Science.gov

Sample records for high temperature desulfurization

  1. High temperature desulfurization using molten salt carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Nobuhiro; Iwahashi, Takashi; Kosaka, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Keijiro; Murata, Keiji; Hori, Michio

    1998-07-01

    A new desulfurization process using molten salt carbonate as an absorber is proposed. Main feature of this process is its high operating temperature (600{approximately}800 C) as well as the possibility of simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination. Some chemical equilibrium calculations and basic experiments of this process have been done as the first step of basic theoretical investigations for this new gas cleanup concept. It is confirmed from this calculation that this new gas cleanup concept has enough ability of desulfurization and regeneration of molten salt carbonate.

  2. HIGH-TEMPERATURE DESULFURIZATION OF LOW-BTU-GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and gives results of economic studies of a process for desulfurizing low-Btu fuel gas. The gas is first desulfurized at high temperature in a fluidized bed of half-calcined dolomite. It is then cooled to 700 C and passed through high-pressure-drop cyclones to...

  3. High temperature desulfurization of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Robin, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The hot process gas stream from the partial oxidation of sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel comprising gaseous mixtures of H.sub.2 +CO, sulfur-containing gases, entrained particulate carbon, and molten slag is passed through the unobstructed central passage of a radiant cooler where the temperature is reduced to a temperature in the range of about 1800.degree. F. to 1200.degree. F. From about 0 to 95 wt. % of the molten slag and/or entrained material may be removed from the hot process gas stream prior to the radiant cooler with substantially no reduction in temperature of the process gas stream. In the radiant cooler, after substantially all of the molten slag has solidified, the sulfur-containing gases are contacted with a calcium-containing material to produce calcium sulfide. A partially cooled stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas containing entrained calcium sulfide particulate matter, particulate carbon, and solidified slag leaves the radiant cooler containing a greatly reduced amount of sulfur-containing gases.

  4. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  5. Novel preparation method of macroporous lime from limestone for high-temperature desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaoka, Eiji; Uddin, M.A.; Nojima, Shigeru

    1997-09-01

    Limestone is a very important material as a high temperature desulfurization sorbent: limestone is used for in-bed SO{sub 2} capture in fluidized bed combustors of coal and can be used in coal gasifiers for the in-bed removal of H{sub 2}S. In order to develop a highly active calcium oxide high-temperature desulfurization sorbent, macroporous calcium oxides were directly prepared from limestone. This method is composed of two steps: swelling of the limestone in the gas phase followed by drying and calcination of the swelled samples. The swelling was found when limestone was exposed to a vapor of aqueous acetic acid. The swelling of the sample resulted from an increase of calcium acetate formation in the sample. It was then converted to macroporous calcium oxides by heating the sample to 850 C. The reactivity of the macroporous calcium oxide for the removal of SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S under coexisting H{sub 2}O vapor was higher than that of the calcined raw limestone. In particular, its SO{sub 2} removal capacity and oxidative character of CaS to CaSO{sub 4} and CaO were greatly improved by the swelling method.

  6. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications. [Zinc titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents to be employed for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluid-bed reactor. The sorbent formulation specified for study during the base period of this project was zinc ferrite. Zinc titanate sorbents are being studied under two options to the base contract. Specific objectives of the zinc titanate sorbent development work are the following: The effect of following process variables was investigated o the performance of zinc titanate sorbents: Method of sorbent preparation, Composition of fuel gas, Zn to Ti ratio of the sorbent, Sulfidation temperature, and Superficial gas velocity. The effect of first three variables has been covered in RTI's 1991 paper (Gupta and Gangwal, 1991b), while the effect of temperature and superficial gas velocity is described here.

  7. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents to be employed for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluid-bed reactor. The sorbent formulation specified for study during the base period of this project was zinc ferrite. Zinc titanate sorbents are being studied under two options to the base contract. Specific objectives of the zinc titanate sorbent development work are the following: The effect of following process variables was investigated o the performance of zinc titanate sorbents: Method of sorbent preparation, Composition of fuel gas, Zn to Ti ratio of the sorbent, Sulfidation temperature, and Superficial gas velocity. The effect of first three variables has been covered in RTI`s 1991 paper (Gupta and Gangwal, 1991b), while the effect of temperature and superficial gas velocity is described here.

  8. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  9. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this contract was to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Desired properties to be enhanced for moving-bed sorbent materials are: (1) high chemical reactivity (sulfur absorption rate and total sulfur capacity), (2) high mechanical strength (pellet crush strength and attrition resistance), and (3) suitable pellet morphology (e.g., pellet size, shape, surface area, and average specific pore volume). In addition, it is desired to maintain the sorbent properties over extended cyclic use in moving- bed systems.

  10. Influence of Dust on High Temperature Desulfurization of Iron Oxide Sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Huang, J.; Wu, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2002-09-19

    The understanding of influence of deposited dust on desulfurization performance of sorbent is of significance for developing combined processes for simultaneous desulfurization and dust removal in hot gas cleanup. In this paper, the influence of dust from a fluidized-bed coal gasifier on iron oxide desulfurization sorbent made by a kind of waste material containing iron oxide was systemically evaluated at different temperatures (400 C-550 C) and at different quantity of dust (0.5%-5%) in a fixed-bed reactor. The result showed that dust could interact with sorbent and adversely influenced sulfur capacity and sulfidation rate of sorbent. The influence was promoted with increasing sulfidation temperature and quantity of dust. But below 450 C, the interaction could be neglected. Kinetic studies were also conducted using the grain model. Deposition of dust on the surface of the sorbent could cause the deterioration of mass transfer and the decrease of the effective diffusivities.

  11. Conceptual designs of advanced high-temperature desulfurization processes: Volume 1, Molten carbonate fuel cell power plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, M.G.; Boulay, R.B.; Buchanan, T.L.; Chen, H.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Losovsky, M.L.; Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this effort is to provide conceptual commercial-scale designs, including engineering, relative cost, and economic information for high-temperature desulfurization processes. The commercial-scale processes were designed as an integral part of a nominal 100-MW(e) power plant. Two types of power plants were considered, a coal gasification molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant and an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant. Three desulfurization processes combined with three different gasification processes were evaluated, for a total of 16 cases for the MCFC power plant. The three desulfurization processes evaluated were: METC's zinc ferrite process, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory's solid-supported molten salt process, and Institute of Gas Technology's mixed metal oxide process. Volume I of this report presents the results for the MCFC power plant.

  12. Coal desulfurization by low-temperature chlorinolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Ganguli, P. S.; Gavalas, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    Among the three principal methods for precombustion desulfurization of coal, which include physical depyriting, chemical desulfurization, and coal conversion to low-sulfur liquid and gaseous fuels, the potential of chemical methods looks promising in terms of both total sulfur removal and processing cost. The principal chemical methods for coal desulfurization involve treatment with either oxidizing agents or basic media at elevated temperature and pressure. A description is given of some recent experimental results which show the feasibility of removing sulfur, particularly organic sulfur, from high-sulfur coals by a simple method of low-temperature chlorinolysis followed by hydrolysis and dechlorination. The chemical feasibility of sulfur removal by chlorinolysis rather than the detailed engineering process is emphasized.

  13. The role of chlorides and alkalis in high temperature coal gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelberg, A.S.; Ayala, R.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Toman, D.

    1994-12-31

    Reusable zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbents are being developed for high temperature (1,000 F) coal gas desulfurization applications. Bench scale and pilot scale tests reveal that zinc-based sorbents chemisorb HCl present in low Btu fuel. Volatile chlorides (ZnCl{sub 2} and HCl) are released when the sorbents are regenerated in a higher-temperature oxidizing atmosphere. As a result of these chloride/sorbent interactions, solid ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnCl{sub 2} deposit in downstream process equipment and degrade process operability. The HCI concentration in coal gas can be reduced to about 1 ppmv with sodium bicarbonate, which decomposes in hot coal gas and reacts with HCl to form solid sodium chloride. Models and laboratory scale tests indicate these low HCl concentrations can be achieved with reasonable reactor sizes. Equilibrium calculations and pilot plant measurements show that contacting hot coal gas with large quantities of sodium bicarbonate will result in fuel vapor phase sodium levels that are well below gas turbine limits.

  14. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  15. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  16. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  17. Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases

    SciTech Connect

    Woodland, L. R.

    1988-08-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. High-temperature desulfurization of gasifier effluents with rare earth and rare earth/transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, Kerry M.; Kalakota, Vikram; Adusumilli, Sumana

    2011-02-11

    We have improved the application of mixed rare-earth oxides (REOs) as hot gas desulfurization adsorbents by impregnating them on stable high surface area supports and by the inclusion of certain transition metal oxides. We report comparative desulfurization experiments at high temperature (900 K) using a synthetic biomass gasifier effluent containing 0.1 vol % H2S, along with H2, CO2, and water. More complex REO sorbents outperform the simpler CeO2/La2O3 mixtures, in some cases significantly. Supporting REOs on Al2O3 (~20 wt % REO) or ZrO2 actually increased the sulfur capacities found after several cycles on a total weight basis. Another major increase in sulfur capacity took place when MnOx or FeOx is incorporated. Apparently most of the Mn or Fe is dispersed on or near the surface of the mixed REOs because the capacities with REOs greatly exceeded those of Al2O3-supported MnOx or FeOx alone at these conditions. In contrast, incorporating Cu has little effect on sulfur adsorption capacities. Both the REO and transition metal/REO adsorbents could be regenerated completely using air for at least five repetitive cycles.

  19. Status of METC investigations of coal gas desulfurization at high temperature. [Zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1984-03-01

    This report documents the continuing effort at the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process for coal-derived gas, primarily for application to molten carbonate fuel cells. Metal oxide sorbents were tested on lab-scale test equipment, and it was determined that scale-up of the process was warranted. A larger, skid-mounted test unit was therefore designed, constructed, and installed on a sidestream of the DOE/METC fixed-bed gasifier. A first series of tests was conducted during Gasifier Run 101. These tests served to shake down the test unit, and provide data on the performance of the test unit operating on coal-derived gas. Overall, the process operated well on fixed-bed, air-blown gasifier gas. Sulfur levels in exit dry gas were reduced to less than 10 ppM. Regeneration appears to restore the sulfur-removing capacity of the sorbent. Sorbent integrity was maintained during the test period, which incorporated three sulfidations. It is recommended that treatment of the regeneration offgas be investigated, and that testing and development of a system to reduce the sulfur in this gas to elemental sulfur be initiated. In addition, it is suggested that a multiple reactor system be planned for continuous operation, to allow for long-term tests of downstream users of desulfurized gas. 7 references, 18 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Effect of operating parameters and reactor structure on moderate temperature dry desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Qi, Haiying; Hou, Bo; Chen, Changhe; Xu, Xuchang

    2006-07-01

    A moderate temperature dry desulfurization process at 600-800 degrees C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was investigated for various operating parameters, such as bed temperature, CO2 concentration, and solids concentration. In addition, structural improvements in key parts of the CFB-FGD system, i.e., the cyclone separator and the distributor, were made to improve the desulfurization efficiency and flow resistance. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiency increased rapidly with increasing temperature above 600 degrees C due to enhanced gas diffusion and the shift of the equilibrium for the carbonate reaction. The sorbent sulfated gradually after quick carbonation of the sorbent with a long particle residence time necessary to realize a high desulfurization ratio. A reduced solids concentration in the bed reduced the particle residence time and the desulfurization efficiency. A single-stage cyclone separator produced no improvement in the desulfurization efficiency compared with a two-stage cyclone separator. Compared with a wind cap distributor, a large hole distributor reduced the flow resistance which reduced the desulfurization efficiency due to the reduced bed pressure drop and worsened bed fluidization. The desulfurization efficiency can be improved by increasing the collection efficiency of fine particles to prolong their residence time and by improving the solids concentration distribution to increase the gas-solid contact surface area. PMID:16856750

  1. Bench-scale testing of novel high-temperature desulfurization sorbents: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Harkins, S.M.; Stogner, J.M.; Woods, M.C.; Rogers, T.N.

    1988-12-01

    Extrudates of regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents including zinc ferrite, copper-modified zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, copper aluminate, copper-iron aluminate, and copper manganate were prepared and tested for their potential to remove hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) from coal gasifier gas in a high-temperature high-pressure (HTHP) fixed-bed reactor. The zinc containing sorbents were found to be more promising than those containing combinations of copper, aluminum, iron, and manganese. Reductions in H/sub 2/S concentration were achieved depending on sorbent, reactor temperature, and steam concentration. The copper-modified zinc ferrite sorbent reduced the H/sub 2/S concentration to less than 1 ppmv at up to 1100/degree/F with 20 volume % steam in the gas. The zinc ferrite sorbent showed no apparent loss in capacity over 15 sulfidation-regeneration cycles but underwent significant strength reduction in a coal-derived gas with 15% or less steam due to soot formation. Zinc titanate exhibited excellent strength and capacity retention at steam levels as low as 5% and temperatures as high as 1350/degree/F. 13 refs., 64 figs., 75 tabs.

  2. Effect of operating parameters and reactor structure on moderate temperature dry desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Haiying Qi; Bo Hou; Changhe Chen; Xuchang Xu

    2006-07-01

    A moderate temperature dry desulfurization process at 600-800 C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was investigated for various operating parameters. Structural improvements in key parts of the CFB-FGD system, i.e., the cyclone separator and the distributor, were made to improve the desulfurization efficiency and flow resistance. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiency increased rapidly with increasing temperature above 600 C due to enhanced gas diffusion and the shift of the equilibrium for the carbonate reaction. The sorbent sulfated gradually after quick carbonation of the sorbent with a long particle residence time necessary to realize a high desulfurization ratio. A reduced solids concentration in the bed reduced the particle residence time and the desulfurization efficiency. A single-stage cyclone separator produced no improvement in the desulfurization efficiency compared with a two-stage cyclone separator. Compared with a wind cap distributor, a large hole distributor reduced the flow resistance which reduced the desulfurization efficiency due to the reduced bed pressure drop and worsened bed fluidization. The desulfurization efficiency can be improved by increasing the collection efficiency of fine particles to prolong their residence time and by improving the solids concentration distribution to increase the gas-solid contact surface area. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Low-temperature coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguli, P. S.; Gavalas, G. R.; Hsu, G. C.; Kalfayan, S. H.

    1977-01-01

    Economical, low-temperature chlorinolysis converts sulfur to water-soluble sulfates. Sulfates are removed by washing. Subsequent steps dry coal and remove chlorine. Chlorine and solvents can be reused.

