Science.gov

Sample records for high beta fusion

  1. High poloidal beta long-pulse experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

    E-print Network

    Mauel, Michael E.

    . Meade et al. in Plasma Physics Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1990 (International Atomic Energy after the current ramp-down carried negative current. At later times in lower flN discharges, beta

  2. Fusion alpha-particle losses in a high-beta rippled tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bunno, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Tani, K.

    2013-08-15

    In tokamak plasmas, the confinement of energetic ions depends on the magnetic field structure. If the plasma pressure is finite, the equilibrium current (i.e., the Pfirsch-Schlüter current and diamagnetic current) flows in the plasma to maintain the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. These plasma currents generate poloidal and toroidal magnetic field and alter the field structure. Moreover, if we consider the non-axisymmetry of magnetic field structures such as toroidal field (TF) ripples, the non-axisymmetric component of the equilibrium current can alter TF ripples themselves. When the plasma beta becomes high, the changes in the field structure due to the equilibrium current might affect the confinement of energetic ions significantly. We intend to clarify how these currents alter the field structure and affect the confinement of alpha particles in high-beta plasma. The MHD equilibrium is calculated using VMEC and the orbits of fusion alpha particles are followed by using the fully three-dimensional magnetic field orbit-following Monte Carlo code. In relatively low-beta plasma (e.g., the volume-averaged beta value ?2%), the changes in the magnetic field component due to the plasma current negligibly affect the confinement of alpha particles except for the Shafranov shift effect. However, for ?3%, the diamagnetic effect reduces the magnetic field strength and significantly increases alpha-particle losses. In these high-beta cases, the non-axisymmetric field component generated by the equilibrium current also increases these losses, but not as effectively as compared to the diamagnetic effect.

  3. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Centre for Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research and Care, School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia ; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  4. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.; Couture, P.; Fishman, H.; Fonck, R.; Gammel, G.; Grek, B.; Ida, K.; Itami, K.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high ..beta.. discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present ..beta.. limit.

  5. Neoclassical transport in high [beta] tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high [beta] large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high [beta] large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low [beta] values by a factor ([var epsilon]/q[sup 2][beta])[sup [1/2

  6. Nanoscale organization of {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor-Venus fusion protein domains on the surface of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vobornik, Dusan; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Haley, Jennifer; Bani-Yaghoub, Mahmud; Taylor, Rod; Johnston, Linda J.; Pezacki, John Paul

    2009-04-24

    Adrenergic receptors are a key component of nanoscale multiprotein complexes that are responsible for controlling the beat rate in a mammalian heart. We demonstrate the ability of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to visualize {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors ({beta}{sub 2}AR) fused to the GFP analogue Venus at the nanoscale on HEK293 cells. The expression of the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein was tightly controlled using a tetracycline-induced promoter. Both the size and density of the observed nanoscale domains are dependent on the level of induction and thus the level of protein expression. At concentrations between 100 and 700 ng/ml of inducer doxycycline, the size of domains containing the {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion protein appears to remain roughly constant, but the number of domains per cell increase. At 700 ng/ml doxycycline the functional receptors are organized into domains with an average diameter of 150 nm with a density similar to that observed for the native protein on primary murine cells. By contrast, larger micron-sized domains of {beta}{sub 2}AR are observed in the membrane of the HEK293 cells that stably overexpress {beta}{sub 2}AR-GFP and {beta}{sub 2}AR-eYFP. We conclude that precise chemical control of gene expression is highly advantageous for the use {beta}{sub 2}AR-Venus fusion proteins as models for {beta}{sub 2}AR function. These observations are critical for designing future cell models and assays based on {beta}{sub 2}AR, since the receptor biology is consistent with a relatively low density of nanoscale receptor domains.

  7. Interactions between TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 and their role in medial edge epithelium cell death and palatal fusion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; Barrio, Maria Carmen; Del Río, Aurora; López, Yamila; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; González, Ignacio; Martín, Concepción; Casado, Inmaculada; Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción

    2009-02-01

    In recent decades, studies have shown that both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) play an important role in the induction of medial edge epithelium (MEE) cell death and palatal fusion. Many of these experiments involved the addition or blockage of one of these growth factors in wild-type (WT) mouse palate cultures, where both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) are present. Few studies have addressed the existence of interactions between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3), which could modify their individual roles in MEE cell death during palatal fusion. We carried out several experiments to test this possibility, and to investigate how this could influence TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) actions on MEE cell death and palatal shelf fusion. We double-immunolabelled developing mouse palates with anti-TGF-beta(1) or anti-TGF-beta(3) antibodies and TUNEL, added rhTGF-beta(1) or rhTGF-beta(3) or blocked the TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) action at different concentrations to WT or Tgf-beta(3) null mutant palate cultures, performed in situ hybridizations with Tgf-beta(1) or Tgf-beta(3) riboprobes, and measured the presence of TUNEL-positive midline epithelial seam (MES) cells and MES disappearance (palatal shelf fusion) in the different in vitro conditions. By combining all these experiments, we demonstrate great interaction between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) in the developing palate and confirm that TGF-beta(3) has a more active role in MES cell death than TGF-beta(1), although both are major inductors of MES disappearance. Finally, the co-localization of TGF-beta(1), but not TGF-beta(3), with TUNEL in the MES allows us to suggest a possible role for TGF-beta(1) in MES apoptotic clearance. PMID:19281781

  8. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  9. Fusion zone microstructure and porosity in electron beam welds of an {alpha} + {beta} titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, T.; Banerjee, D.; Kutumba Rao, V.V.

    1999-03-01

    The effect of electron beam welding parameters on fusion zone (FZ) microstructure and porosity in a Ti-6.8 Al-3.42 Mo-1.9 Zr-0.21 Si alloy (Russian designation VT 9) has been investigated. It has been observed that the FZ grain width increased continuously with increase in heat input when the base metal was in the {beta} heat-treated condition, while in the {alpha} + {beta} heat-treated base metal welds, the FZ grain width increased only after a threshold energy input. The difference is attributed to both the weld thermal cycle and the pinning effect of equiaxed primary alpha on grain growth in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of {alpha} + {beta} heat-treated base metal. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) in the subtransus and supertransus regions did not alter the columnar grain morphology in the FZ, possibly due to the lack of enough driving force for the formation of new grains by the breaking up of the columnar grains and grain boundary movement for grain growth. The highest porosity was observed at intermediate welding speeds. At low speeds, a majority of pores formed at the fusion boundary, while at high speeds, occurrence of porosity was maximum at the weld center. The trends on porosity can be explained on the basis of solubility of hydrogen in titanium as a function of temperature and the influence of weld thermal cycle on nucleation, growth, and escape of hydrogen gas bubbles. The porosity at slow welding speeds is low because sufficient time exists for the nucleation, growth, and escape of hydrogen gas bubbles, while insufficient time exists for the nucleation of gas bubbles at high welding speeds. The effect of pickling of joint surface, vacuum annealing of the base metal, and successive remelting of the weld metal has also been investigated.

  10. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-print Network

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  11. Energy-Confinement Scaling for High-{beta} Plasmas in the W7-AS Stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Preuss, R.; Dinklage, A.; Weller, A.

    2007-12-14

    High-{beta} energy-confinement data are subjected to comparisons of scaling invariant, first-principles physical models. The models differ in the inclusion of basic equations indicating the nature of transport. The result for high-{beta} data of the W7-AS stellarator is that global transport is described best with a collisional high-{beta} model, which is different from previous outcomes for low-{beta} data. Model predictive calculations indicate the validation of energy-confinement prediction with respect to plasma {beta} and collisionality {nu}{sub *}. The finding of different transport behaviors in distinct {beta} regimes is important for the development of fusion energy based on magnetic confinement and for the assessment of different confinement concepts.

  12. Neoclassical transport in high {beta} tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    Neoclassical, transport in high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamaks is calculated. The variational method introduced by Rosenbluth, et al., is used to calculate the full Onsager matrix in the banana regime. These results are part of a continuing study of the high {beta} large aspect ratio equilibria introduced in Cowley, et al. All the neoclassical coefficients are reduced from their nominal low {beta} values by a factor ({var_epsilon}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}} II. This factor is the ratio of plasma volume in the boundary layer to the volume in the core. The fraction of trapped particles on a given flux surface (f{sub t}) is also reduced by this factor so that {approximately} {sub ({var_epsilon}}/q{sup 2}{beta}){sup {1/2}}. Special attention is given to the current equation, since this is thought to be relevant at low 3 and therefore may also be relevant at high {beta}. The bootstrap current term is found to exceed the actual current by a factor of the square root of the aspect ratio.

  13. Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-02-07

    A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  14. Electromagnetic gyrokinetic turbulence in high-beta helical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    Gyrokinetic simulation of electromagnetic turbulence in finite-beta plasmas is important for predicting the performance of fusion reactors. Whereas in low-beta tokamaks the zonal flow shear acts to regulate ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence, it has often been observed that the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) and, at moderate-beta, the ITG mode continue to grow without reaching a physically relevant level of saturation. The corresponding problem in helical high-beta plasmas, the identification of a saturation mechanism for microturbulence in regimes where zonal flow generation is too weak, is the subject of the present work. This problem has not been previously explored because of numerical difficulties associated with complex three-dimensional magnetic structures as well as multiple spatio-temporal scales related to electromagnetic ion and electron dynamics. The present study identifies a new saturation process of the KBM turbulence originating from the spatial structure of the KBM instabilities in a high-beta Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma. Specifically, the most unstable KBM in LHD has an inclined mode structure with respect to the mid-plane of a torus, i.e. it has finite radial wave-number in flux tube coordinates, in contrast to KBMs in tokamaks as well as ITG modes in tokamaks and helical systems. The simulations reveal that the growth of KBMs in LHD is saturated by nonlinear interactions of oppositely inclined convection cells through mutual shearing, rather than by the zonal flow shear. The mechanism is quantitatively evaluated by analysis of the nonlinear entropy transfer.

  15. Tethering of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) to Beta Tricalcium Phosphate (?TCP) via Fusion to a High Affinity, Multimeric ?TCP-Binding Peptide: Effects on Human Multipotent Stromal Cells/Connective Tissue Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Linda; Saini, Sunil; Lee, Richard T.; Griffith, Linda G.

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of freshly-aspirated autologous bone marrow, together with a scaffold, is a promising clinical alternative to harvest and transplantation of autologous bone for treatment of large defects. However, survival proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of the marrow-resident stem and progenitor cells with osteogenic potential can be limited in large defects by the inflammatory microenvironment. Previous studies using EGF tethered to synthetic polymer substrates have demonstrated that surface-tethered EGF can protect human bone marrow-derived osteogenic stem and progenitor cells from pro-death inflammatory cues and enhance their proliferation without detriment to subsequent osteogenic differentiation. The objective of this study was to identify a facile means of tethering EGF to clinically-relevant ?TCP scaffolds and to demonstrate the bioactivity of EGF tethered to ?TCP using stimulation of the proliferative response of human bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSC) as a phenotypic metric. We used a phage display library and panned against ?TCP and composites of ?TCP with a degradable polyester biomaterial, together with orthogonal blocking schemes, to identify a 12-amino acid consensus binding peptide sequence, LLADTTHHRPWT, with high affinity for ?TCP. When a single copy of this ?TCP-binding peptide sequence was fused to EGF via a flexible peptide tether domain and expressed recombinantly in E. coli together with a maltose-binding domain to aid purification, the resulting fusion protein exhibited modest affinity for ?TCP. However, a fusion protein containing a linear concatamer containing 10 repeats of the binding motif the resulting fusion protein showed high affinity stable binding to ?TCP, with only 25% of the protein released after 7 days at 37oC. The fusion protein was bioactive, as assessed by its abilities to activate kinase signaling pathways downstream of the EGF receptor when presented in soluble form, and to enhance the proliferation of hBMSC when presented in tethered form on commercial ?TCP bone regeneration scaffolds. PMID:26121597

  16. Conversion of beta-galactosidase to a membrane-bound state by gene fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Silhavy, T J; Casadaban, M J; Shuman, H A; Beckwith, J R

    1976-01-01

    We have isolated a series of strains in which the lacZ gene has been fused to one of the maltose operons, such that the synthesis of beta-galactosidase (beta-D-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.23) is inducible by maltose. The most frequent event that generates such fusions results in strains in which an intact lacZ gene has become a part of the malE,F operon. By using a special selection procedure, we have detected much rarer fusion events resulting in an altered beta-galactosidase molecule. In these strains, we presume that there is a hybrid protein molecule produced, comprised of an NH2-terminal amino acid sequence from a maltose transport protein (malF) and a COOH-terminal amino acid sequence from beta-galactosidase. The hybrid protein, which still retains some beta-galactosidase activity, is found in the cytoplasmic membrane. These results provide information on the component of the malF gene essential for incorporation of its product into the membrane. PMID:790385

  17. High Temperature Stability of Potassium Beta Alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    None. From Objectives section: Evaluate the stability of potassium beta alumina under potassium AMTEC operating conditions. Evaluate the stability regime in which potassium beta alumina can be fabricated.

  18. High beta effects and nonlinear evolution of the TAE instability

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The toroidal Alfven eigenmode has recently been observed experimentally on DIII-D and TFTR when neutral beams are injected near the Alfven velocity. This instability is also of concern for future high [beta] D-T devices where fusion by-product alpha populations will generally be super-Alfvenic. We have developed a gyrofluid model (with Landau closure) of the TAE mode which can include most of the relevant damping mechanisms (continuum damping, ion and electron damping, ion FLR and collisional trapped electron damping) as well as reproducing analytically predicted undamped growth rates relatively accurately. An important consideration in predicting future unstable TAE regimes is the effect of finite beta in the background plasma. Due to the Shafranov shift and distortion of the flux surfaces, the location of the stable TAE root and the continuum will shift with increasing [beta]. The net effect of this is to generally enhance continuum damping and stabilize the TAF instability. Also, as the pressure gradient drive from the background becomes increasingly important, coupling between TAE and background driven modes can alter the TAE mode. A further application of our gyrofluid model which will be discussed is the nonlinear evolution of the TAE instability. Gyrofluid models offer a convenient reduced description which is more amenable to computational nonlinear modeling than full kinetic particle models. Our results demonstrate the rise and crash phases of TAE activity similar to experimental observations. The saturation is caused by generation of m=0 n=0 components through nonlinear beatings of the n > 1 modes; these cause modifications to the original equilibrium profiles in such a direction as to decrease the instability drive. This is the gyrofluid analog of direct particle losses. The peak magnetic fluctuation level increases with increasing energetic species beta, resulting in non-resonant stochastization of magnetic field lines.

  19. High beta effects and nonlinear evolution of the TAE instability

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    The toroidal Alfven eigenmode has recently been observed experimentally on DIII-D and TFTR when neutral beams are injected near the Alfven velocity. This instability is also of concern for future high {beta} D-T devices where fusion by-product alpha populations will generally be super-Alfvenic. We have developed a gyrofluid model (with Landau closure) of the TAE mode which can include most of the relevant damping mechanisms (continuum damping, ion and electron damping, ion FLR and collisional trapped electron damping) as well as reproducing analytically predicted undamped growth rates relatively accurately. An important consideration in predicting future unstable TAE regimes is the effect of finite beta in the background plasma. Due to the Shafranov shift and distortion of the flux surfaces, the location of the stable TAE root and the continuum will shift with increasing {beta}. The net effect of this is to generally enhance continuum damping and stabilize the TAF instability. Also, as the pressure gradient drive from the background becomes increasingly important, coupling between TAE and background driven modes can alter the TAE mode. A further application of our gyrofluid model which will be discussed is the nonlinear evolution of the TAE instability. Gyrofluid models offer a convenient reduced description which is more amenable to computational nonlinear modeling than full kinetic particle models. Our results demonstrate the rise and crash phases of TAE activity similar to experimental observations. The saturation is caused by generation of m=0 n=0 components through nonlinear beatings of the n > 1 modes; these cause modifications to the original equilibrium profiles in such a direction as to decrease the instability drive. This is the gyrofluid analog of direct particle losses. The peak magnetic fluctuation level increases with increasing energetic species beta, resulting in non-resonant stochastization of magnetic field lines.

  20. A unique structural abnormality of chromosome 16 resulting in a CBF beta-MYH11 fusion transcript in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia, FAB M4.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, J; Chipper, L; Springall, F; Herrmann, R

    2000-08-01

    A 43-year-old female with a peripheral white cell count of 118.0 x 10(9)/L and 96% blasts was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), FAB M4. Cytogenetics, performed on a bone marrow sample, revealed the following abnormal karyotype: 46,XX,ins(16)(q22p13.1p13. 3). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the inter-arm insertion using a probe for 16p. The result of this structural rearrangement was the fusion of CBF beta to MYH11 seen commonly in inv(16)(p13q22). The patient commenced high-dose intensive combination chemotherapy (big ICE; Idarubicin, Cytarabine, and Etopiside). Five days post chemotherapy, she developed febrile neutropenia. Despite broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics and antifungal therapy, the patient died at day nine post chemotherapy. This case demonstrates a previously unreported structural abnormality of chromosome 16 in a patient with AML M4, which represents a third mechanism to inv(16)(p13q22) and t(16;16)(p13q22) in producing the CBF beta-MYH11 fusion. CBF beta-MYH11 fusions masked by cryptic translocations at the cytogenetic level have been detected by FISH and PCR techniques. Due to the improved prognosis associated with CBF beta-MYH11 fusions compared to the standard risk group for AML, its detection remains important. PMID:10958941

  1. Preliminary evaluation of beta-spodumene as a fusion reactor structural material

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, P.V. Jr.; Schmunk, R.E.; Henslee, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Beta-spodumene was investigated as a candidate material for use in fusion reactor environments. Properties which support the use of beta-spodumene include good thermal shock resistance, a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, a low-Z composition which would result in minimum impact on the plasma, and flexibility in fabrication processes. Specimens were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to a fluence of 5.3 x 10/sup 22/ n/m/sup 2/, E > 0.1 MeV, and 4.9 x 10/sup 23/ n/m/sup 2/ thermal fluence in order to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the impact of irradiation on the material. Preliminary data indicate that the mechanical properties of beta-spodumene are little affected by irradiation. Gas production and release have also been investigated.

  2. Treatment of influenza virus with beta-propiolactone alters viral membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Bonnafous, Pierre; Nicolaï, Marie-Claire; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Chevalier, Michel; Barrière, Fabienne; Medina, Julie; Le Bihan, Olivier; Adam, Olivier; Ronzon, Frédéric; Lambert, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Beta-propiolactone (BPL) is commonly used as an inactivating reagent to produce viral vaccines. Although BPL has been described to chemically modify nucleic acids, its effect on viral proteins, potentially affecting viral infectivity, remains poorly studied. Here, a H3N2 strain of influenza virus was submitted to treatment with various BPL concentrations (2-1000?M). Cell infectivity was progressively reduced and entirely abolished at 1mM BPL. Virus fusion with endosome being a critical step in virus infection, we analyzed its ability to fuse with lipid membrane after BPL treatment. By monitoring calcein leakage from liposomes fusing with the virus, we measured a decrease of membrane fusion in a BPL dose-dependent manner that correlates with the loss of infectivity. These data were complemented with cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM) and cryo electron tomography (cryoET) studies of native and modified viruses. In addition, a decrease of leakage irrespective of BPL concentration was measured suggesting that the insertion of HA2 fusion peptide into the target membrane was inhibited even at low BPL concentrations. Interestingly, mass spectrometry revealed that HA2 and M1 matrix proteins had been modified. Furthermore, fusion activity was partially restored by the protonophore monensin as confirmed by cryoTEM and cryoET. Moreover, exposure to amantadine, an inhibitor of M2 channel, did not alter membrane fusion activity of 1mM BPL treated virus. Taken together these results show that BPL treatment inhibits membrane fusion, likely by altering function of proteins involved in the fusion process, shedding new light on the effect of BPL on influenza virus. PMID:24140008

  3. Bioavailability of beta-carotene (betaC) from purple carrots is the same as typical orange carrots while high-betaC carrots increase betaC stores in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Biofortifying existing sources of beta-carotene (betaC) and increasing dietary betaC could help combat the issue. Two studies were performed to investigate the relative betaC bioavailability of a betaC supplement to purple, high-betaC o...

  4. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion / High Energy

    E-print Network

    11/29/2007 The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 1 Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion / High Energy Density Laboratory Physics * B. Grant Logan On behalf of the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory** (HIFS-VNL)** LBNL, LLNL, PPPL Presentation in two parts: 1. Heavy ion driven

  5. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)—an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents—could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10?T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST. PMID:26507314

  6. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)-an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents-could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10?T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST. PMID:26507314

  7. Pulsed High Density Fusion John Slough#

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    possible that nuclear fusion will be the only source that can provide the prodigious power demands that the world will face in the future. Fusion is the only power source where there are large and available for low magnetic confinement. To make fusion energy a viable option, a small, lower power fusion system

  8. GPCR engineering yields high-resolution structural insights into beta2-adrenergic receptor function.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Choi, Hee-Jung; Yao, Xiao-Jie; Weis, William I; Stevens, Raymond C; Kobilka, Brian K

    2007-11-23

    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is a well-studied prototype for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that respond to diffusible hormones and neurotransmitters. To overcome the structural flexibility of the beta2AR and to facilitate its crystallization, we engineered a beta2AR fusion protein in which T4 lysozyme (T4L) replaces most of the third intracellular loop of the GPCR ("beta2AR-T4L") and showed that this protein retains near-native pharmacologic properties. Analysis of adrenergic receptor ligand-binding mutants within the context of the reported high-resolution structure of beta2AR-T4L provides insights into inverse-agonist binding and the structural changes required to accommodate catecholamine agonists. Amino acids known to regulate receptor function are linked through packing interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, suggesting a conformational pathway from the ligand-binding pocket to regions that interact with G proteins. PMID:17962519

  9. Fusion energy Fusion powers the Sun, and all stars, in which light nuclei fuse together at high temperatures

    E-print Network

    Fusion energy · Fusion powers the Sun, and all stars, in which light nuclei fuse together at high temperatures (15 million degrees) releasing a large amount of energy. · The aim of fusion research is to use fusion to produce power on earth. · The most promising approach to fusion power is based on the `tokamak

  10. High poloidal beta equilibria in TFTR limited by a natural inboard poloidal field null

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Gross, R.A.; Mauel, M.E.; Navratil, G.A. . Dept. of Applied Physics); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Chance, M.S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hatcher, R.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Manickam, J.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nagayama, Y.; Ow

    1991-07-01

    Recent operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor TFTR, has produced plasma equilibria with values of {Lambda} {triple bond} {beta}{sub p eq} + l{sub i}/2 as large as 7, {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} {triple bond} 2{mu}{sub 0}{epsilon}/{much lt}B{sub p}{much gt}{sup 2} as large as 1.6, and Troyon normalized diamagnetic beta, {beta}{sub N dia} {triple bond} 10{sup 8}<{beta}{sub t}{perpendicular}>aB{sub 0}/I{sub p} as large as 4.7. When {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} {approx gt} 1.25, a separatrix entered the vacuum chamber, producing a naturally diverted discharge which was sustained for many energy confinement times, {tau}{sub E}. The largest values of {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} and plasma stored energy were obtained when the plasma current was ramped down prior to neutral beam injection. The measured peak ion and electron temperatures were as large as 24 keV and 8.5 keV, respectively. Plasma stored energy in excess of 2.5 MJ and {tau}{sub E} greater than 130 msec were obtained. Confinement times of greater than 3 times that expected from L-mode predictions have been achieved. The fusion power gain. Q{sub DD}, reached a values of 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} in a discharge with I{sub p} = 1 MA and {epsilon}{beta}{sub p dia} = 0.85. A large, sustained negative loop voltage during the steady state portion of the discharge indicates that a substantial non-inductive component of I{sub p} exists in these plasmas. Transport code analysis indicates that the bootstrap current constitutes up to 65% of I{sup p}. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning stability analysis shows that while these plasmas are near, or at the {beta}{sub p} limit, the pressure gradient in the plasma core is in the first region of stability to high-n modes. 24 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Projecting High Beta Steady-State Scenarios from DIII-D Advanced Tokamk Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Fusion power plant studies based on steady-state tokamak operation suggest that normalized beta in the range of 4-6 is needed for economic viability. DIII-D is exploring a range of candidate high beta scenarios guided by FASTRAN modeling in a repeated cycle of experiment and modeling validation. FASTRAN is a new iterative numerical procedure coupled to the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) that integrates models of core transport, heating and current drive, equilibrium and stability self-consistently to find steady state (d / dt = 0) solutions, and reproduces most features of DIII-D high beta discharges with a stationary current profile. Separately, modeling components such as core transport (TGLF) and off-axis neutral beam current drive (NUBEAM) show reasonable agreement with experiment. Projecting forward to scenarios possible on DIII-D with future upgrades, two self-consistent noninductive scenarios at ?N > 4 are found: high qmin and high internal inductance li. Both have bootstrap current fraction fBS > 0 . 5 and rely on the planned addition of a second off-axis neutral beamline and increased electron cyclotron heating. The high qmin > 2 scenario achieves stable operation at ?N as high as 5 by a very broad current density profile to improve the ideal-wall stabilization of low-n instabilities along with confinement enhancement from low magnetic shear. The li near 1 scenario does not depend on ideal-wall stabilization. Improved confinement from strong magnetic shear makes up for the lower pedestal needed to maintain li high. The tradeoff between increasing li and reduced edge pedestal determines the achievable ?N (near 4) and fBS (near 0.5). This modeling identifies the necessary upgrades to achieve target scenarios and clarifies the pros and cons of particular scenarios to better inform the development of steady-state fusion. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC05-00OR22725 & DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  12. Wall stabilization of high beta plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.S.; Strait, E.J.; Lao, L.L.; Turnbull, A.D.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Mauel, M.

    1995-02-01

    Detailed analysis of recent high beta discharges in the DIII-D tokamak demonstrates that the resistive vacuum vessel can provide stabilization of low n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. The experimental beta values reaching up to {beta}{sub T} = 12.6% are more than 30% larger than the maximum stable beta calculated with no wall stabilization. Plasma rotation is essential for stabilization. When the plasma rotation slows sufficiently, unstable modes with the characteristics of the predicted {open_quotes}resistive wall{close_quotes} mode are observed. Through slowing of the plasma rotation between the q = 2 and q = 3 surfaces with the application of a non-axisymmetric field, the authors have determined that the rotation at the outer rational surfaces is most important, and that the critical rotation frequency is of the order of {Omega}/2{pi} = 1 kHz.

  13. Production and study of high-beta plasma confined by a superconducting dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Garnier, D.T.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M.E.; Ortiz, E.; Boxer, A.C.; Ellsworth, J.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Mahar, S.; Roach, A.

    2006-05-15

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) [J. Kesner et al., in Fusion Energy 1998, 1165 (1999)] is a new research facility that is exploring the confinement and stability of plasma created within the dipole field produced by a strong superconducting magnet. Unlike other configurations in which stability depends on curvature and magnetic shear, magnetohydrodynamic stability of a dipole derives from plasma compressibility. Theoretically, the dipole magnetic geometry can stabilize a centrally peaked plasma pressure that exceeds the local magnetic pressure ({beta}>1), and the absence of magnetic shear allows particle and energy confinement to decouple. In initial experiments, long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges lasting more than 10 s have been produced that are consistent with equilibria having peak beta values of 20%. Detailed measurements have been made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. In these initial experiments, the high-field superconducting floating coil was supported by three thin supports. The plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 and 6.4 GHz, and a population of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV, dominates the plasma pressure. Creation of high-pressure, high-beta plasma is possible only when intense hot electron interchange instabilities are stabilized by sufficiently high background plasma density. A dramatic transition from a low-density, low-beta regime to a more quiescent, high-beta regime is observed when the plasma fueling rate and confinement time become sufficiently large.

  14. Reaching High Poloidal Beta at Greenwald Density with Internal Transport Barrier Close to Full Noninductive Current Drive

    SciTech Connect

    Hobirk, J.; Wolf, R. C.; Gruber, O.; Gude, A.; Guenter, S.; Kurzan, B.; Maraschek, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; Meister, H.; Peeters, A. G.

    2001-08-20

    In the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, high poloidal beta up to {beta}{sub pol}=3 at the Greenwald density with H-mode confinement has been reached. Because of the high beta, the plasma current is driven almost fully noninductively, consisting of 51% bootstrap and 43% neutral beam driven current. To reach these conditions the discharge is operated at low plasma current (I{sub P}=400 kA ) and high neutral beam heating power (P{sub NBI}=10 MW ). The discharge combines an edge (H mode) and internal transport barrier at high densities without confinement-limiting MHD activities. The extrapolation to higher plasma currents may offer a promising way for an advanced scenario based fusion reactor.

  15. High density, high magnetic field concepts for compact fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.; Drake, R.P.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Hartman, C.W.; Mattor, N.; Ryutov, D.D.; Newton, A.A.; Shumlak, U.

    1996-03-01

    During the past year, several concepts concerned with dense plasma fusion systems have been theoretically/numerically re-examined at LLNL, with a conclusion that they may become strong candidates for future alternatives research programs. A common feature of these schemes is that they employ (a) plasmas with densities ranging from {approximately}10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} up to ICF-like densities ({approximately} 10{sup 26} cm{sup {minus}3}) and (b) magnetic fields. Their salient feature is also that, if successful, they would give rise to a compact and inexpensive reactor. Their compactness means also that the proof-of-principle experiment will be relatively inexpensive; the same is true for the developmental cost. Specifically, the authors consider the following concepts: (1) liner implosion of the closed-field-line configurations; (2) flow-through pinch; (3) magnetic ignition of inertial fusion. Although the first two concepts have been known in some form for a decade or so, new developments in fusion-related science and technology (e.g., direct experimental demonstration of a high-convergence 3D liner implosion and theoretical identification of a strong favorable effect of the shear flows on the stability of the pinches) certainly make them much more attractive than before. The third concept that emerged during last one or two years, also relies on a great progress in the understanding of the properties of high-density magnetized plasma. A brief description of each concept is given here.

