrochloride (1.0 mg/kg, n=6) i.v. abolished the pressor response but did not affect the bradycardia. The increase in the catalase activity (500 UEA/1 microL/rat injected into the 4th V) also abolished both, pressor and bradycardic responses to H(2)O(2). The results suggest that increased ROS availability into 4th V simultaneously activate sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow inducing pressor and bradycardic responses. PMID:17113926

  10. Injectable and responsively degradable hydrogel for personalized photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changping; Wang, Xinyu; Dong, Kunyu; Luo, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-10-01

    Near infrared-absorbing hydrogels are used for the repeated photothermal treatments of cancer. However, a long-term retention of hydrogel in the body leads to increased risk of toxicity. Here we developed an injectable and on-demand degradable hydrogel to conduct the repeated photothermal therapies (PTTs). Alginate-calcium hydrogel immobilized dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanoparticles (DEPts) in its matrix represented excellent biocompatibility, and was degraded upon injecting chelates. Results from the in vivo studies reveal that the hydrogel/DEPts-mediated repeated PTTs suppressed tumor growth efficiently, and the hydrogel was degraded on-demand to allow renal secretion of DEPts out of the body. Furthermore, coating hydrogel/DEPts on the tumor instead of intratumoral injection could still ablate tumor efficiently. Our investigation provides a smart and safe hydrogel for photothermal cancer therapy. PMID:27449949

  11. High intensity ion beam injection into the 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Wutte, Daniela; Clark, Dave J.; Laune, Bernard; Leitner,Matthaeus A.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2000-05-31

    Low cross section experiments to produce super-heavyelements have increased the demand for high intensity heavy ion beams atenergies of about 5 MeV/nucleon at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory. Therefore, efforts are underway to increasethe overall ion beam transmission through the axial injection line andthe cyclotron. The ion beam emittance has been measured for various ionmasses and charge states. Beam transport simulations including spacecharge effects were performed for both of the injection line and the ionsource extraction. The relatively low nominal injection voltage of 10 kVwas found to be the main factor for ion beam losses, because of beam blowup due to space charge forces at higher intensities. Consequently,experiments and simulations have been performed at higherinjectionenergies, and it was demonstrated that the ion beams could still becentered in the cyclotron at these energies. Therefore, the new injectorion source VENUS and its ion beam transport system (currently underconstruction at the 88-Inch Cyclotron) are designed for extractionvoltages up to 30 kV.

  12. High rates of sustained virological response in hepatitis C virus-infected injection drug users receiving directly observed therapy with peginterferon alpha-2a (40KD) (PEGASYS) and once-daily ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Waizmann, Michael; Ackermann, Grit

    2010-06-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of directly observed therapy with peginterferon alfa-2a and once-daily ribavirin (RBV) for chronic hepatitis C in 49 opioid-addicted injection drug users (IDUs) participating in a drug treatment program at a specialized outpatient center. Patients also received prophylactic citalopram to minimize the risk of interferon-induced depression. Patients had daily access to and support from specialist physicians, nurses and counseling services at the center, and a 24-hour helpline. Sustained virological response was achieved by 48 of 49 patients (98%) overall, including 20 of 21 (95%) hepatitis C virus (HCV) Genotype 1/4-infected patients and 28 of 28 (100%) Genotype 2/3-infected patients. Treatment was well tolerated, and no unexpected side effects of peginterferon treatment were seen. The safety profile of once-daily RBV was not different from twice-daily dosing. Decline in hemoglobin levels was similar to those reported in clinical trials including once-daily RBV and did not lead to dose reduction or treatment withdrawal. Our data demonstrate that HCV-infected IDUs on stable L-polamidone (methadone) or buprenorphine maintenance can be successfully and safely treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and RBV in an optimal substitution setting. PMID:20362408

  13. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  14. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  15. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  16. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  17. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  18. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  19. Experiment on fuel injection in high-enthalpy flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanno, Hideyuki; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Katsuhiro; Ueda, Shuichi

    2001-04-01

    An experiment of inert gas injection into a high enthalpy hypersonic air flow is described. Gaseous helium at room temperature was injected transversely through four (phi) 1.5 mm circular sonic injectors at a spacing of 20 mm, which was located 28 mm downstream from a backward-facing step of 4 mm height. The experiment was carried out in the high enthalpy shock tunnel HIEST under the free stream test condition at Mach number of 6.5 and at the velocity of 4 km/s. The purpose of the experiment was to examine transient behavior of the helium jet mixing with the test air flow. Sequential Schlieren flow visualization with high-speed CCD camera of 1 (mu) sec exposure time have been used. Pitot pressure profile in the helium jet was measured at three stream-wise location. The measurements showed that the helium jet reached to the steady state in less than 2 msec, which was within HIEST test duration.

  20. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Li, Yangfang

    2012-08-08

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given

  1. Determination of injection molding process windows for optical lenses using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Ming; Wang, He-Yi

    2014-08-20

    This study focuses on injection molding process window determination for obtaining optimal imaging optical properties, astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration using plastic lenses. The Taguchi experimental method was first used to identify the optimized combination of parameters and significant factors affecting the imaging optical properties of the lens. Full factorial experiments were then implemented based on the significant factors to build the response surface models. The injection molding process windows for lenses with optimized optical properties were determined based on the surface models, and confirmation experiments were performed to verify their validity. The results indicated that the significant factors affecting the optical properties of lenses are mold temperature, melt temperature, and cooling time. According to experimental data for the significant factors, the oblique ovals for different optical properties on the injection molding process windows based on melt temperature and cooling time can be obtained using the curve fitting approach. The confirmation experiments revealed that the average errors for astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration are 3.44%, 5.62%, and 5.69%, respectively. The results indicated that the process windows proposed are highly reliable. PMID:25321095

  2. Modulation response characteristics of optical injection-locked cascaded microring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shaowei; Pei, Li; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yiqun; Weng, Sijun

    2014-09-01

    Modulation bandwidth and frequency chirping of the optical injection-locked (OIL) microring laser (MRL) in the cascaded configuration are investigated. The unidirectional operation of the MRL under strong injection allows simple and cost-saving monolithic integration of the OIL system on one chip as it does not need the use of isolators between the master and slave lasers. Two cascading schemes are discussed in detail by focusing on the tailorable modulation response. The chip-to-power ratio of the cascaded optical injection-locked configuration has decreased by up to two orders of magnitude, compared with the single optical injection-locked configuration.

  3. Intimate Injection Partnerships Are at Elevated Risk of High-Risk Injecting: A Multi-Level Longitudinal Study of HCV-Serodiscordant Injection Partnerships in San Francisco, CA

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Evans, Jennifer; Montgomery, Martha; Yu, Michelle; Briceno, Alya; Page, Kimberly; Hahn, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognized that the risk for HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID), such as syringe sharing, occurs in the context of relationships between (at least) two people. Evidence suggests that the risk associated with injection behavior varies with injection partner types. Methods We utilized longitudinal dyad-level data from a study of young PWID from San Francisco (2006 to 2013) to investigate the relationship-level factors influencing high-risk injecting within HCV-serodiscordant injection partners (i.e., individuals who injected together ≥5 times in the prior month). Utilizing data from 70 HCV-serodiscordant injection partnerships, we used generalized linear models to examine relationship-level predictors (i.e., partnership composition, partnership closeness, and partnership dynamics) of: (1) receptive syringe sharing (RSS); and (2) receptive cooker use (RCU), as reported by the HCV-negative injection partner. Results As reported by the “at-risk” HCV-negative injection partner, receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive cooker use (RCU) were 19% and 33% at enrollment, and 11% and 12% over all visits (total follow-up time 55 person-years) resulting in 13 new HCV-infections (incidence rate: 23.8/100 person-years). Person-level factors, injection partnership composition, and partnership dynamics were not significantly associated with either RSS or RCU. Instead, intimate injection partnerships (those who lived together and were also in a sexual relationship) were independently associated with a 5-times greater risk of both RSS and a 7-times greater risk of RCU when compared to injecting only partnerships. Conclusion Our findings suggest a positive, and amplified effect of relationship factors on injecting drug risk behaviors among young PWID injection partnerships. The majority of interventions to reduce injection drug use related harms focus on individual-based education to increase drug use

  4. Seismogenic response to fluid injection operations in Oklahoma and California: Implications for crustal stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Aminzadeh, F.

    2015-12-01

    The seismogenic response to induced pressure changes provides insight into the proximity to failure of faults close to injection sites. Here, we examine possible seismicity rate changes in response to wastewater disposal and enhanced oil recovery operations in hydrocarbon basins in California and Oklahoma. We test whether a statistically significant rate increase exists within these areas and determine the corresponding timing and location based on nonparametric modeling of background seismicity rates. Annual injection volumes increased monotonically since ~2001 in California and ~1998 in Oklahoma. While OK experienced a recent surge in seismic activity which exceeded the 95% confidence limit of a stationary Poisson process in ~2010, seismicity in CA showed no increase in background rates between 1980 and 2014. A systematic analysis of frequency-magnitude-distributions (FMDs) of likely induced earthquakes in OK indicates that FMDs are depleted in large-magnitude events. Seismicity in CA hydrocarbon basins, on the other hand, shows Gutenberg-Richter type FMDs and b~1. Moreover, the earthquakes and injection operations occur preferably in distinct areas in CA whereas in OK earthquakes occur closer to injection wells than expected from a random uniform process. To test whether injection operations may be responsible for the strongly different seismicity characteristics in CA and OK, we compare overall well density, wellhead pressures, peak and cumulative rates as well as injection depths. We find that average injection rates, pressures and volumes are comparable between CA and OK and that injection occurs on average 0.5 km deeper in CA than in OK. Thus, the here tested operational parameters can not easily explain the vastly different seismogenic response to injection operations in CA and OK, and may only be of secondary importance for the resulting earthquake activity. The potential to induce earthquakes by fluid injection operations is likely controlled by the

  5. Ketamine Injection among High Risk Youth: Preliminary Findings from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine, a synthetic drug commonly consumed by high risk youth, produces a range of experiences, including sedation, dissociation, and hallucinations. While ketamine is more typically sniffed, we describe a small sample of young ketamine injectors (n=25) in New York City and highlight risks associated with this emerging type of injection drug use. Our findings indicate that the injection practices, injection groups, and use norms surrounding ketamine often differ from other injection drug use: intramuscular injections were more common than intravenous injections; injection groups were often large; multiple injections within a single episode were common; bottles rather than cookers were shared; and the drug was often obtained for free. Our findings suggest that the drug injection practices exercised by ketamine injectors place them at risk for bloodborne pathogens, such as HIV, HBV, and HCV. We conclude that ketamine injectors represent an emerging, though often hidden, population of injection drug users, particularly among high risk, street-involved youth. PMID:17440604

  6. Approaching high temperature photon counting with electron-injection detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathipour, V.; Jang, S. J.; Hassaninia, I.; Mohseni, H.

    2014-10-01

    Our group has designed and developed a novel telecom band photon detector called the electron-injection detector. The detector provides a high avalanche-free internal-amplification and a stable excess noise factor of near unity while operating at linear-mode with low bias voltages. In our previous reports on un-isolated detectors, the large dark current of the detectors prevented long integration times in the camera. Furthermore, the bandwidth of the un-isolated detectors was in the KHz range. Recently, by changing the 3D geometry and isolating the detectors from each other, we have achieved 3 orders of magnitude reduction in dark current at same bias voltage and temperature compared to our previous results. Isolated detectors have internal dark current densities of 0.1nA/cm2 at 160 K. Furthermore, they have a bandwidth that is 4 orders of magnitude higher than the un-isolated devices. In this paper we report room temperature and low temperature characteristics of the isolated electron-injection detectors. We show that the measured optical gain displays a small dependence on temperature over our measured range down to 220 K.

  7. Low viscosity highly concentrated injectable nonaqueous suspensions of lysozyme microparticles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maria A; Engstrom, Joshua D; Ludher, Baltej S; Johnston, Keith P

    2010-01-19

    Subcutaneous injection of concentrated protein and peptide solutions, in the range of 100-400 mg/mL, is often not possible with a 25- to 27-gauge needle, as the viscosity can be well above 50 cP. Apparent viscosities below this limit are reported for suspensions of milled lysozyme microparticles up to nearly 400 mg/mL in benzyl benzoate or benzyl benzoate mixtures with safflower oils through a syringe with a 25- to 27-gauge needle at room temperature. These apparent viscosities were confirmed using a cone-and-plate rheometer. The intrinsic viscosity regressed from the Kreiger-Dougherty model was only slightly above the Einstein value of 2.5, indicating the increase in viscosity relative to that of the solvent was caused primarily by the excluded volume. Thus, the increases in viscosity from electrical double layer interactions (electroviscous effects), solvation of the particles, or deviations of the particle shape from a spherical geometry were minimal, and much smaller than typically observed for proteins dissolved in aqueous solutions. The small electroviscous effects are expected given the negligible zeta potential and thin double layers in the low dielectric constant organic solvent. The suspensions were resuspendable after a year, with essentially constant particle size after two months as measured by static light scattering. The lower apparent viscosities for highly concentrated protein suspensions relative to protein solutions, coupled with these favorable characteristics upon resuspension, may offer novel opportunities for subcutaneous injection of therapeutic proteins. PMID:19803503

  8. Using brine extraction to isolate the pressure responses from CO2 injection operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, K.; Court, B.; Celia, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Many potential carbon dioxide (CO2) injection sites are in large sedimentary basins, and it seems reasonable to expect that multiple operators will be injecting into the same formation. While the supercritical CO2 plumes are not expected to intersect, the pressure responses will most likely overlap. This will lead to overlapping Areas-of-Review (AoR), leading to complications for both the operators and the regulators. Also, existing injection operations will be impacted by new operations that come online at a later time, and as such existing AoRs will need to be updated to account for the pressure interference. One option to avoid pressure interference is to locate injection operations far from one other. However, this would greatly reduce the overall storage efficiency of the injection formation and increase the regulatory burden by requiring a basin-wide planning process. Active pressure management through brine production is one option to limit the spatial extent of the pressure responses, thereby avoiding pressure interference while also allowing for a greater spatial density of injection operations. For example, each injection operation could be surrounded by a ring of brine production wells, not dissimilar to an enhanced oil recovery operation, thereby limiting the far field impact of the CO2 injection. In this presentation we use a hypothetical model based on a section of the Illinois Basin to show the effectiveness of brine extraction in isolating the pressure responses of multiple injection operations. The model domain contains several injection wells, with the different injection operations brought on-line in a time-staggered fashion. The impact of factors such as brine extraction rates and extraction well spacing on the AoRs is investigated. A vertically integrated approach is used to numerically solve the two-phase flow problem, which greatly reduces the computational cost of the simulations. The results of this study show that brine extraction can be

  9. Unexpectedly high injection drug use, HIV and hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in the Republic of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Corceal, Sewraz

    2013-02-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population. PMID:22851154

  10. An injectable, low-toxicity phospholipid-based phase separation gel that induces strong and persistent immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Lu; Xue, Jiao; Wang, Luyao; Peng, Ke; Zhang, Zhirong; Gong, Tao; Sun, Xun

    2016-10-01

    Sustained antigen delivery using incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) can induce strong, long-term immune response, but it can also cause severe side effects. Here we describe an injectable, phospholipid-based phase separation gel (PPSG) that readily transforms in situ into a drug depot. PPSG loaded with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) supported sustained OVA release in mice that lasted nearly one month. Immunizing mice with a single injection of PPSG/OVA elicited a strong and persistent increase in titers of OVA-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a. Co-administering CpG-ODN further increased antibody titers. Such co-administration recruited dendritic cells to injection sites and activated dendritic cells in the draining lymph nodes. Moreover, immunization with PPSG/OVA/CpG resulted in potent memory antibody responses and high frequency of memory T cells. Remarkably, PPSG/OVA/CpG was associated with much lower toxicity at injection sites than IFA/OVA/CpG, and it showed no systemic toxicity such as to lymph nodes or spleen. These findings illustrate the potential of injectable PPSG for sustained, minimally toxic delivery of antigens and adjuvants. PMID:27522253

  11. The Social Buffering Effect of Playful Handling on Responses to Repeated Intraperitoneal Injections in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Sylvie; Wahl, Kim; Baker, Chelsea; Newberry, Ruth C

    2014-01-01

    Handling small animals for veterinary and experimental procedures can negatively affect animal wellbeing. We hypothesized that playful handling (tickling) would decrease stress associated with repeated injections in adult laboratory rats, especially those with prior tickling experience. We compared responses of 4 groups of male Sprague–Dawley rats to intraperitoneal injection of saline daily for 10 d. Rats either tickled or not tickled as juveniles (2 min/d for 21 d) were exposed as adults to either a passive hand or tickling for 2 min immediately before and after injections. Rates of vocalization (22- and 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), indicative of negative and positive affective states, respectively, and audible calls indicative of pain and discomfort) were quantified before, during, and after injection. Tickling before and after injection, especially when combined with juvenile tickling experience (ending 40 to 50 d earlier), increased 50-kHz USV rates before and after injection, reduced audible call rate during injection, and decreased the duration of the injection procedure. The treatments did not affect indicators of physiologic stress (body weight change; fecal corticosteroid levels). We conclude that playful handling performed in association with a mildly aversive procedure serves as a useful refinement by inducing a positive affective state that mitigates the aversiveness of the procedure and makes rats easier to handle, especially when they have been accustomed to tickling as juveniles. PMID:24602543

  12. The Effects of Intracellular Iontophoretic Injection of Calcium and Sodium Ions on the Light Response of Limulus Ventral Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Lisman, J. E.; Brown, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    During intracellular iontophoretic injection of Ca++ into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells, there is a progressive diminution of the light response. Following Ca++ injection, the size of the light response slowly recovers. Similarly, there is a progressive diminution of the light response during intracellular injection of Na+ and recovery after the injection is stopped. The rate of diminution during Na+ injection is greater for higher [Ca++]out. In solutions which contain 0.1 mM Ca++, there is nearly no progressive decrease in the size of the light response during Na+ injection. Intracellular injections of Li+ or K+ do not progressively decrease the size of the light response. We propose that an increase in [Na+]in leads to an increase in [Ca++]in and that an increase in [Ca++]in by any means leads to a reduction in responsiveness to light. PMID:5025746

  13. Humoral immune response of mice injected with tocopherol after exposure to X-radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.M.; Petrella, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serum haemagglutination (HA) titers have been determined for irradiated and non-irradiated mice responding to injection of two different concentrations of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) 24 to 48 hours after irradiation and immediate intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mg DL alpha-tocopherol, the emulsifying vehicle, or saline. Mice maintained on tocopherol-deficient diets for 8 weeks post-weaning and those on regular diets exhibited increased IgG titers during peak response when injected with vitamin E. This partially alleviated the radiation-depression of the primary immune response induced by the smaller SRBC injection. This stimulatory effect was most significant in mice maintained on vitamin E-deficient diets. The HA titers of irradiated and non-irradiated mice maintained on normal rations were determined following a 10-fold increase in the SRBC inoculation. Antibody titer was greater following injection of the higher concentration of SRBC but post-irradiation injection of tocopherol immediately or 24 hours after irradiation did not enhance immune response. At the higher SRBC concentration maximum observed HA titers decreased with increasing dose of radiation; however, tocopherol had no significant dose-reducing effect. Tocopherol toxicity as manifested by depressed HA titers was observed occasionally in non-irradiated mice challenged with the higher concentration of SRBC.

  14. Microbial community response to the CO2 injection and storage in the saline aquifer, Ketzin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Zettlitzer, Michael; Vieth, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    The concept of CO2 capture and storage in the deep underground is currently receiving great attention as a consequence of the effects of global warming due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. The EU funded CO2SINK project is aimed as a pilot storage of CO2 in a saline aquifer located near Ketzin, Germany. One of the main aims of the project is to develop efficient monitoring procedures for assessing the processes that are triggered in the reservoir by CO2 injection. This study reveals analyses of the composition and activity of the microbial community of a saline CO2 storage aquifer and its response to CO2 injection. The availability of CO2 has an influence on the metabolism of both heterotrophic microorganisms, which are involved in carbon cycle, and lithoautotrophic microorganisms, which are able to use CO2 as the sole carbon source and electron acceptor. Injection of CO2 in the supercritical state (temperature above 31.1 °C, pressure above 72.9 atm) may induce metabolic shifts in the microbial communities. Furthermore, bacterial population and activity can be strongly influenced by changes in pH value, pressure, temperature, salinity and other abiotic factors, which will be all influenced by CO2 injection into the deep subsurface. Analyses of the composition of microbial communities and its changes should contribute to an evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the long-term CO2 storage technique. The interactions between microorganisms and the minerals of both the reservoir and the cap rock may cause major changes to the structure and chemical composition of the rock formations, which would influence the permeability within the reservoir. In addition, precipitation and corrosion may occur around the well affecting the casing and the casing cement. By using Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) and molecular fingerprinting such as Polymerase-Chain-Reaction Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and Denaturing

  15. Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2008-08-01

    Anthropogenic stratospheric aerosol production, so as to reduce solar insolation and cool Earth, has been suggested as an emergency response to geoengineer the planet in response to global warming. While volcanic eruptions have been suggested as innocuous examples of stratospheric aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone depletion and regional hydrologic and temperature responses. To further investigate the climate response, here we simulate the climate response to both tropical and Arctic stratospheric injection of sulfate aerosol precursors using a comprehensive atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We inject SO2 and the model converts it to sulfate aerosols, transports the aerosols and removes them through dry and wet deposition, and calculates the climate response to the radiative forcing from the aerosols. We conduct simulations of future climate with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B business-as-usual scenario both with and without geoengineering and compare the results. We find that if there were a way to continuously inject SO2 into the lower stratosphere, it would produce global cooling. Tropical SO2 injection would produce sustained cooling over most of the world, with more cooling over continents. Arctic SO2 injection would not just cool the Arctic. Both tropical and Arctic SO2 injection would disrupt the Asian and African summer monsoons, reducing precipitation to the food supply for billions of people. These regional climate anomalies are but one of many reasons that argue against the implementation of this kind of geoengineering.

  16. “Vivo para consumirla y la consumo para vivir” [“I live to inject and inject to live”]: High-Risk Injection Behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga, Wendy Davila; Case, Patricia; Firestone, Michelle; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Perez, Saida Gracia; Magis, Carlos; Fraga, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Injection drug use is a growing problem on the US–Mexico border, where Tijuana is situated. We studied the context of injection drug use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana to help guide future research and interventions. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female current IDUs in Tijuana. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles, and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Of the 20 IDUs, median age and age at first injection were 30 and 18. Most reported injecting at least daily: heroin (“carga,” “chiva,” “negra”), methamphetamine (“crico,” “cri-cri”), or both drugs combined. In sharp contrast to Western US cities, almost all regularly attended shooting galleries (“yongos” or “picaderos”) because of the difficulties obtaining syringes and police oppression. Almost all shared needles/paraphernalia [“cuete” (syringe), “cacharros” (cookers), cotton from sweaters/socks (filters)]. Some reported obtaining syringes from the United States. Key themes included (1) pharmacies refusing to sell or charging higher prices to IDUs, (2) ample availability of used/rented syringes from “picaderos” (e.g., charging approximately 5 pesos or “10 drops” of drug), and (3) poor HIV/AIDS knowledge, such as beliefs that exposing syringes to air “kills germs.” This qualitative study suggests that IDUs in Tijuana are at high risk of HIV and other blood-borne infections. Interventions are urgently needed to expand access to sterile injection equipment and offset the potential for a widespread HIV epidemic. PMID:16107441

  17. High peak power gyroklystron with an inverted magnetron injection gun

    SciTech Connect

    Read, Michael E.; Lawson, Wesley; Miram, George; Marsden, David; Borchard, Philipp

    2005-12-01

    Calabazas Creek Research Inc. (CCR) has investigated the feasibility of a 30 GHz gyroklystron amplifier for driving advanced accelerators. Gyroklystrons have been shown to be efficient sources of high power radiation at frequencies above X-Band and are, therefore, well suited for driving high frequency accelerators. CCR's gyroklystron design includes a novel inverted magnetron injection gun (MIG) that allows support and cooling of the coaxial inner conductor of the circuit. This novel gun provides a very high quality electron beam, making it possible to achieve a cavity design with an efficiency of 54%. During Phase I, it was determined that the original frequency of 17 GHz was no longer well matched to the potential market. A survey of accelerator needs identified the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) as requiring 30 GHz sources for testing of accelerator structures. Developers at CLIC are seeking approximately 25 MW per tube. This will result in the same power density as in the original 80 MW, 17 GHz device and will thus have essentially the same risk. CLIC will require initially 3-4 tubes and eventually 12-16 tubes. This quantity represents $5M-$10M in sales. In addition, gyroklystrons are of interest for radar systems and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) instruments. Following discussions with the Department of Energy, it was determined that changing the program goal to the CLIC requirement was in the best interest of CCR and the funding agency. The Phase I program resulted in a successful gyroklystron design with a calculated efficiency of 54% with an output power of 33 MW. Design calculations for all critical components are complete, and no significant technical issues remain.

  18. Analysis of the response of the Raft River monitor wells to the 1979 injection tests

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.G.; Callan, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    The geothermal resource for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Raft River Geothermal 5 MWe Power Project is located in a closed ground water basin in southcentral Idaho. Chemical analyses indicate the existence of natural communication along fractures between the geothermal reservoir and the shallower aquifers developed for irrigation. Much of the ground water that is presently used for irrigation is of poor quality. Injection of geothermal fluids at intermediate depths may increase communication between the reservoir and the aquifer, resulting in further degradation of shallow ground water quality over time. Seven monitor wells, ranging in depth from 150 m to 400 m, were drilled to evaluate the potential for this degradation. Monitoring of these wells during two 21-day injection tests at the Raft River Geothermal Injection Well-6 (RRGI-6) indicates two types of response in the shallow aquifer system. First, the water level in Monitor Well-4 (MW-4) increased an average of 0.4 m/week during injection, indicating direct fracture connection between the injection zone and the aquifer penetrated by MW-4. Second, water levels in MW-5, MW-6, and MW-7 showed a step function decrease which coincided with the period of the injection tests. Analyses indicate that this response may be caused by elastic deformation in the aquifer matrix.

  19. Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to intraperitoneal injection of bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Yan, Qingpi

    2008-08-01

    Non-specific immune response of bullfrog Rana catesbeiana to pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was studied to 60 individuals in two groups. Each bullfrog in bacterium-injected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension at a density of 5.2 × 106 CFU/ml, while each one in control group injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%, w/v). Three bullfrogs in both groups were sampled at 0, 1, 3, 7, 11, 15 and 20 days post-injection (dpi) for the evaluation of non-specific immune parameters. It was observed that intraperitoneal injection of A. hydrophila significantly increased the number of leucocytes and that of NBT-positive cells in peripheral blood. Significant increases in serum bactericidal activity and serum acid phosphatase activity were also observed in the bacterium-injected frogs when compared with those in the control group. However, a significant reduction was detected in vitro in phagocytosis activity of peripheral blood phagocytes. No significant difference in changes in the number of peripheral erythrocytes, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that bullfrogs may produce a series of non-specific immune reactions in response to the A. hydrophila infection.

  20. PERMEABILITY EVOLUTION IN A FRACTURED ROCK MASS IN RESPONSE TO FLUID INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2008-08-13

    Large-scale carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects involving annual injections of millions of tons of CO2 are a key infrastructural element needed to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The large rate and volume of injection will induce pressure and stress gradients within the formation that could activate existing fractures and faults, or drive new fractures through the caprock. We will present results of an ongoing investigation to identify conditions that will activate existing fractures/faults or make new fractures within the caprock using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC is a multiphysics code, developed at LLNL, capable of simulating dynamic fracture of rock masses under a range of conditions. We will present several demonstrations of LDEC functionality and applications of LDEC to CO2 injection scenarios including injection into an extensively fractured rock-mass. These examples highlight the advantages of explicitly including the geomechanical response of each interface within the rock-mass.

  1. Response to LPS Injection after Anti-Orthostatic Hypokinesia in Rats, an Hypothesis for Endothelial Dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Pashkevich, S. G.; Custaud, M. A.; Emelianova, A. A.; Kulchitsky, V. A.

    2008-06-01

    The indirect estimation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) translocation by measuring of IL-6 serum level after LPS injection was carried out. We found a decreased response to LPS injection as the result of previous LPS translocation in rats after head-down tilt -45° (HDT) during 7 days and in rats after the repeated injection of LPS in 7 days after the first injection. Under electron microscopy, fringe-looking protrusions in vessel lumen, disturbance of basal membrane integrity and infringement of interendothelial junctions, adhesion of leukocytes were found in arterioles of these groups of animals. So, we suppose that translocation of LPS from gut could occur in simulated weightlessness model in rats (HDT) and could be associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Planar near-nozzle velocity measurements during a single high-pressure fuel injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüßler, Raimund; Gürtler, Johannes; Czarske, Jürgen; Fischer, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In order to reduce the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of modern Diesel engines, the high-pressure fuel injections have to be optimized. This requires continuous, time-resolved measurements of the fuel velocity distribution during multiple complete injection cycles, which can provide a deeper understanding of the injection process. However, fuel velocity measurements at high-pressure injection nozzles are a challenging task due to the high velocities of up to 300 m/s, the short injection durations in the range and the high fuel droplet density especially near the nozzle exit. In order to solve these challenges, a fast imaging Doppler global velocimeter with laser frequency modulation (2D-FM-DGV) incorporating a high-speed camera is presented. As a result, continuous planar velocity field measurements are performed with a measurement rate of 200 kHz in the near-nozzle region of a high-pressure Diesel injection. The injection system is operated under atmospheric surrounding conditions with injection pressures up to 1400 bar thereby reaching fuel velocities up to 380 m/s. The measurements over multiple entire injection cycles resolved the spatio-temporal fluctuations of the fuel velocity, which occur especially for low injection pressures. Furthermore, a sudden setback of the velocity at the beginning of the injection is identified for various injection pressures. In conclusion, the fast measurement system enables the investigation of the complete temporal behavior of single injection cycles or a series of it. Since this eliminates the necessity of phase-locked measurements, the proposed measurement approach provides new insights for the analysis of high-pressure injections regarding unsteady phenomena.

  3. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections

  4. The role of dorsomedial hypotalamus ionotropic glutamate receptors in the hypertensive and tachycardic responses evoked by Tityustoxin intracerebroventricular injection.

    PubMed

    Silva, F C; Guidine, Patrícia Alves Maia; Machado, Natalia Lima; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; de Menezes, R C; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Chianca, Deoclécio Alves

    2015-03-01

    The scorpion envenoming syndrome is an important worldwide public health problem due to its high incidence and potential severity of symptoms. Some studies address the high sensitivity of the central nervous system to this toxin action. It is known that cardiorespiratory manifestations involve the activation of the autonomic nervous system. However, the origin of this modulation remains unclear. Considering the important participation of the dorsomedial hypotalamus (DMH) in the cardiovascular responses during emergencial situations, the aim of this work is to investigate the involvement of the DMH on cardiovascular responses induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Tityustoxin (TsTX, a α-type toxin extracted from the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom). Urethane-anaesthetized male Wistar rats (n=30) were treated with PBS, muscimol or ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, bilaterally in DMH and later, with an icv injection of TsTX, or treated only with PBS in both regions. TsTX evoked a marked increase in mean arterial pressure and heart rate in all control rats. Interestingly, injection of muscimol, a GABAA receptor agonist, did not change the pressor and tachycardic responses evoked by TsTX. Remarkably, the injection ionotropic glutamate receptors antagonists in DMH abolished the pressor and the tachycardic response evoked by TsTX. Our data suggest that the central circuit recruited by TsTX, whose activation results in an array of physiological and behavioral alterations, depend on the activation of DMH ionotropic glutamate receptors. Moreover, our data provide new insights on the central mechanisms involved in the development of symptoms in the severe scorpion envenomation syndrome. PMID:25616225

  5. Transient response in a dendritic neuron model for current injected at one branch.

    PubMed

    Rinzel, J; Rall, W

    1974-10-01

    Mathematical expressions are obtained for the response function corresponding to an instantaneous pulse of current injected to a single dendritic branch in a branched dendritic neuron model. The theoretical model assumes passive membrane properties and the equivalent cylinder constraint on branch diameters. The response function when used in a convolution formula enables one to compute the voltage transient at any specified point in the dendritic tree for an arbitrary current injection at a given input location. A particular numerical example, for a brief current injection at a branch terminal, illustrates the attenuation and delay characteristics of the depolarization peak as it spreads throughout the neuron model. In contrast to the severe attenuation of voltage transients from branch input sites to the soma, the fraction of total input charge actually delivered to the soma and other trees is calculated to be about one-half. This fraction is independent of the input time course. Other numerical examples, which compare a branch terminal input site with a soma input site, demonstrate that, for a given transient current injection, the peak depolarization is not proportional to the input resistance at the injection site and, for a given synaptic conductance transient, the effective synaptic driving potential can be significantly reduced, resulting in less synaptic current flow and charge, for a branch input site. Also, for the synaptic case, the two inputs are compared on the basis of the excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) seen at the soma and the total charge delivered to the soma. PMID:4424185

  6. Characterization of a folate-induced hypermotility response after bilateral injection into the rat nucleus accumbens

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to pharmacologically characterize the mechanism responsible for a folate-induced stimulation of locomotor activity in rats after bilateral injection into the nucleus accumbens region of the brain. Folic acid (FA) and 5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid (FTHF) produced this hypermotility response after intra-accumbens injection, while other reduced folic acid derivatives dihydrofolic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid were ineffective. Studies were designed to determine the role of catecholamines in the nucleus accumbens in the folate-induced hypermotility response. The findings suggest that the folate-induced response is dependent on intact neuronal dopamine stores, and is mediated by stimulation of dopamine receptors of the nucleus accumbens. However the folates do not appear to enhance dopaminergic neutransmission. Thus, FA and FTHF were inefficient at 1 mM concentrations in stimulating /sup 3/H-dopamine release from /sup 3/H-dopamine preloaded nucleus accumbens slices or dopamine from endogenous stores. Pteroic acid, the chemical precursor of folic acid which lacks the glutamate moiety, was ineffective in producing a stimulation of locomotor activity after intra-accumbens injection. Since glutamate is an excitatory amino acid (EAA), compounds characterized as EAA receptor antagonists were utilized to determine if the folate-induced hypermotility response is mediated by activation of EAA receptors in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that activation of quisqualate receptors of the nucleus accumbens may mediate the folate-induced hypermotility response.

  7. Dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in the high density regime of laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Desforges, F. G.; Paradkar, B. S. Ju, J.; Audet, T. L.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Hansson, M.; Senje, L.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S.; Monot, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2014-12-15

    The dynamics of ionization-induced electron injection in high density (∼1.2 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}) regime of laser wakefield acceleration is investigated by analyzing the betatron X-ray emission. In such high density operation, the laser normalized vector potential exceeds the injection-thresholds of both ionization-injection and self-injection due to self-focusing. In this regime, direct experimental evidence of early on-set of ionization-induced injection into the plasma wave is given by mapping the X-ray emission zone inside the plasma. Particle-In-Cell simulations show that this early on-set of ionization-induced injection, due to its lower trapping threshold, suppresses the trapping of self-injected electrons. A comparative study of the electron and X-ray properties is performed for both self-injection and ionization-induced injection. An increase of X-ray fluence by at least a factor of two is observed in the case of ionization-induced injection due to increased trapped charge compared to self-injection mechanism.

  8. Automating fruit fly Drosophila embryo injection for high throughput transgenic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, E.; Fisher, W. W.; Nordmeyer, R.; Yegian, D.; Dong, M.; Biggin, M. D.; Celniker, S. E.; Jin, J.

    2008-01-01

    To decipher and manipulate the 14 000 identified Drosophila genes, there is a need to inject a large number of embryos with transgenes. We have developed an automated instrument for high throughput injection of Drosophila embryos. It was built on an inverted microscope, equipped with a motorized xy stage, autofocus, a charge coupled device camera, and an injection needle mounted on a high speed vertical stage. A novel, micromachined embryo alignment device was developed to facilitate the arrangement of a large number of eggs. The control system included intelligent and dynamic imaging and analysis software and an embryo injection algorithm imitating a human operator. Once the injection needle and embryo slide are loaded, the software automatically images and characterizes each embryo and subsequently injects DNA into all suitable embryos. The ability to program needle flushing and monitor needle status after each injection ensures reliable delivery of biomaterials. Using this instrument, we performed a set of transformation injection experiments. The robot achieved injection speeds and transformation efficiencies comparable to those of a skilled human injector. Because it can be programed to allow injection at various locations in the embryo, such as the anterior pole or along the dorsal or ventral axes, this system is also suitable for injection of general biochemicals, including drugs and RNAi.

  9. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  10. Gas-injection valve operates at high speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoh, F. C.; Lowder, R. S.

    1966-01-01

    Fast acting gas valve is used for injecting a short pulse of gas into a vacuum chamber during plasma acceleration experiments. It contains a lightweight closure disk that is forced away from the valve seat when an electromagnetic coil is momentarily energized and immediately rebounds from a stop back onto the seat.

  11. A thermally responsive injectable hydrogel incorporating methacrylate-polylactide for hydrolytic lability

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zuwei; Nelson, Devin M.; Hong, Yi; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Injectable thermoresponsive hydrogels are of interest for a variety of biomedical applications, including regional tissue mechanical support as well as drug and cell delivery. Within this class of materials there is a need to provide options for gels with stronger mechanical properties as well as variable degradation profiles. To address this need, the hydrolytically labile monomer, methacrylate-polylactide (MAPLA), with an average 2.8 lactic acid units, was synthesized and copolymerized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to obtain bioabsorbable thermally responsive hydrogels. Poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA) with three monomer feed ratios (84/10/6, 82/10/8 and 80/10/10) was synthesized and characterized with NMR, FTIR and GPC. The copolymers were soluble in saline at reduced temperature (<10°C), forming clear solutions that increased in viscosity with the MAPLA feed ratio. The copolymers underwent sol-gel transition at lower critical solution temperatures of 12.4, 14.0 and 16.2°C respectively and solidified immediately upon being placed in a 37°C water bath. The warmed hydrogels gradually excluded water to reach final water contents of ~45%. The hydrogels as formed were mechanically strong, with tensile strengths as high as 100 kPa and shear moduli of 60 kPa. All three hydrogels were completely degraded (solubilized) in PBS over a 6–8 month period at 37°C, with a higher MAPLA feed ratio resulting in a faster degradation period. Culture of primary vascular smooth muscle cells with degradation solutions demonstrated a lack of cytotoxicity. The synthesized hydrogels provide new options for biomaterial injection therapy where increased mechanical strength and relatively slow resorption rates would be attractive. PMID:20575552

  12. Picosecond ballistic imaging of diesel injection in high-temperature and high-pressure air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Sean P.; Porter, Jason M.; Parker, Terence E.

    2015-04-01

    The first successful demonstration of picosecond ballistic imaging using a 15-ps-pulse-duration laser in diesel sprays at temperature and pressure is reported. This technique uses an optical Kerr effect shutter constructed from a CS2 liquid cell and a 15-ps pulse at 532 nm. The optical shutter can be adjusted to produce effective imaging pulses between 7 and 16 ps. This technique is used to image the near-orifice region (first 3 mm) of diesel sprays from a high-pressure single-hole fuel injector. Ballistic imaging of dodecane and methyl oleate sprays injected into ambient air and diesel injection at preignition engine-like conditions are reported. Dodecane was injected into air heated to 600 °C and pressurized to 20 atm. The resulting images of the near-orifice region at these conditions reveal dramatic shedding of the liquid near the nozzle, an effect that has been predicted, but to our knowledge never before imaged. These shedding structures have an approximate spatial frequency of 10 mm-1 with lengths from 50 to 200 μm. Several parameters are explored including injection pressure, liquid fuel temperature, air temperature and pressure, and fuel type. Resulting trends are summarized with accompanying images.

  13. Injectable and pH-Responsive Silk Nanofiber Hydrogels for Sustained Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongchun; Liu, Shanshan; Xiao, Liying; Dong, Xiaodan; Lu, Qiang; Kaplan, David L

    2016-07-13

    Silk is useful as a drug carrier due to its biocompatibility, tunable degradation, and outstanding capacity in maintaining the function of drugs. Injectable silk hydrogels could deliver doxorubicin (DOX) for localized chemotherapy for breast cancer. To improve hydrogel properties, thixotropic silk nanofiber hydrogels in an all-aqueous solution were prepared and used to locally deliver DOX. The silk hydrogels displayed thixotropic capacity, allowing for easy injectability followed by solidification in situ. The hydrogels were loaded with DOX and released the drug over eight weeks with pH- and concentration-dependent release kinetics. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that DOX-loaded silk hydrogels had good antitumor response, outperforming the equivalent dose of free DOX administered intravenously. Thixotropic silk hydrogels provide improved injectability to support sustained release, suggesting promising applications for localized chemotherapy. PMID:27315327

  14. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  15. High power continuous wave injection-locked solid state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nabors, C.D.; Byer, R.L.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes an injection locked laser system. It comprises a master laser, the master laser including a solid state gain medium and having a continuous wave, single frequency output; a slave laser including a solid state gain medium located in a resonant cavity and having a continuous wave output at a power at least ten times greater than the master laser, with the output of the master laser being injected into the slave laser in order to cause the slave laser to oscillate at the same frequency as the output of the master laser; and means for actively stabilizing the slave laser so that its output frequency remains locked with the output frequency of the master laser.

  16. High Peak Power Gyroklystron with an Inverted Magnetron Injection Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Michael; Neilson, Jeff; Borchard, Philipp; Ives, Lawrence; Lawson, Wes

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a 25 MW, 30 GHz gyroklystron amplifier based on a coaxial RF structure. The design includes an inverted magnetron injection gun (MIG) for positioning and cooling the inner conductor. The gun produces a very low spread beam that contributes to a device efficiency of 54%. Details are given of the gun, RF structure, input and output couplers and collector.

  17. Robotic injection of zebrafish embryos for high-throughput screening in disease models.

    PubMed

    Spaink, Herman P; Cui, Chao; Wiweger, Malgorzata I; Jansen, Hans J; Veneman, Wouter J; Marín-Juez, Rubén; de Sonneville, Jan; Ordas, Anita; Torraca, Vincenzo; van der Ent, Wietske; Leenders, William P; Meijer, Annemarie H; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Dirks, Ron P

    2013-08-15

    The increasing use of zebrafish larvae for biomedical research applications is resulting in versatile models for a variety of human diseases. These models exploit the optical transparency of zebrafish larvae and the availability of a large genetic tool box. Here we present detailed protocols for the robotic injection of zebrafish embryos at very high accuracy with a speed of up to 2000 embryos per hour. These protocols are benchmarked for several applications: (1) the injection of DNA for obtaining transgenic animals, (2) the injection of antisense morpholinos that can be used for gene knock-down, (3) the injection of microbes for studying infectious disease, and (4) the injection of human cancer cells as a model for tumor progression. We show examples of how the injected embryos can be screened at high-throughput level using fluorescence analysis. Our methods open up new avenues for the use of zebrafish larvae for large compound screens in the search for new medicines. PMID:23769806

  18. Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Rusk, Anthony W.; Tung, David; Miller, Maria; Roix, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kristen V.; Murthy, Ravi; Benjamin, Robert S.; Helgason, Thorunn; Szvalb, Ariel D.; Bird, Justin E.; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Zhang, Halle H.; Qiao, Yuan; Karim, Baktiar; McDaniel, Jennifer; Elpiner, Amanda; Sahora, Alexandra; Lachowicz, Joshua; Phillips, Brenda; Turner, Avenelle; Klein, Mary K.; Post, Gerald; Diaz, Luis A.; Riggins, Gregory J.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Vogelstein, Bert; Bettegowda, Chetan; Huso, David L.; Varterasian, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted. PMID:25122639

  19. Intratumoral injection of Clostridium novyi-NT spores induces antitumor responses.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicholas J; Zhang, Linping; Janku, Filip; Collins, Amanda; Bai, Ren-Yuan; Staedtke, Verena; Rusk, Anthony W; Tung, David; Miller, Maria; Roix, Jeffrey; Khanna, Kristen V; Murthy, Ravi; Benjamin, Robert S; Helgason, Thorunn; Szvalb, Ariel D; Bird, Justin E; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Zhang, Halle H; Qiao, Yuan; Karim, Baktiar; McDaniel, Jennifer; Elpiner, Amanda; Sahora, Alexandra; Lachowicz, Joshua; Phillips, Brenda; Turner, Avenelle; Klein, Mary K; Post, Gerald; Diaz, Luis A; Riggins, Gregory J; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Bettegowda, Chetan; Huso, David L; Varterasian, Mary; Saha, Saurabh; Zhou, Shibin

    2014-08-13

    Species of Clostridium bacteria are notable for their ability to lyse tumor cells growing in hypoxic environments. We show that an attenuated strain of Clostridium novyi (C. novyi-NT) induces a microscopically precise, tumor-localized response in a rat orthotopic brain tumor model after intratumoral injection. It is well known, however, that experimental models often do not reliably predict the responses of human patients to therapeutic agents. We therefore used naturally occurring canine tumors as a translational bridge to human trials. Canine tumors are more like those of humans because they occur in animals with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, are of host origin, and are due to spontaneous rather than engineered mutations. We found that intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores was well tolerated in companion dogs bearing spontaneous solid tumors, with the most common toxicities being the expected symptoms associated with bacterial infections. Objective responses were observed in 6 of 16 dogs (37.5%), with three complete and three partial responses. On the basis of these encouraging results, we treated a human patient who had an advanced leiomyosarcoma with an intratumoral injection of C. novyi-NT spores. This treatment reduced the tumor within and surrounding the bone. Together, these results show that C. novyi-NT can precisely eradicate neoplastic tissues and suggest that further clinical trials of this agent in selected patients are warranted. PMID:25122639

  20. Correlation of Foraminal Area and Response to Cervical Nerve Root Injections

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wilson Z; Akbari, Syed; Shah, Lubdha M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with age-related degenerative changes in the cervical spine leading to cervical spondylosis may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Older patients with radicular pain tend to have a better response to epidural steroid injections, but it is often difficult to predict which patients will have a positive response to selective nerve root block (SNRB). We analyzed whether the cervical neuroforaminal area measured on MRI predicts immediate therapeutic responses to SNRB in patients who have cervical radiculopathy. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who had cervical SNRBs treated at a single tertiary referral center. We recorded patient demographics, the neuroforaminal area of the symptomatic and contralateral sides, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score pre- and post-injection, history of previous cervical surgery, comorbidities, and history of tobacco use. Results: Sixty-four patients with symptoms of cervical radiculopathy treated with neuroforaminal nerve root injections had appropriate imaging and VAS scores recorded. The average foraminal area of the symptomatic side before treatment was significantly smaller than the contralateral asymptomatic neuroforamen (p<0.0001). Those patients with the smallest neuroforamen had a positive response to SNRB. Diabetes and tobacco use did not influence patient response to treatment. Conclusions: Measurement of neuroforaminal areas on MRI may represent a useful pre-procedural technique to predict which patients with symptoms of cervical radiculopathy secondary to foraminal stenosis are likely to respond to selective nerve root injections. The predictive ability appears to be limited to those patients with severe stenosis and was less useful in those patients with moderate or mild stenosis. PMID:26203404

  1. Cellular responses of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon haemocytes after lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Xian, Jian-An; Zhang, Xiu-Xia; Guo, Hui; Wang, Dong-Mei; Wang, An-Li

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on Penaeus monodon haemocytes at a cellular level. Cellular responses of LPS-injected shrimp were analysed using flow cytometry. Results showed that LPS injection caused total haemocyte count (THC) and count of large cells (semigranular and granular cells) decline. In LPS-injected shrimp, percentage of large cells decreased at the initial stage, and returned to the original level later. After LPS infection, non-specific esterase activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and nitric oxide (NO) production in haemocytes were significantly induced, while apoptotic cell ratio of haemocytes increased. PO activity in plasma increased in shrimp received LPS at 2 μg g(-1) after 3-12 h and at 8 μg g(-1) after 3-6 h, and then returned to the initial levels. These results demonstrated that LPS induced immune responses on haemocytes, including production of ROS and NO, and release of esterase and PO. On the other hand, THC reduction might be due to the ROS/NO-induced apoptosis. Haemocyte apoptosis which would eliminate damaged or weak cells and contribute to haemocyte renewal, may be a defending strategie against pathogens. PMID:27134076

  2. Liposomal Bupivacaine as a Single-Injection Peripheral Nerve Block: A Dose-Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Ilfeld, Brian M.; Malhotra, Nisha; Furnish, Timothy J.; Donohue, Michael C.; Madison, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently available local anesthetics approved for single-injection peripheral nerve blocks have a maximum duration less than 24 hours. A liposomal bupivacaine formulation (EXPAREL®, Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, California), releasing bupivacaine over 96 hours, recently gained Food and Drug Administration approval exclusively for wound infiltration, but not peripheral nerve blocks. Methods Bilateral single-injection femoral nerve blocks were administered in healthy volunteers (n=14). For each block, liposomal bupivacaine (0–80 mg) was mixed with normal saline to produce 30 mL of study fluid. Each subject received two different doses, one on each side, applied randomly in a double-masked fashion. The end points included the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the quadriceps femoris muscle and tolerance to cutaneous electrical current in the femoral nerve distribution. Measurements were performed from baseline until quadriceps MVIC returned to 80% of baseline bilaterally. Results There were statistically significant dose responses in MVIC (0.09% / mg, SE = 0.03, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.14, p = 0.002) and tolerance to cutaneous current (−0.03 mA / mg, SE = 0.01, 95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, p < 0.001), however, in the opposite direction than expected (the higher the dose, the lower the observed effect). This inverse relationship is biologically implausible, and most likely due to the limited sample size and the subjective nature of the measurement instruments. While peak effects occurred within 24 hours after block administration in 75% of cases (95% CI 43 to 93%), block duration usually lasted much longer: for bupivacaine doses above 40 mg, tolerance to cutaneous current did not return to within 20% above baseline until after 24 h in 100% of subjects (95% CI 56 to 100). MVIC did not consistently return to within 20% of baseline until after 24 hours in 90% of subjects (95% CI 54 to 100%). Motor block duration was not correlated with

  3. Spider leg autotomy induced by prey venom injection: An adaptive response to “pain”?*

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Camazine, Scott

    1983-01-01

    Field observations showed orb-weaving spiders (Argiope spp.) to undergo leg autotomy if they are stung in a leg by venomous insect prey (Phymata fasciata). The response occurs within seconds, before the venom can take lethal action by spread to the body of the spiders. Autotomy is induced also by honeybee venom and wasp venom, as well as by several venom components (serotonin, histamine, phospholipase A2, melittin) known to be responsible for the pain characteristically elicited by venom injection in humans. The sensing mechanism by which spiders detect injected harmful chemicals such as venoms therefore may be fundamentally similar to the one in humans that is coupled with the perception of pain. Images PMID:16593325

  4. A repeated injection of polyethyleneglycol-conjugated recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase elicits immune response in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chilukuri, Nageswararao Sun Wei; Parikh, Kalpana; Naik, Ramachandra S.; Tang Lin; Doctor, Bhupendra P.; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-15

    Human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) serves as an efficacious bioscavenger of highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Since there is a concern that the supply of native Hu BChE may be limited, monomeric and tetrameric forms of recombinant Hu BChE (rHu BChE) were evaluated as replacements and found that they lacked sufficient stability in vivo. However, their in vivo stability could be significantly prolonged by conjugation with polyethyleneglycol-20K (PEG) suggesting that monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChE could function as bioscavengers. Here, the immunogenicity of PEG-rHu BChE was evaluated in mice following two injections given four weeks apart. In addition to pharmacokinetic parameters, such as mean residence time, maximal concentration, time to reach the maximal concentration, elimination half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity, the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies was also determined. Although the pharmacokinetic parameters were significantly improved for the first injection of monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs, they were much lower for the second injection. Anti-rHu BChE antibodies were detected in the blood of mice following the first and second enzyme injections and their levels were approximately higher by 5-fold and 2-fold in mice injected with monomeric and tetrameric PEG-rHu BChEs as compared to mice injected with unconjugated enzymes. The findings that the rapid clearance of a repeat injection of PEG-rHu BChEs in mice which coincides with the presence of circulating anti-rHu BChE antibodies suggest that PEG conjugation prolonged the circulatory stability of rHu BChE but failed to eliminate its immunogenicity in mice.