  4. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

  5. Mechanistic and kinetic studies of high-temperature coal gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report, July 1988--July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, S.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Sarofim, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the properties of and evaluate mixed oxides of zinc and titanium for hot fuel gas desulfurization. Uncombined ZnO was also investigated as a base case. Detailed investigation of the reduction and sulfidation reactions of Zn-Ti-O sorbents was performed. The intrinsic kinetics and the product layer diffusion rates in reduction and sulfidation were determined. Kinetic experiments with sorbents containing various Zn/Ti atomic ratios were performed. Chemical phase and structural transformations were followed by various methods. The results were compared to similar experiments performed with ZnO. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how the presence of titanium dioxide affects the reduction and sulfidation of ZnO. This information would be used to identify and select the sorbent composition that gives the best combination of low reduction rate and acceptable sulfidation performance at temperatures exceeding 600{degree}C. (VC)

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anirban Mukherjee; Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv of less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} has been developed and the products have been characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} have been prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Phase separation did not occur when the solid solutions were heat treated at 700 C. A flow reactor system constructed of quartz and teflon has been constructed, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) suitable for measuring sub-ppmv levels of H{sub 2}S has been purchased with LSU matching funds. Preliminary desulfurization tests using commercial CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} in highly reducing gas compositions has confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} is more effective than CeO{sub 2} in removing H{sub 2}S. At 700 C the product H{sub 2}S concentration using CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbent was near the 0.1 ppmv PFPD detection limit during the prebreakthrough period.

  7. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Anirban Mukherjee; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-03-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing ceria and zirconia have been studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents with the objective of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S in the product gas. The research was justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and was postulated to have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that were exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S were constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time was determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations from approximately 0.1 to 10 ppmv, and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, were obtained

  8. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit full desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that may be exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S are constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time is determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations (<{approx}10 ppmv) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, have been obtained. Much of the work during year 02 consisted of

  9. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2002-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit full testing in our desulfurization reactor. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that may be exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S are constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time is determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations ({approx}< 10 ppmv) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, have been obtained. Characterization and desulfurization

  10. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Base Program: Development and testing of zinc ferrite sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this contract was to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Desired properties to be enhanced for moving-bed sorbent materials are: (1) high chemical reactivity (sulfur absorption rate and total sulfur capacity), (2) high mechanical strength (pellet crush strength and attrition resistance), and (3) suitable pellet morphology (e.g., pellet size, shape, surface area, and average specific pore volume). In addition, it is desired to maintain the sorbent properties over extended cyclic use in moving- bed systems.

  11. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  12. Modification of ZnO-TiO{sub 2} high-temperature desulfurization sorbent by ZrO{sub 2} addition

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaoka, Eiji; Sada, Norimasa; Manabe, Akifumi; Uddin, M.A.; Sakata, Yusaku

    1999-03-01

    To develop a highly reactive and easily regenerable zinc oxide high-temperature desulfurization sorbent, a modification of ZnO-TiO{sub 2} by addition of ZrO{sub 2} was studied. The metal oxides ZnO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} were prepared by a coprecipitation method: the amount of ZnO was a fixed 50 mol % of the sample. In this study, it was found that the addition of 5 or 10 mol % ZrO{sub 2} to 50 mol % of ZnO-50 mol % TiO{sub 2} greatly improved the reactivity for H{sub 2}S removal. Furthermore, the addition of ZrO{sub 2} improved its regenerability: the temperature for the regeneration of the sample was decreased to ca. 40 C in the absence of H{sub 2}O and ca. 75 C in the presence of 10% H{sub 2}O by the addition of 10% ZrO{sub 2}.

  13. Coal desulfurization by low temperature chlorinolysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ernest, J.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale, bench scale batch reactor, and minipilot plant tests were conducted on 22 bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Chemical pretreatment and post treatment of coals relative to the chlorination were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization by the chlorinolysis process. Elevated temperature (500-700 C) hydrogen treatment of chlorinolysis-processed coal at atmospheric pressure was found to substantially increase coal desulfurization up to 90 percent. Sulfur forms, proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coal are included. Minipilot plant operation indicates that the continuous flow reactor provides coal desulfurization results comparable to those obtained in the batch reactor. Seven runs were conducted at coal feed rates of 1.5 to 8.8 kg per hour using water and methylchloroform solvents, gaseous chlorine feed of 3 to 31.4 SCFH at 21 to 70 C, and atmospheric pressure for retention times of 20 to 120 minutes.

  14. Cu Nanoparticles Inlaid Mesoporous Carbon Aerogels as a High Performance Desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Yang, Siyuan; Liu, Qizhen; He, Ping; Tian, Huan; Ren, Jianxing; Guan, ZhenZhen; Hu, Tao; Ni, Bu; Zhang, Chong

    2016-05-17

    In the present study, to insert the Cu nanoparticles (NPs) into mesoporous carbon aerogels and first applied it to remove H2S efficiently. This desulfurizer was made based on the dimensional policy by inserting the Cu NPs on mesoporous carbon aerogels to overcome the sintering problem and improve the activity, which has potential performance at high-temperature catalysis. The obtained desulfurizer was employed for H2S removal at middle temperature conditions (optimal H2S adsorption at 550 °C). We explored the optimum doping amount of CuOx, optimum temperature conditions, and the influence of textural parameters of carbon aerogels. The desulfurizers were characterized by means of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), N2-adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and Raman spectra techniques. The results confirmed that the presence of H2 was unfavorable for sulfidation and obviously shortened the breakthrough time. However, the existence of CO had little impact on the desulfurization and sulfur capacity. In a nutshell, this work could provide a new synthetic route to prepare Cu NPs deep into the lattice of carbon aerogels structure of desulfurizers and understand the desulfurization mechanism. PMID:27128500

  15. Biocatalytic desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Monticello, D.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) has many advantages compared to traditional refinery desulfurization processes, including: lower capital and operating costs, low-temperature and low-pressure operation and no hydrogen requirement. Biotechnology has developed from an art into a science in recent years. The HPI is familiar with an artful' application of biotechnology in the biotreatment of refinery wastes, and has experimented with other technologies for over 50 years. This paper discusses the following: biorefining, sulfur management, conventional solutions, bioprocessing precedents, new biotechnology tools, microbial desulfurization, biocatalytic desulfurization, specificity, biodesulfurization conceptual design, development issues, and implementation.

  16. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  17. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g). PMID:20481549

  18. Mechanism of highly efficient in-furnace desulfurization by limestone under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} coal combustion atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.; Zhao, C.S.

    2006-07-05

    The desulfurization characteristics of limestone under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere were studied by a drop-tube furnace test rig. The experimental results show that high CO{sub 2} concentration makes the calcination reaction of limestone slow and that the pore structure of calcined limestone is more suitable for high-temperature desulfurization under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. A desulfurization mechanism for limestone under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} coal combustion atmosphere is proposed based on the experiments. The system keeps on producing nascent CaO continuously. At the same time, the diffusion resistance through CaSO{sub 4} product layer is reduced because CO{sub 2} is formed at the CaO/CaCO{sub 3} interface before complete limestone decomposition into CaO. The above two factors make CaO keep on a high sulfation rate for a long time under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. So the high Ca conversion of limestone can be reached under O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. There is an optimal desulfurization temperature for limestone in O-2/CO{sub 2} atmosphere as in air. The optimal desulfurization temperature and corresponding desulfurization efficiency increase with the CO{sub 2} concentration in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. It is implied that the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere is beneficial to limestone desulfurization at higher temperature.

  19. Oxidative desulfurization of fuels catalyzed by Fenton-like ionic liquids at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunqing; Zhu, Wenshuai; Li, Huaming; Yin, Sheng; Liu, Hua; Xie, Qingjie

    2011-03-21

    Oxidation of the sulfur-containing compounds benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) has been studied in a desulfurization system composed of model oil, hydrogen peroxide, and different types of ionic liquids [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/CuCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/ZnCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/SnCl(2), [(C(4)H(9))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [C(10)H(21)(CH(3))(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(10)H(21))(2)(CH(3))(2)N]Cl/FeCl(3). Deep desulfurization is achieved in the Fenton-like ionic liquid [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) at 25 °C for 1 h. The desulfurization of DBT reaches 97.9%, in consuming very low amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) (only 0.702 mmol). The reaction conditions, for example, the amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) or H(2)O(2), the temperature, and the molar ratio of FeCl(3) to [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl, are investigated for this system. The oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur-containing compounds is found to decrease in the order of DBT>BT>4,6-DMDBT. The desulfurization system can be recycled six times without significant decrease in activity. The sulfur level of FCC gasoline could be reduced from 360 ppm to 110 ppm. PMID:21394927

  20. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  1. Coal desulfurization by low temperature chlorinolysis, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N.; Ernest, J.; Feller, D.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering scale reactor system was constructed and operated for the evaluation of five high sulfur bituminous coals obtained from Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois. Forty-four test runs were conducted under conditions of 100 by 200 mesh coal,solvents - methlychloroform and water, 60 to 130 C, 0 to 60 psig, 45 to 90 minutes, and gaseous chlorine flow rate of up to 24 SCFH. Sulfur removals demonstrated for the five coals were: maximum total sulfur removal of 46 to 89% (4 of 5 coals with methylchloroform) and 0 to 24% with water. In addition, an integrated continuous flow mini-pilot plant was designed and constructed for a nominal coal rate of 2 kilograms/hour which will be operated as part of the follow-on program. Equipment flow sheets and design drawings are included for both the batch and continuous flow mini-pilot plants.

  2. Superior cost-effectiveness in flue gas desulfurization via high-volume, high value byproduct generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, W.

    1998-07-01

    Current worldwide advancements in application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization, (FGD), in electric utility service, motivated in part by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate output, are detailed. This new direction in FGD process selection and in the design of flue gas cleaning installations achieves major performance advancements herein reviewed. Attractive cost effectiveness, achieved in the face of substantial capital cost, is quantified. Favorable process economics, superior to that of all available alternatives for high-capacity, high-sulfur, powerplant service, is made possible through substantial value added in conversion of ammonia reagent consumed to agglomerated byproduct, principally ammonium sulfate. This low-nitrogen-content compound, the poor man's fertilizer of times past, is now in great and growing demand for use as sulfur blending stock in worldwide, commercial NPKS, (nitrogen/phosphorus/ potassium/sulfur), chemical fertilizer manufacture.

  3. Sol-gel auto-combustion synthesis of zinc ferrite for moderate temperature desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Rongjun Zhang; Jiejie Huang; Jiantao Zhao; Zhiqiang Sun; Yang Wang

    2007-09-15

    Zinc ferrite as a desulfurization sorbent with an average crystallite size of about 36 nm was synthesized by a sol-gel auto-combustion method. The precursor for the sorbent was a gel obtained from metal nitrates and citric acid by a sol process. The nitrate-citrate gel exhibits a self-propagating combustion behavior, and after combustion, it can transform into a nanosized spinel structured zinc ferrite directly. The prepared sorbent has a larger specific surface area and higher reactivity when compared with the sorbent achieved by a solid mixing method, and it could efficiently reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration from 6000 ppm to less than 2 ppm at a moderate temperature range. The sulfur capacity at 400{sup o}C reaches about 38.5 g of sulfur/100 g of sorbent, which corresponds to 96.4% of the theoretical value. The temperature programmed oxidation test for the sulfided sorbent shows that the most sulfur is desorbed before 500{sup o}C. XRD results confirm that the sulfided sample after exposure to a 5% O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} gas mixture at 500{sup o}C can be regenerated completely, which indicates that the regeneration temperature of the sorbent prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion method could be greatly reduced. 40 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-10-01

    New coal gasification processes are now being developed which can generate electricity with high thermal efficiency either in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or in a fuel cell (MCFC). Both of these new coal-to-electricity pathways require that the coal-derived fuel gas be at a high temperature and be free of potential pollutants, such as sulfur compounds. Unfortunately, some high-sulfur Illinois coals also contain significant chlorine which converts into hydrogen chloride (HCl) in the coal-gas. This project investigates the effect of HCl, in concentrations typical of a gasifier fed by high-chlorine Illinois coals, on zinc-titanate sorbents that are currently being developed for H{sub 2}S and COS removal from hot coal gas. This study is designed to identify any deleterious changes in the sorbent caused by the HCI, both in absorptive operation and in the regeneration cycle, and will pave the way to modify the sorbent formulation or the process operating procedure to remove HCl along with the H{sub 2}S and COS from hot coal gas. This will negate any harmful consequences of utilizing high-chlorine Illinois coal in these processes. The work activity during the third quarter of this project involved the performance of the second block-set of experiments in the bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor. These experiments were designed to study the effect of HCl in the desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas. Nine single-cycle experiments were performed, at operating temperature of 538, 650, and 750{degrees}C, with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppMv. The presence of HCl in the coal gas significantly enhanced the desulfurization efficacy of the sorbent. A 10-cycle sulfidation-regeneration sequence is currently being performed at 650{degrees}C with 800 ppMv HCl in the simulated fuel gas to determine any adverse effects on the sorbent structure or its desulfurization capability.

  5. A template-free solvent-mediated synthesis of high surface area boron nitride nanosheets for aerobic oxidative desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peiwen; Zhu, Wenshuai; Chao, Yanhong; Zhang, Jinshui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhu, Huiyuan; Li, Changfeng; Chen, Zhigang; Li, Huaming; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNs) with rather high specific surface area (SSA) are important two-dimensional layer-structured materials. Here, a solvent-mediated synthesis of h-BNNs revealed a template-free lattice plane control strategy that induced high SSA nanoporous structured h-BNNs with outstanding aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance. PMID:26502800

  6. A metal-organic framework with immobilized Ag(i) for highly efficient desulfurization of liquid fuels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minhui; Chang, Ganggang; Su, Ye; Xing, Huabin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong; Bao, Zongbi; Chen, Banglin

    2015-08-01

    A metal-organic framework immobilized with Ag(i) sites, namely, (Cr)-MIL-101-SO3Ag, was successfully developed as a highly efficient desulfurization adsorbent because of the strong binding of these Ag(i) sites for thiophene derivatives. PMID:26136210

  7. Fate of mercury in flue gas desulfurization gypsum determined by Temperature Programmed Decomposition and Sequential Chemical Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenwu; Zhuo, Yuqun; Fan, Yaming; Wang, Zhipeng

    2016-05-01

    A considerable amount of Hg is retained in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum from Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (WFGD) systems. For this reason, it is important to determine the species of Hg in FGD gypsum not only to understand the mechanism of Hg removal by WFGD systems but also to determine the final fate of Hg when FGD gypsum is disposed. In this study, Temperature Programmed Decomposition (TPD) and Sequential Chemical Extraction (SCE) were applied to FGD gypsum to identify the Hg species in it. The FGD gypsum samples were collected from seven coal-fired power plants in China, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.19 to 3.27μg/g. A series of pure Hg compounds were used as reference materials in TPD experiments and the results revealed that the decomposition temperatures of different Hg compounds increase in the order of Hg2Cl2

  8. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  9. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOEpatents

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  10. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  11. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  12. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