  16. Microphysics of a multidimensional high beta low Mach number shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukiyo, S.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2014-12-01

    It is generally thought that a high beta shock is weak so that its structre is relatively laminar and stationary. Such low Mach number shocks have not been paid much attention in terms of particle acceleration. However, Voyager spacecraft revealed that the fluxes of not only the non-thermal ions, which are called as the termination shock particles, but also of the non-thermal electrons are enhanced at the crossings of the termination shock. The heliospheric termination shock has a high effective beta due to the presence of pickup ions which are the component having rather high thermal energy. Radio synchrotron emissions from relics of galaxy cluster mergers imply the presence of relativistic electrons accelerated in merger shocks. A plasma beta of such a merger shock is also thought to be rather high so that the merger shocks are usually assumed to have low Mach numbers. These observational facts imply that even a low Mach number shock can be a good accelerator of non-thermal particles. Here, we perform two-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation to study microstructure of a high beta low Mach number shock and the associated electron acceleration process. Although the effective magnotosonic Mach number is rather low, ~2.6, the structure of the transition region is highly complex. Ion and electron scale structures coexist. Furthermore, some electrons are accelerated to high energy. We will discuss the mechanisms of producing those two-dimensional microstructures and high energy electrons.

  17. Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

    1999-11-01

    High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

  18. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  19. Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, G.V.

    1982-04-01

    A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

  20. High Beta Observations of the Hot Electron Interchange Instability

    E-print Network

    been made in the presence of the magnetic levitation fields. We find the HEI mode is characterized observed in high-beta plasma created in the Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX). We have previously that characterize these modes now incorporate fast magnetic measurements in an attempt to put together a coherent

  1. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-beta NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Menard; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; S.S. Medley; W. Park; S.A. Sabbagh; A. Sontag; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; W. Zhu; the NSTX Research Team

    2004-12-22

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal {beta} discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-{beta} may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data.

  2. The binding affinity of a soluble TCR-Fc fusion protein is significantly improved by crosslinkage with an anti-C{beta} antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Horii, Masae; Kobayashi, Eiji; Jin, Aishun; Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150081 ; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Muraguchi, Atsushi

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel soluble TCR composed of TCR V and C regions with Ig Fc region is generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody bound to a p/MHC tetramer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binding affinity of TCR-Fc was markedly increased by binding with anti-C{beta} antibody. -- Abstract: The identification and cloning of tumor antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) and the production of the soluble form of the TCR (sTCR) contributed to the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for cancer. Recently, several groups have reported the development of technologies for the production of sTCRs. The native sTCR has a very low binding affinity for the antigenic peptide/MHC (p/MHC) complex. In this study, we established a technology to produce high affinity, functional sTCRs. We generated a novel sTCR-Fc fusion protein composed of the TCR V and C regions of the TCR linked to the immunoglobulin (Ig) Fc region. A Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular weight of the fusion protein was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions and approximately 100-200 kDa under non-reducing conditions. ELISAs using various antibodies showed that the structure of each domain of the TCR-Fc protein was intact. The TCR-Fc protein immobilized by an anti-C{beta} antibody effectively bound to a p/MHC tetramer. An SPR analysis showed that the TCR-Fc protein had a low binding affinity (KD; 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M) to the p/MHC monomer. Interestingly, when the TCR-Fc protein was pre-incubated with an anti-C{beta} antibody, its binding affinity for p/MHC increased by 5-fold (2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M). We demonstrated a novel method for constructing a functional soluble TCR using the Ig Fc region and showed that the binding affinity of the functional sTCR-Fc was markedly increased by an anti-C{beta} antibody, which is probably due to the stabilization of the V{alpha}/V{beta} region of the TCR. These findings provide new insights into the binding of sTCRs to p/MHCs and will hopefully be instrumental in establishing functional sTCR as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cancer.

  3. The Beta Pictoris circumstellar disk. XV - Highly ionized species near Beta Pictoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deleuil, M.; Gry, C.; Lagrange-Henri, A.-M.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Beust, H.; Ferlet, R.; Moos, H. W.; Livengood, T. A.; Ziskin, D.; Feldman, P. D.

    1993-01-01

    Temporal variations of the Fe II, Mg II, and Al III circumstellar lines towards Beta Pictoris have been detected and monitored since 1985. However, the unusual presence of Al III ions is still puzzling, since the UV stellar flux from an A5V star such as Beta Pic is insufficient to produce such an ion. In order to better define the origin of such a phenomenon, new observations have been carried out to detect faint signatures of other highly ionized species in the short UV wavelength range, where the stellar continuum flux is low. These observations reveal variations not only near the C IV doublet lines, but also in C I and Al II lines, two weakly ionized species, not clearly detectable until now. In the framework of an infalling body scenario, highly ionized species would be created in the tail, far from the comet head, by collisions with ambient gas surrounding the star, or a weak stellar wind. Spectral changes have also been detected near a CO molecular band location, which, if confirmed, would provide the first molecular signature around Beta Pictoris.

  4. Formation of High-Beta Plasma and Stable Confinement of Toroidal Electron Plasma in RT-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Haruhiko

    2010-11-01

    The Ring Trap 1 (RT-1) device is a laboratory magnetosphere generated by a levitated superconducting magnet. The goals of RT-1 are to realize stable formation of ultra high-beta plasma suitable for burning advanced fusion fuels, and confinement of toroidal non-neutral plasmas including antimatter particles. RT- 1 has produced high-beta plasma in the magnetospheric configuration. The effects of coil levitation and geomagnetic field compensation [Y. Yano et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 4, 039] resulted drastic improvements of the plasma properties, and a maximum local beta value exceeded 70%. Because plasma is generated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in the present experiment, the plasma pressure is mainly due to hot electrons, whose bremsstrahlung was observed with an x-ray CCD camera. The pressure profiles have rather steep gradient near the superconducting coil in the strong field region. The decay rates of magnetic probe and interferometer signals have different time constants, suggesting multiple temperature components. The energy confinement time estimated from the input RF power and stored magnetic energy is on the order of 1s, which is comparable to the decay time constant of the density of hot electron component. Pure electron plasma experiments are also conducted in RT-1. Radial profiles of electrostatic potential and electron density showed that the plasma rigidly rotates in the toroidal direction in the stable confinement phase. Long time confinement of toroidal non- neutral plasma for more than 300s and inward particle diffusion to strong field regions, caused by the activation of the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability, have been realized [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 235004].

  5. Galectin-1 as a fusion partner for the production of soluble and folded human {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-T7 in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Pasek, Marta; Boeggeman, Elizabeth; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Basic Science Program, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., Center for Cancer Research Nanobiology Program, Center for Cancer Research, NCI-Frederick, Frederick, MD 2170 ; Qasba, Pradman K.

    2010-04-09

    The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often leads to inactive aggregated proteins known as the inclusion bodies. To date, the best available tool has been the use of fusion tags, including the carbohydrate-binding protein; e.g., the maltose-binding protein (MBP) that enhances the solubility of recombinant proteins. However, none of these fusion tags work universally with every partner protein. We hypothesized that galectins, which are also carbohydrate-binding proteins, may help as fusion partners in folding the mammalian proteins in E. coli. Here we show for the first time that a small soluble lectin, human galectin-1, one member of a large galectin family, can function as a fusion partner to produce soluble folded recombinant human glycosyltransferase, {beta}-1,4-galactosyltransferase-7 ({beta}4Gal-T7), in E. coli. The enzyme {beta}4Gal-T7 transfers galactose to xylose during the synthesis of the tetrasaccharide linker sequence attached to a Ser residue of proteoglycans. Without a fusion partner, {beta}4Gal-T7 is expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. We have designed a new vector construct, pLgals1, from pET-23a that includes the sequence for human galectin-1, followed by the Tev protease cleavage site, a 6x His-coding sequence, and a multi-cloning site where a cloned gene is inserted. After lactose affinity column purification of galectin-1-{beta}4Gal-T7 fusion protein, the unique protease cleavage site allows the protein {beta}4Gal-T7 to be cleaved from galectin-1 that binds and elutes from UDP-agarose column. The eluted protein is enzymatically active, and shows CD spectra comparable to the folded {beta}4Gal-T1. The engineered galectin-1 vector could prove to be a valuable tool for expressing other proteins in E. coli.

  6. Triggering internal disruptions in tokamaks at high-{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, L.; Budny, R.; Chang, Z.

    1996-12-31

    At high-{beta}, both minor or major tokamak disruptions can arise abruptly without precursor. This fact is difficult to explain based on the picture of crossing some stability limit. Our analysis of TFTR supershots shows that highly peaked pressure profiles in tokamaks may create conditions for coupling between the internal reconnection mode and the ballooning modes. In standard supershot regimes, the q{sub 0} value at the plasma center sits below 1. Although the ideal MHD theory predicts the m = 1 instability in these regimes, the sawtooth oscillations are stabilized by FLR effects. This stabilization is proportional to the pressure gradient at the q = 1 surface. When the pressure gradient approaches the ballooning stability limit near the q = 1 surface, the excitation of ballooning modes suppresses FLR stabilization of the reconnection m = 1 mode. In turn, the growing reconnection mode significantly enhances the local pressure gradient p{prime} = p{prime}{sub 0} (1 + {xi}{prime} cos({theta} - {phi})) at the q = 1 surface where {xi}{prime} {approx} 1 and, thus, amplifies the ballooning modes. This mechanism reveals the positive feedback between the reconnection mode and ballooning modes and explains the abrupt onset of internal disruptions at high-{beta}. Because of the positive feedback, the disruptions can start either with or without the m = 1 or ballooning precursors present as it is observed in experiment. The criterion for sawtooth stabilization has been validated earlier for all of TFTR regimes. The same two-fluid model, now applied to ballooning modes, shows good correlation with experimental data. In particular, it predicts that the central {beta}{sub N}, calculated within {approximately} 1/3 of the minor radius, rather than the global {beta}{sub N} is responsible for the onset of internal disruptions. This explains the fact that depending on the peakedness of the pressure profile, disruptions may occur at unexpectedly low levels of the total {beta}.

  7. High power millimeter wave ECRH source needs for fusion program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This document stems from the four-day Gyrotron Symposium held at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters on June 13-16, 1983, and serves as a position paper for the Office of Fusion Energy, DOE, on high-power millimeter wave source development for Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) of plasmas. It describes the fusion program needs for gyrotron as ECH sources, their current status, and desirable development strategies.

  8. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-30

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials.

  9. Training The Next Generation Of Fusion Scientists And Engineers: Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2005-10-01

    The goal of the education and outreach activities of the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training (HU CFRT) is to create a high school-to-Ph.D. pipeline in plasma physics, fusion science, and related sciences for underrepresented minorities and female students. The HU CFRT Summer High School Fusion Research Workshop is an integral component of this pipeline. This workshop has been extraordinarily successful. The workshop participants are chosen from a national pool of young and talented minority and female high school students through the NASA SHARP program. These students come to HU from all over US and its possessions for eight weeks during the summer. Over the last ten years, these workshops have provided one-on-one high quality research experiences in fusion science to the best and the brightest minority and female high school students in the nation. Our high school students have presented over 25 contributed papers at APS/DPP annual meetings, twice reached semi-finalist positions in Siemens-Westinghouse competitions, won awards and prizes, admissions and scholarships to prestigious universities, and won high praises from the fusion research community and other educators and researchers. We wish to emphasize that we have been able to achieve these results with limited human and fiscal resources and a meager infrastructure. Here we will present the details of how this workshop has evolved over the years, the approaches, the activities, and the structure that we have used to train, motivate, and provide valuable research experiences to the next generation of our national leaders in science. We thank the U.S. DOE OFES for supporting these efforts. We also thank Dr. Allen Boozer and Dr. Thomas Simonen for their invaluable help in the workshop and in all our efforts.

  10. An efficient expression of Human Growth Hormone (hGH) in the milk of transgenic mice using rat {beta}-casein/hGH fusion genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chul-Sang; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    1996-03-01

    In order to produce human growth hormone (hGH) in the milk of transgenic mice, two expression vectors for hGH differing in their 3{prime} flanking sequences were constructed by placing the genomic sequences of hGH gene under the control of the rat {beta}-casein gene promotor. The 3{prime} flanking sequences of the expression constructs were derived from either the hGH gene (pBCN1GH) or the rat {beta}-casein gene (pBCN2GH). Transgenic lines bearing pBCN1GH expressed hGH more efficiently than those bearing pBCN2GH in the milk (19-5500 {mu}g/mL vs 0.7-2 {mu}g/mL). In particular, one of the BCN1GH lines expressed hGH as much as 5500 {plus_minus} 620 {mu}g/mL. Northern blot analysis showed that the transgene expression was specifically confined to the mammary gland and developmentally regulated like the endogeneous mouse {beta}-casein gene in the mammary gland. However, a low level of nonmammary expression was also detected with more sensitive assay methods. In conclusion, the rat {beta}-casein/hGH fusion gene could direct an efficient production of hGH in a highly tissue- and stage-specific manner in the transgenic mice and the 3{prime} flanking sequences of hGH gene had an important role for the efficient expression. 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. |; Hoffman, C.M.

    1993-02-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay {pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon} is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.3999{plus_minus}0.0005 s{sup {minus}1}. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R({pi}{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}v{epsilon}) = 0.394 {plus_minus} 0.015 s{sup {minus}1}. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  12. Measuring pion beta decay with high-energy pion beams

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, W.K. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA ); Hoffman, C.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Improved measurements of the pion beta decay rate are possible with an intense high-energy pion beam. The rate for the decay [pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon] is predicted by the Standard Model (SM) to be R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.3999[plus minus]0.0005 s[sup [minus]1]. The best experimental number, obtained using in-flight decays, is R([pi][sup +] [yields] [pi][sup 0]e[sup +]v[epsilon]) = 0.394 [plus minus] 0.015 s[sup [minus]1]. A precise measurement would test the SM by testing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix for which one analysis of the nuclear beta decay data has shown a 0.4% discrepancy. Several nuclear correction factors, needed for nuclear decay, are not present for pion beta decay, so that an experiment at the 0.2% level would be a significant one. Detailed study of possible designs will be needed, as well as extensive testing of components. The reduction of systematic errors to the 0.1% level can only be done over a period of years with a highly stable apparatus and beam. At a minimum, three years of occupancy of a beam line, with 800 hours per year, would be required.

  13. High-{beta} equilibria in tokamaks with toroidal flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Michael; Hole, Matthew; Sharapov, Sergei

    2011-09-15

    We extend existing 2-D analytical high-{beta} equilibrium solutions obtained by Cowley et al.[Phys. Fluids B 3, 2066 (1991)] and Hsu et al.[Phys. Plasmas 3, 266 (1996)] to the case of toroidally flowing plasma, assuming ideal magnetohydrodynamics and isothermal magnetic surfaces. Invoking the ordering {beta}q{sup 2}>>{epsilon}{sup 2} and M{sub {phi}}{sup 2}q{sup 2}>>{epsilon}, we solve the boundary layer problem, re-obtaining the static solution in the zero flow limit. The phenomenon of extreme plasma diamagnetism in the static solution was found to be reduced due to centrifugal drift currents for significant toroidal flow. Example equilibrium calculations are presented using plasma parameters which are approaching attainable values in next generation spherical tokamaks.

  14. Fully electromagnetic gyrokinetic eigenmode analysis of high-beta shaped plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

    2010-11-01

    A new, more efficient method to compute unstable linear gyrokinetic eigenvalues and eigenvectors has been developed for drift-wave analysis of plasmas with arbitrary flux-surface shape, including both transverse and compressional magnetic perturbations. In high-beta, strongly shaped plasmas like in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], numerous branches of closely spaced unstable eigenmodes exist. These modes are difficult and time-consuming to adequately resolve with the existing linear initial-value solvers, which are further limited to the most unstable eigenmode. The new method is based on an eigenvalue approach and is an extension of the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], reusing the existing discretization schemes in both real and velocity-space. Unlike recent methods, which use an iterative solver to compute eigenvalues of the relatively large gyrokinetic response matrix, the present scheme computes the zeros of the much smaller Maxwell dispersion matrix using a direct method. In the present work, the new eigensolver is applied to gyrokinetic stability analysis of a high-beta, NSTX-like plasma. We illustrate the smooth transformation from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-like to kinetic-ballooning (KBM)-like modes, and the formation of hybrid ITG/KBM modes, and further demonstrate the existence of high-k Alfvénic drift-wave "cascades" for which the most unstable mode is a higher excited state along the field line. A new compressional electron drift wave, which is driven by a combination of strong beta and pressure gradient, is also identified for the first time. Overall, we find that accurate calculation of stability boundaries and growth rates cannot, in general, ignore the compressional component ?B? of the perturbation.

  15. Fully electromagnetic gyrokinetic eigenmode analysis of high-beta shaped plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.

    2010-11-15

    A new, more efficient method to compute unstable linear gyrokinetic eigenvalues and eigenvectors has been developed for drift-wave analysis of plasmas with arbitrary flux-surface shape, including both transverse and compressional magnetic perturbations. In high-beta, strongly shaped plasmas like in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], numerous branches of closely spaced unstable eigenmodes exist. These modes are difficult and time-consuming to adequately resolve with the existing linear initial-value solvers, which are further limited to the most unstable eigenmode. The new method is based on an eigenvalue approach and is an extension of the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], reusing the existing discretization schemes in both real and velocity-space. Unlike recent methods, which use an iterative solver to compute eigenvalues of the relatively large gyrokinetic response matrix, the present scheme computes the zeros of the much smaller Maxwell dispersion matrix using a direct method. In the present work, the new eigensolver is applied to gyrokinetic stability analysis of a high-beta, NSTX-like plasma. We illustrate the smooth transformation from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-like to kinetic-ballooning (KBM)-like modes, and the formation of hybrid ITG/KBM modes, and further demonstrate the existence of high-k Alfvenic drift-wave 'cascades' for which the most unstable mode is a higher excited state along the field line. A new compressional electron drift wave, which is driven by a combination of strong beta and pressure gradient, is also identified for the first time. Overall, we find that accurate calculation of stability boundaries and growth rates cannot, in general, ignore the compressional component {delta}B{sub ||} of the perturbation.

  16. Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-Blocker Drug Right for You?

    MedlinePLUS

    Treating High Blood Pressure: Is a Beta-blocker Drug Right for You? What are beta-blockers? Beta-blockers are a group of drugs that are used to treat high blood pressure. They are also used to treat chest pain ( ...

  17. SUPPORT FOR HU CFRT SUMMER HIGH SCHOOL FUSION WORKSHOP

    SciTech Connect

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-02-09

    Nine summer fusion science research workshops for minority and female high school students were conducted at the Hampton University Center for Fusion Research and Training from 1996 to 2005. Each workshop was of the duration of eight weeks. In all 35 high school students were mentored. The students presented 28 contributed papers at the annual meetings of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics. These contributed papers were very well received by the plasma physics and fusion science research community. The students won a number of prestigious local, state, and national honors, awards, prizes, and scholarships. The notable among these are the two regional finalist positions in the 1999 Siemens-Westinghouse Science and Technology Competitions; 1st Place U.S. Army Award, 2006; 1st Place U.S. Naval Science Award, 2006; Yale Science and Engineering Association Best 11th Grade Project, 2006; Society of Physics Students Book Award, 2006; APS Corporate Minority Scholarship and others. This workshop program conducted by the HU CFRT has been an exemplary success, and served the minority and female students exceptionally fruitfully. The Summer High School Fusion Science Workshop is an immensely successful outreach activity conducted by the HU CFRT. In this workshop, we train, motivate, and provide high quality research experiences to young and talented high school scholars with emphasis on under-represented minorities and female students in fusion science and related areas. The purpose of this workshop is to expose minority and female students to the excitement of research in science at an early stage in their academic lives. It is our hope that this may lead the high school students to pursue higher education and careers in physical sciences, mathematics, and perhaps in fusion science. To our knowledge, this workshop is the first and only one to date, of fusion science for under-represented minorities and female high school students at an HBCU. The faculty researchers in the HU CFRT mentor the students during summers. Mentors spend a considerable amount of time and efforts in training, teaching, guiding and supervising research projects. The HU CFRT has so far conducted nine workshops during the summers of 1996-2000 and 2002-2005. The first workshop was conducted in summer 1996. Students for the workshop are chosen from a national pool of exceptionally talented high school rising seniors/juniors. To our knowledge, most of these students have gone on to prestigious universities such as Duke University, John Hopkins University, CalTech, UCLA, Hampton University, etc. after completing their high school. For instance, Tiffany Fisher, participant of the 1996 summer workshop completed her BS in Mathematics at Hampton University in May 2001. She then went on to Wake Forest University at Winston-Salem, North Carolina to pursue graduate studies. Anshul Haldipur, participant of the 1999 summer workshop, began his undergraduate studies at Duke University in 2000. Christina Nguyen and Ilissa Martinez, participants of the 2000 summer workshop, are pursuing their undergraduate degrees at the UCLA and Florida State University respectively. The organizing committee of the APS DPP annual meeting invited Dr. Punjabi to deliver an invited talk on training the next generation of fusion scientists and engineers at the 2005 APS DPP meeting in Denver, CO. The organizing committee distributed a special flier with the Bulletin to highlight this invited talk and another talk on education as well the expo. This has given wide publicity and recognition to our workshops and Hampton University. Prof. Punjabi's talk: 'LI2 2: Training the next generation of fusion scientists and engineers: summer high school fusion science workshop, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 50, 221 (2005)' was very well-received. He talked about HU education and outreach initiative and the HU CFRT Summer High School Workshop. The audience had a considerable number of questions about our workshops and the High School to PhD Pipeline in fusion science. Professor William Mathews of

  18. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  19. High temperature plasma in beta Lyrae, observed from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Hack, M.; Hutchings, J. B.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Plavec, M.; Polidan, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    High-resolution UV spectrophotometry of the complex close binary system beta Lyrae was performed with a telescope spectrometer on board Copernicus. Observations were made at phases 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 with resolutions of 0.2 A (far-UV) and 0.4 A (mid-UV). The far-UV spectrum is completely dominated by emission lines indicating the existence of a high-temperature plasma in this binary. The spectrum of this object is unlike that of any other object observed from Copernicus. It is believed that this high-temperature plasma results from dynamic mass transfer taking place in the binary. The current results are compared with OAO-2 observations and other observational results. The possibility that the secondary component is a collapsed object is also discussed; the Copernicus observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the spectroscopically invisible secondary component is a black hole.

  20. Plasma Physics, Fusion Science, and California High School Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Donald

    2004-11-01

    In order to further engage California HIgh School science teachers in plasma physics and fusion science, a collaboration was formed between LLNL's Fusion Energy Program and the University of California's Edward Teller Education Center (etec.ucdavis.edu). California's Science Content Standards for high school physics (www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/scphysics.asp) were used to create a public lecture (education.llnl.gov/sos/) that covered "students are expected to achieve" physics topics relevant to astrophysical and fusion plasma research. In addition to the lecture, a two day workshop for the Edward Teller Education Symposium, September 24 - 25, 2004 (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004) was designed around plasma spectroscopy (education.llnl.gov/symposium2004/agenda_astro.html). Plasma spectroscopy was chosen as the "anchor" to the workshop given the breadth and depth of the field to both astrophysical and fusion plasma research. Workshop participation includes lectures, tours, spectroscopic measurements, and building a 'spectroscope' for use in the teachers' respective high school classrooms. Accomplishments will be reported and future plans will be presented that include development of a one to two week expanded workshop that includes plasma research methods and advanced science skills essential to guiding students to conduct research projects.

  1. High-energy krypton fluoride lasers for inertial fusion.

    PubMed

    Obenschain, Stephen; Lehmberg, Robert; Kehne, David; Hegeler, Frank; Wolford, Matthew; Sethian, John; Weaver, James; Karasik, Max

    2015-11-01

    Laser fusion researchers have realized since the 1970s that the deep UV light from excimer lasers would be an advantage as a driver for robust high-performance capsule implosions for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Most of this research has centered on the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser. In this article we review the advantages of the KrF laser for direct-drive ICF, the history of high-energy KrF laser development, and the present state of the art and describe a development path to the performance needed for laser fusion and its energy application. We include descriptions of the architecture and performance of the multi-kilojoule Nike KrF laser-target facility and the 700 J Electra high-repetition-rate KrF laser that were developed at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. Nike and Electra are the most advanced KrF lasers for inertial fusion research and energy applications. PMID:26560597

  2. X-1: The challenge of high fusion yield

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.L.; Ramirez, J.J.; Raglin, P.S.

    1998-06-01

    In the past three years, tremendous strides have been made in x-ray production using high-current z-pinches. Today, the x-ray energy and power output of the Z accelerator (formerly PBFA II) is the largest available in the laboratory. These z-pinch x-ray sources have great potential to drive high-yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactions at affordable cost if several challenging technical problems can be overcome. Technical challenges in three key areas are discussed in this paper: (1) the design of a target for high yield, (2) the development of a suitable pulsed power driver, and (3) the design of a target chamber capable of containing the high fusion yield.

  3. Review of Progress in Superconducting High-Beta Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sundelin, Ronald

    1992-08-01

    During the past two years, there has been substantial progress in superconducting high-beta cavities in a number of areas.Understanding the "Q-disease", which occurs when a cavity is held for prolonged periods near 100K, has advanced, and techniques for mitigating this problem have improved.Progress has been made in the use of high peak power processing to suppress field emission.Cell geometries have improved to reduce the ratio of peak surface electric field to accelerating field, and trapped mode behavior has been found to permit use of nine cells for some applications.The operating experience base for cavities installed in accelerators has increased substantially, as has the performance experience base for industrially manufactured cavities, including both solid niobium and sputter-coated copper.Additional applications for superconducting cavities have been identified.Progress has been made toward the design and construction of a Tera-Electron-Volt Superconducting Linear

  4. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Landrum, B.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual study is made to explore the feasibility of applying magnetized target fusion (MTF) to space propulsion for omniplanetary travel. Plasma-jet driven MTF not only is highly amenable to space propulsion, but also has a number of very attractive features for this application: 1) The pulsed fusion scheme provides in situ a very dense hydrogenous liner capable of moderating the neutrons, converting more than 97% of the neutron energy into charged particle energy of the fusion plasma available for propulsion. 2) The fusion yield per pulse can be maintained at an attractively low level (< 1 GJ) despite a respectable gain in excess of 70. A compact, low-weight engine is the result. An engine with a jet power of 25 GW, a thrust of 66 kN, and a specific impulse of 77,000 s, can be achieved with an overall engine mass of about 41 metric tons, with a specific power density of 605 kW/kg, and a specific thrust density of 1.6 N/kg. The engine is rep-rated at 40 Hz to provide this power and thrust level. At a practical rep-rate limit of 200 Hz, the engine can deliver 128 GW jet power and 340 kN of thrust, at specific power and thrust density of 1,141 kW/kg and 3 N/kg respectively. 3) It is possible to operate the magnetic nozzle as a magnetic flux compression generator in this scheme, while attaining a high nozzle efficiency of 80% in converting the spherically radial momentum of the fusion plasma to an axial impulse. 4) A small fraction of the electrical energy generated from the flux compression is used directly to recharge the capacitor bank and other energy storage equipment, without the use of a highvoltage DC power supply. A separate electrical generator is not necessary. 5) Due to the simplicity of the electrical circuit and the components, involving mainly inductors, capacitors, and plasma guns, which are connected directly to each other without any intermediate equipment, a high rep-rate (with a maximum of 200 Hz) appears practicable. 6) All fusion related components are within the current state of the art for pulsed power technology. Experimental facilities with the required pulsed power capabilities already exist. 7) The scheme does not require prefabricated fuel target and liner hardware in any esoteric form or state. All necessary fuel and liner material are introduced into the engine in the form of ordinary matter in gaseous state at room temperature, greatly simplifying their handling on board. They are delivered into the fusion reaction chamber in a completely standoff manner.

  5. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  6. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J L; Lazareth, O W; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Powell, J R

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  7. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Li, Yangfang

    2012-08-08

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage. Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

  8. The physics of high-density, high-beta reversed-field pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Max D.

    The use of pellet injection to achieve high-density, high-beta discharges in the Madison Symmetric Torus has been investigated. The physics goals motivating this work are split into two primary and two secondary thrusts. The primary goals are the use of pellet fueling in conjunction with improved confinement plasmas to attain higher plasma beta and to investigate the consequences for stability at higher beta. The secondary research thrusts are to compare pellet-fueling of standard RFP discharges to edge-fueled plasmas and to begin the search for a density limit in MST. Following are the results of the primary and secondary goals. Pellet injection has been used to increase the density in improved confinement discharges fourfold while maintaining low magnetic fluctuations, and data suggest that even higher density is possible. A record plasma beta has been achieved for the improved confinement RFP in the process. A portion of the beta increase is attributed to a rising ion temperature (not seen in low density improved confinement) caused in part by the improved thermal coupling between electrons and ions. At this high beta, a new regime for instabilities is accessed. Both local interchange and global tearing instabilities are calculated to be linearly unstable. The tearing instability, normally driven by the current gradient, is driven by the pressure gradient in this case and appears to be the cause of a soft beta-limit. This beta-limit occurs as a reduction in the energy confinement time in moving to high beta during improved confinement plasmas. In standard (non-improved) confinement discharges, pellet fueling can peak the density profile where edge fueling cannot. The core-fueling of pellet injection alters the nature of the MHD activity in a standard discharge, but confinement appears unchanged from an edge-fueled discharge. For a limited range of plasma currents, MST discharges with edge fueling are constrained to a maximum density corresponding to the Greenwald limit. This limit is surpassed in pellet-fueled improved confinement discharges.