  5. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  6. Characterization of the Treg Response in the Hepatitis B Virus Hydrodynamic Injection Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Kirsten K.; Schimmer, Simone; Kretzmer, Freya; Wang, Junzhong; Lin, Yong; Huang, Xuan; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Baoju; Lu, Mengji

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in counter-regulating effector T cell responses in many infectious diseases. However, they can also contribute to the development of T cell dysfunction and pathogen persistence in chronic infections. Tregs have been reported to suppress virus-specific T cell responses in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection of human patients as well as in HBV animal models. However, the phenotype and expansion of Tregs has so far only been investigated in other infections, but not in HBV. We therefore performed hydrodynamic injections of HBV plasmids into mice and analyzed the Treg response in the spleen and liver. Absolute Treg numbers significantly increased in the liver but not the spleen after HBV injection. The cells were natural Tregs that surprisingly did not show any activation or proliferation in response to the infection. However, they were able to suppress effector T cell responses, as selective depletion of Tregs significantly increased HBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and accelerated viral antigen clearance. The data implies that natural Tregs infiltrate the liver in HBV infection without further activation or expansion but are still able to interfere with T cell mediated viral clearance. PMID:26986976

  7. Characterization of the Treg Response in the Hepatitis B Virus Hydrodynamic Injection Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Kirsten K; Schimmer, Simone; Kretzmer, Freya; Wang, Junzhong; Lin, Yong; Huang, Xuan; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Baoju; Lu, Mengji; Dittmer, Ulf; Yang, Dongliang; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in counter-regulating effector T cell responses in many infectious diseases. However, they can also contribute to the development of T cell dysfunction and pathogen persistence in chronic infections. Tregs have been reported to suppress virus-specific T cell responses in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection of human patients as well as in HBV animal models. However, the phenotype and expansion of Tregs has so far only been investigated in other infections, but not in HBV. We therefore performed hydrodynamic injections of HBV plasmids into mice and analyzed the Treg response in the spleen and liver. Absolute Treg numbers significantly increased in the liver but not the spleen after HBV injection. The cells were natural Tregs that surprisingly did not show any activation or proliferation in response to the infection. However, they were able to suppress effector T cell responses, as selective depletion of Tregs significantly increased HBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and accelerated viral antigen clearance. The data implies that natural Tregs infiltrate the liver in HBV infection without further activation or expansion but are still able to interfere with T cell mediated viral clearance. PMID:26986976

  8. Cardiovascular activity in blood-injection-injury phobia during exposure: evidence for diphasic response patterns?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E; Simon, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to feared stimuli in blood-injection-injury (BII)-phobia is thought to elicit a diphasic response pattern, with an initial fight-flight-like cardiovascular activation followed by a marked deactivation and possible fainting (vasovagal syncope). However, studies have remained equivocal on the importance of such patterns. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of diphasic responses using criteria that require a true diphasic response to exceed cardiovascular activation of an emotional episode of a negative valence and to exceed deactivation of an emotionally neutral episode. Sixty BII-phobia participants and 20 healthy controls were exposed to surgery, anger and neutral films while measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory pattern, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as indicator of hyperventilation). Diphasic response patterns were observed in up to 20% of BII-phobia participants and 26.6% of healthy controls for individual cardiovascular parameters. BII-phobia participants with diphasic patterns across multiple parameters showed more fear of injections and blood draws, reported the strongest physical symptoms during the surgery film, and showed the strongest tendency to hyperventilate. Thus, although only a minority of individuals with BII phobia shows diphasic responses, their occurrence indicates significant distress. Respiratory training may add to the treatment of BII phobia patients that show diphasic response patterns. PMID:23747585

  9. High power all-fiber amplifier with different seed power injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianming; Yan, Dapeng; Xiong, Songsong; Huang, Bao; Li, Cheng

    2016-06-27

    We report a high power all-fiber amplifier with suitable seed power injected by an all-fiber laser. Different seed powers were injected into the all-fiber amplifier during our amplification experiments, and we found the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) threshold was inversely proportional to the injected seed power. More than 3 kW signal light with good beam quality (M2 = 1.28) has been obtained with a suitable seed power injected, and the slope efficiency of the all-fiber amplifier was about 84.4%. PMID:27410599

  10. Electron Injection in Laser Plasma Accelerators by High-Order Field Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-11-04

    Electron injection and trapping in a laser wakefield accelerator by high-order field ionization is studied theoretically and by particle-in-cell simulations. To obtain low energy spread beams we use a short region of gas mixture (H+N) near the start of the stage to trap electrons, while the remainder of the stage uses pure H and is injection-free. Effects of gas mix parameters, such as concentration and length, on the final electron injection number and beam quality are studied. Laser polarization and shape effects on injection number and final electron emittance are also shown.

  11. Bolus injection of human UII in conscious rats evokes a biphasic haemodynamic response.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Sheila M; March, Julie E; Kemp, Philip A; Bennett, Terence

    2004-10-01

    A biphasic cardiovascular response to bolus i.v. injection of human urotensin II (hUII, 3 nmol kg(-1)) in conscious, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was identified and underlying mechanisms were explored. Initially (0-5 min) there was tachycardia, hypotension and mesenteric and hindquarters vasodilatation; later (30-120 min), tachycardia, hindquarters vasodilatation and a modest rise in blood pressure occurred. Pretreatment with indomethacin or N(G) nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME) reduced the mesenteric vasodilator response to hUII, and abolished the late tachycardia and hindquarters vasodilatation. Indomethacin also abolished the hypotension and early hindquarters vasodilatation, and substantially reduced the initial tachycardia. Indomethacin and l-NAME together prevented all haemodynamic responses to hUII. Inhibition of inducible NOS had no effect on responses to hUII, whereas inhibition of neuronal NOS reduced the delayed tachycardic response to hUII but did not significantly affect the vasodilatation. Only the initial tachycardic response to hUII was antagonised by propranolol. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the initial haemodynamic responses to hUII were qualitatively similar to those in SD rats, although there was also a modest renal vasodilatation. The secondary response comprised a smaller tachycardia and a small rise in blood pressure, with no significant hindquarters vasodilatation. Haemodynamic responses to hUII were not enhanced by endothelin and angiotensin receptor antagonism in either SD rats or in SHRs. One interpretation of these results is that the primary response to bolus injection of hUII is prostanoid- or prostanoid- and NO-mediated (mesenteric vasodilatation) and that this triggers secondary events, which are dependent on eNOS (hindquarters vasodilatation) and neuronal NOS (tachycardia). PMID:15339862

  12. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  13. The response of motor neurones to intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin

    PubMed Central

    Watson, W. E.

    1969-01-01

    1. The dry mass and nucleic acid content of both nerve cell bodies and their nucleoli were measured by interference microscopy and ultra-violet absorption microspectrography respectively: succinoxidase and acetylcholine hydrolase activities were also determined. Autoradiography was used to follow synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by glial cells, and to follow nucleic acid and protein metabolism in muscle fibres. 2. After injection of botulinum toxin the synthesis of ribosomal RNA by the neurone followed closely the pattern found after axotomy. 3. After injection of toxin neuronal dry mass increased before the rate of ribosomal RNA synthesis was raised. This early increase, which was not due to increased protein synthesis, probably represents a `damming back' of proteins within the nerve cell body. 4. After injection of toxin no local accumulation of microglial cells synthesizing DNA was found around the affected neurones: it is suggested that this reflects the intact system for intra-axonal transport under these conditions. 5. The affected muscles show increased nucleic acid and protein synthesis. 6. It is suggested that the results obtained indicate that membrane expansion or synthesis which occurs both in muscle and in neurone under these circumstances is the factor responsible for inducing directly or indirectly the changes found in nucleic acid metabolism after injection of botulinum toxin and after axotomy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:4892690

  14. Injectable thermo-responsive hydrogel composed of xanthan gum and methylcellulose double networks with shear-thinning property.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijia; Yao, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Injectable hydrogel precursor solution was prepared by physical blend of xanthan gum (XG) and methylcellulose (MC) in aqueous solution. Due to the formation of XG network composed of XG double helical strand structure, XG/MC blend was a high viscous solution with good shear-thinning property at room temperature. When the temperature was changed from 23 to 37 °C, thermo-responsive MC network formed, which caused XG/MC blend solution to gelate. The gelation time and storage modulus of the blend can be tuned by XG and/or MC concentrations. Both in vitro and in vivo investigations revealed that the blend solution immediately recovered its high viscosity and rapidly formed hydrogel at body temperature after injection using a syringe. In vivo biocompatibility and biodegradability of the hydrogel were validated by implantation of the hydrogel in rats. In vitro investigation demonstrated that XG/MC blend is a promising injectable hydrogel material for long-term drug delivery. PMID:26256374

  15. Injection well with high-pressure, high-temperature in situ down-hole steam formation

    SciTech Connect

    Marr, A.W.

    1981-12-01

    A portion of an injection well adjacent an oil-bearing earth formation is sealed off by spaced-apart high-pressure-resistant plugs, and water is charged into the bore-hole space between the plugs at a sufficient rate to effect sustained water pressure in the range of from 400 to 25,000 psi. Under such pressure sufficient current is passed between two electrodes in the water to convert from 10 to 33 barrels of water per hour into steam.

  16. Immune response of Pseudosciaena crocea to the injection of Vibrio alginolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qingpi; Zhang, Junjie; Zou, Wenzheng; Chen, Qiang; Zhuang, Zhixia; Wang, Xiaoru

    2009-02-01

    For the investigation of anti-infection immune response of Pseudosciaena crocea, 160 healthy fish samples were categorized into infected and control groups. Each individual fish in the infected group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.2 ml bacterial suspension of Vibrio alginolyticus in density of 2×107 CFU/ml, while each individual in the control group was injected i.p. with 0.2 ml sterile saline solution (0.85%). It was observed that the artificial injection of V. alginolyticus significantly increased the number of erythrocytes, leucocytes, lymphocytes in peripheral blood as well as peripheral serum antibacterial activity and antibody titer of large yellow croaker, and significantly reduced the number of peripheral blood granulocytes as compared with those in the control group. No significant difference in acid phosphytase and superoxide dismutase activity of serum was detected between the two groups. It is suggested that non-specific immune factors including leucocytes and anti-bacteria substance in peripheral blood played important role at the initial stage of infection, and specific immune factors such as antibody then played important role in response to anti-infection at the latter stage.

  17. Radioguided occult lesion localization: better delineation of the injection site with a high-resolution collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, B.; De Freitas, D.; Cachin, F.; Mestas, D.; Lebouedec, G.; Maublant, J.

    2004-07-01

    Aim: Radioguided Occult Lesion Localization (ROLL) is a method for guiding the excision of occult breast lesions. A radiotracer is injected preoperatively in the tumor. The surgeon can locate the lesion with a gamma probe. It has been recommended that the tissue is resected where the activity falls rapidly. But this cut-off level can fluctuate depending on the user. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two different types of collimation. Materials and methods: To simulate the detection of a radioactive "lesion", 0.2 ml of a solution of 99mTc labeled colloids (4 MBq) were deposited at 3 cm depth in a chunk of cow muscle. Detection was performed with a gamma probe (GammaSup, Clerad, F) equipped either with a regular or with an additional high-resolution collimator. The response curve was drawn moving laterally the probe on the chunk of cow by 5 mm steps. Edges of resection were determined with different cut-off levels (from 5 to 50% of maximum counts by 5% steps). Results: Without additional collimator, the mean distance between injection point and resection edge was 18 mm, standard deviation 7.8 mm with a range between 11 and 18 mm. With additional collimator, the mean distance decreased to 10 mm (-44%), standard deviation 4.2 mm (-46%) with a range between 6 and 10 mm. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the additional collimator provides more precise and reproductive delineation of the injection site. It should be optimal for the ROLL technique.

  18. Dynamic response of micropipettes during piezo-assisted intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Olgac, Nejat; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    2011-10-01

    In the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) process, a piezoelectric actuator is commonly used to assist the piercing of cell membrane. The longitudinal pulses that are performed by the piezo actuator, however, cause undesired lateral vibrations at the drawn tip of the injection micropipette. This mechanism is not well understood, despite its critical role in piezo-assisted cellular microinjection. We provide an analytical model to characterize the micropipette tip vibrations under assumed base excitation arising from the piezoelectric pulses. The resulting dynamic response is determined by using the Duhamel integral method. This study quantifies the effect of fluid damping, embedded mercury, and the apparent cell membrane elasticity. We found that, in practice, a small mercury droplet filled in pipette essentially creates higher shear forces at the membrane-pipette interface. The increased shear due to underdamped eigenmodes is conceived to assist the piercing of the cell membrane.

  19. Preparation of an Awake Mouse for Recording Neural Responses and Injecting Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Muniak, Michael A.; Mayko, Zachary M.; Ryugo, David K.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that anesthesia alters neural response properties in various regions of the brain.13. In the auditory system, fundamental response properties of brainstem neurons including threshold, frequency specificity, and inhibitory sidebands are altered in significant ways under anesthesia1-2. These observations prompted physiologists to seek ways to record from single neurons without the contaminating effects of anesthesia. One result was a decerebrate preparation, where the brainstem was completely transected at the level of the midbrain4. The drawbacks of this preparation are a formidable surgery, the elimination of descending projections from the forebrain, and an inability to use sensory stimulation to examine structures above the midbrain. A different strategy has been to implant electrode arrays chronically to record from single neurons and multiunit clusters while the animal is awake and/or behaving5,6. These techniques however are not compatible with injecting tracer dyes after first electrophysiologically characterizing a brain structure. To avoid altering neural response properties with anesthetics while recording electrophysiological response properties from single neurons, we have adapted a head restraint technique long used in bats7-9 to mouse10-12. Using this method, we are able to conduct electrophysiological recordings over several days in the unanesthetized mouse. At the end of the recording sessions, we can then inject a dye to reconstruct electrode positions and recording sites or inject a tracer so that pathways to and from the recording loci can be determined. This method allows for well isolated single neuron recordings over multiple days without the use anesthetics. PMID:22781848

  20. HIV prevention among injecting drug users: responses in developing and transitional countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, A L; Rana, S; Dehne, K L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated with injecting drug use has been reported in at least 98 countries and territories worldwide. There is evidence that new epidemics are emerging in different regions, including Eastern Europe, Latin American, and the eastern Mediterranean. The authors provide a global overview of the situation of HIV infection associated with injecting drug use and responses that have been implemented in various developing and transitional countries. METHODS: Although there has been extensive documentation of the extent and nature of of HIV infection associated with injecting drug use in many developed countries and the various interventions implemented in those countries, there is very limited information on the situation in developing and transitional countries. This chapter brings together information from a broad range of sources, including published literature; "gray" or "fugitive" literature; data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP); personal communications; and direct observation by the authors. The authors have traveled extensively to a wide range of developing and transitional countries and have accessed information not readily available to the international research community. RESULTS: A wide range of HIV prevention strategies targeting injecting drug users (IDUs) has been implemented in developing countries and countries in transition. Interventions include opioid substitution pharmacotherapy, needle syringe exchange and distribution, condom and bleach distribution, outreach to IDUs, peer education programs, and social network interventions. In some communities, completely new models of intervention and service delivery have developed in response to specific local needs and limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Although empirical data may currently be lacking to demonstrate the

  1. Elastic stress transfer as a diffusive process due to aseismic fault slip in response to fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesca, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface fluid injection is often followed by observations of an enlarging cloud of microseismicity. The cloud's diffusive growth is thought to be a direct response to the diffusion of elevated pore fluid pressure reaching pre-stressed faults, triggering small instabilities; the observed high rates of this growth are interpreted to reflect a relatively high permeability of a fractured subsurface [e.g., Shapiro, GJI 1997]. We investigate an alternative mechanism for growing a microseismic cloud: the elastic transfer of stress due to slow, aseismic slip on a subset of the pre-existing faults in this damaged subsurface. We show that the growth of the slipping region of the fault may be self-similar in a diffusive manner. While this slip is driven by fluid injection, we show that, for critically stressed faults, the apparent diffusion of this slow slip may quickly exceed the poroelastically driven diffusion of the elevated pore fluid pressure. Under these conditions, microseismicity can be first triggered by the off-fault stress perturbation due to the expanding region of slip on principal faults. This provides an alternative interpretation of diffusive growth rates in terms of the subsurface stress state rather than an enhanced hydraulic diffusivity. That such aseismic slip may occur, outpace fluid diffusion, and in turn trigger microseismic events, is also suggested by on- and near-fault observations in past and recently reported fluid injection experiments [e.g., Cornet et al., PAGEOPH 1997; Guglielmi et al., Science 2015]. The model of injection-induced slip assumes elastic off-fault behavior and a fault strength determined by the product of a constant friction coefficient and the local effective normal stress. The sliding region is enlarged by the pore pressure increase resolved on the fault plane. Remarkably, the rate of self-similar expansion may be determined by a single parameter reflecting both the initial stress state and the magnitude of the pore pressure

  2. High rates of midazolam injection among drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reports from Thailand suggest that a growing number of people who inject drugs (IDU) are now injecting midazolam, a legal benzodiazepine with potent amnestic and ventilatory depressant effects. We therefore sought to examine midazolam injection among a community-recruited sample of Thai IDU. Methods We examined the prevalence and correlates of midazolam injection among 252 IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project, Bangkok, using multivariate logistic regression. We also examined the use of midazolam in combination with other drugs. Results 252 IDU participated in this study, including 66 (26.2%) women. In total, 170 (67.5%) participants reported ever having injected midazolam, and 144 (57.1%) reported daily midazolam injection in the past six months. In multivariate analyses, a history of midazolam injection was independently associated with using drugs in combination (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.96-11.60), younger age (AOR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.22-0.83), having a history of methadone treatment (AOR = 3.12, 95%CI: 1.55-6.90), and binge drug use (AOR = 2.25, 95%CI: 1.09-4.63). The drugs most commonly used in combination with midazolam were heroin (72.3%) and yaba (methamphetamine) (30.5%). Conclusion We observed a high rate of midazolam injection among Thai IDU. Midazolam injection was strongly associated with polysubstance use and binge drug use, and was most commonly used in combination with both opiates and methamphetamines. Our findings suggest that midazolam injection has become increasingly common within Thailand. Evidence-based approaches for reducing harms associated with midazolam injection are needed. PMID:20338062

  3. A qualitative view of cryogenic fluid injection into high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Schlumberger, J.; Proctor, M.

    1991-01-01

    The injection of supercritical pressure, subcritical temperature fluids, into a 2-D, ambient, static temperature and static pressure supersonic tunnel and free jet supersonic nitrogen flow field was observed. Observed patterns with fluid air were the same as those observed for fluid nitrogen injected into the tunnel at 90 deg to the supersonic flow. The nominal injection pressure was of 6.9 MPa and tunnel Mach number was 2.7. When injected directly into and opposing the tunnel exhaust flow, the observed patterns with fluid air were similar to those observed for fluid nitrogen but appeared more diffusive. Cryogenic injection creates a high density region within the bow shock wake but the standoff distance remains unchanged from the gaseous value. However, as the temperature reaches a critical value, the shock faded and advanced into the supersonic stream. For both fluids, nitrogen and air, the phenomena was completely reversible.

  4. A CFD Model for High Pressure Liquid Poison Injection for CANDU-6 Shutdown System No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Wook Rhee; Chang Jun Jeong; Hye Jeong Yun; Dong Soon Jang

    2002-07-01

    In CANDU reactor one of the two reactor shutdown systems is the liquid poison injection system which injects the highly pressurized liquid neutron poison into the moderator tank via small holes on the nozzle pipes. To ensure the safe shutdown of a reactor it is necessary for the poison curtains generated by jets provide quick, and enough negative reactivity to the reactor during the early stage of the accident. In order to produce the neutron cross section necessary to perform this work, the poison concentration distribution during the transient is necessary. In this study, a set of models for analyzing the transient poison concentration induced by this high pressure poison injection jet activated upon the reactor trip in a CANDU-6 reactor moderator tank has been developed and used to generate the poison concentration distribution of the poison curtains induced by the high pressure jets injected into the vacant region between the pressure tube banks. The poison injection rate through the jet holes drilled on the nozzle pipes is obtained by a 1-D transient hydrodynamic code called, ALITRIG, and this injection rate is used to provide the inlet boundary condition to a 3-D CFD model of the moderator tank based on CFX4.3, a CFD code, to simulate the formation of the poison jet curtain inside the moderator tank. For validation, an attempt was made to validate this model against a poison injection experiment performed at BARC. As conclusion this set of models is judged to be appropriate. (authors)

  5. Possible role of afferent autonomic signals in abdominal organs in anorexic and cardiovascular responses to nicotine injection in rats.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Tanida, Mamoru; Satomi, Jun

    2015-05-27

    Smoking generally causes an increase in nicotine levels in the blood, affecting the brain components, such as the hypothalamus (feeding-related area) or the brain stem (cardiovascular control area). In terms of nicotine transmission to the brain, a new insight that the afferent vagal nerve in the liver is important for sensing increased nicotine levels in the blood and informing the brain was reported in an experiment with rats. However, it has not been clarified whether the afferent autonomic nerve system is implicated in feeding and cardiovascular responses to nicotine. Here, we examined the possible role of afferent autonomic nerve transmission in rats in regulating feeding behavior and cardiovascular functions by nicotine. An intravenous injection of nicotine dose dependently increased the blood pressure (BP) in urethane-anesthetized rats; high nicotine doses also led to an increase in BP in conscious rats. Further, an intravenous injection of nicotine for 3 days reduced food intake and body weight gain in rats. The weight-reducing action of intravenous nicotine was abolished by blocking the afferent sympathetic signals in the abdominal organs, but not the vagal nerve signals. Moreover, the hypertensive action of nicotine was not abolished either by afferent sympathectomy or by vagotomy. Thus, these data suggest that nicotine injected into the vein acts on the afferent sympathetic nerve in the abdominal organs and transmits signals to the brain for reducing body weight, but not for suppressing appetite or increasing BP. PMID:25875474

  6. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, M D; Brendemuhl, J H; Chiba, L I; Darroch, C S; Dove, C R; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2008-02-01

    A regional study involving 443 litters from 182 sows was conducted at 5 cooperating experiment stations to determine the effects of an i.m. injection of vitamin A at weaning and breeding on subsequent litter size of sows. Sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments given at weaning and again at breeding: 1) a placebo i.m. injection (2 mL of corn oil), 2) i.m. injection with 250,000 IU of vitamin A (1 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil), and 3) i.m. injection with 500,000 IU of vitamin A (2 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil). Corn-soybean meal diets in gestation were formulated to contain 13% CP and 0.60% total Lys. Lactation diets were formulated to contain 17% CP and 0.90% Lys. A common vitamin-mineral premix that supplied 11,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of diet (as-fed) was used by all stations. As expected, station effects were noted for many response measures. Analysis of the data also revealed both treatment x station and treatment x parity interactions for litter size responses. The treatment x parity interactions were stronger than the treatment x station effects, and when the litter size response was separated into early parity sows (parity 1 and 2) and late-parity sows (parity 3 to 6), the treatment x station interactions were no longer present in either subgroup. For sows of parity 1 and 2, litter sizes were increased linearly (P

  7. Eicosanoids mediate Galleria mellonella immune response to hemocoel injection of entomopathogenic nematode cuticles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yunhong; Wu, Gongqing; Lv, Junliang; Li, Mei

    2016-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are symbiotically associated with bacteria and widely used in biological control of insect pests. The interference of symbiotic bacteria with insect host immune responses is fairly well documented. However, knowledge of mechanisms regulating parasite–host interactions still remains fragmentary. In this study, we used nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora) cuticles and Galleria mellonella larvae as parasite–host model, focused on the changes of innate immune parameters of the host in the early phase of nematode cuticle infection and investigated the role of eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway in the process. The results showed that injection of either S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora cuticles into the larval hemocoel both resulted in significant decreases in the key innate immune parameters (e.g., hemocyte density, microaggregation, phagocytosis and encapsulation abilities of hemocyte, and phenoloxidase and antibacterial activities of the cell-free hemolymph). Our study indicated that the parasite cuticles could actively suppress the innate immune response of the G. mellonella host. We also found that treating G. mellonella larvae with dexamethasone and indomethacin induced similar depression in the key innate immune parameters to the nematode cuticles. However, these effects were reversed when dexamethasone, indomethacin, or nematode cuticles were injected together with arachidonic acid. Additionally, we found that palmitic acid did not reverse the influence of the dexamethasone, indomethacin, or nematode cuticles on the innate immune responses. Therefore, we inferred from our results that both S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora cuticles inhibited eicosanoid biosynthesis to induce host immunodepression. PMID:26472713

  8. Substance Abuse Treatment, HIV/AIDS, and the Continuum of Response for People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kresina, Thomas F.; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley; Cheever, Laura W.

    2012-01-01

    The continuum of response (CoR) to HIV/AIDS is a framework for implementation of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs based on a national strategic plan for HIV/AIDS services. The CoR for people who inject drugs (PWID) is an important extension of the developed CoR to HIV/AIDS. The CoR-PWID employs stakeholders who together plan, develop, pilot, and provide a full range of services that address the various prevention, care/support, and treatment needs of people, families, and communities infected or affected by HIV/AIDS and injection drug use. The CoR-PWID comprises a broad range of services that include but are not limited to the World Health Organization priority interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in the health sector and the package of essential interventions for the prevention, treatment, and care of HIV for people who inject drugs. Implementation of these well-defined, essential prevention, care/support, and treatment services, in addition to locally defined needed services, in a coordinated fashion is important to clients, their families, and communities. The CoR-PWID is, therefore, a necessary framework essential for service development for countries that address HIV/AIDS in populations of PWID. PMID:23243517

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic-amperometric determination of naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T D

    1984-08-17

    Naloxone hydrochloride has been measured in the injectable dosage form at 0.4 and 0.02 mg/ml using high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric detection. This method was contrasted with an ultraviolet detection method at 229 nm and found to provide comparable recovery and linearity results. At the electrochemical detection limit of 0.1 ng injected a signal-to-noise ratio of 10.4 was found. PMID:6480748

  10. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in conscious cats: effects of intracerebroventricular injection of clonidine.

    PubMed

    Ally, A; Hand, G A; Mitchell, J H

    1996-03-01

    1. Static exercise elicits increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in humans and conscious animals. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) administration of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, on these cardiovascular responses were investigated using conscious cats. Four cats were operantly trained to extend a forelimb and press a bar (200-650 g) for 15-60 s. A stainless-steel cannula was inserted into the right lateral ventricle for I.C.V. injection of drugs, and a common carotid artery was catheterized to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR. The number of exercise trials and changes in MAP, HR and force were pooled for 30 min periods. After the cats exercised for 30 min, either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or clonidine (2 or 5 micrograms) were administered intracerebroventricularly. 2. Before clonidine injection, fifty-two exercise trials increased MAP and HR by 15 +/- 3 mmHg and 41 +/- 5 beats min-1, respectively. Administration of clonidine (2 micrograms) did not alter the resting MAP and HR, but attenuated the increases in MAP and HR in response to exercise (0-30 min post-clonidine: n = 81; delta MAP, 6 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 20 +/- 6 beats min-1; 30-60 min post-clonidine: n = 71; delta MAP, 4 +/- 4 mmHg; delta HR, 17 +/- 8 beats min-1). Administration of artificial CSF I.C.V. had no effect on the cardiovascular responses to static exercise. 3. An increased dose of clonidine (5 micrograms) decreased resting MAP and HR by 31 +/- 7 mmHg and 37 +/- 7 beats min-1, respectively, and markedly blunted the cardiovascular responses to exercise (pre-clonidine: n = 52; delta MAP, 17 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 38 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 0-30 min: n = 66; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 15 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 30-60 min: n = 60; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 14 +/- 6 beats min-1). Pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, yohimbine (8 micrograms, I.C.V.), blocked the

  11. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    PubMed Central

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  12. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  13. Geomechanical Modeling of Fault Responses and the Potential for Notable Seismic Events during Underground CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutqvist, J.; Cappa, F.; Mazzoldi, A.; Rinaldi, A.

    2012-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics associated with large-scale geologic carbon storage (GCS) operations is now widely recognized. There are concerns related to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO2 repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). In this context, we review a number of modeling studies and field observations related to the potential for injection-induced fault reactivations and seismic events. We present recent model simulations of CO2 injection and fault reactivation, including both aseismic and seismic fault responses. The model simulations were conducted using a slip weakening fault model enabling sudden (seismic) fault rupture, and some of the numerical analyses were extended to fully dynamic modeling of seismic source, wave propagation, and ground motion. The model simulations illustrated what it will take to create a magnitude 3 or 4 earthquake that would not result in any significant damage at the groundsurface, but could raise concerns in the local community and could also affect the deep containment of the stored CO2. The analyses show that the local in situ stress field, fault orientation, fault strength, and injection induced overpressure are critical factors in determining the likelihood and magnitude of such an event. We like to clarify though that in our modeling we had to apply very high injection pressure to be able to intentionally induce any fault reactivation. Consequently, our model simulations represent extreme cases, which in a real GCS operation could be avoided by estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure and carefully controlling the injection pressure. In fact, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO2 storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. On the other hand, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants

  14. Injectable, high-density collagen gels for annulus fibrosus repair: An in vitro rat tail model.

    PubMed

    Borde, Brandon; Grunert, Peter; Härtl, Roger; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2015-08-01

    A herniated intervertebral disc often causes back pain when disc tissue is displaced through a damaged annulus fibrosus. Currently, the only methods available for annulus fibrosus repair involve mechanical closure of defect, which does little to address biological healing in the damaged tissue. Collagen hydrogels are injectable and have been used to repair annulus defects in vivo. In this study, high-density collagen hydrogels at 5, 10, and 15 mg/mL were used to repair defects made to intact rat caudal intervertebral discs in vitro. A group of gels at 15 mg/mL were also cross-linked with riboflavin at 0.03 mM, 0.07 mM, or 0.10 mM. These cross-linked, high-density collagen gels maintained their presence in the defect under loading and contributed positively to the mechanical response of damaged discs. Discs exhibited increases to 95% of undamaged effective equilibrium and instantaneous moduli as well as up to fourfold decreases in effective hydraulic permeability from the damaged discs. These data suggest that high-density collagen gels may be effective at restoring mechanical function of injured discs as well as potential vehicles for the delivery of biological agents such as cells or growth factors that may aid in the repair of the annulus fibrosus. PMID:25504661

  15. Evaluation of injection methods for fast, high peak capacity separations with low thermal mass gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Brian D; Mannion, Brandyn C; To, Khang; Hoac, Trinh; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Low thermal mass gas chromatography (LTM-GC) was evaluated for rapid, high peak capacity separations with three injection methods: liquid, headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), and direct vapor. An Agilent LTM equipped with a short microbore capillary column was operated at a column heating rate of 250 °C/min to produce a 60s separation. Two sets of experiments were conducted in parallel to characterize the instrumental platform. First, the three injection methods were performed in conjunction with in-house built high-speed cryo-focusing injection (HSCFI) to cryogenically trap and re-inject the analytes onto the LTM-GC column in a narrower band. Next, the three injection methods were performed natively with LTM-GC. Using HSCFI, the peak capacity of a separation of 50 nl of a 73 component liquid test mixture was 270, which was 23% higher than without HSCFI. Similar peak capacity gains were obtained when using the HSCFI with HS-SPME (25%), and even greater with vapor injection (56%). For the 100 μl vapor sample injected without HSCFI, the preconcentration factor, defined as the ratio of the maximum concentration of the detected analyte peak relative to the analyte concentration injected with the syringe, was determined to be 11 for the earliest eluting peak (most volatile analyte). In contrast, the preconcentration factor for the earliest eluting peak using HSCFI was 103. Therefore, LTM-GC is demonstrated to natively provide in situ analyte trapping, although not to as great an extent as with HSCFI. We also report the use of LTM-GC applied with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) detection for rapid, high peak capacity separations from SPME sampled banana peel headspace. PMID:25814332

  16. Injection coupling with high amplitude transverse modes: Experimentation and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mery, Yoann; Ducruix, Sébastien; Scouflaire, Philippe; Candel, Sébastien

    2009-06-01

    High frequency combustion instabilities have technical importance in the design of liquid rocket engines. These phenomena involve a strong coupling between transverse acoustic modes and combustion. They are currently being investigated by combining experimentation and numerical simulations. On the experimental level, the coupling is examined in a model scale system featuring a multiple injector combustor (MIC) comprising five coaxial injectors fed with liquid oxygen and gaseous methane. This system is equipped with a novel VHAM actuator (Very High Amplitude Modulator) which comprises two nozzles and a rotating toothed wheel blocking the nozzles in an alternate fashion. This device was designed to obtain the highest possible levels of transverse oscillation in the MIC. After a brief review of the VHAM, this article reports cold flow experiments using this modulator. Velocity maps obtained under resonant conditions using the VHAM are examined at different instants during a cycle of oscillation. Experimental data are compared with numerical pressure and velocity fields obtained from an acoustic solver. The good agreement observed in the nozzle vicinity indicates that numerical simulations can be used to analyze the complex flow field generated by the VHAM. To cite this article: Y. Mery et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  17. High performance tunnel injection quantum dot comb laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.-S.; Guo Wei; Basu, Debashish; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2010-03-08

    A high-speed multiwavelength quantum dot comb laser, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, is demonstrated. The device is characterized with a 75.9 nm (full width at half maximum) and a 91.4 nm (DELTA{sub -15dB}) wide lasing spectrum. There are 105 and 185 simultaneously emitted longitudinal modes with a maximum channel intensity nonuniformity of less than 3 dB in the spectral range of 1231-1252 nm and 1274-1311 nm, respectively, for a laser with 1040 mum cavity length. The channel spacing can be tuned with cavity length and remains invariant in the temperature range of 300-323 K. The small signal modulation bandwidth is 7.5 GHz.

  18. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  19. Botulinum toxin injection for hypercontractile or spastic esophageal motility disorders: may high-resolution manometry help to select cases?

    PubMed

    Marjoux, S; Brochard, C; Roman, S; Gincul, R; Pagenault, M; Ponchon, T; Ropert, A; Mion, F

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic injections of botulinum toxin in the cardia or distal esophagus have been advocated to treat achalasia and spastic esophageal motility disorders. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate whether manometric diagnosis using the Chicago classification in high-resolution manometry (HRM) would be predictive of the clinical response. Charts of patients with spastic and hypertensive motility disorders diagnosed with HRM and treated with botulinum toxin were retrospectively reviewed at two centers. HRM recordings were systematically reanalyzed, and a patient's phone survey was conducted. Forty-five patients treated between 2008 and 2013 were included. Most patients had achalasia type 3 (22 cases). Other diagnoses were jackhammer esophagus (8 cases), distal esophageal spasm (7 cases), esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (5 cases), nutcracker esophagus (1 case), and 2 unclassified cases. Botulinum toxin injections were performed into the cardia only in 9 cases, into the wall of the distal esophagus in 19 cases, and in both locations (cardia and distal esophagus) in 17 cases. No complication occurred in 31 cases. Chest pain was noticed for less than 7 days in 13 cases. One death related to mediastinitis occurred 3 weeks after botulinum toxin injection. Efficacy was assessed in 42 patients: 71% were significantly improved 2 months after botulinum toxin, and 57% remained satisfied for more than 6 months. No clear difference was observed in terms of response according to manometric diagnosis; however, type 3 achalasia previously dilated and with normal integrated relaxation pressure (4s-integrated relaxation pressure < 15 mmHg) had the worst outcome: none of these patients responded to the endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin. Endoscopic injections of botulinum toxin may be effective in some patients with spastic or hypercontractile esophageal motility disorders. The manometric Chicago classification diagnosis does not seem to predict the results

  20. Biopersistence of synthetic mineral fibers as a predictor of chronic intraperitoneal injection tumor response in rats.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, D M; Riego Sintes, J M; Ersboell, B K; Kunert, J

    2001-10-01

    In December 1997 the European Commission (EC) adopted Directive 97/69/EC (O.J. L 343/19 of 13 December 1997), in which criteria were established for the classification and labeling of synthetic mineral fibers. This directive was derived based upon an extensive program evaluating current scientific knowledge on fiber pathogenicity and its relationship to the biopersistence of long fibers. Within this context, the biopersistence of fibers longer than 20 microm was found to be a good predictor of the lung burden and early pathological changes in chronic inhalation studies with fibers as well as of the tumor response in chronic intraperitoneal studies with fibers. The analysis that provided the scientific basis for the relationship of biopersistence to the chronic intraperitoneal (ip) results is presented in detail. Analysis of the relationship of biopersistence clearance half-times to ip tumor response shows a statistically significant relationship of ip tumor response to not only the number of fibers injected, but also the median length of the fibers injected and their solubility (clearance half-time). The results show that the biopersistence half-times as determined by intratracheal instillation (T(1/2) of WHO fibers or weighted T(1/2) of fibers with L > 20 microm) and as determined by inhalation (weighted T(1/2) of fibers with L > 20 microm) are equivalent predictors of the ip results. From these ip studies, fibers that can be exonerated from classification as carcinogens in Europe have a relative tumorigenic potency in the ip cavity of between 66 and 2500 times less than fibers that have been shown to produce a significant increase in tumors following chronic inhalation exposure. In addition, based upon the ip results, there is no statistical difference between the EC and the other fiber exoneration criteria, such as the German Gefahrstoffverordnung of 1999. PMID:11696864

  1. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  2. Mathematical modeling as a tool to assess microbial community responses to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilcaez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The issue of subsurface microbial community responses to the injection of CO2 has great importance not only from a risk assessment point of view but also from the perspective of CO2 recycling to CH4. In this sense, the objective of this study is to develop mathematical models to make a quantitative description of the responses of subsurface indigenous microbial communities to the injection of CO2. For this end, TOUGHREACTV1.2 reactive transport simulator with its module ECO2N is used as the modeling framework. The targeted microbial community is composed of fermentative bacteria (Organic matter → Acetate & H2), acetotrophic methanogens (Acetate → Methane & CO2), acetotrophic Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) (Acetate → H2S & CO2), hydrogenotrophic methanogens (H2 & CO2 → CH4), and hydrogenotrophic SRB (H2 → H2S). Due to the multiple hydrogeological, geochemical and microbiological factors intervening in both the response of subsurface microbial communities to the injection of CO2 and the chemical and physical fate of CO2 itself, at this stage simulations have been performed in batch mode. That means numerical simulations aimed to track changes in CO2 saturation levels, pH, and concentrations of mineral and aqueous phase species over time at selected initial conditions. Numerical simulation results indicate that the activity of microbes associated with methanogenic processes in geological storage sites of CO2 is governed by the level of CO2 saturation in the pore space as well as by the presence of pH buffering minerals such as calcite. With calcite in the mineral phase attenuating drops in pH below inhibitory levels, for instance it is shown that acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic SRB outcompete acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens for acetate and H2, respectively. During the initial stages of the reaction when the pH level is lowest, the higher tolerance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to acidic pH levels is reflected by a preferential formation of

  3. Synchronously injected amplifiers, a novel approach to high-average-power FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.C.; Fortgang, C.M.; Goldstein, J.C.; Kinross-Wright, J.M.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1996-11-01

    Two new FEL ideas based on synchronously injected amplifiers are described. Both of these rely on the synchronous injection of the optical signal into a high-gain, high-efficiency tapered wiggler. The first concept, called Regenerative Amplifier FEL (RAFEL), uses an optical feedback loop to provide a coherent signal at the wiggler entrance so that the optical power can reach saturation rapidly. The second idea requires the use of a uniform wiggler in the feedback loop to generate light that can be synchronously injected back into the first wiggler. The compact Advanced FEL is being modified to implement the RAFEL concept. We describe future operation of the Advanced FEL at high average current and discuss the possibility of generating 1 kW average power.

  4. Specific inflammatory response of Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.

    PubMed

    Trapani, M R; Parisi, M G; Parrinello, D; Sanfratello, M A; Benenati, G; Palla, F; Cammarata, M

    2016-03-01

    The evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. The mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. We investigated the inflammatory response in Anemonia sulcata (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reactions, especially after injection of Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus. Moreover, we analyzed enzymatic activity of protease, phosphatase and esterase, showing how the injection of different bacterial strains alters the expression of these enzymes and suggesting a correlation between the appearance of the inflammatory reaction and the modification of enzymatic activities. Our study shows for the first time, a specific reaction and enzymatic responses following injection of bacteria in a cnidarian. PMID:26836977

  5. Effect of age and frequency of injections on immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in drug users.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh Q; Grimes, Carolyn Z; Lai, Dejian; Troisi, Catherine L; Hwang, Lu-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine, evidence suggests that immunological response in drug users is impaired compared to the general population. A sample of not-in-treatment adult drug users from two communities in Houston, TX, USA, susceptible to hepatitis B virus (HBV), was sampled via outreach workers and referral methodology. Participants were randomized to either the standard multi-dose hepatitis B vaccine schedule (0, 1, and 6 months) or to an accelerated (0, 1, and 2 months) schedule. The participants were followed for 1 year. Antibody levels were measured at 2, 6 and 12 months after enrollment in order to determine the immune responses. At 12 months, cumulative adequate protective response was achieved in 65% of the HBV susceptible subgroup using both the standard and accelerated schedules. The standard group had a higher mean antibody titer (184.6 mIU/mL vs 57.6 mIU/mL). But at 6 months, seroconversion at the adequate protective response was reached by a higher proportion of participants and the mean antibody titer was also higher in the accelerated schedule group (104.8 mIU/mL vs. 64.3 mIU/mL). Multivariate analyses indicated a 63% increased risk of non-response for participants 40 years or older (p=0.046). Injecting drugs more than once a day was also highly associated with the risk of non-response (p=0.016). Conclusions from this research will guide the development of future vaccination programs that anticipate other prevalent chronic conditions, susceptibilities, and risk-taking behaviors of hard-to-reach populations. PMID:22075088

  6. Uncertainty quantification for the impact of injection rate fluctuation on the geomechanical response of geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Jie; Chu, Yanjun; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Fang, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the geomechanical effects of injection rate fluctuations for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Initially, we present analytical solutions for the effects of injection rate fluctuations on CO2 fluid pressure spatial distribution and temporal evolution for a typical injection scenario. Numerical calculations are performed using a finite element method to investigate the effects of injection rate fluctuations on geomechanical deformation, stresses, and potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. The numerical method was first validated by the fluid pressure distribution’s good agreement with the analytical solution. It was shown that for any Gaussian fluctuations of injection rate Q with given mean Q and variance ε_Q, the coefficients of variance for fluid pressure (ϵ_p=ε_p ), deformation (ϵ_u=ε_u ), and stresses (ϵ_σ=ε_σ ) increase linearly with the coefficient of variance for injection rate (ϵ_Q=ε_Q ). The proportional constants are identified, and the fluctuations have the most pronounced effect on the geomechanical stresses, and, therefore, on the potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. Instead of expensive computational simulation, this study provides an efficient tool to estimate the geomechanical response variance to injection rate fluctuation. A failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where probability of failure was estimated for fluctuating injection rates with different mean and variance during the entire injection period. It was found that with increasing injection rate fluctuation, the failure probability increases significantly. Therefore, the risk associated with injection rate fluctuations should be carefully evaluated.

  7. High HIV burden among people who inject drugs in 15 Indian cities

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Gregory M.; Solomon, Sunil S.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Agrawal, Alok; Iqbal, Syed; Laeyendecker, Oliver; McFall, Allison M.; Kumar, Muniratnam S.; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Celentano, David D.; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Injecting drug use has historically been the principal driver of the HIV epidemic in the Northeast states of India. However, recent data indicate growing numbers of people who inject drugs (PWID) in North and Central Indian cities. Methods We conducted face-to-face surveys among PWID in 7 Northeast and 8 North/Central Indian cities using respondent-driven sampling. We used a rapid HIV testing protocol to identify seropositive individuals and multi-assay algorithm to identify those with recent infection. We used multi-level regression models that incorporated sampling weights and had random intercepts for site to assess risk factors for prevalent and incident (recent) HIV infection. Results We surveyed 14,481 PWID from 15 Indian cities between January and December 2013. Participants reported high rates of needle/syringe sharing. The median (site range) estimated HIV prevalence and incidence were 18.1% (5.9, 44.9) and 2.9 per 100 person-years (0, 12.4), respectively. HIV prevalence was higher in Northeast sites while HIV incidence was higher in North/Central sites. The odds of prevalent HIV were over 3-fold higher in women than men. Other factors associated with HIV prevalence or incidence included duration since first injection, injection of pharmaceutical drugs, and needle/syringe sharing. Conclusions The burden of HIV infection is high among PWID in India, and may be increasing in cities where injecting drug use is emerging. Women who inject drugs were at substantially higher risk for HIV than men, a situation that may be mediated by dual injection-related and sexual risks. PMID:25715105

  8. A higher aspect ratio enhanced bioaccumulation and altered immune responses due to intravenously-injected aluminum oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Kim, Soo Nam; Kang, Min-Sung; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Yoon, Cheolho; Jeong, Uiseok; Kim, Younghun; Lee, Gwang-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wan; Kim, Jong Sung

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum oxide nanoparticles (AlO NP) have been widely utilized in a variety of areas, including in the optical, biomedical and electronic fields and in the overall development of nanotechnologies. However, their toxicological profiles are still not fully developed. This study compared the distribution and immunotoxicity of two rod-types of AlO NP. As reported previously, the two types of AlO NP had different aspect ratios (long-type: 6.2 ± 0.6, short-type: 2.1 ± 0.4), but the size and surface charge were very similar. On Day 14 after a single intravenous (IV) injection (1.25 or 5 mg/kg), both AlO NP accumulated primarily in the liver and spleen and altered the levels of redox response-related elements. The accumulated level was higher in mice exposed to the long-type AlO NP compared to the short-type. Additionally, it was noted that the levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 were enhanced in the blood of mice exposed to both types of AlO NP and the percentages of neutrophils and monocytes among all white blood cells were increased only in mice injected with the long-type AlO NP (5 mg/kg). In addition, as compared to the control, co-expression of CD80 and CD86 (necessary for antigen presentation) on splenocytes together with a decreased expression of chemotaxis-related marker (CD195) was attenuated by exposure to the AlO NP, especially the long-type. Taken together, the data suggest that accumulation following a single IV injection with rod-types of AlO NP is strengthened by a high aspect ratio and, subsequently, this accumulation has the potential to influence immune functions in an exposed host. PMID:27042761

  9. Stability of High Power Beam Injection in Negative-Ion-Based LHD-NBI

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakano, H.; Shibuya, M.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.

    2011-09-26

    We describe the characteristic of stable beam injection in a neutral beam injector (NBI) for Large Helical Device (LHD) in high injection power of more than 6 MW. In the NBI, it takes a week after starting Cs seeding to finish the pre-injection conditioning. The injection starts with the beam power {approx}6.2 MW, and the maximum power reaches {approx}7 MW. The Cs-seeding rate affects the beam stability in such high power injections. By optimizing the rate to 0.65 mg/shot, the success ratio, which is defined as a ratio of actual pulse duration to setting one, increases to 85-90% in the power and energy range of more than 6.2 MW and 185 keV, respectively. The weights of Cs adsorbed on several surfaces in the ion sources of the NBI are measured by means of Inductively-Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and averaged surface densities are calculated by dividing with the several surface areas. The seeded Cs of 99.5% is condensed in the plasma generator, and very tiny amount of Cs reaches the surfaces of the accelerator grids. This very low amount of Cs on the grids is interpreted that most of the Cs atom evaporated from the inner walls is ionized during the arc discharges, and repelled to the source plasmas by the electrostatic field for H- extraction.

  10. Injection molding simulation with variothermal mold temperature control of highly filled polyphenylene sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkholz, A.; Tschiersky, M.; Wortberg, J.

    2015-05-01

    For the installation of a fuel cell stack to convert chemical energy into electricity it is common to apply bipolar plates to separate and distribute reaction gases and cooling agents. For reducing manufacturing costs of bipolar plates a fully automated injection molding process is examined. The high performance thermoplastic matrix material, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), defies against the chemical setting and the operation temperature up to 200 °C. To adjust also high electrical and thermal conductivity, PPS is highly filled with various carbon fillers up to an amount of 65 percentage by volume. In the first step two different structural plates (one-sided) with three different gate heights and molds are designed according to the characteristics of a bipolar plate. To cope with the approach that this plate should be producible on standard injection molding machines with variothermal mold temperature control, injection molding simulation is used. Additionally, the simulation should allow to formulate a quality prediction model, which is transferrable to bipolar plates. Obviously, the basis for a precise simulation output is an accurate description of the material properties and behavior of the highly filled compound. This, the design of the structural plate and mold and the optimization via simulation is presented, as well. The influence of the injection molding process parameters, e.g. injection time, cycle times, packing pressure, mold temperature, and melt temperature on the form filling have been simulated to determine optimal process conditions. With the aid of the simulation and the variothermal mold temperature control it was possible to reduce the required melt temperature below the decomposition temperature of PPS. Thereby, hazardous decomposition products as hydrogen sulfide are obviated. Thus, the health of the processor, the longevity of the injection molding machine as well as the material and product properties can be protected.