  13. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  14. Fluidized bed desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kallvinskas, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    High sulfur content carbonaceous material, such as coal is desulfurized by continuous fluidized suspension in a reactor with chlorine gas, inert dechlorinating gas and hydrogen gas. A source of chlorine gas, a source of inert gas and a source of hydrogen gas are connected to the bottom inlet through a manifold and a heater. A flow controler operates servos in a manner to continuously and sequentially suspend coal in the three gases. The sulfur content is reduced at least 50% by the treatment.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of high-temperature sulfur removal sorbents for direct coal-fired turbines: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; DeZubay, E.A.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    Direct coal-fired turbine concepts currently being developed require substantial levels of sulfur removal from high-temperature gas streams. Calcium-based sorbents, limestones, dolomites, limes and lime hydrates, are capable of sulfur removal in direct coal-fired turbine combustor environments at temperature up to 1200/degree/C. Two types of desulfurizer processes are considered in this report using calcium- based sorbents: fluidized bed desulfurizer using coarse sorbent particles (300-1000 ..mu..m), and entrained desulfurizer using fine sorbent particles (1-40 ..mu..m). Small-scale laboratory tests were performed on a variety of calcium-based sorbents to determine the kinetics of sulfation and sulfidation over ranges of conditions applicable to both types of desulfurizer processes. Correlations are developed in the report for the effect of pressure; temperature, and particle size. Engineering models are also developed for both desulfurizer types that incorporate the laboratory reaction kinetics and predict potential commercial performance and performance trends. It is concluded that both desulfurizer concepts can be effective in direct coal-fired turbines, with calcium-to-sulfur molar feed ratios ranging from 1.5 to 3.0, if the correct calcium-based sorbent is selected, and if applicable design and operating conditions are identified. Both desulfurizer concepts have limitations and key development requirements, and site and fuel specific engineering assessment is required to select the best concept for a given combustor system. The influence of the desulfurizer concepts on turbine protection, through their influence on particle loading and alkali release must also be assessed. 51 refs., 73 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Verkade

    2001-11-01

    Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid

  17. A novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with the magnetically fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting

    2009-09-15

    The magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) was used as the reactor in a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency. Experiments in a laboratory-scale apparatus were conducted to reveal the effects of approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, Ca/S molar ratio and applied magnetic field intensity on SO(2) removal. Results showed that SO(2) removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by decreasing approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, increasing Ca/S molar ratio, or increasing applied magnetic field intensity. At a magnetic field intensity of 300Oe and a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.0, the desulfurization efficiency (excluding desulfurization efficiency in the fabric filter) was over 80%, while spent sorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. With the SEM, XRD and EDX research, it can be found that the increase of DC magnetic field intensity can make the surface morphology on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles loose and enhance the oxidation of S(IV), hence reducing the liquid phase mass transfer resistance of the slurry droplets and increasing desulfurization reaction rate, respectively. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency increased obviously with the increase of DC field intensity. PMID:19369002

  18. High temperature furnace

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  19. High temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  20. Integrated photooxidative-extractive desulfurization system for fuel oil using Cu, Fe and Cu-Fe/TiO2 and eutectic based ionic liquids: Effect of calcination temperature and duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaid, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdul

    2014-10-01

    Photocatalyts TiO2 doped with Cu, Fe and Cu-Fe metal at different calcination temperature and duration were successfully prepared and characterized. Photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of model oil containing dibenzothiophene as the sulfur compound (100 ppm) using the prepared photocatalyst was investigated. The photocatalyst calcined at 500°C and duration of 1 h showed the best performance.

  1. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  2. Innovative coal gasification system with high temperature air

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, K.; Katsushima, H.; Kasahara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Tanaka, R.; Ootsuka, T.

    1997-12-31

    This paper proposes innovative coal gasification power generation systems where coal is gasified with high temperature air of about 1300K produced by gasified coal fuel gas. The main features of these systems are high thermal efficiency, low NO{sub x} emission, compact desulfurization and dust removal equipment and high efficiency molten slag removal with a very compact gasifier. Recent experimental results on the pebble bed coal gasifier appropriate for high temperature air coal gasification are reported, where 97.7% of coal ash is successfully caught in the pebble bed and extracted without clogging. A new concept of high temperature air preheating system is proposed which is characterized by its high reliability and low cost.

  3. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shoji

    2006-12-01

    A general review on high-temperature superconductivity was made. After prehistoric view and the process of discovery were stated, the special features of high-temperature superconductors were explained from the materials side and the physical properties side. The present status on applications of high-temperature superconductors were explained on superconducting tapes, electric power cables, magnets for maglev trains, electric motors, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and single flux quantum (SFQ) devices and circuits.

  4. High temperature refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  5. Desulfurization of hot fuel gas produced from high-chlorine Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, W.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    In this project, simulated gasifier-product streams were contacted with the zinc titanate desulfurization sorbent in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized-bed reactor at temperatures ranging from 538 to 750 {degree}C (1000 to 1382 {degree}F). The first set of experiments involved treating a medium-Btu fuel gas (simulating that of a ``Texaco`` oxygen-blown, entrained-bed gasifier) containing 1.4 percent H{sub 2}S and HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 1500 ppmv. The second experimental set evaluated hot-gas desulfurization of a low-Btu fuel gas (simulating the product of the ``U-Gas`` air-blown gasifier), with HCl concentrations of 0, 200, and 800 ppmv. These operating conditions were typical of the gas-treatment requirements of gasifiers fueled by Illinois basin coals containing up to 0.6 percent chlorine. The results of the experiments at 538 and 650 {degree}C at all the HCl concentrations revealed no deleterious effects on the capability of the sorbent to remove H{sub 2}S from the fuel gas mixtures. In most cases, the presence of the HCl significantly enhanced the desulfurization reaction rate. Some zinc loss, however, was encountered in certain situations at 750 {degree}C when low-steam operating conditions were present. Also of interest, a portion of the incoming HCl was removed from the gas stream and was retained permanently by the sorbent. This behavior was examined in more detail in a limited set of experiments aimed at identifying ways to modify the sorbents composition so that the sorbent could act as a simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination agent in the hot-gas cleanup process.

  6. High temperature measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  7. Dry desulfurization of simulated flue gas in a fluidized-bed reactor for a broad range of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature: A comparison of models

    SciTech Connect

    Suyadal, Y.; Oguz, H.

    1999-08-01

    In this work, dry desulfurization of simulated flue gas was investigated in a batchwise operated laboratory-scale stainless steel fluidized-bed reactor (46 x 500 mm{sup 2}) by using calcium-containing local Turkish limestone (Karaagach/MUS) which was calcined at 900 C with 5% H{sub 2}O vapor. The sulfation reaction was carried out in a broad range of temperature (200 {le} T({degree}C) {le} 900) and SO{sub 2} feedstock concentration (1000 {le} C(ppm SO{sub 2}) {le} 6000). The experimental sulfation conversion-time data were tested according to unreacted shrinking core model (SCM), changing the grain size model (GM) and random pore model (RPM). It was found that the random pore model with control of product layer (CaSO{sub 3}/CaSO{sub 4}) diffusion described the experimental data best.

  8. High-temperature sensor

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  9. Reusing pretreated desulfurization slag to improve clinkerization and clinker grindability for energy conservation in cement manufacture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Chang, Juu-En; Shih, Pai-Haung; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Choung

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine the physical pretreatments of grinding, sieving, and magnetic-separation processes to reclaim iron-rich materials from the desulfurization slag, and to use the remainder for cement clinker production. The iron-rich materials can be separated out efficiently by grinding for 30 min and sieving with a 0.3 mm mesh. The non-magnetic fraction of the particles smaller than 0.3 mm was in the majority, and proved to be suitable for use as a cement raw material. The raw mixes prepared with a pretreated desulfurization slag had a relatively high reactivity, and the temperature at which alite forms was significantly reduced during the clinkerization process. The clinkers produced with 10% desulfurization slag had a high level of alite and good grindability. Generally, the improvements in clinkerization and clinker grindability are beneficial to energy conservation in cement manufacture. PMID:20493627

  10. A Hg 2+-selective chemodosimeter based on desulfurization of coumarin thiosemicarbazide in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenhui; Xu, Qun; Du, Jianjun; Song, Bo; Peng, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Guodong; Wang, Xifang

    2010-07-01

    A fluorescence-enhanced chemodosimeter 1 based on coumarin thiosemicarbazide for Hg 2+ was developed via a Hg 2+-induced desulfurization reaction. Spectroscopic results reveal that chemodosimeter 1 exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for Hg 2+ in comparison to common interfering metal ions in aqueous media at room temperature.

  11. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Johnson

    2008-11-05

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors — materials that carry electrical c

  12. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  13. Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Yuan C.

    1977-03-08

    A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

  14. Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Tomazic, Dean

    2000-08-20

    Improve NOx regeneration calibration developed in DECSE Phase I project to understand full potential of NOx adsorber catalyst over a range of operating temperatures. Develop and demonstrate a desulfurization process to restore NOx conversion efficiency lost to sulfur contamination. Investigate effect of desulfurization process on long-term performance of the NOx adsorber catalyst.

  15. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a

  16. High-temperature electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Seng, Gary T.

    1990-01-01

    To meet the needs of the aerospace propulsion and space power communities, the high temperature electronics program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. This program supports a major element of the Center's mission - to perform basic and developmental research aimed at improving aerospace propulsion systems. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices.

  17. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOEpatents

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  18. High-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matus, Lawrence G.; Seng, Gary T.

    1990-02-01

    To meet the needs of the aerospace propulsion and space power communities, the high temperature electronics program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high temperature semiconductor material. This program supports a major element of the Center's mission - to perform basic and developmental research aimed at improving aerospace propulsion systems. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices.

  19. High temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1991-03-01

    In recent years, the aerospace propulsion and space power communities have acknowledged a growing need for electronic devices that are capable of sustained high-temperature operation. Aeropropulsion applications for high-temperature electronic devices include engine ground test instrumentation such as multiplexers, analog-to-digital converters, and telemetry systems capable of withstanding hot section engine temperatures in excess of 600 C. Uncooled operation of control and condition monitoring systems in advanced supersonic aircraft would subject the electronics to temperatures in excess of 300 C. Similarly, engine-mounted integrated electronic sensors could reach temperatures which exceed 500 C. In addition to aeronautics, there are many other areas that could benefit from the existence of high-temperature electronic devices. Space applications include power electronic devices for space platforms and satellites. Since power electronics require radiators to shed waste heat, electronic devices that operate at higher temperatures would allow a reduction in radiator size. Terrestrial applications include deep-well drilling instrumentation, high power electronics, and nuclear reactor instrumentation and control. To meet the needs of the applications mentioned previously, the high-temperature electronics (HTE) program at the Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) as a high-temperature semiconductor material. Research is focused on developing the crystal growth, growth modeling, characterization, and device fabrication technologies necessary to produce a family of SiC devices. Interest in SiC has grown dramatically in recent years due to solid advances in the technology. Much research remains to be performed, but SiC appears ready to emerge as a useful semiconductor material.

  20. High temperature probe

    DOEpatents

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  1. High temperature structural silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    Structural silicides have important high temperature applications in oxidizing and aggressive environments. Most prominent are MoSi{sub 2}-based materials, which are borderline ceramic-intermetallic compounds. MoSi{sub 2} single crystals exhibit macroscopic compressive ductility at temperatures below room temperature in some orientations. Polycrystalline MoSi{sub 2} possesses elevated temperature creep behavior which is highly sensitive to grain size. MoSi{sub 2}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites show an important combination of oxidation resistance, creep resistance, and low temperature fracture toughness. Current potential applications of MoSi{sub 2}-based materials include furnace heating elements, molten metal lances, industrial gas burners, aerospace turbine engine components, diesel engine glow plugs, and materials for glass processing.

  2. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  3. High temperature electronics technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dening, J. C.; Hurtle, D. E.

    1984-03-01

    This report summarizes the barrier metallization developments accomplished in a program intended to develop 300 C electronic controls capability for potential on-engine aircraft engine application. In addition, this report documents preliminary life test results at 300 C and above and discusses improved design practices required for high temperature integrated injection logic semiconductors. Previous Phase 1 activities focused on determining the viability of operating silicon semiconductor devices over the -55 C to +300 C temperature range. This feasibility was substantiated but the need for additional design work and process development was indicated. Phase 2 emphasized the development of a high temperature metallization system as the primary development need for high temperature silicon semiconductor applications.

  4. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  5. High-Temperature Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1980's, Lewis Research Center began a program to develop high-temperature lubricants for use on future aircraft flying at three or more times the speed of sound, which can result in vehicle skin temperatures as high as 1,600 degrees Fahrenheit. A material that emerged from this research is a plasma-sprayed, self-lubricating metal- glass-fluoride coating able to reduce oxidation at very high temperatures. Technology is now in commercial use under the trade name Surf-Kote C-800, marketed by Hohman Plating and Manufacturing Inc. and manufactured under a patent license from NASA. Among its uses are lubrication for sliding contact bearings, shaft seals for turbopumps, piston rings for high performance compressors and hot glass processing machinery; it is also widely used in missile and space applications.

  6. High temperature hydraulic seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. R.

    1993-05-01

    This program investigated and evaluated high temperature hydraulic sealing technology, including seals, fluids, and actuator materials. Test limits for fluid pressure and temperature were 8000 psi and 700 F respectively. The original plan to investigate CTFE fluid at 350 F as well as other fluids at higher temperatures was reduced in scope to include only the higher temperature investigation. Seals were obtained from 11 manufacturers. Design requirements including materials, dimensions, clearances, and tolerances were established and test modules were constructed from the detail designs which were produced. Nine piston seals and one rod seal were tested at temperatures ranging from -65 to +600 F and pressures to 6000 psi. Fluid performance under these conditions was evaluated. Details of this activity and results of the effort are summarized in this report.

  7. Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of petrodiesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Ghasemali; Ball, Andrew S

    2008-08-01

    Oil refineries are facing many challenges, including heavier crude oils, increased fuel quality standards, and a need to reduce air pollution emissions. Global society is stepping on the road to zero-sulfur fuel, with only differences in the starting point of sulfur level and rate reduction of sulfur content between different countries. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is the most common technology used by refineries to remove sulfur from intermediate streams. However, HDS has several disadvantages, in that it is energy intensive, costly to install and to operate, and does not work well on refractory organosulfur compounds. Recent research has therefore focused on improving HDS catalysts and processes and also on the development of alternative technologies. Among the new technologies one possible approach is biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS). The advantage of BDS is that it can be operated in conditions that require less energy and hydrogen. BDS operates at ambient temperature and pressure with high selectivity, resulting in decreased energy costs, low emission, and no generation of undesirable side products. Over the last two decades several research groups have attempted to isolate bacteria capable of efficient desulfurization of oil fractions. This review examines the developments in our knowledge of the application of bacteria in BDS processes, assesses the technical viability of this technology and examines its future challenges. PMID:18667551

  8. High Temperature Structural Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S.; Baillif, Faye F.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry is experiencing growing demand for high performance polymer foam. The X-33 program needs structural foam insulation capable of retaining its strength over a wide range of environmental conditions. The High Speed Research Program has a need for low density core splice and potting materials. This paper reviews the state of the art in foam materials and describes experimental work to fabricate low density, high shear strength foam which can withstand temperatures from -220 C to 220 C. Commercially available polymer foams exhibit a wide range of physical properties. Some with densities as low as 0.066 g/cc are capable of co-curing at temperatures as high as 182 C. Rohacell foams can be resin transfer molded at temperatures up to 180 C. They have moduli of elasticity of 0.19 MPa, tensile strengths of 3.7 Mpa and compressive strengths of 3.6 MPa. The Rohacell foams cannot withstand liquid hydrogen temperatures, however Imi-Tech markets Solimide (trademark) foams which withstand temperatures from -250 C to 200 C, but they do not have the required structural integrity. The research activity at NASA Langley Research Center focuses on using chemical blowing agents to produce polyimide thermoplastic foams capable of meeting the above performance requirements. The combination of blowing agents that decompose at the minimum melt viscosity temperature together with plasticizers to lower the viscosity has been used to produce foams by both extrusion and oven heating. The foams produced exhibit good environmental stability while maintaining structural properties.