  9. High-Energy Space Propulsion Based on Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Landrum, D. B.; Freeze, B.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Gerrish, H.; Schmidt, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an approach in which a magnetized target plasma is compressed inertially by an imploding material wall. A high energy plasma liner may be used to produce the required implosion. The plasma liner is formed by the merging of a number of high momentum plasma jets converging towards the center of a sphere where two compact toroids have been introduced. Preliminary 3-D hydrodynamics modeling results using the SPHINX code of Los Alamos National Laboratory have been very encouraging and confirm earlier theoretical expectations. The concept appears ready for experimental exploration and plans for doing so are being pursued. In this talk, we explore conceptually how this innovative fusion approach could be packaged for space propulsion for interplanetary travel. We discuss the generally generic components of a baseline propulsion concept including the fusion engine, high velocity plasma accelerators, generators of compact toroids using conical theta pinches, magnetic nozzle, neutron absorption blanket, tritium reprocessing system, shock absorber, magnetohydrodynamic generator, capacitor pulsed power system, thermal management system, and micrometeorite shields.

  10. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sanjay; Chauhan, Vijendra; Sharma, Sansar; Maheshwari, Rajesh; Juyal, Anil; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autologous cancellous bone is the most effective biological graft material. However, harvest of autologous bone is associated with significant morbidity. Since porous hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate are biodegradable materials and can be replaced by bone tissue, but it lacks osteogenic property. We conducted a study to assess their use as a scaffold and combine them with bone marrow aspirate for bone regeneration using its osteogenic property for posterolateral spinal fusion on one side and autologous bone graft on the other side and compare them radiologically in terms of graft incorporation and fusion. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with unstable dorsal and lumbar spinal injuries who needed posterior stabilization and fusion were evaluated in this prospective study from October 2005 to March 2008. The posterior stabilization was done using pedicle screw and rod assembly, and fusion was done using hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate as a bone graft substitute over one side of spine and autologous bone graft obtained from iliac crest over other side of spine. The patients were followed up to a minimum of 12 months. Serial radiographs were done at an interval of 3, 6, and 12 months and CT scan was done at one year follow-up. Graft incorporation and fusion were assessed at each follow-up. The study was subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square and kappa test to assess graft incorporation and fusion. Results: At the end of the study, radiological graft incorporation and fusion was evident in all the patients on the bone graft substitute side and in 29 patients on the autologous bone graft side of the spine (P > 0.05). One patient showed lucency and breakage of distal pedicle screw in autologous bone graft side. The interobserver agreement (kappa) had an average of 0.72 for graft incorporation, 0.75 for fusion on radiographs, and 0.88 for the CT scan findings. Conclusion: Hydroxyapatite and beta-tricalcium phosphate mixed with bone marrow aspirate seems to be a promising alternative to conventional autologous iliac bone graft for posterolateral spinal fusion. PMID:19838344

  11. Electromagnetic effects on dynamics of high-beta filamentary structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjae; Umansky, Maxim V.; Angus, J. R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Electromagnetic BOUT++ simulations on seeded high-beta blobs demonstrate that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament leads to bending of the blob filaments and the magnetic field lines due to increased propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time). The bending motion can enhance heat exchange between the plasma facing materials and the inner scrape-off layer (SOL) region. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time. Using linear analysis and BOUT++ simulations, it is found that electromagnetic effects in high temperature and high density plasmas reduce the growth rate of resistive drift wave instability when resistivity drops below a certain value. The blobs temperature decreases in the course of its motion through the SOL and so the blob can switch from the electromagnetic to the electrostatic regime where resistive drift waves become important again.

  12. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping: Charcoal cryosorber tritium exposure results

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent experiments, have shown the practically of using activated charcoal (coconut charcoal) at 4{degrees}K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were shown to be satisfactory. The long term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL were not known and a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77{degrees}K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately half way through and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict charcoal's use as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high vacuum pumping applications. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. High Frequency of Fusion Transcripts Involving TCF7L2 in Colorectal Cancer: Novel Fusion Partner and Splice Variants

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Anne Cathrine; Rognum, Torleiv O.; Nesbakken, Arild; Skotheim, Rolf I.

    2014-01-01

    VTI1A-TCF7L2 was reported as a recurrent fusion gene in colorectal cancer (CRC), found to be expressed in three out of 97 primary cancers, and one cell line, NCI-H508, where a genomic deletion joins the two genes [1]. To investigate this fusion further, we analyzed high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing data from seven CRC cell lines, and identified the gene RP11-57H14.3 (ENSG00000225292) as a novel fusion partner for TCF7L2. The fusion was discovered from both genome and transcriptome data in the HCT116 cell line. By triplicate nested RT-PCR, we tested both the novel fusion transcript and VTI1A-TCF7L2 for expression in a series of 106 CRC tissues, 21 CRC cell lines, 14 normal colonic mucosa, and 20 normal tissues from miscellaneous anatomical sites. Altogether, 42% and 45% of the CRC samples expressed VTI1A-TCF7L2 and TCF7L2-RP11-57H14.3 fusion transcripts, respectively. The fusion transcripts were both seen in 29% of the normal colonic mucosa samples, and in 25% and 75% of the tested normal tissues from other organs, revealing that the TCF7L2 fusion transcripts are neither specific to cancer nor to the colon and rectum. Seven different splice variants were detected for the VTI1A-TCF7L2 fusion, of which three are novel. Four different splice variants were detected for the TCF7L2-RP11-57H14.3 fusion. In conclusion, we have identified novel variants of VTI1A-TCF7L2 fusion transcripts, including a novel fusion partner gene, RP11-57H14.3, and demonstrated detectable levels in a large fraction of CRC samples, as well as in normal colonic mucosa and other tissue types. We suggest that the fusion transcripts observed in a high frequency of samples are transcription induced chimeras that are expressed at low levels in most samples. The similar fusion transcripts induced by genomic rearrangements observed in individual cancer cell lines may yet have oncogenic potential as suggested in the original study by Bass et al. PMID:24608966

  14. High Current Ion Sources and Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2005-02-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion requires short ion beam pulses with high current and high brightness. Depending on the beam current and the number of beams in the driver system, the injector can use a large diameter surface ionization source or merge an array of small beamlets from a plasma source. In this paper, we review the scaling laws that govern the injector design and the various ion source options including the contact ionizer, the aluminosilicate source, the multicusp plasma source, and the MEVVA source.

  15. Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, A. H.; Xu, G. S.; Madsen, J.; Naulin, V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Wan, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST. Particularly, the slow transition with an intermediate dithering phase is well reproduced at proper parameters. The model recovers the power threshold for the L-H transition as well as the decrease in power threshold switching from single to double null configuration observed experimentally. The results are highly relevant for developing predictive models of the transition, essential for understanding and optimizing future fusion power reactors.

  16. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  17. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, A. . Dept. of Physics); Kremens, R.; Skupsky, S. . Lab. for Laser Energetics)

    1991-05-05

    During the course of this grant, we succeeded in overcoming essentially all of the obstacles on the route to carrying out ICF shots with polarized deuteron fuel in plastic target shells. ICF with polarized deuterons is expected to answer the question of survival of polarization in the high temperature plasma prior to fusion, as well as to give quantitative information on anisotropic particle emissions and possible suppression of particular fusion reactions. The techniques previously developed for high D polarization in large solid HD samples have been adapted to polystyrene target shells which are cooled conductively via very thin metal wire supports. An independent NMR experiment on a normal-D{sub 2}-filled glass target shell with 2 {mu}m copper-coated spider silk supports affirmed the thermal conduction adequacy by registering very low sample temperatures in the presence of the generation of considerable D{sub 2} conversion heat. In a permeation experiment employing very pure ortho-D{sub 2}, it was demonstrated that hydrogens diffuse into polystyrene shells at room temperature without molecular dissociation, a requirement for preservation of the composition of our HD samples used for polarization. An advanced version of the permeation apparatus was designed and constructed which permits preparation of target shells loaded with very high density HD or D{sub 2} fuels. That system includes provision for cryocondensation and cold-transfer either to the dilution refrigerator for polarization or to the OMEGA fusion chamber for ICF experiments with denser unpolarized fuel targets than were heretofore realizable in plastic target shells. a major effort resulted in improvements of cold-transfer inter-apparatus mating procedures which minimize the temperature rise of the target shells over that of the helium reservoir temperature. High D polarization in solid pure 0-D{sub 2} was shown to be retained into the liquid state after rapid melting.

  18. A novel potentiometric approach for detection of beta-adrenergics and beta-adrenolytics in high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bazylak, Grzegorz; Nagels, Luc J

    2003-08-01

    Potentiometric approach enabling sensitive and reliable detection for a series of 20 autonomic beta-adrenergic ligands with the use of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based liquid membrane electrode coatings in the normal-bore cation exchange HPLC and narrow-bore reversed phase HPLC system is presented. It was found that in both kinds of HPLC modes with a contemporary hybrid polymer-silica packings an application of electrodes containing a tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate (TCPB) gives limits of detection below to 8.0x10(-7) mol l(-1) (injected concentrations). In case of highly hydrophobic beta-adrenergic drugs the use of binary aqueous mobile phases with high concentrations of acetonitrile (up to 25% v/v) shifting an observable detection limits (DL) down to 2.0x10(-8) mol l(-1), especially for electrodes with addition of trioctylated alpha-cyclodextrin. The characteristics of developed potentiometric detectors was established by proposed a quantitative structure-potentiometric response relationships (QSPRRs) for a series of diversified beta-adrenergic compounds and for a set of the PVC based electrodes using TCPB alone as well as in combination with trioctylated alpha-cyclodextrin, dibenzo-18-crown-6, or calix[6]arene hexaethylester as the neutral macrocycle ionophore. A highly significant QSPRRs equations were obtained leading to reasonable prediction of the DL of specified electrodes in terms of the computationally derived set of molecular descriptors of beta-adrenergics and beta-blocking agents and similar amino alcohol type xenobiotics. PMID:12875890

  19. Does High[Plasma]-Beta Dynamics "Load" Active Regions?

    E-print Network

    Scott W. McIntosh

    2007-02-04

    Using long-duration observations in the He II 304 Angstrom passband of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) we investigate the spatial and temporal appearance of impulsive intensity fluctuations in the pixel light curves. These passband intensity fluctuations come from plasma emitting in the chromosphere, transition region and lowest portions of the corona. We see that they are spatially tied to the supergranular scale and that their rate of occurrence is tied to the unsigned imbalance of the magnetic field in which they are observed. The signature of the fluctuations (in space and time) is consistent with their creation by magnetoconvection forced reconnection that is driven by the flow field in the high-beta plasma. The signature of the intensity fluctuations around an active region suggest that the bulk of the mass and energy supplied into the active region complex observed in the hotter coronal plasma is supplied by this process, dynamically forcing the looped structure from beneath.

  20. Plasma behaviour at high beta and high density in the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, M.; Chapman, B. E.; Ahn, J. W.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J.; Bonomo, F.; Bower, D L; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Craig, D.; Foust, Charles R

    2009-01-01

    Pellet fuelling of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) plasmas has resulted in high density and high plasma beta. The density in improved confinement discharges has been increased fourfold, and a record plasma beta (beta(tot) = 26%) for the improved confinement reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved. At higher beta, a new regime for instabilities is accessed in which local interchange and global tearing instabilities are calculated to be linearly unstable, but experimentally, no severe effect, e. g., a disruption, is observed. The tearing instability, normally driven by the current gradient, is driven by the pressure gradient in this case, and there are indications of increased energy transport ( as compared with low-density improved confinement). Pellet fuelling is also compared with enhanced edge fuelling of standard confinement RFP discharges for the purpose of searching for a density limit in MST. In standard-confinement discharges, pellet fuelling peaks the density profile where edge fuelling cannot, but transport appears unchanged. For a limited range of plasma current, MST discharges with edge fuelling are constrained to a maximum density corresponding to the Greenwald limit. This limit is surpassed in pellet-fuelled improved confinement discharges.

  1. Podophyllum peltatum possesses a beta-glucosidase with high substrate specificity for the aryltetralin lignan podophyllotoxin.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Franck E; Kuhajek, Jeanne M; Canel, Camilo; Watson, Susan B; Moraes, Rita M

    2003-03-21

    A beta-glucosidase with high specificity for podophyllotoxin-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside was purified from the leaves of Podophyllum peltatum. The 65-kDa polypeptide had optimum activity at pH 5.0 and was essentially inactive at pH 6.5 or above. Maximum catalytic activity of this glucosidase was obtained at 45 degrees C, but the enzyme was not heat stable. This beta-glucosidase displayed higher substrate specificity for podophyllotoxin-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside than for the other lignans tested, and for the (1-->3) linkage of laminaribiose than for other glucosidic linkages. PMID:12637023

  2. Production and Study of High-Beta Plasma Confined by a Superconducting Dipole Magnet

    E-print Network

    Production and Study of High-Beta Plasma Confined by a Superconducting Dipole Magnet Darren Garnier resonance !Magnetic reconstruction gives ~ 20% peak beta !When stable...dominant loss channels to support-!, (3) afterglow !Increasing gas pressure causes: (1) dramatic rise in density, (2) stabilization

  3. High efficiency targets for high gain inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-09-19

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at the short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, pellets using 1/4 micron laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150 to 200) may produce energy gains as high as 200 to 250.

  4. Advantages of High Tolerance Measurements in Fusion Environments Applying Photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dodson, R. Ellis, C. Priniski, S. Raftopoulos, D. Stevens, M. Viola

    2009-02-04

    Photogrammetry, a state-of-the-art technique of metrology employing digital photographs as the vehicle for measurement, has been investigated in the fusion environment. Benefits of this high tolerance methodology include relatively easy deployment for multiple point measurements and deformation/distortion studies. Depending on the equipment used, photogrammetric systems can reach tolerances of 25 microns (0.001 in) to 100 microns (0.004 in) on a 3-meter object. During the fabrication and assembly of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) the primary measurement systems deployed were CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and supporting algorithms such as both interferometer-aided (IFM) and absolute distance measurementbased (ADM) laser trackers, as well as portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms. Photogrammetry was employed at NCSX as a quick and easy tool to monitor coil distortions incurred during welding operations of the machine assembly process and as a way to reduce assembly downtime for metrology processes.

  5. Interaction of high-energy trapped particles with ballooning modes in a tokamak with a high-. beta. plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Novakovaskii, S. V.; Smolyakov, A. I.

    1988-12-01

    A theory is derived for the interaction of high-energy trapped particleswith ballooning modes in a tokamak with a high-..beta.. plasma. A dispersionrelation is derived to describe the ballooning modes in the presence ofsuch particles; the effects of the high plasma ..beta.. are taken into account.The stability boundary for ballooning modes with zero and finite frequenciesis studied. The effects of finite bananas on the stability of ballooningmodes with zero frequencies are determined.

  6. 1. INTRODUCTION High-energy fusion-product (fp) transport (e.g., alpha particle

    E-print Network

    Hively, Lee M.

    1 1. INTRODUCTION High-energy fusion-product (fp) transport (e.g., alpha particle transport in D-T plasmas) is a central issue in fusion reactor de- velopment. Important effects dependent on fp transport-induced instabilities [2J; the high-energy fp thermali- zation profile and subsequent "ash" build-up [3J; fp bombardment

  7. Comparison of Electron Capture and Beta Decay Rates in High Temperature Environment in Explosion of Supernova Type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Rulee

    2015-08-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Type II supernova result from the collapse of iron core of a massive star which , at least in some cases, produces a neutron star. At this stage, the neutrinos are produced by neutronization which speeds up as collapse continues. During collapse an outward bound shock wave forms in the matter falling onto the nearly stationary core which shows reflectivity of matter . The conditions behind the shock at 100 to 200 km are suitable for neutrino heating . This neutrino heating blows a hot bubble above the protoneutron star and is the most important source of energy for Supernova explosion . At this stage , we try to attain the r-process path responsible for the production of heavy elements beyond iron , which are otherwise not possible to be formed by fusion reactions . The most interesting evolution occurs as temperature falls from 1010 K to 109 K . At these high temperature conditions , the near critical fluids after fusion reactions are forbidden and transform into the respective atoms by r-process path which on beta decaying produce the ultimate elements of the periodic chart . Another astrophysical parameter needed for our analysis is neutron number density which we take to be greater than 1020 cm-3 . With these , at different entropy environments , we assign the neutron binding energy that represents the r-process path in the chart of nuclides . Along the path , the experimental data of observed elements matches our calculated one . It is found that the dynamical timescale of the final collapse is dominated by electron capture on nuclei and not on free protons. It is also found that the beta decay rates are much higher than the corresponding electron capture rates at the same classical condition.

  8. High-power pulsed lasers used in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Nd:glass laser target irradiation facilities constructed and operated for fusion research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These type of facilities, both at LLNL and elsewhere in the world, have resulted in an extremely useful tool for studying many of the plasma physics processes involved in inertial confinement fusion.

  9. High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Cherezov, Vadim; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Hanson, Michael A; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Choi, Hee-Jung; Kuhn, Peter; Weis, William I; Kobilka, Brian K; Stevens, Raymond C

    2007-11-23

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of eukaryotic signal transduction proteins that communicate across the membrane. We report the crystal structure of a human beta2-adrenergic receptor-T4 lysozyme fusion protein bound to the partial inverse agonist carazolol at 2.4 angstrom resolution. The structure provides a high-resolution view of a human G protein-coupled receptor bound to a diffusible ligand. Ligand-binding site accessibility is enabled by the second extracellular loop, which is held out of the binding cavity by a pair of closely spaced disulfide bridges and a short helical segment within the loop. Cholesterol, a necessary component for crystallization, mediates an intriguing parallel association of receptor molecules in the crystal lattice. Although the location of carazolol in the beta2-adrenergic receptor is very similar to that of retinal in rhodopsin, structural differences in the ligand-binding site and other regions highlight the challenges in using rhodopsin as a template model for this large receptor family. PMID:17962520

  10. Formation of high-{beta} plasma and stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in Ring Trap 1

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morikawa, J.; Furukawa, M.; Yano, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Vogel, G.; Mikami, H.

    2011-05-15

    Formation of high-{beta} electron cyclotron resonance heating plasma and stable confinement of pure electron plasma have been realized in the Ring Trap 1 device, a magnetospheric configuration generated by a levitated dipole field magnet. The effects of coil levitation resulted in drastic improvements of the confinement properties, and the maximum local {beta} value has exceeded 70%. Hot electrons are major component of electron populations, and its particle confinement time is 0.5 s. Plasma has a peaked density profile in strong field region [H. Saitoh et al., 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference EXC/9-4Rb (2010)]. In pure electron plasma experiment, inward particle diffusion is realized, and electrons are stably trapped for more than 300 s. When the plasma is in turbulent state during beam injection, plasma flow has a shear, which activates the diocotron (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instability. The canonical angular momentum of the particle is not conserved in this phase, realizing the radial diffusion of charged particles across closed magnetic surfaces. [Z. Yoshida et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 104, 235004 (2010); H. Saitoh et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 112111 (2010).].

  11. An efficient and highly selective deprotecting method for beta-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Yi; Lee, Adam Shih-Yuan

    2002-02-22

    A series of beta-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethyl ethers were hydrolyzed to their corresponding alcohols in high yields by using a catalytic amount of CBr4 (15%) in MeOH under refluxing reaction conditions. The chemoselective deprotection between trialkylsilyl and beta-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxymethyl-protected alcohols can be achieved by using an alcohol with steric hindrance such as iPrOH. The selectivity also can be achieved in the CBr4/MeOH reaction mixture under ultrasonic reaction conditions. PMID:11846692

  12. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Prost, L.R.; Sabbi, G.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Haber, I.

    2003-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high space-charge intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (>4 ms) in alternating gradient electrostatic and magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing--at driver-relevant scale--transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and beam steering, matching, image charges, halo, electron cloud effects, and longitudinal bunch control. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through the first ten electrostatic transport quadrupoles, measured with beam-imaging and phase-space diagnostics. The latest additions to the experiment include measurements of the secondary ion, electron and atom coefficients due to halo ions scraping the wall, and four magnetic quadrupoles to explore similar issues in magnetic channels.

  13. High expression of human beta S- and alpha-globins in transgenic mice: hemoglobin composition and hematological consequences.

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, M E; Nagel, R L; Pachnis, A; Suzuka, S M; Costantini, F

    1992-01-01

    A line of transgenic mice (alpha H beta S-11; where alpha H is human alpha-globin) was created in which the human beta S and human alpha 2 globin genes, each linked to the beta-globin locus control region, were cointegrated into the mouse genome. On a normal genetic background, the transgenic mice produced 36% human beta S-globin chains with an alpha H/beta S ratio of 1.3. Higher levels of beta S were achieved by breeding the transgenic mice with mutant mice carrying a mouse beta major-globin gene deletion. Mice heterozygous for the beta major deletion (alpha H beta S[beta MD]; MD, mouse deletion) had 54% beta S with an alpha H/beta S ratio of 1.0; mice homozygous for the beta major deletion (alpha H beta S[beta MDD]) had 72.5% beta S and an alpha H/beta S ratio of 0.73. Because mouse alpha chains inhibit hemoglobin (Hb) S polymerization, we bred the mice to heterozygosity for a mouse alpha-globin deletion. These mice (alpha H beta S[alpha MD beta MDD]) had an increased alpha H/beta S ratio of 0.89 but expressed 65% beta S. Expression of the human genes cured the thalassemic phenotype associated with the murine beta major deletion. Transgenic alpha H beta S[beta MDD] mice had normal hematocrit and Hb and somewhat elevated reticulocytes (6% vs. 3% for control), whereas the mice carrying the alpha-globin deletion (alpha H beta S[alpha MD beta MDD]) had a normal hematocrit and Hb and more elevated reticulocytes (10.3 +/- 7.6% vs. 3.4 +/- 1.0%). Expression of the transgene restored a normal distribution of erythrocyte densities when compared to thalassemic mice; however, the average mean corpuscular Hb concentration of alpha H beta S[beta MDD] mice increased to 35.7 g/dl (vs. control 33.7 g/dl) whereas that of alpha H beta S[alpha MD beta MDD] mice was further elevated to 36.3 g/dl. The intrinsic oxygen affinity was increased in transgenic mouse erythrocytes at 280 milliosmolal, and the PO2 at midsaturation of alpha H beta S[alpha MD beta MDD] erythrocytes was higher than that of alpha H beta S[beta MDD] cells (37.4 +/- 2 vs. 33.5 +/- 1 mmHg). The higher values of the mean corpuscular Hb concentration and intrinsic PO2 at midsaturation, which favor in vivo sickling, may explain the slightly more severe hematological picture in alpha H beta S[alpha MD beta MDD] mice. We conclude that the transgenic mouse with high Hb S expression does not exhibit adult anemia but does have abnormal hematological features: increased erythrocyte density, high oxygen affinity, and reticulocytosis with increased stress reticulocytes. Images PMID:1465454

  14. MICRO-HETEROGENEITY AND MICRO-RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH-VISCOSITY OAT BETA-GLUCAN SOLUTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble fiber beta-glucan is one of the key dietary materials in the healthy food products known for reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the physical properties of beta-glucan are rarely known. In this work, the micro-structural heterogeneity and micro-rheology of high-viscosity oat beta-g...

  15. Yellow maize with high beta-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bioconversion efficiency of yellow maize beta-carotene to retinol in humans is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the vitamin A value of yellow maize beta-carotene in humans. A high beta-carotene containing yellow maize was grown in a hydroponic medium with 23 atom% 2H2O...

  16. Yellow maize with high (beta)-carotene is an effective source of vitamin A in healthy Zimbabwean men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The bioconversion efficiency of yellow maize Beta-carotene to retinol in humans is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the vitamin A value of yellow maize Beta-carotene in humans. DESIGN: High Beta-carotene-containing yellow maize was grown in a hydroponic...

  17. MULTISENSOR DATA FUSION FOR HIGH QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING IN MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates ...

  18. An Overview of High-Gain Targets for Inertial Fusion Energy

    E-print Network

    An Overview of High-Gain Targets for Inertial Fusion Energy L. John Perkins Lawrence Livermore Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 The National Academies ­ Committee on Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy

  19. Fusion Engineering and Design 45 (1999) 145167 Exploring novel high power density concepts for attractive

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    1999-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 45 (1999) 145­167 Exploring novel high power density concepts for attractive fusion systems Mohamed A. Abdou *, The APEX Team Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Uni6ersity of California Los Angeles, 44-114 Engineering IV, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA Received 5

  20. JAFFA: High sensitivity transcriptome-focused fusion gene detection.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Nadia M; Majewski, Ian J; Oshlack, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and, as such, structural alterations and fusion genes are common events in the cancer landscape. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a powerful method for profiling cancers, but current methods for identifying fusion genes are optimised for short reads. JAFFA (https://github.com/Oshlack/JAFFA/wiki) is a sensitive fusion detection method that outperforms other methods with reads of 100 bp or greater. JAFFA compares a cancer transcriptome to the reference transcriptome, rather than the genome, where the cancer transcriptome is inferred using long reads directly or by de novo assembling short reads. PMID:26019724

  1. RF behavior of triple-frequency high power fusion gyrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Anil; Sinha, A. K.

    2014-05-01

    The RF behavior of high power, triple frequency (170-, 127.5-, and 85 GHz) gyrotron for fusion application is presented in this paper. The operating mode selection is discussed in detail for each corresponding frequencies and TE34,10, TE25,8 and TE17,5 modes are selected as the operating mode for 170 GHz, 127.5 GHz and 85 GHz operation of the device, respectively. The interaction cavity geometry and beam parameters are finalized by the cold cavity analysis and beam-wave interaction simulations. Considering the beam parameters and the beam launching positions in cavity (beam radius), the design of Magnetically Tunable MIG (MT-MIG) is also presented. Results of MT-MIG confirm the beam launching with desired beam parameters at the beam radius corresponding to the selected operating modes for all three frequencies. The CVD diamond window is also designed for RF power transmission. The beam-wave interaction simulations confirm more than 1 MW power at all three frequencies (170-, 127.5-, and 85 GHz).

  2. Neutralinos in Vector Boson Fusion at High Energy Colliders

    E-print Network

    Asher Berlin; Tongyan Lin; Matthew Low; Lian-Tao Wang

    2015-06-17

    Discovering dark matter at high energy colliders continues to be a compelling and well-motivated possibility. Weakly interacting massive particles are a particularly interesting class in which the dark matter particles interact with the standard model weak gauge bosons. Neutralinos are a prototypical example that arise in supersymmetric models. In the limit where all other superpartners are decoupled, it is known that for relic density motivated masses, the rates for neutralinos are too small to be discovered at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), but that they may be large enough for a 100 TeV collider to observe. In this work we perform a careful study in the vector boson fusion channel for pure winos and pure higgsinos. We find that given a systematic uncertainty of 1% (5%), with 3000 fb$^{-1}$, the LHC is sensitive to winos of 240 GeV (125 GeV) and higgsinos of 125 GeV (55 GeV). A future 100 TeV collider would be sensitive to winos of 1.1 TeV (750 GeV) and higgsinos of 530 GeV (180 GeV) with a 1% (5%) uncertainty, also with 3000 fb$^{-1}$.

  3. Evaluation of the amyloid beta-GFP fusion protein as a model of amyloid beta peptides-mediated aggregation: a study of DNAJB6 chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Rasha M.; Hashem, Reem M.; Rashed, Laila A.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of extracellular amyloid ? (A?) peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recent evidence indicates that accumulation and aggregation of intracellular amyloid ? peptides may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. This would suggest that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain cellular protein homeostasis might be candidates for disease amelioration. We recently found that DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of heat shock proteins, effectively prevented the aggregation of short aggregation-prone peptides containing large poly glutamines (associated with CAG repeat diseases) both in vitro and in cells. Moreover, recent in vitro data showed that DNAJB6 can delay the aggregation of A?42 peptides. In this study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of extracellular and intracellular A? peptides using transfection of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells with A?-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct and performing western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 indeed suppresses A?-GFP aggregation, but not seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular A? peptides. Unexpectedly and unlike what we found for peptide-mediated aggregation, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of the A?-GFP fusion protein and its J-domain was crucial for its anti-aggregation effect. In addition, other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPA1a overexpression also suppressed A?-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that A? aggregation differs from poly glutamine (Poly Q) peptide induced aggregation in terms of chaperone handling and sheds doubt on the usage of A?-GFP fusion construct for studying A? peptide aggregation in cells. PMID:26283911

  4. Anti-tumor angiogenesis effect of genetic fusion vaccine encoding murine beta-defensin 2 and tumor endothelial marker-8 in a CT-26 murine colorectal carcinoma model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Xie, Ganfeng; Geng, Peiliang; Zheng, Chenhong; Li, Jianjun; Pan, Feng; Ruan, Zhihua; Liang, Houjie

    2015-01-01

    Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is an endothelial-specific marker that is upregulated during tumor angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated that DNA-based vaccine encoding xenogeneic TEM8 can potentiate anti-angiogenesis immunotherapy of malignancy; nevertheless, it remains to be improved in minimizing immune tolerance. Recently, it has been reported that murine beta-defensin 2 (MBD2) is chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and plays a pivotal role in breaking immune tolerance. Herein, we constructed a genetic fusion vaccine encoding murine TEM8 and MBD2 to investigate whether the novel vaccine preferentially elicits therapeutic antitumor immune responses and suppresses cancerous angiogenesis in mouse models. The anti-angiogenesis effect was determined by microvessel density (MVD) using immunohistochemical staining. The efficacy of the fusion vaccine was primarily assessed by detecting cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity (51Cr-release assay). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay was used to detect TEM8-specific INF-? production, and the activity of CTL was further verified by a depletion of CD8+ T cells via anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody. Our results showed that the DNA fusion vaccine possessed an enhanced therapeutic antitumor immunity through anti-angiogenesis in BALB/c mice inoculated with CT26 cells, and this effect was generally attributed to stimulation of an antigen specific CD8+ T-cell response against mTEM8. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the fusion vaccine based on mTEM8 and MBD2 induced autoimmunity against endothelial cells, resulting in deceleration of tumor growth, and could be potential therapeutical application in clinic. PMID:26064415

  5. Synthesis of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides with high selectivity from alpha,beta-epoxyamides by using catalytic samarium diiodide or triiodide.