  11. Highly efficient and lowly toxic docetaxel nanoemulsions for intravenous injection to animals.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Du, Lina; Wang, Chenyun; Liu, Yan; Mei, Xingguo; Jin, Yiguang

    2011-07-01

    Hypersensitivity many occur with commercial docetaxel injections containing Tween 80 and ethanol. An alternative formulation of docetaxel, an oil-in-water nanoemulsion was prepared using the high-pressure homogenization method. It was composed of medium-chain triglyceride, oleic acid, egg lecithin, and poloxamer. These ingredients are known as safe agents for intravenous (i.v.) injection. The nanoemulsion had a small size of 169 nm, and a high surface charge with the zeta potential of -33.9 mV. It maintained well stable even under high centrifugation. Acute toxicity of i.v. injection, erythrocyte hemolysis experiment, and rabbit ear vein irritation test showed no toxicity for the docetaxel nanoemulsion. The docetaxel nanoemulsion led to a larger apparent distribution volume and area under curve than the docetaxel injection after i.v. administration to rats. The histopathological test of tumor further demonstrated the highly anticancer efficiency of the docetaxel nanoemulsion. Thus, the nanoemulsion is a promising delivery system for docetaxel with highly anticancer efficiency and low toxicity. PMID:21812321

  12. Response of Slub Characteristics on Tensile Properties of Injected Slub Yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, N. C.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Midha, V. K.

    2016-04-01

    Injected slub yarn is one of the most promising among different types of slub yarns. Present study embodies the effect of some important parameters like base yarn twist level, number of base yarn, twist direction and injected fibre components on injected slub yarn performance in terms of tensile strength and breaking elongation. In case of single base slub yarn, final yarn tenacity and elongation increases with the reduction of base yarn twist level keeping final yarn twist multiplier constant. However, the effect of base yarn twist level is marginal in case of injected slub yarn made with double base yarn. Yarn tenacity and elongation significantly higher in case of double base injected yarns as compared to single base injected yarn. The aforementioned tensile parameters of single base injected slub yarns reduce with the reduction of yarn linear density. However, in case of double base injected slub yarns, highest tenacity and elongation value are achieved for 2/80s yarn having finest yarn liner density among 2/40s, 2/60s and 2/80s yarns. In case of single base injected slub yarn, tensile strength is slightly higher and elongation values are significantly higher when injection component fibres changed from 100 % cotton to 50/50 polyester/cotton blended fibres which is just opposite to that of double base injected slub yarn. Results also showed that the twist direction in the base and final yarn influence the strength and elongation of injected slub yarns.

  13. Observation of a Distinct Transition in Transport Response to Injection Stress in the Floridan Aquifer System, Southeastern Florida, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.; Cunningham, K. J.; Foster, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) injects effluent approximately one km below land surface into the Boulder Zone (BZ) at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant (NDWWTP). The BZ is highly conductive and composed of fractured dolomite. MDWASD monitors upward effluent migration 450 m below land surface in the Avon Park Permeable Zone (APPZ). The BZ and APPZ---units within the Floridan aquifer system---are separated by a series of inter-bedded aquifers and leaky confining units with hydraulic conductivities that are orders of magnitude smaller than the BZ. MDWASD injected effluent at the NDWWTP during two distinct periods: (1) July 1997 to September 1999, and (2) August 2004 to January 2011. No effluent was injected between October 1999 and July 2004. A few months after the July 1997 injection, MDWASD observed effluent constituents in the APPZ (Figure 1). Some confinement bypass feature permits effluent constituents to be transported from the BZ to the APPZ. Bypass features may include poorly-cased wells, or natural conduits such as fractures, faults, or karst collapse systems. It is possible to describe confinement bypass features with conductance KA/L, where K is hydraulic conductivity, A is cross-sectional area, and L is length. MDWASD observed a distinct transition in the transport response to injection stress of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the APPZ. The conductance required to describe early system response (1997-1999) is one order-of-magnitude larger than the conductance required to describe late system response (2004-2011). Hypotheses to explain transient conductance include clogging of bypass features by some geochemical or biological process that results from the mixing of effluent with groundwater; dissolution or precipitation; or changes in bypass-feature geometry forced by cyclical changes in aquifer-fluid pressure associated with injection. Hypotheses may be tested with geochemical analyses, tracer tests, hydraulic

  14. Flow-induced birefringence: the hidden PSF killer in high performance injection-molded plastic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Kester, Robert; Descour, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    A 7-mm OD, NA = 1 water immersion injection-molded plastic endoscope objective has been fabricated for a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system specifically designed for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. Injection-molded optics was selected for the ability to incorporate aspheric surfaces into the optical design and its high volume capabilities. Our goal is high performance disposable endoscope probes. This objective has been built and tested as a stand-alone optical system, a Strehl ratio greater than 0.6 has been obtained. One of the limiting factors of optical performance is believed to be flow-induced birefringence. We have investigated different configurations for birefringence visualization and believe the circular polariscope is most useful for inspection of injection-molded plastic optics. In an effort to decrease birefringence effects, two experiments were conducted. They included: (1) annealing of the optics after fabrication and (2) modifying the injection molding prameters (packing pressures, injection rates, and hold time). While the second technique showed improvement, the annealing process could not improve quality without physically warping the lenses. Therefore, to effectively reduce flow-induced birefringence, molding conditions have to be carefully selected. These parameters are strongly connected to the physical part geometry. Both optical design and fabrication technology have to be considered together to deliver low birefringence while maintaining the required manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we present some of our current results that illustrate how flow-induced birefringence can degrade high performance injection-molded plastic optical systems.

  15. Properties of high density polyethylene – Paulownia wood flour composites via injection molding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood (PW) flour is evaluated as a bio-based fiber reinforcement. Composites of high density polyethylene (HDPE), 25% by weight of PW, and either 0% or 5% by weight of maleated polyethylene (MAPE) were produced by twin screw compounding followed by injection molding. Molded test composite...

  16. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  17. Investigating high-concentration monoclonal antibody powder suspension in nonaqueous suspension vehicles for subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2012-12-01

    Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (<20 cP) and lowest syringe injection glide force (<15 N) at mAb concentrations as high as 333 mg/mL (500 mg powder/mL). Inverse gas chromatography analysis indicated that the vehicle was the most important factor impacting suspension performance. Ethyl lactate rendered greater heat of sorption (suggesting strong particle-suspension vehicle interaction may reduce particle-particle self-association, leading to low suspension viscosity and glide force) but lacked the physical suspension stability exhibited by the other vehicles. Specific mixtures of ethyl lactate and Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. PMID:23001898

  18. Physics based simulation of seismicity induced in the vicinity of a high-pressure fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, J.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G. S.; Bean, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure fluid injection into subsurface is known, in some cases, to induce earthquakes in the surrounding volume. The increasing importance of ';fracking' as a potential source of hydrocarbons has made the seismic hazard from this effect an important issue the adjudication of planning applications and it is likely that poor understanding of the process will be used as justification of refusal of planning in Ireland and the UK. Here we attempt to understand some of the physical controls on the size and frequency of induced earthquakes using a physics-based simulation of the process and examine resulting earthquake catalogues The driver for seismicity in our simulations is identical to that used in the paper by Murphy et al. in this session. Fluid injection is simulated using pore fluid movement throughout a permeable layer from a high-pressure point source using a lattice Boltzmann scheme. Diffusivities and frictional parameters can be defined independently at individual nodes/cells allowing us to reproduce 3-D geological structures. Active faults in the model follow a fractal size distribution and exhibit characteristic event size, resulting in a power-law frequency-size distribution. The fluid injection is not hydraulically connected to the fault (i.e. fluid does not come into physical contact with the fault); however stress perturbations from the injection drive the seismicity model. The duration and pressure-time function of the fluid injection can be adjusted to model any given injection scenario and the rate of induced seismicity is controlled by the local structures and ambient stress field as well as by the stress perturbations resulting from the fluid injection. Results from the rate and state fault models of Murphy et al. are incorporated to include the effect of fault strengthening in seismically quite areas. Initial results show similarities with observed induced seismic catalogues. Seismicity is only induced where the active faults have not been

  19. Performance of a High-Speed Compression-Ignition Engine Using Multiple Orifice Fuel Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanogle, J A; Foster, H H

    1930-01-01

    This report presents test results obtained at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics during an investigation to determine the relative performance of a single-cylinder, high-speed, compression-ignition engine when using fuel injection valve nozzles with different numbers, sizes, and directions of round orifices. A spring-loaded, automatic injection valve was used, centrally located at the top of a vertical disk-type combustion chamber formed between horizontally opposed inlet and exhaust valves of a 5 inch by 7 inch engine.

  20. Optical injection and spectral filtering of high-power ultraviolet laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, V M; Ballance, C J; Tock, C J; Lucas, D M

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate injection locking of high-power laser diodes operating at 397 nm. We achieve stable operation with an injection power of ∼100  μW and a slave laser output power of up to 110 mW. We investigate the spectral purity of the slave laser light via photon scattering experiments on a single trapped (40)Ca(+) ion. We show that it is possible to achieve a scattering rate indistinguishable from that of monochromatic light by filtering the laser light with a diffraction grating to remove amplified spontaneous emission. PMID:26371912

  1. Investigation of caprock integrity during high-volume injection into the Utsira formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Wangen, M.; Bjørnarå, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Utsira formation is a large offshore saline aquifer in the North Sea that is considered a likely candidate for storage of CO2 emissions. Currently, the Utsira is host to the longest operating CO2 storage project, the Sleipner project, which has injected 1 Mt CO2/y since 1996. The entire Utsira formation has an estimated storage capacity of 15 Gt, which is equal to 300 Sleipner-sized projects in simultaneous operation for the next 50 years. Injectivity into the Utsira is exceptionally good, and no pressurization has been observed at Sleipner. The formation is over 100-m thick and comprised of unconsolidated sand with high porosity and permeability (30-40% and 1-3 Darcy). The Nordland shale has been characterized as a high-quality seal that is regionally thick, extensive and absent of significant faults. Significant scale-up of CO2 injection into the Utsira is required to increase storage of regional CO2 emissions well beyond what is currently stored today. Full utilization of the Utsira storage capacity would result in injection rates >100 Mt/y, significantly larger than Sleipner. Despite the lack of pressure effects at Sleipner, higher injection rates will likely lead to pressure build-up in the Utsira. Relatively little is known about the magnitude of pressure build-up and resulting impact on caprock integrity with high-volume injection. The problem is complex, involving multiphase flow and mechanical deformation of the storage reservoir and the surrounding formations, and covers large spatial scales, ranging several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. There are significant challenges in applying fully coupled hydromechanical simulators to problems of this scale. The computational effort required to solve a resolved is significant, and efforts to reduce the complexity of the model are needed. In this study, simplified modeling approaches are investigated. A reduced order multiphase flow model coupled with a geomechanical model results in greater efficiency

  2. Interstitial injection in silicon after high-dose, low-energy arsenic implantation and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsamis, C.; Skarlatos, D.; BenAssayag, G.; Claverie, A.; Lerch, W.; Valamontes, V.

    2005-11-14

    In this work, we investigate the interstitial injection into the silicon lattice due to high-dose, low-energy arsenic implantation. The approach consists in monitoring the diffusion of the arsenic profile as well as of the boron profile in buried {delta}-doped layers, when amounts of the as-implanted arsenic profile are removed by low-temperature wet silicon etching. The experimental results indicate that the contribution of the implantation damage to the transient enhanced diffusion of boron, and thus the interstitial injection, is not the main one. On the contrary, interstitial generation due to arsenic clustering seems to be more important for the present conditions.

  3. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  4. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  5. Malnutrition alters the cardiovascular responses induced by central injection of tityustoxin in Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda Cacilda Santos; Guidine, Patrícia Alves; Ribeiro, Mara Fernandes; Fernandes, Luciano Gonçalves; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; de Menezes, Rodrigo Cunha; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Moraes, Márcio Flávio; Chianca, Deoclécio Alves

    2013-12-15

    Scorpion envenoming and malnutrition are considered two important public health problems in Brazil, involving mainly children. Both these conditions are more common among the economically stratified lower income portion of the population, thus suggesting that these factors should be analyzed concomitantly. It is known that cardiorespiratory manifestations, as cardiac arrhythmias, arterial hypertension and hypotension, pulmonary edema and circulatory failure are the main "causa mortis" of scorpion envenomation. Additionally, there are evidences in the literature that deficiencies in dietary intake endanger the CNS and modify the cardiovascular homeostasis. Then, the objective of this work is to evaluate the protein malnourished effect on cardiovascular responses induced by tityustoxin (TsTX, an α-type toxin extracted from the Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom). Fischer rats (n = 20) were injected i.c.v. with TsTX and divided in control and malnorished groups, which were, respectively, submitted to a control and a low-protein diet. Arterial pressure recordings were done until death of the animals. Although both groups presented an increased mean arterial pressure after TsTX injection, this increase was smaller and delayed in malnourished rats, when compared to control rats. In addition, heart rate increased only in rats from the control group. Finally, malnourished rats had an increase in survival time (9:9/13.5 vs. 15.5:10.5/18 min; p = 0.0009). In summary, our results suggest that the protein restriction attenuates the cardiovascular manifestations resulting from TsTX action on CNS. PMID:24060375

  6. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  7. Injection repair of advanced aircraft composites with a high temperature cyanate ester resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Amy Elizabeth

    Polymer matrix composites, especially those with carbon fiber reinforcement, are becoming increasingly common in aerospace applications due to their high stiffness to weight ratio, resulting in significant weight and fuel savings on commercial and military aircraft. Despite their excellent properties, carbon fiber composites are often susceptible to damage in the form of delaminations or interlaminar cracking caused by low energy impact or manufacturing defects. Often not easily detectable, delaminations are detrimental to the strength of the composite and can ultimately result in failure of the component. Therefore methods must be developed to repair damaged composites. Injection repair is a procedure that involves injecting a low viscosity resin into the damaged area and subjecting the composite to heat to cure the resin. Currently, injection repairs are rarely used in high temperature applications because of the lack of resins with both low viscosity and high thermal stability. Therefore demonstrating the use of a resin with satisfactory viscosity and Tg requirements would expand the application of injection repairs to more vigorous environments. In the present study, the injection repair method was developed to repair damaged bismaleimide carbon fiber composites that are similar to composites used on several high temperature weapon platforms. Bisphenol E cyanate ester (BECy) was chosen as the injection resin due to having the unique combination of low viscosity and a high glass transition temperature. Cure kinetic studies found an optimum undercure schedule to achieve the maximum T g while avoiding the high temperature postcure. Mechanical and adhesive tests revealed that partially cured BECy had properties superior to that of the fully cured resin. Following the evaluation of the resin, the injection repair procedure and set up were developed. Successful and reproducible repairs were performed on panels pre-damaged through static loading and drop tower impact

  8. High Frequency ELM Pacing by Lithium Pellet Injection on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Lunsford, R.; Jackson, G. L.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.

    2015-11-01

    Full-shot, high-frequency pacing of edge localized modes (ELM) by lithium pellet injection has been demonstrated in DIII-D. A Lithium Granule Injector (LGI), recently installed on DIII-D to study pacing efficiency dependence on granule size and velocity, was tested in different ELMy scenarios (βN = 1.2-2.0) injecting granules of nominal diameter 0.3-0.9 mm, with injection speed 50-120 m/s and injection rates up to 500 Hz. Robust ELM pacing was documented on time windows up to 3.5 s, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9 mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes and weakly dependent on granule velocity. Paced ELM frequencies up to 100 Hz were achieved, with a 2-5 fold increase over the natural ELM frequency and a consequent reduction of divertor peak heat flux. Overall, LGI high frequency pacing appeared to be compatible with high plasma performance, in terms of global confinement and pedestal characteristics. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  9. High injection phenomena in p/plus/in/plus/ silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, A.; Equren, J.

    1982-08-01

    A simple analysis of p(plus)in(plus) solar cell structures is undertaken on the basis of the quasi-neutrality condition (n equals p). It is noted that the only differential equation to be solved in the model is the one of classical continuity. Only in the boundary conditions do nonlinearities appear. It is shown that the model can be applied to p(plus)nn(plus) or n(plus)pp(plus) cells under conditions of very high injection. High carrier concentractions are required to support the current flow even in short-circuit conditions, thereby enhancing the recombination (which is reduced by high injection lifetime increases). Under-linearity between the short-circuit current and the photon flux is deduced at very high irradiance. The short-circuit current under bifacial illumination is found to be higher than the sum of those currents under front and back illumination, thus leading to inherently better bifacial cells.

  10. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  11. Low and high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitors block dopamine uptake within 5 sec of intravenous injection

    PubMed Central

    Yorgason, Jordan T.; Jones, Sara R.; España, Rodrigo A.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that the reinforcing effects of cocaine involve inhibition of dopamine transporters (DAT) and subsequent increases in dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum. We have previously reported that cocaine inhibits the DAT within 4–5 sec of intravenous injection, matching the temporal profile of the behavioral and subjective effects of cocaine. Intravenous injection of GBR-12909, a high affinity, long-acting DAT inhibitor, also inhibits DA uptake within 5 sec. Given that high affinity, long-acting drugs are considered to have relatively low abuse potential, we found it intriguing that GBR-12909 had an onset profile similar to that of cocaine. To further explore the onset kinetics of both low and high affinity DAT inhibitors, we examined the effects of intravenous cocaine (1.5 mg/kg), methylphenidate (1.5 mg/kg), nomifensine (1.5 mg/kg), GBR-12909 (1.5 mg/kg), PTT (0.5 mg/kg), and WF23 (0.5 mg/kg) on electrically-evoked DA release and uptake in the nucleus accumbens core. Results indicate that all of the DAT inhibitors significantly inhibited DA uptake within 5 sec of injection. However, the timing of peak uptake inhibition varied greatly between the low and high affinity uptake inhibitors. Uptake inhibition following cocaine, methylphenidate, and nomifensine peaked 30 sec following injection. In contrast, peak effects for GBR-12909, PTT, and WF23 occurred between 20 and 60 min following injection. These observations suggest that the initial onset for intravenous DAT inhibitors is extremely rapid and does not appear to be dictated by a drug’s affinity. PMID:21402130

  12. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  13. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis of high-resolution injection technique for capillary electrophoresis microchip.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Lung; Leong, Jik-Chang; Hong, Ting-Fu; Wang, Yao-Nan; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the use of high-resolution injection techniques to deliver sample plugs within a capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchip. The CE microfluidic device was integrated into a U-shaped injection system and an expansion chamber located at the inlet of the separation channel, which can miniize the sample leakage effect and deliver a high-quality sample plug into the separation channel so that the detection performance of the device is enhanced. The proposed 45° U-shaped injection system was investigated using a sample of Rhodamine B dye. Meanwhile, the analysis of the current CE microfluidic chip was studied by considering the separation of Hae III digested ϕx-174 DNA samples. The experimental and numerical results indicate that the included 45° U-shaped injector completely eliminates the sample leakage and an expansion separation channel with an expansion ratio of 2.5 delivers a sample plug with a perfect detection shape and highest concentration intensity, hence enabling an optimal injection and separation performance. PMID:21747696

  15. Injectable Polymerized High Internal Phase Emulsions with Rapid in Situ Curing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized high internal phase emulsions (polyHIPEs) have been utilized in the creation of injectable scaffolds that cure in situ to fill irregular bone defects and potentially improve tissue healing. Previously, thermally initiated scaffolds required hours to cure, which diminished the potential for clinical translation. Here, a double-barrel syringe system for fabricating redox-initiated polyHIPEs with dramatically shortened cure times upon injection was demonstrated with three methacrylated macromers. The polyHIPE cure time, compressive properties, and pore architecture were investigated with respect to redox initiator chemistry and concentration. Increased concentrations of redox initiators reduced cure times from hours to minutes and increased the compressive modulus and strength without compromising the pore architecture. Additionally, storage of the uncured emulsion at reduced temperatures for 6 months was shown to have minimal effects on the resulting graft properties. These studies indicate that the uncured emulsions can be stored in the clinic until they are needed and then rapidly cured after injection to rigid, high-porosity scaffolds. In summary, we have improved upon current methods of generating injectable polyHIPE grafts to meet translational design goals of long storage times and rapid curing (<15 min) without sacrificing porosity or mechanical properties. PMID:25006990

  16. A micro powder injection molding apparatus for high aspect ratio metal micro-structure production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Gang; Tor, Shubeng; Loh, Ngiaphiang; Tay, Beeyen; Hardt, David E.

    2007-09-01

    A new variotherm molding apparatus is presented in this paper for the fabrication of high aspect ratio 316L stainless steel micro-structures using micro powder injection molding (μPIM) technology. The molding apparatus prototype includes an injection mold in which a silicon insert with an array of 24 × 24 (576) microcavities is mounted, a set of rapid tempering systems for the mold and a set of vacuum systems. The key advantage of this molding apparatus lies in the real-time monitoring and rapid adjustment of the mold cavity temperature during injection molding and part ejection, which makes molding and demolding of high aspect ratio green micro-structures possible. For example, incomplete filling occurs while injection molding micro-structures of 60 µm × height 191 µm with an aspect ratio of 3.2 using a conventional mold. In comparison, smaller micro-structures with higher aspect ratio are produced successfully in the case of the new molding apparatus, e.g. micro-structures of 40 µm × height 174 µm with an aspect ratio of 4.35 and 20 µm × height 160 µm with an aspect ratio of 8 were molded successfully.

  17. Elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation of high pressure common-rail fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pimao; Zhang, Youtong; Li, Tieshuan; Xie, Lizhe

    2015-03-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73% at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92% at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  18. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of microbial responses to three in situ source removal remedial technologies including permanganate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), six-phase heating (SPH), and steam injection (SI) was performed at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Florida. The investigatio...

  19. Effect of in ovo injection with selenium on immune and antioxidant responses during experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways in the antioxidant enzymes activity and modulating immune system. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection of selenium (Se) on modulating the immune system and antioxidant responses in chickens...

  20. Responsibility attribution of HIV infection and coping among injection drug users in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih-Hung; Tan, Sooyin; Macewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study explored responsibility attribution (RA) of HIV/AIDS infection (i.e., how an individual perceives the cause of their HIV/AIDS infection) and its relationship to coping styles among injection drug users (IDUs) with HIV/AIDS. In addition, this study investigated whether self-esteem, social support, and religiosity mediate the relationship between RA and coping styles of IDUs with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 201 adult IDUs with HIV/AIDS participating in the National Drug Rehabilitation Center in Malaysia. Five measures were used to assess the above constructs. Cluster analysis, analysis of variance, and mediation analyses were conducted. Results of this study indicated that IDUs with HIV/AIDS in Malaysia can be classified into four homogenous attribution groups: external, fatalistic, internal, and indeterminate. Mediator analyses revealed that combination of self-esteem, social support, and religiosity mediate the relationship between RA and coping behaviors. Clinicians working with IDUs with HIV/AIDS need to address the role of RA, self-esteem, religiosity, and social support as these psychosocial constructs are linked to coping with HIV/AIDS. Future researchers should investigate whether enhancing self-esteem, social support, and religiosity can promote active problem-solving coping and reduce the use of avoidance coping behaviors. PMID:23713718

  1. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  2. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a ... your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response ...

  3. INDUCED SEISMICITY. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, M; Ge, S; Godt, J W; Bekins, B A; Rubinstein, J L

    2015-06-19

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well's cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes. PMID:26089509

  4. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.; Godt, J. W.; Bekins, B. A.; Rubinstein, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  5. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weingarten, Matthew; Ge, Shemin; Godt, Jonathan W.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  6. Laser Injection Optics for High-Intensity Transmission in Multimode Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    SETCHELL,ROBERT E.

    2000-08-29

    An increasing number of applications are requiring fiber transmission of high-intensity laser pulses. The authors particular interests have led them to examine carefully the fiber transmission of Q-switched pulses from multimode Nd:YAG lasers at their fundamental wavelength. The maximum pulse energy that can be transmitted through a particular fiber is limited by the onset of laser-induced breakdown and damage mechanisms. Laser breakdown at the fiber entrance face is often the first limiting process to be encountered, but other mechanisms can result in catastrophic damage at either fiber face, within the initial entry segment of the fiber, and at other internal sites along the fiber path. In the course of their studies they have examined a number of factors that govern the relative importance of different mechanisms, including laser characteristics, the design and alignment of injection optics, fiber end-face preparation, and fiber routing. The present study emphasizes the important criteria for injection optics in high-intensity fiber transmission, and illustrates the opportunities that now exist for innovative designs of optics to meet these criteria. The consideration of diffractive optics to achieve desired injection criteria began in 1993, and they have evaluated a progression of designs since that time. In the present study, two recent designs for injection optics are compared by testing a sufficient number of fibers with each design to establish statistics for the onset of laser-induced breakdown and damage. In this testing they attempted to hold constant other factors that can influence damage statistics. Both designs performed well, although one was less successful in meeting all injection criteria and consequently showed a susceptibility to a particular damage process.

  7. Pneumatic Microvalve-Based Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for High-Throughput, Quantitative Zone Electrophoresis in Capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Wang, Chenchen; Rausch, Sarah J.; Lee, Cheng S.; Tang, Keqi

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary CE system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel and a fused silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused silica capillary with high resolution. High sensitivity MS detection after CE separation is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a good linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates and CE separation voltages.

  8. Effects of low charge injection densities on corrosion responses of pulsed 316LVM stainless steel electrodes.

    PubMed

    Riedy, L W; Walter, J S

    1996-06-01

    The safe charge injection density for pulsing of 316LVM electrodes has been reported to be 40 microC/cm2. However, only 20 microC/cm2 is available for nonfaradic charge transfer and double layer charge injection. Therefore, we evaluated long term pulsing at 20 microC/cm2 with capacitor coupling. PMID:8987272

  9. High SO{sub 2} removal duct injection: A low-cost FGD alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    Sorbent Technologies Corporation, of the United States, is currently developing and demonstrating a new waste free, retrofitable, high-SO{sub 2} removal duct-injection process. Up to 85 percent SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by simply injecting a new dry lime-based sorbent into the flue-gas duct, collecting the sorbent downstream in a particulate collector, and then recycling the sorbent. By avoiding large, expensive components, the process can have low capital costs, making it especially appropriate for smaller, older, less-utilized plants. The key to the new technology is the use of sorbent supports. Supported sorbents are produced by coating hydrated lime onto inexpensive mineral supports, such as exfoliated vermiculite or perlite. Consequently, there are no liquid, sludge, or solid wastes with the new technology. Once saturated with SO{sub 2}, the spent sorbent can be easily pelletized into a valuable soil-conditioning agricultural by-product, for the sustainable development that the future requires. This paper describes Sorbent Technologies` pilot demonstration of supported sorbent injection at the Ohio Edison Company`s R.E. Burger station. The Burger effort is also the first demonstration of the Electric Power Research Institute`s new {open_quotes}COHPAC{close_quotes} baghouse technology in a sorbent-injection desulfurization application.

  10. Control of high-Z PFC erosion by local gas injection in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, D. L.; Stangeby, P. C.; Wong, C. P. C.; McLean, A. G.; Wampler, W. R.; Watkins, J. G.; Boedo, J. A.; Briesemeister, A.; Buchenauer, D. A.; Chrobak, C. P.; Elder, J. D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Guo, H. Y.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Moyer, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    Reduced erosion of a high-Z PFC divertor surface was observed in DIII-D with local injection of methane and deuterium gases. Molybdenum-coated silicon samples were exposed in the lower divertor of DIII-D using DiMES under plasma conditions previously shown to cause significant net erosion of Mo. Three exposures with 13CH4 and one exposure with D2 gas injection about 12 cm upstream of the samples located within 1-2 cm of the attached strike point were performed. Reduction of Mo erosion was evidenced in-situ by the suppression of MoI line radiation at 386.4 nm once the gas injection started. Post-mortem ion beam analysis demonstrated that the net erosion of molybdenum near the center of the samples exposed with 13CH4 injection was below the measurement resolution of 0.5 nm, corresponding to a rate of ⩽0.04 nm/s. Compared to the previously measured erosion rates, this constitutes a reduction by a factor of >10.

  11. Are females who inject drugs at higher risk for HIV infection than males who inject drugs: an international systematic review of high seroprevalence areas

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Feelemyer, Jonathan P; Modi, Shilpa N.; Arasteh, Kamyar; Hagan, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Objective There are multiple reasons why females who inject drugs may be more likely to become infected with HIV than males who inject drugs. Where this is the case, special HIV prevention programs for females would be needed. Design International systematic review and meta-analysis of studies across 14 countries. Methods Countries with high seroprevalence (>20%) HIV epidemics among persons who inject drugs (PWID) were identified from the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Systematic literature reviews collected data on HIV prevalence by gender for these countries. Non-parametric and parametric tests along with meta-analytic techniques examined heterogeneity and differences in odds ratios (OR) across studies. Results Data were abstracted from 117 studies in 14 countries; total sample size N=128,745. The mean weighted OR for HIV prevalence among females to males was 1.18 [95% CI 1.10–1.26], with high heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 70.7%). There was a Gaussian distribution of the log ORs across studies in the sample. Conclusion There was a significantly higher HIV prevalence among females compared to males who inject drugs in high seroprevalence settings, but the effect size is extremely modest. The high level of heterogeneity and the Gaussian distribution suggest multiple causes of differences in HIV prevalence between females and males, with a specific difference determined by local factors. Greater understanding of factors that may protect females from HIV infection may provide insights into more effective HIV prevention for both females and males who inject drugs. PMID:22257753

  12. Stable High-Quality Electron Bunch Generation via Counter-Crossing Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kotaki, H.; Daito, I.; Kando, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Homma, T.; Pirozhkov, A.; Koga, J. K.; Nakajima, K.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a highly reproducible acceleration of a high-quality electron bunch injected into the laser wake field accelerator with the help of a counter-crossing laser pulse. In our experiments, the wake field is generated by a sub-relativistic laser pulse; the second laser pulse collides with the first pulse at 135 deg. realizing optical injection of electron bunch into the wake field. Since the second pulse is counter-crossing, it can not damage the laser system. The observed electron bunch has the energy of 14 MeV with a 11% (1.5 MeV) spread, the total charge of 22 pC, a normalized emittance not greater than 0.8{pi} mm mrad, and a reproducibility at least 50%.

  13. Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, Toshiyuki; Miranda, Martin; Inoue, Ryotaro; Kozuma, Mikio

    2015-07-15

    We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks.

  14. High domain wall velocities via spin transfer torque using vertical current injection

    PubMed Central

    Metaxas, Peter J.; Sampaio, Joao; Chanthbouala, André; Matsumoto, Rie; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Fert, Albert; Zvezdin, Konstantin A.; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Domain walls, nanoscale transition regions separating oppositely oriented ferromagnetic domains, have significant promise for use in spintronic devices for data storage and memristive applications. The state of these devices is related to the wall position and thus rapid operation will require a controllable onset of domain wall motion and high speed wall displacement. These processes are traditionally driven by spin transfer torque due to lateral injection of spin polarized current through a ferromagnetic nanostrip. However, this geometry is often hampered by low maximum wall velocities and/or a need for prohibitively high current densities. Here, using time-resolved magnetotransport measurements, we show that vertical injection of spin currents through a magnetic tunnel junction can drive domain walls over hundreds of nanometers at ~500 m/s using current densities on the order of 6 MA/cm2. Moreover, these measurements provide information about the stochastic and deterministic aspects of current driven domain wall mediated switching. PMID:23670402

  15. High domain wall velocities via spin transfer torque using vertical current injection.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Peter J; Sampaio, Joao; Chanthbouala, André; Matsumoto, Rie; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Fert, Albert; Zvezdin, Konstantin A; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Domain walls, nanoscale transition regions separating oppositely oriented ferromagnetic domains, have significant promise for use in spintronic devices for data storage and memristive applications. The state of these devices is related to the wall position and thus rapid operation will require a controllable onset of domain wall motion and high speed wall displacement. These processes are traditionally driven by spin transfer torque due to lateral injection of spin polarized current through a ferromagnetic nanostrip. However, this geometry is often hampered by low maximum wall velocities and/or a need for prohibitively high current densities. Here, using time-resolved magnetotransport measurements, we show that vertical injection of spin currents through a magnetic tunnel junction can drive domain walls over hundreds of nanometers at ~500 m/s using current densities on the order of 6 MA/cm(2). Moreover, these measurements provide information about the stochastic and deterministic aspects of current driven domain wall mediated switching. PMID:23670402

  16. High domain wall velocities via spin transfer torque using vertical current injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Peter J.; Sampaio, Joao; Chanthbouala, André; Matsumoto, Rie; Anane, Abdelmadjid; Fert, Albert; Zvezdin, Konstantin A.; Yakushiji, Kay; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Nishimura, Kazumasa; Nagamine, Yoshinori; Maehara, Hiroki; Tsunekawa, Koji; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie

    2013-05-01

    Domain walls, nanoscale transition regions separating oppositely oriented ferromagnetic domains, have significant promise for use in spintronic devices for data storage and memristive applications. The state of these devices is related to the wall position and thus rapid operation will require a controllable onset of domain wall motion and high speed wall displacement. These processes are traditionally driven by spin transfer torque due to lateral injection of spin polarized current through a ferromagnetic nanostrip. However, this geometry is often hampered by low maximum wall velocities and/or a need for prohibitively high current densities. Here, using time-resolved magnetotransport measurements, we show that vertical injection of spin currents through a magnetic tunnel junction can drive domain walls over hundreds of nanometers at ~500 m/s using current densities on the order of 6 MA/cm2. Moreover, these measurements provide information about the stochastic and deterministic aspects of current driven domain wall mediated switching.

  17. ON THE INJECTION SPECTRUM OF RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS IN HIGH-REDSHIFT RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal-Krishna; Mhaskey, Mukul

    2012-01-01

    We point out that the remarkable linearity of the ultra-steep radio spectra of high-redshift radio galaxies reflects a previously reported general trend for powerful radio galaxies, according to which the spectral curvature is less for sources having steeper spectra (measured near rest-frame 1 GHz). We argue based on existing theoretical and observational evidence that it is premature to conclude that the particle acceleration mechanism in sources having straight, ultra-steep radio spectra gives rise to an ultra-steep injection spectrum of the radiating electrons. In empirical support for this we show that the estimated injection spectral indices available for a representative sample of 35 compact steep spectrum radio sources are not correlated with their rest-frame (intrinsic) rotation measures, which are known to be typically large, indicating a dense environment, as is also the case for high-z radio galaxies.

  18. The devastating outcome of massive subcutaneous injection of highly viscous fluids in male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Hage, J J; Kanhai, R C; Oen, A L; van Diest, P J; Karim, R B

    2001-03-01

    Illicit subcutaneous injections of massive quantities of highly viscous fluids are still performed, often by unqualified persons. Fifteen male-to-female transsexuals consulted the authors regarding their devastating long-term outcomes after the injection of up to 8 liters of alleged silicone or mineral oil to feminize their bodies. After a latency period of up to 17 years, these injections led to complications ranging from scarring and deformity to infections. These patients were treated conservatively for inflammation and infection or surgically by resection of the oil-infested areas. In view of the potential dangers, feminization by the injection of high-viscosity fluids should be soundly condemned. PMID:11304599

  19. Entanglement, EPR correlations, and mesoscopic quantum superposition by the high-gain quantum injected parametric amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Caminati, Marco; De Martini, Francesco; Perris, Riccardo; Secondi, Veronica; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the multiparticle quantum superposition and the persistence of bipartite entanglement of the output field generated by the quantum injected high-gain optical parametric amplification of a single photon. The physical configuration based on the optimal universal quantum cloning has been adopted to investigate how the entanglement and the quantum coherence of the system persists for large values of the nonlinear parametric gain g.

  20. Prediction of the Period of Swirl Motion Appearing in Gas Injection Processes at High Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Akira; Tsujino, Ryoji; Sasaki, Yasushi; Nishihara, Kazuyoshi; Iguchi, Manabu

    A swirl motion induced by gas injection through a bottom nozzle has high mixing ability and useful for the mixing of a molten steel bath in the refining processes. As one of the fundamental characteristics of the swirl motion, the period is mentioned in this study. A semi-empirical equation is proposed for the period of swirl motion by referring to the rotary sloshing appearing in a cylindrical vessel oscillated in the vertical or the horizontal direction.

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-06-30

    This report outlines progress in the third 3 quarter of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' A simple theoretical formulation of vertical flow with capillary/gravity equilibrium is described. Also reported are results of experimental measurements for the same systems. The results reported indicate that displacement behavior is strongly affected by the interfacial tension of phases that form on the tie line that extends through the initial oil composition.

  2. Apparatus for injecting high power laser light into a fiber optic cable

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, W.C.

    1997-11-11

    High intensity laser light is evenly injected into an optical fiber by the combination of a converging lens and a multisegment kinoform (binary optical element). The segments preferably have multi-order gratings on each which are aligned parallel to a radial line emanating from the center of the kinoform and pass through the center of the element. The grating in each segment causes circumferential (lateral) dispersion of the light, thereby avoiding detrimental concentration of light energy within the optical fiber. 6 figs.

  3. Local innate immune responses in the vaccine adjuvant-injected muscle.

    PubMed

    Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Inducing a high magnitude of antibodies, possibly in combination with T-cell responses that offer epitope breadth over prolonged periods of time is likely a prerequisite for effective vaccines against severe diseases such as HIV-1 infection, malaria and tuberculosis. A much better understanding of the innate immune mechanisms that are critical for inducing desired responses to vaccination would help in the design of novel vaccines. The majority of human vaccines are administered into the muscle. In this brief review, we focus on the initial innate immune events that occur locally at the site of intramuscular vaccine delivery, and how they are influenced by clinically approved vaccine adjuvants. In particular, the effects on cell mobilization, cell activation and vaccine antigen uptake are reviewed. Understanding how distinct adjuvants enhance and tailor vaccine responses would facilitate the selection of the best-suited adjuvant to improve vaccine efficacy to a given pathogen. PMID:27195117

  4. Local innate immune responses in the vaccine adjuvant-injected muscle

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Inducing a high magnitude of antibodies, possibly in combination with T-cell responses that offer epitope breadth over prolonged periods of time is likely a prerequisite for effective vaccines against severe diseases such as HIV-1 infection, malaria and tuberculosis. A much better understanding of the innate immune mechanisms that are critical for inducing desired responses to vaccination would help in the design of novel vaccines. The majority of human vaccines are administered into the muscle. In this brief review, we focus on the initial innate immune events that occur locally at the site of intramuscular vaccine delivery, and how they are influenced by clinically approved vaccine adjuvants. In particular, the effects on cell mobilization, cell activation and vaccine antigen uptake are reviewed. Understanding how distinct adjuvants enhance and tailor vaccine responses would facilitate the selection of the best-suited adjuvant to improve vaccine efficacy to a given pathogen. PMID:27195117

  5. Abnormal hemodynamic response to forepaw stimulation in rat brain after cocaine injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Park, Kicheon; Choi, Jeonghun; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2015-03-01

    Simultaneous measurement of hemodynamics is of great importance to evaluate the brain functional changes induced by brain diseases such as drug addiction. Previously, we developed a multimodal-imaging platform (OFI) which combined laser speckle contrast imaging with multi-wavelength imaging to simultaneously characterize the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygenated- and deoxygenated- hemoglobin (HbO and HbR) from animal brain. Recently, we upgraded our OFI system that enables detection of hemodynamic changes in response to forepaw electrical stimulation to study potential brain activity changes elicited by cocaine. The improvement includes 1) high sensitivity to detect the cortical response to single forepaw electrical stimulation; 2) high temporal resolution (i.e., 16Hz/channel) to resolve dynamic variations in drug-delivery study; 3) high spatial resolution to separate the stimulation-evoked hemodynamic changes in vascular compartments from those in tissue. The system was validated by imaging the hemodynamic responses to the forepaw-stimulations in the somatosensory cortex of cocaine-treated rats. The stimulations and acquisitions were conducted every 2min over 40min, i.e., from 10min before (baseline) to 30min after cocaine challenge. Our results show that the HbO response decreased first (at ~4min) followed by the decrease of HbR response (at ~6min) after cocaine, and both did not fully recovered for over 30min. Interestingly, while CBF decreased at 4min, it partially recovered at 18min after cocaine administration. The results indicate the heterogeneity of cocaine's effects on vasculature and tissue metabolism, demonstrating the unique capability of optical imaging for brain functional studies.

  6. Highly Efficient Room Temperature Spin Injection Using Spin Filtering in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xin

    2007-03-01

    Efficient electrical spin injection into GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures was demonstrated using CoFe/MgO tunnel spin injectors at room temperature. The spin polarization of the injected electron current was inferred from the circular polarization of electroluminescence from the quantum well. Polarization values as high as 57% at 100 K and 47% at 290 K were obtained in a perpendicular magnetic field of 5 Tesla. The interface between the tunnel spin injector and the GaAs interface remained stable even after thermal annealing at 400 ^oC. The temperature dependence of the electron-hole recombination time and the electron spin relaxation time in the quantum well was measured using time-resolved optical techniques. By taking into account of these properties of the quantum well, the intrinsic spin injection efficiency can be deduced. We conclude that the efficiency of spin injection from a CoFe/MgO spin injector is nearly independent of temperature and, moreover, is highly efficient with an efficiency of ˜ 70% for the temperature range studied (10 K to room temperature). Tunnel spin injectors are thus highly promising components of future semiconductor spintronic devices. Collaborators: Roger Wang^1, 3, Gian Salis^2, Robert Shelby^1, Roger Macfarlane^1, Seth Bank^3, Glenn Solomon^3, James Harris^3, Stuart S. P. Parkin^1 ^1 IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA 95120 ^2 IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, S"aumerstrasse 4, 8803 R"uschlikon, Switzerland ^3 Solid States and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305

  7. Tailpipe emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles at both low and high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rencheng; Hu, Jingnan; Bao, Xiaofeng; He, Liqiang; Lai, Yitu; Zu, Lei; Li, Yufei; Su, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Vehicle emissions are greatly influenced by various factors that are related to engine technology and driving conditions. Only the fuel injection method and ambient temperature are investigated in this research. Regulated gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from two advanced gasoline-fueled vehicles, one with direct fuel injection (GDI) and the other with port fuel injection (PFI), are tested with conventional gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline (E10) at both -7 °C and 30 °C. The total particle number (PN) concentrations and size distributions are monitored with an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(+)). The solid PN concentrations are measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) after removing volatile matters through the particle measurement program (PMP) system. The results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature from 30 °C to -7 °C significantly increases the fuel consumption and all measured emissions except for NOx. The GDI vehicle exhibits lower fuel consumption than the PFI vehicle but emits more total hydrocarbons (THC), PM mass and solid PN emissions at 30 °C. The adaptability of GDI technology appears to be better than that of PFI technology at low ambient temperature. For example, the CO, THC and PM mass emission factors of the PFI vehicle are higher than those of the GDI vehicle and the solid PN emission factors are comparable in the cold-start tests at -7 °C. Specifically, during start-up the particulate matter emissions of the PFI are much higher than the GDI. In most cases, the geometric mean diameter (GMD) of the accumulation mode particles is 58-86 nm for both vehicles, and the GMD of the nucleation mode particles is 10-20 nm. The results suggest that the gaseous and particulate emissions from the PFI vehicle should not be neglected compared to those from the GDI vehicle especially in a cold environment. PMID:27267738

  8. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress. PMID:27369091

  9. Determination of hexazinone in groundwater by direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Perkins, L B; Bushway, R J; Katz, L E

    1999-01-01

    Hexazinone has been detected at levels ranging from 0.2 to 50 micrograms/L in many groundwater samples from eastern Maine over the past decade. A rapid and inexpensive direct-injection high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed to monitor contamination levels of the herbicide. The method is sensitive (limit of quantitation = 0.33 microgram/L) and is linear to 33.0 micrograms/L (R2 = 0.9995). Direct injection results from 50 field samples compared well (R2 = 0.98) with an HPLC method using solid-phase extraction for concentration and cleanup. The technique is very reproducible (coefficients of variation of 0-8.4% within day and 3.0-13.2% between day) and eliminates loss of analyte because of fewer steps in the procedure. PMID:10589500

  10. Injectable, rapid gelling and highly flexible hydrogel composites as growth factor and cell carriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Zhenqing; Khan, Mahmood; Tamama, Kenichi; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Wagner, William R; Sen, Chandan K; Guan, Jianjun

    2010-06-01

    A family of injectable, rapid gelling and highly flexible hydrogel composites capable of releasing insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and delivering mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) were developed. Hydrogel composites were fabricated from Type I collagen, chondroitin sulfate (CS) and a thermosensitive and degradable hydrogel copolymer based on N-isopropylacrylamide, acrylic acid, N-acryloxysuccinimide and a macromer poly(trimethylene carbonate)-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. The hydrogel copolymer was gellable at body temperature before degradation and soluble at body temperature after degradation. Hydrogel composites exhibited LCSTs around room temperature. They could easily be injected through a 26-gauge needle at 4 degrees C, and were capable of gelling within 6s at 37 degrees C to form highly flexible gels with moduli matching those of the rat and human myocardium. The hydrogel composites showed good oxygen permeability; the oxygen pressure within the hydrogel composites was similar to that in the air. The effects of collagen and CS contents on LCST, gelation time, injectability, mechanical properties and degradation properties were investigated. IGF-1 was loaded into the hydrogel composites for enhanced cell survival/growth. The released IGF-1 remained bioactive during a 2-week release period. Small fraction of CS in the hydrogel composites significantly decreased IGF-1 release rate. The release kinetics appeared to be controlled mainly by hydrogel composite water content, degradation and interaction with IGF-1. Human MSC adhesion on the hydrogel composites was comparable to that on the tissue culture plate. MSCs were encapsulated in the hydrogel composites and were found to grow inside during a 7-day culture period. IGF-1 loading significantly accelerated MSC growth. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that MSCs maintained their multipotent differentiation potential in hydrogel composites with and without IGF-1. These injectable and rapid gelling hydrogel composites

  11. Search for auroral belt E-parallel fields with high-velocity barium ion injections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Miller, M. L.; Marionni, P. A.; Pongratz, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1984, four high-velocity shaped-charge Ba(+) injections were conducted from two sounding rockets at 770-975 km over northern Alaska under conditions of active auroral and magnetic disturbance. Spatial ionization (brightness) profiles of high-velocity Ba(+) clouds from photometric scans following each release were found to be consistent with the 28-sec theoretical time constant for Ba photoionization determined by Carlsten (1975). These observations therefore revealed no evidence of anomalous fast ionization predicted by the Alfven critical velocity hypothesis.

  12. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Binderbauer, M W; Tajima, T; Milroy, R D; Steinhauer, L C; Yang, X; Garate, E G; Gota, H; Korepanov, S; Necas, A; Roche, T; Smirnov, A; Trask, E

    2015-01-01

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime. PMID:25902924

  13. Achievement of Runaway Electron Energy Dissipation by High-Z Gas Injection in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, E. M.

    2014-10-01

    Disruption runaway electron (RE) formation followed by RE beam-wall strikes is a concern for future tokamaks, motivating the study of mitigation techniques to reduce the RE beam energy in a controlled manner. A promising approach for doing this is the injection of high-Z gas into the RE beam. Massive (100 torr-l) injection of high-Z gas into RE beams in DIII-D is shown to significantly dissipate both RE magnetic and kinetic energy. For example, injection of argon into a typical 300 kA current RE beam is observed to cause a drop in kinetic energy from 50 kJ to 10 kJ in 10 ms, thus rapidly reducing the damage-causing capability of the RE beam. Both the RE kinetic energy and pitch angle are important for determining the resulting wall damage, with high energy, high pitch angle electrons typically considered most dangerous. The RE energy distribution is found to be more skewed toward low energies than predicted by avalanche theory. The pitch angle is not found to be constant, as is frequently assumed, but is shown to drop from sin(θ) ~ 1 for energies less than 1 MeV to sin(θ) ~ 0 . 2 for energies greater than 10 MeV. Injection of high-Z impurities does not appear to change the overall shape of the energy or pitch angle distributions dramatically. The enhanced RE energy dissipation appears to be caused primarily via collisions with the cold plasma leading to line radiation. Synchrotron power loss only becomes significant in the absence of high-Z impurities, while radial transport loss of REs is seen to become dominant if the RE beam moves sufficiently close to the vessel walls. The experiments demonstrate that avalanche theory somewhat underestimates collisional dissipation of REs in the presence of high-Z atoms, even in the absence of radial transport losses, meaning that reducing RE wall damage in large tokamaks should be easier than previously expected. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-07ER54917 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Longitudinal mode selection by injection in a high pressure CO/sub 2/ laser

    SciTech Connect

    Angelie, C.; Capitini, R.; Girard, P.

    1987-03-15

    Single longitudinal mode (SLM) selection in a 10-atm CO/sub 2/ laser is reported. Experiments have been performed with cw injection of 1 mW/cm/sup 2/ or pulsed injection of 1 mJ/cm/sup 2/ (in 50 ns) around CO/sub 2/ line centers. A simple analytical formula of the minimum intensity required for injection of a frequency ..nu.. has been obtained. It gives the dependence vs the two most important parameters: (1) the detuning ..nu..-nu-bar to the center nu-bar of the net gain curve, (2) the detuning delta..nu../sub K/ to the nearest longitudinal mode of the cavity. The comparison with experimental results published on TEA lasers is very successful. The application of the formula shows the possibility of SLM selection continuously tunable in a high pressure CO/sub 2/ laser with <1 mW/cm/sup 2/ if a grating is incorporated in the cavity, and with a pulsed source of 1 kW/cm/sup 2/ without any selective element. The actual sources suitable for this purpose are reviewed.