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE THERMOCOUPLE

    DOEpatents

    Eshayu, A.M.

    1963-02-12

    This invention contemplates a high temperature thermocouple for use in an inert or a reducing atmosphere. The thermocouple limbs are made of rhenium and graphite and these limbs are connected at their hot ends in compressed removable contact. The rhenium and graphite are of high purity and are substantially stable and free from diffusion into each other even without shielding. Also, the graphite may be thick enough to support the thermocouple in a gas stream. (AEC)

  10. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  11. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  12. High-temperature electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1987-11-01

    In recent years, there was a growing need for electronics capable of sustained high-temperature operation for aerospace propulsion system instrumentation, control and condition monitoring, and integrated sensors. The desired operating temperature in some applications exceeds 600 C, which is well beyond the capability of currently available semiconductor devices. Silicon carbide displays a number of properties which make it very attractive as a semiconductor material, one of which is the ability to retain its electronic integrity at temperatures well above 600 C. An IR-100 award was presented to NASA Lewis in 1983 for developing a chemical vapor deposition process to grow single crystals of this material on standard silicon wafers. Silicon carbide devices were demonstrated above 400 C, but much work remains in the areas of crystal growth, characterization, and device fabrication before the full potential of silicon carbide can be realized. The presentation will conclude with current and future high-temperature electronics program plans. Although the development of silicon carbide falls into the category of high-risk research, the future looks promising, and the potential payoffs are tremendous.

  13. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  14. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-12-31

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with super-heated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200{degrees}C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220{degrees}C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: (1) At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. (2) There is no significant temperature effect. (3) Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. (4) Pores smaller than 15 {Angstrom} do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  15. A novel three phase fluidized bed process for simultaneous selective flocculation and microbial desulfurization of high sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Liang-Shih; Bavarian, F.; Attia, Y.A.; Elzeky, M. )

    1990-10-16

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of recovery and reclamation of ultrafine coal particles generated during the processing of coal. 10--35% of the total annual tonnage of coal in atypical coal preparation plant is estimated to be lost in forms of ultrafine particles during the mining, shipping, handling, and preparation of the coal. The technical feasibility of the proposed system which consisted of an integrated circuit of selective flocculation followed by microbial desulfurization, has been tested. The results indicate that using selective flocculation/froth flotation circuit, coal recoveryis 85% with 75% pyritic sulfur and 60% ash rejections. The remaining pyritic sulfur in the coal slurry was treated using microbial desulfurization in a draft-tube fluidized bed bioreactor. Using this reactor scheme considerable enhancement of the bioleaching rate was obtained. The results indicate that 90% rejection of pyritic sulfur can be achieved in less than 24 hrs. Note that the previously reported data for the bioleaching rate are from 4 to 12 days for the same amount of pyritic rejection. The results obtained in this work closely reflects the anticipated outcomes which were projected in the original proposal. Consequently, the results of this work implies a significant improvement in bioleaching process and the possibility for the commercialization of the microbial desulfurization process. Our results also indicate further improvement of this process by optimization of reactor sequence and operating conditions.

  16. A novel three phase fluidized bed process for simultaneous selective flocculation and microbial desulfurization of high sulfur coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Liang-Shih; Bavarian, F.; Attia, Y.A.; Elzeky, M.

    1990-10-16

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of recovery and reclamation of ultrafine coal particles generated during the processing of coal. 10--35% of the total annual tonnage of coal in atypical coal preparation plant is estimated to be lost in forms of ultrafine particles during the mining, shipping, handling, and preparation of the coal. The technical feasibility of the proposed system which consisted of an integrated circuit of selective flocculation followed by microbial desulfurization, has been tested. The results indicate that using selective flocculation/froth flotation circuit, coal recoveryis 85% with 75% pyritic sulfur and 60% ash rejections. The remaining pyritic sulfur in the coal slurry was treated using microbial desulfurization in a draft-tube fluidized bed bioreactor. Using this reactor scheme considerable enhancement of the bioleaching rate was obtained. The results indicate that 90% rejection of pyritic sulfur can be achieved in less than 24 hrs. Note that the previously reported data for the bioleaching rate are from 4 to 12 days for the same amount of pyritic rejection. The results obtained in this work closely reflects the anticipated outcomes which were projected in the original proposal. Consequently, the results of this work implies a significant improvement in bioleaching process and the possibility for the commercialization of the microbial desulfurization process. Our results also indicate further improvement of this process by optimization of reactor sequence and operating conditions.

  17. High Temperature Metallic Seal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Amit; More, D. Greg

    2002-10-01

    A high temperature static seal capable of long term operation at temperature ranging from 1400 F to 1800 F is presented. The contents include: 1) Development approach; 2) Stress relaxation curves; 3) High temperature seal test rig; 4) High temperature seal design; and 5) High temperature seal testing. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  18. High temperature future

    SciTech Connect

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1994-09-01

    During the past few years, there have been dramatic accomplishments and success of high temperature solar thermal systems and significant development of these systems. High temperature technologies, about 500 F and higher, such as dish engines, troughs, central receiver power towers and solar process heat systems, have been tested, demonstrated and used in an array of applications, including many cost-effective utility bulk power production and demand side supply projects in the United States. Large systems provide power and hot water to prisons, schools, nursing homes and other institutions. Joint ventures with industry, utility projects, laboratory design assistance and other activities are building a solid industry of US solar thermal systems ready for use today.

  19. High Temperature Thermosets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    A thermoset or network polymer is an organic material where the molecules are tied together through chemical bonds (crosslinks) and therefore they cannot move past one another. As a result, these materials exhibit a certain degree of dimensional stability. The chemical composition and the degree of crosslink density of the thermoset have a pronounced effect upon the properties. High temperature thermosets offer a favorable combination of properties that makes them attractive for many applications. Their most important features are the excellent processability particularly of the low molecular weight precusor forms, the chemical and solvent resistance and the dimensional stability. The market for high temperature thermosets will increase as new uses for them are uncovered and new thermosets with better combinations of properties are developed.

  20. High-temperature superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Ken C.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of high-temperature superconductivity (HTSC) and near-term prospects are briefly reviewed with particular reference to Lockheed's experience. Emphasis is placed on an integrated approach to systems applications of HTSC thin films, which hold the greatest near-term promise. These new materials are applied in the production of smaller, more sensitive, and more efficient electronic components to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher-performance signal acquisition and processing systems, communications systems, and computers.

  1. High temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    The aerospace and electronics industries have an ever increasing need for higher performance materials. In recent years, linear aromatic polyimides have been proven to be a superior class of materials for various applications in these industries. The use of this class of polymers as adhesives is continuing to increase. Several NASA Langley developed polyimides show considerable promise as adhesives because of their high glass transition temperatures, thermal stability, resistance to solvents/water, and their potential for cost effective manufacture.

  2. Desulfurization of coal using formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Perkson, A.; Trass, O.

    1995-12-31

    Desulfurization of preoxidized Illinois Basin coal, IBC-108, with formic acid has been studied using a factorial design with four process variables: temperature, reaction time, amount of formic acid and amount of hydrogen peroxide used in the preoxidation step. Maximum total removal of 74% sulfur was achieved by pre-treatment of 5 g coal with 10 ml hydrogen peroxide followed by reaction with 7.5 ml formic acid at 500 C, in a 300 ml batch reactor. The results show that oxidation with hydrogen peroxide significantly enhances the level of desulfurization that may be obtained with subsequent chemical or thermal treatments.

  3. Combustion and desulfurization of low-grade high-sulfur coal briquettes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Xi, D.; Xu, K.; He, D.

    1994-12-31

    A typical kind of coal with 40% ash and 4% sulfur is studied. It is hard to ignite when the coal is briquetted with the addition of calcium carbide waste at a reasonable Ca/S ratio. Combustion properties of sugar cane waste, coal and their blends are studied on TGA. The ignition temperature is reduced and the combustibility is improved with a small dosage of sugar cane waste. A rational ingredient for coal briquettes is determined, and then it is tested on a bench-scale fixed-bed unit under controlled atmosphere. Experimental results have proven that these coal briquettes can be ignited more easily. Sulfur fixation reaches 45% at Ca/S 1.3--1.8 under 1,250 C.

  4. High temperature strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto J. (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A ceramic strain gage based on reactively sputtered indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films is used to monitor the structural integrity of components employed in aerospace propulsion systems operating at temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the thick ITO sensors reveals a partially sintered microstructure comprising a contiguous network of submicron ITO particles with well defined necks and isolated nanoporosity. Densification of the ITO particles was retarded during high temperature exposure with nitrogen thus stabilizing the nanoporosity. ITO strain sensors were prepared by reactive sputtering in various nitrogen/oxygen/argon partial pressures to incorporate more nitrogen into the films. Under these conditions, sintering and densification of the ITO particles containing these nitrogen rich grain boundaries was retarded and a contiguous network of nano-sized ITO particles was established.

  5. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  6. A modeling and experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a dense phase tower.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guanqin; Song, Cunyi; Wang, Li

    2011-05-15

    We used a dense phase tower as the reactor in a novel semi-dry flue gas desulfurization process to achieve a high desulfurization efficiency of over 95% when the Ca/S molar ratio reaches 1.3. Pilot-scale experiments were conducted for choosing the parameters of the full-scale reactor. Results show that with an increase in the flue gas flow rate the rate of the pressure drop in the dense phase tower also increases, however, the rate of the temperature drop decreases in the non-load hot gas. We chose a water flow rate of 0.6 kg/min to minimize the approach to adiabatic saturation temperature difference and maximize the desulfurization efficiency. To study the flue gas characteristics under different processing parameters, we simulated the desulfurization process in the reactor. The simulated data matched very well with the experimental data. We also found that with an increase in the Ca/S molar ratio, the differences between the simulation and experimental data tend to decrease; conversely, an increase in the flue gas flow rate increases the difference; this may be associated with the surface reactions caused by collision, coalescence and fragmentation between the dispersed phases. PMID:21377795

  7. High temperature detonator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, James O.; Dinegar, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  8. High temperature drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Stong, R.E.; Walinsky, S.W.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes an aqueous drilling fluid suitable for high-temperature use. This fluid is composed of a water base. Clay is suspended in the base and from about 0.01-25 pounds per barrel total composition of a hydrolyzed terpolymer of maleic anhydride, styrene and a third monomer selected from acrylamide, methacrylamide, acrylic acid and metacrylic acid. The molar ratio of maleic anhydride to styrene to the third monomer is from about 30:10:60 to 50:40:10, and the alkali metal, ammonium and lower aliphatic amine salts thereof, the weight-average molecular weight of the hydrolyzed terpolymer is from about 500-10,000.

  9. Environmentally sound thermal energy extraction from coal and wastes using high temperature air combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Kunio

    1999-07-01

    High temperature air combustion is one of promising ways of burning relatively low BTU gas obtained from gasification of low grade coal or wastes. In this report, the author proposes a new power generation system coupled with high temperature air gasification of coal/wastes and high temperature air combustion of the syngas from coal/wastes. This system is realized by employing Multi-staged Enthalpy Extraction Technology (MEET). The basic idea of the MEET system is that coal or wastes are gasified with high temperature air of about 1,000 C, then the generated syngas is cooled in a heat recovery boiler to be cleaned-up in a gas cleanup system (desulfurization, desalinization and dust removal). Part of thermal energy contained in this cleaned-up syngas is used for high temperature air preheating, and the complete combustion of the fuel gas is done using also high temperature air for driving gas turbines or steam generation in a boiler.

  10. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Tressler, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100{degrees}C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter {times} 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  11. High temperature filter materials

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M. . Science and Technology Center); Tressler, R.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Objectives of this program are to identify the potential long-term thermal/chemical effects that advanced coal-based power generating system environments have on the stability of porous ceramic filter materials, as well as to assess the influence of these effects on filter operating performance and life. We have principally focused our efforts on developing an understanding of the stability of the alumina/mullite filter material at high temperature (i.e., 870, 980, and 1100[degrees]C) under oxidizing conditions which contain gas phase alkali species. Testing has typically been performed in two continuous flow-through, high temperature test facilities at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, using 7 cm diameter [times] 6.4 mm thick discs. (Alvin, 1992) Each disc of ceramic filter material is exposed for periods of 100 to 3,000 hours in duration. Additional efforts have been performed at Westinghouse to broaden our understanding of the stability of cordierite, cordierite-silicon nitride, reaction and sintered silicon nitride, and clay bonded silicon carbide under similar simulated advanced coal fired process conditions. The results of these efforts are presented in this paper.

  12. High Temperature Protonic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred; Berger, Marie-Helen; Sayir, Ali

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Protonic Conductors (HTPC) with the perovskite structure are envisioned for electrochemical membrane applications such as H2 separation, H2 sensors and fuel cells. Successive membrane commercialization is dependent upon addressing issues with H2 permeation rate and environmental stability with CO2 and H2O. HTPC membranes are conventionally fabricated by solid-state sintering. Grain boundaries and the presence of intergranular second phases reduce the proton mobility by orders of magnitude than the bulk crystalline grain. To enhanced protonic mobility, alternative processing routes were evaluated. A laser melt modulation (LMM) process was utilized to fabricate bulk samples, while pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was utilized to fabricate thin film membranes . Sr3Ca(1+x)Nb(2-x)O9 and SrCe(1-x)Y(x)O3 bulk samples were fabricated by LMM. Thin film BaCe(0.85)Y(0.15)O3 membranes were fabricated by PLD on porous substrates. Electron microscopy with chemical mapping was done to characterize the resultant microstructures. High temperature protonic conduction was measured by impedance spectroscopy in wet air or H2 environments. The results demonstrate the advantage of thin film membranes to thick membranes but also reveal the negative impact of defects or nanoscale domains on protonic conductivity.