    PubMed

    Concellón, José M; Bernad, Pablo L; Bardales, Eva

    2004-05-17

    The highly stereoselective synthesis of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides starting from alpha,beta-epoxyamides, by using catalytic SmI2 or SmI3, was achieved. This transformation can also be carried out by using SmI2 generated in situ from samarium powder and diiodomethane. The starting compounds 1 are easily prepared by the reaction of enolates derived from alpha-chloroamides with ketones at -78 degrees C. A mechanism to explain this transformation has been proposed. Cyclopropanation of (E)-alpha-hydroxy-beta,gamma-unsaturated amides has been performed to demonstrate their synthetic applications. PMID:15146518

  6. Applications of high power millimeter waves in the DIII-D fusion program

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    First operation of a new generation of MW level, 110 GHz generator (gyrotron) on the DIII-D fusion experimental device has been achieved. The desire for high power, cw millimeter (mm) wave sources to support fusion research and development is just now beginning to be realized. Plasma heating and current drive with directed mm waves rely on the strong absorption achieved when the wave frequency matches the natural ``cyclotron`` frequency of electrons in a magnetic field, or its harmonics. Recent progress in fusion experiments highlights the need for control of the interior details of the hot plasma, and nun wave systems are ideally suited for this role. A brief status of fusion research is given, and the importance of mm waves in the future directions for fusion research is described. The vacuum transmission components necessary for transmitting, monitoring, and launching high power 1 10 GHz waves into a plasma have been developed at General Atomics (GA) and will be described. High power mm waves have a number of attractive technological features for fusion applications compared with other candidate plasma heating and current drive technologies. Millimeter waves can be transmitted with high power density over large distances with low losses by utilizing corrugated waveguides, so the generators can be sited remotely, facilitating maintenance and saving valuable space near the fusion device.

  7. The NEXT experiment: A high pressure xenon gas TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    E-print Network

    D. Lorca; J. Martín-Albo; F. Monrabal; for the NEXT Collaboration

    2012-10-15

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a hypothetical, very slow nuclear transition in which two neutrons undergo beta decay simultaneously and without the emission of neutrinos. The importance of this process goes beyond its intrinsic interest: an unambiguous observation would establish a Majorana nature for the neutrino and prove the violation of lepton number. NEXT is a new experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay using a radiopure high-pressure xenon gas TPC, filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in Xe-136. NEXT will be the first large high-pressure gas TPC to use electroluminescence readout with SOFT (Separated, Optimized FuncTions) technology. The design consists in asymmetric TPC, with photomultipliers behind a transparent cathode and position-sensitive light pixels behind the anode. The experiment is approved to start data taking at the Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc (LSC), Spain, in 2014.

  8. High-precision measurement of polarized-. sigma. /sup -/ beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hsueh, S.Y.; Mueller, D.; Tang, J.; Winston, R.; Zapalac, G.; Swallow, E.C.; Berge, J.P.; Brenner, A.E.; Cooper, P.S.; Grafstroem, P.; and others

    1988-10-01

    We report the results of a polarized-..sigma../sup -/ beta-decay experiment carried out in the Fermilab Proton Center charged-hyperon beam. These results are based on 49 671 observed ..sigma../sup -/..-->..ne/sup -/nu-bar decays. The ..sigma../sup -/ beam had a nominal momentum of 250 GeV/c and was produced by 400-GeV/c protons im- pinging on a Cu target. At a production angle of 2.5 mrad, the polarization was (23.6 +- 4.3)%. The decay asymmetries of the electron (..cap alpha../sub e/ = -0.519 +- 0.104), neutron (..cap alpha../sub n/ = +0.509 +- 0.102), and antineutrino (..cap alpha../sub ..nu../ = -0.230 +- 0.061) were measured and used to establish sign and approximate magnitude of the axial-vector-to-vector form-factor ratio g/sub 1//f/sub 1/. The form-factor ratios chemically bondg/sub 1//f/sub 1/chemically bond and f/sub 2//f/sub 1/ were determined most sensitively from the neutron and electron center-of-mass spectra, respectively. We obtain chemically bondg/sub 1//f/sub 1/-0.237g/sub 2//f/sub 1/chemically bond = 0.327 +- 0.007 +- 0.019 and f/sub 2/(0)/f/sub 1/(0) = -0.96 +- 0.97 +- 0.13, where the stated errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. A general fit that includes the asymmetries and makes the conventional assumption g/sub 2/ = 0 gives the final value g/sub 1/(0)/f/sub 1/(0) = -0.328 +- 0.019. The data are also compatible with positive values for g/sub 2//f/sub 1/ combined with corresponding reduced values for chemically bondg/sub 1//f/sub 1/chemically bond. .AE

  9. In vivo formation of gene fusions encoding hybrid beta-galactosidase proteins in one step with a transposable Mu-lac transducing phage.

    PubMed Central

    Casadaban, M J; Chou, J

    1984-01-01

    A Mu-lac bacteriophage transposon, MudII301 (Ap, lac), was constructed to form hybrid protein gene fusions. When it integrates into structural genes in the appropriate direction and reading phase, transcription and translation from outside gene controlling regions can proceed across 116 nucleotides from the right end of Mu into lacZ codons to form hybrid proteins that are enzymatically active for beta-galactosidase. Integration can be obtained either by infection to form lysogens or by transposition during growth of a lysogen. The size of the hybrid protein product either corresponds to or, in the cases of translation restart or protein degradation, is a minimal estimate of the distance of the Mu insertion from the translation initiation site of the gene. Hybrid proteins formed by insertions in randomly selected genes and in the araB and A genes were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Images PMID:6320194

  10. Gelling properties of heat-denatured beta-lactoglobulin aggregates in a high-salt buffer.

    PubMed

    Vittayanont, Manee; Steffe, James F; Flegler, Stanley L; Smith, Denise M

    2002-05-01

    Thermal denaturation, rheological, and microstructural properties of gels prepared from native beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) and preheated or heat-denatured beta-LG (HDLG) aggregates were compared. The HDLG was prepared by heating solutions of 4% beta-LG in deionized water, pH 7.0, at 80 degrees C for 30 min and then diluted to the desired concentration in 0.6 M NaCl and 0.05 M phosphate buffer at pH 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0. When reheated to 71 degrees C, HDLG formed a gel at a concentration of 2% protein. At pH 7.0, 3% HDLG gelled at 52.5 degrees C and had a storage modulus (G') of 2200 Pa after cooling. beta-LG (3%) in 0.6 M NaCl and 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, did not gel when heated to 71 degrees C. The gel point of 3% HDLG decreased by 10.5 degrees C and the G' did not change when the pH was decreased to 6.0. The HDLG gel microstructure was composed of strands and clumps of small globular aggregates in contrast to beta-LG gels, which contained a particulate network of compacted globules. The HDLG formed a gel at a lower concentration and lower temperature than beta-LG in the high-salt buffer, suggesting an application in meat systems or other food products prepared with salt and processed at temperatures of < or =71 degrees C. PMID:11982430

  11. Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign

    E-print Network

    experiments necessary to provide advanced assessment capabilities for stockpile stewardship · Support Science scientific talent to the Stockpile Stewardship Program · Support university programs and use of NIF, Omega, Z will depend on what approach works best · Application of fusion for Stewardship will continue to evolve well

  12. TOWARDS POSITIONAL CLONING OF THE HIGH BETA-CAROTENE OR (ORANGE) ALLELE OF CAULIFLOWER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) Or allele confers the accumulation of high levels of beta-carotene in various tissues that normally are devoid of carotenoids. Early work revealed that the Or gene appeared not to exert its effect via direct up-regulation of genes that encode enz...

  13. Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly

    E-print Network

    Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly Circular Plasma Boundary H. Qin A. Reiman September 25, 1996 Abstract An analytic solution is obtained for free. In the absence of surface currents at the plasma­vacuum in­ terface, the free­boundary equilibrium solution

  14. Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly

    E-print Network

    Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly Circular Plasma Boundary H. Qin A. Reiman September 25, 1996 Abstract An analytic solution is obtained for free. In the absence of surface currents at the plasma-vacuum in- terface, the free-boundary equilibrium solution

  15. PODOPHYLLUM PELTATUM POSSESSES A BETA-GLUCOSIDASE WITH HIGH SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY FOR THE ARYLTETRALIN LIGNAN PODOPHYLLOTOXIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A beta-glucosidase with high specificity for podophyllotoxin-4-O-b-d-glucopyranoside was purified from the leaves of Podophyllum peltatum. The 65 kD polypeptide had optimum activity at pH 5.0 and was essentially inactive at physiological pH (6.5 or above). The maximum catalytic activity of this glu...

  16. High statistics measurement of 187 Re beta spectrum for direct neutrino mass determination

    E-print Network

    . The total mass and measuring time are about 2.3 mg and 10600hours#2;detector respectively, giving a total#12;ca e Tecnologica IRST, Povo (TN), Italy We report on the status of the Milano calori- metric experiment to measure the neutrino mass from the study of the 187 Re beta decay end- point. A #12;rst high

  17. Stable High Beta Plasmas Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field D. T. Garnier,

    E-print Network

    Mauel, Michael E.

    with the magnetic drifts of fast electrons and causes rapid radial transport. Higher gas fueling stabilizesStable High Beta Plasmas Confined by a Dipole Magnetic Field D. T. Garnier, A. Hansen, M. E. Mauel and confined by the magnetic field of a superconducting coil that is suspended within a large vacuum chamber

  18. Optimal use of beta-blockers in high-risk hypertension: a guide to dosing equivalence.

    PubMed

    McGill, Janet B

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is the number one diagnosis made by primary care physicians, placing them in a unique position to prescribe the antihypertensive agent best suited to the individual patient. In individuals with diabetes mellitus, blood pressure (BP) levels>130/80 mmHg confer an even higher risk for cardiovascular and renal disease, and these patients will benefit from aggressive antihypertensive treatment using a combination of agents. beta-blockers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of hypertension in high-risk patients. beta-blockers are a heterogeneous class of agents, and this review presents the differences between beta-blockers and provides evidence-based protocols to assist in understanding dose equivalence in the selection of an optimal regimen in patients with complex needs. The clinical benefits provided by beta-blockers are only effective if patients adhere to medication treatment long term. beta-blockers with proven efficacy, once-daily dosing, and lower side effect profiles may become instrumental in the treatment of hypertensive diabetic and nondiabetic patients. PMID:20539838

  19. MHD instabilities and their control in high-beta plasmas in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    In, Yongkyoon

    2013-02-06

    We established 3 specific tasks as follows: Task 1 - Investigate the MHD activity during the current ramp-up phase with shaped plasmas; Task 2 - Develop a theoretical model that may show the hollowness dependent instability; Task 3 - Explore the beta-limiting instabilities. To address each task, FAR-TECH actively participated in the 2012 KSTAR run-campaign, which helped us make productive progress. Specifically, the shaping dependence of MHD activity during current ramp-up phase was investigated using dedicated run-time in KSTAR (October 4 and 9, 2012), which was also attempted to address the hollowness of temperature (or pressure) profiles. Also, a performance-limiting disruption, which occurred in a relatively high intermediate beta plasma (shot 7110) in KSTAR ({beta}{sub N} ~ 1.7), was studied, and the preliminary analysis shows that the disruption might not be stability-limited but likely density-limited.

  20. Human. beta. -actin expression vector system directs high-level accumulation of antisense transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, P.; Leavitt, J.; Muscat, G.; Ng, S.Y.; Kedes, L.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have constructed a mammalian expression vector consisting of 3 kilobases of the human ..beta..-actin gene 5' flanking sequence plus 5' untranslated region and intervening sequence 1 linked at the 3' splice site to a short DNA polylinker sequence containing unique Sal I, HindIII, and BamHI restriction endonuclease sites followed by a simian virus 40 (SV40) polyadenylylation signal. Two derivatives, containing the selection markers obtained from pSV2gpt or pSV2neo, were also generated. They find that the promoter activity of this vector is as great or greater than that of the SV40 early promoter in a variety of human and rodent cells. The vector was used to generate ..gamma..-actin and ..beta..-tubulin antisense transcripts in human fibroblast cell lines. The antisense transcripts accumulate to levels comparable with that of the highly abundant ..gamma..-actin and ..beta..-tubulin mRNAs.

  1. High Temperature coatings based on {beta}-NiAI

    SciTech Connect

    Severs, Kevin

    2012-07-10

    High temperature alloys are reviewed, focusing on current superalloys and their coatings. The synthesis, characerization, and oxidation performance of a NiAl–TiB{sub 2} composite are explained. A novel coating process for Mo–Ni–Al alloys for improved oxidation performance is examined. The cyclic oxidation performance of coated and uncoated Mo–Ni–Al alloys is discussed.

  2. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  3. Genotyping of beta thalassemia trait by high-resolution DNA melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Saetung, Rattika; Ongchai, Siriwan; Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2013-11-01

    Beta thalassemia is a common hereditary hemalogogical disease in Thailand, with a prevalence of 5-8%. In this study, we evaluated the high resolution DNA melting (HRM) assay to identify beta thalassemia mutation in samples from 143 carriers of the beta thalassemia traits in at risk couples. The DNA was isolated from venous blood samples and tested for mutation under a series of 5 PCR-HRM (A, B, C, D and E primers) protocols. The A primers were for detection of beta thalassemia mutations in the HBB promoter region, the B primers for mutations in exon I, the C primers for exon II, the D primers for exon III and the E primers for the 3.4 kb deletion mutation. The mutations were diagnosed by comparing the complete melting curve profiles of a wild type control with those for each mutant sample. With the PCR-HRM technique, fourteen types of beta thalassemia mutations were detected. Each mutation had a unique and specific melting profile. The mutations included 36.4% (52 cases) codon 41/42-CTTT, 26.6% (38 cases) codon 17 A-T, 11.2% (16 cases) IVS1-1 G-T, 8.4% (12 cases) codon 71/72 +A, 8.4% (12 cases) of the 3.4 kb deletion and 3.5% (5 cases) -28 A-G. The remainder included one instance each of -87 C-A, -31 A-C, codon 27/28 +C, codon 30 G-A, IVS1-5 G-C, codon 35 C-A, codon 41-C and IVSII -654 C-T. Of the total cases, 85.8% of the mutations could be detected by primers B and C. The PCR-HRM method provides a rapid, simple and highly feasible strategy for mutation screening of beta thalassemia traits. PMID:24450243

  4. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Recent advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density

    E-print Network

    9/15/06 The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 1 Recent advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion* *This work was performed under the auspices of the U. Presented by Ronald C. Davidson on behalf of the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

  5. High frequency of the SDK1:AMACR fusion transcript in Chinese prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Mao, Xue-Ying; Liu, Xiaoyan; Song, Rong-Rong; Berney, Daniel; Lu, Yong-Jie; Ren, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements and fusion genes play important roles in tumor development and progression. Four high-frequency prostate cancer (CaP) specific fusion genes, SDK1:AMACR, RAD50:PDLIM4, CTAGE5:KHDRBS3 and USP9Y:TTTY15 have been reported in Chinese CaP samples through a transcriptome sequencing study. We previously reported that USP9Y:TTTY15 is a transcription-mediated chimeric RNA, which is expressed in both tumor and non-malignant samples, and here we attempted to confirm the existence of the other three fusion genes SDK1:AMACR, RAD50:PDLIM and CTAGE5:KHDRBS3. We detected SDK1:AMACR fusion transcript in 23 of 100 Chinese CaP samples, but did not detect RAD50:PDLIM4 and CTAGE5:KHDRBS3 transcripts in any of those samples. SDK1:AMACR fusion transcript is Chinese CaP specific, which was neither detected in non-malignant prostate tissues adjacent to cancer from Chinese patient nor in CaP samples from UK patients. However, we did not detect genomic rearrangement of SDK1 gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, indicating that SDK1:AMACR is also a transcription-mediated chimeric RNA. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that high level AMACR expression was associated with SDK1:AMACR fusion status (P=0.004), suggesting that SDK1:AMACR fusion transcript may promote prostate carcinogenesis through increasing AMACR expression. However, the fusion status was not significantly correlated with any poor disease progression clinical features. The identification of the SDK1:AMACR fusion transcript in CaP cases from China but not from UK further supports our previous observation that different genetic alterations contribute to CaP in China and Western countries, although many genetic changes are also shared. Further studies are required to establish if CaPs with SDK1:AMACR represent a distinct subtype. PMID:26628996

  6. Systematic investigation into the role of intermittent high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chen; Gu, Jianqiu; Meng, Xin; Zheng, Hongzhi; Wang, Difei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Glucose fluctuation is suggested to be the leading cause of beta-cell damages. To determine how it induces beta-cell dysfunction, we systematically evaluated the effects of intermittent high glucose (IHG) in INS-1 rat pancreatic beta-cells on their proliferation activity, apoptosis, insulin secretion, reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), and the PTEN expression as well as AKT phosphorylation. Methods: Prior to the examinations, INS-1 cells were treated with normal glucose (NG, 11.1 mmol/L), sustained high glucose (SHG, 33 mmol/L), IHG (switching per 12 h in 11.1 mmol/l or 33 mmol/L), NG+?-lipoic acid (LA, pretreated with LA 12 h before exposure to NG), SHG+LA (pretreated with LA 12 h before being exposed to 33.3 mmol/L glucose) and IHG+LA (pretreated with LA 12 h before being cultured with IHG). The cells in each group were cultured with indicated concentrations of glucose for 3 days. The evaluations were carried out on the cell viability, apoptosis rate, insulin secretion, [Ca2+]i, ROS and the expressions of PTEN and p-AKT. Results: The current study determined that IHG induces more apoptosis and significant increases of [Ca2+]i and intracellular ROS levels, compared to SHG and NG treatments to INS-1 cells. Moreover, IHG leads to more than 20% decrease on cell viability and over 50% reduction on insulin secretion (from 5.48±0.79 mIU/L to 2.51±0.58 mIU/L). The negative regulation of IHG on insulin signaling in beta-cells is identified via western blot analysis with results of the elevated expression of PTEN and lowered phosphorylation levels of AKT post IHG treatment. While the pretreatment of the antioxidant LA can significantly suppress the above responses induced by high glucose treatment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that IHG plays a detrimental role in the viability, expansion, and function of beta-cells. IHG could be more harmful to the INS-1 cells than the SHG treatment. The rate increase of apoptosis in beta-cells could be caused by the suppressed insulin signaling, which is resulted from the raised ROS level by abnormal glucose treatments. Undergoing oxidative stress induced by high glucose treatments, including SHG and IHG, might be an important player in mediating the injury process to beta-cells, concluded from the beneficial rescue by the antioxidant LA treatment. PMID:26131124

  7. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

    2012-04-30

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

  8. Observations of the earth's bow shock under high Mach number/high plasma beta solar wind conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalter, Daniel; Kivelson, Margaret G.

    1988-01-01

    Using 221 observations of the earth's bow shock by ISEE-1, the magnetic field characteristics of the shock are investigated as a function of Mach number and plasma beta. It is found that immediately behind the overshoot of the shock large amplitude waves develop preferentially with increasing Alfven Mach number and/or plasma beta. Their probability of occurrence is very high in the parallel regime, and declines to near zero probability when theta(BN) reaches 75 deg. It is estimated that approximately 10 percent of the total solar wind energy density is dissipated by these waves.

  9. Accuracy-Optimized Quantization for High-Dimensional Data Fusion Slobodan Vucetic

    E-print Network

    Vucetic, Slobodan

    Accuracy-Optimized Quantization for High-Dimensional Data Fusion Slobodan Vucetic Center for IST, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA Email: vucetic@ist.temple.edu Decentralized estimation efficient and robust algorithm was developed for high- dimensional and high-rate decentralized estimation

  10. Demountable, High field High-Temperature Superconductor TF coils for flexible steady-state fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Phillip; Bromberg, Leslie; Vieira, Rui; Minervini, Joseph; Galea, Christopher; Hensley, Sarah; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The excellent properties of HTS materials (e.g., YBCO) at high fields and elevated temperatures (>20 K), offer operational advantages for fusion machines, but results in challenges. For fusion devices, the ability to disassemble the TF coil is very attractive as it provides direct access to maintain the vacuum vessel, first wall and other components in a timely manner. High current conductors, made from multiple thin tapes, are not available but are being developed. Quench protection is a serious issue with HTS magnets, and novel means are needed to detect normal zones and to quickly discharge the magnet. Potential cables designs, demountable magnets and solutions to quench and protection issues for an HTS TF magnet for the Vulcan device (long term PMI studies) will be described. We also describe means for making continuous, persistent loops with HTS tapes. These loops offer an alternative to expensive monoliths for field control for complex geometries, such as stellarator-like fields. Partially supported by US DOE DE-FC02-93ER54186.

  11. High-level, beta-catenin/TCF-dependent transgene expression in secondary colorectal cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Lipinski, K S; Djeha, A H; Ismail, T; Mountain, A; Young, L S; Wrighton, C J

    2001-10-01

    There is an urgent need for improved therapies for inoperable metastatic colon cancer. Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) using adenovirus vectors works well in preclinical models of this disease, but successful clinical application is hampered by an inability to construct vectors that express at high levels in infected tumor cells but not in infected normal cells. Constitutive activation of beta-catenin-dependent gene expression is almost certainly a key causative event in the genesis of colon and some other cancers. Here we have exploited this oncogenic defect to design a synthetic promoter, CTP1, that, in contrast to currently available tumor-selective promoters, is both highly active in cancer cells and highly cancer-cell-specific. CTP1 directs high-level beta-galactosidase expression in freshly isolated biopsies of secondary colon cancer, but is not detectably active in associated normal liver tissue. We also demonstrate that CTP1 can direct high-level, tumor-specific therapeutic gene expression in vivo. Intratumoral injection of an adenovirus vector encoding Escherichia coli nitroreductase driven by CTP1 efficiently sensitized SW480 xenografts to the prodrug CB1954, whereas systemic vector and prodrug administration produced no apparent signs of toxicity. CTP1 may form the basis for effective, targeted gene therapy of metastatic colon cancer and other tumors with deregulated beta-catenin/T cell factor. PMID:11592840

  12. Role of high l values in the onset of incomplete fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. A.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2009-12-15

    A particle-{gamma}-coincidence experiment is performed to investigate the role of high l values in the production of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) in {sup 12}C+{sup 169}Tm system. Spin distributions of various xn/pxn/{alpha}xn/2{alpha}xn channels are measured at E{sub lab}=5.6A and 6.5A MeV. Entirely different de-excitation patterns are observed in direct-{alpha}-emitting channels and fusion-evaporation channels. The fusion-evaporation channels are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While narrow range feeding for only high-spin states was observed in the case of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels, in the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high-spin states in final reaction products. To have better insight into the associated l values in different reaction channels, the present data are compared with similar data obtained in {sup 16}O(E{sub lab}{approx_equal}5.6A MeV) + {sup 169}Tm system. The mean driving angular momenta involved in the production of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of fusion-evaporation channels. Direct-{alpha} multiplicity in the forward cone increases with driving angular momenta, which indicates the origin of direct-{alpha}-emitting channels at high l values in noncentral interactions.

  13. MICRO-HETEROGENEITY AND MICRO-RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH-VISCOSITY OAT BETA-GLUCAN SOLUTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble fiber beta-glucan is one of the key dietary materials in healthy food products known for reducing serum cholesterol levels. The micro-structural heterogeneity and micro-rheology of high-viscosity oat beta-glucan solutions were investigated by monitoring the thermally driven displacements of...

  14. Electron Acceleration at a High Beta and Low Mach Number Rippled Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukiyo, S.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Electron acceleration in a high plasma beta and low Mach number quasiperpendicular shock is investigated by using two-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation. Although efficient shock drift acceleration followed by reflection was observed in the previous one-dimensional simulation, no reflected electrons are found due to the effect of shock surface rippling for the particular parameters examined here. Structure of the shock transition region is complex in spite of the high beta and low Mach number situation. In addition to the ion scale fluctuations including the ripple, electron scale fluctuations are also recognized. Among these, downstream fluctuations are dominated by Alfvén ion cyclotron instability, the fluctuations in the foot are due to modified two-stream instability. Electron distribution function in the transition region indicates non-thermal nature. The energy gained by the non-thermal electrons is not explained merely by the shock drift acceleration, implying the importance of local wave- particle interactions.

  15. High beta, Long Pulse, Bootstrap Sustained Scenarios on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    D.A. Gates, for the NSTX National Research Team

    2003-02-26

    Long-pulse, high-beta scenarios have been established on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Beta(sub)t(always equal to 2{mu}(sub)0{center_dot}

    /B{sup 2}(sub)t0) {approx} 35% has been achieved during transient discharges. The machine improvements that lead to these results, including error field reduction and high-temperature bakeout of plasma-facing components are described. The highest Beta(sub)t plasmas have high triangularity (delta = 0.8) and elongation (k = 2.0) at low-aspect ratio A always equal to R/a = 1.4. The strong shaping permits large values of normalized current, I(sub)N(always equal to I(sub)p /(aB(sub)t0)) approximately equal to 6 while maintaining moderate values of q(sub)95 = 4. Long-pulse discharges up to 1 sec in duration have been achieved with substantial bootstrap current. The total noninductive current drive can be as high as 60%, comprised of 50% bootstrap current and {approx}10% neutral-beam current drive. The confinement enhancement factor H89P is in excess of 2.7. Beta(sub)N * H(sub)89P approximately or greater than 15 has been maintained for 8 * tau(sub)E {approx} 1.6 * tau(sub)CR, where tau(sub)CR is the relaxation time of the first radial moment of the toroidal current density. The ion temperature for these plasmas is significantly higher than that predicted by neoclassical theory.

  16. Collisionless shock waves in space - A very high beta structure. [solar wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formisano, V.; Russell, C. T.; Means, J. D.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Scarf, F. L.; Neugebauter, M.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements from six OGO-5 particle and field experiments are used to examine the structure of the earth's bow shock during a period of extremely high beta (the ratio of plasma thermal to magnetic energy density), as determined from simultaneous measurements of the upstream plasma on board the HEOS satellite. Even though the interplanetary field is nearly perpendicular to the shock normal, the shock is extremely turbulent. Large field increases are observed up to a factor of 20 above the upstream values. Ahead of these large enhancements, smaller magnetic effects accompanied by electrostatic noise, electron heating, and ion deflection are observed for several minutes. These observations suggest that a steady-state shock may not be able to form at very high beta. Further, they show that while the magnetic energy density may be relatively unimportant in the upstream flow, it can become very significant within the shock structure, and hence the magnetic field should not be ignored in theoretical treatments of very high beta shocks.

  17. In-situ observation of the alpha/beta cristobalite transition using high voltage electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Meike, A.; Glassley, W.

    1989-10-01

    A high temperature water vapor phase is expected to persist in the vicinity of high level radioactive waste packages for several hundreds of years. The authors have begun an investigation of the structural and chemical effects of water on cristobalite because of its abundance in the near field environment. A high voltage transmission electron microscope (HVEM) investigation of bulk synthesized {alpha}-cristobalite to be used in single phase dissolution and precipitation kinetics experiments revealed the presence {beta}-cristobalite, quartz and amorphous silica, in addition to {alpha}-cristobalite. Consequently, this apparent metastable persistence of {beta}-cristobalite and amorphous silica during the synthesis of {alpha}-cristobalite was investigated using a heating stage and an environmental cell installed in the HVEM that allowed the introduction of either dry CO{sub 2} or a CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O vapor. Preliminary electron diffraction evidence suggests that the presence of water vapor affected the {alpha}-{beta} transition temperature. Water vapor may also be responsible for the development of an amorphous silica phase at the transition that may persist over an interval of several tens of degrees. The amorphous phase was not documented during the dry heating experiments. 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Oat beta-glucan ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Shen, Nanhui; Wang, Shuanghui; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Methods This study sought to evaluate the impact of oat beta-glucan on insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet with fructose (10%, w/v) added in drinking water for 10 weeks. Results The results showed that supplementation with oat beta-glucan could significantly reduce the insulin resistance both in low-dose (200 mg/kg?1 body weight) and high-dose (500 mg/kg?1 body weight) groups, but the high-dose group showed a more significant improvement in insulin resistance (P<0.01) compared with model control (MC) group along with significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level, oral glucose, and insulin tolerance. Moreover, hepatic glucokinase activity was markedly enhanced both in low-dose and high-dose groups compared with that of MC group (P<0.05). Conclusion These results suggested that supplementation of oat beta-glucan alleviated insulin resistance and the effect was dose dependent. PMID:24371433

  19. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed.