  15. Effect of pressure on viscosity at high shear rates by using an injection molding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Valentina; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The difficulties in performing accurate measurements of the effect of pressure on the viscosity of the polymeric materials results in a shortage of relevant experimental data in the literature. In this work, an atactic polystyrene has been characterized to determine the effect of pressure on viscosity during the injection molding process. In particular, the nozzle of the injection molding machine has been modified to host a slit rheometer that allows obtaining in-line rheological measurements by means of two pressure transducers. Slits with two different geometries have been adopted, in order to obtain a wide range of shear rates (102-105 s-1). Experiments have been conducted at increasing injection flow rates, corresponding to different shear rates. By analyzing the measured pressures it has been possible to determine the coefficient β, which describes the effect of pressure on viscosity. Results show that the effect of pressure on viscosity decreases on increasing the shear rate until a plateau is reached at very high shear rates.

  16. High volume image guided injections and structured rehabilitation in shoulder impingement syndrome: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Sarah; Chan, Otto; Ghozlan, Asser; Price, Jessica; Perry, John; Morrissey, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the aim was to establish the effect of a high volume-image guided injection and structured rehabilitation (HVIGI&SR) on both pain and function in shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). Methods 44 participants treated between January 2008 and January 2012 with a >3 month history of recalcitrant ultrasound-confirmed SIS were sent a retrospective questionnaire. All participants had received a HVIGI under ultrasound-guidance consisting of 20 mls of Marcaine with 50 mg of hydrocortisone, followed by a period of physiotherapist-led rehabilitation. The validated Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) score was used to establish the change in the score between 1 week pre-injection and 3 weeks post-injection, along with an 11-point pain scale. Results 59% of participants responded. There was a clinically and statistically significant decrease in the SPADI score of 58.7 ± 29.9 (p<0.01). 76% of participants had an improvement in their score of over 50% from their initial score. There was a clinically and statistically significant improvement in pain of 5.19 ± 2.62 (p<0.01) on the numerical rating scale of pain. Conclusion HVIGI&SR should be considered for short-term treatment of SIS as it showed a significant improvement in both pain and function. A prolonged period of physiotherapist-led rehabilitation can then be undertaken for long term benefits. PMID:26605194

  17. ‘It’s more about the heroin’: Injection drug users’ response to an overdose warning campaign in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will; Hyshka, Elaine; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Aims To assess heroin injectors’ perceptions of and responses to a warning issued by public health officials regarding high-potency heroin and increases in fatal overdoses. Design Semi-structured qualitative interviews Setting Vancouver, Canada. Participants Eighteen active heroin injectors Measurements Semi-structured interview guide focussing on heroin injectors’ perceptions of and responses to the overdose warning, including reasons for failing to adhere to risk reduction recommendations. Findings Although nearly all participants were aware of the warning, their recollections of the message and the timing of its release were obscured by on-going social interactions within the drug scene focussed on heroin quality. Many injection drug users reported seeking the high potency heroin and nearly all reported no change in overdose risk behaviours. Responses to the warning were shaped by various social, economic and structural forces that interacted with individual behaviour and undermined efforts to promote behavioural change, including sales tactics employed by dealers, poverty, the high cost and shifting quality of available heroin, and risks associated with income-generating activities. Individual-level factors, including emotional suffering, withdrawal, entrenched injecting routines, perceived invincibility and the desire for intense intoxication also undermined risk reduction messages. Conclusions Among heroin injectors in British Columbia, a 2011 overdose warning campaign appeared to be of limited effectiveness and also produced unintended negative consequences that exacerbated overdose risk. PMID:23551565

  18. High dead-space syringe use among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rafful, Claudia; Zule, William; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E.; Werb, Dan; Elena Medina-Mora, María; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background High dead-space syringes (HDSS) are believed to confer an elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other blood-borne infections. Objectives We identified prevalence and correlates of HDSS use among injection drug users (IDU) in Tijuana, Mexico, where syringe purchase and possession is legal without a prescription. Methods Beginning in 2011, IDU who reported being 18 years or older, who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective study. At baseline and semi-annually, 557 IDU underwent HIV-testing and interviewer-administered surveys. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of using HDSS. Results Of 557 IDU, 40% had ever used HDSS, mostly because no other syringe type was available (72%), or because they were easier to get (20%). Controlling for sex and age at first injection, use of HDSS was associated with cocaine as the first drug injected (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]:2.68; Confidence Interval 95% [CI]:1.15-6.22), having been stopped or arrested by police (AOR:1.84; 95% CI:1.11-3.07), being deported from the US (AOR:1.64; 95%CI:1.06-2.53), and believing it is illegal to carry syringes (AOR:1.78; 95%CI:1.01-3.15). Conclusion Use of HDSS is surprisingly common among IDU in Tijuana. Efforts are needed to expand coverage of low-dead space syringes through existing syringe exchange programs. Education is required to increase awareness of the harms associated with HDSS, and to inform IDU that syringe possession is legal across Mexico. PMID:25695145

  19. High pressure jet injection of viscous solutions for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD): first clinical experience

    PubMed Central

    Pioche, Mathieu; Lépilliez, Vincent; Déprez, Pierre; Giovannini, Marc; Caillol, Fabrice; Piessevaux, Hubert; Rivory, Jérôme; Guillaud, Olivier; Ciocîrlan, Mihai; Salmon, Damien; Lienhart, Isabelle; Lafon, Cyril; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ponchon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long lasting elevation is a key factor during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and can be obtained by water jet injection of saline solution or by viscous macromolecular solutions. In a previous animal study, we assessed the Nestis Enki II system to combine jet injection and viscous solutions. In the present work, we used this combination in humans in different sites of the digestive tract. Methods: We retrospectively report all of the consecutive ESD procedures performed with jet injection of viscous solutions in four centers. Information was collected about the lesion, the procedure, the histological result, and the outcomes for the patient. Results: In total, 45 resections were completed by six operators: five experts and one beginner with only one previous experience in human ESD. Lesions were located in the esophagus (10), the stomach (11), the duodenum (1), the colon (1) and the rectum (22). Average maximal lesion diameter was 4.8 cm (SD 2.4, range 2 – 11 cm), average lesion surface area was 19.8 cm2 (SD 17.7, range 2.2 – 72 cm2), and average duration of procedure was 79.9 min (SD 50.3 min, range 19 – 225 min). ESD could be conducted while the endoscope was retroflexed at its maximum in 26 cases. Four adverse events were observed: two diminutive perforations and two delayed bleeding occurrences treated conservatively. The R0 resection rate was 91.1 %. The catheter was obstructed in six occurrences of bleeding. Conclusion: Endoscopic submucosal dissection using high pressure injection of viscous macromolecular solutions is safe and effective in different parts of the digestive tract. It does not impede working with the endoscope in the maximal retroflexed position. PMID:26356488

  20. Median Nerve Injury Due to High-Pressure Water Jet Injection: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Emre, Ufuk; Unal, Aysun

    2009-08-01

    High-pressure injuries that occur accidentally are potentially destructive injuries that often affect the nondominant hands of young men. A variety of products such as paint, gasoline, grease, fuel oil, cement, thinner and solvents have been reported as destructive agents. High-pressure water jet injection injuries to soft tissues have rarely been reported. In this study, we present the first case of median nerve injury due to high-pressure water jet injection by a water spray gun. PMID:26815059

  1. The Adrenocortical Response of Greater Sage Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to Capture, ACTH Injection, and Confinement, as Measured in Fecal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, M. D.; Wittwer, D. J.; Heisey, D. M.; Franson, J. C.; Hofmeister, E. K.

    2009-01-01

    Investigators of wildlife populations often utilize demographic indicators to understand the relationship between habitat characteristics and population viability. Assessments of corticosterone may enable earlier detection of populations at risk of decline because physiological adjustments to habitat disturbance occur before reproductive diminutions. Noninvasive methods to accomplish these assesments are important in species of concern, such as the greater sage grouse (GRSG). Therefore, we validated a radioimmunoassay that measures immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM) in fecal samples and used it to characterize the adrenocortical response of 15 GRSG exposed to capture, intravenous injection of 50 IU/kg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline, and 22 h of confinement. Those animals injected with ACTH exhibited a more sustained (P = 0.0139) and less variable (P = 0.0012) response than those injected with saline, indicating different levels of adrenocortical activity. We also found that potential field-collection protocols of fecal samples did not alter ICM concentrations: samples held at 4°C for up to 16 h contained similar levels of ICM as those frozen (−20°C) immediately. This study demonstrates a multiphasic adrenocortical response that varied with the level of stimulation and indicates that the assay used to measure this phenomenon is applicable for studies of wild GRSG. PMID:19199814

  2. The adrenocortical response of greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to capture, ACTH injection, and confinement, as measured in fecal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jankowski, M.D.; Wittwer, D.J.; Heisey, D.M.; Franson, J.C.; Hofmeister, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    Investigators of wildlife populations often utilize demographic indicators to understand the relationship between habitat characteristics and population viability. Assessments of corticosterone may enable earlier detection of populations at risk of decline because physiological adjustments to habitat disturbance occur before reproductive diminutions. Noninvasive methods to accomplish these assesments are important in species of concern, such as the greater sage grouse (GRSG). Therefore, we validated a radioimmunoassay that measures immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM) in fecal samples and used it to characterize the adrenocortical response of 15 GRSG exposed to capture, intravenous injection of 50 IU/kg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline, and 22 h of confinement. Those animals injected with ACTH exhibited a more sustained (P = 0.0139) and less variable (P = 0.0012) response than those injected with saline, indicating different levels of adrenocortical activity. We also found that potential field-collection protocols of fecal samples did not alter ICM concentrations: samples held at 4??C for up to 16 h contained similar levels of ICM as those frozen (-20??C) immediately. This study demonstrates a multiphasic adrenocortical response that varied with the level of stimulation and indicates that the assay used to measure this phenomenon is applicable for studies of wild GRSG. ?? 2009 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  3. The adrenocortical response of greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) to capture, ACTH injection, and confinement, as measured in fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, M D; Wittwer, D J; Heisey, D M; Franson, J C; Hofmeister, E K

    2009-01-01

    Investigators of wildlife populations often utilize demographic indicators to understand the relationship between habitat characteristics and population viability. Assessments of corticosterone may enable earlier detection of populations at risk of decline because physiological adjustments to habitat disturbance occur before reproductive diminutions. Noninvasive methods to accomplish these assessments are important in species of concern, such as the greater sage grouse (GRSG). Therefore, we validated a radioimmunoassay that measures immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM) in fecal samples and used it to characterize the adrenocortical response of 15 GRSG exposed to capture, intravenous injection of 50 IU/kg adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or saline, and 22 h of confinement. Those animals injected with ACTH exhibited a more sustained (P = 0.0139) and less variable (P = 0.0012) response than those injected with saline, indicating different levels of adrenocortical activity. We also found that potential field-collection protocols of fecal samples did not alter ICM concentrations: samples held at 4 degrees C for up to 16 h contained similar levels of ICM as those frozen (-20 degrees C) immediately. This study demonstrates a multiphasic adrenocortical response that varied with the level of stimulation and indicates that the assay used to measure this phenomenon is applicable for studies of wild GRSG. PMID:19199814

  4. Natural killer cells in highly exposed hepatitis C-seronegative injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Mina, M M; Cameron, B; Luciani, F; Vollmer-Conna, U; Lloyd, A R

    2016-06-01

    Injecting drug use remains the major risk factor for hepatitis C (HCV) transmission. A minority of long-term injecting drug users remain seronegative and aviraemic, despite prolonged exposure to HCV - termed highly exposed seronegative subjects. Natural killer (NK) cells have been implicated in this apparent protection. A longitudinal nested, three group case-control series of subjects was selected from a prospective cohort of seronegative injecting drug users who became incident cases (n = 11), remained seronegative (n = 11) or reported transient high-risk behaviour and remained uninfected (n = 11). The groups were matched by age, sex and initial risk behaviour characteristics. Stored peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assayed in multicolour flow cytometry to enumerate natural killer cell subpopulations and to assess functional activity using Toll-like receptor ligands before measurement of activation, cytokine production and natural cytotoxicity receptor expression. Principal components were derived to describe the detailed phenotypic characteristics of the major NK subpopulations (based on CD56 and CD16 co-expression), before logistic regression analysis to identify associations with exposed, seronegative individuals. The CD56(dim) CD16(+) (P = 0.05, OR 6.92) and CD56(dim) CD16(-) (P = 0.05, OR 6.07) principal components differed between exposed, seronegative individuals and pre-infection samples of the other two groups. These included CD56(dim) CD16(+) and CD56(dim) CD16(-) subsets with CD56(dim) CD16(+) IFN-γ and TNF-α on unstimulated cells, and CD56(dim) CD16(-) CD69(+) , CD107a(+) , IFN-γ and TNF-α following TLR stimulation. The cytotoxic CD56(dim) NK subset thus distinguished highly exposed, seronegative subjects, suggesting NK cytotoxicity may contribute to protection from HCV acquisition. Further investigation of the determinants of this association and prospective assessment of protection against HCV infection are warranted. PMID:26833632

  5. Kinoform/lens system for injecting a high power laser beam into an optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, W.C.; Farn, M.W.

    1993-11-01

    A method for injecting a high peak power multimode YAG laser beam into an optical fiber has been developed. The design minimizes the peak irradiance on the fiber`s entrance face and reduces its dependence on the laser`s mode structure and the system alignment. A simple lens and a specially designed kinoform (or binary optics element) operate together to transform a 5 mm diameter laser beam into two concentric ring foci that fit on the 400 {mu}m diameter fiber face.

  6. Stability analysis and testing of a train of centrifugal compressors for high pressure gas injection

    SciTech Connect

    Memmott, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the rotor dynamic stability analysis and the PTC-10 Class 1 test of a three body centrifugal compressor train for high pressure natural gas injection services. This train had a full load full pressure string test on hydrocarbon gases to a final discharge pressure of 500 BAR (7250 PSIA). Each compressor is of the back to back configuration, and is equipped with tilting pad seals, damper bearings, and a honeycomb labyrinth at the division wall with shunt holes. The driver is a gas turbine.

  7. Sub-Poissonian shot noise of a high internal gain injection photon detector.

    PubMed

    Memis, Omer Gokalp; Katsnelson, Alex; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Mohseni, Hooman; Yan, Minjun; Zhang, Shuang; Hossain, Tim; Jin, Niu; Adesida, Ilesanmi

    2008-08-18

    The noise performance of an infrared injection photon detector with very high internal gain was investigated at a wavelength of 1.55 mum. The devices showed sub-Poissonian shot noise with Fano factors around 0.55 at 0.7 V at room temperature. Optical to electrical conversion factors of 3000 electrons per absorbed photon were recorded at 0.7 V. The change in noise-equivalent power with respect to bias voltage was evaluated. The optical to electrical conversion factor and Fano factor were measured under increasing illumination and compared to theoretical expectations. PMID:18711508

  8. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Honig, J.

    1984-09-01

    Design, construction, testing, and performance evaluation of a small-bore plasma-arc-driven electromagnetic railgun system are described. The railgun system, which is intended for injecting high-velocity hydrogen pellets into the magnetic fusion devices for the purpose of refueling, has two acceleration stages. One consists of a gas gun preaccelerator and the other a railgun booster accelerator. The plasma-arc armature is formed behind the pellet by electrically discharging the propellant gas following the pellet into the railgun from the gas gun.

  9. Thermal Control Method for High-Current Wire Bundles by Injecting a Thermally Conductive Filler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, Juan; Rowles, Russell; Greer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A procedure was developed to inject thermal filler material (a paste-like substance) inside the power wire bundle coming from solar arrays. This substance fills in voids between wires, which enhances the heat path and reduces wire temperature. This leads to a reduced amount of heat generated. This technique is especially helpful for current and future generation high-power spacecraft (1 kW or more), because the heat generated by the power wires is significant enough to cause unacceptable overheating to critical components that are in close contact with the bundle.

  10. Real-time tracking of CO₂ injected into a subsurface coal fire through high-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Samuel C M; Ide, Taku; Benson, Sally M; Orr, Franklin M

    2011-05-01

    CO₂ was injected into a coal fire burning at a depth of 15 m in the subsurface in southwestern Colorado, USA. Measurements were made of the ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature of gas exhaust from an observation well and two surface fissures. The goal of the test was to determine (1) whether CO₂ with a distinct isotopic signature could be used as a tracer to identify flow pathways and travel times in a combustion setting where CO₂ was present in significant quantities in the gases being emitted from the coalbed fire, and (2) to confirm the existence of a self-propagating system of air-intake and combustion gas exhaust that has been previously proposed. CO₂ was injected in three separate periods. The ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature was measured at high frequency (0.5 Hz) before, during, and after the injection periods for gas flowing from fissures over the fire and from gas entering an observation well drilled into the formation just above the fire but near the combustion zone. In two cases, a shift in the isotopic signature of outgassing CO₂ provided clear evidence that injected CO₂ had traveled from the injection well to the observation point, while in a third case, no response was seen and the fissure could not be assumed to have a flowpath connected with the injection well. High-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature of gas in observation wells is identified as a viable technique for tracking CO₂ injected into subsurface formations in real-time. In addition, a chimney-like coupled air-intake and exhaust outlet system feeding the combustion of the coal seam was confirmed. This can be used to further develop strategies for extinguishing the fire. PMID:21466184

  11. High Speed Si Etching with ClF{sub 3} Cluster Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, T.; Yoshino, Y.; Senoo, T.; Koike, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Matsuo, J.; Aoki, T.

    2011-01-07

    The reactive gas cluster injection process is an etching method that uses a neutral cluster beam without plasma. ClF{sub 3}-Ar neutral cluster was generated and the Si etching characteristics with this beam were investigated. ClF{sub 3} is very high reactive gas. Adiabatic expansion of a high-pressure gas through a conical nozzle is utilized for the formation of cluster beams. The source gas was a mixture of ClF{sub 3}(6%) with Ar (94%). The etching rate increased with source gas pressure nonlinearly, and the etching rate achieved more than 30 {mu}m/min at 0.85 MPa. Although the irradiation energy was very low (<1 eV/atom or molecule), the chemical etching was enhanced with cluster impacts and the cluster bombarded area on the surface was etched selectively. These results indicated that high speed anisotropic etching with low damage can be realized with the ClF{sub 3} cluster injection process.

  12. Instability Analysis of a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Anthony Layiwola

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of buoyancy on the absolute instability of low-density gas jets injected into high-density gas mediums. Most of the existing analyses of low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient have been carried out neglecting effects of gravity. In order to investigate the influence of gravity on the near-injector development of the flow, a linear temporal stability analysis and a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round jet injected into a high-density ambient gas were performed. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel; viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The variables were represented as the sum of the mean value and a normal-mode small disturbance. An ordinary differential equation governing the amplitude of the pressure disturbance was derived. The velocity and density profiles in the shear layer, and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) were the three important parameters in this equation. Together with the boundary conditions, an eigenvalue problem was formulated. Assuming that the velocity and density profiles in the shear layer to be represented by hyperbolic tangent functions, the eigenvalue problem was solved for various values of Froude number. The temporal growth rates and the phase velocity of the disturbances were obtained. It was found that the presence of variable density within the shear layer resulted in an increase in the temporal amplification rate of the disturbances and an increase in the range of unstable frequencies, accompanied by a reduction in the phase velocities of the disturbances. Also, the temporal growth rates of the disturbances were increased as the Froude number was reduced (i.e. gravitational effects increased), indicating the destabilizing role played by gravity. The spatio-temporal stability analysis was performed to determine the nature of the absolute instability of the jet. The roles of the density ratio

  13. Host responses in human skin after conventional intradermal injection or microneedle administration of virus-like-particle influenza vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Pearton, Marc; Pirri, Daniela; Kang, Sang-Moo; Compans, Richard W; Birchall, James C

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized microneedle devices are being developed for painlessly targeting vaccines to the immune cell populations in skin. As skin immunization studies are generally restricted to animal models however, where skin architecture and immunity is greatly different to human, surprisingly little is known about the local human response to intradermal (ID) vaccines. Here we use surgically excised human skin to explore for the first time the complex molecular and cellular host responses to a candidate influenza vaccine comprising nanoparticulate virus-like-particles (VLPs), administered via conventional hypodermic injection or reduced scale microneedles. Responses at the molecular level are determined by microarray analysis (47,296 discrete transcripts) and validated by quantitative PCR (96 genes). Cellular response is probed through monitoring migration of dendritic cells in viable skin tissue. Gene expression mapping, ontological analysis and qPCR reveal up-regulation of a host of genes responsible for key immunomodulatory processes and host viral response, including cell recruitment, activation, migration and T cell interaction following both ID and microneedle injection of VLPs; the response from the microneedles being more subtle. Significant morphological and migratory changes to skin dendritic cells are also apparent following microneedle VLP delivery. This is the first study displaying the global, multifaceted immunological events that occur at the site of vaccine deposition in human skin and will subsequently influence the degree and nature of innate and adaptive immune responses. An increased understanding of the detailed similarities and differences in response against antigen administered via different delivery modalities will inform the development of improved vaccines and vaccine delivery systems. PMID:23564440

  14. TLR9 and IRF3 Cooperate to Induce a Systemic Inflammatory Response in Mice Injected With Liposome:DNA

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Wendy E; Booth, Carmen J; Goldstein, Daniel R

    2010-01-01

    Liposome:DNA is a promising gene therapy vector. However, this vector can elicit a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Prior reports indicate that liposome:DNA vectors activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)9. We hypothesized that liposome:DNA vectors also activate the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, which signals via interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)3. To test this, we treated dendritic cells (DCs) with liposome:DNA in vitro and found that IRF3 was phosphorylated independent of TLR9. To test the contribution of this pathway in vivo, we injected a liposome:DNA vector into wild-type (WT), TLR9-knockout (KO), IRF3-KO, and TLR9-IRF3-double-KO (DKO) mice. WT mice exhibited a systemic inflammatory response, evidenced by elevations in serum cytokines, serum enzyme changes indicating organ damage, hypothermia, and mortality. The cytokine response was reduced in TLR9-KO, IRF3-KO, and TLR9-IRF3-DKO mice and all three groups survived. We found that IFN-γ-KO mice that receive liposome:DNA had a reduced cytokine response and 100% survival. CD11c+ and NK1.1+ cells produced IFN-γ and depleting CD11c+ cells reduced the cytokine response in mice injected with liposome:DNA. These findings may facilitate the development of immunologically inert gene therapy vectors and may provide general insight into the mechanisms of SIRS. PMID:20145605

  15. A Study of Micro Injection Molding for High-Aspect-Ratio Optical Fiber Ferrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zheng-Guan.; Tseng, Shi-Chang; Wang, James; Su, Yi-Chung

    2004-06-01

    This study focused on manufacture of high-aspect-ratio optical fiber ferrules by micro thermoplastic injection molding technique. In the past, the optical fiber connectors were produced by ceramic powder injection molding and subsequent precision grinding process. In this work, plastic micro injection molding technique was attempted to manufacture net-shaped products at once. Each ferrule has a micro through hole in the center. The hole's diameter is 125±1μm, and its length is 9mm. During micro molding, how to keep the micro core pin at the center becomes a critical issue. In this work, a guiding slide system is introduced to hold the micro pin continuously. And the slide movement was controlled by a spring behind it. Such a guiding system can help reduce mis-alignment of the micro core pin and increase its life time. Taguchi's design of experiment was used to evaluate the effects of processing parameters on final properties. Experimental results reveal that the higher the spring force, the larger the product weight and the lower the shrinkage. In order to obtain better uniformity of diameters at different locations, diameters at three locations were measured. Measured data showed the shrinkage of diameter in the middle is greater than those at two ends. It is because the two ends cooled faster than the center region. This can be improved by applying higher mold temperature or appropriate holding pressure or holding time. The new design concept can be applied in molding micro tubes, especially for the high aspect ratio cases.

  16. Injectable hydrogels with high fixed charge density and swelling pressure for nucleus pulposus repair: biomimetic glycosaminoglycan analogues.

    PubMed

    Sivan, S S; Roberts, S; Urban, J P G; Menage, J; Bramhill, J; Campbell, D; Franklin, V J; Lydon, F; Merkher, Y; Maroudas, A; Tighe, B J

    2014-03-01

    The load-bearing biomechanical role of the intervertebral disc is governed by the composition and organization of its major macromolecular components, collagen and aggrecan. The major function of aggrecan is to maintain tissue hydration, and hence disc height, under the high loads imposed by muscle activity and body weight. Key to this role is the high negative fixed charge of its glycosaminoglycan side chains, which impart a high osmotic pressure to the tissue, thus regulating and maintaining tissue hydration and hence disc height under load. In degenerate discs, aggrecan degrades and is lost from the disc, particularly centrally from the nucleus pulposus. This loss of fixed charge results in reduced hydration and loss of disc height; such changes are closely associated with low back pain. The present authors developed biomimetic glycosaminoglycan analogues based on sulphonate-containing polymers. These biomimetics are deliverable via injection into the disc where they polymerize in situ, forming a non-degradable, nuclear "implant" aimed at restoring disc height to degenerate discs, thereby relieving back pain. In vitro, these glycosaminoglycan analogues possess appropriate fixed charge density, hydration and osmotic responsiveness, thereby displaying the capacity to restore disc height and function. Preliminary biomechanical tests using a degenerate explant model showed that the implant adapts to the space into which it is injected and restores stiffness. These hydrogels mimic the role taken by glycosaminoglycans in vivo and, unlike other hydrogels, provide an intrinsic swelling pressure, which can maintain disc hydration and height under the high and variable compressive loads encountered in vivo. PMID:24270091

  17. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  18. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-01

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  19. CCK-8 injected into the nucleus accumbens attenuates the supersensitive locomotor response to apomorphine in 6-OHDA and chronic-neuroleptic treated rats.

    PubMed

    Weiss, F; Ettenberg, A; Koob, G F

    1989-01-01

    Postsynaptic dopamine-cholecystokinin (CCK) interactions in the nucleus accumbens were studied in two behavioral preparations of DA receptor supersensitivity: chronic-neuroleptic treated and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) denervated rats. Subcutaneous (SC) injections of apomorphine (APO; 0.15 mg/kg) in experiment 1 produced marked hyperlocomotion in rats following 12 days of pretreatment with cis-[Z]-flupenthixol (2 mg/kg; twice per day). Bilateral intra-accumbens (N.Acc.) microinjections of CCK-8 (2 ng and 2 micrograms) reliably reduced APO-stimulated hyperlocomotion. An intermediate CCK dose (20 ng) was without effect. No change in APO responsivity following chronic vehicle treatment was observed and the baseline APO response was not altered by CCK at any dose. Denervation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) terminals by intra-N.Acc. injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 8 micrograms/side) in experiment 2 similarly resulted in intense locomotor hyperactivity after APO stimulation (0.1 mg/kg; SC). Bilateral intra-N.Acc. injections of CCK-8 (1, 10, 100 ng, and 1 micrograms) significantly attenuated the supersensitive locomotor response to APO. As in experiment 1, CCK produced "biphasic" dose-response effects with strong attenuation that persisted throughout the entire 60-min test at both high (1 microgram) and low (1 ng) doses. Intermediate CCK doses (10 and 100 ng) produced only short-term reductions in activity. Hypomotility induced by APO in SHAM-lesioned rats was not effectively reversed by CCK treatments. CCK had no effect on unstimulated baseline locomotor activity in either 6-OHDA or SHAM-lesioned rats. These results provide further evidence that CCK-8 modulates mesolimbic DA activity by functionally opposing the postsynaptic effects of DA in the region of the nucleus accumbens. PMID:2574480

  20. High-Dose Vincristine Sulfate Liposome Injection for Advanced, Relapsed, and Refractory Adult Philadelphia Chromosome–Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Susan; Schiller, Gary; Lister, John; Damon, Lloyd; Goldberg, Stuart; Aulitzky, Walter; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stock, Wendy; Coutre, Steven; Douer, Dan; Heffner, Leonard T.; Larson, Melissa; Seiter, Karen; Smith, Scott; Assouline, Sarit; Kuriakose, Philip; Maness, Lori; Nagler, Arnon; Rowe, Jacob; Schaich, Markus; Shpilberg, Ofer; Yee, Karen; Schmieder, Guenter; Silverman, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Deborah; Deitcher, Steven R.; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Relapsed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with high reinduction mortality, chemotherapy resistance, and rapid progression leading to death. Vincristine sulfate liposome injection (VSLI), sphingomyelin and cholesterol nanoparticle vincristine (VCR), facilitates VCR dose-intensification and densification plus enhances target tissue delivery. We evaluated high-dose VSLI monotherapy in adults with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) –negative ALL that was multiply relapsed, relapsed and refractory to reinduction, and/or relapsed after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients and Methods Sixty-five adults with Ph-negative ALL in second or greater relapse or whose disease had progressed following two or more leukemia therapies were treated in this pivotal phase II, multinational trial. Intravenous VSLI 2.25 mg/m2, without dose capping, was administered once per week until response, progression, toxicity, or pursuit of HCT. The primary end point was achievement of complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi). Results The CR/CRi rate was 20% and overall response rate was 35%. VSLI monotherapy was effective as third-, fourth-, and fifth-line therapy and in patients refractory to other single- and multiagent reinduction therapies. Median CR/CRi duration was 23 weeks (range, 5 to 66 weeks); 12 patients bridged to a post-VSLI HCT, and five patients were long-term survivors. VSLI was generally well tolerated and associated with a low 30-day mortality rate (12%). Conclusion High-dose VSLI monotherapy resulted in meaningful clinical outcomes including durable responses and bridging to HCT in advanced ALL settings. The toxicity profile of VSLI was predictable, manageable, and comparable to standard VCR despite the delivery of large, normally unachievable, individual and cumulative doses of VCR. PMID:23169518

  1. High numerical aperture injection-molded miniature objective for fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidley, Matthew Douglas

    This dissertation presents the design of a miniature injection-molded objective lens for a fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope. This is part of an effort to demonstrate the ability to fabricate low cost, high performance biomedical optics for high resolution in vivo imaging. Disposable endoscopic microscope objectives could help in vivo confocal microscopy technology mature to enable large-scale clinical screening and detection of early cancers and pre-cancerous lesions. This five lens plastic objective has been tested as a stand-alone optical system and has been coupled to a confocal microscope for in vivo imaging of cells and tissue. Changing the spacing and rotation of the individual optical elements can compensate for fabrication inaccuracies and improve performance. An optical-bench testing system was constructed to allow interactive alignment during testing. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the miniature objective lens is determined using the slanted-edge method. A custom MATLAB program, edgeMTF, was written to collect, analyze, and record test data. An estimated Strehl ratio of 0.64 and an MTF value of 0.70, at the fiber-optic bundle Nyquist frequency, have been obtained. The main performance limitations of the miniature objective are mechanical alignment and flow-induced birefringence. Annealing and experimental injection molding runs were conducted in effort to reduce birefringence.

  2. A low pressure on-chip injection strategy for high-performance chip-based chromatography.

    PubMed

    Thurmann, S; Dittmar, A; Belder, D

    2014-05-01

    A microfluidic device for high-performance liquid chromatography is presented. The borosilicate glass chip includes a common cross-channel injector and a column chamber. The column chamber comprises two constrictions (10 μm) to retain the chromatographic particles via the keystone effect. A packing channel was utilized to introduce the particulate material (3-μm). This channel has been sealed permanently via laser-assisted photopolymerization avoiding dead volumes within the chromatographic pathway. A sampling strategy is presented enabling the directed definition of the sample plug on-chip. The injection process is studied via video microscopy and chromatographic separations of test solutes with fluorescence detection. Our approach, based on on-chip flow splitting, allows the usage of traditional, economic and robust HPLC instrumentation avoiding the need for sophisticated nano-flow equipment. The performance of the chip device and the injection process was demonstrated by reversed-phase chromatographic separations of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons achieving constant high efficiencies for the chromatographic signals over the whole elution window. PMID:24674642

  3. High thermal stability fluorene-based hole-injecting material for organic light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Jiao, Bo; Li, Sanfeng; Ma, Lin; Yu, Yue; Wu, Zhaoxin

    2016-03-01

    Novel N1,N3,N5-tris(9,9-diphenyl-9H-fluroen-2-yl)-N1,N3,N5-triphenylbenzene-1,3,5-triamine (TFADB) was synthesized and characterized as a hole-injecting material (HIM) for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). By incorporating fluorene group TFADB shows a high glass-transition temperature Tg > 168 °C, indicative of excellent thermal stability. TFADB-based devices exhibited the highest performance in terms of the maximum current efficiency (6.0 cd/A), maximum power efficiency (4.0 lm/W), which is improved than that of the standard device based on 4-4‧-4″Tris(N-(naphthalene-2-yl)-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (2T-NATA) (5.2 cd/A, 3.6 lm/W). This material could be a promising hole-injecting material, especially for the high temperature applications of OLEDs and other organic electronic devices.

  4. An injectable, dual pH and oxidation-responsive supramolecular hydrogel for controlled dual drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinfeng; Jin, Yong; Sun, Tongbing; Qi, Rui; Li, Hanping; Fan, Wuhou

    2016-05-01

    A novel pH and oxidation dual-responsive and injectable supramolecular hydrogel was developed, which was formed from multi-block copolymer poly(ether urethane) (PEU) and α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) inclusion complexes (ICs). The PEU copolymer was synthesized through a simple one-pot condensation polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol), di(1-hydroxyethylene) diselenide, dimethylolpropionic acid and 3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl isocyanate. In aqueous solution, the amphiphilic PEU copolymers could self-assemble into nanoparticles with dual pH and oxidation sensitivities, which can efficiently load and controllably release a hydrophobic drug indomethacin (IND). Then a dual-drug loaded supramolecular hydrogel was obtained by addition of α-CD and hydrophilic model drug (rhodamine B, RB) into the resulting IND-loaded PEU nanoparticle solution. The rheology studies showed that the supramolecular hydrogels with good injectability underwent a pH-induced reversible sol-gel transition and an oxidation-triggered degradation behavior. The in vitro drug release results demonstrated that the hydrogels showed dual drug release behavior and the release rates could be significantly accelerated by addition of an oxidizing agent (H2O2) or increasing the environmental pH. Therefore, this injectable and dual stimuli-responsive supramolecular hydrogel based codelivery systems could potentially be a promising candidate for controlled drug delivery systems. PMID:26851440

  5. A moderate increase in ambient temperature modulates the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) spleen transcriptome response to intraperitoneal viral mimic injection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) reared in sea-cages can experience large variations in temperature, and these have been shown to affect their immune function. We used the new 20K Atlantic cod microarray to investigate how a water temperature change which, simulates that seen in Newfoundland during the spring-summer (i.e. from 10°C to 16°C, 1°C increase every 5 days) impacted the cod spleen transcriptome response to the intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimic (polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, pIC). Results The temperature regime alone did not cause any significant increases in plasma cortisol levels and only minor changes in spleen gene transcription. However, it had a considerable impact on the fish spleen transcriptome response to pIC [290 and 339 significantly differentially expressed genes between 16°C and 10°C at 6 and 24 hours post-injection (HPI), respectively]. Seventeen microarray-identified transcripts were selected for QPCR validation based on immune-relevant functional annotations. Fifteen of these transcripts (i.e. 88%), including DHX58, STAT1, IRF7, ISG15, RSAD2 and IκBα, were shown by QPCR to be significantly induced by pIC. Conclusions The temperature increase appeared to accelerate the spleen immune transcriptome response to pIC. We found 41 and 999 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 10°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. In contrast, there were 656 and 246 genes differentially expressed between fish injected with PBS vs. pIC at 16°C and sampled at 6HPI and 24HPI, respectively. Our results indicate that the modulation of mRNA expression of genes belonging to the NF-κB and type I interferon signal transduction pathways may play a role in controlling temperature-induced changes in the spleen’s transcript expression response to pIC. Moreover, interferon effector genes such as ISG15 and RSAD2 were differentially expressed between fish injected with pIC at 10°C vs. 16

  6. Nitric Oxide and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Explain the Complexities of Unfolded Protein Response Following Intra-hippocampal Aβ Injection.

    PubMed

    Khodagholi, Fariba; Digaleh, Hadi; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Foolad, Forough; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Several pathways involved in regulation of intracellular protein integrity are known as the protein quality control (PQC) system. Molecular chaperones as the main players are engaged in various aspects of PQC system. According to the importance of these proteins in cell survival, in the present study, we traced endoplasmic reticulum-specific markers and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA)-associated factors as two main arms of PQC system in intra-hippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ)-injected rats during 10 days running. Data analysis from Western blot indicated that exposure to Aβ activates immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein (Bip) which is the upstream regulator of unfolded protein responses (UPR). Activation of UPR system eventually led to induction of pro-apoptotic factors like CHOP, calpain, and caspase-12. Moreover, our data revealed that protein disulfide isomerase activity dramatically decreased after Aβ injection, which could be attributed to the increased levels of nitric oxide. Besides, Aβ injection induced levels of 2 members of heat shock proteins (Hsp) 70 and 90. Elevated levels of Hsps family members are accompanied by increased levels of lysosome-associated membrane protein type-2A (Lamp-2A) that are involved in CMA. Despite the reduction in CHOP, calpain, caspase-12, and Lamp-2A protein levels, the levels of molecular chaperones Bip, Hsps70, and 90 increased 10 days after Aβ injection in comparison to the control group. Based on our results, 10 days after Aβ injection, despite the activation of protective chaperones, markers associated with neurotoxicity were still elevated. PMID:26391027

  7. Acute inflammatory response of the male breasts secondary to self-injection of petroleum jelly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Yalamanchili, Chandana; Hamous, James; Piskun, Mary A; Weis, Brian

    2008-04-01

    The injection of liquid foreign materials such as petroleum jelly and paraffin oil was used as an early medical intervention for the augmentation of body contour in the late 19th century. These practices were associated with severe late onset complications and they have been abandoned by plastic surgeons today. This article discusses a male-to-female transsexual patient with an acute inflammatory response with early sclerosing lipogranuloma of breasts associated with the self-injection of large amounts of petroleum jelly. The inflammation is successfully controlled with the early administration of prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics, steroids, and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agents followed by a subcutaneous mastectomy. The importance of medical education and psychology counseling is discussed. PMID:18360333

  8. Inadvertent high spinal anesthesia as sequelae to epidural injection of normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Vinod Bala; Sharma, Anupama Gill; Kaur, Mohandeep; Gulabani, Michell

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a case of high spinal blockade in a patient belonging to ASA Grade I which lead to need for endotracheal intubation. A 35 year old healthy male, weighing 59 kg, of height 165 cms presented with a post traumatic raw area over the left lower limb. A reverse sural graft along with skin grafting (from the thigh) was planned. In OR, the patient was placed in sitting position and the extradural space was identified by ‘loss of resistance to air’ technique at the L2-L3 intervertebral space. The catheter could not be threaded into the extradural space, hence 5ml of 0.9% saline was injected. However, still the catheter could not be negotiated. Further attempts to identify the extradural space at the L1-L2 and L3-L4 interspace levels were made. During these attempts a total of 18 ml of 0.9% saline was injected into the extradural space. Within 2 minutes blood pressure fell to 90/60 mmHg. Injection mephenteramine (3 mg) was given intravenously and a slight head up tilt was applied. After 2 more minutes the patient started complaining of tingling in his hands and difficulty in breathing. Oxygen 100% was administered via a face mask attached to the anesthesia circle system. In view of onset of respiratory failure, general anesthesia was induced. Thiopentone (200 mg) and Suxamethonium (75 mg) were given intravenously, the patient's trachea was intubated and his lungs ventilated with 40% oxygen, 60% nitrous oxide and 0.2-0.4% Isoflurane, without additional neuromuscular blockade. The arterial saturation promptly returned to 97% and, immediately after intubation, the heart rate was found to be 103 beats/min and the arterial BP 162/102 mmHg. At the end of surgery, spontaneous ventilation returned and the patient was allowed to breathe 100% oxygen via the tracheal tube until he awoke, when his trachea was extubated. PMID:25886433

  9. Inadvertent high spinal anesthesia as sequelae to epidural injection of normal saline.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Vinod Bala; Sharma, Anupama Gill; Kaur, Mohandeep; Gulabani, Michell

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a case of high spinal blockade in a patient belonging to ASA Grade I which lead to need for endotracheal intubation. A 35 year old healthy male, weighing 59 kg, of height 165 cms presented with a post traumatic raw area over the left lower limb. A reverse sural graft along with skin grafting (from the thigh) was planned. In OR, the patient was placed in sitting position and the extradural space was identified by 'loss of resistance to air' technique at the L2-L3 intervertebral space. The catheter could not be threaded into the extradural space, hence 5ml of 0.9% saline was injected. However, still the catheter could not be negotiated. Further attempts to identify the extradural space at the L1-L2 and L3-L4 interspace levels were made. During these attempts a total of 18 ml of 0.9% saline was injected into the extradural space. Within 2 minutes blood pressure fell to 90/60 mmHg. Injection mephenteramine (3 mg) was given intravenously and a slight head up tilt was applied. After 2 more minutes the patient started complaining of tingling in his hands and difficulty in breathing. Oxygen 100% was administered via a face mask attached to the anesthesia circle system. In view of onset of respiratory failure, general anesthesia was induced. Thiopentone (200 mg) and Suxamethonium (75 mg) were given intravenously, the patient's trachea was intubated and his lungs ventilated with 40% oxygen, 60% nitrous oxide and 0.2-0.4% Isoflurane, without additional neuromuscular blockade. The arterial saturation promptly returned to 97% and, immediately after intubation, the heart rate was found to be 103 beats/min and the arterial BP 162/102 mmHg. At the end of surgery, spontaneous ventilation returned and the patient was allowed to breathe 100% oxygen via the tracheal tube until he awoke, when his trachea was extubated. PMID:25886433

  10. Modelling of Seismic and Resistivity Responses during the Injection of CO2 in Sandstone Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Muhamad Nizarul Idhafi Bin; Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Nur Arif Zanuri, Muhammad; Ghosh, Deva P.; Irawan, Sonny; Regassa Jufar, Shiferaw

    2016-07-01

    Enhanced oil recovery plays vital role in production phase in a producing oil field. Initially, in many cases hydrocarbon will naturally flow to the well as respect to the reservoir pressure. But over time, hydrocarbon flow to the well will decrease as the pressure decrease and require recovery method so called enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to recover the hydrocarbon flow. Generally, EOR works by injecting substances, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) to form a pressure difference to establish a constant productive flow of hydrocarbon to production well. Monitoring CO2 performance is crucial in ensuring the right trajectory and pressure differences are established to make sure the technique works in recovering hydrocarbon flow. In this paper, we work on computer simulation method in monitoring CO2 performance by seismic and resistivity model, enabling geoscientists and reservoir engineers to monitor production behaviour as respect to CO2 injection.

  11. Responses of the rat foetus to maternal injections of adrenaline and vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Chernoff, N.; Grabowski, C. T.

    1971-01-01

    1. Injection of 0·5-2·0 units of vasopressin or 25-100 μg of adrenaline into the peritoneal cavity of pregnant rats produced a transient slowing of the foetal heart. The bradycardia could be induced in foetuses after 15-21 days of gestation. Foetal heart rates dropped from normal values of 140-180 beats/min, often to less than 20 beats/minute. The period of bradycardia was dose dependent and ranged from 30 to 65 minutes. 2. Maternal injection of the hormones produced a fall in foetal blood pressure from an average of 54, often to less than 20 mm of water, in 17-day foetuses. Direct injection of the hormones into the pericardial sac of the foetuses had the opposite effect and pressures rose an average of 15 mm of water 1 min after the injection. 3. During the period of bradycardia, the potassium concentrations in foetal serum rose from an average value of 8·9 mequiv/1. to an average of 17·3 mequiv/litre. Concentrations of serum sodium fell from 126·2 to 121·4 mequiv/1. during the bradycardia. No changes were detected in the concentrations of either calcium or chloride. Foetal PO2 levels fell from 25 to 15, PCO2 rose from 61 to 89 or more, and pH fell from 7·19 to 6·86 during the bradycardia. 4. Maternal death and uterine clamping caused foetal bradycardia and a rise in foetal serum potassium to an average of 20·2 mequiv/litre. 5. It is concluded that interruption of normal uterine blood flow by vasoconstruction (adrenaline or vasopressin) or direct blockage (uterine clamping) results in a transient hypoxia, bradycardia, and serum ion changes in foetuses. PMID:4945727

  12. Injectable, interconnected, high-porosity macroporous biocompatible gelatin scaffolds made by surfactant-free emulsion templating.

    PubMed

    Oh, Bernice H L; Bismarck, Alexander; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2015-02-01

    High-porosity interconnected, thermoresponsive macroporous hydrogels are prepared from oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) stabilized by gelatin-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). PolyHIPEs are obtained by gelling HIPEs utilizing the thermoresponsiveness of the copolymer components. PolyHIPEs properties can be controlled by varying the aqueous phase composition, internal phase volume ratio, and gelation temperature. PolyHIPEs respond to temperature changes experienced during cell seeding, allowing fibroblasts to spread, proliferate, and penetrate into the scaffold. Encapsulated cells survive ejection of cell-laden hydrogels through a hypodermic needle. This system provides a new strategy for the fabrication of safe injectable biocompatible tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:25504548

  13. Control of microbial activity by flow injection analysis during high cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ding, T; Bilitewski, U; Schmid, R D; Korz, D J; Sanders, E A

    1993-01-01

    The application of an automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system for on-line determination of microbial activity, during high cell density cultivations of Escherichia coli is reported. Based on a bioelectrochemical principle, the FIA method used a redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) to facilitate electron transfer from the microorganisms to an electrochemical detector. Assays were carried out using a new sampling device which provided aseptic operation by use of a valve and chemical sterilisation. No sample dilution or pretreatment was necessary for biomass concentrations up to approx. 40 g l-1. The sample volume was 0.5 ml and the overall analysis time was 5 min. FIA signals were found to correlate well with the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). Changes in metabolic activity due to low substrate levels or high inhibitor concentrations in the cultivation medium became obvious from the FIA signals. PMID:7763463

  14. “A novel highly stable and injectable hydrogel based on a conformationally restricted ultrashort peptide”

    PubMed Central

    Thota, Chaitanya Kumar; Yadav, Nitin; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures including hydrogels based on peptides containing non protein amino acids are being considered as platform for drug delivery because of their inherent biocompatibility and additional proteolytic stability. Here we describe instantaneous self-assembly of a conformationally restricted dipeptide, LeuΔPhe, containing an α,β-dehydrophenylalanine residue into a highly stable and mechanically strong hydrogel, under mild physiological aqueous conditions. The gel successfully entrapped several hydrophobic and hydrophilic drug molecules and released them in a controlled manner. LeuΔPhe was highly biocompatible and easily injectable. Administration of an antineoplastic drug entrapped in the gel in tumor bearing mice significantly controlled growth of tumors. These characteristics make LeuΔPhe an attractive candidate for further development as a delivery platform for various biomedical applications. PMID:27507432

  15. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  16. Identification of the Allergenic Ingredients in Reduning Injection by Ultrafiltration and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Li, Cun-yu; Zheng, Yun-feng; Li, Hong-yang; Xiao, Wei; Peng, Guo-ping

    2016-01-01

    Reduning injection is a traditional Chinese medicine injection which has multiple functions such as clearing heat, dispelling wind, and detoxification. Although Reduning injection was widely utilized, reports of its allergenicity emerged one after another. However, there is little research on its allergenic substances. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitization of Reduning injection and explore the underlying cause of the anaphylactic reaction. The main ingredients in Reduning injection were analyzed before and after ultrafiltration. Ultrafiltrate Reduning injection, unfiltered Reduning injection, egg albumin, Tween-80, and nine effective components in Reduning injection were utilized to sensitize guinea pigs. The serum 5-hydroxytryptamine level was used to assess the sensitization effect of Reduning injection. We found a significant decrease in Tween-80 content comparing to other components in the injection after ultrafiltration. Unfiltered Reduning injection, Tween-80, chlorogenic acid, and cryptochlorogenin acid caused remarkable anaphylactoid reaction on guinea pigs while ultrafiltration Reduning resulted in a significantly lower degree of sensitization. Our results suggest that ultrafiltration could significantly reduce the sensitization of Reduning injection, which is likely due to the decrease of Tween-80. We also conjectured that the form of chlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenin acid within the complex solution mixture may also affect the sensitizing effect. PMID:27144180

  17. Differential Blood and Mucosal Immune Responses against an HIV-1 Vaccine Administered via Inguinal or Deltoid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Price, Charles; Hultin, Lance E.; Elliott, Julie; Hultin, Patricia M.; Shih, Roger; Hausner, Mary Ann; Ng, Hwee L.; Hoffman, Jennifer; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity is central to sexual transmission and overall pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, but the ability of vaccines to induce immune responses in mucosal tissue compartments is poorly defined. Because macaque vaccine studies suggest that inguinal (versus limb) vaccination may better target sexually-exposed mucosa, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled Phase I trial in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers, using the recombinant Canarypox (CP) vaccine vCP205 delivered by different routes. 12 persons received vaccine and 6 received placebo, divided evenly between deltoid-intramuscular (deltoid-IM) or inguinal-subcutaneous (inguinal-SC) injection routes. The most significant safety events were injection site reactions (Grade 3) in one inguinal vaccinee. CP-specific antibodies were detected in the blood of all 12 vaccinees by Day 24, while HIV-1-specific antibodies were observed in the blood and gut mucosa of 1/9 and 4/9 evaluated vaccinees respectively, with gut antibodies appearing earlier in inguinal vaccinees (24–180 versus 180–365 days). HIV-1-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs) were observed in 7/12 vaccinees, and blood and gut targeting were distinct. Within blood, both deltoid and inguinal responders had detectable CTL responses by 17–24 days; inguinal responders had early responses (within 10 days) while deltoid responders had later responses (24–180 days) in gut mucosa. Our results demonstrate relative safety of inguinal vaccination and qualitative or quantitative compartmentalization of immune responses between blood and gut mucosa, and highlight the importance of not only evaluating early blood responses to HIV-1 vaccines but also mucosal responses over time. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00076817 PMID:24558403

  18. Systemic or Intra-Amygdala Injection of a Benzodiazepine (Midazolam) Impairs Extinction but Spares Re-Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Genevra; Harris, Justin A.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Rats were subjected to one or two cycles of fear conditioning and extinction, injected with a benzodiazepine, midazolam, before the first or second extinction, and tested for long-term inhibition of fear responses (freezing). In Experiment 1, inhibition of context-conditioned fear was spared when midazolam was injected before the second…

  19. Physiological adaptive indicators in fasted neonate broiler chicks in response to calcium gluconate injection.

    PubMed

    Khosravinia, H

    2016-06-01

    Four hundred and eighty mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 3 h after hatching were allotted according to a completely random design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial schedule into two groups of 12 replications of 20 chicks each. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 h after chick placement and calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) injection (0 and 0.6 ml). Live body weight (BW) of chicks decreased linearly (Y = 43.36-0.109BW0 h , r(2)  = 0.876) as neonatal fasting extended. Injection of 0.6 ml Ca-glu at 3 h post-hatching did not affect weight loss of chicks. Yolk residuals (YR) utilized linearly (Y = 5.75-0.062YR, r(2)  = 0.956) by 0.062 g/h in neonate fasted chicks up to 48 h, showing no effect of Ca-glu injection. Neonatal fasting periods longer than 12 h increased liver weight (p < 0.05). The mean absolute and proportional (% of BW0 h ) breast and leg weight were reduced linearly as neonatal fasting extended (p < 0.05). Serum glucose concentration increased up to 6 h and then reduced linearly to 150 mg/dl after 48-h fasting. The Ca-glu treatment influenced serum glucose level for a short period up to 6 h of fasting. Serum Ca concentration sharply increased up to threefolds in the birds received Ca-glu injection resulting in acute hypercalcemia, then decreased to the initial level after 24-h feed withdrawal (p < 0.05). The mean serum level for creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, HDL, albumins and total proteins significantly increased during the fasting periods of 6 to 48 h and significantly elevated in the birds receiving 0.6-ml Ca-glu injection compared with the non-treated chicks (p < 0.05). It was concluded that subcutaneous administration of 0.6 ml Ca-glu in the chick's neck did not suitably support the increased metabolic demands for glucose and calcium in feed-deprived neonate chicks. PMID:26344414

  20. Advancing High Current Startup via Localized Helicity Injection in the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinson, E. T.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2013-10-01

    Non-solenoidal startup via local helicity injection (LHI) and poloidal field induction is used to produce Ip = 0 . 17 MA tokamak discharges. Impurity contamination has been reduced to negligible levels by use of conical frustum cathode geometry and local scraper limiters. Attainable currents are governed by global limits of helicity and energy balance, and Taylor relaxation. A simple lumped parameter model based on these limits is used to project discharge evolution, and indicates that attaining 1 MA in NSTX-U will require LHI-driven effective loop voltages to dominate contributions from dLp / dt . This regime contrasts with results to date and will be tested at 0.3 MA in PEGASUS with a new integrated multi-injector array. Injector impedance characteristics are consistent with magnetically-limited regimes observed in higher-power foilless diodes. Bursts of MHD are measured on time scales of order ~ 100 μ s, and correlate with rapid equilibrium changes, discrete rises in Ip, redistribution of the toroidal current, ion heating (Ti ~ 1 keV), transient drops in injector voltage, and apparent n = 1 line-tied kink activity at the injector. NIMROD simulations of high-field-side HI discharges in PEGASUS are in qualitative agreement, suggesting Ip buildup results from inward propagating toroidal current loops created by intermittent reconnection of injected current streams. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  1. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2001-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second 3 months of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The development of an automatic technique for analytical solution of one-dimensional gas flow problems with volume change on mixing is described. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of their development of techniques for analytic solutions along a streamline including volume change on mixing for arbitrary numbers of components.