  13. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Apart from the hydrogeological conditions, high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. After one year of planning, construction, and the successful drilling of a research well to 495 m b.s.l. the first large scale heat storage test in the Malm aquifer was finished just before Christmas 2014. An enormous technical challenge was the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10-50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. About 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary to achieve the desired water temperatures. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for the analysis of the concentration of the tracers and the cation concentrations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analyzed for major ions and trace elements in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger proved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating

  14. High Temperature Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, C.W.

    1999-01-26

    The Remote and Specialty Equipment Section (RSES) of the Savannah River Technology Center has developed a High Temperature Inspection System (HTIS) for remotely viewing the interior of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter pour spout. The DWPF is a vitrification facility at the Savannah River Site where radioactive waste is processed, mixed and melted with glass frit in an electrically heated melter, and poured into canisters for long-term storage. The glass mixture is transferred from the melter to the canisters via the pour spout, a vertical interface between the melter and the canisters. During initial operation of the melter, problems were experienced with wicking of the glass stream to the sides of the pour spout resulting in pluggage of the pour spout. A removable insert was developed to eliminate the wicking problem. Routine cleaning of the pour spout and replacement of the insert requires that the pour spout interior be inspected on a regular basis. The HTIS was developed to perform the inspection. The HTIS provides two video images: one view for aligning the HTIS with the pour spout and the other for inspecting the pour spout wall condition and other surfaces. The HTIS is carried into the melter cell using an overhead crane and is remotely connected to the cell's telerobotic manipulator (TRM). An operator uses the TRM to insert the HTIS into the 2-inch (5.08 cm) diameter pour spout, rotate it 360 degrees, and then remove it. This application created many challenges for the inspection device, especially regarding size and temperature. The HTIS design allows the video cameras to stay below a safe operating temperature during use in the 1100 degrees C environment. Many devices are designed to penetrate a wall and extend into a heated chamber only a few inches, but the HTIS is inserted into the heated chamber 22 inches (55.88 cm). Other devices can handle the insertion length and small diameter, but they are not designed to handle the high

  15. High Temperature Aquifer Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueckert, Martina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is highly efficient because excess heat is used for heating and/or process energy. However, the demand of heat energy varies considerably throughout the year while the demand for electrical energy is rather constant. It seems economically and ecologically highly beneficial for municipalities and large power consumers such as manufacturing plants to store excess heat in groundwater aquifers and to recuperate this energy at times of higher demand. Within the project High Temperature Aquifer Storage, scientists investigate storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the bavarian Malm aquifer. Apart from high transmissivity and favorable pressure gradients, the hydrochemical conditions are crucial for long-term operation. An enormous technical challenge is the disruption of the carbonate equilibrium - modeling results indicated a carbonate precipitation of 10 - 50 kg/d in the heat exchangers. The test included five injection pulses of hot water (60 °C up to 110 °C) and four tracer pulses, each consisting of a reactive and a conservative fluorescent dye, into a depth of about 300 m b.s.l. resp. 470 m b.s.l. Injection and production rates were 15 L/s. To achieve the desired water temperatures, about 4 TJ of heat energy were necessary. Electrical conductivity, pH and temperature were recorded at a bypass where also samples were taken. A laboratory container at the drilling site was equipped for analysing the concentration of the dyes and the major cations at sampling intervals of down to 15 minutes. Additional water samples were taken and analysed in the laboratory. The disassembled heat exchanger prooved that precipitation was successfully prevented by adding CO2 to the water before heating. Nevertheless, hydrochemical data proved both, dissolution and precipitation processes in the aquifer. This was also suggested by the hydrochemical modelling with PhreeqC and is traced back to mixture dissolution and changing

  16. Kinetic Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using CaO and CaC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, David; Sichen, Du

    2015-02-01

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using CaO and CaC2 were studied in a well-controlled atmosphere with a lab scale high temperature furnace. The growths of CaS around CaO and CaC2 were measured and compared at 1773 K (1500 °C). The parabolic rate constant was evaluated to be 5 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaO particles, and 2.4 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaC2. The bigger parabolic constant of CaO resulted in more efficient desulfurization. Agglomerates and big CaO particles led to 2CaO·SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO·SiO2 formation was favoured by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

  17. Kinetic Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using CaO and CaC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, David; Sichen, Du

    2014-09-01

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using CaO and CaC2 were studied in a well-controlled atmosphere with a lab scale high temperature furnace. The growths of CaS around CaO and CaC2 were measured and compared at 1773 K (1500 °C). The parabolic rate constant was evaluated to be 5 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaO particles, and 2.4 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaC2. The bigger parabolic constant of CaO resulted in more efficient desulfurization. Agglomerates and big CaO particles led to 2CaO·SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO·SiO2 formation was favoured by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

  18. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic, Ivan; Logvenov, Gennady; Gozar, Adrian Mihai

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  19. High-temperature resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1982-01-01

    The basic chemistry, cure processes, properties, and applications of high temperature resins known as polyimides are surveyed. Condensation aromatic polymides are prepared by reacting aromatic diamines with aromatic dianhydrides, aromatic tetracarboxylic acids, or with dialkyl esters of aromatic tetracarboxylic acids, depending on the intended end use. The first is for coatings or films while the latter two are more suitable for polyimide matrix resins. Prepreg solutions are made by dissolving reactants in an aprotic solvent, and advances in the addition of a diamine on the double bond and radical polymerization of the double bond are noted to have yielded a final cure product with void-free characteristics. Attention is given to properties of the Skybond, Pyralin, and NR-150B polyimide prepreg materials and characteristics of aging in the NP-150 polyimides. Finally, features of the NASA-developed PMR polyimides are reviewed.

  20. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-08-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  1. High Temperature Hybrid Elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Kerry Anthony

    Conventional high temperature elastomers are produced by chain polymerization of olefinic or fluorinated olefinic monomers. Ultimate thermal stabilities are limited by backbone bond strengths, lower thermal stability of cross-link sites relative to backbone bonds, and depolymerization or "unzipping" at high temperatures. In order to develop elastomers with enhanced thermal stability, hybrid thermally cross-linkable polymers that consisted only of organic-inorganic and aromatic bonds were synthesized and evaluated. The addition of phenylethynyl or phenylacetylinic functional groups to these polymers resulted in conversion of the polymers into high temperature elastomers when cross-linked by thermal curing. Polyphenyoxydiphenylsilanes were synthesized via several different condensation reactions. Results of these synthetic reactions, which utilized both hydroquinone and biphenol as monomers, were systematically evaluated to determine the optimal synthetic conditions for subsequent endcapping reactions. It was determined that dichlorodiphenylsilane condensations with biphenol in toluene or THF were best suited for this work. Use of excess dichlorodiphenylsilane yielded polymers of appropriate molecular weights with terminal reactive chlorosilane groups that could be utilized for coupling with phenylethynyl reagents in a subsequent reaction. Two new synthetic routes were developed to endcap biphenoxysilanes with ethynyl containing substituents, to yield polymers with cross-linkable end groups. Endcapping by lithiumphenylacetylide and 4[(4-fluorophenylethynyl))phenol yielded two new polymers that could be thermally cross-linked on heating above 300 °C. Successful endcapping was verified chemically by 13C NMR, FTIR and Raman analysis. Exothermic peaks consistent with ethynyl curing reactions were observed in endcapped polymers by DSC. A new diacetylinic polymer was prepared through reaction of 4,4'-buta-1,3-diyne-1,4-diyldiphenol and dichlorodiphenylsilane. This

  2. High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 149 NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (Web, free access)   The NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (WebHTS) provides evaluated thermal, mechanical, and superconducting property data for oxides and other nonconventional superconductors.

  3. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  4. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2001-09-01

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt % of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100 % of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt %. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of {approx}0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed.

  5. Visible-Light-Induced Specific Desulfurization of Cysteinyl Peptide and Glycopeptide in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Fei; Du, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Visible-light-induced specific desulfurization of cysteinyl peptides has been explored. The photocatalytic desulfurization catalyzed by Ru(bpy)3(2+) can proceed efficiently at room temperature in aqueous solution or in binary mixtures of aqueous/organic solvent and be compatible with the presence of residues of amino acids, carbohydrates, and various sulfur-containing functional groups. This approach was successfully applied to synthesize linear and cyclic peptides through the ligation-desulfurization protocol. PMID:26892036

  6. Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1996-10-14

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343 C to 650 C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

  7. Kinetics of the desulfurization of molten iron. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskell, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Experimental work has involved the fabrication of impervious slip-cast CaO crucibles, measurement of the rate of desulfurization of liquid iron by solid CaO and measurement of the rate of desulfurization of liquid iron by CaO-saturated liquid FeO. Above 0.087 < wt % S < 0.67, the activity of FeS is high enough to form a liquid phase in the system CaO-Fe-S. With lower sulfur levels, CaO does not cause any desulfurization of the liquid iron. When CaO-saturated liquid FeO is brought into contact with a liquid Fe-S alloy a rapid initial rate of desulfurization occurs due to surface tension-induced local convection at the slag-metal interface. After this initial period, the rate of desulfurization is determined by diffusion of sulfur in the metal. No change occurs in the oxygen content of the metal during desulfurization and hence the half cell reactions occurring in the electrochemical transfer process are (Fe) ..-->.. (Fe/sup 2 +/) + 2e/sup -/ and (S) + 2e/sup -/ ..-->.. (S/sup 2 -/). Addition of CaF/sub 2/ to the CaO-saturated slag has no effect on the desulfurization.

  8. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  9. High temperature lubricating process

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

    1979-10-04

    It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  10. High-Temperature Piezoelectric Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Johnson, Joseph; Salazar, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensing is of increasing interest for high-temperature applications in aerospace, automotive, power plants and material processing due to its low cost, compact sensor size and simple signal conditioning, in comparison with other high-temperature sensing techniques. This paper presented an overview of high-temperature piezoelectric sensing techniques. Firstly, different types of high-temperature piezoelectric single crystals, electrode materials, and their pros and cons are discussed. Secondly, recent work on high-temperature piezoelectric sensors including accelerometer, surface acoustic wave sensor, ultrasound transducer, acoustic emission sensor, gas sensor, and pressure sensor for temperatures up to 1,250 °C were reviewed. Finally, discussions of existing challenges and future work for high-temperature piezoelectric sensing are presented. PMID:24361928

  11. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration. PMID:19924069

  12. High-temperature bearing lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1968-01-01

    Synthetic paraffinic oil lubricates ball bearings at temperatures in the 600 degrees F range. The lubricant contains antiwear and antifoam additives, is thermally stable in the high temperature range, but requires protection from oxygen.

  13. High temperature LSI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dening, D. C.; Ragonese, L. J.; Lee, C. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated injection logic (1,2) technology for reliable operation under a -55 C to +300 C, temperature range is discussed. Experimental measurements indicate that an 80 mv signal swing is available at 300 C with 100 micro A injection current per gate. In addition, modeling results predict how large gate fan-ins can decrease the maximum thermal operational limits. These operational limits and the longterm reliability factors associated with device metallization are evaluated via specialized test mask.

  14. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  15. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Korosy, L.B.; Senatore, P.J.

    1982-12-28

    A regenerative process for the desulfurization of gas containing from about 100 ppm to about 30 volume percent sulfur dioxide in which the gas is contacted at from about 15/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/C with an about 0.1 molar to saturated aqueous solution of potassium citrate at a ph of from about 3 to 9 and the contacted solution is then heated to strip sulfur dioxide therefrom.

  16. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. )

    1988-10-07

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology, emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  17. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. )

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  18. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. ); Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine)

    1989-06-16

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes as well as commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  19. Characterization and fixed-bed testing of a nickel-based hot gas desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Swisher, J.H.; Hammerbeck, K.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this project was to (1) extend a preliminary investigation completed earlier on dispersed nickel sorbents by developing new processing methods, characterizing sorbent materials more extensively, and evaluating the materials in fixed bed reactor tests, and (2) to determine the feasibility of using dispersed nickel sorbents with reductive regeneration for hot gas desulfurization. One of the properties of nickel that is somewhat unique is that it forms a liquid sulfide at sufficiently high temperatures with high sulfur potentials or H{sub 2}S levels. A eutectic exists in the Ni-S phase diagram at 637 C and a composition of 33.4 wt% or 21.5 wt% S. Under controlled conditions, the formation of a liquid phase can be used to advantage in hot gas desulfurization. Sorbent preparation, the experimental unit, and experimental procedure are described. Results from the sorbent, 24Ni-7Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, are given.

  20. Recovery of lead from lead paste in spent lead acid battery by hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunjian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2015-06-01

    Lead sulfate, lead oxides and lead metal are the main component of lead paste in spent lead acid battery. When lead sulfate was desulfurized and transformed into lead carbonate by sodium carbonate, lead metal and lead oxides remained unchanged. Lead carbonate is easily decomposed to lead oxide and carbon dioxide under high temperature. Namely, vacuum thermal process is the reduction reaction of lead oxides. A compatible environmental process consisted of hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction to recycle lead was investigated in this research. Lead paste was firstly desulfurized with sodium carbonate, by which, the content of sulfur declined from 7.87% to 0.26%. Then, the desulfurized lead paste was reduced by charcoal under vacuum. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., vacuum thermal reduction at temperature 850°C under 20 Pa for 45 min, a 22.11×10(-2) g cm(-2) min(-1) reduction rate, and a 98.13% direct recovery ratio of fine lead (99.77%) had been achieved, respectively. PMID:25818382

  1. Experimental study on the reuse of spent rapidly hydrated sorbent for circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Kai; You, Changfu

    2011-11-01

    Rapidly hydrated sorbent, prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime, is a highly effective sorbent for moderate temperature circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) process. The residence time of fine calcium-containing particles in CFB reactors increases by adhering on the surface of larger adhesive carrier particles, which contributes to higher sorbent calcium conversion ratio. The circulation ash of CFB boilers (α-adhesive carrier particles) and the spent sorbent (β and γ-adhesive carrier particles) were used as adhesive carrier particles for producing the rapidly hydrated sorbent. Particle physical characteristic analysis, abrasion characteristics in fluidized bed and desulfurization characteristics in TGA and CFB-FGD systems were investigated for various types of rapidly hydrated sorbent (α, β, and γ-sorbent). The adhesion ability of γ-sorbent was 50.1% higher than that of α-sorbent. The abrasion ratio of β and γ-sorbent was 16.7% lower than that of α-sorbent. The desulfurization abilities of the three sorbent in TGA were almost same. The desulfurization efficiency in the CFB-FGD system was up to 95% at the bed temperature of 750 °C for the β-sorbent. PMID:21928832

  2. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  3. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  4. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  5. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  6. High-temperature ceramic receivers

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

  7. Coal desulfurization by cyclonic whirl

    SciTech Connect

    Jianguo, Y.; Wenjun, Z.; Yuling, W.

    1999-07-01

    The crux of coal desulfurization is how to improve separation efficiency for 3--0.1mm materials. Cyclonic whirl produce centrifugal force and shearing force, heavy medium cyclone uses former, and cyclone flotation column uses both of them. A new system with heavy medium cyclone and cyclone flotation column is provided and testified to be very efficient in commercial desulfurization.

  8. Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl treatment under mild conditions removes up to eighty percent of organic sulfur. Preliminary tests on treatment process suggest it may be economical enough to encourage investigation of use for coal desulfurization. With mild operating conditions, process produces environmentally-acceptable clean coal at reasonable cost.