  20. Common Fusion Transcripts Identified in Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines by High-Throughput RNA Sequencing12

    PubMed Central

    Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard OS; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%–28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

  1. Common fusion transcripts identified in colorectal cancer cell lines by high-throughput RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nome, Torfinn; Thomassen, Gard Os; Bruun, Jarle; Ahlquist, Terje; Bakken, Anne C; Hoff, Andreas M; Rognum, Torleiv; Nesbakken, Arild; Lorenz, Susanne; Sun, Jinchang; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Lind, Guro E; Myklebost, Ola; Teixeira, Manuel R; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Skotheim, Rolf I

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer disease in the Western world, and about 40% of the patients die from this disease. The cancer cells are commonly genetically unstable, but only a few low-frequency recurrent fusion genes have so far been reported for this disease. In this study, we present a thorough search for novel fusion transcripts in CRC using high-throughput RNA sequencing. From altogether 220 million paired-end sequence reads from seven CRC cell lines, we identified 3391 candidate fused transcripts. By stringent requirements, we nominated 11 candidate fusion transcripts for further experimental validation, of which 10 were positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. Six were intrachromosomal fusion transcripts, and interestingly, three of these, AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2, were present in, respectively, 18, 18, and 20 of 21 analyzed cell lines and in, respectively, 18, 61, and 48 (17%-58%) of 106 primary cancer tissues. These three fusion transcripts were also detected in 2 to 4 of 14 normal colonic mucosa samples (14%-28%). Whole-genome sequencing identified a specific genomic breakpoint in COMMD10-AP3S1 and further indicates that both the COMMD10-AP3S1 and AKAP13-PDE8A fusion transcripts are due to genomic duplications in specific cell lines. In conclusion, we have identified AKAP13-PDE8A, COMMD10-AP3S1, and CTB-35F21.1-PSD2 as novel intrachromosomal fusion transcripts and the most highly recurring chimeric transcripts described for CRC to date. The functional and clinical relevance of these chimeric RNA molecules remains to be elucidated. PMID:24151535

  2. KSTAR Equilibrium Operating Space and Projected Stabilization at High Normalized Beta

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J.W.; Bialek, J.; Jeon, Y. M.; Hahn, S. H.; Eidietis, N. W.; Evans, T. E.; Yoon, S. W.; Ahn, Joonwook; Kim, J.; Yang, H. L.; You, K. I.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Bae, Y. S.; Chung, J. I.; Kwon, M.; Oh, Y. K.; Kim, W. C.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, S. G.; Park, H.; Reimerdes, H.; Leuer, J. A.; Walker, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Along with an expanded evaluation of the equilibrium operating space of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research, KSTAR, experimental equilibria of the most recent plasma discharges were reconstructed using the EFIT code. In near-circular plasmas created in 2009, equilibria reached a stored energy of 54 kJ with a maximum plasma current of 0.34 MA. Highly shaped plasmas with near double-null configuration in 2010 achieved H-mode with clear edge localized mode (ELM) activity, and transiently reached a stored energy of up to 257 kJ, elongation of 1.96 and normalized beta of 1.3. The plasma current reached 0.7 MA. Projecting active and passive stabilization of global MHD instabilities for operation above the ideal no-wall beta limit using the designed control hardware was also considered. Kinetic modification of the ideal MHD n = 1 stability criterion was computed by the MISK code on KSTAR theoretical equilibria with a plasma current of 2 MA, internal inductance of 0.7 and normalized beta of 4.0 with simple density, temperature and rotation profiles. The steep edge pressure gradient of this equilibrium resulted in the need for significant plasma toroidal rotation to allow thermal particle kinetic resonances to stabilize the resistive wall mode (RWM). The impact of various materials and electrical connections of the passive stabilizing plates on RWM growth rates was analysed, and copper plates reduced the RWM passive growth rate by a factor of 15 compared with stainless steel plates at a normalized beta of 4.4. Computations of active RWM control using the VALEN code showed that the n = 1 mode can be stabilized at normalized beta near the ideal wall limit via control fields produced by the midplane in-vessel control coils (IVCCs) with as low as 0.83kW control power using ideal control system assumptions. The ELM mitigation potential of the IVCC, examined by evaluating the vacuum island overlap created by resonant magnetic perturbations, was analysed using the TRIP3D code. Using a combination of all IVCCs with dominant n = 2 field and upper/lower coils in an even parity configuration, a Chirikov parameter near unity at normalized poloidal flux 0.83, an empirically determined condition for ELM mitigation in DIII-D, was generated in theoretical high-beta equilibria. Chirikov profile optimization was addressed in terms of coil parity and safety factor profile.

  3. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H.

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  4. RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    STRAIT,EJ; BIALEK,J; BOGATU,N; CHANCE,M; CHU,MS; EDGELL,D; GAROFALO,AM; JACKSON,GL; JENSEN,TH; JOHNSON,LC; KIM,JS; LAHAYE,RJ; NAVRATIL,G; OKABAYASHI,M; REIMERDES,H; SCOVILLE,JT; TURNBULL,AD; WALKER,ML

    2002-09-01

    OAK A271 RESISTIVE WALL STABILIZATION OF HIGH BETA PLASMAS IN DIII-D. Recent DIII-D experiments show that ideal kink modes can be stabilized at high beta by a resistive wall, with sufficient plasma rotation. However, the resonant response by a marginally stable resistive wall mode to static magnetic field asymmetries can lead to strong damping of the rotation. Careful reduction of such asymmetries has allowed plasmas with beta well above the ideal MHD no-wall limit, and approaching the ideal-wall limit, to be sustained for durations exceeding one second. Feedback control can improve plasma stability by direct stabilization of the resistive wall mode or by reducing magnetic field asymmetry. Assisted by plasma rotation, direct feedback control of resistive wall modes with growth rates more than 5 times faster than the characteristic wall time has been observed. These results open a new regime of tokamak operation above the free-boundary stability limit, accessible by a combination of plasma rotation and feedback control.

  5. Experimental Equilibrium and Stability Studies of a Linear High-Beta L = 1 Stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Eric Robert

    A high-beta linear l = 1 stellarator plasma is produced in a low-compression 3-m theta pinch (the High Beta Q Machine) whose compression coils are modified to have a helical offset of 2 cm, and an axial helical period of 40 cm. Detailed internal magnetic probe measurements, in conjunction with axial interferometry and excluded flux measurements, were used to measure the spatial structure and temporal behavior of field profiles, plasma pressure, current, and magnetic axis location, which correspond to the predictions of ideal MHD theory. It is found that the higher temperature, lower density quasiequilibria are perturbed by a stable m = 1, k (DBLTURN) 0 oscillatory mode for which magnetic probe measurements allow characterization of the internal mode structure. This is compared with a plasma-fluid model which includes finite ion-Larmor-radius effects. Cooler, higher density plasmas, having near-sharp -boundary profiles are also produced and are observed to be exponentially unstable (growth time of approximately 0.5 (mu)sec) to an m = 1, k (DBLTURN) 0 mode. The stability behavior of these two types of plasmas is understood from the theory with finite Larmor radius effects. The higher temperature diffuse profiles provide stabilization. At the lower temperatures, the profiles are near-sharp-boundary with (beta) (DBLTURN) 1, and the mode becomes MHD unstable.

  6. 3-D simulations of limiter stabilization of high-beta external kink-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.; Ohyabu, N.

    1984-03-01

    The effects of finite-size poloidal limiters, toroidal limiters, and general mushroom limiters are examined for high-beta finite-resistivity tokamak plamas in free boundary. Even for a linear stability analysis, a 3-D simulation is necessary, in which many poloidal and toroidal modes are coupled because of the limiter constraint and finite-beta. When the plasma pressure and resistivity are small, a poloidal limiter is effective in reducing the growth rate with a small limiter-size, while a toroidal limiter requires a large size for a comparable effect. As the plasma pressure or resistivity increases, a toroidal limiter becomes more effective in reducing the growth rate than a poloidal limiter of the same size. A small optimized mushroom limiter might have a stabilizing effect similar to a conducting shell.

  7. MHD surface waves in high- and low-beta plasmas. I - Normal-mode solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    Since the first paper by Barston (1964) on electrostatic oscillations in inhomogeneous cold plasmas, it has been commonly accepted that all finite layers with a continuous profile in pressure, density and magnetic field cannot support normal surface waves but instead the waves always decay through phase mixing (also called resonant absorption). The problem is reanalyzed by studying a compressible current sheet of a general structure with rotation of the magnetic field included. All inhomogeneous layers considered in the high-beta plasma limit do not support normal modes. However, in the limit of a low-beta plasma there are some cases when normal-mode solutions are recovered. The latter means that the process of resonant absorption is not common for all inhomogeneous layers.

  8. Application of Magnetized Target Fusion to High-Energy Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Schmidt, G. R.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most fusion propulsion concepts that have been investigated in the past employ some form of inertial or magnetic confinement. Although the prospective performance of these concepts is excellent, the fusion processes on which these concepts are based still require considerable development before they can be seriously considered for actual applications. Furthermore, these processes are encumbered by the need for sophisticated plasma and power handling systems that are generally quite inefficient and have historically resulted in large, massive spacecraft designs. Here we present a comparatively new approach, Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), which offers a nearer-term avenue for realizing the tremendous performance benefits of fusion propulsion'. The key advantage of MTF is its less demanding requirements for driver energy and power processing. Additional features include: 1) very low system masses and volumes, 2) high gain and relatively low waste heat, 3) substantial utilization of energy from product neutrons, 4) efficient, low peak-power drivers based on existing pulsed power technology, and 5) very high Isp, specific power and thrust. MTF overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional fusion techniques, thus making it particularly attractive for space applications. Isp greater than 50,000 seconds and specific powers greater than 50 kilowatts/kilogram appear feasible using relatively near-term pulse power and plasma gun technology.

  9. The Structure of the Amyloid-[beta] Peptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, Victor A.; Titmuss, Stephen J.; Epa, V. Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J.; Masters, Colin L.; Varghese, Joseph N.

    2008-11-03

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of A{beta}-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in A{beta} may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of A{beta} peptides complexed with Cu{sup 2+} in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu{sup 2+} binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to A{beta} can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  10. Characterization of a CC49-based single-chain fragment-beta-lactamase fusion protein for antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT).

    PubMed

    Alderson, Ralph F; Toki, Brian E; Roberge, Martin; Geng, Wei; Basler, Joshua; Chin, Regina; Liu, Amy; Ueda, Roanna; Hodges, Douglas; Escandon, Enrique; Chen, Tianling; Kanavarioti, Tessi; Babé, Lilia; Senter, Peter D; Fox, Judith A; Schellenberger, Volker

    2006-01-01

    CC49 is a clinically validated antibody with specificity for TAG-72, a carbohydrate epitope that is overexpressed and exposed on the cell surface in a large fraction of solid malignancies. We constructed a single-chain fragment (scFv) based on CC49 and fused it to beta-lactamase (BLA). Following optimization of the scFv domain by combinatorial consensus mutagenesis (CCM) for increased expression and stability, we characterized the protein variant for binding, in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK), and antitumor efficacy. The fusion protein TAB2.5 possessed a similar binding specificity relative to the parent antibody CC49. TAB2.5 also showed prolonged retention (T(1/2) = 36.9 h) in tumor-bearing mice with tumor/plasma ratios of up to 1000. Preliminary evaluation of TAB2.5, in combination with a novel prodrug, GC-Mel, resulted in significant efficacy in a colorectal xenograft tumor model and supports the utility of the protein as an agent for tumor-selective prodrug activation. PMID:16536473

  11. Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y. . E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

  12. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  13. Cold fusion: Alchemist's dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, E. D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalyzed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalyzed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into He-4; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; helium-3 to helium-4 ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of helium-3/helium-4.

  14. Fusion Engineering and Design 3940 (1998) 287294 Response of plasma-facing materials to high transient heat

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    1998-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 39­40 (1998) 287­294 Response of plasma-facing materials to high, Fusion Power Program, Argonne, IL 60439, USA Abstract High transient heat loads to plasma-facing components, as they occur during plasma disruptions, edge localized modes (ELMs), or vertical displacement

  15. Development of a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Seki, C.; Kashikura, K.

    1996-12-31

    We have developed and tested a high resolution beta camera for a direct measurement of positron distribution on brain surface of animals. The beta camera consists of a thin CaF{sub 2}(Eu) scintillator, a tapered fiber optics plate (taper fiber) and a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The taper fiber is the key component of the camera. We have developed two types of beta cameras. One is 20mm diameter field of view camera for imaging brain surface of cats. The other is 10mm diameter camera for that of rats. Spatial resolutions of beta camera for cats and rats were 0.8mm FWHM and 0.5mm FWHM, respectively. We confirmed that developed beta cameras may overcome the limitation of the spatial resolution of the positron emission tomography (PET).

  16. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched $^{82}$Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    E-print Network

    J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; P. Benetti; L. Cardani; N. Casali; D. Chiesa; M. Clemenza; I. Dafinei; S. Di Domizio; F. Ferroni; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; C. Gotti; M. Laubenstein; M. Maino; S. Nagorny; S. Nisi; C. Nones; F. Orio; L. Pagnanini; L. Pattavina; G. Pessina; G. Piperno; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; C. Rusconi; K. Schäffner; C. Tomei; M. Vignati

    2015-12-01

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{82}$Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched $^{82}$Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3\\% enriched $^{82}$Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of $^{232}$Th, $^{238}$U and $^{235}$U are respectively: $Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of double-beta decay of $^{82}$Se to 0$^+_1$, 2$^+_2$ and 2$^+_1$ excited states of $^{82}$Kr of 3.4$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y, 1.3$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y and 1.0$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y, respectively, with a 90\\% C.L..

  17. Open PhD position Fusion of high resolution remote sensing data for snow

    E-print Network

    Open PhD position Fusion of high resolution remote sensing data for snow monitoring Context Remote and are able to measure different aspects of snow cover (surface physical properties, type of snow, etc of the snow. However, this approach is still an unresolved scientific challenge. This thesis proposes

  18. A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to High Level Fusion in Predictive Situational Awareness

    E-print Network

    Laskey, Kathryn Blackmond

    A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to High Level Fusion in Predictive Situational Awareness Paulo Cesar- dictive situation awareness (PSAW) system and the major issues that must be faced when attempting to meet- poseability. New technologies such as SOA and semanti- cally aware systems have come into the spotlight

  19. A U.S. high-flux neutron facility for fusion materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Rei, Donald J

    2010-01-01

    Materials for a fusion reactor first wall and blanket structure must be able to reliably function in an extreme environment that includes 10-15 MW-year/m{sup 2} neutron and heat fluences. The various materials and structural challenges are as difficult and important as achieving a burning plasma. Overcoming radiation damage degradation is the rate-controlling step in fusion materials development. Recent advances with oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels show promise in meeting reactor requirements, while multi-timescale atomistic simulations of defect-grain boundary interactions in model copper systems reveal surprising self-annealing phenomenon. While these results are promising, simultaneous evaluation of radiation effects displacement damage ({le} 200 dpa) and in-situ He generation ({le} 2000 appm) at prototypical reactor temperatures and chemical environments is still required. There is currently no experimental facility in the U.S. that can meet these requirements for macroscopic samples. The E.U. and U.S. fusion communities have recently concluded that a fusion-relevant, high-flux neutron source for accelerated characterization of the effects of radiation damage to materials is a top priority for the next decade. Data from this source will be needed to validate designs for the multi-$B next-generation fusion facilities such as the CTF, ETF, and DEMO, that are envisioned to follow ITER and NIF.

  20. Nebivolol: a highly selective beta1-adrenergic receptor blocker that causes vasodilation by increasing nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep; Wright, Harold M

    2008-01-01

    Nebivolol (Bystolic) is a cardioselective beta 1 (beta(1))-adrenergic receptor blocker with endothelium-dependent vasodilating properties. The endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by nebivolol is blocked by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and guanylate cyclase. Nebivolol also increases in vitro and in vivo nitric oxide (NO), which is an essential signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. This review summarizes the data involving nebivolol and NO bioavailability. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels, which is impaired in hypertensive animals and humans, is reversed by nebivolol treatment. Animals exhibiting endothelial dysfunction also show an improvement in NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling and an increase in NO bioavailability when treated with nebivolol. When blood vessel and cultured endothelial cells from hypertensive animals are treated with nebivolol, there is a decrease in superoxide production and an increase in the expression and activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS). As a result of the increased bioavailability of NO, nebivolol also increases in vivo arterial distensibility, glomerular filtration rate, and renal plasma flow. In normotensive volunteers, nebivolol infusion increases the forearm blood flow, an effect that is blocked by inhibitors of NOS and restored by the NOS substrate, L-arginine. In hypertensive patients, chronic treatment with nebivolol improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced by acetylcholine and shear stress and reverses endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction. Furthermore, nebivolol displays distinct hemodynamic properties in patients that include improvements in stroke volume and a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance. These studies demonstrate that nebivolol produces endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing NO release, decreasing oxidative stress to increase NO bioavailability, or both. The NO-dependent vasodilatory action of nebivolol, coupled with its high beta(1)-adrenergic receptor selectivity, is unique among the clinically available beta-blockers and contributes to its efficacy and improved tolerability (e.g., less fatigue and sexual dysfunction) as an antihypertensive agent. PMID:18786089

  1. Occurrence of high-beta superthermal plasma events in the close environment of Jupiter's bow shock as observed by Ulysses

    SciTech Connect

    Marhavilas, P. K.; Sarris, E. T.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.

    2011-01-04

    The ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure (or of their energy densities) which is known as the plasma parameter 'beta'({beta}) has important implications to the propagation of energetic particles and the interaction of the solar wind with planetary magnetospheres. Although in the scientific literature the contribution of the superthermal particles to the plasma pressure is generally assumed negligible, we deduced, by analyzing energetic particles and magnetic field measurements recorded by the Ulysses spacecraft, that in a series of events, the energy density contained in the superthermal tail of the particle distribution is comparable to or even higher than the energy density of the magnetic field, creating conditions of high-beta plasma. More explicitly, in this paper we analyze Ulysses/HI-SCALE measurements of the energy density ratio (parameter {beta}{sub ep}) of the energetic ions'(20 keV to {approx}5 MeV) to the magnetic field's in order to find occurrences of high-beta ({beta}{sub ep}>1) superthermal plasma conditions in the environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, which is an interesting plasma laboratory and an important source of emissions in our solar system. In particular, we examine high-beta ion events close to Jupiter's bow shock, which are produced by two processes: (a) bow shock ion acceleration and (b) ion leakage from the magnetosphere.

  2. A highly stable prefusion RSV F vaccine derived from structural analysis of the fusion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Krarup, Anders; Truan, Daphné; Furmanova-Hollenstein, Polina; Bogaert, Lies; Bouchier, Pascale; Bisschop, Ilona J M; Widjojoatmodjo, Myra N; Zahn, Roland; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; McLellan, Jason S; Langedijk, Johannes P M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute lower respiratory tract infections and is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations. Recently, a promising vaccine antigen based on the RSV fusion protein (RSV F) stabilized in the native prefusion conformation has been described. Here we report alternative strategies to arrest RSV F in the prefusion conformation based on the prevention of hinge movements in the first refolding region and the elimination of proteolytic exposure of the fusion peptide. A limited number of unique mutations are identified that stabilize the prefusion conformation of RSV F and dramatically increase expression levels. This highly stable prefusion RSV F elicits neutralizing antibodies in cotton rats and induces complete protection against viral challenge. Moreover, the structural and biochemical analysis of the prefusion variants suggests a function for p27, the excised segment that precedes the fusion peptide in the polypeptide chain. PMID:26333350

  3. A highly stable prefusion RSV F vaccine derived from structural analysis of the fusion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Krarup, Anders; Truan, Daphné; Furmanova-Hollenstein, Polina; Bogaert, Lies; Bouchier, Pascale; Bisschop, Ilona J. M.; Widjojoatmodjo, Myra N.; Zahn, Roland; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; McLellan, Jason S.; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute lower respiratory tract infections and is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations. Recently, a promising vaccine antigen based on the RSV fusion protein (RSV F) stabilized in the native prefusion conformation has been described. Here we report alternative strategies to arrest RSV F in the prefusion conformation based on the prevention of hinge movements in the first refolding region and the elimination of proteolytic exposure of the fusion peptide. A limited number of unique mutations are identified that stabilize the prefusion conformation of RSV F and dramatically increase expression levels. This highly stable prefusion RSV F elicits neutralizing antibodies in cotton rats and induces complete protection against viral challenge. Moreover, the structural and biochemical analysis of the prefusion variants suggests a function for p27, the excised segment that precedes the fusion peptide in the polypeptide chain. PMID:26333350

  4. Limiter stabilization of high-beta external kink-tearing modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.; Ohyabu, N.

    1984-12-01

    The stabilizing effects of finite-width poloidal limiters, toroidal limiters, and general mushroom limiters are examined for high-beta finite resistivity tokamak plamas in free boundary. When the plasma pressure and resistivity are small, a poloidal limiter is effective in reducing the growth rate even with a small limiter size, while a toroidal limiter requires a large size for a comparable effect. As the plasma pressure or resistivity increases, a toroidal limiter becomes more effective in reducing the growth rate than a poloidal limiter of the same size. A small optimized mushroom limiter might have a stabilizing effect similar to a conducting shell.

  5. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006 Explanation of the JET n = 0 chirping mode Nucl. Fusion 46 S888-97 Urano H. et al 2006 Confinement degradation with beta for ELMy HH-mode plasmas in JT-60U tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 781-7 Izzo V.A. et al 2006 A numerical investigation of the effects of impurity penetration depth on disruption mitigation by massive high-pressure gas jet Nucl. Fusion 46 541-7 Inagaki S. et al 2006 Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 133-41 Watanabe T.-H. et al 2006 Velocity-space structures of distribution function in toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence Nucl. Fusion 46 24-32 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2010 award, the papers published in the 2007 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, all of which are magnetic confinement experiments and theory. Rice J.E. et al 2007 Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24 Lipschultz B. et al 2007 Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics: implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 1189-205 Loarer T. et al 2007 Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices Nucl. Fusion 47 1112-20 Garcia O.E et al 2007 Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer Nucl. Fusion 47 667-76 Zonca F. et al 2007 Electron fishbones: theory and experimental evidence Nucl. Fusion 47 1588-97 Maggi C.F. et al 2007 Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U Nucl. Fusion 47 535-51 Yoshida M. et al 2007 Momentum transport and plasma rotation profile in toroidal direction in JT-60U L-mode plasmas Nucl. Fusion 47 856-63 Zohm H. et al 2007 Control of MHD instabilities by ECCD: ASDEX Upgrade results and implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 228-32 Snyder P.B. et al 2007 Stability and dynamics of the edge pedestal in the low collisionality regime: physics mechanisms for steady-state ELM-free operation Nucl. Fusion 47 961-8 Urano H. et al 2007 H-mode pedestal structure in the variation of toroidal rotation and toroidal f

  6. Thermal and structural design aspects of high-temperature blankets for fusion synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Reich, M.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising process, high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam at temperatures of greater than or equal to 1000/sup 0/C is examined. In HTE, a large fraction (up to approx. 50%) of the energy input to split water to hydrogen and oxygen comes from thermal energy. For the projected operating conditions achieved by high temperature fusion blankets, overall efficiencies for hydrogen production should be on the order of 60%. The design, thermal-hydraulics, and materials for such blankets are discussed.

  7. Dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite transformation in near-beta Ti-5553 alloy under high strain rate loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Yangwei; Xu, Xin; Liu, Chengze

    2015-09-01

    Ti-5553 alloy is a near-beta titanium alloy with high strength and high fracture toughness. In this paper, the dynamic behaviour and shock-induced martensite phase transformation of Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases were investigated. Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar was employed to investigate the dynamic properties. Microstructure evolutions were characterized by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope. The experimental results have demonstrated that Ti-5553 alloy with alpha/beta phases exhibits various strain rate hardening effects, both failure through adiabatic shear band. Ti-5553 alloy with Widmannstatten microstructure exhibit more obvious strain rate hardening effect, lower critical strain rate for ASB nucleation, compared with the alloy with Bimodal microstructures. Under dynamic compression, shock-induced beta to alpha" martensite transformation occurs.

  8. Current Activities Assessing Butt Fusion Joint Integrity in High Density Polyethylene Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Doctor, Steven R.; Denslow, Kayte M.

    2012-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, conducted initial studies to evaluate the effectiveness of nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing for assessing butt fusion joint integrity in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The work provided insightful information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques for detecting lack of fusion (LOF) conditions in the fusion joints. HDPE has been installed on a limited basis in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Class 3, buried piping systems at several operating U.S. nuclear power plants and has been proposed for use in new construction. A comparison was made between the results from ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive examinations and the results from mechanical destructive evaluations, specifically the high-speed tensile test and the side-bend test, for determining joint integrity. The data comparison revealed that none of the NDE techniques detected all of the lack-of-fusion conditions that were revealed by the destructive tests. Follow-on work has recently been initiated at PNNL to accurately characterize the NDE responses from machined flaws of varying size and location in PE 4710 materials as well as the LOF condition. This effort is directed at quantifying the ability of volumetric NDE techniques to detect flaws in relation to the critical flaw size associated with joint integrity. A status of these latest investigations is presented.

  9. Delta 5-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) from Digitalis lanata. Heterologous expression and characterisation of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Herl, Vanessa; Frankenstein, Jördis; Meitinger, Nadine; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    During the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, Delta (5)-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD, EC 1.1.1.51) converts pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3beta-ol-20-one) to isoprogesterone (5-pregnene-3,20-dione). A 3 beta HSD gene was isolated from leaves of Digitalis lanata. It consisted of 870 nucleotides containing a 90 nucleotide long intron. A full-length cDNA clone that encodes 3 beta HSD was isolated by RT-PCR from the same source. A SPH I /KPN I 3 beta HSD cDNA was cloned into the pQE30 vector and then transferred into E. COLI strain M15[pREP4]. 3 beta HSD cDNA was functionally expressed as a His-tagged fusion protein (pQ3 beta HSD) composed of 273 amino acids (calculated molecular mass 28,561 Da). pQ3 beta HSD was purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA. Pregnenolone and other 3beta-hydroxypregnanes but not cholesterol were 3beta-oxidised by pQ3 beta HSD when NAD was used as the co-substrate. Testosterone (4-androsten-17beta-ol-3-one) was converted to 4-androstene-3,17-dione indicating that the pQ3 beta HSD has also 17beta-dehydrogenase activity. pQ3 beta HSD was able to reduce 3-keto steroids to their corresponding 3beta-hydroxy derivatives when NADH was used as the co-substrate. For comparison, 3 beta HSD genes were isolated and sequenced from another 6 species of the genus DIGITALIS. Gene structure and the deduced 3 beta HSD proteins share a high degree of similarity. PMID:17564944

  10. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  11. Prospects for studying temperature-anisotropy-driven instabilities in a high-beta laboratory plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S. E.; Bardoczi, L.; Geraldini, A.; Robertson, J.; Tang, S.; Tripathi, S.; Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.

    2013-12-01

    The mirror and firehose instabilities are driven unstable in magnetized, high-beta plasmas with anisotropic ion distribution functions. Evidence for the action of these instabilities has been found in space plasmas, in particular solar wind observations [1], and they are thought to be important in a number of astrophysical plasmas (e.g. accretion disks). Studying these important instabilities in the lab requires a high-beta, magnetized plasma and the creation of sufficient temperature anisotropy. We will discuss prospects for laboratory experiments making use of the Enormous Toroidal Plasma Device (ETPD) at UCLA. Firehose-unstable (T? > T?) ion distributions might be driven in plasmas flowing into an expanding magnetic field (similar to the solar wind). Enhanced anisotropy could be provided by the formation of a double layer in the expanding plasma, which leads to the production of ion beams in expanding laboratory plasmas [2]. We will report on: initial experiments in LAPD studying expanding plasmas, measurements of plasma parameters in ETPD and on theoretical projections for acheivable anisotropy and instability thresholds in ETPD. [1] S.D. Bale, et al., PRL 103, 211101 (2009). [2] C. Charles, et al., PoP 11, 1706 (2004).

  12. Final Report on The Theory of Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Cowley

    2008-06-17

    Report describes theoretical research in the theory of fusion plasmas funded under grant DE-FG02-04ER54737. This includes work on: explosive instabilities, plasma turbulence, Alfven wave cascades, high beta (pressure) tokamaks and magnetic reconnection. These studies have lead to abetter understanding of fusion plasmas and in particular the future behavior of ITER. More than ten young researchers were involved in this research -- some were funded under the grant.

  13. Fusion: ultra-high-speed and IR image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etoh, T. Goji; Dao, V. T. S.; Nguyen, Quang A.; Kimata, M.

    2015-08-01

    Most targets of ultra-high-speed video cameras operating at more than 1 Mfps, such as combustion, crack propagation, collision, plasma, spark discharge, an air bag at a car accident and a tire under a sudden brake, generate sudden heat. Researchers in these fields require tools to measure the high-speed motion and heat simultaneously. Ultra-high frame rate imaging is achieved by an in-situ storage image sensor. Each pixel of the sensor is equipped with multiple memory elements to record a series of image signals simultaneously at all pixels. Image signals stored in each pixel are read out after an image capturing operation. In 2002, we developed an in-situ storage image sensor operating at 1 Mfps 1). However, the fill factor of the sensor was only 15% due to a light shield covering the wide in-situ storage area. Therefore, in 2011, we developed a backside illuminated (BSI) in-situ storage image sensor to increase the sensitivity with 100% fill factor and a very high quantum efficiency 2). The sensor also achieved a much higher frame rate,16.7 Mfps, thanks to the wiring on the front side with more freedom 3). The BSI structure has another advantage that it has less difficulties in attaching an additional layer on the backside, such as scintillators. This paper proposes development of an ultra-high-speed IR image sensor in combination of advanced nano-technologies for IR imaging and the in-situ storage technology for ultra-highspeed imaging with discussion on issues in the integration.

  14. Influence of transmutation and high neutron exposure on materials used in fission-fusion correlation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A.