  2. Is high-rate injection causing the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.

    2014-12-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the central and eastern US (CEUS) began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as likely induced by wastewater injection. To better understand the likelihood of an induced seismic event from a given injection well, we compare the location and timing of earthquakes and injection operational parameters across the CEUS. We compiled a database of more than 187,000 injection wells in the CEUS, both active and inactive. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System's (ANSS) comprehensive earthquake catalog from 1973 to mid-2014, we use spatial and temporal filtering methods to discriminate injection wells that may be associated with earthquakes from those that are not. Our goal was to understand whether or not well operational parameters such as injection rate, cumulative injected volume, injection pressure and injection depth affect the likelihood that a well is spatiotemporally associated with an earthquake. We found more than 14,000 injection wells (~8% of all wells) that may be associated with earthquakes in the CEUS. Our spatiotemporal filter succeeded in capturing every suspected case of induced seismicity that we are aware of. We also found that the likelihood of an injection well being associated with an earthquake increased with increasing injection rate and cumulative injected volume. This phenomenon was observed over a wide range of geologic and hydrogeologic provinces in states such as Oklahoma, Colorado, New Mexico and Arkansas. Operational parameters such as injection pressure and injection depth do not show a clear trend towards an increased likelihood of spatiotemporal association with an earthquake. In all, the cumulative number of CEUS earthquakes potentially associated with injection has risen sharply from 112 out of 545 in year 2000 (~19%) to more than 732 out of 1325 by May 2014 (~55%). This increase in earthquakes spatiotemporally associated with wells accounts for the vast

  3. Nonlinear photorefractive response at high modulation depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachss, Frederick; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1988-01-01

    The response of photorefractive materials to sinusoidal intensity patterns of high modulation depths is considered. It is shown that the induced refractive-index response in this regime is highly nonlinear. Concise analytic expressions for the various nonlinear harmonics of the photorefractive response field are developed and compared with exact numerical solutions of the underlying charge-transport equations as well as with the results of previous theoretical models over a broad range of physical parameters. We show that the nonlinear response characteristics are strongly dependent on both the magnitude of applied electric fields and the relative concentrations of charge donor and acceptor sites in the material. For drift dominated recording, in particular, we determine analytically that in the limit of a minimal acceptor/donor ratio, the amplitudes of higher spatial harmonics of the response reach a maximum and eventually decay as functions of increasing applied field, whereas these amplitudes reach a nonzero limit in the case of a near-unity acceptor/donor ratio. Finally, we generalize our results to account for diffusion effects in an appended derivation.

  4. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  5. [High-pressure injection injury of the hand. Underestimation of injury severity].

    PubMed

    Beirer, M; Deiler, S; Neu, J

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old man sustained a high-pressure injection injury of the left index finger with hot hydraulic oil in an occupational accident. On presentation to the occupational physician 4 h later the wound was irrigated and cleaned. At this time X-ray diagnostics, wound revision, administration of antibiotics and immobilization were not performed. The following day the patient presented to a hospital with painful swelling and reddening of the left index finger where an emergency surgical wound revision, administration of antibiotics and immobilization of the finger were performed due to a phlegmon of the flexor tendon. Despite subsequent revision operations, necrosis of the flexor tendon sheath occurred with a skin subcutis defect necessitating a full thickness skin transplantation and ultimately operative fusion of the distal interphalangeal joint of the index finger. After a total period of treatment of 9 months the patient still presented with local soft tissue swelling and paresthesia as well as a limited range of motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The patient filed a complaint for wrong treatment of the high-pressure injection injury in terms of an inaccurate examination and lack of administration of antibiotics at the first presentation. The expert opinion of the arbitration board ascertained medical malpractice at the first presentation. An emergency surgical wound revision had already been indicated at the first presentation and the revision procedures would have been less extensive and it was highly probability that surgical fusion of the distal interphalangeal joint could have been avoided. The arbitration furthermore concluded that iatrogenic maltreatment led to a phlegmon of the flexor tendon with the need for subsequent revision operations including surgical fusion of the distal interphalangeal joint which resulted in an affected grip control. The delay in surgical treatment must be considered as the reason for the much worse initial situation

  6. Can repeat injection provide clinical benefit in patients with cervical disc herniation and stenosis when the first epidural injection results only in partial response?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for neck or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of this procedure. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than intermittent ESI performed only when pain was aggravated. One hundred eighty-four patients who underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of axial neck and radicular arm pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed up for 1 year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (numeric rating scale (NRS) ≥ 3 after the first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 76) comprised partial responders who did not receive repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received intermittent injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data were assessed, including total number of injections during 1 year, NRS duration of <3 during 1 year (NRS < 3 duration), and time interval until pain was increased to require additional injections after repeat injection in Group A, or after first injection in Group B (time to reinjection). Groups A and B were compared in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, HIVD subgroup, and SS subgroup, patients in Group A required significantly fewer injections to obtain satisfactory pain relief during the 1-year follow-up period. Group A showed a significantly longer time to reinjection and longer NRS < 3 than Group B did. Repeat TFESI conducted at 2- to 3-week intervals

  7. Fluid injection induced seismicity reveals a NE dipping fault in the southeastern sector of the High Agri Valley (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabile, T. A.; Giocoli, A.; Perrone, A.; Piscitelli, S.; Lapenna, V.

    2014-08-01

    On 2 June 2006 the wastewater produced during the oil and gas field exploitation in High Agri Valley (southern Italy) started to be managed by disposal through pumping the fluids back into the subsurface at the Costa Molina 2 (CM2) injection well, located in the southeastern sector of the valley. The onset of microearthquakes (Ml ≤ 2) after 4 days at about 1.3 km SW of CM2 well suggests fluid injection induced seismicity by the diffusion of pore pressure. Moreover, the space-time evolution of 196 high-resolution relocated events reveals a previously unmapped NE dipping fault. We investigate the physical processes related to the fluid injection induced seismicity and delineate the previously unmapped fault by jointly analyzing seismicity data, geological observations, fluid injection data, the stratigraphic log of the CM2 well, and the electrical resistivity tomography survey carried out in the study area.

  8. Attempt to modify the immune response developed against FIV gp120 protein by preliminary FIV DNA injection.

    PubMed

    Cuisinier, A M; Meyer, A; Chatrenet, B; Verdier, A S; Aubert, A

    1999-02-01

    Following inactivated virus vaccination trials, the surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU) of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was considered as one of the determinants for protection. However, several vaccination trials using recombinant Env protein or some Env-derived peptides failed to induce protection. To study the influence of the environment in which the surface protein (SU) is injected. we analyzed the impact of a nucleocapsid (NC) DNA immunization on the presentation of the recSU protein to the immune system. Cats were vaccinated either with the recSU protein alone or with NC DNA followed by the recSU protein. Two routes of nucleocapsid DNA vaccination were tested: intramuscular and mucosal injections. Cats immunized with the recSU protein showed a facilitation of infection, since they presented the earliest and the highest humoral response correlating with the highest proviral load. They also showed an acceleration of the appearance of IL4 mRNA signal. Preliminary injection of the DNA coding for NC protein, regardless the route of inoculation, seemed to inhibit the facilitation induced by vaccination with the recSU protein alone. The previously nucleocapsid DNA immunized cats had infectious status similar to those of the control cats, but with lower proviral load and less developed anti-FIV humoral response. Cat No. 2, belonging to the group vaccinated with NC protein by the mucosal route, had a protected-like status which did not correlate with the humoral response. This cat was the only one to have a persisting IFN mRNA signal after challenge specific for the p10 nucleocapsid and recSU proteins. However, no NC specific cytotoxic cells were observed throughout the experiment in this cat. The role of nucleocapsid DNA vaccination is still unknown nevertheless we did demonstrate that the facilitation observed in vaccination trial with recombinant proteins could be modified and that recombinant proteins could be a component of an effective vaccine. PMID

  9. Temperature-Responsive Gelation of Type I Collagen Solutions Involving Fibril Formation and Genipin Crosslinking as a Potential Injectable Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Yunoki, Shunji

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the temperature-responsive gelation of collagen/genipin solutions using pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) and acid-solubilized collagen (ASC) as substrates. Gelation occurred in the PSC/genipin solutions at genipin concentrations 0–2 mM under moderate change in temperature from 25 to 37°C. The PSC/genipin solutions exhibited fluidity at room temperature for at least 30 min, whereas the ASC/genipin solutions rapidly reached gel points. In specific cases PSC would be preferred over ASC as an injectable gel system. The temperature-responsive gelation of PSC/genipin solutions was due to temperature responses to genipin crosslinking and collagen fibril formation. The elastic modulus of the 0.5% PSC/genipin gel system could be adjusted in a range of 2.5 to 50 kPa by the PSC and genipin concentrations, suggesting that a PSC/genipin solution is a potential injectable gel system for drug and cell carriers, with mechanical properties matching those of living tissues. PMID:24222766

  10. An exploratory analysis of communication sources: targeting high risk behavior among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Bodkin, C D; La Salvia, T A

    1996-01-01

    Currently, most AIDS education and prevention programs attempt to change the high risk behavior of injection drug users (IDU's) (e.g., sharing needles and engaging in unsafe sex) through the implementation of two distinct strategies. First, empirical-rational strategies suggest that people maximize their rational self-interest. Second, normative re-education strategies suggest that people change their individual behavior when they believe that there has been change in the sociocultural norms, values, and habits around them. Both of these strategies make assumptions about how communication changes IDU's beliefs and behavior. An empirical-rational strategy emphasizes non-personal mass communications (e.g., television, radio, newspaper); while normative re-education strategies make use of personal communications (e.g. friends, family, educational outreach workers, and group discussion). The purpose of this paper is to compare these strategies by examining the impact of AIDS communication sources on the beliefs and behaviors of IDU's. PMID:10172894

  11. Data Processing Middleware in a High-Powered Neutral Beam Injection Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Chundong; Song, Shihua; Liu, Zhimin; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Dou, Shaobin

    2013-06-01

    A set of data-processing middleware for a high-powered neutral beam injection (NBI) control system is presented in this paper. The middleware, based on TCP/IP and multi-threading technologies, focuses mainly on data processing and transmission. It separates the data processing and compression from data acquisition and storage. It provides universal transmitting interfaces for different software circumstances, such as WinCC, LabView and other measurement systems. The experimental data acquired on Windows, QNX and Linux platforms are processed by the middleware and sent to the monitoring applications. There are three middleware deployment models: serial processing, parallel processing and alternate serial processing. By using these models, the middleware solves real-time data-processing problems on heterogeneous environmental acquisition hardware with different operating systems and data applications.

  12. Internal Electric Field Behavior of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Radiation Detectors Under High Carrier Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.H.; Gul, R.; and James, R.B.

    2010-10-26

    The behavior of the internal electric-field of nuclear-radiation detectors substantially affects the detector's performance. We investigated the distribution of the internal field in cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors under high carrier injection. We noted the build-up of a space charge region near the cathode that produces a built-in field opposing the applied field. Its presence entails the collapse of the electric field in the rest of detector, other than the portion near the cathode. Such a space-charge region originates from serious hole-trapping in CZT. The device's operating temperature greatly affects the width of the space-charge region. With increasing temperature from 5 C to 35 C, its width expanded from about 1/6 to 1/2 of the total depth of the detector.

  13. Injection locking of a low cost high power laser diode at 461 nm.

    PubMed

    Pagett, C J H; Moriya, P H; Celistrino Teixeira, R; Shiozaki, R F; Hemmerling, M; Courteille, Ph W

    2016-05-01

    Stable laser sources at 461 nm are important for optical cooling of strontium atoms. In most existing experiments, this wavelength is obtained by frequency doubling infrared lasers, since blue laser diodes either have low power or large emission bandwidths. Here, we show that injecting less than 10 mW of monomode laser radiation into a blue multimode 500 mW high power laser diode is capable of slaving at least 50% of the power to the desired frequency. We verify the emission bandwidth reduction by saturation spectroscopy on a strontium gas cell and by direct beating of the slave with the master laser. We also demonstrate that the laser can efficiently be used within the Zeeman slower for optical cooling of a strontium atomic beam. PMID:27250390

  14. Injection locking of a low cost high power laser diode at 461 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagett, C. J. H.; Moriya, P. H.; Celistrino Teixeira, R.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Hemmerling, M.; Courteille, Ph. W.

    2016-05-01

    Stable laser sources at 461 nm are important for optical cooling of strontium atoms. In most existing experiments, this wavelength is obtained by frequency doubling infrared lasers, since blue laser diodes either have low power or large emission bandwidths. Here, we show that injecting less than 10 mW of monomode laser radiation into a blue multimode 500 mW high power laser diode is capable of slaving at least 50% of the power to the desired frequency. We verify the emission bandwidth reduction by saturation spectroscopy on a strontium gas cell and by direct beating of the slave with the master laser. We also demonstrate that the laser can efficiently be used within the Zeeman slower for optical cooling of a strontium atomic beam.

  15. Pushing quantitation limits in micro UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of steroid hormones by sample dilution using high volume injection.

    PubMed

    Márta, Zoltán; Bobály, Balázs; Fekete, Jenő; Magda, Balázs; Imre, Tímea; Mészáros, Katalin Viola; Szabó, Pál Tamás

    2016-09-10

    Ultratrace analysis of sample components requires excellent analytical performance in terms of limits of quantitation (LoQ). Micro UHPLC coupling with sensitive tandem mass spectrometry provides state of the art solutions for such analytical problems. Decreased column volume in micro LC limits the injectable sample volume. However, if analyte concentration is extremely low, it might be necessary to inject high sample volumes. This is particularly critical for strong sample solvents and weakly retained analytes, which are often the case when preparing biological samples (protein precipitation, sample extraction, etc.). In that case, high injection volumes may cause band broadening, peak distortion or even elution in dead volume. In this study, we evaluated possibilities of high volume injection onto microbore RP-LC columns, when sample solvent is diluted. The presented micro RP-LC-MS/MS method was optimized for the analysis of steroid hormones from human plasma after protein precipitation with organic solvents. A proper sample dilution procedure helps to increase the injection volume without compromising peak shapes. Finally, due to increased injection volume, the limit of quantitation can be decreased by a factor of 2-5, depending on the analytes and the experimental conditions. PMID:27423010

  16. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  17. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect

    Refunjol, B.T.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  18. Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) Crude Venom Injection Elicits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Ahmad, Akbar; Spanò, Nunziacarla; La Spada, Giuseppa; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Esposito, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Cnidarian toxins represent a rich source of biologically active compounds. Since they may act via oxidative stress events, the aim of the present study was to verify whether crude venom, extracted from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, elicits inflammation and oxidative stress processes, known to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production, in rats. In a first set of experiments, the animals were injected with crude venom (at three different doses 6, 30 and 60 µg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.v.) to test the mortality and possible blood pressure changes. In a second set of experiments, to confirm that Pelagia noctiluca crude venom enhances ROS formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation, crude venom-injected animals (30 µg/kg) were also treated with tempol, a powerful antioxidant (100 mg/kg i.p., 30 and 60 min after crude venom). Administration of tempol after crude venom challenge, caused a significant reduction of each parameter related to inflammation. The potential effect of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom in the systemic inflammation process has been here demonstrated, adding novel information about its biological activity. PMID:24727391

  19. Changes in lipophorins are related to the activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria in response to injection of immunogens.

    PubMed

    Mullen, L; Goldsworthy, G

    2003-07-01

    In Locusta migratoria, activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph in response to injection of laminarin is age-dependent: being absent in fifth instar nymphs and newly emerged adults, and only becoming evident four days after the final moult. This pattern of change in phenoloxidase activation correlates with the pattern of change in the concentration of apolipophorin-III (apoLp-III) in the haemolymph. Injection of a conspecific adipokinetic hormone (Lom-AKH-I) has no effect on the phenoloxidase response in nymphs or newly emerged adults but, in adults older than four days, co-injection of the hormone with laminarin prolongs the activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph: a similar enhancement of the response to laminarin is observed in locusts that have been starved for 48 h but not injected with AKH-I. During most of the fifth stadium, injection of laminarin results in a decrease in the level of prophenoloxidase in the haemolymph; an effect that is not observed in adults of any age. Marked changes in the concentration of apoLp-III, and the formation of LDLp in the haemolymph, are observed after injection of laminarin (or LPS) and these are remarkably similar, at least qualitatively, to those that occur after injection of AKH-I. The involvement of lipophorins in the activation of locust prophenoloxidase in response to immunogens is discussed. PMID:12826093

  20. Estrus response and fertility of Menz and crossbred ewes to single prostaglandin injection protocol.

    PubMed

    Mekuriaw, Zeleke; Assefa, Habtemariam; Tegegne, Azage; Muluneh, Dagne

    2016-01-01

    Natural lambing in sheep in Ethiopia occurs throughout the year in a scattered manner negatively affecting survival and growth rates of the lambs born during the unfavorable season of the year. Thus, controlling the time of mating artificially using exogenous source of hormones is considered as one of the ways to mitigated problems related to haphazard lambing. To this end, an experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of prostaglandin-based estrus synchronization protocol in local and crossbred ewes. A total of 160 ewes (80 local and 80 crossbreds) which lambed at least once and aged 3-5 years were used. Lutalyse® (dinoprost tromethamine sterile solution equivalent to 5 mg dinoprost per ml) and its analog, Synchromate® (cloprostenol sodium equivalent to 0.250 mg cloprostenol per ml), were tested at different doses. The treatments used were intramuscular injection of (1) 2.50 ml of Lutalyse® (12.5 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (2) 2 ml of Lutalyse® (10.0 mg dinoprost tromethamine), (3) 1 ml of Synchromate® (0.25 mg of cloprostenol Sodium), and (4) 0.8 ml of Synchromate® (0.20 mg of cloprostenol Sodium). Forty ewes (20 local and 20 crossbreds) were allocated per treatment. Following injection of the respective hormones, rams of known fertility were introduced into the flock for the duration of 96 h at the ratio of one ram to 10 ewes. All estrus synchronization protocols except treatment 4 (0.8 ml of Synchromate®) induced estrus (heat) in majority (55-65%) of local and crossbred ewes within 96 h post-hormone injection. The time interval from hormone administration to onset of estrus was also more or less similar for all treatment groups except for treatment group 4 which showed heat quicker. The highest lambing rate was recorded in local ewes (84.62% (11/13) treated with 2.5 ml of Lutalyse®, whereas the least was obtained in crossbreds (33.33% (3/9) treated with 0.8 ml Synchromate®. In conclusion, even though 2.5 ml and 2 ml of Lutalyse® or 1 ml of

  1. Inhaling one hundred percent oxygen eliminates the systemic arterial hypoxemic response of broilers to intravenous microparticle injections.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, A G; Wideman, R F

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) includes the development of systemic arterial hypoxemia (reduction in the saturation of hemoglobin with O(2), HbO(2)), which can be mimicked in clinically healthy broilers by i.v. injections of microparticles (MP). In experiment 1, arterial blood samples were collected from clinically healthy broilers before and after i.v. MP injections, and during a subsequent 100% O(2) inhalation period. The arterial samples were analyzed for HbO(2), partial pressure of O(2) and CO(2), and pH using a blood gas analyzer. In experiment 2, broilers that initially averaged > or =75% HbO(2) were assigned to a "high O(2)" group, whereas those that initially averaged < 75% HbO(2) were assigned to a "low O(2)" group. The HbO(2) and heart rate (HR) were measured using a pulse oximeter before, during, and after broilers in both groups inhaled 100% O(2). In experiment 3, HbO(2) and HR were measured using a pulse oximeter before, during, and after broilers inhaled 100% O(2), after i.v. MP injections, and during a second period of 100% O(2) inhalation. The HbO(2) rapidly decreased after i.v. MP injections, and subsequently providing 100% O(2) to breathe increased the HbO(2) above preinjection control levels in experiments 1 and 3. In experiment 2, inhaling 100% oxygen eliminated the initial spontaneous differences in HbO(2) between the high O(2) and low O(2) groups, whereas the return to breathing ambient air restored the initial group differences in HbO(2). These experiments indicate that MP-induced and spontaneous hypoxemia can be attributed to a diffusion limitation rather than to arterial-venous shunts, because the hypoxemia resulting from arterial-venous shunts cannot be wholly eliminated by providing 100% O(2) to inhale. PMID:18079464

  2. Impaired cellular immune response to injected bacteria after knockdown of ferritin genes in the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    PubMed

    Galay, Remil Linggatong; Takechi, Rie; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Talactac, Melbourne Rio; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Mochizuki, Masami; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tanaka, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Iron is an indispensable element for most microorganisms, including many pathogenic bacteria. Iron-withholding is a known component of the innate immunity, particularly of vertebrate hosts. Ticks are vectors of multiple pathogens and reports have shown that they naturally harbor several bacterial species. Thus, tick innate immunity must be crucial in limiting bacterial population to tolerable level that will not cause adverse effects. We have previously characterized two types of the iron-binding protein ferritin (HlFER) in the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, known to be a vector of some protozoan parasites and rickettsiae, and showed their antioxidant function and importance in blood feeding and reproduction. Here we examined the possible role of HlFERs in tick immunity against bacterial infection. After silencing Hlfer genes, adult ticks were injected with live enhanced green fluorescence protein-expressing Escherichia coli, and then monitored for survival rate. Hemolymph that included hemocytes was collected for microscopic examination to observe cellular immune response, and for E. coli culture to determine bacterial viability after injection in the ticks. The expression of some antimicrobial peptides in whole ticks was also analyzed by RT-PCR. Hlfer-silenced ticks had a significantly lower survival rate than control ticks after E. coli injection. Greater number of bacteria inside and outside the hemocytes and higher bacterial colony counts after culture with hemolymph were also observed in Hlfer-silenced ticks. However, no difference on the expression of antimicrobial peptides was observed. These results suggest that ferritin molecules might be important in the cellular immune response of ticks to some bacteria. PMID:26792075

  3. Acute phase response in toxicity studies. II. Findings in beagle dogs injected with endotoxin or subjected to surgical operation.

    PubMed

    Hoshiya, T; Watanabe, D; Matsuoka, T; Horiguchi, K; Miki, Y; Mizuguchi, H; Ishii, T; Nomura, N; Nagashima, Y; Okaniwa, A

    2001-05-01

    Occurrence of characteristic transient changes in WBC counts and fibrinogen values in beagle dogs subjected to single-dose toxicity studies was pointed out in the previous survey (Hoshiya et al., 2001). These changes were thought to belong to the category of "Acute Phase Response (APR)". The purpose of the present study is to compare the APR found in the single-dose toxicity studies surveyed in our previous report with those experimentally produced by intravenous injection of 1 microgram/kg endotoxin (Experiment 1), and surgical treatment (Experiment 2) (intravenous indwelling catheterization). The animals used in Experiment 2 were intravenously injected with 1 microgram/kg endotoxin 2 weeks after the operation (Experiment 3), and the results were compared with those of Experiments 1 and 2. Each experimental group consisted of 5 dogs, and clinical, hematological and blood chemical examinations were performed. Essentially the same changes were observed in response to the intravenous injection with endotoxin and the surgical operation for intravenous indwelling catheterization in beagle dogs. The most remarkable changes common to both treatments were transient increases in the fibrinogen values and WBC counts during the 2 days from Day 1 to Day 2 of the treatment. These changes were preceded by decreases in WBC counts and fibrinogen in Experiments 1 and 3. Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rates were recorded in parallel with the increase in fibrinogen. The results obtained in the present study were similar to those found in dogs treated with various xenobiotic substances in our laboratory. These changes due to different causes were thought to belong to the category of "APR" with the same biological significance as a non-specific defense mechanism. PMID:11429968

  4. Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700

  5. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  6. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  7. Nonlinear response of magnetic islands to localized electron cyclotron current injection

    SciTech Connect

    Borgogno, D.; Comisso, L.; Grasso, D.; Lazzaro, E.

    2014-06-15

    The magnetic island evolution under the action of a current generated externally by electron cyclotron wave beams is studied using a reduced resistive magnetohydrodynamics plasma model. The use of a two-dimensional reconnection model shows novel features of the actual nonlinear evolution as compared to the zero-dimensional model of the generalized Rutherford equation. When the radio frequency control is applied to a small magnetic island, the complete annihilation of the island width is followed by a spatial phase shift of the island, referred as “flip” instability. On the other hand, a current-drive injection in a large nonlinear island can be accompanied by the occurrence of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. These effects need to be taken into account in designing tearing mode control systems based on radio frequency current-drive.

  8. The response of the ionosphere to the injection of chemically reactive vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    As a gas released in the ionosphere expands, it is rapidly cooled. When the vapor becomes sufficiently tenuous, it is reheated by collisions with the ambient atmosphere and its flow is then governed by diffusive expansion. As the injected gas becomes well mixed with the plasma, a hole is created by chemical processes. In the case of diatomic hydrogen release, depression of the electron concentrations is governed by the charge exchange reaction between oxygen ions and hydrogen, producing positive hydroxyl ions. Hydroxyl ions rapidly react with the electron gas to produce excited oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Enhanced airglow emissions result from the transition of the excited atoms to lower energy states. The electron temperature in the depleted region rises sharply causing a thermal expansion of the plasma and a further reduction in the local plasma concentration.

  9. Time lapse seismic response (4D) related to industrial-scale CO2 injection at an EOR and CCS site, Cranfield, MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditkof, J.; Meckel, T. A.; Zeng, H.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    4D seismic response can be used to understand reservoir fluid substitution related to multiphase fluid flow. Time lapse seismic surveys have been conducted internationally at well-known CCS field sites like Otway, Weyburn, and Sleipner as well as downhole measurements at Frio and Cranfield in the United States. We present results from the first 4D survey conducted in the U.S. for CCS purposes. Since 2008 continuous CO2 injection has occurred at an EOR project in Cranfield, Mississippi, also the location of our SECARB CCS demonstration project funded by DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. 4D response has been characterized after 3 years of injection, where >3 million tons of CO2 remain in the subsurface. Results from 4D stratal slices show a definitive but complicated CO2 response in the injection interval, and no coherent response above or below the injection interval. Clear examples of seismic amplitude response are seen near injection wells. Qualitatively, some areas that have received large amounts of CO2 do not have coherent seismic response, indicating that 4D response to injected CO2 in some parts of the field is likely to be masked by residual oil, gas, and brine related to historic production (1960's). To further quantify the seismic response, well log data shows that Vp decreases before becoming mostly constant, Vs increases linearly, and density slightly decreases in the injection zone. This is a similar expected result to that observed at other sites. Forward seismic modeling and flow simulation have been integrated to understand seismic response in relation to fluid properties and distribution. Seismic understanding may lead to improved understanding of sweep efficiency (capacity) as well as define sensitivity of seismic imaging for quantifying CO2 storage.

  10. Prediction of the Elastic-Plastic Stress/Strain Response for Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba N.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay H; TuckerIII, Charles L.; Bapanapalli, Satish K

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to predict the elastic-plastic response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the elastic-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber orientation was predicted using an anisotropic rotary diffusion model recently developed for LFTs. An incremental procedure using Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method and the Mori-Tanaka assumption is proposed to compute the overall stress increment resulting from an overall strain increment for an aligned-fiber composite that contains the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite. The incremental response of the latter is then obtained from the solution for the aligned-fiber composite by averaging over all fiber orientations. Failure during incremental loading is predicted using the Van Hattum-Bernado model. The model is validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens.

  11. Prediction of the Elastic-Plastic Stress/Strain Response for Injection-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2009-01-26

    This paper proposes a model to predict the elastic-plastic response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the elastic-plastic behavior obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J-2 deformation theory of plasticity. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber orientation was predicted using the anisotropic rotary diffusion model recently developed by Phelps and Tucker for LFTs. An incremental procedure using the Eshelby’s equivalent inclusion method and the Mori-Tanaka model is proposed to compute the overall stress increment resulting from an overall strain increment for an aligned fiber composite that contains the same fiber volume fraction and length distribution as the actual composite. The incremental response of the later is then obtained from the solution for the aligned fiber composite that is averaged over all possible fiber orientations using the orientation averaging method. Failure during incremental loading is predicted using the Van Hattum-Bernado model. The elastic-plastic and strength prediction model for LFTs was validated against the experimental stress-strain results obtained for long glass fiber/polypropylene specimens.

  12. Rapid Assessment and Response Studies of Injection Drug Use: Knowledge Gain, Capacity Building, and Intervention Development in a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Stimson, Gerry V.; Fitch, Chris; Jarlais, Don Des; Poznyak, Vladimir; Perlis, Theresa; Oppenheimer, Edna; Rhodes, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the World Health Organization’s rapid assessment and response (RAR) method of assessing injection drug use and its associated health problems, focusing on knowledge gain, capacity building, and whether RAR leads to the development of interventions reducing the health effects of injection drug use. Methods. Data were derived from RAR studies conducted in Beijing, China; Bogotá, Colombia; Greater Rosario, Argentina; Hanoi, Vietnam; Kharkiv, Ukraine; Minsk, Belarus; Nairobi, Kenya; Penang, Malaysia; St. Petersburg, Russia; and Tehran, Iran. Results. Substantial gains in knowledge and response capacity were reported at all of the study sites. Before RAR initiation, prevention and intervention programs had been absent or inadequate at most of the sites. The RARs resulted in many new or modified interventions; 7 sites reported 24 health-related interventions that were subsequently developed and influenced by the RARs. Conclusions. RARs, which require relatively little external funding, appear to be effective in linking assessment to development of appropriate interventions. The present results add to the evidence that rapid assessment is an important public health tool. PMID:16380578

  13. High Refractive Index Polysiloxane as Injectable, In Situ Curable Accommodating Intraocular Lens

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L.; Le, Tam P.T.; McFarland, Gail; Johnson, Graham; Mulder, Roger J.; Garrett, Qian; Manns, Fabrice; Nankivil, Derek; Arrieta, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C.

    2012-01-01

    Functionalised siloxane macromonomers, with properties designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via reequilibration of a phenyl group-containing polysiloxane of very high molecular weight with octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and 2,4,6,8-tetra(n-propyl-3-methacrylate)-2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4AM) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid as a catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane was used as an end group to control the molecular weight of the polymer. The generated polymers had a consistency suitable for injection into the empty lens capsule. The polymers contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that, in the presence of a photo-initiator, they could be cured on demand in situ within 5 minutes under irradiation of blue light to form an intraocular lens within the lens capsule. All resulting polysiloxane soft gels had a low elastic modulus and thus should be able to restore accommodation. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the generated polysiloxanes were controlled by the end group and D4AM concentrations respectively in the re-equilibration reactions. The refractive index could be precisely controlled by adjusting the aromatic ratio in the polymer to suit such application as an artificial lens. Lens stretching experiments with both human and non-human primate cadaver lenses of different ages refilled with polysiloxane polymers provided a significant increase in amplitude of accommodation (up to 4 D more than that of the respective natural lens). Both in vitro cytotoxicity study using L929 cell lines and in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbit models demonstrated the non-cytotoxicity and ocular biocompatibility of the polymer. PMID:22594975

  14. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult. PMID:19126842

  15. Access to high beta advanced inductive plasmas at low injected torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, W. M.; Politzer, P. A.; Buttery, R. J.; Holcomb, C. T.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hanson, J. M.; In, Y.; Jackson, G. L.; Kinsey, J. E.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Okabayashi, M.; Petty, C. C.; Turco, F.; Welander, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D demonstrate that advanced inductive (AI) discharges with high equivalent normalized fusion gain can be accessed and sustained with very low amounts (∼1 N m) of externally injected torque, a level of torque that is anticipated to drive a similar amount of rotation as the beams on ITER, via simple consideration of the scaling of the moment of inertia and confinement time. The AI regime is typically characterized by high confinement, and high βN, allowing the possibility for high performance, high gain operation at reduced plasma current. Discharges achieved βN ∼ 3.1 with H98(y,2) ∼ 1 at q95 ∼ 4, and are sustained for the maximum duration of the counter neutral beams (NBs). In addition, plasmas using zero net NB torque from the startup all the way through to the high βN phase have been created. AI discharges are found to become increasingly susceptible to m/n = 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes as the torque is decreased, which if left unmitigated, generally slow and lock, terminating the high performance phase of the discharge. Access is not notably different whether one ramps the torque down at high βN, or ramps βN up at low torque. The use of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive proved to be an effective method of avoiding such modes, enabling stable operation at high beta and low torque, a portion of phase space that has otherwise been inaccessible. Thermal confinement is significantly reduced at low rotation, a result that is reproduced using the TGLF transport model. Although it is thought that stiffness is increased in regions of low magnetic shear, in these AI plasmas, the reduced confinement occurs at radii outside the low shear, and in fact, higher temperature gradients can be found in the low shear region at low rotation. Momentum transport is also larger at low rotation, but a significant intrinsic torque is measured that is consistent with a previous scaling considering the role of the turbulent

  16. Dynamical and radiative response to the massive injection of aerosol from Kuwait oil burning fires

    SciTech Connect

    Ferretti, R.; Visconti, G.

    1993-12-01

    The effects of the injection of large amount of soot comparable to that produced in the burning of oil wells in Kuwait were studied using a 2-D mesoscale model. During the three day numerical simulation the ground-atmosphere system appears to be strongly perturbed. A surface cooling is produced in the first two days above and downwind of the sources. The cooling, between -10 C over the desert and -0.5 C over the sea is dependent on the surface characteristics. The temperature decrease at the ground results in a stratified troposphere which inhibits convection and perturbs the normal diurnal variability of the boundary layer while the upper levels are driven by the radiative warming of the aerosol layer. In this region after few hours the simulation produces a warming of 0.8 C reaching a maximum of 6 C is after 60 hours. During the last 2 days of simulation the long wave radiation emitted by the low altitude atmospheric layers contribute to mitigate the surface cooling. A detailed discussion of the radiative and the dynamical interactions is given and it is shown that beside the specific interest in the short term effects these results may be useful to parameterize the smoke source for a General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation.

  17. Bone healing response to an injectable calcium phosphate cement with enhanced radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Acarturk, Oguz; Lehmicke, Michael; Aberman, Harold; Toms, Derek; Hollinger, Jeffrey O; Fulmer, Mark

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of barium sulfate on remodeling and regeneration in standard tibial defects in rabbits treated with the Norian skeletal repair system (SRS). Two formulations of SRS (with and without barium sulfate) were injected into the medullary canal of the tibia of New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Over the 2-year duration of the study, standard SRS and SRS with barium sulfate appeared to be biocompatible and osteoconductive with no evidence of either inflammation or fibrous tissue around the implant materials or at the bone-material interfaces. This outcome underscores the osteophilic property of the SRS. A difference we observed between the standard SRS and the SRS with barium sulfate was the appearance of acellular material contiguous to the SRS with barium sulfate. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis was conducted and confirmed that the acellular material was barium sulfate. Pathological examination of additional tissues including regional lymph nodes revealed neither dissemination of calcium phosphate nor barium sulfate. We concluded that the residual barium sulfate detected by EDX was localized to the intramedullary canal of the tibia. PMID:18098201

  18. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. In the HPLC mode, the LODDs were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of four. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methyl-isobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organo-metallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered.

  20. Reduction of edge localized mode intensity on DIII-D by on-demand triggering with high frequency pellet injection and implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, S. J.; Combs, S. K.; Isler, R. C.; Unterberg, E. A.; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Futatani, S.

    2013-08-15

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12× the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12× lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized β operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  1. Reduction of Edge Localized Mode Intensity on DIII-D by On-demand triggering with High Frequency Pellet Injection and Implications for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, T. C.; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Isler, Ralph C; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Brooks, N. H.; Evans, T. E.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Snyder, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R. A.; Loarte, A.; Huijsmans, G. T.A.; Futantani, S.

    2013-01-01

    The injection of small deuterium pellets at high repetition rates up to 12 the natural edge localized mode (ELM) frequency has been used to trigger high-frequency ELMs in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The resulting pellet-triggered ELMs result in up to 12 lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed with pellets injected from the low field side pellet in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input heating power just above the H-mode power threshold. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the injected pellets show that destabilization of ballooning modes by a local pressure perturbation is responsible for the pellet ELM triggering. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  2. Characteristics of heat exchange in the region of injection into a supersonic high-temperature flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakirov, F. G.; Shaykhutdinov, Z. G.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the local heat transfer coefficient distribution during gas injection into the supersonic-flow portion of a Laval nozzle is discussed. The controlling dimensionless parameters of the investigated process are presented in terms of a generalized relation for the maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient in the nozzle cross section behind the injection hole. Data on the heat transfer coefficient variation along the nozzle length as a function of gas injection rate are also presented, along with the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a cross section of the nozzle.

  3. Experimental Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Induced by Neonatal Streptozotocin Injection and a High-Fat Diet in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Huai-Che; Dozen, Masaharu; Matsuno, Naoto; Obara, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Ryou; Enosawa, Shin

    2013-12-30

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has become a major concern in clinical hepatology. To elucidate the disease mechanisms and to develop a treatment, the advent of an appropriate experimental model is crucial. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet from gestational day 16. Two days after birth, the neonates were injected subcutaneously with streptozotocin (STZ) (180, 200, or 256 mg/kg). The mothers were fed a high-fat diet during the nursing period. After being weaned (4 weeks of age), the juvenile rats were fed the same high-fat diet. The survival rates at the time of weaning were 25.6% (180 mg/kg STZ), 22.8% (200 mg/kg STZ), and 19.4% (256 mg/kg STZ). The mean body weight of NASH rats was approximately 20% less than that of normal rats. Serum levels of glucose, alanine aminotransferase, and hyaluronic acid increased in NASH rats. Histologically, typical features of steatohepatitis such as ballooning, inflammatory cell infiltration, and perivenular and pericellular fibrosis were observed. In an indocyanine green loading test, the blood half-life was significantly longer in NASH rats (5.04 ± 2.14 vs. 2.72 ± 0.72 min; p < 0.05), which was suggestive of an impaired hepatobiliary transportation function. Concomitantly, biliary ICG concentrations in NASH rats stabilized in a delayed fashion compared with normal rats. In addition, the amount of bile excreted in NASH rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats (4.32 ± 0.83 vs. 7.66 ± 1.05 mg/min; p < 0.01). The rat NASH model presented here mimics the clinical features of the disease and will be a helpful tool for medical and bioscience research. PMID:26858881

  4. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  5. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  6. Highly efficient, solution processed electrofluorescent small molecule white organic light-emitting diodes with a hybrid electron injection layer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhixiong; Zhong, Zhiming; Xue, Shanfeng; Zhou, Yan; Meng, Yanhong; Hu, Zhanhao; Ai, Na; Wang, Jianbin; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao; Ma, Yuguang; Pei, Jian; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yong

    2014-06-11

    Highly efficient, solution-processed, and all fluorescent white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on fluorescent small molecules have been achieved by incorporating a low-conductivity hole injection layer and an inorganic-organic hybrid electron injection layer. The light-emission layer is created by doping a fluorescent π-conjugated blue dendrimer host (the zeroth generation dendrimer, G0) with a yellow-emitting fluorescent dopant oligo(paraphenylenevinylene) derivative CN-DPASDB with a doping ratio of 100:0.15 (G0:CN-DPASDB) by weight. To suppress excessive holes, the high-conductivity hole injection layer (PEDOT:PSS AI 4083) is replaced by the low-conductivity PEDOT:PSS CH 8000. To facilitate the electron injection, a hybrid electron injection layer is introduced by doping a methanol/water-soluble conjugated polymer poly[(9,9-bis(30-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFNR2) with solution-processed cesium fluoride (CsF). The device achieves a maximum luminous efficiency of 17.0 cd A(-1) and a peak power efficiency of 15.6 lm W(-1) at (0.32, 0.37) with a color rendering index of 64. PMID:24840940

  7. Injectable, high modulus, and fatigue resistant composite scaffold for load-bearing soft tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hayami, James W S; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

    2013-12-01

    High modulus, two-phase, bicontinuous scaffolds were prepared by photocross-linking an aqueous suspension of chondrocytes and N-methacrylate glycol chitosan with a hydrolyzable, hydrophobic, acrylated star-copolymer. Two acrylated star-copolymers were examined: poly(ε-caprolactone-co-d,l-lactide) (5446DLLACL) and poly(ε-caprolactone-co-trimethylene carbonate) (7030TMCCL). The scaffolds were assessed for injectability, two-phase interconnectivity, fatigue resistance, and long-term static culture behavior. The 7030TMCCL scaffolds demonstrated decreased moduli of 17% after 1 × 10(6) cycles at 30% strain and 5% after 56 days in culture, compared to the 5446DLLACL scaffolds, which exhibited decreases of 58 and 68%, respectively. The 7030TMCCL scaffolds accumulated more extracellular matrix after 56 days of culture (GAG: 20.1 ± 1, collagen: 35.5 ± 1.8 μg) compared to 5446DLLACL scaffolds (GAG: 13.2 ± 0.6, collagen: 6.2 ± 3.4 μg). Overall, the 7030TMCCL-based scaffolds were shown to be better suited for use as a load bearing soft tissue scaffold. PMID:24147621

  8. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  9. Designing, Packaging, and Delivery of High Titer CRISPR Retro and Lentiviruses via Stereotaxic Injection.

    PubMed

    Fricano-Kugler, Catherine J; Williams, Michael R; Salinaro, Julia R; Li, Meijie; Luikart, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Replication defective lentiviruses or retroviruses are capable of stably integrating transgenes into the genome of an infected host cell. This technique has been widely used to encode fluorescent proteins, opto- or chemo-genetic controllers of cell activity, or heterologous expression of human genes in model organisms. These viruses have also successfully been used to deliver recombinases to relevant target sites in transgenic animals, or even deliver small hairpin or micro RNAs in order to manipulate gene expression. While these techniques have been fruitful, they rely on transgenic animals (recombinases) or frequently lack high efficacy and specificity (shRNA/miRNA). In contrast, the CRISPR/Cas system uses an exogenous Cas nuclease which targets specific sites in an organism's genome via an exogenous guide RNA in order to induce double stranded breaks in DNA. These breaks are then repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), producing insertion and deletion (indel) mutations that can result in deleterious missense or nonsense mutations. This manuscript provides detailed methods for the design, production, injection, and validation of single lenti/retro virus particles that can stably transduce neurons to express a fluorescent reporter, Cas9, and sgRNAs to knockout genes in a model organism. PMID:27285851

  10. Risk-based inspection priorities for PWR high-pressure injection system components

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, T.V.; Simonen, F.A.; Phan, H.K. )

    1993-01-01

    Under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a risk-based method that can be used to establish in-service inspection priorities for nuclear power plant components. The overall goal of this effort was to develop technical bases for improvements of inspection plans and to provide recommendations for revisions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. XI. The developed method used results of probabilistic risk assessment in combination with the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) technique to establish in-service inspection priorities for systems and components. The Surry nuclear power station, unit 1 (Surry-1) was selected for study. Inspection priorities for several pressure boundary systems at Surry-1 were determined in the early phase of the project. To complete the study, the remaining safety systems, plus balance of plant, have been analyzed; one of these is the high-pressure injection (HPI) system. This paper presents the results of inspection priorities for the HPI system.

  11. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2003-03-31

    This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents results of an investigation of the effects of variation in interfacial tension (IFT) on three-phase relative permeability. We report experimental results that demonstrate the effect of low IFT between two of three phases on the three-phase relative permeabilities. In order to create three-phase systems, in which IFT can be controlled systematically, we employed analog liquids composing of hexadecane, n-butanol, isopropanol, and water. Phase composition, phase density and viscosity, and IFT of three-phase system were measured and are reported here. We present three-phase relative permeabilities determined from recovery and pressure drop data using the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann (JBN) method. The phase saturations were obtained from recovery data by the Welge method. The experimental results indicate that the wetting phase relative permeability was not affected by IFT variation whereas the other two-phase relative permeabilities were clearly affected. As IFT decreases the ''oil'' and ''gas'' phases become more mobile at the same phase saturations.

  12. Molecular Cluster Injection for High-Density Fueling on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Stotler, D. P.

    2010-11-01

    LTX is designed to reduce global recycling, by reducing the neutral hydrogen density in the plasma edge with a liquid lithium wall. Gas-based fueling systems, such as wall-mounted gas puffers or supersonic gas injectors, are ill-suited for use in a low-recycling plasma, as they source a significant amount of gas into the plasma edge. Following experiments on the HL-2A tokamak by Yao, et al. (Nucl. Fusion 47(2007) 1399), a Molecular Cluster Injector (MCI) was designed to supply a high-density, collimated fueling source for LTX. When operated with H2 backing pressures of 50-150psia, a 4ms MCI pulse produces molecular densities of 1-4x10^16 cm-3 at distances over 20cm from the nozzle, and supplies a particle flux of 340-775 torr-lit/s, sufficient to replace the predicted LTX particle inventory. The H2 density profiles are consistent with flows that produce molecular clusters of a few hundred molecules each, which is expected to improve neutral penetration into the plasma core, relative to pure gas-phase injection. The neutral penetration into LTX plasmas will be diagnosed by a fast visible camera with an Hα filter, as well as microwave interferometry.

  13. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula. PMID:25362383

  14. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar{sup q+} (q = 5–7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar{sup q+} (q = 5–7) under a constant number density of H₂ and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar{sup q+}(q = 5, 6)-H₂ collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  15. Designing, Packaging, and Delivery of High Titer CRISPR Retro and Lentiviruses via Stereotaxic Injection

    PubMed Central

    Fricano-Kugler, Catherine J.; Williams, Michael R.; Salinaro, Julia R.; Li, Meijie; Luikart, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Replication defective lentiviruses or retroviruses are capable of stably integrating transgenes into the genome of an infected host cell. This technique has been widely used to encode fluorescent proteins, opto- or chemo-genetic controllers of cell activity, or heterologous expression of human genes in model organisms. These viruses have also successfully been used to deliver recombinases to relevant target sites in transgenic animals, or even deliver small hairpin or micro RNAs in order to manipulate gene expression. While these techniques have been fruitful, they rely on transgenic animals (recombinases) or frequently lack high efficacy and specificity (shRNA/miRNA). In contrast, the CRISPR/Cas system uses an exogenous Cas nuclease which targets specific sites in an organism's genome via an exogenous guide RNA in order to induce double stranded breaks in DNA. These breaks are then repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), producing insertion and deletion (indel) mutations that can result in deleterious missense or nonsense mutations. This manuscript provides detailed methods for the design, production, injection, and validation of single lenti/retro virus particles that can stably transduce neurons to express a fluorescent reporter, Cas9, and sgRNAs to knockout genes in a model organism. PMID:27285851

  16. Injectable Citrate-Based Mussel-Inspired Tissue Bioadhesives With High Wet Strength for Sutureless Wound Closure

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh, M. Reza; Weng, Hong; Gyawali, Dipendra; Tang, Liping; Yang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The existing surgical adhesives are not ideal for wet tissue adhesion required in many surgeries such as those for internal organs. Developing surgical adhesives with strong wet tissue adhesion, controlled degradability and mechanical properties, and excellent biocompatibility has been a significant challenge. Herein, learning from nature, we report a one-step synthesis of a family of injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives (iCMBAs) for surgical use. Within the formulations investigated, iCMBAs showed 2.5–8.0 folds stronger wet tissue adhesion strength over the clinically used fibrin glue, demonstrated controlled degradability and tissue-like elastomeric mechanical properties, and exhibited excellent cyto/tissue-compatibility both in vitro and in vivo. iCMBAs were able to stop bleeding instantly and suturelessly, and close wounds (2 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) created on the back of Sprague-Dawley rats, which is impossible when using existing gold standard, fibrin glue, due to its weak wet tissue adhesion strength. Equally important, the new bioadhesives facilitate wound healing, and are completely degraded and absorbed without eliciting significant inflammatory response. Our results support that iCMBA technology is highly translational and could have broad impact on surgeries where surgical tissue adhesives, sealants, and hemostatic agents are used. PMID:22902057

  17. Numerical simulation and characterization of trapping noise in InGaP-GaAs heterojunctions devices at high injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallatamby, Jean-Christophe; Abdelhadi, Khaled; Jacquet, Jean-Claude; Prigent, Michel; Floriot, Didier; Delage, Sylvain; Obregon, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Commercially available simulators present considerable advantages in performing accurate DC, AC and transient simulations of semiconductor devices, including many fundamental and parasitic effects which are not generally taken into account in house-made simulators. Nevertheless, while the TCAD simulators of the public domain we have tested give accurate results for the simulation of diffusion noise, none of the tested simulators perform trap-assisted GR noise accurately. In order to overcome the aforementioned problem we propose a robust solution to accurately simulate GR noise due to traps. It is based on numerical processing of the output data of one of the simulators available in the public-domain, namely SENTAURUS (from Synopsys). We have linked together, through a dedicated Data Access Component (DAC), the deterministic output data available from SENTAURUS and a powerful, customizable post-processing tool developed on the mathematical SCILAB software package. Thus, robust simulations of GR noise in semiconductor devices can be performed by using GR Langevin sources associated to the scalar Green functions responses of the device. Our method takes advantage of the accuracy of the deterministic simulations of electronic devices obtained with SENTAURUS. A Comparison between 2-D simulations and measurements of low frequency noise on InGaP-GaAs heterojunctions, at low as well as high injection levels, demonstrates the validity of the proposed simulation tool.