  9. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate derivatives of the entire IGTS8 BDS plasmid

  10. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  11. Red soil as a regenerable sorbent for high temperature removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tzu-Hsing; Chu, Hsin; Lin, Hsiao-Ping; Peng, Ching-Yu

    2006-08-25

    In this study, hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) was removed from coal gas by red soil under high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor. Red soil powders were collected from the northern, center and southern of Taiwan. They were characterized by XRPD, porosity analysis and DCB chemical analysis. Results show that the greater sulfur content of LP red soils is attributed to the higher free iron oxides and suitable sulfidation temperature is around 773K. High temperature has a negative effect for use red soil as a desulfurization sorbent due to thermodynamic limitation in a reduction atmosphere. During 10 cycles of regeneration, after the first cycle the red soil remained stable with a breakthrough time between 31 and 36 min. Hydrogen adversely affects sulfidation reaction, whereas CO exhibits a positive effect due to a water-shift reaction. COS was formed during the sulfidation stage and this was attributed to the reaction of H(2)S and CO. Results of XRPD indicated that, hematite is the dominant active species in fresh red soil and iron sulfide (FeS) is a product of the reaction between hematite and hydrogen sulfide in red soils. The spinel phase FeAl(2)O(4) was found during regeneration, moreover, the amount of free iron oxides decreased after regeneration indicating the some of the free iron oxide formed a spinel phase, further reducting the overall desulfurization efficiency. PMID:16469434

  12. High Temperature Solar Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Merritt, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    The majority of satellites and near-earth probes developed to date have used photovoltaic arrays for power generation. If future mission to probe environments close to the sun will be able to use photovoltaic power, solar cells that can function at high temperatures, under high light intensity, and high radiation conditions must be developed. In this paper, we derive the optimum bandgap as a function of the operating temperature.

  13. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  14. Development of high strength, high temperature ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    Improvement in the high-pressure turbopumps, both fuel and oxidizer, in the Space Shuttle main engine were considered. The operation of these pumps is limited by temperature restrictions of the metallic components used in these pumps. Ceramic materials that retain strength at high temperatures and appear to be promising candidates for use as turbine blades and impellers are discussed. These high strength materials are sensitive to many related processing parameters such as impurities, sintering aids, reaction aids, particle size, processing temperature, and post thermal treatment. The specific objectives of the study were to: (1) identify and define the processing parameters that affect the properties of Si3N4 ceramic materials, (2) design and assembly equipment required for processing high strength ceramics, (3) design and assemble test apparatus for evaluating the high temperature properties of Si3N4, and (4) conduct a research program of manufacturing and evaluating Si3N4 materials as applicable to rocket engine applications.

  15. Influence factors on the flue gas desulfurization in the circulating fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Tang, D.; Liu, H.; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Kito, Nobo

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a dry SO{sub 2} removal method -- the absorbent (Ca(OH){sub 2}) was injected into the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactor at the coolside of the duct to abate SO{sub 2} in the flue gas -- with the potential to significantly enhance desulfurization performance over that of existing dry/semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology such as Spray Drying. A patent for coolside Flue Gas Desulfurization in the Circulating Fluidized Bed reactor (CFB-FGD) was approved by the China Patent Bureau in September of 1995 and the additional laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated bench scale quartz circulating fluidized bed reactor of 2350mm in height and 23mm in diameter in January, 1996. The influences of steam, ratio of calcium and sulfur, reactor temperature, and absorbent utilization efficiency were invested. The results show that: (1) Water steam plays a key role in the reaction of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the CFB reactor; (2) There is a positive effect of Ca/S on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency; (3) The temperature is an another key factor for SO{sub 2} removal efficiency for the CFB-FGD process; (4) The absorbent can be enhanced in the CFB reactor; (5) The CFB reactor is better than the dry/semi-dry FDG technology. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be as high as 84.8%.

  16. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  17. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  18. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-06

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  19. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  20. Containerless high temperature calorimeter apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A calorimeter apparatus for measuring high temperature thermophysical properties of materials is disclosed which includes a containerless heating apparatus in which the specimen is suspended and heated by electron bombardment.

  1. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Shorey, Mark W.; Steinetz, Bruce (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 lb payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs. During the first phase of this program the existing launch vehicle control surface sealing concepts were reviewed, the aerothermal environment for a high temperature seal design was analyzed and a mock up of an arc-jet test fixture for evaluating seal concepts was fabricated.

  2. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    PubMed

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-01

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels. PMID:26051675

  3. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, III, Raymond B.

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  4. [Investigation of bacterial diversity in the biological desulfurization reactor for treating high salinity wastewater by the 16S rDNA cloning method].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Guo; Liang, Cun-Zhen; Yang, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Gui-Ping; Liu, Miao-Miao

    2013-02-01

    The bacterial diversity in the biological desulfurization reactor operated continuously for 1 year was studied by the 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing method. Forty clones were randomly selected and their partial 16S rDNA genes (ca. 1,400 bp) were sequenced and blasted. The results indicated that there were dominant bacterias in the biological desulfurization reactor, where 33 clones belonged to 3 different published phyla, while 1 clone belonged to unknown phylum. The dominant bacterial community in the system was Proteobacteria, which accounted for 85.3%. The bacterial community succession was as follows: the gamma-Proteobacteria(55.9%), beta-Proteobacteria(17.6%), Actinobacteridae (8.8%), delta-Proteobacteria (5.9%) , alpha-Proteobacteria(5.9%), and Sphingobacteria (2.9%). Halothiobacillus sp. ST15 and Thiobacillus sp. UAM-I were the major desulfurization strains. PMID:23668153

  5. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.; Atimtay, Aysel T.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  6. Removal of H{sub 2}S using molten carbonate at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, Makoto Otaka, Maromu

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The performance of molten carbonate for the removal of H{sub 2}S improves at higher temperatures. • The degree of H{sub 2}S removal is significantly affected by the CO{sub 2} concentration in syngas. • Addition of carbon elements, such as char and tar, decrease the negative effects of CO{sub 2}. • Continuous addition of carbon elements into molten carbonate enables continuous desulfurization. • Desulfurization using molten carbonate is suitable for gasification gas. - Abstract: Gasification is considered to be an effective process for energy conversion from various sources such as coal, biomass, and waste. Cleanup of the hot syngas produced by such a process may improve the thermal efficiency of the overall gasification system. Therefore, the cleanup of hot syngas from biomass gasification using molten carbonate is investigated in bench-scale tests. Molten carbonate acts as an absorbent during desulfurization and dechlorination and as a thermal catalyst for tar cracking. In this study, the performance of molten carbonate for removing H{sub 2}S was evaluated. The temperature of the molten carbonate was set within the range from 800 to 1000 °C. It is found that the removal of H{sub 2}S is significantly affected by the concentration of CO{sub 2} in the syngas. When only a small percentage of CO{sub 2} is present, desulfurization using molten carbonate is inadequate. However, when carbon elements, such as char and tar, are continuously supplied, H{sub 2}S removal can be maintained at a high level. To confirm the performance of the molten carbonate gas-cleaning system, purified biogas was used as a fuel in power generation tests with a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The fuel cell is a high-performance sensor for detecting gaseous impurities. When purified gas from a gas-cleaning reactor was continuously supplied to the fuel cell, the cell voltage remained stable. Thus, the molten carbonate gas-cleaning reactor was found to afford good gas

  7. Oxidative desulfurization of Tufanbeyli coal by hydrogen peroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Guru, M.; Sarioz, B.V.; Cakanyildirim, C.

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming popular to use fossil fuels efficiently since the necessary energy is mostly supplied from fossil fuels. Altough there are high lignite reserves, high sulfur content limits the efficient use of them. In this article, we aimed to convert combustible sulfur in coal to non-combustible sulfate form in the ash by oxidizing it with a hydrogen peroxide solution. The parameters affecting the sulfur conversion were determined to be: hydrogen peroxide concentration, reaction time, mean particle size at constant room temperature and shaking rate. The maximum desulfurization efficiency reached was 74% of the original combustible sulfur with 15% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide solution, 12 hours of reaction time, and 0.25 mm mean particle size.

  8. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  9. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  10. Temperature controlled high voltage regulator

    DOEpatents

    Chiaro, Jr., Peter J.; Schulze, Gerald K.

    2004-04-20

    A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

  11. High temperature electronic gain device

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, J. Byron; Depp, Steven W.; Hamilton, Douglas J.; Kerwin, William J.

    1979-01-01

    An integrated thermionic device suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments. Cathode and control electrodes are deposited on a first substrate facing an anode on a second substrate. The substrates are sealed to a refractory wall and evacuated to form an integrated triode vacuum tube.

  12. Gallium phosphide high temperature diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, R.J.; Dawson, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop high temperature (> 300/sup 0/C) diodes for geothermal and other energy applications. A comparison of reverse leakage currents of Si, GaAs and GaP is made. Diodes made from GaP should be usable to > 500/sup 0/C. An LPE process for producing high quality, grown junction GaP diodes is described. This process uses low vapor pressure Mg as a dopant which allows multiple boat growth in the same LPE run. These LPE wafers have been cut into die and metallized to make the diodes. These diodes produce leakage currents below 10/sup -3/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 400/sup 0/C while exhibiting good high temperature rectification characteristics. High temperature life test data is presented which shows exceptional stability of the V-I characteristics.

  13. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  14. Temperature optimization of high con

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabry, M.

    2016-06-01

    Active cooling is essential for solar cells operating under high optical concentration ratios. A system comprises four solar cells that are in thermal contact on top of a copper tube is proposed. Water is flowing inside the tube in order to reduce solar cells temperature for increasing their performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of such system has been performed in order to investigate the effect of water flow rate, tube internal diameter, and convective heat transfer coefficient on the temperature of the solar cells. It is found that increasing convective heat transfer coefficient has a significant effect on reducing solar cells temperatures operating at low flow rates and high optical concentration ratios. Also, a further increase of water flow rate has no effect on reducing cells temperatures.

  15. Containerless high-temperature calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B.; Robinson, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Samples are heated by electron bombardment in high-temperature calorimeter that operates from 1,000 to 3,600 C yet consumes less that 100 watts at temperatures less than 2,500 C. Contamination of samples is kept to minimum by suspending them from wire in vacuum chamber. Various sample slopes such as wires, dishs, spheres, rods, or irregular bodies can be accommodated and only about 100 nq of samples are needed for accurate measurements.

  16. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a

  17. Hot Gas Desulfurization Using Transport Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moorehead, E.L.

    1996-12-31

    Sierra Pacific Power Company is building a 100 MW, IGCC power plant based on KRW fluid bed gasifier technology that utilizes transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Use of a transport absorber avoids the need for pre-filtration of dust-laden gasifier effluent, while a transport regenerator allows for the use of 100% air without the need for heat exchange equipment. Selection of transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization using a proprietary sorbent, based on testing performed in a transport reactor test unit (TRTU) at the M. W. Kellogg Technology Development Center and in a fixed bed reactor at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is outlined. The results obtained in these two test facilities and reasons for selecting transport reactors for the IGCC power plant in preference to either fixed bed or fluidized bed reactors are discussed. This paper reviews the evolution of the hot gas desulfurization system designs and includes selected results on H{sub 2}S absorption and regeneration of sulfided sorbent over several absorption/regeneration cycles conducted in the TRTU and the METC fixed bed reactor. The original design for the Sierra Pacific Project was based on fixed bed reactors with zinc ferrite as the sorbent. Owing to the high steam requirements of this sorbent, zinc titanate was selected and tested in a fixed bed reactor and was found unacceptable due to loss of strength on cyclic absorption/regeneration operation. Another sorbent evaluated was Z-Sorb{reg_sign}, a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company, was found to have excellent sulfur capacity, structural strength and regenerability. Steam was found unsuitable as fixed bed regenerator diluent, this results in a requirement for a large amount of inert gas, whereas a transport regenerator requires no diluent. The final Sierra design features transport reactors for both desulfurization and regeneration steps using neat air. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. New regents for coal desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, D.H.; Kalembasa, S.; Olson, D.; Wang, S.; Warfel, L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was development and exploration of potential new desulfurization reagents for the removal of organic sulfur'' from Illinois coals by mild chemical methods. Potential new desulfurization reagents were investigated using organic sulfur compounds of the types thought to be present in coals. Reagents included low-valent metal complexes based on nickel and on iron as well as possible Single Electron Transfer reagents. Soluble coal extracts served as second generation model compounds during this reagent development project.

  19. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  20. High-Temperature Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Varga, Donald J.; Floyd, Bertram M.

    2010-01-01

    A high-temperature optical sensor (see Figure 1) has been developed that can operate at temperatures up to 1,000 C. The sensor development process consists of two parts: packaging of a fiber Bragg grating into a housing that allows a more sturdy thermally stable device, and a technological process to which the device is subjected to in order to meet environmental requirements of several hundred C. This technology uses a newly discovered phenomenon of the formation of thermally stable secondary Bragg gratings in communication-grade fibers at high temperatures to construct robust, optical, high-temperature sensors. Testing and performance evaluation (see Figure 2) of packaged sensors demonstrated operability of the devices at 1,000 C for several hundred hours, and during numerous thermal cycling from 400 to 800 C with different heating rates. The technology significantly extends applicability of optical sensors to high-temperature environments including ground testing of engines, flight propulsion control, thermal protection monitoring of launch vehicles, etc. It may also find applications in such non-aerospace arenas as monitoring of nuclear reactors, furnaces, chemical processes, and other hightemperature environments where other measurement techniques are either unreliable, dangerous, undesirable, or unavailable.

  1. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  2. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOEpatents

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  3. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOEpatents

    Hull, John R.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1995-01-01

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  4. High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the High Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites Conference held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on March 16 to 18, 1983. The purpose of the conference is to provide scientists and engineers working in the field of high temperature polymer matrix composites an opportunity to review, exchange, and assess the latest developments in this rapidly expanding area of materials technology. Technical papers are presented in the following areas: (1) matrix development; (2) adhesive development; (3) characterization; (4) environmental effects; and (5) applications.

  5. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  6. High temperature solar thermal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.; Hanseth, E. J.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Some advanced technology concepts under development for high-temperature solar thermal energy systems to achieve significant energy cost reductions and performance gains and thus promote the application of solar thermal power technology are presented. Consideration is given to the objectives, current efforts and recent test and analysis results in the development of high-temperature (950-1650 C) ceramic receivers, thermal storage module checker stoves, and the use of reversible chemical reactions to transport collected solar energy. It is pointed out that the analysis and testing of such components will accelerate the commercial deployment of solar energy.

  7. "Green" High-Temperature Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    PMR-15 is a processable, high-temperature polymer developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center in the 1970's principally for aeropropulsion applications. Use of fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites in these applications can lead to substantial weight savings, thereby leading to improved fuel economy, increased passenger and payload capacity, and better maneuverability. PMR-15 is used fairly extensively in military and commercial aircraft engines components seeing service temperatures as high as 500 F (260 C), such as the outer bypass duct for the F-404 engine. The current world-wide market for PMR-15 materials (resins, adhesives, and composites) is on the order of $6 to 10 million annually.