    1990-07-01

    This paper explores the response of three different materials to high fluence irradiation as observed in recent fusion-related experiments. While helium at fusion-relevant levels influences the details of the microstructure of Fe--Cr--Ni alloys somewhat, the resultant changes in swelling and tensile behavior are relatively small. Under conditions where substantially greater-than-fusion levels of helium are generated, however, an extensive refinement of microstructure can occur, leading to depression of swelling at lower temperatures and increased strengthening at all temperatures studied. The behavior of these alloys is dominated by their tendency to converge to saturation microstructures which encourage swelling. Irradiations of nickel are dominated by its tendency to develop a different type of saturation microstructure that discourages further void growth. Swelling approaches saturation levels that are remarkably insensitive to starting microstructure and irradiation temperature. The rate of approach to saturation is very sensitive to variables such as helium, impurities, dislocation density and displacement rate, however. Copper exhibits a rather divergent response depending on the property measured. Transmutation of copper to nickel and zinc plays a large role in determining electrical conductivity but almost no role in void swelling. Each of these three materials offers different challenges in the interpretation of fission-fusion correlation experiments.

  15. Alternate applications of fusion power: development of a high-temperature blanket for synthetic-fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, P.A.; Mattas, R.F.; Krajcinovic, D.; DePaz, J.; Gohar, Y.

    1981-11-01

    This study has shown that utilization of the unique features of a fusion reactor can result in a novel and potentially economical method of decomposing steam into hydrogen and oxygen. Most of the power of fusion reactors is in the form of energetic neutrons. If this power could be used to produce high temperature uncontaminated steam, a large fraction of the energy needed to decomposee the steam could be supplied as thermal energy by the fusion reaction. Proposed high temperature electrolysis processes require steam temperature in excess of 1000/sup 0/C for high efficiency. The design put forth in this study details a system that can accomplish that end.

  16. A new high-temperature indentation device for characterization of materials for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albinski, B.; Schneider, H.-C.; Sacksteder, I.; Kraft, O.

    2013-11-01

    For material characterization tests that simulate the operating conditions in a fusion reactor, high-temperature experiments on irradiated samples are necessary. After successful indentation investigations at room temperature, the next step is an adaption of the experiment to elevated temperatures. A high-temperature indentation device designed for this application was constructed and realized at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This device will be installed in a hot cell of the Fusion Materials Laboratory, Institute for Applied Materials. A description of chosen solutions and construction details for realization of the device are given: the properties as well as the main parts of the new apparatus—sample heating and positioning, vacuum system, force actuator, and remote handling solutions—are described.

  17. Time-dependent Neutronic Analysis for High Level Waste Transmutation in a Fusion-driven Transmuter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap?c?, Hüseyin; Demir, Nesrin; Genç, Gamze

    2008-09-01

    This study presents time-dependent transmutations of high-level waste (HLW) including minor actinides (MAs) and long-lived fission products (LLFPs) in the fusion-driven transmuter (FDT) that is optimized in terms of the neutronic performance per fusion neutron in our previous study. Its blanket has two different transmutation zones (MA transmutation zone, TZMA, and LLFP transmutation zone, TZFP), located separately from each other. High burn-up pressured water reactor (PWR)-mixed oxide (MOX) spent fuel is used as HLW. The time-dependent transmutation analyses have been performed for an operation period (OP) of up to 10 years by 75% plant factor (?) under a first-wall neutron load (P) of 5 MW/m2. The effective half-lives of the MA and LLFP nuclides can be shortened significantly in the considered FDT while substantial electricity is produced in situ along the OP.

  18. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  19. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched $^{82}$Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    E-print Network

    J. W. Beeman; F. Bellini; P. Benetti; L. Cardani; N. Casali; D. Chiesa; M. Clemenza; I. Dafinei; S. Di Domizio; F. Ferroni; L. Gironi; A. Giuliani; C. Gotti; M. Laubenstein; M. Maino; S. Nagorny; S. Nisi; C. Nones; F. Orio; L. Pagnanini; L. Pattavina; G. Pessina; G. Piperno; S. Pirro; E. Previtali; C. Rusconi; K. Schäffner; C. Tomei; M. Vignati

    2015-10-14

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{82}$Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched $^{82}$Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched $^{82}$Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of $^{232}$Th, $^{238}$U and $^{235}$U are respectively: $decay of $^{82}$Se to 0$^+_1$, 2$^+_2$ and 2$^+_1$ excited states of $^{82}$Kr of 3.4$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y, 1.3$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y and 1.0$\\cdot$10$^{22}$ y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L..

  20. Equilibrium and Stability of High-{beta} Plasmas in Wendelstein 7-AS

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Joachim E.; Weller, Arthur; Zarnstorff, Michael C.; Nuehrenberg, Carolin; Werner, Andreas Horst Franz; Kolesnichenko, Yaroslav I.

    2004-07-15

    One of the major goals for Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) was the testing of the theoretical basis for the optimized configuration of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X), currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. In the last experimental campaign of W7-AS, volume-averaged {beta} values >3% have been achieved. The underlying experimental changes leading to these results are briefly reviewed. The equilibrium characteristics expected from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory are modeled in a simplified picture and compared with three-dimensional equilibrium calculations. A wide range of parameters has been covered in the experiments with and without net toroidal currents. Experimental data are compared with free-boundary equilibrium calculations and exhibit good agreement. The high-{beta} equilibria usually showed only small MHD activity. The most prominent activities are low-frequency pressure-driven modes connected with low-order rationals also expected from numerical calculations using the CAS3D code, and Alfv and eacute;n modes driven by energetic particles from the tangential neutral beam injection. Comparison of experimentally measured frequencies and mode structures from soft-X-ray tomography with theoretical predictions also shows the improving understanding of these modes in stellarators. The agreement of experiment and theory gives confidence in the predictions for W7-X.

  1. High field superconducting magnets (12 T and greater) for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1986-07-09

    The technology for producing high fields in large superconducting magnets has increased greatly in recent years, but must increase still more in the future. In this paper, we examine the present state of the art vis-a-vis the needs of a next-generation fusion machine and outline a program to provide for those needs. We also highlight recent developments that suggest the program goals are within reach.

  2. The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE)-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant concept and implications for IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1995-06-01

    In the High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) power plant design, lithium is replaced by molten salt. HYLIFE-II [Fusion Technol. 25, 5 (1994)] is based on nonflammable, renewable-liquid-wall fusion target chambers formed with Li2BeF4 molten-salt jets, a heavy-ion driver, and single-sided illumination of indirect-drive targets. Building fusion chambers from existing materials with life-of-plant structural walls behind the liquid walls, while still meeting non-nuclear grade construction and low-level waste requirements, has profound implications for inertial fusion energy (IFE) development. Fluid-flow work and computational fluid dynamics predict chamber clearing adequate for 6 Hz pulse rates. Predicted electricity cost is reduced about 30% to 4.4¢/kWh at 1 GWe and 3.2¢/kWh at 2 GWe. Development can be foreshortened and cost reduced by obviating expensive neutron sources to develop first-wall materials. The driver and chamber can be upgraded in stages, avoiding separate and sequential facilities. Important features of a practical IFE power plant are ignition and sufficient gain in targets; low-cost, efficient, rep-ratable driver; and low-cost targets.

  3. Construction of lactose-assimilating and high-ethanol-producing yeasts by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Farahnak, F.; Seki, T.; Ryu, D.D.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.

    1986-02-01

    The availability of a yeast strain which is capable of fermenting lactose and at the same time is tolerant to high concentrations of ethanol would be useful for the production of ethanol from lactose. Kluyveromyces fragilis is capable of fermenting lactose, but it is not as tolerant as Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high concentrations of ethanol. In this study, the authors have used the protoplast fusion technique to construct hybrids between auxotrophic strains of S. cerevisiae having high ethanol tolerance and an auxotrophic strain of lactose-fermenting K. fragilis isolated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The fusants obtained were prototrophic and capable of assimilating lactose and producing ethanol in excess of 13% (vol/vol). The complementation frequency of fusion was about 0.7%. Formation of fusants was confirmed by the increased amount of chromosomal DNA per cell. Fusants contained 8 x 10/sup -9/ to 16 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell as compared with about 4 x 10/sup -8/ ..mu..g of DNA per cell for the parental strains, suggesting that multiple fusions had taken place.

  4. Anomalous fast ion losses at high ? on the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Bell, M. G.; Budny, R. V.; Darrow, D. S.; White, R.

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes experiments carried out on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. J. Hawryluk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1509 (1991)] to investigate the dependence of ?-limiting disruption characteristics on toroidal field strength. The hard disruptions found at the ?-limit in high field plasmas were not found at low field, even for ?'s 50% higher than the empirical ?-limit of ?{sub n}???2 at high field. Comparisons of experimentally measured ?'s to TRANSP simulations suggest anomalous loss of up to half of the beam fast ions in the highest ?, low field shots. The anomalous transport responsible for the fast ion losses may at the same time broaden the pressure profile. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes, fishbone instabilities, and Geodesic Acoustic Modes are investigated as possible causes of the enhanced losses. Here, we present the first observations of high frequency fishbones [F. Zonca et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 085009 (2009)] on TFTR. The interpretation of Axi-symmetric Beam-driven Modes as Geodesic Acoustic Modes and their possible correlation with transport barrier formation are also presented.

  5. Control of a high beta maneuvering reentry vehicle using dynamic inversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Alfred Chapman

    2005-05-01

    The design of flight control systems for high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles presents a significant challenge to the control systems designer. These vehicles typically have a much higher ballistic coefficient than crewed vehicles like as the Space Shuttle or proposed crew return vehicles such as the X-38. Moreover, the missions of high performance vehicles usually require a steeper reentry flight path angle, followed by a pull-out into level flight. These vehicles then must transit the entire atmosphere and robustly perform the maneuvers required for the mission. The vehicles must also be flown with small static margins in order to perform the required maneuvers, which can result in highly nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics that frequently transition from being aerodynamically stable to unstable as angle of attack increases. The control system design technique of dynamic inversion has been applied successfully to both high performance aircraft and low beta reentry vehicles. The objective of this study was to explore the application of this technique to high performance maneuvering reentry vehicles, including the basic derivation of the dynamic inversion technique, followed by the extension of that technique to the use of tabular trim aerodynamic models in the controller. The dynamic inversion equations are developed for high performance vehicles and augmented to allow the selection of a desired response for the control system. A six degree of freedom simulation is used to evaluate the performance of the dynamic inversion approach, and results for both nominal and off nominal aerodynamic characteristics are presented.

  6. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    SciTech Connect

    Izzo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.

  7. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz; Norikane, L.; Way, Jobea

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Geographic Information System for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data are presented. Topics covered include: scientific objectives; schedule; and Geographic Information System.

  8. High dose insulin therapy, an evidence based approach to beta blocker/calcium channel blocker toxicity.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Christina; Pourmand, Ali; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    Poison-induced cardiogenic shock (PICS) as a result of beta-blocker (?-blocker) or calcium channel blocker (CCB) overdose is a common and potentially life-threatening condition. Conventional therapies, including fluid resuscitation, atropine, cardiac pacing, calcium, glucagon, and vasopressors often fail to improve hemodynamic status. High-dose insulin (HDI) is an emerging therapeutic modality for PICS. In this article, we discuss the existing literature and highlight the therapeutic success and potential of HDI. Based on the current literature, which is limited primarily to case series and animal models, the authors conclude that HDI can be effective in restoring hemodynamic stability, and recommend considering its use in patients with PICS that is not responsive to traditional therapies. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal dose and duration of therapy for HDI in PICS. PMID:24713415

  9. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  10. Irradiation of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tape for potential fusion applications: electromagnetic transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Gapud, Albert A.; List III, Frederick Alyious; Leonard, Keith J; Rupich, Marty; Zhang, Yanwen; Greenwood, N T; Alexander, J A; Khan, A

    2015-01-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results show that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.

  11. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  12. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah; Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON ; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang; Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  13. Creation of a high density, high flux target plasmoid for magneto-inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Thomas; Intrator, Thomas; Sears, Jason

    2011-10-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion utilizes embedded magnetic fields to reduce thermal transport and enhance alpha particle heating during an implosion reducing the required areal density, implosion speed, and convergence for fusion ignition. This enables the use of efficient inexpensive pulsed power, reducing the gain required for breakeven (e.g. ?G = 0 . 5 * 10 (MIF), = 0 . 05 * 100 (ICF)). The FRX-L and FRCHX experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Air Force Research Laboratory at Kirtland AFB are investigating a subset of MIF called Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) in which a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid is injected into a converging solid, conductive liner and compressed to fusion conditions. Traditional FRC formation techniques utilizing ringing- ? pre-ionization have proved to be incapable of forming target plasmoids with enough density and magnetic flux, limiting the particle inventory, confinement, and lifetime. An alternative formation technique utilizing magnetoplasmadynamic arc sources has been developed to increase the density and trapped flux of the target plasmoid. Plasma source technology and operation are presented, as well as changes to the target formation process, plasmoid characteristics, and implications to MTF. Work supported by the DOE, OFES, under LANS Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25369. Public release number LA-UR 11-03950.

  14. HIGH LUMINOSITY RHIC INSERTIONS, 0.5M BETA AT IP.

    SciTech Connect

    TEPIKIAN,S.FISCHER,W.MACKAY,W.PILAT,F.HUANG,H.PTITSYN,V.SATOGATA,T.TRBOJEVIC,D.VAN ZEIJTS,J.

    2003-05-12

    An increase in RHIC collision luminosity is possible by reducing the beam size at the interaction point (IP). They present a method for reducing the IP beta function, {beta}*, from the design minimum of 1m to 0.5m. They demonstrate that this {beta}* = 0.5m configuration is achievable with existing RHIC power supplies for 100 GeV protons. They discuss the correction of the higher order IR multi-poles and the second order chromaticity.

  15. Perspectives for the high field approach in fusion research and advances within the Ignitor Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Belforte, G.; Boggio-Sella, E.; Cardinali, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Conti, F.; Costa, E.; D'Amico, A.; Detragiache, P.; De Tommasi, G.; DeVellis, A.; Faelli, G.; Ferraris, P.; Frattolillo, A.; Giammanco, F.; Grasso, G.; Lazzaretti, M.; Mantovani, S.; Merriman, L.; Migliori, S.; Napoli, R.; Perona, A.; Pierattini, S.; Pironti, A.; Ramogida, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sassi, M.; Sestero, A.; Spillantini, S.; Tavani, M.; Tumino, A.; Villone, F.; Zucchi, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Ignitor Program maintains the objective of approaching D-T ignition conditions by incorporating systematical advances made with relevant high field magnet technology and with experiments on high density well confined plasmas in the present machine design. An additional objective is that of charting the development of the high field line of experiments that goes from the Alcator machine to the ignitor device. The rationale for this class of experiments, aimed at producing poloidal fields with the highest possible values (compatible with proven safety factors of known plasma instabilities) is given. On the basis of the favourable properties of high density plasmas produced systematically by this line of machines, the envisioned future for the line, based on novel high field superconducting magnets, includes the possibility of investigating more advanced fusion burn conditions than those of the D-T plasmas for which Ignitor is designed. Considering that a detailed machine design has been carried out (Coppi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 104013), the advances made in different areas of the physics and technology that are relevant to the Ignitor project are reported. These are included within the following sections of the present paper: main components issues, assembly and welding procedures; robotics criteria; non-linear feedback control; simulations with three-dimensional structures and disruption studies; ICRH and dedicated diagnostics systems; anomalous transport processes including self-organization for fusion burning regimes and the zero-dimensional model; tridimensional structures of the thermonuclear instability and control provisions; superconducting components of the present machine; envisioned experiments with high field superconducting magnets.

  16. Evaluation of high strength, high conductivity CuNiBe alloys for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties for several different heats and thermomechanical treatment conditions of precipitation strengthened Hycon 3HPTM CuNiBe (Cu-2%Ni-0.35%Be in wt.%) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500 C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for several heats, and the precipitate microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The CuNiBe alloys exhibit very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature, with yield strengths of 630-725 MPa and electrical conductivities of 65-72% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with yield strengths of 420-520 MPa at 500 C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250 C, due to flow localization near grain boundaries (exacerbated by having only 10-20 grains across the gage thickness of the miniaturized sheet tensile specimens). Scanning electron microscopy observation of the fracture surfaces found a transition from ductile transgranular to ductile intergranular fracture with increasing test temperature. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of ~0.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures between 100 and 240 C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of ~3.3% observed at 240 C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. Considering also previously published fracture toughness data, this indicates that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250 C, and may be an attractive candidate for certain fusion energy structural applications. Conversely, CuNiBe may not be preferred at intermediate temperatures of 250-500 C due to the poor ductility and fracture toughness of CuNiBe alloys at temperatures >250 C. The potential deformation mechanisms responsible for the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture are discussed. The possible implications for other precipitation hardened alloys such as nickel based superalloys are briefly discussed.

  17. Evaluation of high strength, high conductivity CuNiBe alloys for fusion energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, S. J.

    2014-06-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties for several different heats and thermomechanical treatment conditions of precipitation strengthened Hycon 3HP™ CuNiBe (Cu-2%Ni-0.35%Be in wt.%) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500 °C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for several heats, and the precipitate microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The CuNiBe alloys exhibit very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature, with yield strengths of 630-725 MPa and electrical conductivities of 65-72% International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS). The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with yield strengths of 420-520 MPa at 500 °C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250 °C, due to flow localization near grain boundaries (exacerbated by having only 10-20 grains across the gage thickness of the miniaturized sheet tensile specimens). Scanning electron microscopy observation of the fracture surfaces found a transition from ductile transgranular to ductile intergranular fracture with increasing test temperature. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of ?0.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures between 100 and 240 °C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation after irradiation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of ?3.3% observed at 240 °C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. Considering also previously published fracture toughness data, this indicates that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250 °C, and may be an attractive candidate for certain low-temperature fusion energy structural applications. Conversely, CuNiBe may not be preferred at intermediate temperatures of 250-500 °C due to the poor ductility and fracture toughness of CuNiBe alloys at temperatures ?250 °C. The potential deformation mechanisms responsible for the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture are discussed. The possible implications for other precipitation-hardened alloys such as nickel based superalloys are briefly discussed.

  18. Repetitively pulsed, high energy KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, M. C.; Sethian, J. D.; Giuliani, J. L.; Lehmberg, R.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M. F.; Hegeler, F.; Friedman, M.; Jones, T. C.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Rose, D.

    2004-12-01

    Krypton fluoride (KrF) lasers produce highly uniform beams at 248 nm, allow the capability of 'zooming' the spot size to follow an imploding pellet, naturally assume a modular architecture and have been developed into a pulsed-power-based industrial technology that readily scales to a fusion power plant sized system. There are two main challenges for the fusion power plant application: to develop a system with an overall efficiency of greater than 6% (based on target gains of 100) and to achieve a durability of greater than 3 × 108 shots (two years at 5 Hz). These two issues are being addressed with the Electra (700 J, 5 Hz) and Nike (3000 J, single shot) KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory. Based on recent advances in pulsed power, electron beam generation and transport, hibachi (foil support structure) design and KrF physics, wall plug efficiencies of greater than 7% should be achievable. Moreover, recent experiments show that it may be possible to realize long lived electron beam diodes using ceramic honeycomb cathodes and anode foils that are convectively cooled by periodically deflecting the laser gas. This paper is a summary of the progress in the development of the critical KrF technologies for laser fusion energy.

  19. Generating High-Brightness Light Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Cuneno, M.E.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Filuk, A.B.; Hanson, D.L.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlohorn, T.A.; Menge, P.R.; Olson, C.L.; Pointon, T.D. Slutz, S.A.; Vesey, R.A.; Welch, D.R.; Wenger, D.F.

    1998-10-22

    Light ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver from the standpoint of ei%ciency, standoff, rep-rate operation and cost. This approach uses high-energy-density pulsed power to efficiently accelerate ions in one or two stages at fields of 0.5 to 1.0 GV/m to produce a medium energy (30 MeV), high-current (1 MA) beam of light ions, such as lithium. Ion beams provide the ability for medium distance transport (4 m) of the ions to the target, and standofl of the driver from high- yield implosions. Rep-rate operation of' high current ion sources has ako been demonstrated for industrial applications and couId be applied to IFE. Although (hese factors make light ions the best Iong-teml pulsed- power approach to IFE, light-ion research is being suspended this year in favor of a Z-pinch-driven approach which has the best opport lnity to most-rapidly achieve the U.S. Department of Energy sponsor's goal of high-yield fusion. This paper will summarize the status and most recent results of the light-ion beam program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and document the prospects of light ions for future IFE driver development.

  20. Eukaryotic beta-alanine synthases are functionally related but have a high degree of structural diversity.

    PubMed Central

    Gojkovi?, Z; Sandrini, M P; Piskur, J

    2001-01-01

    beta-Alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6), which catalyzes the final step of pyrimidine catabolism, has only been characterized in mammals. A Saccharomyces kluyveri pyd3 mutant that is unable to grow on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source and exhibits diminished beta-alanine synthase activity was used to clone analogous genes from different eukaryotes. Putative PYD3 sequences from the yeast S. kluyveri, the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster complemented the pyd3 defect. When the S. kluyveri PYD3 gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae, which has no pyrimidine catabolic pathway, it enabled growth on N-carbamyl-beta-alanine as the sole nitrogen source. The D. discoideum and D. melanogaster PYD3 gene products are similar to mammalian beta-alanine synthases. In contrast, the S. kluyveri protein is quite different from these and more similar to bacterial N-carbamyl amidohydrolases. All three beta-alanine synthases are to some degree related to various aspartate transcarbamylases, which catalyze the second step of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. PYD3 expression in yeast seems to be inducible by dihydrouracil and N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, but not by uracil. This work establishes S. kluyveri as a model organism for studying pyrimidine degradation and beta-alanine production in eukaryotes. PMID:11454750

  1. Prospects for High Resolution Neutron Spectroscopy on high power fusion devices in view of the recent diagnostic developments at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, Goeran; Sunden, E. Andersson; Conroy, S.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Sjsoetrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Gorini, G.; Ognissanto, F.; Tardocchi, M.; Angelone, M.; Popovichev, S.

    2008-03-12

    An evaluation of three different candidate techniques for a 14-MeV High Resolution Neutron Spectrometer for a high power fusion device is presented. The performance is estimated for a modelled neutron emission for ITER plasma scenario 4. As performance indicators we use the estimated time-resolution achieved in measurements of three plasma parameters, namely, the ion temperature, the intensity of neutron emission due to neutral beam--thermal plasma interactions and the intensity of the so-called alpha knock-on neutron tail. It is found that only the MPR technique can deliver results on all three parameters with reasonable time resolution.

  2. Identification of a new genetic variant of bovine beta-casein using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Visser, S; Slangen, C J; Lagerwerf, F M; Van Dongen, W D; Haverkamp, J

    1995-09-01

    Various components of the beta-casein fraction from bovine milk were separated by preparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). They included the genetic variants beta A1, beta A2, beta A3, and an unknown component previously denoted beta X [S. Visser et al., J. Chromatogr. 548 (1991) 361-370]. Tryptic digests of these components were compared by RP-HPLC and most peaks were analysed by mass spectrometry (MS). The tryptic map of beta X was closest to that of beta A1, but with a few mutually different peak components. Electrospray ionisation MS revealed that in the beta X map these components had relative molecular masses of 16 higher than the corresponding ones in the beta A1 map. The main differential peaks represented the 114-169 fragments of beta A1 and beta X, respectively, which were both purified and then cleaved with cyanogen bromide. In the resulting mixtures, each of which contained three fragments, the corresponding peptides representing the 145-156 sequence showed the 16 relative molecular mass difference. In beta X this sequence contained a Leu residue at position 152 instead of the Pro-152 in beta A1, as established by fast-atom bombardment MS-MS. The Leu could be discriminated from an Ile residue by the presence of a side-chain-specific, D-type fragment ion in the MS-MS spectrum of the beta X CNBr peptide. The sequence of the two homologous 145-156 fragments was confirmed by regular amino acid sequence analysis. In accordance with internationally accepted guidelines for the nomenclature of milk proteins, the new genetic variant has been named beta-casein F-5P. PMID:7496485

  3. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria References [1] Sabbagh S. et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 [2] Rice J.E. et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24

  4. High tolerance to simultaneous active-site mutations in TEM-1 beta-lactamase: Distinct mutational paths provide more generalized beta-lactam recognition.

    PubMed

    De Wals, Pierre-Yves; Doucet, Nicolas; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2009-01-01

    The diversity in substrate recognition spectra exhibited by various beta-lactamases can result from one or a few mutations in the active-site area. Using Escherichia coli TEM-1 beta-lactamase as a template that efficiently hydrolyses penicillins, we performed site-saturation mutagenesis simultaneously on two opposite faces of the active-site cavity. Residues 104 and 105 as well as 238, 240, and 244 were targeted to verify their combinatorial effects on substrate specificity and enzyme activity and to probe for cooperativity between these residues. Selection for hydrolysis of an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, cefotaxime (CTX), led to the identification of a variety of novel mutational combinations. In vivo survival assays and in vitro characterization demonstrated a general tendency toward increased CTX and decreased penicillin resistance. Although selection was undertaken with CTX, productive binding (K(M)) was improved for all substrates tested, including benzylpenicillin for which catalytic turnover (k(cat)) was reduced. This indicates broadened substrate specificity, resulting in more generalized (or less specialized) variants. In most variants, the G238S mutation largely accounted for the observed properties, with additional mutations acting in an additive fashion to enhance these properties. However, the most efficient variant did not harbor the mutation G238S but combined two neighboring mutations that acted synergistically, also providing a catalytic generalization. Our exploration of concurrent mutations illustrates the high tolerance of the TEM-1 active site to multiple simultaneous mutations and reveals two distinct mutational paths to substrate spectrum diversification. PMID:19177359

  5. High thermal conductivity of graphite fiber silicon carbide composites for fusion reactor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, L. L.; Balden, M.; Causey, R. A.; Atsumi, H.

    2002-12-01

    The benefits of using CVI SiC/graphite fiber composites as low tritium retaining, high thermal conductivity composites for fusion applications are presented. Three-dimensional woven composites have been chemically vapor infiltrated with SiC and their thermophysical properties measured. One material used an intermediate grade graphite fiber in all directions (Amoco P55) while a second material used very high thermal conductive fiber (Amoco K-1100) in the high fiber density direction. The overall void was less than 20%. Strength as measured by four-point bending was comparable to those of SiC/SiC composite. The room temperature thermal conductivity in the high conductivity direction was impressive for both materials, with values >70 W/m K for the P-55 and >420 W/m K for the K-1100 variant. The thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature and exceeds the highest thermal conductivity of CVD SiC currently available at fusion relevant temperatures (>600 °C). Limited data on the irradiation-induced degradation in thermal conductivity is consistent with carbon fiber composite literature.

  6. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2004-02-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a ``partial energy conversion'' system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  7. High-Speed Incoming Infrared Target Detection by Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungho

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting high-speed incoming targets by the fusion of spatial and temporal detectors to achieve a high detection rate for an active protection system (APS). The incoming targets have different image velocities according to the target-camera geometry. Therefore, single-target detector-based approaches, such as a 1D temporal filter, 2D spatial filter and 3D matched filter, cannot provide a high detection rate with moderate false alarms. The target speed variation was analyzed according to the incoming angle and target velocity. The speed of the distant target at the firing time is almost stationary and increases slowly. The speed varying targets are detected stably by fusing the spatial and temporal filters. The stationary target detector is activated by an almost zero temporal contrast filter (TCF) and identifies targets using a spatial filter called the modified mean subtraction filter (M-MSF). A small motion (sub-pixel velocity) target detector is activated by a small TCF value and finds targets using the same spatial filter. A large motion (pixel-velocity) target detector works when the TCF value is high. The final target detection is terminated by fusing the three detectors based on the threat priority. The experimental results of the various target sequences show that the proposed fusion-based target detector produces the highest detection rate with an acceptable false alarm rate. PMID:25815448

  8. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  9. Secondary scintillation yield in high-pressure xenon gas for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D. C.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Ball, M.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Lux, T.; Sánchez, F.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2010-02-01

    The search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) is an important topic in contemporary physics with many active experiments. New projects are planning to use high-pressure xenon gas as both source and detection medium. The secondary scintillation processes available in noble gases permit large amplification with negligible statistical fluctuations, offering the prospect of energy resolution approaching the Fano factor limit. This Letter reports results for xenon secondary scintillation yield, at room temperature, as a function of electric field in the gas scintillation gap for pressures ranging from 2 to 10 bar. A Large Area Avalanche Photodiode (LAAPD) collected the VUV secondary scintillation produced in the gas. X-rays directly absorbed in the LAAPD are used as a reference for determining the number of charge carriers produced by the scintillation pulse and, hence, the number of photons impinging the LAAPD. The number of photons produced per drifting electron and per kilovolt, the so-called scintillation amplification parameter, displays a small increase with pressure, ranging from 141±6 at 2 bar to 170±10 at 8 bar. In our setup, this parameter does not increase above 8 bar due to non-negligible electron attachment. The results are in good agreement with those presented in the literature in the 1 to 3 bar range. The increase of the scintillation amplification parameter with pressure for high gas densities has been also observed in former work at cryogenic temperatures.