  18. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to

  19. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  20. High Resolution RANS NLH Study of Stage 67 Tip Injection Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Numerical prediction of the Stage 67 transonic fan stage employing wall jet tip injection flow control and study of the physical mechanisms leading to stall suppression and stability enhancement afforded by endwall recirculation/injection is the focus of this paper. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes computations were used to perform detailed analysis of the Stage 67 configuration experimentally tested at NASA s Glenn Research Center in 2004. Time varying prediction of the stage plus recirculation and injection flowpath were performed utilizing the Nonlinear Harmonic approach. Significantly higher grid resolution per passage was achieved than what has been generally employed in prior reported numerical studies of spike stall phenomena in transonic compressors. This paper focuses on characterizing the physics of spike stall embryonic stage phenomena and the impact of tip injection, resulting in experimentally and numerically demonstrated stall suppression

  1. Lithium wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocente, P.; Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Agostini, M.; Barison, S.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Cavazzana, R.; De Masi, G.; Fassina, A.; Fiameni, S.; Grando, L.; Rais, B.; Rossetto, F.; Scarin, P.

    2015-08-01

    In the RFX-mod reversed field pinch experiment, lithium wall conditioning has been tested with multiple scopes: to improve density control, to reduce impurities and to increase energy and particle confinement time. Large single lithium pellet injection, lithium capillary-pore system and lithium evaporation has been used for lithiumization. The last two methods, which presently provide the best results in tokamak devices, have limited applicability in the RFX-mod device due to the magnetic field characteristics and geometrical constraints. On the other side, the first mentioned technique did not allow injecting large amount of lithium. To improve the deposition, recently in RFX-mod small lithium multi-pellets injection has been tested. In this paper we compare lithium multi-pellets injection to the other techniques. Multi-pellets gave more uniform Li deposition than evaporator, but provided similar effects on plasma parameters, showing that further optimizations are required.

  2. Improving the injectability of high-salinity brines for disposal or waterflooding operations

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.; Thompson, R.E.; Smith, F.H.

    1981-07-25

    This work is part of a study conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to improve the performance of brine injection wells at Gulf Coast Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites. Our involvement established that granular media filtration, when used with proper chemical pretreatments, provides an effective and economical method for removing particulates from hypersaline brines. This treatment allows for the injection of 200,000 B/D with significantly increased well half-lives of 30 years.

  3. Immune responses of locusts to challenge with the pathogenic fungus Metarhizium or high doses of laminarin.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Lisa M; Goldsworthy, Graham J

    2006-04-01

    Two isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum were tested for their effects on the locust immune system and for comparison with the effects of challenge by injection with laminarin. Isolate IMI 330189 (referred to hereafter as Met 189) is highly pathogenic whether applied topically as conidia or injected as blastospores. However, isolate ARSEF 728 (referred to hereafter as Met 728) is pathogenic only when injected as blastospores, suggesting that the lack of pathogenicity of topically applied conidia from this isolate is due to a failure to penetrate the insect cuticle and gain access to the haemocoel. After topical application of conidia from Met 189, no activation of prophenoloxidase is detected, but injection of blastospores from Met 189 brings about a transient increase in phenoloxidase activity in the haemolymph in both adult locusts and 5th instar nymphs, although this does not prevent fungal-induced mortality. Co-injection of adipokinetic hormone-I (AKH-I) with blastospores prolongs the activation of prophenoloxidase in the haemolymph of adult locusts, and enhances it in nymphs. It is argued that the lack of activation of prophenoloxidase in nymphs shown previously (Mullen, L., Goldsworthy, G., 2003. Changes in lipophorins are related to the activation of phenoloxidase in the haemolymph of Locusta migratoria in response to injection of immunogens. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 33, 661-670), reflects differences in the sensitivity of the immune system between adults and nymphs rather than distinct qualitative differences, and this is confirmed in this study by the demonstration that doses of laminarin higher than those used previously (>or=100 microg) do activate the prophenoloxidase cascade in 5th instar nymphs. Nodules are formed in locusts of all ages in response to fungal infection or injection of laminarin, although there is wide variation in the number, size and distribution of nodules formed. During the examination of 5th instar nymphs

  4. High-pressure injection of dissolved oxygen for hydrocarbon remediation in a fractured dolostone aquifer.

    PubMed

    Greer, K D; Molson, J W; Barker, J F; Thomson, N R; Donaldson, C R

    2010-10-21

    A field experiment was completed at a fractured dolomite aquifer in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to assess the delivery of supersaturated dissolved oxygen (supersaturated with respect to ambient conditions) for enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. The injection lasted for 1.5h using iTi's gPro® oxygen injection technology at pressures of up to 450 kPa and at concentrations of up to 34 mg O₂/L. A three-dimensional numerical model for advective-dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen within a discretely-fractured porous medium was calibrated to the observed field conditions under a conservative (no-consumption) scenario. The simulation demonstrated that oxygen rapidly filled the local intersecting fractures as well as the porous matrix surrounding the injection well. Following injection, the local fractures were rapidly flushed by the natural groundwater flow system but slow back-diffusion ensured a relatively longer residence time in the matrix. A sensitivity analysis showed significant changes in behaviour with varying fracture apertures and hydraulic gradients. Applying the calibrated model to a 7-day continuous injection scenario showed oxygen residence times (at the 3mg/L limit), within a radius of 2-4m from the injection well, of up to 100 days. This study has demonstrated that supersaturated dissolved oxygen can be effectively delivered to this type of a fractured and porous bedrock system at concentrations and residence times potentially sufficient for enhanced aerobic biodegradation. PMID:20727615

  5. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed. PMID:19296591

  6. High-pressure injection of dissolved oxygen for hydrocarbon remediation in a fractured dolostone aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, K. D.; Molson, J. W.; Barker, J. F.; Thomson, N. R.; Donaldson, C. R.

    2010-10-01

    A field experiment was completed at a fractured dolomite aquifer in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to assess the delivery of supersaturated dissolved oxygen (supersaturated with respect to ambient conditions) for enhanced bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater. The injection lasted for 1.5 h using iTi's gPro® oxygen injection technology at pressures of up to 450 kPa and at concentrations of up to 34 mg O 2/L. A three-dimensional numerical model for advective-dispersive transport of dissolved oxygen within a discretely-fractured porous medium was calibrated to the observed field conditions under a conservative (no-consumption) scenario. The simulation demonstrated that oxygen rapidly filled the local intersecting fractures as well as the porous matrix surrounding the injection well. Following injection, the local fractures were rapidly flushed by the natural groundwater flow system but slow back-diffusion ensured a relatively longer residence time in the matrix. A sensitivity analysis showed significant changes in behaviour with varying fracture apertures and hydraulic gradients. Applying the calibrated model to a 7-day continuous injection scenario showed oxygen residence times (at the 3 mg/L limit), within a radius of 2-4 m from the injection well, of up to 100 days. This study has demonstrated that supersaturated dissolved oxygen can be effectively delivered to this type of a fractured and porous bedrock system at concentrations and residence times potentially sufficient for enhanced aerobic biodegradation.

  7. Lack of Humoral Immune Response to the Tetracycline (Tet) Activator in Rats Injected Intracranially with Tet-off rAAV Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ye; Chang, Qin A.; Virag, Tamas; West, Neva C.; George, David; Castro, Maria G.; Bohn, Martha C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to safely control transgene expression from viral vectors is a long-term goal in the gene therapy field. We have previously reported tight regulation of GFP expression in rat brain using a self-regulating tet-off rAAV vector. The immune responses against tet regulatory elements observed by other groups in nonhuman primates after intramuscular injection of tet-on encoding vectors raise concerns about the clinical value of tet-regulated vectors. However, previous studies have not examined immune responses following injection of AAV vectors into brain. Therefore, rat striatum was injected with tet-off rAAV harboring a therapeutic gene for Parkinson's disease, either hAADC or hGDNF. The expression of each gene was tightly controlled by the tet-off regulatory system. Using an ELISA developed with purified GST-tTA protein, no detectable immunogenicity against tTA was observed in sera of rats that received an intrastriatal injection of either vector. In contrast, sera from rats intradermally injected with an adenovirus containing either tTA or rtTA, as positive controls, had readily detectable antibodies. These observations suggest that tet-off rAAV vectors do not elicit an immune response when injected into rat brain and that these may offer safer vectors for Parkinson's disease than vectors with constitutive expression. PMID:20164859

  8. A criterion for predicting thermal stratification due to high-pressure injection in a circulating reactor loop

    SciTech Connect

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1986-09-01

    A physically based criterion for predicting thermal stratification due to high-pressure injection in the presence of loop flow is presented. The predictions are consistent with the CREARE 1/5 scale, CREARE 1/2 scale, and HDR test results.

  9. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  10. The vasovagal response during confrontation with blood-injury-injection stimuli: the role of perceived control.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Philippe T; McGovern, Gillian E; Bekkouche, Nadine; Bacon, Simon L; Ditto, Blaine

    2015-04-01

    The vasovagal response (VVR) is a common medical problem, complicating and deterring people from various procedures. It is an unusual stress response given the widespread decreases in physiological activity. Nevertheless, VVR involves processes similar to those observed during episodes of strong emotions and pain. We hypothesized that heightened perceived control would reduce symptoms of VVR. Eighty-two young adults were randomly assigned to perceived control or no perceived control conditions during exposure to a stimulus video of a mitral valve surgery, known to trigger VVR in non-medical personnel. Perceived control was manipulated by allowing some participants to specify a break time, though all received equivalent breaks. Outcomes included subjective symptoms of VVR, anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate, and other measures derived from impedance cardiography. Compared to participants with perceived control, participants with no perceived control reported significantly more vasovagal symptoms and anxiety, and experienced lower stroke volume, cardiac output, and diastolic blood pressure. Participants who were more fearful of blood were more likely to benefit from perceived control in several measures. Perceived control appears to reduce vasovagal symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of cognition and emotion in VVR. PMID:25728015

  11. Spin injection into multilayer graphene from highly spin-polarized Co2FeSi Heusler alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Moriya, Rai; Oki, Soichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Masubuchi, Satoru; Hamaya, Kohei; Machida, Tomoki

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate electrical spin injection into multilayer graphene (MLG) in a lateral spin valve device from a highly spin-polarized Co2FeSi (CFS) Huesler electrode. Exfoliated MLG was transferred onto prepatterned epitaxial CFS wires grown on an Si(111) substrate by a polymer-based transfer method. This method enabled us to fabricate multiple single-crystal CFS electrodes in contact with MLG. Electrical spin injection from CFS to MLG was detected through nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurement. A nonlocal spin signal of 430 Ω was observed; this is the largest value among all reported nonlocal MR values in graphene-based devices.

  12. Study of iron structure stability in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic with oxygen injection using molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Sudarko; Shafii, Mohammad Ali; Celino, Massimo

    2014-09-30

    Corrosion of structural materials in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic is a major problem for design of PbBi cooled reactor. One technique to inhibit corrosion process is to inject oxygen into coolant. In this paper we study and focus on a way of inhibiting the corrosion of iron using molecular dynamics method. For the simulation results we concluded that effective corrosion inhibition of iron may be achieved by injection 0.0532 wt% to 0.1156 wt% oxygen into liquid lead-bismuth. At this oxygen concentration the structure of iron material will be maintained at about 70% in bcc crystal structure during interaction with liquid metal.

  13. Cycles of Transient High-Dose Cyclophosphamide Administration and Oncolytic Adenovirus Vector Intratumoral Injection for Long Term Tumor Suppression in Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Debanjan; Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Immune responses against oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors are thought to limit vector anti-tumor efficacy. In Syrian hamsters, which are immunocompetent and whose tumors and normal tissues are permissive for replication of Ad5-based oncolytic Ad vectors, treating with high-dose cyclophosphamide to suppress the immune system and exert chemotherapeutic effects enhances Ad vector anti-tumor efficacy. However, long term cyclophosphamide treatment and immunosuppression can lead to anemia and vector spread to normal tissues. Here we employed three cycles of transient high-dose cyclophosphamide administration plus intratumoral injection of the oncolytic Ad vector VRX-007 followed by withdrawal from cyclophosphamide. Each cycle lasted 4-6 weeks. This protocol allowed the hamsters to remain healthy so the study could be continued for ~100 days. The tumors were very well suppressed throughout the study. With immunocompetent hamsters, the vector retarded tumor growth initially, but after 3-4 weeks the tumors resumed rapid growth and further injections of vector were ineffective. Preimmunization of the hamsters with Ad5 prevented vector spillover from the tumor to the liver yet still allowed for effective long term anti-tumor efficacy. Our results suggest that a clinical protocol might be developed with cycles of transient chemotherapy plus intratumoral vector injection to achieve significant anti-tumor efficacy while minimizing the side effects of cytostatic treatment. PMID:24722357

  14. Systemic and local immune response in pigs intradermally and intramuscularly injected with inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines.

    PubMed

    Martelli, P; Saleri, R; Cavalli, V; De Angelis, E; Ferrari, L; Benetti, M; Ferrarini, G; Merialdi, G; Borghetti, P

    2014-01-31

    The systemic and respiratory local immune response induced by the intradermal administration of a commercial inactivated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae whole-cell vaccine (Porcilis(®) MHYO ID ONCE - MSD AH) in comparison with two commercial vaccines administered via the intramuscular route and a negative control (adjuvant only) was investigated. Forty conventional M. hyopneumoniae-free pigs were randomly assigned to four groups (ten animals each): Group A=intradermal administration of the test vaccine by using the needle-less IDAL(®) vaccinator at a dose of 0.2 ml; Group B=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine B); Group C=intramuscular administration of the adjuvant only (2 ml of X-solve adjuvant); Group D=intramuscular administration of a commercially available vaccine (vaccine D). Pigs were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were collected at vaccination (blood only), 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. Serum and BAL fluid were tested for the presence of antibodies by ELISA test. Peripheral blood monomorphonuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated to quantify the number of IFN-γ secreting cells by ELISpot. Moreover, cytokine gene expression from the BAL fluid was performed. Total antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae and specific IgG were detected in serum of intradermally and intramuscularly (vaccine B only) vaccinated pigs at 4 and 8 weeks post-vaccination. M. hyopneumoniae specific IgA were detected in BAL fluid from vaccinated animals (Groups A and B) but not from controls and animals vaccinated with the bacterin D (p<0.05). Significantly higher gene expression of IL-10 was observed in the BAL fluid at week 8 post-vaccination in the intradermally vaccinated pigs (p<0.05). The results support that the intradermal administration of an adjuvanted bacterin induces both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Moreover, the intramuscularly administered commercial vaccines each had a different

  15. High-Reynolds-number turbulent-boundary-layer wall pressure fluctuations with skin-friction reduction by air injection.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Eric S; Elbing, Brian R; Ceccio, Steven L; Perlin, Marc; Dowling, David R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations that occur on the solid surface beneath a turbulent boundary layer are a common source of flow noise. This paper reports multipoint surface pressure fluctuation measurements in water beneath a high-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer with wall injection of air to reduce skin-friction drag. The experiments were conducted in the U.S. Navy's Large Cavitation Channel on a 12.9-m-long, 3.05-m-wide hydrodynamically smooth flat plate at freestream speeds up to 20 ms and downstream-distance-based Reynolds numbers exceeding 200 x 10(6). Air was injected from one of two spanwise slots through flush-mounted porous stainless steel frits (approximately 40 microm mean pore diameter) at volume flow rates from 17.8 to 142.5 l/s per meter span. The two injectors were located 1.32 and 9.78 m from the model's leading edge and spanned the center 87% of the test model. Surface pressure measurements were made with 16 flush-mounted transducers in an "L-shaped" array located 10.7 m from the plate's leading edge. When compared to no-injection conditions, the observed wall-pressure variance was reduced by as much as 87% with air injection. In addition, air injection altered the inferred convection speed of pressure fluctuation sources and the streamwise coherence of pressure fluctuations. PMID:18529171

  16. High quality electron beam acceleration by ionization injection in laser wakefields with mid-infrared dual-color lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ming; Luo, Ji; Chen, Min; Mori, Warren B.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Hidding, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    For the laser wakefield acceleration, suppression of beam energy spread while keeping sufficient charge is one of the key challenges. In order to achieve this, we propose bichromatic laser ionization injection with combined laser wavelengths of 2.4 μ m and 0.8 μ m for wakefield excitation and triggering electron injection via field ionization, respectively. A laser pulse at 2.4 μ m wavelength enables one to drive an intense acceleration structure with a relatively low laser power. To further reduce the requirement of laser power, we also propose to use carbon dioxide as the working gas medium, where carbon acts as the injection element. Our three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that electron beams at the GeV energy level with both low energy spreads (around 1%) and high charges (several tens of picocoulomb) can be obtained by the use of this scheme with laser peak power totaling sub-100 TW.

  17. High frequency electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1971-01-01

    It is shown that the contribution of higher harmonics to the lunar transfer functions for the tangential components of the surface magnetic field is significant at frequencies greater than 0.01 Hz. The inclusion of the higher harmonics shows that there are two distinct transfer functions corresponding to the components of the tangential surface magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the wave vector of the external disturbance forcing the lunar induction. The dependences of these transfer functions on frequency and location are determined. The effects of the higher harmonics can: (1) account for a hitherto unexplained feature in the Apollo 12-Explorer 35 transfer functions, namely the rolloff at high frequencies; and (2) offer a possible explanation for the frequency dependence of the difference between the transfer functions for the two orthogonal components of the surface magnetic field. The harmonic response of a simple current layer model of the moon is derived.

  18. Response of immune response genes to adjuvants poly [di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP), CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and emulsigen at intradermal injection site in pigs.

    PubMed

    Magiri, R B; Lai, K; Chaffey, A M; Wilson, H L; Berry, W E; Szafron, M L; Mutwiri, G K

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects provide critical information on how innate immunity influences the development of adaptive immunity. Despite being a critical vaccine component, the mechanisms by which adjuvants mediate their effects are not fully understood and this is especially true when they are used in large animals. This lack of understanding limits our ability to design effective vaccines. In the present study, we administered polyphosphazene (PCEP), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG), emulsigen or saline via an intradermal injection into pigs and assessed the impact on the expression of reported 'adjuvant response genes' over time. CpG induced a strong upregulation of the chemokine CXL10 several 'Interferon Response Genes', as well as TNFα, and IL-10, and a down-regulation of IL-17 genes. Emulsigen upregulated expression of chemokines CCL2 and CCL5, proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, as well as TLR9, and several IFN response genes. PCEP induced the expression of chemokine CCL2 and proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. These results suggest that emulsigen and CpG may promote recruitment of innate immune cells and Th1 type cytokine production but that PCEP may promote a Th-2 type immune response through the induction of IL-6, an inducer of B cell activity and differentiation. PMID:27269793

  19. Glucose administration does not modulate prolactin response to exercise, TRH or haloperidol injection.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Jezová, D

    1994-01-01

    Glucose was found to exert an In vitro regulatory effect on prolactin secretion. Its role in the modulation of stimulated secretion of prolactin in man is, however, not clear. To evaluate the effect of hyperglycaemia on prolactin release, three stimulatory tests with different mechanisms of stimulation were employed. Healthy male subjects served as volunteers during submaximal exercise, TRH test (0.2 mg i.v.) and administration of haloperidol (2 mg i.v.). Glucose (100 g in 400 ml) or an equal volume of water was given 30 min before the tests. Blood for glucose and prolactin analysis was taken via an indwelling catheter. The plasma prolactin concentration increased in response to each of the stimuli applied. However, the prolactin increase during hyperglycaemia did not differ from values obtained in tests performed in normoglycaemia after water administration. These results indicate that prolactin release in healthy man is not modulated by hyperglycaemia. PMID:7711007

  20. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  1. High-Resolution Quantitative Metabolome Analysis of Urine by Automated Flow Injection NMR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism is essential to understand human health. To characterize human metabolism, a high-resolution read-out of the metabolic status under various physiological conditions, either in health or disease, is needed. Metabolomics offers an unprecedented approach for generating system-specific biochemical definitions of a human phenotype through the capture of a variety of metabolites in a single measurement. The emergence of large cohorts in clinical studies increases the demand of technologies able to analyze a large number of measurements, in an automated fashion, in the most robust way. NMR is an established metabolomics tool for obtaining metabolic phenotypes. Here, we describe the analysis of NMR-based urinary profiles for metabolic studies, challenged to a large human study (3007 samples). This method includes the acquisition of nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy one-dimensional and J-resolved two-dimensional (J-Res-2D) 1H NMR spectra obtained on a 600 MHz spectrometer, equipped with a 120 μL flow probe, coupled to a flow-injection analysis system, in full automation under the control of a sampler manager. Samples were acquired at a throughput of ∼20 (or 40 when J-Res-2D is included) min/sample. The associated technical analysis error over the full series of analysis is 12%, which demonstrates the robustness of the method. With the aim to describe an overall metabolomics workflow, the quantification of 36 metabolites, mainly related to central carbon metabolism and gut microbial host cometabolism, was obtained, as well as multivariate data analysis of the full spectral profiles. The metabolic read-outs generated using our analytical workflow can therefore be considered for further pathway modeling and/or biological interpretation. PMID:23718684

  2. The TORE SUPRA Cryogenic System Behaviour During Long Plasma Discharges with a High Injected Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, D.; Hertout, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Duchateau, J. L.; Reynaud, P.

    2006-04-27

    After the CIEL project completion including the upgrade of the plasma facing components and the water cooling system, the superconducting Tore Supra Tokamak achieved a world record of injected energy (1.1 GJ), during long duration (6 min) plasma discharges, which was enabled by the upgrade of the transfer system capacities, but also by the steady state toroidal field. The Tore Supra cryogenic refrigerator enables the toroidal field coils to be operated at nominal current along the full daily plasma operation shift. It has capacities of 300 W at 1.8 K, 750 W at 4.5 K and 30 kW at 80 K and was operated with a high reliability for more than 16 years. After a brief recall on the cryogenic refrigeration of the toroidal superconducting magnet, the distribution of the heat loads at the various levels of temperature (in standby mode 150W at 1.8 K and 200W at 4.5 K) is presented. The inventory of the calculated static and variable heat loads deposited within each part of toroidal field coils and thermal shields, is given with the factors of dependence. This analysis identifies and quantifies the major magnetic disturbances like a disruption (about 12 kJ onto the coils and 300 kJ onto the thick casings) which generate additional heat loads for the refrigerator.The measurements associated with the He II saturated bath pumping system, and the supercritical helium loop cooling the thick casings, allow us to verify thereafter the behaviour of the cryo-refrigerator during the long duration discharges, and the compliance with the theoretical model.The conclusions bring results also applicable to the cyoplant of future plant like ITER which will operate with long duration discharges.

  3. The TORE SUPRA Cryogenic System Behaviour During Long Plasma Discharges with a High Injected Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, D.; Hertout, P.; Journeaux, J. Y.; Duchateau, J. L.; Reynaud, P.

    2006-04-01

    After the CIEL project completion including the upgrade of the plasma facing components and the water cooling system, the superconducting Tore Supra Tokamak achieved a world record of injected energy (1.1 GJ), during long duration (6 min) plasma discharges, which was enabled by the upgrade of the transfer system capacities, but also by the steady state toroidal field. The Tore Supra cryogenic refrigerator enables the toroidal field coils to be operated at nominal current along the full daily plasma operation shift. It has capacities of 300 W at 1.8 K, 750 W at 4.5 K and 30 kW at 80 K and was operated with a high reliability for more than 16 years. After a brief recall on the cryogenic refrigeration of the toroidal superconducting magnet, the distribution of the heat loads at the various levels of temperature (in standby mode 150W at 1.8 K and 200W at 4.5 K) is presented. The inventory of the calculated static and variable heat loads deposited within each part of toroidal field coils and thermal shields, is given with the factors of dependence. This analysis identifies and quantifies the major magnetic disturbances like a disruption (about 12 kJ onto the coils and 300 kJ onto the thick casings) which generate additional heat loads for the refrigerator. The measurements associated with the He II saturated bath pumping system, and the supercritical helium loop cooling the thick casings, allow us to verify thereafter the behaviour of the cryo-refrigerator during the long duration discharges, and the compliance with the theoretical model. The conclusions bring results also applicable to the cyoplant of future plant like ITER which will operate with long duration discharges.

  4. Highly enhanced phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with cesium fluoride doped electron injection layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jongseok; Kwon, Yongwon; Sohn, Jiho; Lee, Changhee

    2015-09-01

    We systematically investigate doping effect of cesium fluoride (CsF) on the device performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). CsF can be used as a stable n-type dopant due to its low chemical reactivity and simple deposition process. We have observed that CsF could be employed as an effective n-type dopant in thin films of 3,3'-[5'- [3-(3-Pyridinyl)phenyl][1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-3,3''-diyl]bispyridine (TmPyPB) through experimental studies of optical absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with different doping concentration. In addition, we measured bulk resistance using impedance spectroscopy in an electron-only devices (EODs) with CsF-doped TmPyPB. As the doping ratio of the CsF increases, the current densities of EOD increase and the bulk resistances of the CsF-doped layer decrease. Owing to high electrical property of CsF-doped TmPyPB in EIL, green phosphorescent OLEDs showed significantly lower voltage and considerably enhanced efficiency. The device with 30 vol% CsF-doped TmPyPB showed power efficiency of 28.1 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2, whereas the device with pristine TmPyPB exhibited 13.8 lm/W. From these results, CsF-doped TmPyPB as EIL can reduce bulk resistance of EIL and improve the electron-injection and transport properties of electron-transport layer. Therefore, we can utilize CsF as an efficient n-type dopant in EIL of OLEDs.

  5. A case for Virtual Machine based Fault Injection in a High-Performance Computing Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Naughton, III, Thomas J; Vallee, Geoffroy R; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale computing platforms provide tremendous capabilities for scientific discovery. These systems have hundreds of thousands of computing cores, hundreds of terabytes of memory, and enormous high-performance interconnection networks. These systems are facing enormous challenges to achieve performance at such scale. Failures are an Achilles heel of these enormous systems. As applications and system software scale up to multi-petaflop and beyond to exascale platforms, the occurrence of failure will be much more common. This has given rise to a push in fault-tolerance and resilience research for HPC systems. This includes work on log analysis to identify types of failures, enhancements to the Message Passing Interface (MPI) to incorporate fault awareness, and a variety of fault tolerance mechanisms that span redundant computation, algorithm based fault tolerance, and advanced checkpoint/restart techniques. While there is much work to be done on the FT/Resilience mechanisms for such large-scale systems, there is also a profound gap in the tools for experimentation. This gap is compounded by the fact that HPC environments have stringent performance requirements and are often highly customized. The tool chain for these systems are often tailored for the platform and while the majority of systems on the Top500 Supercomputer list run Linux, these operating environments typically contain many site/machine specific enhancements. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain a consistent execution environment to minimize end-user (scientist) interruption. The work on system-level virtualization for HPC system offers a unique opportunity to maintain a consistent execution environment via a virtual machine (VM). Recent work on virtualization for HPC has shown that low-overhead, high performance systems can be realized. Virtualization also provides a clean abstraction for building experimental tools for investigation into the effects of failures in HPC and the related research on

  6. Characterization of the endemic equilibrium and response to mutant injection in a multi-strain disease model.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Tomás; Bolster, Diogo; Nunes, Ana

    2015-03-01

    We explore a model of an antigenically diverse infection whose otherwise identical strains compete through cross-immunity. We assume that individuals may produce upon infection different numbers of antibody types, each of which matches the antigenic configuration of a particular epitope, and that one matching antibody type grants total immunity against a challenging strain. In order to reduce the number of equations involved in the analytic description of the dynamics, we follow the strategy proposed by Kryazhimskiy et al. (2007) and apply a low-order closure reminiscent of a pair approximation. Using this approximation, we go beyond the numerical studies of Kryazhimskiy et al. (2007) and explore the analytic properties of the ensuing model in the absence of mutation. We characterize its endemic equilibrium, comparing with the results of agent based simulations of the full model to assess the performance of the closure assumption. We show that a particular choice of immune response leads to a degenerate endemic equilibrium, where different strain prevalences may exist, breaking the symmetry of the model. Finally we study the behavior of the system under the injection of mutant strains. We find that the build up of diversity from a single founding strain is extremely unlikely for different choices of the population׳s immune response. PMID:25496729

  7. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D H-mode discharges

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jackson, G. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Lunsford, R.; et al

    2016-04-08

    A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3–0.9mm, speed of 50–120 m s-1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for themore » entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3–5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Altogether, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is need« less

  8. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D H-mode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jackson, G. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Lunsford, R.; Parks, P. B.; Chrystal, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Makowski, M. J.; Lasnier, C. J.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T.; Shiraki, D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3–0.9 mm, speed of 50–120 m s‑1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9 mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3 mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9 mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for the entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3–5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Overall, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is needed to determine whether the projected heat flux reduction required for ITER can be met.

  9. Immune Responses Induced by Gene Gun or Intramuscular Injection of DNA Vaccines That Express Immunogenic Regions of the Serine Repeat Antigen from Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Belperron, Alexia A.; Feltquate, David; Fox, Barbara A.; Horii, Toshihiro; Bzik, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The liver- and blood-stage-expressed serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a candidate protein for a human malaria vaccine. We compared the immune responses induced in mice immunized with SERA-expressing plasmid DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection or delivered intradermally by Gene Gun immunization. Mice were immunized with a pcdna3 plasmid encoding the entire 47-kDa domain of SERA (amino acids 17 to 382) or the N-terminal domain (amino acids 17 to 110) of SERA. Minimal antibody responses were detected following DNA vaccination with the N-terminal domain of SERA, suggesting that the N-terminal domain alone is not highly immunogenic by this route of vaccine delivery. Immunization of mice by Gene Gun delivery of the 47-kDa domain of SERA elicited a significantly higher serum antibody titer to the antigen than immunization of mice by i.m. injection with the same plasmid did. The predominant isotype subclass of the antibodies elicited to the SERA protein following i.m. and Gene Gun immunizations with SERA plasmid DNA was immunoglobulin G1. Coimmunization of mice with SERA plasmid DNA and a plasmid expressing the hepatitis B surface antigen (pCMV-s) by the i.m. route resulted in higher anti-SERA titers than those generated in mice immunized with the SERA DNA plasmid alone. Vaccination with DNA may provide a viable alternative or may be used in conjunction with protein-based subunit vaccines to maximize the efficacy of a human malaria vaccine that includes immunogenic regions of the SERA protein. PMID:10496891

  10. Immune responses induced by gene gun or intramuscular injection of DNA vaccines that express immunogenic regions of the serine repeat antigen from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Belperron, A A; Feltquate, D; Fox, B A; Horii, T; Bzik, D J

    1999-10-01

    The liver- and blood-stage-expressed serine repeat antigen (SERA) of Plasmodium falciparum is a candidate protein for a human malaria vaccine. We compared the immune responses induced in mice immunized with SERA-expressing plasmid DNA vaccines delivered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection or delivered intradermally by Gene Gun immunization. Mice were immunized with a pcdna3 plasmid encoding the entire 47-kDa domain of SERA (amino acids 17 to 382) or the N-terminal domain (amino acids 17 to 110) of SERA. Minimal antibody responses were detected following DNA vaccination with the N-terminal domain of SERA, suggesting that the N-terminal domain alone is not highly immunogenic by this route of vaccine delivery. Immunization of mice by Gene Gun delivery of the 47-kDa domain of SERA elicited a significantly higher serum antibody titer to the antigen than immunization of mice by i.m. injection with the same plasmid did. The predominant isotype subclass of the antibodies elicited to the SERA protein following i.m. and Gene Gun immunizations with SERA plasmid DNA was immunoglobulin G1. Coimmunization of mice with SERA plasmid DNA and a plasmid expressing the hepatitis B surface antigen (pCMV-s) by the i.m. route resulted in higher anti-SERA titers than those generated in mice immunized with the SERA DNA plasmid alone. Vaccination with DNA may provide a viable alternative or may be used in conjunction with protein-based subunit vaccines to maximize the efficacy of a human malaria vaccine that includes immunogenic regions of the SERA protein. PMID:10496891

  11. Combination of External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) With Intratumoral Injection of Dendritic Cells as Neo-Adjuvant Treatment of High-Risk Soft Tissue Sarcoma Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven E.; Iclozan, Cristina; Bui, Marilyn M.; Cotter, Matthew J.; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Ahmed, Jamil; Noyes, David R.; Cheong, David; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Heysek, Randy V.; Berman, Claudia; Lenox, Brianna C.; Janssen, William; Zager, Jonathan S.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Letson, G. Douglas; Antonia, Scott J.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of combination of intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DC) and fractionated external beam radiation (EBRT) on tumor-specific immune responses in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Material: Seventeen patients with large (>5 cm) high-grade STS were enrolled in the study. They were treated in the neoadjuvant setting with 5,040 cGy of EBRT, split into 28 fractions and delivered 5 days per week, combined with intratumoral injection of 10{sup 7} DCs followed by complete resection. DCs were injected on the second, third, and fourth Friday of the treatment cycle. Clinical evaluation and immunological assessments were performed. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. No patient had tumor-specific immune responses before combined EBRT/DC therapy; 9 patients (52.9%) developed tumor-specific immune responses, which lasted from 11 to 42 weeks. Twelve of 17 patients (70.6%) were progression free after 1 year. Treatment caused a dramatic accumulation of T cells in the tumor. The presence of CD4{sup +} T cells in the tumor positively correlated with tumor-specific immune responses that developed following combined therapy. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not regulatory T cells negatively correlated with the development of tumor-specific immune responses. Experiments with {sup 111}In labeled DCs demonstrated that these antigen presenting cells need at least 48 h to start migrating from tumor site. Conclusions: Combination of intratumoral DC administration with EBRT was safe and resulted in induction of antitumor immune responses. This suggests that this therapy is promising and needs further testing in clinical trials design to assess clinical efficacy.

  12. Influenza subunit vaccine coated microneedle patches elicit comparable immune responses to intramuscular injection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kommareddy, S; Baudner, B C; Bonificio, A; Gallorini, S; Palladino, G; Determan, A S; Dohmeier, D M; Kroells, K D; Sternjohn, J R; Singh, M; Dormitzer, P R; Hansen, K J; O'Hagan, D T

    2013-07-25

    Delivery of influenza vaccine using innovative approaches such as microneedles has been researched extensively in the past decade. In this study we present concentration followed by formulation and coating of monobulks from 2008/2009 seasonal vaccine on to 3M's solid microstructured transdermal system (sMTS) by a GMP-scalable process. The hemagglutinin (HA) in monobulks was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF) to achieve HA concentrations as high as 20mg/ml. The stability of the coated antigens was evaluated by the functional assay, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID). The data generated show stability of the coated antigen upon storage at 4°C and room temperature in the presence of desiccant for at least 8 weeks. Freeze-thaw stability data indicate the stability of the coated antigen in stressed conditions. The vaccine coated microstructures were evaluated in vivo in a guinea pig model, and resulted in immune titers comparable to the traditional trivalent vaccine administered intramuscularly. The data presented indicate the potential use of the technology in delivery of influenza vaccine. This paper also addresses the key issues of stability of coated antigen, reproducibility and scalability of the processes used in preparation of influenza vaccine coated microneedle patches that are important in developing a successful product. PMID:23398932

  13. P-doping and efficient carrier injection induced by graphene oxide for high performing WSe2 rectification devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Atif; Rathi, Servin; Lee, Inyeal; Li, Lijun; Lim, Dongsuk; Kang, Moonshik; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we fabricated multi-layer WSe2 rectifying diodes using graphene oxide (GO) as p-doping material on one side of the contacting electrodes. This GO layer can reduce the contact resistance by forming a tunneling barrier for efficient hole injection, while it increases the contact resistance for the injection of electrons. Results of Raman shift spectra and the opto-electric response of the device confirmed the p-doping effect caused by the GO layer and the formation of a barrier, respectively. We observed a gate tunable rectification effect with a forward/reverse current ratio of 104 and low reverse bias current of 10-10 A. Applying a GO layer in the fabrication of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides based devices is a very useful method in the applications in future nanotechnologies.

  14. [Martin high pressure common rail diesel engine injection system]. Technical progress report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    We have a contract with Diesel Recerche of Trieste, Italy, and the Fincantier Group in Italy. They are naval ship builders. Our contract is to work with Diesel Recerche to design the `Martin` fuel injection system for their first test engine for a naval ship. Tiby Martin has been working in the design and detailed layout of the application drawings for Diesel Recerche.

  15. Different cleavage site for high molecular weight kininogen in vivo following intravenous injection of dextran sulfate in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    Purified radiolabeled rabbit Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen were used to examine Hageman factor system molecular dynamics after the intravenous injection of heparin-like dextran sulfate polymer in the rabbit. Hageman factor system proteins rapidly disappeared from the circulation following dextran sulfate injection, as measured by radial immunodiffusion, by kaolin-releasable kinin formation, and by measuring circulating levels of radiolabeled Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen. /sup 125/I-Hageman factor was distributed mainly to lung, liver, and spleen following dextran sulfate injection. Proteolysis of circulating /sup 125/I-Hageman factor occurred at a site within a disulfide loop into fragments of 50,000 and 30,000 molecular weight. Proteolysis of /sup 125/I-prekallikrein also occurred with visualization of a 50,000 molecular weight fragment. Although extensive proteolysis of /sup 131/I-high molecular weight kininogen was observed, the cleavage fragments were not the same as those generated during contact activation in vitro. The major fragment of high molecular weight kininogen observed in vivo was at 80,000 molecular weight, in contrast to the 65,000 molecular weight fragment generated by kallikrein in vitro. These results indicate that high molecular weight kininogen can undergo proteolysis in vivo into fragments not known to be associated with kinin release.

  16. An injectable, calcium responsive composite hydrogel for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher A; Pomrenke, Rebecca D; McLane, Joshua S; Schaub, Nicholas J; DeSimone, Elise K; Ligon, Lee A; Gilbert, Ryan J

    2014-02-12

    Immediately following spinal cord injury, further injury can occur through several secondary injury cascades. As a consequence of cell lysis, an increase in extracellular Ca(2+) results in additional neuronal loss by inducing apoptosis. Thus, hydrogels that reduce extracellular Ca(2+) concentration may reduce secondary injury severity. The goal of this study was to develop composite hydrogels consisting of alginate, chitosan, and genipin that interact with extracellular Ca(2+) to enable in situ gelation while maintaining an elastic modulus similar to native spinal cord (∼1000 Pa). It was hypothesized that incorporation of genipin and chitosan would regulate hydrogel electrostatic characteristics and influence hydrogel porosity, degradation, and astrocyte behavior. Hydrogel composition was varied to create hydrogels with statistically similar mechanical properties (∼1000 Pa) that demonstrated tunable charge characteristics (6-fold range in free amine concentration) and degradation rate (complete degradation between 7 and 28 days; some blends persist after 28 days). Hydrogels demonstrate high sensitivity to Ca(2+) concentration, as a 1 mM change during fabrication induced a significant change in elastic modulus. Additionally, hydrogels incubated in a Ca(2+)-containing solution exhibited an increased linear viscoelastic limit (LVE) and an increased elastic modulus above the LVE limit in a time dependent manner. An extension of the LVE limit implies a change in hydrogel cross-linking structure. Attachment assays demonstrated that addition of chitosan/genipin to alginate hydrogels induced up to a 4-fold increase in the number of attached astrocytes and facilitated astrocyte clustering on the hydrogel surface in a composition dependent manner. Furthermore, Western blots demonstrated tunable glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes cultured on hydrogel blends, with some hydrogel compositions demonstrating no significant increase in GFAP expression

  17. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference

  18. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment. PMID:26406569

  19. Analysis of an nn+ low-high junction and the application to integrated injection logic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, T. L.

    1980-12-01

    The literature on pnn+ devices is reviewed with an itemization of the assumptions typically made as well as a derivation of the most widely accepted theory. These assumptions are analyzed separately with the aid of sample calculations made using numerical analysis. The effects associated with heavy doping and Auger recombination are introduced with the associated theories described. A computational approach for the analysis of nn+ is developed that provides excellent agreement with the more complex and rigorous numerical analysis. The basic operation of integrated injection logic is described along with a development of a d.c. model. The a.c. or transient analysis of an integrated injection logic device using a charge control model is discussed. An extended Ebers-Moll model is described with a technique for calculating the model parameters for diffusion capacitance determination. The numerical techniques utilized in the derivations as well as determining how heavy doping and Auger effects can be incorporated into the algorithm are considered.

  20. Monitoring of binder removal from injection molded ceramics using air-coupled ultrasound at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Wright, W D; Hutchins, D A

    1999-01-01

    A pair of capacitance-type air-coupled ultrasonic transducers have been constructed that were capable of operating in air at temperatures of 500 to 600 degrees C. These devices were then used to monitor the pyrolytic removal of organic binder from injection molded silicon nitride ceramic components using air-coupled ultrasound inside a furnace at elevated temperatures. Through-thickness waveforms were obtained in the ceramic and compared with simultaneous measurements of the mass of the sample. Both the ultrasonic velocity and signal amplitudes could be used to monitor the change in mass of the injection molded ceramic, and other phenomena (such as softening and redistribution of the binder) were observed. PMID:18238465

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  2. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  3. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  4. Shashlik calorimeter response to high energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, L.

    1994-04-01

    We report the results coming from an extensive study of a Shashlik calorimeter prototype for CMS. Nine (47 × 47 mm 2) towers were exposed to a high energy electron beam at CERN SPS and read out by silicon photodiodes followed by low noise preamplifiers. The main results are the measurements of: -|the energy resolution: {σ}/{E}(%)= {(8.4±0.1)}/{E}⊕ {(0.37±0.03)}/{E}⊕(0.8±0.2) ; -|the shower resolution: σ x,y(mm)= {9.1±0.3 stat±0.7 syst}/{E}⊕ {27±1.4 stat±2.1 syst}/{E}. -|We also give the angular resolution of the direction of an electron shower. It is estimated by using one point from a preshower detector located at 3 X0 and the second point on a barycenter in the calorimeter mosaic. The result is encouraging being in agreement with a resolution of σ θ( mrad) = {70}/{√E}, which gives for an electron of 50 GeV an angular resolution of 10 mrad. -|The uniformity of the calorimeter response is found to be better than ± 1%. -|The mean light yield measured in Shashlik towers equipped with Y7 WLS fibres from Kuraray and aluminized at the front side of the tower is of the order of 12300 γ/ GeV assuming a quantum efficiency of 62.5% for the Si photodiode.

  5. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas A. Hewett; Franklin M. Orr Jr.

    2000-12-31

    Gas injection in oil reservoirs offers huge potential for improved oil recovery. However, successful design of a gas injection process requires a detailed understanding of a variety of different significant processes, including the phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the approach to multi-contact miscibility in the reservoir, the flow of oil, water and gas underground, and the interaction of phase behavior reservoir heterogeneity and gravity on overall performance at the field scale. This project attempts to tackle all these issues using a combination of theoretical, numerical and laboratory studies of gas injection. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) Theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of the development of a CT scanning technique which can measure compositions in a two-phase, three-component system in-situ.

  6. Performance comparison of several response surface surrogate models and ensemble methods for water injection optimization under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Masoud; Pan, Indranil

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we defined a relatively complex reservoir engineering optimization problem of maximizing the net present value of the hydrocarbon production in a water flooding process by controlling the water injection rates in multiple control periods. We assessed the performance of a number of response surface surrogate models and their ensembles which are combined by Dempster-Shafer theory and Weighted Averaged Surrogates as found in contemporary literature works. Most of these ensemble methods are based on the philosophy that multiple weak learners can be leveraged to obtain one strong learner which is better than the individual weak ones. Even though these techniques have been shown to work well for test bench functions, we found them not offering a considerable improvement compared to an individually used cubic radial basis function surrogate model. Our simulations on two and three dimensional cases, with varying number of optimization variables suggest that cubic radial basis functions-based surrogate model is reliable, outperforms Kriging surrogates and multivariate adaptive regression splines, and if it does not outperform, it is rarely outperformed by the ensemble surrogate models.

  7. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R.; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J.; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Rahman, Cheryl V.

    2014-01-01

    Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84 ± 24 μm for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2 min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37 °C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24 h at 37 °C was 0.9 ± 0.1 MPa, and the average Young’s modulus was 9.4 ± 1.2 MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54 ± 38 μm. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

  8. Injectable and porous PLGA microspheres that form highly porous scaffolds at body temperature.

    PubMed

    Qutachi, Omar; Vetsch, Jolanda R; Gill, Daniel; Cox, Helen; Scurr, David J; Hofmann, Sandra; Müller, Ralph; Quirk, Robin A; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Rahman, Cheryl V

    2014-12-01

    Injectable scaffolds are of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their minimally invasive mode of delivery. For tissue repair applications, it is essential that such scaffolds have the mechanical properties, porosity and pore diameter to support the formation of new tissue. In the current study, porous poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were fabricated with an average size of 84±24μm for use as injectable cell carriers. Treatment with ethanolic sodium hydroxide for 2min was observed to increase surface porosity without causing the microsphere structure to disintegrate. This surface treatment also enabled the microspheres to fuse together at 37°C to form scaffold structures. The average compressive strength of the scaffolds after 24h at 37°C was 0.9±0.1MPa, and the average Young's modulus was 9.4±1.2MPa. Scaffold porosity levels were 81.6% on average, with a mean pore diameter of 54±38μm. This study demonstrates a method for fabricating porous PLGA microspheres that form solid porous scaffolds at body temperature, creating an injectable system capable of supporting NIH-3T3 cell attachment and proliferation in vitro. PMID:25152354

  9. High-Pressure Air Injection on a Low-Head Francis Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Fellenberg, S.; Häussler, W.; Michler, W.

    2014-03-01

    Birecik is a Turkish hydroelectric power plant located at the Euphrat River in the southeast of Turkey. During commissioning of the units, a vibration phenomenon was discovered, restricted to a small power band. The cone which supports the thrust bearing and which is braced against the turbine head cover started to vibrate at its natural frequency. Investigations showed the vibrations to be innocuous to the lifetime of the machine. Exhaustive vibration measurements on site pointed to hydraulic source for the vibration. Detailed flow simulations by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were carried out. They permitted the detailed analysis of a variety of transient flow phenomena happening inside the machine. They revealed the presence of interblade vortices in the power and head range where the vibrations occurred. As a consequence, it was suggested to inject air downstream of the wicket gates through the head cover. In 2012, one unit of the Birecik power plant was equipped with such an air injection system. As soon as the air injection was turned on, the machine operated calmly in the small power band where vibrations had been observed before. The necessary air volume was considerably smaller than expected to be necessary for a calm operation.

  10. The Impact of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on HIV Risk Behaviors among High-Risk Injection Drug Users: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pramila; Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Copenhaver, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection through preventable drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. In recent decade, there has been a growing evidence that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is associated with a significant decrease in both drug- and sex-related risk behaviors among this high-risk population. The better understanding of the relationship between MMT and HIV-related risk behaviors will help to better inform future HIV prevention strategies, which may have policy implications as well. In this systematic review, we therefore aimed to explore the relevant literature to more clearly examine the possible impact of MMT on HIV risks behaviors among high-risk IDUs. The findings thus far suggest that MMT is associated with a significant decrease in injecting drug use and sharing of injecting equipment. Evidence on sex-related risk behavior is limited, but suggest that MMT is associated with a lower incidence of multiple sex partners and unprotected sex. The literature also suggests that the most significant factor in reducing HIV risks was treatment adherence. As such, more attention needs to be given in future studies to ensure the higher rates of access to MMT as well as to improve the adherence to MMT. PMID:27066590

  11. Tailoring the degradation rates of thermally responsive hydrogels designed for soft tissue injection by varying the autocatalytic potential

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yang; Jiang, Hongbin; Ye, Sang-Ho; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Wagner, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to modulate the degradation properties of biomaterials such as thermally responsive hydrogels is desirable when exploring new therapeutic strategies that rely on the temporary presence of a placed scaffold or gel. Here we report a method of manipulating the absorption rate of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) ((poly(NIPAAm)) based hydrogel across a wide range (from 1 d to 5 mo) by small alterations in the composition. Relying upon the autocatalytic effect, the degradation of poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA), (HEMA=2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate; MAPLA=methacrylate-polylactide) was greatly accelerated by adding a fourth monomer methacrylic acid (MAA) at no more than 2 mol% to obtain poly(NIPAAm-co-HEMA-co-MAPLA-co-MAA) (pNHMMj) where j reflects the MAA molar % in the reactant mixture. MAA residue introduction decreased the pH inside the hydrogels and in surrounding buffered solutions. Accelerated degradation positively correlated with MAA content in pNHMMj polymers, putatively by the accelerated cleavage of MAPLA residues to raise the transition temperature of the polymer above body temperature. Physical properties including thermal transition behavior and initial mechanical strength did not vary significantly with MAA content. A rat hindlimb injection model generally reflected the in vitro observation that higher MAA content resulted in more rapid degradation and cellular infiltration. The strategy of tuning the degradation of thermally responsive hydrogels where degradation or solubilization is determined by their polyester components might be applied to other tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications where designed biomaterial degradation behavior is needed. PMID:25890745

  12. Effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission in a vortexing fluidized bed combustor using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Fuping Qian; Chiensong Chyang; Weishen Yen

    2009-07-15

    The effects of acetic acid injection and operating conditions on NO emission were investigated in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC), an integration of circular freeboard and a rectangular combustion chamber. Operating conditions, such as the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber, the bed temperature and the injecting location of acetic acid, were determined by means of response surface methodology (RSM), which enables the examination of parameters with a moderate number of experiments. In RSM, NO emission concentration after acetic acid injection and NO removal percentage at the exit of the VFBC are used as the objective function. The results show that the bed temperature has a more important effect on the NO emission than the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the injecting location of acetic acid and the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber have a more important effect on the NO removal percentage than the bed temperature. NO emission can be decreased by injecting the acetic acid into the combustion chamber, and NO emission decreases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location above the distributor. On the other hand, NO removal percentage increases with the height of the acetic acid injecting location, and NO emission increases with the stoichiometric oxygen in the combustion chamber and the bed temperature. NO removal percentage increases with the stoichiometric oxygen, and increases first, then decreases with the bed temperature. Also, a higher NO removal percentage could be obtained at 850{sup o}C. 26 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. A comparison of the growth responses following intramuscular GHRH plasmid administration versus daily growth hormone injections in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of daily porcine growth hormone (GH) injections versus plasmid-driven porcine GH-releasing hormone (pGHRH) production to promote growth was assessed. Ten-day-old piglets were injected intramuscularly with 0.1, 1, or 3 mg pGHRH, or a control plasmid followed by electroporation. Plasmid c...