  8. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1990-03-23

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  9. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. ); Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine)

    1989-11-07

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to selectively catalyze oxidation at sulfur.

  10. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1989-12-14

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds., In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  11. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    SciTech Connect

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  12. Enzymes desulfurizing diesel fuel in pilot plant tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-05-15

    Energy BioSystems Corp., The Woodlands, Texas, is collecting data from a new 5 b/d, continuous-operation, biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) pilot plant. Hurdles to commercialization are catalyst activity, stability, and fermentation yield. Since 1990, however, Energy BioSystems Corp. (EBC) has made great strides in improving all three of these factors. The BDS process uses enzymes to remove organically bound sulfur from petroleum streams at mild temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Objectives of the pilot plant studies include: validating and refining the computer simulations used to control the process and establishing the process design basis. So far, the results from pilot plant operations have met expectations. The projected 45% desulfurization rate has been achieved, within a few percent. This rate was simply the target for the initial evaluation experiments, and that the process is capable of desulfurizing almost to extinction.

  13. High-temperature plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics.

  14. High-Temperature Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang K.

    1994-01-01

    High-temperature electrostatic levitator provides independent control of levitation and heating of sample in vacuum. Does not cause electromagnetic stirring in molten sample (such stirring causes early nucleation in undercooling). Maintenance of levitating force entails control of electrostatic field and electrical charge on sample.

  15. High-Temperature Vibration Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold

    1987-01-01

    Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.

  16. A solar high temperature kiln

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huettenhoelscher, N.; Bergmann, K.

    1981-11-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy in developing countries for baking ceramic construction materials was investigated. The solar high temperature kiln is described. It uses two parabolic concentrators which direct available radiation into the baking chamber. The Sun tracker has only one axis. Preliminary test results with the prototype kiln were satisfactory.

  17. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  18. Removal of H2S using molten carbonate at high temperature.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Makoto; Otaka, Maromu

    2013-12-01

    Gasification is considered to be an effective process for energy conversion from various sources such as coal, biomass, and waste. Cleanup of the hot syngas produced by such a process may improve the thermal efficiency of the overall gasification system. Therefore, the cleanup of hot syngas from biomass gasification using molten carbonate is investigated in bench-scale tests. Molten carbonate acts as an absorbent during desulfurization and dechlorination and as a thermal catalyst for tar cracking. In this study, the performance of molten carbonate for removing H2S was evaluated. The temperature of the molten carbonate was set within the range from 800 to 1000 °C. It is found that the removal of H2S is significantly affected by the concentration of CO2 in the syngas. When only a small percentage of CO2 is present, desulfurization using molten carbonate is inadequate. However, when carbon elements, such as char and tar, are continuously supplied, H2S removal can be maintained at a high level. To confirm the performance of the molten carbonate gas-cleaning system, purified biogas was used as a fuel in power generation tests with a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The fuel cell is a high-performance sensor for detecting gaseous impurities. When purified gas from a gas-cleaning reactor was continuously supplied to the fuel cell, the cell voltage remained stable. Thus, the molten carbonate gas-cleaning reactor was found to afford good gas-cleaning performance. PMID:24035726

  19. High temperature, high power piezoelectric composite transducers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  20. High Temperature, High Power Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, StewarT.

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric composites are a class of functional materials consisting of piezoelectric active materials and non-piezoelectric passive polymers, mechanically attached together to form different connectivities. These composites have several advantages compared to conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers, including improved electromechanical properties, mechanical flexibility and the ability to tailor properties by using several different connectivity patterns. These advantages have led to the improvement of overall transducer performance, such as transducer sensitivity and bandwidth, resulting in rapid implementation of piezoelectric composites in medical imaging ultrasounds and other acoustic transducers. Recently, new piezoelectric composite transducers have been developed with optimized composite components that have improved thermal stability and mechanical quality factors, making them promising candidates for high temperature, high power transducer applications, such as therapeutic ultrasound, high power ultrasonic wirebonding, high temperature non-destructive testing, and downhole energy harvesting. This paper will present recent developments of piezoelectric composite technology for high temperature and high power applications. The concerns and limitations of using piezoelectric composites will also be discussed, and the expected future research directions will be outlined. PMID:25111242

  1. Containerless high temperature property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordine, Paul C.; Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Anderson, Collin D.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing in the low gravity environment of space provides the opportunity to increase the temperature at which well controlled processing of and property measurements on materials is possible. This project was directed towards advancing containerless processing and property measurement techniques for application to materials research at high temperatures in space. Containerless high temperature material property studies include measurements of the vapor pressure, melting temperature, optical properties, and spectral emissivities of solid boron. The reaction of boron with nitrogen was also studied by laser polarimetric measurement of boron nitride film growth. The optical properties and spectral emissivities were measured for solid and liquid silicon, niobium, and zirconium; liquid aluminum and titanium; and liquid Ti-Al alloys of 5 to 60 atomic pct. titanium. Alternative means for noncontact temperature measurement in the absence of material emissivity data were evaluated. Also, the application of laser induced fluorescence for component activity measurements in electromagnetic levitated liquids was studied, along with the feasibility of a hybrid aerodynamic electromagnetic levitation technique.

  2. High-temperature containerless calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.; Lacy, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A high-temperature (greater than 1500 K) containerless calorimeter is described and its usefulness demonstrated. The calorimeter uses the technique of omnidirectional electron bombardment of pendant drops to achieve an isothermal test environment. The small heat input into the sample (i.e., 15-50 W) can be controlled and measured. The apparatus can be used to determine the total hemispherical emissivity, specific heat, heat of fusion, surface tension, and equilibrium melting temperature of small molten drops in the temperature range of 1500 to 3500 K. The total hemispherical emissivity and specific heat of pure niobium and two alloys of niobium-germanium have been measured in the temperature range of 1700 to 2400 K. As reported in the literature, the total hemispherical emissivity varied as a function of temperature. However, specific heat values for both the pure metal and alloys seem to be independent of temperature. Specific heat for the liquid alloy phase was also measured and compared to the solid phase.

  3. Solute strengthening at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyson, G. P. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    The high temperature behavior of solute strengthening has previously been treated approximately using various scaling arguments, resulting in logarithmic and power-law scalings for the stress-dependent energy barrier Δ E(τ ) versus stress τ. Here, a parameter-free solute strengthening model is extended to high temperatures/low stresses without any a priori assumptions on the functional form of Δ E(τ ) . The new model predicts that the well-established low-temperature, with energy barrier Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and zero temperature flow stress {τy0} , transitions to a near-logarithmic form for stresses in the regime 0.2<τ /{τy0}≤slant 0.5 and then transitions to a power-law form at even lower stresses τ /{τy0}<0.03 . Δ {{E}\\text{b}} and {τy0} remains as the reference energy and stress scales over the entire range of stresses. The model is applied to literature data on solution strengthening in Cu alloys and captures the experimental results quantitatively and qualitatively. Most importantly, the model accurately captures the transition in strength from the low-temperature to intermediate-temperature and the associated transition for the activation volume. Overall, the present analysis unifies the different qualitative models in the literature and, when coupled with the previous parameter-free solute strengthening model, provides a single predictive model for solute strengthening as a function of composition, temperature, and strain rate over the full range of practical utility.

  4. High temperature sorbents for oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A sorbent capable of removing trace amounts of oxygen (ppt) from a gas stream at a high temperature above 200 C comprising a porous alumina silicate support, such as zeolite, containing from 1 to 10 percent by weight of ion exchanged transition metal, such as copper or cobalt ions, and 0.05 to 1.0 percent by weight of an activator selected from a platinum group metal such as platinum is described. The activation temperature, oxygen sorption, and reducibility are all improved by the presence of the platinum activator.

  5. High Temperature Sorbents for Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A sorbent capable of removing trace amounts of oxygen (ppt) from a gas stream at a high temperature above 200 C is introduced. The sorbent comprises a porous alumina silicate support such as zeolite containing from 1 to 10 percent by weight of ion exchanged transition metal such as copper or cobalt ions and 0.05 to 1.0 percent by weight of an activator selected from a platinum group metal such as platinum. The activation temperature, oxygen sorption and reducibility are all improved by the presence of the platinum activator.

  6. High-Temperature Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.; Chazen, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Two rocket engines that operate at temperature of 2,500 K designed to provide thrust for station-keeping adjustments of geosynchronous satellites, for raising and lowering orbits, and for changing orbital planes. Also useful as final propulsion stages of launch vehicles delivering small satellites to low orbits around Earth. With further development, engines used on planetary exploration missions for orbital maneuvers. High-temperature technology of engines adaptable to gas-turbine combustors, ramjets, scramjets, and hot components of many energy-conversion systems.

  7. High temperature drilling mud composition

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, W.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a composition having improved rheological properties and improved stability at high temperatures and pressure for use in a water-based drilling mud comprising a high-yield bentonite, a low-yield bentonite and leonardite, wherein the weight ratio of the high-yield bentonite to the low-yield bentonites in the range of about 10:1 to about 1:1, and the leonardite is present in the amount of about 0.1% to 1.0% by total dry weight of the composition.

  8. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  9. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    B.McCormack; H.W. Kugel; P. Goranson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-11-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed.

  10. High temperature two component explosive

    DOEpatents

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  11. Motor for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roopnarine (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A high temperature motor has a stator with poles formed by wire windings, and a rotor with magnetic poles on a rotor shaft positioned coaxially within the stator. The stator and rotor are built up from stacks of magnetic-alloy laminations. The stator windings are made of high temperature magnet wire insulated with a vitreous enamel film, and the wire windings are bonded together with ceramic binder. A thin-walled cylinder is positioned coaxially between the rotor and the stator to prevent debris from the stator windings from reaching the rotor. The stator windings are wound on wire spools made of ceramic, thereby avoiding need for mica insulation and epoxy/adhesive. The stator and rotor are encased in a stator housing with rear and front end caps, and rear and front bearings for the rotor shaft are mounted on external sides of the end caps to keep debris from the motor migrating into the bearings' races.

  12. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell powerplant desulfurization systems. Final report, November 1978-November 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, V.; Wu, D.

    1980-01-01

    With an objective to contribute to the integration of coal gasifier with advanced power generation systems, such as molten carbonate fuel cells, this study has investigated high-temperature, regenerable, desulfurization processes in which the H/sub 2/s content of coal gases is reduced from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. Commercially available processes involve very low temperature scrubbing prior to use in the fuel cells and, consequently, introduce penalties in capital cost and system efficiency. As a result of a systematic thermodynamic screening, four candidates (ZnO, V/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cu and WO/sub 2/) show feasibility for intermediate to high temperature (350 to 700/sup 0/C) desulfurization of fuel gases derived from coal. Of these, ZnO was experimentally studied using a bench scale, isothermal packed bed reactor. It was demonstrated that ZnO can reduce the sulfur levels to less than 1 ppM from coal gases at 650/sup 0/C, and it can be completely regenerated to ZnO. However, severe decrease in sulfur capacity at high temperatures and further degradation upon regeneration were observed. Electron microscopy, microanalysis, and surface area measurements were obtained and examined in conjunction with a pore plugging model for this type of gas-solid reaction. Evidence is presented to conclude that the combination of pore plugging during sulfurization and sintering during regeneration reaction are two major causes for the observed decrease in its activity of the sorbent.

  14. High pressure and high temperature apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Voronov, Oleg A.

    2005-09-13

    A design for high pressure/high temperature apparatus and reaction cell to achieve .about.30 GPa pressure in .about.1 cm volume and .about.100 GPa pressure in .about.1 mm volumes and 20-5000.degree. C. temperatures in a static regime. The device includes profiled anvils (28) action on a reaction cell (14, 16) containing the material (26) to be processed. The reaction cell includes a heater (18) surrounded by insulating layers and screens. Surrounding the anvils are cylindrical inserts and supporting rings (30-48) whose hardness increases towards the reaction cell. These volumes may be increased considerably if applications require it, making use of presses that have larger loading force capability, larger frames and using larger anvils.

  15. High temperature solar thermal receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A design concept for a high temperature solar thermal receiver to operate at 3 atmospheres pressure and 2500 F outlet was developed. The performance and complexity of windowed matrix, tube-header, and extended surface receivers were evaluated. The windowed matrix receiver proved to offer substantial cost and performance benefits. An efficient and cost effective hardware design was evaluated for a receiver which can be readily interfaced to fuel and chemical processes or to heat engines for power generation.

  16. High-temperature structural ceramics.

    PubMed

    Katz, R N

    1980-05-23

    The unique properties of ceramics based on silicon carbide and silicon nitride make them prime candidates for use in advanced energy conversion systems. These compounds are the bases for broad families of engineering materials, whose properties are reviewed. The relationships between processing, microstructure, and properties are discussed. A review and assessment of recent progress in the use of these materials in high-temperature engineering systems, and vehicular engines in particular, is presented. PMID:17772807

  17. High-temperature geothermal cableheads

    SciTech Connect

    Coquat, J.A.; Eifert, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    Two high-temperature, corrosion-resistant logging cableheads which use metal seals and a stable fluid to achieve proper electrical terminations and cable-sonde interfacings are described. A tensile bar provides a calibrated yield point, and a cone assembly anchors the cable armor to the head. Electrical problems of the sort generally ascribable to the cable-sonde interface were absent during demonstration hostile-environment loggings in which these cableheads were used.

  18. High-Temperature Polyimide Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanucci, Raymond D.; Malarik, Diane C.

    1990-01-01

    Improved polyimide resin used at continuous temperatures up to 700 degrees F (371 degrees C). PMR-II-50, serves as matrix for fiber-reinforced composites. Material combines thermo-oxidative stability with autoclave processability. Used in such turbine engine components as air-bypass ducts, vanes, bearings, and nozzle flaps. Other potential applications include wing and fuselage skins on high-mach-number aircraft and automotive engine blocks and pistons.

  19. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  20. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  1. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  2. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOEpatents

    Carruthers, William D.; Boyd, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature ceramic/metallic turbine engine includes a metallic housing which journals a rotor member of the turbine engine. A ceramic disk-like shroud portion of the engine is supported on the metallic housing portion and maintains a close running clearance with the rotor member. A ceramic spacer assembly maintains the close running clearance of the shroud portion and rotor member despite differential thermal movements between the shroud portion and metallic housing portion.

  3. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  4. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  5. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  6. HITCAN: High temperature composite analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Surendra N.; Lackney, Joseph J.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code, HITCAN (High Temperature Composite Analyzer) was developed to analyze/design metal matrix composite structures. HITCAN is based on composite mechanics theories and computer codes developed at NASA LeRC over the last two decades. HITCAN is a general purpose code for predicting the global structural and local stress-strain response of multilayered (arbitrarily oriented) metal matrix structures both at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) and the structure level and including the fabrication process effects. The thermomechanical properties of the constituents are considered to be nonlinearly dependent on several parameters including temperature, stress, and stress rate. The computational procedure employs an incremental iterative nonlinear approach utilizing a multifactor-interaction material behavior model. HITCAN features and analysis capabilities (static, load stepping, modal, and buckling) are demonstrated through typical example problems.