  10. A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Alvarez-Perez, Juan-Carlos; Felsenfeld, Dan P; Liu, Hongtao; Sivendran, Sharmila; Bender, Aaron; Kumar, Anil; Sanchez, Roberto; Scott, Donald K; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo; Stewart, Andrew F

    2015-04-01

    Types 1 and 2 diabetes affect some 380 million people worldwide. Both ultimately result from a deficiency of functional pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Beta cells proliferate in humans during a brief temporal window beginning around the time of birth, with a peak percentage (?2%) engaged in the cell cycle in the first year of life. In embryonic life and after early childhood, beta cell replication is barely detectable. Whereas beta cell expansion seems an obvious therapeutic approach to beta cell deficiency, adult human beta cells have proven recalcitrant to such efforts. Hence, there remains an urgent need for antidiabetic therapeutic agents that can induce regeneration and expansion of adult human beta cells in vivo or ex vivo. Here, using a high-throughput small-molecule screen (HTS), we find that analogs of the small molecule harmine function as a new class of human beta cell mitogenic compounds. We also define dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) as the likely target of harmine and the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors as likely mediators of human beta cell proliferation and differentiation. Using three different mouse and human islet in vivo-based models, we show that harmine is able to induce beta cell proliferation, increase islet mass and improve glycemic control. These observations suggest that harmine analogs may have unique therapeutic promise for human diabetes therapy. Enhancing the potency and beta cell specificity of these compounds are important future challenges. PMID:25751815

  11. High efficiency and brightness fluorescent organic light emitting diode by triplet-triplet fusion

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-02-10

    A first device is provided. The first device further comprises an organic light emitting device. The organic light emitting device further comprises an anode, a cathode, and an emissive layer disposed between the anode and the cathode. The emissive layer may include an organic host compound and at least one organic emitting compound capable of fluorescent emission at room temperature. Various configurations are described for providing a range of current densities in which T-T fusion dominates over S-T annihilation, leading to very high efficiency fluorescent OLEDs.

  12. Indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion using highly supersonic, radiatively cooled, plasma slugs.

    PubMed

    Chittenden, J P; Dunne, M; Zepf, M; Lebedev, S V; Ciardi, A; Bland, S N

    2002-06-10

    We present a new approach to indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion which makes use of highly supersonic, radiatively cooled, slugs of plasma to energize a hohlraum. 2D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of slug formation in shaped liner Z-pinch implosions are presented along with 2D-radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the slug impacting a converter foil and 3D-view-factor simulations of a double-ended hohlraum. Results for the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratory indicate that two synchronous slugs of 250 kJ kinetic energy could be produced, resulting in a capsule surface temperature of approximately 225 eV. PMID:12059369

  13. In vitro gene fusions that join an enzymatically active beta-galactosidase segment to amino-terminal fragments of exogenous proteins: Escherichia coli plasmid vectors for the detection and cloning of translational initiation signals.

    PubMed Central

    Casadaban, M J; Chou, J; Cohen, S N

    1980-01-01

    We report the construction and use of a series of plasmid vectors suitable for the detection and cloning of translational control signals and 5' coding sequences of exogenously derived genes. In these plasmids, the first eight codons of the amino-terminal end of the lactose operon beta-galactosidase gene, lacZ, were removed, and unique BamHI, EcoRI, and SmaI (XmaI) endonuclease cleavage sites were incorporated adjacent to the eighth codon of lacZ. Introduction of deoxyribonucleic acid fragments containing appropriate regulatory signals and 5' coding sequences into such lac fusion plasmids led to the production of hybrid proteins consisting of the carboxyl-terminal segment of a beta-galactosidase remnant plus a peptide fragment that contained the amino-terminal amino acids encoded by the exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. These hybrid peptides retained beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity and yielded a Lac+ phenotype. Such hybrid proteins are useful for purifying peptide sequences encoded by exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid fragments and for studies relating the structure and function of specific peptide segments. Images PMID:6162838

  14. Low or High Fractionation Dose {beta}-Radiotherapy for Pterygium? A Randomized Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, Gustavo Arruda; De Fendi, Ligia Issa; Fonseca, Ellen Carrara; Stefano, Eduardo Jose

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Postoperative adjuvant treatment using {beta}-radiotherapy (RT) is a proven technique for reducing the recurrence of pterygium. A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether a low fractionation dose of 2 Gy within 10 fractions would provide local control similar to that after a high fractionation dose of 5 Gy within 7 fractions for surgically resected pterygium. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted in 200 patients (216 pterygia) between February 2006 and July 2007. Only patients with fresh pterygium resected using a bare sclera method and given RT within 3 days were included. Postoperative RT was delivered using a strontium-90 eye applicator. The pterygia were randomly treated using either 5 Gy within 7 fractions (Group 1) or 2 Gy within 10 fractions (Group 2). The local control rate was calculated from the date of surgery. Results: Of the 216 pterygia included, 112 were allocated to Group 1 and 104 to Group 2. The 3-year local control rate for Groups 1 and 2 was 93.8% and 92.3%, respectively (p = .616). A statistically significant difference for cosmetic effect (p = .034), photophobia (p = .02), irritation (p = .001), and scleromalacia (p = .017) was noted in favor of Group 2. Conclusions: No better local control rate for postoperative pterygium was obtained using high-dose fractionation vs. low-dose fractionation. However, a low-dose fractionation schedule produced better cosmetic effects and resulted in fewer symptoms than high-dose fractionation. Moreover, pterygia can be safely treated in terms of local recurrence using RT schedules with a biologic effective dose of 24-52.5 Gy{sub 10.}.

  15. Effect of solvent on absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. L.; Zheng, Z. R.; Liu, Z. G.; Zhu, R. B.; Wu, W. Z.; Li, A. H.; Yang, Y. Q.; Dai, Z. F.; Su, W. H.

    2008-03-28

    The absorption spectra of all-trans-{beta}-carotene in n-hexane and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) solutions are measured under high pressure at ambient temperature. The common redshift and broadening in the spectra are observed. Simulation of the absorption spectra was performed by using the time-domain formula of the stochastic model. The pressure dependence of the 0-0 band wavenumber is in agreement with the Bayliss theory at pressure higher than 0.2 GPa. The deviation of the linearity at lower pressure is ascribed to the reorientation of the solvent molecules. Both the redshift and broadening are stronger in CS{sub 2} than that in n-hexane because of the more sensitive pressure dependence of dispersive interactions in CS{sub 2} solution. The effect of pressure on the transition moment is explained with the aid of a simple model involving the relative dimension, location, and orientation of the solute and solvent molecules. The implication of these results for light-harvesting functions of carotenoids in photosynthesis is also discussed.

  16. Life Studies of Metal Films on Beta-Alumina at High Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Kisor, A.; Fiebig, B.; Cortez, R.; Ryan, M.; Shields, V.; Homer, M.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of metallic films on sodium beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic in technology for the alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) include both electrode and metallization functions.

  17. Prediction of parallel in-register amyloidogenic beta-structures In highly beta-rich protein sequences by pairwise propensity analysis

    E-print Network

    Bryan, Allen Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Amyloids and prion proteins are clinically and biologically important beta-structures, whose supersecondary structures are difficult to determine by standard experimental or computational means. In addition, significant ...

  18. Alpha or beta human chorionic gonadotropin knockdown decrease BeWo cell fusion by down-regulating PKA and CREB activation.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sudha Saryu; Suman, Pankaj; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to delineate the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in trophoblast fusion. In this direction, using shRNA lentiviral particles, ?- and ?-hCG silenced 'BeWo' cell lines were generated. Treatment of both ?- and ?-hCG silenced BeWo cells with either forskolin or exogenous hCG showed a significant reduction in cell fusion as compared with control shRNA treated cells. Studies by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed down-regulation of fusion-associated proteins such as syncytin-1 and syndecan-1 in the ?- and ?-hCG silenced cells. Delineation of downstream signaling pathways revealed that phosphorylation of PKA and CREB were compromised in the silenced cells whereas, no significant changes in p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were observed. Moreover, ?-catenin activation was unaffected by either ?- or ?-hCG silencing. Further, inhibition of PKA by H89 inhibitor led to a significant decrease in BeWo cell fusion but had no effect on ?-catenin activation suggesting the absence of non-canonical ?-catenin stabilization via PKA. Interestingly, canonical activation of ?-catenin was associated with the up-regulation of Wnt 10b expression. In summary, this study establishes the significance of hCG in the fusion of trophoblastic BeWo cells, but there may be additional factors involved in this process. PMID:26053549

  19. Alpha or beta human chorionic gonadotropin knockdown decrease BeWo cell fusion by down-regulating PKA and CREB activation

    PubMed Central

    Saryu Malhotra, Sudha; Suman, Pankaj; Kumar Gupta, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to delineate the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in trophoblast fusion. In this direction, using shRNA lentiviral particles, ?- and ?-hCG silenced ‘BeWo’ cell lines were generated. Treatment of both ?- and ?-hCG silenced BeWo cells with either forskolin or exogenous hCG showed a significant reduction in cell fusion as compared with control shRNA treated cells. Studies by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed down-regulation of fusion-associated proteins such as syncytin-1 and syndecan-1 in the ?- and ?-hCG silenced cells. Delineation of downstream signaling pathways revealed that phosphorylation of PKA and CREB were compromised in the silenced cells whereas, no significant changes in p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were observed. Moreover, ?-catenin activation was unaffected by either ?- or ?-hCG silencing. Further, inhibition of PKA by H89 inhibitor led to a significant decrease in BeWo cell fusion but had no effect on ?-catenin activation suggesting the absence of non-canonical ?-catenin stabilization via PKA. Interestingly, canonical activation of ?-catenin was associated with the up-regulation of Wnt 10b expression. In summary, this study establishes the significance of hCG in the fusion of trophoblastic BeWo cells, but there may be additional factors involved in this process. PMID:26053549

  20. Different pituitary. beta. -endorphin and adrenal cortisol response to ethanol in individuals with high and low risk for future development of alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Gianoulakis, C.G.; Beliveau, D.; Angelogianni, P.; Meaney, M.; Thavundayil, J.; Tawar, V.; Dumas, M. )

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the activity of the adrenal gland and the pituitary {beta}-endorphin system in individuals from families with a 3 generation history of alcoholism, High Risk group, or from families without history of alcoholism, Low Risk group. On the day of testing, blood sample was taken at 9:00 a.m., then the subject drank a placebo drink or an ethanol solution. Additional blood samples were taken at 15, 45 and 120 minutes post-drink. Results indicated that individuals of the High Risk group had lower basal levels of {beta}-endorphin like immunoreactivity ({beta}-EPLIR) than individuals of the Low Risk group. The dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg B.Wt. induced an induce an increase in the plasma content of {beta}-EPLIR of the High Risk group, but not of the Low Risk group. In the Low Risk group ethanol did not induce an increase above the 9:00 a.m. levels, however, it attenuated the {beta}-endorphin decrease overtime, observed following the placebo drink. Analysis of {beta}-endorphin-like peptides in the plasma of the High Risk group, with Sephadex G-75 chromatography indicated that the major component of the plasma {beta}-EPLIR was {beta}-lipotropin. Plasma cortisol levels, following ethanol intake, presented a small increase in the High Risk group but not in the Low Risk group.

  1. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part II

    E-print Network

    Multi-Sensor Fusion of Electro-Optic and Infrared Signals for High Resolution Visible Images: Part of objects and do not work in dark environments. On the other hand, infrared (IR) image sensors exhibit. In contrast, infrared (IR) image sensors exhibit the properties of low resolution and high noise level, but IR

  2. Use of Polycarbonate Vacuum Vessels in High-Temperature Fusion-Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect

    B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, H. Feder, J. Gumbas, T. Franckowiak and S.A. Cohen

    2012-09-27

    Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research requires ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, primarily to reduce plasma contamination by impurities. For radiofrequency (RF)-heated plasmas, a great benefit may accrue from a non-conducting vacuum vessel, allowing external RF antennas which avoids the complications and cost of internal antennas and high-voltage high-current feedthroughs. In this paper we describe these and other criteria, e.g., safety, availability, design flexibility, structural integrity, access, outgassing, transparency, and fabrication techniques that led to the selection and use of 25.4-cm OD, 1.6-cm wall polycarbonate pipe as the main vacuum vessel for an MFE research device whose plasmas are expected to reach keV energies for durations exceeding 0.1 s

  3. Protoplast fusion permits high-frequency transfer of a Streptomyces determinant which mediates actinomycin synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, K

    1982-01-01

    Prototrophic recombinants and heterocaryotic colonies developed at high frequency when protoplasts of nutritionally complementary actinomycin-producing and nonproducing strains of Streptomyces antibioticus were fused in the presence of polyethylene glycol and plated on minimal regeneration medium. Of the spores obtained from aerial hyphae of a single heterocaryotic colony, 99% carried the act+ character regardless of whether the nutritional markers of the spore were derived from the act+ or the act parent. Similarly, a high-frequency transfer (68% in S. antibioticus, 48% in Streptomyces parvulus) of act+ determinant(s) to act was achieved by protoplast fusion. Protoplasts of a doubly auxotrophic act strain of S. parvulus were efficiently transformed in the presence of polyethylene glycol with respect to the auxotrophic markers by DNA of an act+ auxotrophic strain with complementary nutritional requirements. The transformation frequency of the nutritional (chromosomal) markers was 17%. In contrast, the transformation frequency for actinomycin synthesis was less than 1%. Images PMID:6175616

  4. HYFIRE II: fusion/high-temperature electrolysis conceptual-design study. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    As in the previous HYFIRE design study, the current study focuses on coupling a Tokamak fusion reactor with a high-temperature blanket to a High-Temperature Electrolyzer (HTE) process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Scaling of the STARFIRE reactor to allow a blanket power to 6000 MW(th) is also assumed. The primary difference between the two studies is the maximum inlet steam temperature to the electrolyzer. This temperature is decreased from approx. 1300/sup 0/ to approx. 1150/sup 0/C, which is closer to the maximum projected temperature of the Westinghouse fuel cell design. The process flow conditions change but the basic design philosophy and approaches to process design remain the same as before. Westinghouse assisted in the study in the areas of systems design integration, plasma engineering, balance-of-plant design, and electrolyzer technology.

  5. Reaching High-Yield Fusion with a Slow Plasma Liner Compressing a Magnetized Target

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D; Parks, P B

    2008-03-18

    Dynamics of the compression of a magnetized plasma target by a heavy liner made of partially ionized high high-Z material is discussed. A 'soft-landing' (shockless) mode of the liner deceleration is analyzed. Conclusion is drawn that such mode is possible for the liners whose thickness at the time of the first contact with the target is smaller than, roughly, 10% of the initial (un-compressed) target radius. A combination of the plasma liner with one or two glide cones allows for a direct access to the area near the center of the reactor chamber. One can then generate plasma target inside the plasma liner at the optimum time. The other advantage of the glide cones is that they can be used to deliver additional fuel to the center of the target near the point of a maximum compression and thereby increase the fusion yield.

  6. Potential for use of high-temperature superconductors in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The present rate of development of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) is sufficiently rapid that there may be opportunities for their use in contemporary fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The most likely 1application is for delivering power to the superconducting magnets, especially in substituting for the current leads between the temperatures of 4 K and 77K. A second possible application of HTSs is as a liquid-nitrogen-cooled power bus, connecting the power supplies to the magnets, thus reducing the ohmic heating losses over these relatively long cables. A third potential application of HTSs is as an inner high-field winding of the toroidal field coils that would operate at {approx}20 K. While the use of higher temperature magnets offers significant advantages to the reactor system, it is unlikely that tested conductors of this type will be available within the ITER time frame. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Archaeal CCA-adding enzymes: central role of a highly conserved beta-turn motif in RNA polymerization without translocation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyundae D; Verlinde, Christophe L; Weiner, Alan M

    2005-03-11

    The CCA-adding enzyme (tRNA nucleotidyltransferase) builds and repairs the 3' end of tRNA. A single active site adds both CTP and ATP, but the enzyme has no nucleic acid template, and tRNA does not translocate or rotate during C75 and A76 addition. We modeled the structure of the class I archaeal Sulfolobus shibatae CCA-adding enzyme on eukaryotic poly(A) polymerase and mutated residues in the vicinity of the active site. We found mutations that specifically affected C74, C75, or A76 addition, as well as mutations that progressively impaired addition of CCA. Many of these mutations clustered in an evolutionarily versatile beta-turn located between strands 3 and 4 of the nucleotidyltransferase domain. Our mutational analysis confirms and extends recent crystallographic studies of the highly homologous Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme. We suggest that the unusual phenotypes of the beta-turn mutants reflect the consecutive conformations assumed by the beta-turn as it presents the discriminator base N73, then C74, and finally C75 to the active site without translocation or rotation of the tRNA acceptor stem. We also suggest that beta-turn mutants can affect nucleotide selection because the growing 3' end of tRNA must be properly positioned to serve as part of the ribonucleoprotein template that selects the incoming nucleotide. PMID:15590678

  8. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Research Program and Progress Towards High Beta, Long Pulse Operating Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    E.J. Synakowski; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; D.S. Darrow; , P.C. Efthimion; et al.

    2002-10-15

    A major research goal of the National Spherical Torus Experiment is establishing long-pulse, high-beta, high-confinement operation and its physics basis. This research has been enabled by facility capabilities developed over the last two years, including neutral-beam (up to 7 MW) and high-harmonic fast-wave heating (up to 6 MW), toroidal fields up to 6 kG, plasma currents up to 1.5 MA, flexible shape control, and wall preparation techniques. These capabilities have enabled the generation of plasmas with <beta {sub T}> up to 35%. Normalized beta values often exceed the no wall limit, and studies suggest that passive wall mode stabilization is enabling this for broad pressure profiles characteristic of H-mode plasmas. The viability of long, high bootstrap-current fraction operations has been established for ELMing H-mode plasmas with toroidal beta values in excess of 15% and sustained for several current relaxation times. Improvements in wall conditioning and fueling are likely contributing to a reduction in H-mode power thresholds. Electron thermal conduction is the dominant thermal loss channel in auxiliary-heated plasmas examined thus far. High-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) effectively heats electrons, and its acceleration of fast beam ions has been observed. Evidence for HHFW current drive is by comparing of the loop voltage evolution in plasmas with matched density and temperature profiles but varying phases of launched HHFW waves. A peak heat flux of 10 MW/m superscript ''2'' has been measured in the H-mode, with large asymmetries in the power deposition being observed between the inner and outer strike points. Noninductive plasma start-up studies have focused on coaxial helicity injection. With this technique, toroidal currents up to 400 kA have been driven, and studies to assess flux closure and coupling to other current-drive techniques have begun.

  9. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

  10. High-power corrugates waveguide components for mm-wave fusion heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Olstad, R.A.; Doane, J.L.; Moeller, C.P.; O`Neill, R.C.; Di Martino, M.

    1996-10-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last year in the U.S., Japan, Russia, and Europe in developing high power long pulse gyrotrons for fusion plasma heating and current drive. These advanced gyrotrons typically operate at a frequency in the range 82 GHz to 170 GHz at nearly megawatt power levels for pulse lengths up to 5 s. To take advantage of these new microwave sources for fusion research, new and improved transmission line components are needed to reliably transmit microwave power to plasmas with minimal losses. Over the last year, General Atomics and collaborating companies (Spinner GmbH in Europe and Toshiba Corporation in Japan) have developed a wide variety of new components which meet the demanding power, pulse length, frequency, and vacuum requirements for effective utilization of the new generation of gyrotrons. These components include low-loss straight corrugated waveguides, miter bends, miter bend polarizers, power monitors, waveguide bellows, de breaks, waveguide switches, dummy loads, and distributed windows. These components have been developed with several different waveguide diameters (32, 64, and 89 mm) and frequency ranges (82 GHz to 170 GHz). This paper describes the design requirements of selected components and their calculated and measured performance characteristics.

  11. The National Ignition Facility Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High Energy Density Experimental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuest, Craig R.

    2001-03-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is 192-beam, 1.8 Megajoule, 500 Terawatt, 351 nm laser for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency to provide an experimental test bed for the US Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country’s nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program for NIF will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% of the shots will be dedicated to basic science research. Additionally, most of the shots on NIF will be conducted in unclassified configurations that will allow participation from the greater scientific community in planned applied physics experiments. This presentation will provide a look at the status of the construction project as well as a description of the scientific uses of NIF. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  12. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  13. High-level multifunction radar simulation for studying the performance of multisensor data fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizing, Albert G.; Bosse, Eloi

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the basic requirements for a simulation of the main capabilities of a shipborne MultiFunction Radar (MFR) that can be used in conjunction with other sensor simulations in scenarios for studying Multi Sensor Data Fusion (MSDF) systems. This simulation is being used to support an ongoing joint effort (Canada - The Netherlands) in the development of MSDF testbeds. This joint effort is referred as Joint-FACET (Fusion Algorithms & Concepts Exploration Testbed), a highly modular and flexible series of applications that is capable of processing both real and synthetic input data. The question raised here is how realistic should the sensor simulations be to trust the MSDF performance assessment? A partial answer to this question is that at least, the dominant perturbing effects on sensor detection (true or false) are sufficiently represented. Following this philosophy, the MFR model, presented here, takes into account sensor's design parameters and external environmental effects such as clutter, propagation and jamming. Previous radar simulations capture most of these dominant effects. In this paper the emphasis is on an MFR scheduler which is the key element that needs to be added to the previous simulations to represent the MFR capability to search and track a large number of targets and at the same time support a large number of (semi-active) surface-to-air missiles (SAM) for the engagement of multiple hostile targets.

  14. Simulation of System Error Tolerances of a High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steven M.; Bangerter, Roger O.; Freidman, Alex; Grote, Dave P.; Seidl, Peter A.

    2000-10-01

    A driver-scale, intense ion beam transport experiment (HCX) is being designed to test issues for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) [1]. Here we present detailed, Particle in Cell simulations of HCX to parametrically explore how various system errors can impact machine performance. The simulations are transverse and include the full 3D fields of the quadrupole focusing magnets, spreads in axial momentum, conducting pipe boundary conditions, etc. System imperfections such as applied focusing field errors (magnet strength, field nonlinearities, etc.), alignment errors (magnet offsets and rotations), beam envelope mismatches to the focusing lattice, induced beam image charges, and beam distribution errors (beam nonuniformities, collective modes, and other distortions) are all analyzed in turn and in combination. The influence of these errors on the degradation of beam quality (emittance growth), halo production, and loss of beam control are evaluated. Evaluations of practical machine apertures and centroid steering corrections that can mitigate particle loss and degradation of beam quality are carried out. 1. P.A. Seidl, L.E. Ahle, R.O. Bangerter, V.P. Karpenko, S.M. Lund, A Faltens, R.M. Franks, D.B. Shuman, and H.K. Springer, Design of a Proof of Principal High Current Transport Experiment for Heavy-Ion Fusion, these proceedings.

  15. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  16. Co-existence of whistler waves with kinetic Alfven wave turbulence for the high-beta solar wind plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mithaiwala, Manish; Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas; Rudakov, Leonid

    2012-10-15

    It is shown that the dispersion relation for whistler waves is identical for a high or low beta plasma. Furthermore, in the high-beta solar wind plasma, whistler waves meet the Landau resonance with electrons for velocities less than the thermal speed, and consequently, the electric force is small compared to the mirror force. As whistlers propagate through the inhomogeneous solar wind, the perpendicular wave number increases through refraction, increasing the Landau damping rate. However, the whistlers can survive because the background kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence creates a plateau by quasilinear (QL) diffusion in the solar wind electron distribution at small velocities. It is found that for whistler energy density of only {approx}10{sup -3} that of the kinetic Alfven waves, the quasilinear diffusion rate due to whistlers is comparable to KAW. Thus, very small amplitude whistler turbulence can have a significant consequence on the evolution of the solar wind electron distribution function.

  17. Beta Thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Beta thalassemia is found in people of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, African, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, etc.), Southeast Asian and Chinese descent. 1 Beta Thalassemia ßß Normal beta globin genes found on chromosomes ...

  18. High resolution image acquisition from magnetic resonance and computed tomography scans using the curvelet fusion algorithm with inverse interpolation techniques.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fatma E; El-Dokany, Ibrahim M; Saad, Abdelfattah A; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E

    2010-01-01

    We present a new approach, based on the curvelet transform, for the fusion of magnetic resonance and computed tomography images. The objective of this fusion process is to obtain images, with as much detail as possible, for medical diagnosis. This approach is based on the application of the additive wavelet transform on both images and the segmentation of their detail planes into small overlapping tiles. The ridgelet transform is then applied on each of these tiles, and the fusion process is performed on the ridgelet transforms of the tiles. To maximize the benefit of the fused images, inverse interpolation techniques are used to obtain high resolution images from the low resolution fused images. Three inverse interpolation techniques are presented and compared. Simulation results show the superiority of the proposed curvelet fusion approach to the traditional discrete wavelet transform fusion technique. Results also reveal that inverse interpolation techniques have succeeded in obtaining high resolution images from the fused images with better quality than that of the traditional cubic spline interpolation technique. PMID:20062497

  19. High-Precision Measurements of the Superallowed Beta+ Decays of 38Ca and 46V 

    E-print Network

    Park, Hyo-In

    2012-10-19

    As a part of our program to test the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, the decay of the superallowed 0? --> 0? beta emitters ³?Ca and ??V has been studied in this dissertation. For ³?Ca, the half-life, 443.88(36) ms...

  20. Reward feedback stimuli elicit high-beta EEG oscillations in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Azadeh Haji; Holroyd, Clay B.

    2015-01-01

    Reward-related feedback stimuli have been observed to elicit a burst of power in the beta frequency range over frontal areas of the human scalp. Recent discussions have suggested possible neural sources for this activity but there is a paucity of empirical evidence on the question. Here we recorded EEG from participants while they navigated a virtual T-maze to find monetary rewards. Consistent with previous studies, we found that the reward feedback stimuli elicited an increase in beta power (20–30?Hz) over a right-frontal area of the scalp. Source analysis indicated that this signal was produced in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). These findings align with previous observations of reward-related beta oscillations in the DLPFC in non-human primates. We speculate that increased power in the beta frequency range following reward receipt reflects the activation of task-related neural assemblies that encode the stimulus-response mapping in working memory. PMID:26278335

  1. Highly efficient deprotection of aromatic acetals under neutral conditions using beta-cyclodextrin in water.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, N Srilakshmi; Surendra, K; Reddy, M Arjun; Nageswar, Y V D; Rao, K Rama

    2003-03-01

    Aromatic acetals have been deprotected to the corresponding aldehydes under biomimetic conditions for the first time using beta-cyclodextrin in water under neutral conditions, thereby overcoming many of the drawbacks associated with earlier methodologies. This method, apart from being simple with regard to recycling of the catalyst, also has the potential for industrial applications. PMID:12608827

  2. Stability of small-wavelength tearing modes in a high-beta toroidal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waelbroeck, F. L.; Miller, R. L.; Chu, Ming

    1997-11-01

    The maximum beta that can be sustained for periods of time comparable to the resistive diffusion time, the so-called long-pulse beta-limit, is determined by the stability threshold for the tearing mode. A key parameter in all the theories aiming to determine this threshold is the ?' index. This index describes the free energy available for the mode in the bulk of the plasma. Here, we present a method for evaluating ?' for modes with large wavenumbers in an arbitrary equilibrium configuration. Our results extend the well-known low-beta cylindrical result,^1 ?' ~ -2k_bot, to toroidal discharges with shaped cross-sections, finite beta, and arbitrary aspect-ratio. We present the results of a code that implements our method numerically. Our code complements PEST-III,^2,3 which calculates the stability matrices for long wavelength modes. The short wavelength matrices have the advantage of requiring only the knowledge of quantities determined locally near the magnetic surface of interest. This makes it possible to consider the effect of modifying the local gradients, such as the pressure or current gradient, without recalculating the entire equilibrium.

  3. High-{beta} island-divertor equilibria of a quasi-isodynamic stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Drevlak, M.; Nuehrenberg, J.

    2013-07-15

    A stellarator vacuum field is found for which free-boundary MHD quasi-isodynamic equilibria with a nearly invariant island structure in the vacuum field region surrounding the plasma are obtained for Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket {beta} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket values up to about 0.07.