  14. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  15. Preliminary design of a RFQ direct injection scheme for the IsoDAR high intensity H₂⁺ cyclotron.

    PubMed

    Winklehner, D; Hamm, R; Alonso, J; Conrad, J M; Axani, S

    2016-02-01

    IsoDAR (Isotope Decay-At-Rest) is a novel experiment designed to measure neutrino oscillations through ν̄(e) disappearance, thus providing a definitive search for sterile neutrinos. In order to generate the necessary anti-neutrino flux, a high intensity primary proton beam is needed. In IsoDAR, H2(+) is accelerated and is stripped into protons just before the target, to overcome space charge issues at injection. As part of the design, we have refined an old proposal to use a RFQ to axially inject bunched H2(+) ions into the driver cyclotron. This method has several advantages over a classical low energy beam transport (LEBT) design: (1) The bunching efficiency is higher than for the previously considered two-gap buncher and thus the overall injection efficiency is higher. This relaxes the constraints on the H2(+) current required from the ion source. (2) The overall length of the LEBT can be reduced. (3) The RFQ can also accelerate the ions. This enables the ion source platform high voltage to be reduced from 70 kV to 15 kV, making underground installation easier. We are presenting the preliminary RFQ design parameters and first beam dynamics simulations from the ion source to the spiral inflector entrance. PMID:26932101

  16. Associations of Body Mass Index with Sexual Risk-Taking and Injection Drug Use among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Richard; Robin, Leah; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI) is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months). However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59), not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30), and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98). Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile) was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19) and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42). Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs. PMID:25105024

  17. High-Dose Vitamin C Injection to Cancer Patients May Promote Thrombosis Through Procoagulant Activation of Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Bae, Ok-Nam; Koh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Sue; Kim, Inho; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Potential risk of high-dose vitamin C consumption is often ignored. Recently, gram-dose vitamin C is being intravenously injected for the treatment of cancer, which can expose circulating blood cells to extremely high concentrations of vitamin C. As well as platelets, red blood cells (RBCs) can actively participate in thrombosis through procoagulant activation. Here, we examined the procoagulant and prothrombotic risks associated with the intravenous injection of gram-dose vitamin C. Vitamin C (0.5-5 mM) increased procoagulant activity of freshly isolated human RBCs via the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to outer cellular membrane and the formation of PS-bearing microvesicles. PS exposure was induced by the dysregulation of key enzymes for the maintenance of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, which was from vitamin C-induced oxidative stress, and resultant disruption of calcium and thiol homeostasis. Indeed, the intravenous injection of vitamin C (0.5-1.0 g/kg) in rats in vivo significantly increased thrombosis. Notably, the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C were more prominent in RBCs isolated from cancer patients, who are at increased risks of thrombotic events. Vitamin C-induced procoagulant and prothrombotic activation of RBCs, and increased thrombosis in vivo. RBCs from cancer patients exhibited increased sensitivity to the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C, reflecting that intravenous gram-dose vitamin C therapy needs to be carefully revisited. PMID:26139164

  18. Preliminary design of a RFQ direct injection scheme for the IsoDAR high intensity H 2+ cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklehner, D.; Hamm, R.; Alonso, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Axani, S.

    2016-02-01

    IsoDAR (Isotope Decay-At-Rest) is a novel experiment designed to measure neutrino oscillations through ν ¯ e disappearance, thus providing a definitive search for sterile neutrinos. In order to generate the necessary anti-neutrino flux, a high intensity primary proton beam is needed. In IsoDAR, H 2+ is accelerated and is stripped into protons just before the target, to overcome space charge issues at injection. As part of the design, we have refined an old proposal to use a RFQ to axially inject bunched H 2+ ions into the driver cyclotron. This method has several advantages over a classical low energy beam transport (LEBT) design: (1) The bunching efficiency is higher than for the previously considered two-gap buncher and thus the overall injection efficiency is higher. This relaxes the constraints on the H 2+ current required from the ion source. (2) The overall length of the LEBT can be reduced. (3) The RFQ can also accelerate the ions. This enables the ion source platform high voltage to be reduced from 70 kV to 15 kV, making underground installation easier. We are presenting the preliminary RFQ design parameters and first beam dynamics simulations from the ion source to the spiral inflector entrance.

  19. Simultaneous determination of major bioactive components in Qingkailing injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Xin, Wen-Feng; Luo, Guo-An; Wang, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2005-11-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/ELSD) was established for simultaneous determination of seven major bioactive components of Qingkailing injection including adenosine, geniposide, chlorogenic acid, baicalin, ursodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid. The proposed method was applied to analyze ten various Qingkailing injections and produced data with acceptable linearity, repeatability, precision and accuracy having a limit of detection (LOD) of 10-50 ng. In comparison with UV detection, HPLC/ELSD permits the determination of non-chromophoric compounds without prior derivatization, and shows good compatibility to the multi-components of complex analytes. The proposed method is a useful alternative for routine analysis in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:16272719

  20. Injection moulding of high aspect ratio micron-scale thickness polymeric microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Andrew W.; Poggi, Mark A.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; Colton, Jonathan S.

    2004-11-01

    Tipless thermoplastic microcantilevers suitable for chemical and biological sensing applications were fabricated by injection moulding. Their stiffnesses and resonant frequencies were each determined by two techniques. Polystyrene beams produced by this method exhibited stiffnesses ranging from 0.01 to 10 N m-1, making them feasible for biosensing applications. The approach proved repeatable with low standard deviations on the parameters measured on 22 microcantilever beams (stiffness and first-mode resonant frequency) made from the same mould. The variations were much lower than those of similar, commercially available, silicon-type beams. The polymeric microcantilevers were shown to be of at least equal calibre to commercially available microcantilevers.

  1. Next Generation Hole Injection/Transport Nano-Composites for High Efficiency OLED Development

    SciTech Connect

    King Wang

    2009-07-31

    The objective of this program is to use a novel nano-composite material system for the OLED anode coating/hole transport layer. The novel anode coating is intended to significantly increase not only hole injection/transport efficiency, but the device energy efficiency as well. Another goal of the Core Technologies Program is the optimization and scale-up of air-stable and cross-linkable novel HTL nano-composite materials synthesis and the development of low-cost, large-scale mist deposition processes for polymer OLED fabrication. This proposed technology holds the promise to substantially improve OLED energy efficiency and lifetime.

  2. Polarization Issues with High Power Injection and Low Power Emission in Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Udintsev, V. S.

    2009-11-26

    All tokamak experiments using ECCD require setting of the beam elliptical polarization for proper coupling to the plasma. This is done either in the matching optics unit (MOU) at the output of the gyrotron, or in a couple of miter bends of the transmission line. Similarly, oblique ECE receivers require selection of the correct elliptical polarization to provide localized measurements. For the TCV tokamak at the CRPP, gyrotron and oblique-ECE polarizers are characterized during either high- or low- power testing of equipment: for the gyrotrons the behaviour is determined at a single frequency, but for the oblique-ECE the broadband response is needed. These characteristics are included in the calibration database and used during subsequent analysis of the power coupling to, or from, the sources (gyrotron, plasma, or low power transmitting antenna). A more detailed characterization has been carried out (at low power) with the MOU for the EU, 170 GHz, 2 MW, gyrotron prototype for ITER. This paper discusses the methodology and results of these measurements, as well as a review of nearly a decade's worth of experimental data from the 6 gyrotron, 3 MW, 82.6 GHz TCV system. In particular, the consistency between the calibrations and the subsequent data from tokamak experiments is analysed.

  3. A Responsive High School Feedback System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duby, Paul B.

    1991-01-01

    Few higher education institutions provide systematic information for high schools beyond what is involved in the application/admissions process. The Northern Michigan University (NMU) High School Feedback System was designed to meet the needs expressed by high school personnel in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan for increased frequency, quantity,…

  4. High kinetic energy plasma jet generation and its injection into the Globus-M spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. V.; Gusev, V. K.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Sakharov, N. V.; Abramova, K. B.; Sklyarova, E. M.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.

    2005-09-01

    Progress in the theoretical and experimental development of the plasma jet source and injection of hydrogen plasma and neutral gas jets into the Globus-M spherical tokamak is discussed. An experimental test bed is described for investigation of intense plasma jets that are generated by a double-stage plasma gun consisting of an intense source for neutral gas production and a conventional pulsed coaxial accelerator. A procedure for optimizing the accelerator parameters so as to achieve the maximum possible flow velocity with a limited discharge current and a reasonable length of the coaxial electrodes is presented. The calculations are compared with experiment. Plasma jet parameters, among them pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc, were measured. Plasma jets with densities of up to 1022 m-3, total numbers of accelerated particles (1-5) × 1019, and flow velocities of 50-100 km s-1 were successfully injected into the plasma column of the Globus-M tokamak. Interferometric and Thomson scattering measurements confirmed deep jet penetration and a fast density rise (<0.5 ms) at all spatial points up to a radius rap 0.3a. The plasma particle inventory increase by ~50% (from 0.65 × 1019 to 1 × 1019) did not result in plasma degradation.

  5. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling. Progress report, August 16, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-12-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  6. Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines: randomized trials in Mexican schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, John V.; Fernandez de Castro, Jorge; Valdespino-Gomez, Jose Luis; Garcia-Garcia, Ma de Lourdes; Islas-Romero, Rocio; Echaniz-Aviles, Gabriela; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Sepulveda-Amor, Jaime

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare antibody responses and side-effects of aerosolized and injected measles vaccines after revaccination of children enrolling in elementary schools. METHODS: Vaccines for measles (Edmonston-Zagreb) or measles-rubella (Edmonston-Zagreb with RA27/3) were given by aerosol or injection to four groups of children. An additional group received Schwarz measles vaccine by injection. These five groups received vaccines in usual standard titre doses. A sixth group received only 1000 plaque-forming units of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine by aerosol. The groups were randomized by school. Concentrations of neutralizing antibodies were determined in blood specimens taken at baseline and four months after vaccination from randomized subgroups (n = 28-31) of children in each group. FINDINGS: After baseline antibody titres were controlled for, the frequencies of fourfold or greater increases in neutralizing antibodies did not differ significantly between the three groups that received vaccine by aerosol (range 52%-64%), but they were significantly higher than those for the three groups that received injected vaccine (range 4%-23%). Mean increases in titres and post-vaccination geometric mean titres paralleled these findings. Fewer side-effects were noted after aerosol than injection administration of vaccine. CONCLUSION: Immunogenicity of measles vaccine when administered by aerosol is superior to that when the vaccine is given by injection. This advantage persists with aerosolized doses less than or equal to one-fifth of usual injected doses. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of measles vaccination by aerosol should be further evaluated in mass campaigns. PMID:12471401

  7. Hydrophilic thermoplastic polyurethanes for the manufacturing of highly dosed oral sustained release matrices via hot melt extrusion and injection molding.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, G; Van Renterghem, J; Van Bockstal, P J; Kasmi, S; De Geest, B G; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2016-06-15

    Hydrophilic aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane (Tecophilic™ grades) matrices for high drug loaded oral sustained release dosage forms were formulated via hot melt extrusion/injection molding (HME/IM). Drugs with different aqueous solubility (diprophylline, theophylline and acetaminophen) were processed and their influence on the release kinetics was investigated. Moreover, the effect of Tecophilic™ grade, HME/IM process temperature, extrusion speed, drug load, injection pressure and post-injection pressure on in vitro release kinetics was evaluated for all model drugs. (1)H NMR spectroscopy indicated that all grades have different soft segment/hard segment ratios, allowing different water uptake capacities and thus different release kinetics. Processing temperature of the different Tecophilic™ grades was successfully predicted by using SEC and rheology. Tecophilic™ grades SP60D60, SP93A100 and TG2000 had a lower processing temperature than other grades and were further evaluated for the production of IM tablets. During HME/IM drug loads up to 70% (w/w) were achieved. In addition, Raman mapping and (M)DSC results confirmed the homogenous distribution of mainly crystalline API in all polymer matrices. Besides, hydrophilic TPU based formulations allowed complete and sustained release kinetics without using release modifiers. As release kinetics were mainly affected by drug load and the length of the PEO soft segment, this polymer platform offers a versatile formulation strategy to adjust the release rate of drugs with different aqueous solubility. PMID:27113866

  8. Effects of high-energy ball-milling on injectability and strength of β-tricalcium-phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jiyoung; Ida, Yumika; Sekine, Kazumitsu; Kawano, Fumiaki; Hamada, Kenichi

    2015-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) offers many advantages as a bone-substitution material. The objective of this study is to develop a new CPC that simultaneously exhibits fine injectability, a short setting time, and high strength. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, control) powder was ball-milled for 24h to produce a new cement powder. The modified β-TCP after 24h milling (mβ-TCP-24h) exhibited excellent injectability even 1h after mixing. The mechanical properties of the set cement (compact) were evaluated using compressive strength (CS) and diametral tensile strength (DTS) testing. The CS and DTS values of the mβ-TCP-24h compacts were 8.02MPa and 2.62MPa, respectively, at 5h after mixing, and were 49.6MPa and 7.9MPa, respectively, at 2 weeks after mixing. All the CS and DTS values of the mβ-TCP-24h compacts were significantly higher than those of the control for the same duration after mixing. These results suggest that the mechano-chemically modified β-TCP powder dissolves rapidly and accelerates hydroxyapatite precipitation, which successfully shortens the cement setting time and enhances the strength. This study supports that mβ-TCP-24h is a promising candidate for use in injectable CPCs with improved strength. PMID:25855467

  9. The role of nitric oxide in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein in the spinal cord after intradermal injection of capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Fang, Li; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D

    2002-06-01

    We investigated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the spinal cord of rats during central sensitization after intradermal capsaicin injection. CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) were measured by immunoblotting. The level of p-CREB increased by 20 minutes, peaked between 20 and 60 minutes after capsaicin injection, and started to decrease after 150 minutes. CREB itself did not show an obvious change after capsaicin injection. The p-CREB expression on the ipsilateral side of the spinal dorsal horn, but not on the contralateral side, increased significantly after capsaicin injection. The increase in p-CREB induced by capsaicin injection was partially blocked by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor, administered through a microdialysis fiber placed across the spinal cord. D-NAME, an inactive form of L-NAME, had no effect. CREB phosphorylation, not the level of CREB, was induced within 20 minutes by microdialysis administration of SIN-1, an NO donor. These results indicate that CREB phosphorylation in the spinal cord results from both endogenous and exogenous NO release and that p-CREB may play a role in central sensitization or in longer-term changes in gene expression induced by strong peripheral noxious stimulation. PMID:14622772

  10. Visualization Analysis of Melt-Flow Behavior inside Sprue-Shaped Cavity in Ultra-High-Speed Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    In this study, the melt-flow behavior inside the sprue during the ultra-high-speed filling process of PP and GF-LCP was clarified using a modified glass-inserted mold. In particular, with the GF-LCP, melt-flow behavior within 3 ms was observed clearly and models of residual gas trapped in the resin were proposed in detail. The following results were obtained. 1) With the PP, the melt-flow behavior did not change at any injection rate in the range of 24.1 cm3/s to 804 cm3/s. 2) With the GF-LCP, jetting was generated at all injection rates and the jetted resin folded while filling by resin newly flowing in from the nozzle when the injection rate was less than 241 cm3/s. 3) When the injection rate was higher than 482 cm3/s with the GF-LCP, the jetted resin reached the sprue-end while maintaining a wave-form pattern and then filled back to the nozzle side while increasing the contact area with the cavity and glass surface from the sprue-end, without folding phenomenon. 4) At this time, V-notch shape resins were found to generate and disappear intermittently between the jetted resin and resin filling into its periphery. Based on these results, the mechanism of residual gas in the V-notch area trapping resins in was proposed in detail. 5) With the GF-LCP, resin pressure at the nozzle was reduced due to the jetting phenomenon, and temperature of the jetting resin gradually increased.

  11. Relativistic performance analysis of a high current density magnetron injection gun

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.; Chiu, C. C.; Chu, K. R.

    2009-09-15

    Electron beam quality is essential to the performance of millimeter-wave gyroamplifiers, particularly the gyrotron traveling-wave tube amplifier, which is extremely sensitive to the electron velocity spread and emission uniformity. As one moves up in power and frequency, the quality of the electron beam becomes even more critical. One aspect of the electron beam formation technology which has received relatively little attention has been the performance analysis of the electron beam itself. In this study, a 100 kV, 8 A magnetron injection gun with a calculated perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio of 1.4 and axial velocity spread of 3.5% has been designed, tested, and analyzed. It is shown that the equipment precision and a fully relativistic data analysis model afford sufficient resolution to allow a verification of the theoretical predictions as well as a quantitative inference to the surface roughness of the cathode used.

  12. Relativistic performance analysis of a high current density magnetron injection gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C.; Chiu, C. C.; Chu, K. R.

    2009-09-01

    Electron beam quality is essential to the performance of millimeter-wave gyroamplifiers, particularly the gyrotron traveling-wave tube amplifier, which is extremely sensitive to the electron velocity spread and emission uniformity. As one moves up in power and frequency, the quality of the electron beam becomes even more critical. One aspect of the electron beam formation technology which has received relatively little attention has been the performance analysis of the electron beam itself. In this study, a 100 kV, 8 A magnetron injection gun with a calculated perpendicular-to-parallel velocity ratio of 1.4 and axial velocity spread of 3.5% has been designed, tested, and analyzed. It is shown that the equipment precision and a fully relativistic data analysis model afford sufficient resolution to allow a verification of the theoretical predictions as well as a quantitative inference to the surface roughness of the cathode used.

  13. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  14. The involvement of the complement system in the pressor response to the injection of Forssman antibody in the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Darlow, G.; Gough, G. F.; Tanalp, R.

    1970-01-01

    1. When the hind limbs of the guinea-pig were perfused at constant volume inflow with undiluted pooled blood, an intra-arterial injection of the Forssman antibody caused a rapid and long-lasting pressor response. 2. In the whole animal the pressor response was accompanied by a fall in the number of circulating platelets, but perfusion experiments suggest that serotonin was not responsible for the pressor response. 3. When decomplemented serum was perfused through the hind-limb preparation the Forssman antibody failed to produce a rise in pressure, but a pressor response developed when unheated serum was subsequently introduced. This suggests that the actual combination of antibody with its tissue antigen is not the immediate cause of the pressor reaction. 4. The cause of the pressor response is still unknown but apparently depends on the activation of the complement system. The effectiveness of serum shows that polypeptides split off from fibrinogen are not involved. PMID:5313110

  15. Thick polymer light-emitting diodes with very high power efficiency using Ohmic charge-injection layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li Ping; Finlayson, Chris E.; Friend, Richard H.

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the optimization of single-layer polymer LED structures with active layers with thicknesses of the order of 1 micron. By using a combined approach of the addition of MoO3, as a bottom hole-injection layer, and the incorporation of such thick active layers, exceptionally high performance metrics are achieved. In particular, brightnesses of 1000 cd m-2 at driving voltages of only 6.8 V, corresponding to a power efficiency of 7.8 lm W-1, a current efficiency of 17.2 cd A-1, and external quantum efficiency of 5.6%, are reported for devices based on F8BT (Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)]). A side-by-side comparison, between the standard LED structure and hybrid structures, demonstrates that with MoO3 as bottom hole-injection layer, the electron and hole charge carriers are both giving space-charge limited current for both carriers due to the Ohmic contacts. The devices hence show improved charge carrier balance, and, most importantly, high brightness at low operational voltage. Such thick active-layer devices with high performance metrics, in addition to improved engineering and processing tolerances, are thus especially important for application to high-throughput device fabrication methods.

  16. Linear Stability Analysis of Gravitational Effects on a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Anthony L.; Parthasarathy, Ramkumar N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of buoyancy on the absolute instability of low-density gas jets injected into high-density gas mediums. Most of the existing analyses of low-density gas jets injected into a high-density ambient have been carried out neglecting effects of gravity. In order to investigate the influence of gravity on the near-injector development of the flow, a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round jet injected into a high-density ambient gas was performed. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel; viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The variables were represented as the sum of the mean value and a normal-mode small disturbance. An ordinary differential equation governing the amplitude of the pressure disturbance was derived. The velocity and density profiles in the shear layer, and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) were the three important parameters in this equation. Together with the boundary conditions, an eigenvalue problem was formulated. Assuming that the velocity and density profiles in the shear layer to be represented by hyperbolic tangent functions, the eigenvalue problem was solved for various values of Froude number. The Briggs-Bers criterion was combined with the spatio-temporal stability analysis to determine the nature of the absolute instability of the jet whether absolutely or convectively unstable. The roles of the density ratio, Froude number, Schmidt number, and the lateral shift between the density and velocity profiles on the absolute instability of the jet were determined. Comparisons of the results with previous experimental studies show good agreement when the effects of these variables are combined together. Thus, the combination of these variables determines how absolutely unstable the jet will be.

  17. Development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.; King, T.L.; Manns, W.C.; Haywood, R.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The most effective known way of refueling a tokamak fusion reactor is to inject high-speed pellets composed of fusion fuel (i.e., isotopes of hydrogen) at a controlled rate and velocity. To effect such a fueling scheme, in particular for contemporary and future large tokamaks, pellet speeds as high as 10 km/s and injection rates as high a 10 Hz may very well be required. Also, to prevent the onset of plasma instabilities pellet sizes need to be maintained below 3 to 4 mm in diameter. These requirements, plus the fact that the yield strength of frozen hydrogen is extremely low ([approximately]2 atmospheres) make the task of developing in ideal pellet injection scheme a challenge. In an attempt to meet this challenge, a fuseless small-bore railgun has been under development at the University of Illinois during the past several years. Some of the unique features of this railgun system are: (1) it is a two-stage accelerator with the first stage consisting of a combination of a hydrogen pellet generator and a gas gun, and the second stage a railgun, (2) it is a fuseless railgun in that the plasma armature is formed by electrically breaking down the propellant gas immediately behind the pellet, (3) it is a smallbore railgun with the bore size in the range of a few millimeters in diameter. This report presents a brief review of some of the existing hydrogen pellet acceleration techniques, an overview of the University of Illinois railgun program, the results to date, and the future plan.

  18. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel

    2006-02-01

    The field operator, Goldrus Producing Company, has been unable to secure funding needed to continue the field demonstration phase of the project. Accordingly, we have temporarily halted all project activities until necessary funding is obtained. Goldrus felt confident that funds could be acquired by third quarter 2005 at which time it would have been necessary to request a project extension to complete the originally designed study. A project extension was granted but it appears Goldrus will have difficulty securing funds. We Bureau of Economic Geology are investigating a new approach on how to fulfill our initial objectives of promoting high-pressure air injection of Ellenburger reservoirs.

  19. Water/alcohol soluble conjugated polymers as highly efficient electron transporting/injection layer in optoelectronic devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Wu, Hongbin; Cao, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Water/alcohol soluble conjugated polymers (WSCPs) can be processed from water or other polar solvents, which offer good opportunities to avoid interfacial mixing upon fabrication of multilayer polymer optoelectronic devices by solution processing, and can dramatically improve charge injection from high work-function metal cathode resulting in greatly enhancement of the device performance. In this critical review, the authors provide a brief review of recent developments in this field, including the materials design, functional principles, and their unique applications as interface modification layer in solution-processable multilayer optoelectronic devices (135 references). PMID:20571672

  20. Determination of the solid angle and response function of a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens for Auger electrons emitted from long lived projectile states

    SciTech Connect

    Doukas, S.; Madesis, I.; Dimitriou, A.; Zouros, T. J. M.; Laoutaris, A.; Benis, E. P.

    2015-04-15

    We present SIMION 8.1 Monte Carlo type simulations of the response function and detection solid angle for long lived Auger states (lifetime τ ∼ 10{sup −9} − 10{sup −5} s) recorded by a hemispherical spectrograph with injection lens and position sensitive detector used for high resolution Auger spectroscopy of ion beams. Also included in these simulations for the first time are kinematic effects particular to Auger emission from fast moving projectile ions such as line broadening and solid angle limitations allowing for a more accurate and realistic line shape modeling. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with measured electron line shapes of both long lived 1s2s2p{sup 4}P and prompt Auger projectile states formed by electron capture in collisions of 25.3 MeV F{sup 7+} with H{sub 2} and 12.0 MeV C{sup 4+} with Ne recorded at 0{sup ∘} to the beam direction. These results are important for the accurate evaluation of the 1s2s2p {sup 4}P/{sup 2}P ratio of K-Auger cross sections whose observed non-statistical production by electron capture into He-like ions, recently a field of interesting interpretations, awaits further resolution.

  1. Collective Cognitive Responsibility in the High School Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webel, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of two articles which discuss the establishment of collective cognitive responsibility in high school mathematics classrooms. I use collective cognitive responsibility as a framework for interpreting the extent to which students see themselves as responsible for building knowledge as a community. I adapted this framework…

  2. Feasibility demonstration of the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) for high-pressure natural-gas-injected engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kalwani, R.M.; McNulty, D.; Badgley, P.; Kamo, R.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the program was the feasibility demonstration of the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept for the ignition and combustion of high-pressure injected natural gas. The TICS concept relies on the ignition of fuel by high-temperature combustion chamber walls without external ignition sources like spark plug, glow plug, or pilot diesel fuel. The program was successful in achieving ignition and combustion of natural gas in a single cylinder diesel engine with the TICS concept. An electronically controlled gas injector, designed and fabricated in the program, was used to inject natural gas at 13.8 to 20.7 MPa (2000 to 3000 psig) pressure in the TICS chamber. Cold starting of the test engine was achieved by external heating of the chamber for a few minutes. Natural gas ignition and combustion was then sustained by the high-temperature TICS chamber. The test engine was operated from idle to full load and from 600 to 1400 rpm engine-speed range.

  3. Intervention improves assisted conception intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes for patients with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, C K; McArthur, S J; Gee, A J; Weiss, K A; Schmidt, U; Toogood, L

    2016-09-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is used in assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs as an indicator for sperm quality, although there is still a lack of consensus as to its clinical utility. In this retrospective study, we examined intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes of 1924 infertile patients who underwent SDF analysis using the sperm chromatin integrity test. ART patients were classified as having low [DNA fragmentation index (DFI) <29%] or high SDF (DFI ≥29%) and by whether or not an intervention [physiological intracytoplasmic sperm injection (PICSI), intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI), testicular sperm extraction (TESE)/testicular sperm aspiration (TESA), frequent ejaculation] was performed. High SDF patients who did not have an intervention had a lower fertilization rate and poorer clinical outcomes from blastocyst transfers as compared with low SDF patients; the fertilization rate was 66.0% vs. 70.2% (p = 0.042), single embryo transfer (SET) fetal heart pregnancy rate was 28.5% vs. 45.2% (p = 0.042), and SET live birth rate was 24.9% vs. 40.6% (p = 0.060), respectively. Furthermore, high SDF patients who had an intervention had significantly improved blastocyst transfer outcomes, similar to those of low SDF patients; the SET live birth rate for high SDF intervention patients was 43.8% as compared with 24.9% for high SDF no intervention patients (p = 0.037) and 40.6% for low SDF patients (p = 0.446). Analysis of the three main intervention subgroups for high SDF patients revealed that TESE/TESA patients had the highest SET live birth rate; in comparison with 24.2% for high SDF patients who did not have an intervention, PICSI patients had 38.3% (p = 0.151), IMSI patients had 28.7% (p = 0.680), and TESE/TESA patients had 49.8% (p = 0.020). Our data suggest that SDF results indicate ICSI outcomes and that patients who have high SDF benefit from an intervention. PMID:27231097

  4. Structure and Dynamics of Fuel Jets Injected into a High-Temperature Subsonic Crossflow: High-Data-Rate Laser Diagnostic Investigation under Steady and Oscillatory Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Robert; Anderson, William

    2015-01-23

    An investigation of subsonic transverse jet injection into a subsonic vitiated crossflow is discussed. The reacting jet in crossflow (RJIC) system investigated as a means of secondary injection of fuel in a staged combustion system. The measurements were performed in test rigs featuring (a) a steady, swirling crossflow and (b) a crossflow with low swirl but significant oscillation in the pressure field and in the axial velocity. The rigs are referred to as the steady state rig and the instability rig. Rapid mixing and chemical reaction in the near field of the jet injection is desirable in this application. Temporally resolved velocity measurements within the wake of the reactive jets using 2D-PIV and OH-PLIF at a repetition rate of 5 kHz were performed on the RJIC flow field in a steady state water-cooled test rig. The reactive jets were injected through an extended nozzle into the crossflow which is located in the downstream of a low swirl burner (LSB) that produced the swirled, vitiated crossflow. Both H2/N2 and natural gas (NG)/air jets were investigated. OH-PLIF measurements along the jet trajectory show that the auto-ignition starts on the leeward side within the wake region of the jet flame. The measurements show that jet flame is stabilized in the wake of the jet and wake vortices play a significant role in this process. PIV and OH–PLIF measurements were performed at five measurement planes along the cross- section of the jet. The time resolved measurements provided significant information on the evolution of complex flow structures and highly transient features like, local extinction, re-ignition, vortex-flame interaction prevalent in a turbulent reacting flow. Nanosecond-laser-based, single-laser-shot coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements of temperature and H2 concentraiton were also performed. The structure and dynamics of a reacting transverse jet injected into a vitiated oscillatory crossflow presents a unique opportunity for

  5. The aerodynamic effects of wheelspace coolant injection into the mainstream flow of a high pressure gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, Christopher Elliot

    Modern gas turbine engines operate with mainstream gas temperatures exceeding 1450°C in the high-pressure turbine stage. Unlike turbine blades, rotor disks and other internal components are not designed to withstand the extreme temperatures found in mainstream flow. In modern gas turbines, cooling air is pumped into the wheelspace cavities to prevent mainstream gas ingestion and then exits through a seal between the rotor and the nozzle guide vane (NGV) thereby mixing with the mainstream flow. The primary purpose for the wheelspace cooling air is the cooling of the turbine wheelspace. However, secondary effects arise from the mixing of the spent cooling air with the mainstream flow. The exiting cooling air is mixed with the hot mainstream flow effecting the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of the turbine stage. The physics underlying this mixing process and its effects on stage performance are not yet fully understood. The relative aerodynamic and performance effects associated with rotor - NGV gap coolant injections were investigated in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) of the Center for Gas Turbines and Power of The Pennsylvania State University. This study quantifies the secondary effects of the coolant injection on the aerodynamic and performance character of the turbines main stream flow for root injection, radial cooling, and impingement cooling. Measurement and analysis of the cooling effects were performed in both stationary and rotational frames of reference. The AFTRF is unique in its ability to perform long duration cooling measurements in the stationary and rotating frames. The effects of wheelspace coolant mixing with the mainstream flow on total-to-total efficiency, energy transport, three dimensional velocity field, and loading coefficient were investigated. Overall, it was found that a small quantity (1%) of cooling air can have significant effects on the performance character and exit conditions of the high pressure stage

  6. Triarylamine Siloxane Anode Functionalization/Hole Injection Layers in High Efficiency/High Luminance Small-Molecule Green- and Blue-Emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,Q.; Li, J.; Marks, T.; Evmenenko, G.; Dutta, P.

    2007-01-01

    High efficiency/high luminance small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are fabricated by combining thin, covalently bound triarylamine hole injection/adhesion interlayers with hole- and exciton-blocking/electron transport interlayers in tris(8-hydroxyquinolato)aluminum(III) (Alq) and tetrakis(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)borate (BQ{sub 4}{sup -})-based OLEDs. Green-emitting OLEDs with maximum luminance {approx}85 000 cd/m{sup 2}, power and forward external quantum efficiencies as high as 15.2 lm/W and 4.4{+-}0.5%, respectively, and turn-on voltages {approx}4.5 V are achieved in devices of the structure, ITO/N,N(prime)-diphenyl-N,N(prime)-bis(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)(1,1(prime)-biphenyl)-4,4(prime)-diamine (TPD-Si2)/1,4-bis(1-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB)/Alq doped with N,N(prime)-di(3-heptyl)quinacridone (DIQA)/2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP)/Li/AgMg. Also, bright and efficient blue-emitting OLEDs with turn-on voltages {approx}5.0 V, maximum luminance {approx}30 000 cd/m2, and {approx}5.0 lm/W and 1.6{+-}0.2% power and external forward quantum efficiencies, respectively, are achieved in devices of the structure, ITO/TPD-Si2/NPB/BQ{sub 4}{sup -}/BCP/Li/Al. TPD-Si2 interlayers are fabricated by spin casting N,N(prime)-diphenyl-N,N(prime)-bis(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)(1,1(prime)-biphenyl)-4,4(prime)-diamine onto the ITO surface, while BCP interlayers are introduced by thermal evaporation. The excellent OLED performance is attributed to the differing functions of the above two interlayers: (1) The TPD-Si2 layer has a direct impact on hole injection by reducing the injection barrier and improving interfacial cohesion, and an indirect but strong effect on electron injection by altering internal electric fields. (2) The BCP layer, doped with lithium, directly reduces the electron injection barrier. Incorporation of both interlayers in OLED structures affords synergistically enhanced hole/electron injection and recombination

  7. Heat transfer processes during low or high enthalpy fluid injection into naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando Ascencio Cendejas; Jesus Rivera Rodriguez

    1994-01-20

    Disposal of hot separated brine by means of reinjection within the limits of the geothermal reservoir is, at present, a problem that remains to be solved. Possible thermal, as well as chemical contamination of the resources present key questions that have to be appropiately answered before a reinjection project is actually implemented in the field. This paper focusses on the basic heat-transfer process that takes place when a relatively cold brine is injected back into the naturally fractured hot geothermal reservoir after steam has been separated at the surface. The mathematical description of this process considers that rock matrix blocks behaves as uniformly distributed heat sources, meanwhile heat transfer between matrix blocks and the fluid contained in the fractures takes place under pseudo-steady state conditions with the main temperature drop occurring in the rock-matrix blocks interphase. Analytical solutions describing the thermal front speed of propagation are presented. Discussion on the effect of several variables affecting the thermal front speed of propagation is included, stressing the importance that a proper “in-situ” determination of the effective heat transfer area at the rock-fluid interphase has on the whole process. Solutions are also presented as a type-curve that can be practically used to estimate useful parameters involved in heat transfer phenomena during cold fluid reinjection in naturally fractured geothermal systems.

  8. MTBE and priority contaminant treatment with high energy electron beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Leslie, Greg; Tornatore, Paul M.; Hardison, Wayne; Hajali, Paris A.

    2002-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and 15 other organic compounds, as well as perchlorate ion, in waters of different quality. The 15 organic compounds consisted of halogenated solvents (chlorination), disinfection by-products, pesticides, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). These studies were conducted using a pilot scale 20 kW mobile electron beam system at Water Factory 21, Orange County, CA where wastewater is treated and re-injected into the ground as a barrier to salt water intrusion. Future applications for this treated water include water reuse. Ground water and treated wastewater, after having gone through a reverse osmosis-polishing step (RO permeate), were used to prepare mixtures of the compounds. Using fundamental radiation chemistry, it was possible to examine the factors effecting removal efficiency of all the compounds as well as MTBE destruction and reaction by-product formation and removal. All of the organic compounds were destroyed in the studies and we also observed the destruction of perchlorate ion in one of the waters.

  9. Experimental Demonstration of High Frequency ELM Pacing by Pellet Injection on DIII-D and Extrapolation to ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Jernigan, Thomas C; Meitner, Steven J; Brooks, N. H.; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Moyer, R.A.; Osborne, T. H.; Parks, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Loarte, A.

    2012-01-01

    . The injection of high repetition rate deuterium pellets is shown to trigger high-frequency edge localized modes (ELMs) in otherwise low natural ELM frequency H-mode deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The resulting triggered ELMs have significantly lower energy and particle fluxes to the divertor than the natural ELMs. The plasma global energy confinement and density are not strongly affected by the pellet perturbations. The plasma core impurity density is strongly reduced with the application of the pellets. These experiments were performed in plasmas designed to match the ITER baseline configuration in shape and normalized operation with input power just above the H-mode power threshold. This strongly reduced ELM intensity shows promise for exploitation in ITER to control ELM size while maintaining high plasma purity and performance.

  10. Luteinizing hormone release and androgen production of avian hybrids in response to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone injection.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Burke, W H; McDougald, L R

    1983-04-01

    The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens were measured in sterile avian hybrids. Guinea fowl-chicken and peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids were bled before and after injection with LH- releasing hormone (LHRH). The preinjection LH levels for the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids were below or at the very lower limit of the assay sensitivity and the peafowl-guinea fowl hybrids averaged 1.3 ng/ml. Within 10 min after LHRH injection, LH had increased dramatically in both hybrids and then began to slowly decline. Androgen levels in the guinea fowl-chicken hybrids increased from 16.2 pg/ml to 95.2 pg/ml and continued to increase, reaching 287 pg/ml at the last bleeding 60 min after injection. PMID:6346309

  11. Time Course Analysis of the Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A on Pain and Vasomotor Responses Evoked by Glutamate Injection into Human Temporalis Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt da Silva, Larissa; Kulas, Dolarose; Karshenas, Ali; Cairns, Brian E.; Bach, Flemming W.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    The effect of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) on glutamate-evoked temporalis muscle pain and vasomotor responses was investigated in healthy men and women over a 60 day time course. Subjects participated in a pre-BoNTA session where their responses to injection of glutamate (1 M, 0.2 mL) and saline (0.2 mL) into the temporalis muscles were assessed. On Day 1, BoNTA (5 U) was injected into one temporalis muscle and saline into the contralateral temporalis muscle, in a randomized order. Subjects then received intramuscular injections of glutamate (1 M, 0.2 mL) into the left and right temporalis muscles at 3 h and subsequently 7, 30 and 60 days post-injection of BoNTA. Pain intensity, pain area, and neurogenic inflammation (skin temperature and skin blood perfusion) were recorded. Prior to BoNTA treatment, glutamate evoked significantly greater pain and vasomotor reactions (P < 0.001) than saline. BoNTA significantly reduced glutamate-evoked pain intensity (P < 0.05), pain area (P < 0.01), skin blood perfusion (P < 0.05), and skin temperature (P < 0.001). The inhibitory effect of BoNTA was present at 3 h after injection, peaked after 7 days and returned to baseline by 60 days. Findings from the present study demonstrated a rapid action of BoNTA on glutamate-evoked pain and neurogenic inflammation, which is in line with animal studies. PMID:24517906

  12. Feeding common carp Cyprinus carpio with β-glucan supplemented diet stimulates C-reactive protein and complement immune acute phase responses following PAMPs injection.

    PubMed

    Pionnier, Nicolas; Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Shrive, Annette K; Hoole, Dave

    2014-08-01

    The effect of β-glucan as a feed additive on the serum and gene profile of C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement acute phase responses was ascertained in common carp Cyprinus carpio. In addition effects of subsequent intraperitoneal injections of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), i.e. LPS or poly(I:C), to mimic bacterial or viral infection respectively, were studied. Carp were first orally fed with β-glucan (MacroGard®) with a daily β-glucan intake of 6 mg per kg body weight or with control food for 25 days and then injected with PBS containing either LPS (4 mg/kg) or poly(I:C) (5 mg/kg) or PBS alone. Fish were sampled during the 25 days of the feeding period and up to 7 days post-PAMPs injections for serum and liver, head kidney and mid-gut tissues. Oral administration of β-glucan for 25 days significantly increased serum CRP levels and alternative complement activity (ACP). In addition, the subsequent LPS and poly(I:C) challenges significantly affected CRP and complement related gene expression profiles (crp1, crp2, c1r/s, bf/c2, c3 and masp2), with the greatest effects observed in the β-glucan fed fish. However, in fish fed β-glucan the PAMPs injections had less effects on CRP levels and complement activity in the serum than in control fed fish, suggesting that the 25 days of β-glucan immunostimulation was sufficient enough to reduce the effects of LPS and poly(I:C) injections. Results suggest that MacroGard® stimulated CRP and complement responses to PAMPs immunological challenges in common carp thus highlighting the beneficial β-glucan immunostimulant properties. PMID:24830773

  13. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based neutral beam injection heating in Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Murakami, S.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B. J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; LHD Experimental Group

    2005-07-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar and/or Ne gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas heated with high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (NBI). Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is significantly enhanced in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionization) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive neon- and/or argon-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with the addition of centrally focused electron cyclotron resonance heating to a low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with high-energy NBI heating suggest that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature could be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planned in the near future in the LHD.

  14. High speed electromechanical response of ionic microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maziz, Ali; Plesse, Cedric; Soyer, Caroline; Cattan, Eric; Vidal, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of thin and ultra-fast conducting polymer microactuators which can operate in the open air. Compared to all previous existing electronic conducting polymer based microactuators, this approach deals with the synthesis of robust interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) combined with a spincoating technique in order to tune and drastically reduce the thickness of conducting IPN microactuators using a so-called "trilayer" configuration. Patterning of electroactive materials has been performed with existing technologies, such as standard photolithography and dry etching. The smallest air-operating microbeam actuator based on conducting polymer is then described with dimensions as low as 160x30x6 μm3. Under electrical stimulation the translations of small ion motion into bending deformations are used as tools to demonstrate that small ion vibrations can still occur at frequency as several hundreds of Hz. Conducting IPN microactuators are then promising candidates to develop new MEMS combining downscaling, softness, low driving voltage, and fast response speed.

  15. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerance of a New Injection Technique for High- and Low-Molecular-Weight Hyaluronic Acid Hybrid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Beniamino; Coacci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Facial aging is characterized by skin laxity and loss of skin elasticity. Hyaluronic acid, a biological component of the extracellular matrix, whose level decreases during aging, plays structural, rheological, and physiological roles in the skin. Hyaluronic acid may possess different molecular weights: low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (from 50 kDa) and high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid (just up to 2 million kDa). This monocentric, retrospective, observational study investigates the efficacy, security, and tolerability of a new injective low- and high-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid for facial skin rejuvenation. Methods: Eleven women received once a month, for 2 months, 2 mL of the product in the subcutaneous layer of the right and left malar/submalar areas. Facial skin echography, facial skin hydration, elasticity, and transepidermal water loss were assessed before (T0), after 1 month (T1), and after 3 months of treatment (T2). The injective features of the product, physician subjective satisfaction, and patient satisfaction were also reported. Results: Facial face hydration, elasticity, and transepidermal water loss values significantly improved at T1 and T2 (P < .01). Patients were very satisfied at the end of the treatment, and the compound's profit evaluated by the physician was optimal in the absence of local side effects. Conclusions: This treatment represents a good treatment option to restore vitality and turgidity of skin presenting the signs of aging in the absence of intolerance symptoms. PMID:26491508

  16. Forward modeling of 4D seismic response to the CO2 injection at the Ketzin pilot site with the reflectivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Alexandra; Ivandic, Monika; Kempka, Thomas; Gil, Magdalena; Bergmann, Peter; Lüth, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    When CO2 replaces brine as a free gas it is well known to affect the elastic properties of porous media considerably. 3D seismic time-lapse surveys (4D seismics) have proven to be a suitable technique for monitoring of injected CO2. Forward modeling of a 4D seismic response to the CO2 fluid substitution in a storage reservoir is an important step in such studies. In order to track the migration of CO2 at the Ketzin pilot site (Germany), 3D time-lapse seismic data were acquired by means of a baseline (pre-injection) survey in 2005 and the monitor surveys in 2009 and 2012. Results of 4D seismic forward modeling with the reflectivity method suggest that effects of the injected CO2 on the 4D seismic data at the Ketzin pilot site are significant regarding both seismic amplitudes and time delays. They prove the corresponding observations in the real 4D seismic data at the Ketzin pilot site. However reservoir heterogeneity and seismic resolution, as well as random and coherent seismic noise are negative factors to be considered while the interpretation. In spite of these negative factors, results of 4D seismic forward modeling with the reflectivity method support the conclusion that the injected CO2 can be monitored at the Ketzin pilot site both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  17. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  18. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  19. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  20. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  1. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  2. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  3. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  4. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  5. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  6. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  7. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  8. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  9. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  10. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  11. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  12. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  13. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  15. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  16. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  18. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  19. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  20. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  1. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  2. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  3. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  4. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  5. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  6. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  7. Effect of Particle and Injection Parameters on the Performance of a Dual-Stage High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammed N.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-06-01

    For temperature-sensitive material (such as titanium) coatings, recently developed high-velocity oxygen fuel dual-stage thermal spray systems offer better control of particle oxidation and production of various coating structures. These advantages of the dual-stage thermal system are significantly influenced by the state of the coating particles being injected. Hence, the objective of the present study is to investigate the effects of particle size, shape, injection velocity, and injection angle on a dual-stage thermal spray system by employing a comprehensive mathematical model. The results demonstrate that the particle size, shape, injection velocity, and injection angle affect the particle velocity and temperature, which in turn may affect the coating quality. The results show that smaller particles have higher temperatures and velocities owing to decrease in particle thermal and mass inertia. Spherical particles have higher temperature and lower velocity than the non-spherical particles because of lower drag. The particle velocity and temperature also increase with the increase of the injection velocity. Similarly, the particles injection angle also plays an important role. Higher particle temperatures and velocities outside of the barrel are obtained if the particles are injected at oblique angles to the main gaseous flow.

  8. Injectable intratumoral depot of thermally responsive polypeptide-radionuclide conjugates delays tumor progression in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenge; MacKay, J. Andrew; Dreher, Matthew R.; Chen, Mingnan; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Simnick, Andrew J.; Callahan, Daniel J.; Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a biodegradable drug delivery system for local cancer radiotherapy consisting of a thermally sensitive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) conjugated to a therapeutic radionuclide. Two ELPs (49 kD) were synthesized using genetic engineering to test the hypothesis that injectable biopolymeric depots can retain radionuclides locally and reduce the growth of tumors. A thermally sensitive polypeptide, ELP1, was designed to spontaneously undergo a soluble-insoluble phase transition (forming viscous microparticles) between room temperature and body temperature upon intratumoral injection, while ELP2 was designed to remain soluble upon injection and to serve as a negative control for the effect of aggregate assembly. After intratumoral administration of radionuclide conjugates of ELPs into implanted tumor xenografts in nude mice, their retention within the tumor, spatio-temporal distribution, and therapeutic effect were quantified. The residence time of the radionuclide-ELP1 in the tumor was significantly longer than the thermally insensitive ELP2 conjugate. In addition, the thermal transition of ELP1 significantly protected the conjugated radionuclide from dehalogenation, whereas the conjugated radionuclide on ELP2 was quickly eliminated from the tumor and cleaved from the biopolymer. These attributes of the thermally sensitive ELP1 depot improved the antitumor efficacy of iodine-131 compared to the soluble ELP2 control. This novel injectable and biodegradable depot has the potential to control advanced-stage cancers by reducing the bulk of inoperable tumors, enabling surgical removal of de-bulked tumors, and preserving healthy tissues. PMID:20117157

  9. High-Brightness Electron Accelerator Injection System and Experimental Studies of Laser-Induced Explosive Electron Emission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xijie

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the Brookhaven Accelerator Test facility (ATF) injection system are presented. The injection system consists of a high-brightness electron source (photocathode RF gun) and a low-energy transport line. Cavity properties of the RF gun were measured, and found to agree with the calculated results obtained using the computer program SUPERFISH. We also studied the effect of using a non-symmetrical laser spot and RF focusing techniques to reduce the emittance growth in the injection system. A tracking program was developed to investigate higher-order effects on the transverse emittance and the bunch length of the electron beam in the transport line. Field-related electron emissions, i.e., field emission, the Schottky effect in photoemission and field -assisted thermionic emission, were measured. The effect of these electron emissions on the performance of the photocathode RF gun was studied. The possibility of using the momentum of the field emission current for measurement of the RF power in the RF gun was considered. Laser-induced explosive electron emission (EEE) was observed for the first time. It was found that the thresholds of the laser power for RF (80 MV/m) and DC (10 MV/m) cases are 10^9 W/cm ^2 and 10^{11} W/cm^2, respectively. No laser frequency dependence was detected. We infer a 1 muC charge with 20 A average current in RF case, and measured 0.17 muC for the DC situation from laser-induced EEE. The temporal structure of laser-induced EEE was measured. We discussed the possibility of using laser-induced EEE as electron and ion sources.