  7. Compensated High Temperature Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A device for measuring strain in substrates at high temperatures in which the thermally induced apparent strain is nulled is described. Two gages are used, one active gage and one compensating gage. Both gages are placed on the substrate to be gaged; the active gage is attached such that it responds to mechanical and thermally induced apparent strain while the compensating gage is attached such that it does not respond to mechanical strain and and measures only thermally induced apparent strain. A thermal blanket is placed over the two gages to maintain the gages at the same temperature. The two gages are wired as adjacent arms of a wheatstone bridge which nulls the thermally induced apparent strain giving a true reading of the mechanical strain in the substrate.

  8. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines - Phase I: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This project proposes to use pneumatically or hydraulically emplaced dry-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products to backfill the adits left by highwall mining. Backfilling highwall mine adits with dry-FGD materials is technically attractive. The use of an active highwall mine would allow the dry-FGD material to be brought in using the same transportation network used to move the coal out, eliminating the need to recreated the transportation infrastructure, thereby saving costs. Activities during the period included the negotiations leading to the final cooperative agreement for the project and the implementation of the necessary instruments at the University of Kentucky to administer the project. Early in the negotiations, a final agreement on a task structure was reached and a milestone plan was filed. A review was initiated of the original laboratory plan as presented in the proposal, and tentative modifications were developed. Selection of a mine site was made early; the Pleasant Valley mine in Greenup County was chosen. Several visits were made to the mine site to begin work on the hydrologic monitoring plan. The investigation of the types of permits needed to conduct the project was initiated. Considerations concerning the acceptance and implementation of technologies led to the choice of circulating fluidized bed ash as the primary material for the study. Finally, the membership of a Technical Advisory Committee for the study was assembled.

  9. High temperature size selective membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.F.; Swamikannu, A.X.

    1993-09-01

    The high temperature membrane, capable of operation above 550{degree}C, is designed to be a composite membrane composed of a thin layer of a size selective membrane supported by a microporous ceramic support. The kinetic diameters of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are 2.96 {Angstrom} and 4.00 {Angstrom}. The thin layer will be made from CMS whose pore size will be controlled to be less than 4 {Angstrom}. The membrane will be truly size selective and be impermeable to carbon dioxide. The membrane will have higher selectivity than membranes which operate on Knudsen diffusion mechanism. The ceramic support will be fabricated from Allied Signal`s proprietary Blackglas{trademark} resin. The ceramic material, noted for its high thermal and oxidative resistance, has a coefficient of thermal expansion which matches closely that of CMS. The close match will insure mechanical integrity when the membrane is subjected to thermal cycles. The CMS layer will be produced by controlled pyrolysis of polymeric precursors. Pore size will be suitably modified by post-treatments to the carbon. The composite membrane will be tested for its permeation properties at 550{degree}C or higher. Thermal, mechanical and chemical stability of the membrane will be assessed. We have produced several samples of CMS from polymeric precursors. We have initiated work also on the preparation of microporous supports from Blackglas{trademark} resin. We have completed the design of the high temperature membrane pilot plant. The membrane cell was fabricated out of two kinds of stainless steel. The inner parts are made of SS 316 and the outer ring made of SS 420. The greater thermal expansion of the SS 316 will help obtain a leak free seal at the operating temperatures.

  10. High temperature sealed electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect

    Valentin Chung, Brice Hoani; Burke, Paul J.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2015-10-06

    A cell for high temperature electrochemical reactions is provided. The cell includes a container, at least a portion of the container acting as a first electrode. An extension tube has a first end and a second end, the extension tube coupled to the container at the second end forming a conduit from the container to said first end. A second electrode is positioned in the container and extends out of the container via the conduit. A seal is positioned proximate the first end of the extension tube, for sealing the cell.

  11. High temperature drilling MUD stabilizer

    SciTech Connect

    Block, J.

    1985-10-15

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a hydroxy containing alumina component such as AlO(OH) and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) reaction product such as an aldehyde reacted PVA are stabilized for use at temperatures as high as 350/sup 0/ F. (177/sup 0/ C.) by adding stabilizer anions such as sulfate, tartrate and citrate to the resulting drilling fluid. The anions can be added as an acid or in the salt form with sodium and potassium salts being preferred. The salts are preferably added in 0.2 to 10% by weight of the drilling fluid. These stabilized drilling fluids can also be used in seawater.

  12. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  13. CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    DOEpatents

    Koenig, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)

  14. High Temperature Acoustic Liner Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Posey, Joe W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes work currently in progress at Langley on liner concepts that employ structures that may be suitable for broadband exhaust noise attenuation in high speed flow environments and at elevated temperatures characteristic of HSCT applications. Because such liners will need to provide about 10 dB suppression over a 2 to 3 octave frequency range, conventional single-degree-of-freedom resonant structures will not suffice. Bulk absorbers have the needed broadband absorption characteristic; however, at lower frequencies they tend to be inefficient.

  15. Advanced high-temperature batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

  16. High modulus high temperature glass fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The search for a new high-modulus, high-temperature glass fiber involved the preparation of 500 glass compositions lying in 12 glass fields. These systems consisted primarily of low atomic number oxides and rare-earth oxides. Direct optical measurements of the kinetics of crystallization of the cordierite-rare earth system, for example, showed that the addition of rare-earth oxides decreased the rate of formation of cordierite crystals. Glass samples prepared from these systems proved that the rare-earth oxides made large specific contributions to the Young's modulus of the glasses. The best glasses have moduli greater than 21 million psi, the best glass fibers have moduli greater than 18 million psi, and the best glass fiber-epoxy resin composites have tensile strengths of 298,000 psi, compressive strengths of at least 220,000 psi, flexural strengths of 290,000 psi, and short-beam shear strengths of almost 17,000 psi.

  17. Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas desulfurization Sorbents.

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-02

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343 {degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a one-half inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel- gases. Screening criteria will include chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

  18. Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-04-21

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

  19. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  20. NID dry desulfurization system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Ahman, S.; Bengtsson, S.

    1998-07-01

    The development of ABB's low cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been reported in various papers during 1997. The system combines low cost and simple operation with very good performance and is targeted especially for the emerging markets in Asia and East Europe. This method is capable of achieving 90+% SO{sub 2} removal, irrespective of sulphur content in the fuel. The system is further easy to retrofit at existing sites; it has a minimum space requirement. An important feature of the dry FGD technology, sometimes not highlighted enough, is the fact that particulate collection of fly ash is facilitated by the FGD system at no extra capital charge. The flue gas temperature after a DFGD system also often allows the flue gas to be passed on to an existing stack without reheat. ``NID'' is an acronym for ``Novel Integrated Desulfurization'', indicative of the innovative nature of this FGD technology enabled by the integration of several subfunctionalities into one unit. The first two commercial plants were installed by the Polish power company Elektrownia Laziska. These full scale units were commissioned during 1996. A third unit at a diesel power station in Finland is at the time of writing in the commissioning stage.

  1. Multifunctional, High-Temperature Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Working, Dennis C.; Criss, Jim M.; Watson, Kent A.; Delozier, Donavon M.; Ghose, Sayata

    2007-01-01

    In experiments conducted as part of a continuing effort to incorporate multifunctionality into advanced composite materials, blends of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a resin denoted gPETI-330 h (wherein gPETI h is an abbreviation for gphenylethynyl-terminated imide h) were prepared, characterized, and fabricated into moldings. PETI-330 was selected as the matrix resin in these experiments because of its low melt viscosity (<10 poise at a temperature of 280 C), excellent melt stability (lifetime >2 hours at 280 C), and high temperature performance (>1,000 hours at 288 C). The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), obtained from the University of Kentucky, were selected because of their electrical and thermal conductivity and their small diameters. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the combination of thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties achievable while still maintaining melt processability. The PETI-330/MWCNT mixtures were prepared at concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 weight-percent of MWCNTs by dry mixing of the constituents in a ball mill using zirconia beads. The resulting powders were characterized for degree of mixing and thermal and rheological properties. The neat resin was found to have melt viscosity between 5 and 10 poise. At 280 C and a fixed strain rate, the viscosity was found to increase with time. At this temperature, the phenylethynyl groups do not readily react and so no significant curing of the resin occurred. For MWCNT-filled samples, melt viscosity was reasonably steady at 280 C and was greater in samples containing greater proportions of MWCNTs. The melt viscosity for 20 weightpercent of MWCNTs was found to be .28,000 poise, which is lower than the initial estimated allowable maximum value of 60,000 poise for injection molding. Hence, MWCNT loadings of as much as 20 percent were deemed to be suitable compositions for scale-up. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed the MWCNTs to be well

  2. Sialons as high temperature insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.; Kuo, Y. S.

    1978-01-01

    Sialons were evaluated for application as high temperature electrical insulators in contact with molybdenum and tungsten components in hard vacuum applications. Both D.C. and variable frequency A.C. resistivity data indicate the sialons to have electrical resistivity similar to common oxide in the 1000 C or higher range. Metallographic evaluations indicate good bonding of the type 15R ALN polytype to molybdenum and tungsten. The beta prime or modified silicon nitride phase was unacceptable in terms of vacuum stability. Additives effect on electrical resistivity. Similar resistivity decreases were produced by additions of molybdenum or tungsten to form cermets. The use of hot pressing at 1800 C with ALN, Al2 O3 and Si3N4 starting powders produced a better product than did a combination of SiO2 and AIN staring powders. It was indicated that sialons will be suitable insulators in the 1600K range in contact with molybdenum or tungsten if they are produced as a pure ceramic and subsequently bonded to the metal components at temperatures in the 1600K range.

  3. SCALE-UP OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop advanced regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective was to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high sulfidation activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). Twenty sorbents were synthesized in this work. Details of the preparation technique and the formulations are proprietary, pending a patent application, thus no details regarding the technique are divulged in this report. Sulfidations were conducted with a simulated gas containing (vol %) 10 H{sub 2}, 15 CO, 5 CO{sub 2}, 0.4-1 H{sub 2}S, 15 H{sub 2}O, and balance N{sub 2} in the temperature range of 343-538 C. Regenerations were conducted at temperatures in the range of 400-600 C with air-N{sub 2} mixtures. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives were investigated that promote regeneration at lower temperatures. Characterization were performed for fresh, sulfided and regenerated sorbents.

  4. High Temperature Capacitive Strain Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wnuk, Stephen P., Jr.; Wnuk, Stephen P., III; Wnuk, V. P.

    1990-01-01

    Capacitive strain gages designed for measurements in wind tunnels to 2000 F were built and evaluated. Two design approaches were followed. One approach was based on fixed capacitor plates with a movable ground plane inserted between the plates to effect differential capacitive output with strain. The second approach was based on movable capacitor plates suspended between sapphire bearings, housed in a rugged body, and arranged to operate as a differential capacitor. A sapphire bearing gage (1/4 in. diameter x 1 in. in size) was built with a range of 50,000 and a resolution of 200 microstrain. Apparent strain on Rene' 41 was less than + or - 1000 microstrain from room temperature to 2000 F. Three gage models were built from the Ground Plane Differential concept. The first was 1/4 in. square by 1/32 in. high and useable to 700 F. The second was 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high and useable to 1440 F. The third, also 1/2 in. square by 1/16 in. high was expected to operate in the 1600 to 2000 F range, but was not tested because time and funding ended.

  5. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Reichert, P.

    1997-03-18

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid. 3 figs.

  6. Faraday imaging at high temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Reichert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    A Faraday filter rejects background light from self-luminous thermal objects, but transmits laser light at the passband wavelength, thus providing an ultra-narrow optical bandpass filter. The filter preserves images so a camera looking through a Faraday filter at a hot target illuminated by a laser will not see the thermal radiation but will see the laser radiation. Faraday filters are useful for monitoring or inspecting the uranium separator chamber in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. Other uses include viewing welds, furnaces, plasma jets, combustion chambers, and other high temperature objects. These filters are can be produced at many discrete wavelengths. A Faraday filter consists of a pair of crossed polarizers on either side of a heated vapor cell mounted inside a solenoid.

  7. High temperature control rod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vollman, Russell E.

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear control rod assembly comprises a plurality of substantially cylindrical segments flexibly joined together in succession by ball joints. The segments are made of a high temperature graphite or carbon-carbon composite. The segment includes a hollow cylindrical sleeve which has an opening for receiving neutron-absorbing material in the form of pellets or compacted rings. The sleeve has a threaded sleeve bore and outer threaded surface. A cylindrical support post has a threaded shaft at one end which is threadably engaged with the sleeve bore to rigidly couple the support post to the sleeve. The other end of the post is formed with a ball portion. A hollow cylindrical collar has an inner threaded surface engageable with the outer threaded surface of the sleeve to rigidly couple the collar to the sleeve. the collar also has a socket portion which cooperates with the ball portion to flexibly connect segments together to form a ball and socket-type joint. In another embodiment, the segment comprises a support member which has a threaded shaft portion and a ball surface portion. The threaded shaft portion is engageable with an inner threaded surface of a ring for rigidly coupling the support member to the ring. The ring in turn has an outer surface at one end which is threadably engageably with a hollow cylindrical sleeve. The other end of the sleeve is formed with a socket portion for engagement with a ball portion of the support member. In yet another embodiment, a secondary rod is slidably inserted in a hollow channel through the center of the segment to provide additional strength. A method for controlling a nuclear reactor utilizing the control rod assembly is also included.

  8. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  9. High-temperature gas filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, H.P.; Laux, S.; Renz, U. . Lehrstuhl fuer Waermeuebertragung und Klimatechnik)

    1992-10-01

    High-temperature, high-pressure filtration is important to the development of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology. This volume describes the commissioning and testing of a pilot-scale filter module rated at 1 to 4 bar pressure and up to 900[degrees]C. The module consists of an array of six porous sintered silicon carbide filter elements, designed to be cleaned on-line by jet pulses of compressed air. More than 2000 hours of exposure were achieved with FBC combustion gas with inlet dust concentrations of 500 to 40,000 ppM[sub w] at 200 to 650[degrees]C. Another 3500 hours of operation were achieved with simulated gas and injected dust. The filter elements were subjected to 60,000 cleaning cycles. No dust penetration through the filter modules was detected. After an initial stabilizing period, pressure drop remained moderate at less that 50 mbar (0.7 psi). The energy expended in pulse cleaning was negligible. No crusty deposits of dust were found on the filter elements during inspections, and no irreversible blinding occurred.

  10. High temperature autoclave vacuum seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. R.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Aluminum sheet forms effective sealing film at temperatures up to 728 K. Soft aluminum wire rings provide positive seal between foil and platen. For applications at temperatures above aluminum's service temperature, stainless steel is used as film material and copper wire as sealant.