  10. Analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of 0.125% or 0.0625% bupivacaine in adult cows

    PubMed Central

    Rioja, Eva; Rubio-Martínez, Luis M.; Monteith, Gabrielle; Kerr, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the analgesic and motor effects of a high-volume intercoccygeal epidural injection of bupivacaine at 2 concentrations in cows. A prospective, randomized, blinded, crossover trial was conducted on 6 adult cows. An indwelling epidural catheter was placed in the first intercoccygeal space and advanced 10 cm cranially. All the cows received 3 treatments with a washout period of 48 h: saline (control), 0.125% bupivacaine (high dose), or 0.0625% bupivacaine (low dose), at a final volume of 0.15 mL per kilogram of body weight, infused manually into the epidural space over a period of 15 min. The anal and tail tone and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were evaluated in 5 of the cows with use of a numerical rating scale and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Sensory block was assessed in 4 of the cows by the response to needle pricks in different regions with the use of a VAS. Measurements were obtained before and at different time points after injection, up to 360 min. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and post-hoc Tukey’s and Dunnett’s tests were used. Differences were considered significant when the P-value was ≤ 0.05. One cow became recumbent 6 h after injection. Anal and tail tones were significantly decreased and motor deficits of the pelvic limbs were significantly increased after bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. The overall mean VASpain scores ± standard deviation were 66 ± 8 after control treatment, 52 ± 5 after low-dose bupivacaine treatment, and 43 ± 5 after high-dose bupivacaine treatment. The pain scores were significantly lower in caudal regions up to the saphenous nerve after high-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment and significantly lower in the anus, vulva, and tail after low-dose bupivacaine treatment compared with control treatment. Thus, analgesia with moderate motor deficits of the pelvic limbs may be obtained with 0.125% bupivacaine administered

  11. Dose Responsive Effects of Subcutaneous Pentosan Polysulfate Injection in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI Rats and Comparison to Oral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Frohbergh, Michael; Ge, Yi; Meng, Fanli; Karabul, Nesrin; Solyom, Alexander; Lai, Alon; Iatridis, James; Schuchman, Edward H.; Simonaro, Calogera M.

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated the benefits of daily, oral pentosan polysulfate (PPS) treatment in a rat model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type VI. Herein we compare these effects to once weekly, subcutaneous (sc) injection. The bioavailability of injected PPS is greater than oral, suggesting better delivery to difficult tissues such as bone and cartilage. Injected PPS also effectively treats osteoarthritis in animals, and has shown success in osteoarthritis patients. Methodology/Principal Findings One-month-old MPS VI rats were given once weekly sc injections of PPS (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg, human equivalent dose (HED)), or daily oral PPS (4 mg/kg HED) for 6 months. Serum inflammatory markers and total glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were measured, as were several histological, morphological and functional endpoints. Overall, weekly sc PPS injections led to similar or greater therapeutic effects as daily oral administration. Common findings between the two treatment approaches included reduced serum inflammatory markers, improved dentition and skull lengths, reduced tracheal deformities, and improved mobility. Enhanced effects of sc treatment included GAG reduction in urine and tissues, greater endurance on a rotarod, and better improvements in articular cartilage and bone in some dose groups. Optimal therapeutic effects were observed at 2 mg/kg, sc. No drug-related increases in liver enzymes, coagulation factor abnormalities or other adverse effects were identified following 6 months of sc PPS administration. Conclusions Once weekly sc administration of PPS in MPS VI rats led to equal or better therapeutic effects than daily oral administration, including a surprising reduction in urine and tissue GAGs. No adverse effects from sc PPS administration were observed over the 6-month study period. PMID:24964042

  12. Direct injection method for quantitation of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Kimura, H; Maekubo, T; Tomita, T; Senda, M; Urata, G; Kajiwara, M

    1992-07-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method for determining delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in urine was established, using direct injection of urine into a high-performance liquid chromatographic column, with fluorometric detection after post-column derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA). The recovery of ALA was about 100% and ALA was completely separated on an ion exchange column (retention time, 38 min). The detection limit for ALA was 10 pmol (S/N = 2). The mean levels of urinary ALA of 10 healthy volunteers, 4 patients with acute intermittent porphyria, and 2 workers occupationally exposed to lead were 0.76, 5.25, and 23.54 mg/l, respectively. Because of its simplicity, the method is considered to be suitable for routine analysis of urinary ALA in the clinical laboratory. PMID:1394716

  13. High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Two Nickel-Based Superalloys Produced by Metal Injection Molding for Aero Engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Benedikt; Völkl, Rainer; Glatzel, Uwe

    2014-09-01

    For different high-temperature applications like aero engines or turbochargers, metal injection molding (MIM) of superalloys is an interesting processing alternative. For operation at high temperatures, oxidation behavior of superalloys produced by MIM needs to match the standard of cast or forged material. The oxidation behavior of nickel-based superalloys Inconel 713 and MAR-M247 in the temperature interval from 1073 K to 1373 K (800 °C to 1100 °C) is investigated and compared to cast material. Weight gain is measured discontinuously at different oxidation temperatures and times. Analysis of oxidized samples is done via SEM and EDX-measurements. MIM samples exhibit homogeneous oxide layers with a thickness up to 4 µm. After processing by MIM, Inconel 713 exhibits lower weight gain and thinner oxide layers than MAR-M247.

  14. Dose-response relationships between plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone, and 18-hydroxycorticosterone after injection of ACTH-(1-39) or human corticotropin-releasing hormone in man.

    PubMed

    Oelkers, W; Boelke, T; Bähr, V

    1988-01-01

    The effects of sc injections (at 1500 h) of increasing amounts of synthetic human ACTH-(1-39) (1.25-30 micrograms) on plasma ACTH, cortisol, aldosterone, and 18-hydroxycorticosterone were compared with those of iv injections of 30 and 100 micrograms synthetic human CRH in nine normal men. Five micrograms of ACTH, sc, was the lowest dose that significantly increased plasma levels of the three steroids. CRH (30 micrograms, iv) increased plasma cortisol and 18-hydroxycorticosterone, but not aldosterone, while 100 micrograms CRH also raised aldosterone secretion. The dose-response curve (peak plasma ACTH level vs. maximum increment of plasma cortisol within the first hour) was initially very steep. Plasma ACTH levels between 50 and 60 ng/L (11-13 pmol/L) stimulated cortisol to almost 80% of the maximal increment obtained with plasma ACTH levels above 300 ng/L (greater than 66 pmol/L). This dose-response relationship is similar to that found in clinical tests of the pituitary-adrenal axis (insulin test, metyrapone test). The effects of plasma ACTH released by CRH on cortisol secretion were not significantly different from those of injected ACTH. Our results argue against the hypothesis that the effect of CRH on steroid secretion is mediated or modulated by POMC-derived peptides other than ACTH. PMID:2826525

  15. Pathology, organ distribution, and immune response after single and repeated intravenous injection of rats with clinical-grade parvovirus H1.

    PubMed

    Geletneky, Karsten; Leoni, Anne-Laure; Pohlmeyer-Esch, Gabriele; Loebhard, Stephanie; Baetz, Andrea; Leuchs, Barbara; Roscher, Mandy; Hoefer, Constance; Jochims, Karin; Dahm, Michael; Huber, Bernard; Rommelaere, Jean; Krebs, Ottheinz; Hajda, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    Parvovirus H1 (H1PV) is an autonomous parvovirus that is transmitted in rodent populations. Its natural host is rats. H1PV infection is nonpathogenic except in rat and hamster fetuses and newborns. H1PV infection of human cancer cells caused strong oncolytic effects in preclinical models. For a clinical trial of H1PV in patients with brain tumors, clinical-grade H1PV was produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices. This report focuses on results obtained after a single high-dose intravenous injection of highly purified H1PV in 30 rats and multiple (n = 17) intravenous injections at 3 dose levels in 223 rats. In both studies, no virus-related mortality or macroscopic organ changes related to H1PV occurred. Histopathology after multiple virus injections revealed minimal diffuse bile duct hyperplasia in livers of animals of the highest dose group and germinal center development in spleens of animals from the high-dose group. Liver changes were reversible within a 2-wk recovery period after the last injection. Hematology, blood chemistry, and coagulation analyses did not reveal significant toxicologic changes due to H1PV. Virus injection stimulated the production of IgG antibodies but did not alter mononuclear cell function or induce cytokine release. PCR analysis showed dose-dependent levels of viral genomes in all organs tested. The virus was excreted primarily through feces. These data provide important information regarding H1PV infection in its natural host. Due to the confirmation of the favorable safety profile of H1PV in a permissive animal model, a phase I/IIa clinical trial of H1PV in brain tumor patients could be initiated. PMID:25730754

  16. Fast quantification of chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples by direct injection high-resolution mass spectrometry with pattern deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Alsberg, Tomas; Diefenbacher, Pascal S; MacLeod, Matthew; Berger, Urs

    2015-03-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals, but data about their environmental fate are scarce. CP mixtures composed of thousands of isomers represent a major challenge for quantification at low levels in environmental samples. Here, we present a novel analytical method for analysis of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain CPs in a single injection, that also yields information about congener group pattern. Our detection method is based on direct injection into an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source operated in negative ion mode under chlorine-enhanced conditions, followed by quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (APCI-qTOF-HRMS) operated in full-scan mode. A mathematical algorithm is applied to deconvolute the CP patterns in the analyzed samples into a linear combination of patterns of technical CP mixtures and to quantify CPs using technical mixtures as external calibration standards. For CP mixtures with known composition, the new method provided concentrations that were within a factor of 1.2 of the target value. Accuracies for CPs spiked to sediment and fish extracts were between 91% and 123%. Concentrations determined in unspiked field samples were within a factor of 5 for short-chain CPs and a factor of 16 for medium-chain CPs of results obtained with an independent method based on gas chromatography/electron capture negative ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-HRMS). The presented APCI-qTOF-HRMS pattern deconvolution method is an interesting alternative for CP analysis in environmental samples. It is particularly sensitive for medium- and long-chain CPs and has the advantage of being extremely fast (instrumental analysis time, less than 1 min). PMID:25668073

  17. Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarjun, K. P.; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN - waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.

  18. Plasma gradient controlled injection and postacceleration of high quality electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C. G. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Nakamura, K.; Schroeder, C. B.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Plateau, G. R.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Cary, J. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Plasma density gradient control of wake phase velocity and trapping threshold in a laser wakefield accelerator produced electron bunches with absolute longitudinal and transverse momentum spreads more than ten times lower than in previous experiments (0.17 and 0.02 MeV/c FWHM, respectively) and with central momenta of 0.76{+-}0.02 MeV/c, stable over a week of operation. Simulations validated against diagnostics show that use of such bunches as a wakefield accelerator injector can produce stable beams with 0.2 MeV/c-class momentum spread at high energies. Preservation of bunch momentum spread requires high simulation momentum accuracy, and related self-trapped simulations showed that high order particle weight effectively suppresses simulation momentum errors allowing design of low emittance stages.

  19. Jet Injection Used to Control Rotating Stall in a High-Speed Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Weigl, Harald J.; Spakovzsky, Zoltan; Paduano, James D.

    1998-01-01

    In a joint effort between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the NASA Lewis Research Center, a new technology was demonstrated to identify and control rotating stall and surge in a single-stage, high-speed compressor. Through the use of highvelocity, high-frequency jet injectors, the instabilities of surge and stall were controlled in a high-speed compressor rig. Through the use of active stall control, modal instabilities that normally occur in the pressure measurements prior to stall were normalized and the range of the compressor was extended. Normally the events of rotating stall and surge instabilities limit the operation of the aeroengine compressor to a region below the surge line. To enhance the performance of the compressor, the Lewis/MIT team used active stall control methods to extend the normal operation of the compressor beyond the original stall point.

  20. Local Injection of Lenti-BDNF at the Lesion Site Promotes M2 Macrophage Polarization and Inhibits Inflammatory Response After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin-Chao; Dang, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Hong-Yan; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Gao, Mou; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Tian; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2015-08-01

    There is much evidence to suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a prominent candidate in promoting neuroprotection, axonal regeneration, and synaptic plasticity following spinal cord injury (SCI). Although some evidence indicates that BDNF has potent anti-oxidative effects and may be involved in the regulation of the immune response, the effects of BDNF in the inflammatory response during the course of secondary damage after SCI is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of BDNF with a special focus on their effect on macrophage polarization after SCI. Adult C57 mice underwent T10 spinal cord clip compression injury and received lenti-BDNF vector injections at the epicenter of the lesion site. Four days later, total BDNF levels were greatly increased in animals that received lenti-BDNF injections. Confocal imaging showed that more than 80 % of the lenti-virus infected cells were CD11b-positive macrophages. In addition, the expression of arginase-1 and CD206 (associated with M2 macrophage phenotype) significantly increased in the animals that received lenti-BDNF injections compared with those that received lenti-EGFP injections. On the contrary, the expression of CD16/32 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (M1 phenotype marker) was down-regulated as demonstrated using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the production of interleukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha was significantly reduced whereas the levels of interleukin 10 and interleukin 13 were elevated in subjects that received lenti-BDNF vector injections. The time course of functional recovery revealed that gradual recovery was observed in the subacute phase in lenti-BDNF group, little improvement was observed in lenti-EGFP group. At the axonal level, significant retraction of the CST axons were observed in lenti-EGFP injected animals relative to lenti-BDNF group by biotinylated dextran amine tracing. In addition, compared to lenti

  1. Analgesic Effect of Intra-Articular Injection of Temperature-Responsive Hydrogel Containing Bupivacaine on Osteoarthritic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taemin; Seol, Dong Rim; Hahm, Suk-Chan; Ko, Cheolwoong; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chun, Keyoungjin; Kim, Junesun; Lim, Tae-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the analgesic effects of slow-releasing bupivacaine from hydrogel on chronic arthritic pain in rats. Osteoarthritis (OA) was induced by monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection into the right knee joint. Hydrogel (HG: 20, 30, and 50 μL) and temperature-sensitive hydrogel containing bupivacaine (T-gel: 20, 30, and 50 μL) were injected intra-articularly 14 days after MIA injection. Behavioral tests were conducted. The rats showed a significant decrease in weight load and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT). Intra-articular 0.5% bupivacaine (10 and 20 μL) significantly reversed MIA-induced decreased PWT, with no effect on weight load. In normal rats, hydrogel did not produce significant changes in PWT but at 30 and 50 μL slightly decreased weight bearing; T-gel did not cause any changes in both the weight load and PWT. In OA rats, T-gel at 20 μL had a significant analgesic effect for 2 days, even though T-gel at 50 μL further reduced the weight load, demonstrating that intra-articular T-gel (20 μL) has long-lasting analgesic effects in OA rats. Thus, T-gel designed to deliver analgesics into the joint cavity could be an effective therapeutic tool in the clinical setting. PMID:26881207

  2. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES - VOLUME 1 - DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses recent work addressing lime enhancement by slurrying with siliceous materials and testing in a laboratory packed-bed reactor, as part of EPA's efforts to develop low cost, retrofit flue gas cleaning technology, including the development of highly reactive sor...

  3. EVALUATION OF FGD DRY INJECTION SORBENTS AND ADDITIVES: VOLUME 1. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH REACTIVITY SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses recent work addressing lime enhancement by slurrying with siliceous materials and testing in a laboratory packed-bed reactor, as part of EPA's efforts to develop low cost, retrofit flue gas cleaning technology, including the development of highly reactive sor...

  4. Respect and Responsibility: Teaching Citizenship in South African High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Daniel; Staeheli, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Respect is a core concept in citizenship debates. South African high school educators often draw upon respect as a key value within citizenship education. Their teaching of this value is often conflated with promotion of the practice of responsible citizenship. The constructions of respect and responsibility in these situations are imbued with…

  5. Determination of nifuroxazide in biological fluids by automated high-performance liquid chromatography with large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Guinebault, P R; Broquaire, M; Braithwaite, R A

    1981-01-16

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the measurement of nifuroxazide in plasma is described. The technique is based on the single extraction of the drug from buffered plasma with chloroform, using nifuratel as internal standard. The chromatographic system consisted of a 15 cm x 4.6 mm I.D. stainless-steel column packed with Spherisorb ODS, 5 micrometer, and the mobile phase was acetonitrile-orthophosphoric acid (pH 2.5) (30:70). The method was able to measure accurately plasma nifuroxazide concentrations down to 2 ng . ml-1 using 2 ml of sample with no interference from endogenous compounds. The coefficients of variation of the method at 200 and 2 ng . ml-1 were 3% and 15%, respectively, and the calibration graph was linear in this range. The use of automatic injection makes the method suitable for the routine analysis of large numbers of samples. PMID:7217261

  6. Optical injection locking of monolithically integrated photonic source for generation of high purity signals above 100 GHz.

    PubMed

    Balakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; van Dijk, Frederic; Kervella, Gael; Carpintero, Guillermo; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2014-12-01

    A monolithically integrated photonic source for tuneable mm-wave signal generation has been fabricated. The source consists of 14 active components, i.e. semiconductor lasers, amplifiers and photodetectors, all integrated on a 3 mm(2) InP chip. Heterodyne signals in the range between 85 GHz and 120 GHz with up to -10 dBm output power have been successfully generated. By optically injection locking the integrated lasers to an external optical comb source, high-spectral-purity signals at frequencies >100 GHz have been generated, with phase noise spectral density below -90 dBc/Hz being achieved at offsets from the carrier greater than 10 kHz. PMID:25606875

  7. Solidification behavior of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) during injection molding: Correlation between crystallization kinetics and thermal gradient field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Deng, Yan-Li; Li, Gui-Jing; Miao, Ji-Bin; Xia, Ru; Qian, Jia-Sheng; Chen, Peng; Liu, Jing-Wang

    2015-07-01

    This work mainly investigated the effect of thermal field on the crystallization kinetics of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) during injection molding (IM) process. The thickness X = 0.4 was found to be a crucial location heavily influenced by thermal conduction. The temperature decay tended to be stable, with limited variation of the crystallization rate when X > 0.4. It was observed that the crystallization rate was in good proportion to the cooling rate (ϕ). Our experimental finding showed that the consequence of relative crystallinity (χ) was in agreement with that of the secondary temperature difference (STD). This study is practically significant to the further investigation on the relationship among “processing-structure-property” of polymeric materials.

  8. High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) System Risk-Based Inspection Guide for Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.; DiBiasio, A.; Gunther, W.

    1993-09-01

    The High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) system has been examined from a risk perspective. A System Risk-Based Inspection Guide (S-RIG) has been developed as an aid to HPCI system inspections at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1, 2 and 3. The role of. the HPCI system in mitigating accidents is discussed in this S-RIG, along with insights on identified risk-based failure modes which could prevent proper operation of the system. The S-RIG provides a review of industry-wide operating experience, including plant-specific illustrative examples to augment the PRA and operational considerations in identifying a catalogue of basic PRA failure modes for the HPCI system. It is designed to be used as a reference for routine inspections, self-initiated safety system functional inspections (SSFIs), and the evaluation of risk significance of component failures at the nuclear power plant.

  9. Narrowband cw injection seeded high power femtosecond double-pass optical parametric generator at 43 MHz: Gain and noise dynamics.

    PubMed

    Linnenbank, Heiko; Steinle, Tobias; Giessen, Harald

    2016-08-22

    We demonstrate narrowband cw injection seeding of a femtosecond double-pass optical parametric generator at 43 MHz repetition rate with a simple, low power external cavity diode laser. Up to 2.5 W of near-IR radiation (1.5 - 1.66 µm) as well as 800 mW of tunable mid-IR radiation (2.75 - 3.15 µm) with pulse durations below 300 fs are generated with a remarkable pulse-to-pulse and long term power stability. Compared to conventional, vacuum noise seeded optical parametric generators, the presented frequency conversion scheme does not only exhibit superior gain and noise dynamics, but also a high degree of flexibility upon control parameters such as pump power, seed power, or spectral position of the seed. PMID:27557233

  10. A first order theory of the p/+/-n-n/+/ edge-illuminated silicon solar cell at very high injection levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goradia, C.; Sater, B. L.

    1977-01-01

    A first order theory of the edge-illuminated p(+)-n-n(+) silicon solar cell under very high injection levels has been derived. The very high injection level illuminated J-V characteristic is derived for any general base width to diffusion length (W/L) ratio and it includes the minority carrier reflection by the n-n(+) high-low junction. The beneficial effects of the high-low junction are shown to be significant until extremely high injection levels are reached. The theoretical dependencies of Jsc and Voc on temperature, incident intensity, and base resistivity are derived and discussed in detail. Some experimental results are given and these are discussed in relation to the theory.

  11. Development of an automated high-temperature valveless injection system for online gas chromatography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kreisberg, N. M.; Worton, D. R.; Zhao, Y.; Isaacman, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hering, S. V.

    2014-12-12

    A reliable method of sample introduction is presented for online gas chromatography with a special application to in situ field portable atmospheric sampling instruments. A traditional multi-port valve is replaced with a valveless sample introduction interface that offers the advantage of long-term reliability and stable sample transfer efficiency. An engineering design model is presented and tested that allows customizing this pressure-switching-based device for other applications. Flow model accuracy is within measurement accuracy (1%) when parameters are tuned for an ambient-pressure detector and 15% accurate when applied to a vacuum-based detector. Laboratory comparisons made between the two methods of sample introductionmore » using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) show that the new interface has approximately 3 times greater reproducibility maintained over the equivalent of a week of continuous sampling. Field performance results for two versions of the valveless interface used in the in situ instrument demonstrate typically less than 2% week-1 response trending and a zero failure rate during field deployments ranging up to 4 weeks of continuous sampling. Extension of the valveless interface to dual collection cells is presented with less than 3% cell-to-cell carryover.« less

  12. Development of an automated high-temperature valveless injection system for online gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisberg, N. M.; Worton, D. R.; Zhao, Y.; Isaacman, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hering, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    A reliable method of sample introduction is presented for online gas chromatography with a special application to in situ field portable atmospheric sampling instruments. A traditional multi-port valve is replaced with a valveless sample introduction interface that offers the advantage of long-term reliability and stable sample transfer efficiency. An engineering design model is presented and tested that allows customizing this pressure-switching-based device for other applications. Flow model accuracy is within measurement accuracy (1%) when parameters are tuned for an ambient-pressure detector and 15% accurate when applied to a vacuum-based detector. Laboratory comparisons made between the two methods of sample introduction using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) show that the new interface has approximately 3 times greater reproducibility maintained over the equivalent of a week of continuous sampling. Field performance results for two versions of the valveless interface used in the in situ instrument demonstrate typically less than 2% week-1 response trending and a zero failure rate during field deployments ranging up to 4 weeks of continuous sampling. Extension of the valveless interface to dual collection cells is presented with less than 3% cell-to-cell carryover.

  13. High-purity 60GHz band millimeter-wave generation based on optically injected semiconductor laser under subharmonic microwave modulation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Li; Xia, Guangqiong; Chen, Jianjun; Tang, Xi; Liang, Qing; Wu, Zhengmao

    2016-08-01

    Based on an optically injected semiconductor laser (OISL) operating at period-one (P1) nonlinear dynamical state, high-purity millimeter-wave generation at 60 GHz band is experimentally demonstrated via 1/4 and 1/9 subharmonic microwave modulation (the order of subharmonic is with respect to the frequency fc of the acquired 60 GHz band millimeter-wave but not the fundamental frequency f0 of P1 oscillation). Optical injection is firstly used to drive a semiconductor laser into P1 state. For the OISL operates at P1 state with a fundamental frequency f0 = 49.43 GHz, by introducing 1/4 subharmonic modulation with a modulation frequency of fm = 15.32 GHz, a 60 GHz band millimeter-wave with central frequency fc = 61.28 GHz ( = 4fm) is experimentally generated, whose linewidth is below 1.6 kHz and SSB phase noise at offset frequency 10 kHz is about -96 dBc/Hz. For fm is varied between 13.58 GHz and 16.49 GHz, fc can be tuned from 54.32 GHz to 65.96 GHz under matched modulation power Pm. Moreover, for the OISL operates at P1 state with f0 = 45.02 GHz, a higher order subharmonic modulation (1/9) is introduced into the OISL for obtaining high-purity 60 GHz band microwave signal. With (fm, Pm) = (7.23 GHz, 13.00 dBm), a microwave signal at 65.07 GHz ( = 9fm) with a linewidth below 1.6 kHz and a SSB phase noise less than -98 dBc/Hz is experimentally generated. Also, the central frequency fc can be tuned in a certain range through adjusting fm and selecting matched Pm. PMID:27505789

  14. Reflection measurement of waveguide-injected high-power microwave antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chengwei; Peng, Shengren; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    A method for reflection measurements of High-power Microwave (HPM) antennas excited with overmoded waveguides is proposed and studied systemically. In theory, principle of the method is proposed and the data processing formulas are developed. In simulations, a horn antenna excited by a TE11 mode exciter is examined and its reflection is calculated by CST Microwave Studio and by the method proposed in this article, respectively. In experiments, reflection measurements of two HPM antennas are conducted, and the measured results are well consistent with the theoretical expectations.

  15. Reflection measurement of waveguide-injected high-power microwave antennas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chengwei; Peng, Shengren; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    A method for reflection measurements of High-power Microwave (HPM) antennas excited with overmoded waveguides is proposed and studied systemically. In theory, principle of the method is proposed and the data processing formulas are developed. In simulations, a horn antenna excited by a TE11 mode exciter is examined and its reflection is calculated by CST Microwave Studio and by the method proposed in this article, respectively. In experiments, reflection measurements of two HPM antennas are conducted, and the measured results are well consistent with the theoretical expectations. PMID:26724050

  16. Plasma gradient controlled injection and postacceleration of high quality electron bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Nakamura, Kei; Plateau, Guillaume R.; Toth, Csaba; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.; Cary, John R.; Leemans, Wim P.; Bruhwiler, D.L.

    2008-10-15

    Plasma density gradients in a gas jet were used to control the wake phase velocity and trapping threshold in a laser wakefield accelerator, producing stable electron bunches with longitudinal and transverse momentum spreads more than 10 times lower than in previous experiments (0.17 and 0.02 MeV=c FWHM, respectively) and with central momenta of 0.76 +- 0.02 MeV=c. Transition radiation measurements combined with simulations indicated that the bunches can be used as a wakefieldaccelerator injector to produce stable beams with 0.2 MeV=c-class momentum spread at high energies.

  17. Aging, Tolerance to High Altitude, and Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul; Lhuissier, François J

    2015-06-01

    Richalet, Jean-Paul, and François J. Lhuissier. Aging, tolerance to high altitude, and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:117-124, 2015.--It is generally accepted that aging is rather protective, at least at moderate altitude. Some anecdotal reports even mention successful ascent of peaks over 8000 m and even Everest by elderly people. However, very few studies have explored the influence of aging on tolerance to high altitude and prevalence of acute high altitude related diseases, taking into account all confounding factors such as speed of ascent, altitude reached, sex, training status, and chemo-responsiveness. Changes in physiological responses to hypoxia with aging were assessed through a cross-sectional 20-year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 yrs old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4-year interval. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased, while desaturation was less pronounced with aging. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with aging in both genders. Similar results were found in the longitudinal study, with a decrease in cardiac and an increase in ventilatory response to hypoxia with aging. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal untrained women. In conclusion, in normal healthy and active subjects, aging has no deleterious effect on cardiac and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, at least up to the eighth decade. Aging is not a contraindication for high altitude, as far as no pathological condition interferes and physical fitness is compatible with the intensity of the expected physical demand of one's individual. Physiological evaluation through hypoxic exercise testing before going to high altitude is helpful to detect risk factors of severe high altitude-related diseases. PMID:25946570

  18. Rising Cellular Immune Response after Injection of pVax/iutA: A Genetic DNA Cassette as Candidate Vaccine against Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    BAKHTIARI, Ronak; AHMADIAN, Shahin; FALLAH MEHRABADI, Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are major bacterial agent of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). This infection is more prevalent among women because approximately half of all women will experience a UTI in their life-time and near a quarter of them will have a recurrent infection within 6–12 months. IutA protein has a major role during UPEC pathogenesis and consequently infection. Therefore, the aim of current study was assessment of IutA protein roles as a potential candidate antigen based for vaccine designing. Methods: This survey was conducted during 2014–2015 at the University of Tehran, Iran. Chromosomal DNA extracted from E. coli 35218 and iutA gene amplified by PCR. The amplicon cloned to pVax.1 eukaryotic expression vector and recombinant vector confirmed by sequencing. The iutA gene expression in genetic cassette of pVax/iutA was evaluated in COS7 cell line by RT-PCR. Then, injected to mouse model, which divided to three groups: injected with pVax vector, PBS and pVax/iutA cassette respectively in two stages (d 1 and 14). One week after the second injection, bleeding from immunized mouse was performed and IFN-gamma was measured. Results: The mice immunized with pVax/iutA showed increased interferon-γ responses significantly higher than two non-immunized groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Cellular immune response has a main protective role against UTI. Raising this kind of immune response is important to preventing of recurrent infection. Moreover, the current DNA cassette will be valuable for more trying to prepare a new vaccine against UTI. PMID:27516995

  19. Laser Doppler imager (LDI) scanner and intradermal injection for in vivo pharmacology in human skin microcirculation: responses to acetylcholine, endothelin-1 and their repeatability

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Anabelle M Opazo; Mosel, Frank; Nürnberger, Jens; Rushentsova, U; Gössl, Mario; Mitchell, Anna; Schäfers, Rafael F; Philipp, Thomas; Wenzel, René R

    2005-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of forearm skin blood flow responses to intradermal injections of acetylcholine (ACh) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) using a double injection technique (DIT) and a laser Doppler imager (LDI) scanner in the human skin microcirculation. Methods We used a laser Doppler imager (Moor LDI V3.01) to continuously monitor the change in skin blood flow during intradermal administration of physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), acetylcholine (ACh 10−7, 10−8, 10−9 M) and endothelin-1 (ET-1 10−14, 10−16, 10−18 M) in 10 healthy male subjects. Subjects were examined on 3 different days for assessment of interday and interobserver repeatability. Injections of either drug were randomly placed on different sites of the forearm. Laser Doppler images were collected before and after injection at 2.5 min intervals for 30 min. Data were analysed after the completion of each experiment using Moor Software V.3.01. Results are expressed as changes from baseline in arbitrary perfusion units (PU). Results ACh caused a significant vasodilation (P< 0.0001 anova, mean ± SE: 766 ± 152 PU, ACh 10−9 M; 1868 ± 360 PU, ACh 10−8 M; 4188 ± 848 PU, ACh 10−7 M; mean of days 1 and 2, n = 10), and ET-1 induced a significant vasoconstrictive response (P< 0.0001 anova, −421 ± 83 PU, ET-1 10−18 M; −553 ± 66 PU, ET-1 10−16 M; −936 ± 90 PU, ET-1 10−14 M; mean of days 1 and 2, n = 10). There was no difference on the response to either drug on repeated days. Bland-Altman analyses showed a close agreement of responses between days with repeatability coefficients of 1625.4 PU for ACh, and 386.0 PU for ET-1 (95% CI: ACh, −1438 to 1747 PU, ET-1, −399 to 358 PU) and between observers with repeatability coefficients of 1057.2 PU for ACh and 255.8 PU for ET-1 (95% CI: ACh, −1024 to 1048 PU, ET-1, −252 to 249 PU). The variability between these responses was independent of average flux values for both ACh and ET-1. There was

  20. Numerical simulation study of silica and calcite dissolution around a geothermal well by injecting high pH solutions with chelating agent.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Rose, Peter; Fayer, Scott; Pruess, Karsten

    2009-02-01

    Dissolution of silica, silicate, and calcite minerals in the presence of a chelating agent (NTA) at a high pH has been successfully performed in the laboratory using a high-temperature flow reactor. The mineral dissolution and porosity enhancement in the laboratory experiment has been reproduced by reactive transport simulation using TOUGHREACT. The chemical stimulation method has been applied by numerical modeling to a field geothermal injection well system, to investigate its effectiveness. Parameters from the quartz monzodiorite unit at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site at Desert Peak (Nevada) were used. Results indicate that the injection of a high pH chelating solution results in dissolution of both calcite and plagioclase minerals, and avoids precipitation of calcite at high temperature conditions. Consequently reservoir porosity and permeability can be enhanced especially near the injection well.

  1. Serum antibody response in adult volunteers elicited by injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 12F polysaccharide alone or conjugated to diphtheria toxoid.

    PubMed Central

    Fattom, A; Lue, C; Szu, S C; Mestecky, J; Schiffman, G; Bryla, D; Vann, W F; Watson, D; Kimzey, L M; Robbins, J B

    1990-01-01

    Conjugates of an uronic acid-containing capsular polysaccharide (CP), pneumococcous type 12F (Pn12F) bound to diphtheria toxoid (DT), were studied for safety and immunogenicity in adult volunteers. In mice, these conjugates, prepared with the same lot of DT and Pn12F-40234-006, a homogenous CP of high molecular weight, or Pn12-812408, a polydisperse CP with lower-molecular-weight material, were more immunogenic than the Pn12F alone and had T-cell dependent properties (A. Fattom, W. F. Vann, S.C. Szu, A. Sutton, X. Li, B. Bryla, G. Schiffman, J. B. Robbins, and R. Schneerson, Infect. Immun. 56:2292-2298, 1988). Adult volunteers, randomized into three groups, were injected either with one of these two conjugates or with Pnu-Imune, the 23 valent pneumococcus vaccine containing 25 micrograms of Pn12F as one of its components. Volunteers were injected two times, 4 weeks apart, with the Pn12F-DT conjugates and once with the Pnu-Imune. Side reactions following injection of the conjugates of Pnu-Imune were mild and short-lived. At 4 weeks and at 7 months after the first injection, higher levels of Pn12F antibodies were found in the volunteers injected with the conjugates than in the Pnu-Imune group (P less than 0.001). The conjugate prepared with the higher-molecular-weight Pn12F elicited higher levels of antibodies than the conjugate prepared with a lower-molecular-weight Pn12F preparation (P = 0.05). Both conjugates elicited about a 13-fold rise in DT antibodies. PMID:2365462

  2. Pathophysiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): early changes in blood and aspects of the immune Response after Injection of IHN Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Smith, Lynnwood

    1974-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were injected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus and various hematological and blood chemical changes were monitored over 9 days. The packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and plasma bicarbonate were significantly depressed by day 4. Plasma chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and blood cell types did not change during the 9 days. Furthermore, plasma  LDH isozyme was significantly increased by the fourth day, and fish infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and redmouth bacterium did not show specific LDH isozyme alterations. Acid-base alterations occurred at 10 C but not at 18 C. The acid-base imbalance and elevation of the  LDH isozyme were consistently associated with the early development of the disease.The immune response after injection of IHN virus was determined and protection from disease was tested by passive immunization. Actively immunized fish developed IHN-neutralizing antibodies within 54 days after injection of virus, and the antibodies were protective when juvenile fish were passively immunized and experimentally challenged with IHN virus.

  3. A unique drug distribution process for radium Ra 223 dichloride injection and its implication for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Dansereau, Raymond N

    2014-11-01

    On May 15, 2013, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals announced that it had received marketing approval for the therapeutic radioactive medication radium Ra 223 dichloride injection (Xofigo; Ra 223). The product acquisition and distribution process for hospital-based nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine services is unlike any other. The product is distributed as a low-risk compounded sterile preparation through a single compounding nuclear pharmacy located in Denver, Colorado, pursuant to a prescription. This model for drug distribution and delivery to the user institution has implications for product quality, patient privacy, and delineation of professional responsibilities. PMID:25301826

  4. Two Sudden and Unexpected Deaths of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Intramuscular Injections of Antipsychotics and Practice Guidelines to Limit the Use of High Doses of Intramuscular Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Brenzel, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP). These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. His death was probably caused by repeated IM haloperidol injections of 10 mg (totaling 35 mg in 2 days). The second case involves a 42-year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. Her probable cause of death was the last ziprasidone IM injection of 20 mg in addition to (1) three extra haloperidol doses (2 hours before the ziprasidone injection, 5 mg oral haloperidol; approximately 21 hours earlier, 5 mg oral haloperidol; and 2 days prior, one 10 mg IM haloperidol injection), (2) 10 mg/day of scheduled oral haloperidol for 6 days before death, and (3) a long-acting paliperidone injection of 156 mg 18 days before death. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended. PMID:27597919

  5. Two Sudden and Unexpected Deaths of Patients with Schizophrenia Associated with Intramuscular Injections of Antipsychotics and Practice Guidelines to Limit the Use of High Doses of Intramuscular Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Wahidi, Nasratullah; Johnson, Katie M; Brenzel, Allen; de Leon, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous haloperidol has been associated with torsades de pointes (TdP). These two sudden deaths were probable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following intramuscular (IM) antipsychotics. The autopsies described lack of heart pathology and were highly compatible with the possibility of TdP in the absence of risk factors other than the accumulation of antipsychotics with a high serum peak after the last injection, leading to death within hours. The first case was a 27-year-old African-American male with schizophrenia but no medical issues. His death was probably caused by repeated IM haloperidol injections of 10 mg (totaling 35 mg in 2 days). The second case involves a 42-year-old African-American female with metabolic syndrome. Her probable cause of death was the last ziprasidone IM injection of 20 mg in addition to (1) three extra haloperidol doses (2 hours before the ziprasidone injection, 5 mg oral haloperidol; approximately 21 hours earlier, 5 mg oral haloperidol; and 2 days prior, one 10 mg IM haloperidol injection), (2) 10 mg/day of scheduled oral haloperidol for 6 days before death, and (3) a long-acting paliperidone injection of 156 mg 18 days before death. The study of haloperidol glucuronidation and its impairment in some African-Americans is urgently recommended. PMID:27597919

  6. The Fundamental Principles of High-speed Semi-diesel Engines. Part I: a General Discussion of the Subject of Fuel Injection in Diesel Engines and Detailed Descriptions of Many Types of Injection Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchner,

    1926-01-01

    Three questions relating to the technical progress in the utilization of heavy oils are discussed. The first question considers solid injection in high-speed automobile engines, the second concerns the development of the hot-bulb engine, and the third question relates to the need for a more thorough investigation of the processes on which the formatation of combustible, rapidly-burning mixtures depend.

  7. Evaluation of high-temperature and short-time sterilization of injection ampules by microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Honda, W; Miyake, Y

    1998-01-01

    The high-temperature and short-time sterilization by microwave heating with a continuous microwave sterilizer (MWS) was evaluated. The evaluation were performed with respect to: [1] lethal effect against microorganisms corresponding to F-value, and [2] reliability of MWS sterilization process. Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as the biological indicator and the heat-resistance of spores was evaluated with conventional heating method (121-129 degrees C). In MWS sterilization (125-135 degrees C), the actual lethal effect against B. stearothermophilus spores was almost in agreement with the F-value and the survival curve against the F-value was quite consistent with that for the autoclave. These results suggest that the actual lethal effect could be estimated by the F-value with heat-resistance parameters of spores from lower than actual temperatures and that there was no nonthermal effect of the microwave on B. stearothermophilus spores. The reliability of sterilization with the MWS was confirmed using more than 25,000 test ampules containing biological indicators. All biological indicators were killed, thus the present study shows that the MWS was completely reliable for all ampules. PMID:9542408

  8. Low cost booster and high performance orbit injection propulsion extended abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Space transportation is currently a major element of cost for communications satellite systems. For every dollar spent in manufacturing the satellite, somewhere between 1 and 3 dollars must be spent to launch the satellite into its initial operational orbit. This also makes the weight of the satellite a very critical cost factor because it is important to maximize the useful payload that is placed into orbit to maximize the return on the original investment. It seems apparent then, that tremendous economic advantage for satellite communications systems can be gained from improvements in two key highly leveraged propulsion areas. The first and most important economic improvement can be achieved by significantly lowering the cost of today's launch vehicles. The second gain that would greatly benefit the communications satellite business position is to increase both the useful (payload) weight placed into the orbit and the revenue generating lifetime of the satellite on-orbit. The point of this paper is to first explain that these two goals can best be achieved by cost reduction and performance increasing advancements in rocket propulsion for both the launch vehicle and for the satellite on-board apogee insertion and on-orbit velocity control systems.

  9. High voltage surface potential measurements in ambient conditions: Application to organic thin-film transistor injection and transport characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Tournadre, Grégoire; Reisdorffer, Frédéric; Rödel, Reinhold; Simonetti, Olivier; Klauk, Hagen; Giraudet, Louis

    2016-03-01

    A scanning surface potential measurement technique suited for thin-film devices operating under high voltages is reported. A commercial atomic force microscope has been customized to enable a feedback-controlled and secure surface potential measurement based on phase-shift detection under ambient conditions. Measurements of the local potential profile along the channel of bottom-gate organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) are shown to be useful to disentangle the contributions from the channel and contacts to the device performance. Intrinsic contact current-voltage characteristics have been measured on bottom-gate, top-contact (staggered) TFTs based on the small-molecule semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) and on bottom-gate, bottom-contact (coplanar) TFTs based on the semiconducting polymer polytriarylamine (PTAA). Injection has been found to be linear in the staggered DNTT TFTs and nonlinear in the coplanar PTAA TFTs. In both types of TFT, the injection efficiency has been found to improve with increasing gate bias in the accumulation regime. Contact resistances as low as 130 Ω cm have been measured in the DNTT TFTs. A method that eliminates the influence of bias-stress-induced threshold-voltage shifts when measuring the local charge-carrier mobility in the channel is also introduced, and intrinsic channel mobilities of 1.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.1 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1 have been determined for DNTT and PTAA. In both semiconductors, the mobility has been found to be constant with respect to the gate bias. Despite its simplicity, the Kelvin probe force microscopy method reported here provides robust and accurate surface potential measurements on thin-film devices under operation and thus paves the way towards more extensive studies of particular interest in emerging fields of solid-state electronics.

  10. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  11. High Prevalence of HIV-1 Intersubtype B′/C Recombinants among Injecting Drug Users in Dehong, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaoxu; An, Minghui; Zhao, Bin; Duan, Song; Yang, Shaomin; Xu, Junjie; Zhang, Min; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Takebe, Yutaka; Shang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the distribution of HIV-1 genotypes among injecting drug users (IDUs) from Dehong, Yunnan province. Materials and Methods Blood samples from a total of 95 HIV-positive IDUs were retrospectively analyzed. Samples were collected between 2005 and 2009 from four cities in Dehong prefecture, western Yunnan province, the geographical origin of the HIV epidemic in China. HIV-1 gag, partial pol, vpr-env fragment, half-genome, or near-full-length sequences were analyzed to determine the HIV-1 genotypes of each subject. Results were compared with findings from past studies of IDUs in Dehong and in neighboring Myanmar. Results We observed a high prevalence of B′/C recombinants (82.4%) among IDUs in Dehong, the structural profiles of which do not match those previously reported in Dehong or in Myanmar. Furthermore, statistically significant differences in geographical and temporal distributions of HIV-1 genotypes were characterized by a predominance of HIV-1 B′/C recombinant forms among older subjects(p = 0.034), subjects from Longchuan district (p = 0.022), and subjects diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 (p = 0.004). Conclusions The increasing prevalence of multiple, new B′/C recombinant forms suggest that HIV-1 intersubtype recombination is substantial and ongoing in western Yunnan. This reflects the high-risk behavior of IDUs in this region and argues the need for stronger monitoring and prevention measures in Dehong and other high-prevalence areas around China. PMID:23741489

  12. High coverage needle/syringe programs for people who inject drugs in low and middle income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at an elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In many high-income countries, needle and syringe exchange programs (NSP) have been associated with reductions in blood-borne infections. However, we do not have a good understanding of the effectiveness of NSP in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. Methods A systematic literature review based on PRISMA guidelines was utilized to collect primary study data on coverage of NSP programs and changes in HIV and HCV infection over time among PWID in low-and middle-income and transitional countries (LMICs). Included studies reported laboratory measures of either HIV or HCV and at least 50% coverage of the local injecting population (through direct use or through secondary exchange). We also included national reports on newly reported HIV cases for countries that had national level data for PWID in conjunction with NSP scale-up and implementation. Results Studies of 11 NSPs with high-coverage from Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Estonia, Iran, Lithuania, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam were included in the review. In five studies HIV prevalence decreased (range −3% to −15%) and in three studies HCV prevalence decreased (range −4.2% to −10.2%). In two studies HIV prevalence increased (range +5.6% to +14.8%). HCV incidence remained stable in one study. Of the four national reports of newly reported HIV cases, three reported decreases during NSP expansion, ranging from −30% to −93.3%, while one national report documented an increase in cases (+37.6%). Estimated incidence among new injectors decreased in three studies, with reductions ranging from −11/100 person years at risk to −16/100 person years at risk. Conclusions While not fully consistent, the data generally support the effectiveness of NSP in reducing HIV and HCV infection in low/middle-income and transitional-economy countries. If high coverage is

  13. MHD Modelling of Coronal Loops: Injection of High-Speed Chromospheric Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods. We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (approximately 0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km per second, its initial density is 10(exp 11) per cubic centimeter, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (approximately 1.5 MK) background loop. Results. While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 10(exp 6) K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Angstrom channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions. For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess.

  14. [Case of death occurred after an injection of aetoxisclerol. The responsibility of the product should be discussed].

    PubMed

    Paysant, F; Baert, A; Morel, I; Le Gall, F; Le Gueut, M

    2006-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman has suffered from faintness with cardiovascular failure at the end of a sclerotherapy session for varix management. The injected product was Aeloxisclerol (DCI lauromacrogal 400). The death came up very quickly. The autopsy didn't reveal any traumatic lesion. The anaphylactic choc could be ruled out. Macroscopically, the heart showed a right ventricular dilatation. The toxicological analysis didn't reveal any medicinal substances. Histology showed the presence of lipid degeneration of all the right-ventricle wall The discussion is carried out on the role played by this previous health-state on the onset of death, and also on the incidence of sclerotherapy using this product. and the onset of death. We are carrying out this discussion by taking in mind the nature of the product injected and the information available in the literature concerning the lipid degeneration of cardiac muscle. Quickly after this case, the AFSSAPS (The French Agency for Sanitary Security of Health Products) has emitted an written alert which correlates with the requirements of principles of precaution although it is not founded on the totality of investigation results done for this medicolegal case. PMID:16700152

  15. Individual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    M Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J; Collet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1β1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-γ and IL-4/13A) and β-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment. PMID:27245868

  16. The geomicrobiology of CO2 geosequestration: a focused review on prokaryotic community responses to field-scale CO2 injection

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Andre; Moreau, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Our primary research paper (Mu et al., 2014) demonstrated selective changes to a deep subsurface prokaryotic community as a result of CO2 stress. Analyzing geochemical and microbial 16S rRNA gene profiles, we evaluated how in situ prokaryotic communities responded to increased CO2 and the presence of trace organic compounds, and related temporal shifts in phylogeny to changes in metabolic potential. In this focused review, we extend upon our previous discussion to present analysis of taxonomic unit co-occurrence profiles from the same field experiment, to attempt to describe dynamic community behavior within the deep subsurface. Understanding the physiology of the subsurface microbial biosphere, including how key functional groups integrate into the community, will be critical to determining the fate of injected CO2. For example, community-wide network analyses may provide insights to whether microbes cooperatively produce biofilm biomass, and/or biomineralize the CO2, and hence, induce changes to formation porosity or changes in electron flow. Furthermore, we discuss potential impacts to the feasibility of subsurface CO2 storage of selectively enriching for particular metabolic functions (e.g., methanogenesis) as a result of CO2 injection. PMID:25914677

  17. An Electron-microscope Study of the Response of Mesothelial Cells to the Intrapleural Injection of Asbestos Dust

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. M. G.

    1974-01-01

    Studies of the pleural mesothelium in rats, mice, and guinea-pigs following the intrapleural injection of asbestos dust, showed that for 6 months at least this dust did not induce mesothelial hyperplasia. During the first few days after injection some areas of mesothelial cells became rounded and less clearly attached to one another, and a few were found to contain small numbers of asbestos fibres. During this period there was evidence of the penetration of asbestos fibres between the mesothelial cells, into the submesothelial connective tissues. Later in the studies the mesothelium covering most of the pleural cavity returned to normal, but where mesothelium covered asbestos granulomata, the cells were found to be extremely flattened, and without surface microvilli. Usually the mesothelial covering was complete, but in some areas pores were found penetrating the mesothelial cell cytoplasm and leaving areas of connective tissue in direct contact with the pleural cavity. In a few cases mesothelial cells were found lining clefts within the connective tissue of asbestos granulomata. ImagesFigs. 5-7Figs. 1-2Figs. 3-4 PMID:4835798

  18. High-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin injections induces metabolic syndrome in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhao; Liao, Guangneng; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yanrong; Du, Xiaojiong; Liu, Jingping; Li, Lan; Wang, Chengshi; Li, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhong, Zhihui; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of MetS, qualified animal models are currently seriously limited for researchers. The aim of our study was to develop a MetS model in juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Rhesus monkeys (1-year-old) fed a high-fat diet (15 % fat, 2 % cholesterol) were used as the HF group (n = 6), and those on a normal diet (5 % fat) were used as the control group (n = 4). After being fed a high-fat diet for approximately 12 months, 2 monkeys (HF + STZ group) were injected with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 25 mg/kg) twice, with a 7 days interval, and were then fed the same diet continuously for another 24 months. After 36 months of treatment, the high-fat diet monkeys, including the HF and HF + STZ groups, had acquired increased body weights, abnormal serum lipids, and impaired glucose tolerance compared to the control group. In addition, much more marked metabolic changes were observed in the two monkeys of the HF + STZ group, particularly in terms of high-blood glucose level and insulin resistance. Morphological observation of biopsies of liver and pancreatic tissues showed decreased islet number and mass and decreased insulin staining in the monkeys of the HF + STZ group. In addition, Oil red O staining suggested remarkable accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes. Our study suggested that a long-term high-fat diet followed with a low-dose STZ was able to induce MetS in juvenile rhesus monkeys with faster pathophysiological progress compared with high-fat diet induction alone. Our primary data showed that this method may have potentials to develop MetS animal model in non-human primates. PMID:25672777

  19. MHD modelling of coronal loops: injection of high-speed chromospheric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims: We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods: We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (~0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km s-1, its initial density is 1011 cm-3, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (~1.5 MK) background loop. Results: While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 106 K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Å channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions: For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess. Movies associated to Figs. 3, 6, 7 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region: a sub-analysis of the WHO 2013 global hepatitis policy survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address it varies greatly. In 2013, the World Health Organization conducted a survey assessing national viral hepatitis efforts of 194 national governments. Here, we present a sub-analysis of this global survey focusing on questions relating to people who inject drugs in the WHO European Region. Methods The initial survey included 43 questions covering awareness, data, prevention, and screening and treatment. It was sent in five languages to identified national focal points. This sub-analysis included 11 questions and 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. Descriptive analyses of national activities are presented. As a secondary outcome bivariate analyses of differences between Member States of the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) compared to those not in said grouping are presented. Results Forty-four of the 53 Member States responded to the survey (response rate of 83%). More than three-quarters reported offering publicly-funded treatment for HBV or HCV (82% and 80%, respectively), with a significantly higher proportion of EU/EFTA Member States (P=0.004 and P=0.010, respectively). Half of Member States (53%) reported the existence of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. Conclusions Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the