  4. High-level production of human interleukin-10 fusions in tobacco cell suspension cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kaldis, Angelo; Ahmad, Adil; Reid, Alexandra; McGarvey, Brian; Brandle, Jim; Ma, Shengwu; Jevnikar, Anthony; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-01-01

    The production of pharmaceutical proteins in plants has made much progress in recent years with the development of transient expression systems, transplastomic technology and humanizing glycosylation patterns in plants. However, the first therapeutic proteins approved for administration to humans and animals were made in plant cell suspensions for reasons of containment, rapid scale-up and lack of toxic contaminants. In this study, we have investigated the production of human interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tobacco BY-2 cell suspension and evaluated the effect of an elastin-like polypeptide tag (ELP) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag on IL-10 accumulation. We report the highest accumulation levels of hIL-10 obtained with any stable plant expression system using the ELP fusion strategy. Although IL-10-ELP has cytokine activity, its activity is reduced compared to unfused IL-10, likely caused by interference of ELP with folding of IL-10. Green fluorescent protein has no effect on IL-10 accumulation, but examining the trafficking of IL-10-GFP over the cell culture cycle revealed fluorescence in the vacuole during the stationary phase of the culture growth cycle. Analysis of isolated vacuoles indicated that GFP alone is found in vacuoles, while the full-size fusion remains in the whole-cell extract. This indicates that GFP is cleaved off prior to its trafficking to the vacuole. On the other hand, IL-10-GFP-ELP remains mostly in the ER and accumulates to high levels. Protein bodies were observed at the end of the culture cycle and are thought to arise as a consequence of high levels of accumulation in the ER. PMID:23297698

  5. Characterization of beta-glucosidases with high specificity for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hösel, W; Tober, I; Eklund, S H; Conn, E E

    1987-01-01

    Two beta-glucosidases exhibiting high specificity for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin have been purified to near homogeneity from seedlings of Sorghum bicolor. Dhurrinase 1 was isolated from shoots of seedlings grown in the dark. Dhurrinase 2 was isolated from the green shoots of young seedlings grown in the light. The two enzymes were similar in following characteristics: their optimum activity is around pH 6.2; the enzymes are stable above pH 7; they are effectively inhibited by the beta-glycosidase inhibitors nojirimycin delta-gluconolactone and 1-amino-beta-D-glucoside. On the other hand, they clearly differed in other properties, e.g., molecular weights, isoelectric points, and substrate specificity. Moreover, dithiothreitol has no effect on dhurrinase 1, but is necessary for the activity of dhurrinase 2. Preliminary investigations indicate that the two enzymes are located in different parts of the sorghum seedlings: dhurrinase 1 is found in the coleoptiles and hypocotyls; dhurrinase 2 occurs in the leaves. Dhurrin (p-hydroxy-(S)-mandelonitrile-beta-D-glucoside) and its structural analog without the hydroxyl group, sambunigrin, were the only substrates hydrolyzed at high rate, the Km values with both enzymes being 0.15 and 0.3 mM, respectively. All other cyanogenic glucosides tested, as well as synthetic substrates such as 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside, were in general poor substrates, especially for dhurrinase 1, the enzyme isolated from coleoptile and hypocotyl tissue. Dhurrinase 1 appears to exist within the seedlings as a tetramer (Mr - 2-2.4 X 10(5)) which dissociates without loss of activity into a dimeric form (Mr = 1-1.1 X 10(5)) upon extraction and purification. There is only one monomeric subunit with Mr = 5.7 X 10(4). Isolectric focusing and chromatofocusing of purified dhurrinase 1 showed the presence of at least three isomeric forms, but their relationship to each other is not known at the present time. Dhurrinase 2 appears to be a tetrameric protein with Mr = 2.5-3 X 10(5); it also has only one monomeric subunit of Mr = 6.1 X 10(4). In contrast to many other beta-glucosidases, the dhurrinases are not glycoproteins. PMID:3101594

  6. Pattern recognition of $^{136}$Xe double beta decay events and background discrimination in a high pressure Xenon TPC

    E-print Network

    S Cebrian; T Dafni; H Gomez; D C Herrera; F J Iguaz; I G Irastorza; G Luzon; L Segui; A Tomas

    2013-10-17

    High pressure gas detectors offer advantages for the detection of rare events, where background reduction is crucial. For the neutrinoless double beta decay of 136Xe a high pressure xenon gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC) combines a good energy resolution and a detailed topological information of each event. The ionization topology of the double beta decay event of 136Xe in gaseous xenon has a characteristic shape defined by the two straggling electron tracks ending up in two higher ionization charge density blobs. With a properly pixelized readout, this topological information is invaluable to perform powerful background discrimination. In this study we carry out detailed simulations of the signal topology, as well as the competing topologies from gamma events that typically compose the background at these energies. We define observables based on graph theory concepts and develop automated discrimination algorithms which reduce the background level in around three orders of magnitude while keeping signal efficiency of 40%. This result supports the competitiveness of current or future double beta experiments based on gas TPCs, like the Neutrino Xenon TPC (NEXT) currently under construction in the Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc (LSC).

  7. A high-risk patient with long-QT syndrome with no response to cardioselective beta-blockers.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Naoki; Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Shimizu, Wataru; Ohuchi, Hideo

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of a high-risk 19-year-old female with long-QT syndrome (LQTS) with compound mutations. She had a history of aborted cardiac arrest and syncope and had received treatment with propranolol for 15 years. However, because she developed adult-onset asthma we tried to switch propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, to beta-1-cardioselective agents, bisoprolol and metoprolol. These resulted in both a markedly prolonged corrected QT interval and the development of LQTS-associated arrhythmias. Eventually, propranolol was reinitiated at a higher dose with the addition of verapamil, and she has had no further cardiac or asthmatic events for 5 years. PMID:25028166

  8. Fission thrust sail as booster for high ?v fusion based propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyssens, Frederik; Wouters, Kristof; Driesen, Maarten

    2015-12-01

    The fission thrust sail as booster for nuclear fusion-based rocket propulsion for future starships is introduced and studied. First order calculations are used together with Monte Carlo simulations to assess system performance. If a D-D fusion rocket such as e.g. considered in Project Icarus has relatively low efficiency (~30%) in converting fusion fuel to a directed exhaust, adding a fission sail is shown to be beneficial for the obtainable delta-v. In addition, this type of fission-fusion hybrid propulsion has the potential to improve acceleration and act as a micrometeorite shield.

  9. High energy resummation of transverse momentum distributions:Higgs in gluon fusion

    E-print Network

    Forte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    We derive a general resummation formula for transverse-momentum distributions of hard processes at the leading logarithmic level in the high-energy limit, to all orders in the strong coupling. Our result is based on a suitable generalization of high-energy factorization theorems, whereby all-order resummation is reduced to the determination of the Born-level process but with incoming off-shell gluons. We validate our formula by applying it to Higgs production in gluon fusion in the infinite top mass limit. We check our result up to next-to-leading order by comparison to the high energy limit of the exact expression and to next-to-next-to leading by comparison to NNLL order trasverse momentum (Sudakov) resummation, and we predict the high-energy behaviour at next$^3$-to-leading order. We also show that the structure of the result in the small transverse momentum limit agrees to all orders with general constraints from Sudakov resummation.

  10. Simultaneous high-P, high-T X ray diffraction study of beta-(Mg,Fe)2SiO4 to 26 GPa and 900 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fei, Yingwei; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Shu, Jinfu; Parthasarathy, G.; Bassett, W. A.; Ko, Jaidong

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to the lattice parameters of beta phase (Mg(0.84)Fe(0.16))2SiO4 determined by X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation under simultaneous high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. The experiments were conducted up to a pressure of 26 GPa and a temperature of 900 K. High pressures were generated in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell using neon gas as a pressure medium. The sample was heated with an external Ni80Cr20 wire heater. Gold was used as an internal high-pressure calibrant at high temperature. The experimental data indicated the anisotropic behavior of the beta phase at high pressure and temperature, i.e., the c axis is about 35-percent more expansible and about 25-percent more compressible than the a and b axes. A value of 5.1 +/-0.8 was found for the Anderson-Grueneisen parameter. The derived thermodynamic parameters for the beta phase are summarized.

  11. High-power-density approaches to magnetic fusion energy: problems and promise of compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR)

    SciTech Connect

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Dreicer, H.

    1982-01-01

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the view point of low-field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. The RFP, therefore, is used as one example of a high-power-density (HPD) approach to magnetic fusion energy. A comprehensive system model is described and applied to select a unique, cost-optimized design point that will be used for a subsequent conceptual engineering design of the Compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR). This cost-optimized CRFPR design serves as an example of a HPD fusion reactor that would operate with system power densities and mass utilization that are comparable to fission power plants, these measures of system performance being an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion energy (MFE).

  12. The role of pi-acidic and pi-basic chiral stationary phases in the high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of unusual beta-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ilisz, István; Berkecz, Róbert; Forró, Eniko; Fülöp, Ferenc; Armstrong, Daniel W; Péter, Antal

    2009-03-01

    The application of 3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamoylated-beta-cyclodextrin (Cyclobond I 2000 DMP) and 2,6-dinitro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-ether-beta-cyclodextrin-based (Cyclobond DNP) chiral stationary phases for the high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of unusual beta-amino acids is reported. The investigated amino acids were saturated or unsaturated alicyclic beta-3-homo-amino acids and bicyclic beta-amino acids. Prior to chromatographic analyses, all amino acids were transformed to N-3,5-dinitrobenzoyl- or N-3,5-dimethylbenzoyl form to ensure a pi-acidic or pi-basic function and to enhance the pi-acidic-pi-basic interactions between analytes and chiral selectors. Chromatographic results are given as retention, separation and resolution factors. The chromatographic conditions were varied to achieve optimal separation. The sequence of elution of the enantiomers was determined in some cases. PMID:18553499

  13. Pressure-driven sound turbulence in a high-beta plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    LF turbulence is investigated experimentally in a 2-m-long 1-m-diameter magnetized electron fluid with beta(e) = about 0.5 and unmagnetized ions, generated in a double-pulsed linear dc discharge under a uniform external magnetic field of 15 G. The results of measurements with Langmuir probes, electric probes, and a directional particle analyzer are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. It is shown that the strong cross-field sound turbulence observed near the lower hybrid frequency is caused by the electron pressure gradient rather than E x B drift, with (1) temperature-gradient wave refraction as the dominant saturation mechanism, (2) wave-enhanced ion mass flow, and (3) only negligible ion-tail formation. The relevance of the present findings for studies of magnetic shock propagation is indicated.

  14. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, M.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500{degree}C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. A PARALLEL-PROPAGATING ALFVENIC ION-BEAM INSTABILITY IN THE HIGH-BETA SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-10

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron waves are driven unstable by an isotropic (T{sub {alpha}} = T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}) population of alpha particles drifting parallel to the magnetic field at an average speed U{sub {alpha}} with respect to the protons. We derive an approximate analytic condition for the minimum value of U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability and refine this result using numerical solutions to the hot-plasma dispersion relation. When the alpha-particle number density is {approx_equal} 5% of the proton number density and the two species have similar thermal speeds, the instability requires that {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 1, where {beta}{sub p} is the ratio of the proton pressure to the magnetic pressure. For 1 {approx}< {beta}{sub p} {approx}< 12, the minimum U{sub {alpha}} needed to excite this instability ranges from 0.7v{sub A} to 0.9v{sub A}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. This threshold is smaller than the threshold of {approx_equal} 1.2v{sub A} for the parallel magnetosonic instability, which was previously thought to have the lowest threshold of the alpha-particle beam instabilities at {beta}{sub p} {approx}> 0.5. We discuss the role of the parallel Alfvenic drift instability for the evolution of the alpha-particle drift speed in the solar wind. We also analyze measurements from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups and show that the U{sub {alpha}} values measured in solar-wind streams with T{sub {alpha}} Almost-Equal-To T{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} are approximately bounded from above by the threshold of the parallel Alfvenic instability.

  16. 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe) Digital Coincidence System Based on Synchronous High-Speed Multichannel Data Acquisition

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jifeng; Liang, Juncheng; Liu, Jiacheng

    2015-01-01

    A dedicated 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe)digital coincidence system has been developed in this work, which includes five acquisition channels. Three analog-to-digital converter (ADC) acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 8 bits and acquisition rate of 1GSPS (sample per second) are utilized to collect the signals from three Photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) which are adopted to detect {\\beta} decay, and two acquisition channels with an acquisition resolution of 16 bits and acquisition rate of 50MSPS are utilized to collect the signals from high-purity germanium (HPGe) which are adopted to detect {\\gamma} decay. In order to increase the accuracy of the coincidence system, all the five acquisition channels are synchronous within 500ps. The data collected by the five acquisition channels will be transmitted to the host PC through PCI bus and saved as a file. Off-line software is applied for the 4{\\pi}{\\beta} (LS)-{\\gamma} (HPGe) coincidence and data analysis as needed in practical application. W...

  17. Fusion of Range and Stereo Data for High-Resolution Scene-Modeling.

    PubMed

    Evangelidis, Georgios D; Hansard, Miles; Horaud, Radu

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of range-stereo fusion, for the construction of high-resolution depth maps. In particular, we combine low-resolution depth data with high-resolution stereo data, in a maximum a posteriori (MAP) formulation. Unlike existing schemes that build on MRF optimizers, we infer the disparity map from a series of local energy minimization problems that are solved hierarchically, by growing sparse initial disparities obtained from the depth data. The accuracy of the method is not compromised, owing to three properties of the data-term in the energy function. First, it incorporates a new correlation function that is capable of providing refined correlations and disparities, via subpixel correction. Second, the correlation scores rely on an adaptive cost aggregation step, based on the depth data. Third, the stereo and depth likelihoods are adaptively fused, based on the scene texture and camera geometry. These properties lead to a more selective growing process which, unlike previous seed-growing methods, avoids the tendency to propagate incorrect disparities. The proposed method gives rise to an intrinsically efficient algorithm, which runs at 3FPS on 2.0 MP images on a standard desktop computer. The strong performance of the new method is established both by quantitative comparisons with state-of-the-art methods, and by qualitative comparisons using real depth-stereo data-sets. PMID:26440260

  18. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of the High Frequency Hybrid Instability in Inertial Confiment Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, Frank; Afeyan, B. B.; Mori, W. B.

    2010-11-01

    We present results on the laser-plasma interaction near the quarter critical surface under conditions relevant to inertial fusion. Under these conditions, the high frequency hybrid instability (HFHI) where one of the daughter waves have mixed polarization, is likely to be dominant. In fully nonlinear kinetic simulations with the code OSIRIS we show that the spectrum at early time is consistent with theory and the growth rate predicted by HFHI theory is born out by these simulations. We also investigate the saturated electrostatic (and electromagnetic) spectrum for long timescales for both fixed and mobile ions. For high temperatures where the HFHI is dominant the absorption is dominated by the absolutely unstable modes and absorption levels near 40% can occur even below the pure 2wp modes. In these cases, it is possible to excite HFHI modes as long as one is above the Raman threshold. We also investigate in detail the evolution of unstable modes. Nonlinear effects, such as the generation of hot electrons, half harmonics and the excitation of low frequency ion fluctuations, will also be discussed.

  19. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of the High Frequency Hybrid Instability in Inertial Confiment Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, Frank; Mori, W. B.; Afeyan, B. B.

    2013-10-01

    We present results on the laser-plasma interaction near the quarter critical surface under conditions relevant to inertial fusion. Under these conditions, the high frequency hybrid instability (HFHI) where one of the daughter waves have mixed polarization, is likely to be dominant. In fully nonlinear kinetic simulations with the code OSIRIS we show that the spectrum at early time is consistent with theory. We also investgiate the saturated electrostatic (and electromagnetic) spectrum for long timescales for both fixed and mobile ions. For high temperatures where the HFHI is dominant the absorption is dominated by the absolutely unstable modes and absorption levels near 40% can occur even when Cmult is less than 1 (where Cmult is the which the system is above the threshold). We also investigate in detail the evolution of unstable modes. Nonlinear effects, such as the generation of hot electrons, half harmonics generations and the excitation of low frequency ion fluctuations, will also be discussed. This work is supported by DOE/NNSA.

  20. Overview of the scientific objectives of the high current experiment of heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.; Bangerter, R.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Karpenko, V.; Lee, E.; Haber, I.; Lund, S.; Molvik, A.

    2001-06-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) is being built to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale appropriate to the low-energy end of a driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams at high space-charge intensity (line-charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (3-10 {micro}sec). A single beam transport channel will be used to evaluate scientific and technological issues resulting from the transport of an intense beam subject to applied field nonlinearities, envelope mismatch, misalignment-induced centroid excursions, imperfect vacuum, halo, background gas and electron effects resulting from lost beam ions. Emphasis will be on the influence of these effects on beam control and limiting degradations in beam quality (emittance growth). Electrostatic (Phase I) and magnetic (Phase II) quadrupole focusing lattices have been designed and future phases of the experiment may involve acceleration and/or pulse compression. The Phase I lattice is presently under construction [1] and simulations to better predict machine performance are being carried out [2]. Here we overview: the scientific objectives of the overall project, processes that will be explored, and transport lattices developed.

  1. High yield inertial confinement fusion target design for a z-pinch-driven hohlraum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, James H.; Tabak, Max; Wilks, Scott C.; Lindl, John D.; Bailey, David S.; Rambo, Peter W.; Toor, Arthur; Zimmerman, George B.; Porter, John L.

    1999-05-01

    Calculations are presented for a high yield inertial fusion design, employing indirect drive with a double-ended z-pinch-driven hohlraum radiation source. A high current (˜60 MA) accelerator implodes z pinches within an enclosing hohlraum. Radial spoke arrays and shine shields isolate the capsule from the pinch plasma, magnetic field, and direct x-ray shine. Our approach places minimal requirements on z-pinch uniformity and stability, usually problematic due to magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Large inhomogeneities of the pinch and spoke array may be present, but the hohlraum adequately smooths the radiation field at the capsule. Simultaneity and reproducibility of the pinch x-ray output to better than 7% are required, however, for good symmetry. Recent experiments suggest a pulse shaping technique, through implosion of a multishell z pinch. X-ray bursts are calculated and observed to occur at each shell collision. A capsule absorbing 1 MJ of x rays at a peak drive temperature of 210 eV is found to have adequate stability and to produce 400 MJ of yield. A larger capsule absorbs 2 MJ with a yield of 1200 MJ.

  2. High yield inertial confinement fusion target design for a {ital z}-pinch-driven hohlraum

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.H.; Tabak, M.; Wilks, S.C.; Lindl, J.D.; Bailey, D.S.; Rambo, P.W.; Toor, A.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Porter, J.L. Jr.

    1999-05-01

    Calculations are presented for a high yield inertial fusion design, employing indirect drive with a double-ended {ital z}-pinch-driven hohlraum radiation source. A high current ({approximately}60 MA) accelerator implodes {ital z} pinches within an enclosing hohlraum. Radial spoke arrays and shine shields isolate the capsule from the pinch plasma, magnetic field, and direct x-ray shine. Our approach places minimal requirements on {ital z}-pinch uniformity and stability, usually problematic due to magneto-Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability. Large inhomogeneities of the pinch and spoke array may be present, but the hohlraum adequately smooths the radiation field at the capsule. Simultaneity and reproducibility of the pinch x-ray output to better than 7{percent} are required, however, for good symmetry. Recent experiments suggest a pulse shaping technique, through implosion of a multishell {ital z} pinch. X-ray bursts are calculated and observed to occur at each shell collision. A capsule absorbing 1 MJ of x rays at a peak drive temperature of 210 eV is found to have adequate stability and to produce 400 MJ of yield. A larger capsule absorbs 2 MJ with a yield of 1200 MJ. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. High-quality slab-based intermixing method for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Joon; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Juneseuk; Kim, Kyoung Won; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    The visualization of multiple 3D objects has been increasingly required for recent applications in medical fields. Due to the heterogeneity in data representation or data configuration, it is difficult to efficiently render multiple medical objects in high quality. In this paper, we present a novel intermixing scheme for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects while preserving the real-time performance. First, we present an in-slab visibility interpolation method for the representation of subdivided slabs. Second, we introduce virtual zSlab, which extends an infinitely thin boundary (such as polygonal objects) into a slab with a finite thickness. Finally, based on virtual zSlab and in-slab visibility interpolation, we propose a slab-based visibility intermixing method with the newly proposed rendering pipeline. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method delivers more effective multiple-object renderings in terms of rendering quality, compared to conventional approaches. And proposed intermixing scheme provides high-quality intermixing results for the visualization of intersecting and overlapping surfaces by resolving aliasing and z-fighting problems. Moreover, two case studies are presented that apply the proposed method to the real clinical applications. These case studies manifest that the proposed method has the outstanding advantages of the rendering independency and reusability. PMID:26403436

  4. Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Mark A.; Woods, B.; Deyoreo, J. J.; Roberts, D.; Atherton, L. J.

    1995-08-01

    We describe the design and performance of large-aperture ( greater than 30 cm \\times 30 cm) optical switches that have demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, active switching of a high-energy ( greater than 5 kJ) optical pulse in an inertial-confinement fusion laser. These optical switches, which consist of a plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) and a passive polarizer, permit the design of efficient, multipass laser amplifiers. In a PEPC, plasma discharges on the faces of a thin (1-cm) electro-optic crystal (KDP or KD*P) act as highly conductive and transparent electrodes. These plasma electrodes facilitate rapid ( less than 100 ns) and uniform charging of the crystal to the half-wave voltage and discharging back to 0 V. We discuss the operating principles, design, optical performance, and technical issues of a 32 cm \\times 32 cm prototype PEPC with both KDP and KD*P crystals, and a 37 cm \\times 37 cm PEPC with a KDP crystal for the Beamlet laser. This PEPC recently switched a 6-kJ, 3-ns pulse in a four-pass cavity.

  5. Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy inertial-confinement fusion lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Woods, B.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Roberts, D.; Atherton, L.J.

    1995-08-20

    We describe the design and performance of large-aperture ({lt}30 cm {times} 30 cm) optical switches that have demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, active switching of a high-energy ({lt}5 kJ) optical pulse in an inertial-confinement fusion laser. These optical switches, which consist of a plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC) and a passive polarizer, permit the design of efficient, multipass laser amplifiers. In a PEPC, plasma discharges on the faces of a thin (1-cm) electro-optic crystal (KDP or KD{bold |}P) act as highly conductive and transparent electrodes. These plasma electrodes facilitate rapid ({lt}100 ns) and uniform charging of the crystal to the half-wave voltage and discharging back to 0 V. We discuss the operating principles, design, optical performance, and technical issues of a 32 cm {times} 32 cm prototype PEPC with both KDP and KD{bold |}P crystals, and a 37 cm {times} 37 cm PEPC with a KDP crystal for the Beamlet laser. This PEPC recently switched a 6-kJ, 3-ns pulse in a four-pass cavity.

  6. Production of High Current Density Beams for Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwan, Joe W.; Anderson, David; Chan, Chun Fai; Chupp, Warren W.; Eylon, Shmuel

    1996-11-01

    A typical heavy ion fusion driver consists of a multiple-beam induction linac system. At the front end there are 84 ESQ channels; each channel can transport a beam with line charge density of ? 0.25 ?C/m before compression. The maximum usable current density from the ion source is dictated by the space-charge-limited low energy beam transport (LEBT). The existing ion source developed for the ELISE/ILSE injector has a 6.7" diameter alumino-silicate emitter producing a current density of 3.5 mA/cm^2 of K^+ ions. Although this design has met the beam current and emittance requirements for the project, the overall cost of the single-beam injector (? $2M per copy) is too high for a 84-beam machine. In order to reduce cost, we consider the development of a multiple-beam injector using high current density ion sources. We will present experimental data in testing the emission limit of the surface source aiming at reaching 15 mA/cm^2 of K^+. Other important parameters include the current density uniformity, emittance and life time. Technical details on the fabrication of the ion source and the design of the ion gun will be discussed.

  7. High-efficiency targets for high-gain inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-08-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the induced spatial incoherence (ISI) technique, which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh--Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh--Taylor instability, pellets using (1)/(4) ..mu..m laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150--200) may produce energy gains as high as 200--250.

  8. Pulsed-Power-Driven High Energy Density Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzen, M. Keith

    2004-11-01

    There continues to be dramatic progress in applying pulsed-power drivers to research in High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories delivers 20-MA load currents to create high magnetic fields (> 1000 T) and pressures (Mbar to Gbar). In a z-pinch configuration, the magnetic pressure (Lorentz Force) supersonically implodes a plasma created from a cylindrical wire array, which at stagnation generates a plasma with energy densities of 10 MJ/cm^3 and temperatures exceeding 1 keV at 0.1% of solid density. These HED plasmas produce x-ray energies approaching 2 MJ at powers greater than 200 TW for ICF, radiation hydrodynamics, radiation-material interactions, Inertial Fusion Energy, astrophysics, and opacity experiments. In an alternate configuration, the large magnetic pressure is used to directly drive Isentropic Compression Experiments (ICE) to pressures greater than 3 Mbar and accelerate flyer plates to 27 km/s for equation of state (EOS) experiments at pressures up to 10 Mbar in Al. The challenge to model these complex geometric configurations over multiple orders of magnitude in spatial scale, temperatures, densities, and radiation fluxes is daunting. Nevertheless, development of multi-dimensional radiation-MHD codes (e.g. ALEGRA) coupled with more accurate material models (e.g. quantum molecular dynamics calculations within density functional theory) has resulted in a productive synergy between validating the simulations and guiding the experiments. The Z facility is now routinely used to drive ICF capsules (focusing on implosion symmetry and neutron production) and several different HEDP experiments (including radiation-driven hydrodynamic jets; material EOS, phase transitions, and strength; and the detailed behavior of z-pinch wire array initiation and implosion). This research is performed in collaboration with many other groups from around the world. A $60M, five-year project to enhance the capability and precision of the Z facility will be completed in 2007 and will result in x-ray energies of nearly 3 MJ at powers over 300 TW. *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy&;s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. The national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) research programme and progress towards high beta, long pulse operating scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synakowski, E. J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Darrow, D. S.; Efthimion, P. C.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Gilmore, M.; Grisham, L. R.; Hosea, J. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K.; Maingi, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H. K.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C. K.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Taylor, G.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J. M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Budny, R.; Carter, M. D.; Chang, C. S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Doyle, E. J.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Ferron, J. R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Goldston, R. J.; Harvey, R.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Houlberg, W.; Jarboe, T. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lawrance, J.; Lao, L. L.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Majeski, R.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Mau, T. K.; McCormack, B.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Nishino, N.; Okabayashi, M.; Oliaro, G.; Pacella, D.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Pinsker, R.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Redi, M.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Schaffer, M.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.; Xu, X. Q.; Yang, J. G.; Zeng, L.; Zhu, W.

    2003-12-01

    A major research goal of the national spherical torus experiment is establishing long-pulse, high beta, high confinement operation and its physics basis. This research has been enabled by facility capabilities developed during 2001 and 2002, including neutral beam (up to 7 MW) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating (up to 6 MW), toroidal fields up to 6 kG, plasma currents up to 1.5 MA, flexible shape control, and wall preparation techniques. These capabilities have enabled the generation of plasmas with \\beta _T \\equiv \\langle p \\rangle /(B_{T0}^{2}/2\\mu_{0}) of up to 35%. Normalized beta values often exceed the no-wall limit, and studies suggest that passive wall mode stabilization enables this for H mode plasmas with broad pressure profiles. The viability of long, high bootstrap current fraction operations has been established for ELMing H mode plasmas with toroidal beta values in excess of 15% and sustained for several current relaxation times. Improvements in wall conditioning and fuelling are likely contributing to a reduction in H mode power thresholds. Electron thermal conduction is the dominant thermal loss channel in auxiliary heated plasmas examined thus far. HHFW effectively heats electrons, and its acceleration of fast beam ions has been observed. Evidence for HHFW current drive is obtained by comparision of the loop voltage evolution in plasmas with matched density and temperature profiles but varying phases of launched HHFW waves. Studies of emissions from electron Bernstein waves indicate a density scale length dependence of their transmission across the upper hybrid resonance near the plasma edge that is consistent with theoretical predictions. A peak heat flux to the divertor targets of 10 MW m-2 has been measured in the H mode, with large asymmetries being observed in the power deposition between the inner and outer strike points. Non-inductive plasma startup studies have focused on coaxial helicity injection. With this technique, toroidal currents up to 400 kA have been driven, and studies to assess flux closure and coupling to other current drive techniques have begun.

  10. The precise engineering of expression vectors using high-throughput In-Fusion PCR cloning.

    PubMed

    Berrow, Nick S; Alderton, David; Owens, Raymond J

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, protocols for the construction of expression vectors using In-Fusion PCR cloning are presented. The method enables vector and insert DNA sequences to be seamlessly joined in a ligation-independent reaction. This property of the In-Fusion process has been exploited in the design of a suite of multi-host compatible vectors for the expression of proteins with precisely engineered His-tags. Vector preparation, PCR amplification of the sequence to be cloned and the procedure for inserting the PCR product into the vector by In-Fusion are described. PMID:18988019

  11. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  12. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Michael R; Novick, Scott J

    2013-08-20

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  13. Highly stable beta-class carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOEpatents

    Alvizo, Oscar; Benoit, Mike; Novick, Scott

    2013-04-16

    The present disclosure relates to .beta.-class carbonic anhydrase polypeptides having improved properties including increased thermostability and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides formulations and uses of the polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering. Also provided are polynucleotides encoding the carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and host cells capable of expressing them.

  14. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  15. Development of superconductors for applications in high-field, high-current-density magnets for fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.

    1986-09-26

    The development of large-bore, high-field magnets for fusion energy applications requires a system approach to both magnet and conductor design. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the criteria used to choose superconductors include: strain tolerance, radiation tolerance, heat removal, stability, fabricability, and cost. We report on the performance of industrially produced, prototype, Ti-modified Nb/sub 3/Sn wires developed with LLNL support. Wire performance characteristics evaluated include critical current as a function of magnetic field, temperature, and applied strain. Tests were performed to determine how this performance translates to the performance of a cable-in-conduit conductor system using this wire. An alternative to Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductors is NbN, which is strain and radiation insensitive. We report preliminary efforts to produce multifilamentary NbN conductors by liquid-metal infiltration of NbN-coated, high-strength fibers. In addition, we discuss the fabrication of multifilamentary NbN conductors and their possible impact on magnet design.

  16. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  17. Linear theory of tearing in a high-beta plasma. [of dayside magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quest, K. B.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1981-01-01

    The linear dispersion relation for a collisionless plasma in a sheared one-dimensional current sheet is calculated with reference to conditions in the daytime magnetopause. Calculations are extended to include plasmas with beta approximately equal to 1. It is found that the tearing mode eigenstructure and temporal growth rate are a sensitive function of the ratios l sub s/l sub G, l sub s/l sub T, and l sub s/l sub n, where l sub s is the shearing length of the magnetic field, l sub G is the gradient scale length, and l sub T is the temperature gradient scale length. In particular, if beta is approximately equal to 1, and l sub s is less than l sub G, l sub n, and l sub T, then the thickness of the layer over which particles are resonantly accelerated by the induction magnetic field is approximately rho, a thermal gyroradius. If the above conditions are not satisfied, plasma gradients may electrostatically stabilize the mode.

  18. Magnetized target fusion: An ultra high energy approach in an unexplored parameter space

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetized target fusion is a concept that may lead to practical fusion applications in a variety of settings. However, the crucial first step is to demonstrate that it works as advertised. Among the possibilities for doing this is an ultrahigh energy approach to magnetized target fusion, one powered by explosive pulsed power generators that have become available for application to thermonuclear fusion research. In a collaborative effort between Los Alamos and the All-Russian Scientific Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) a very powerful helical generator with explosive power switching has been used to produce an energetic magnetized plasma. Several diagnostics have been fielded to ascertain the properties of this plasma. We are intensively studying the results of the experiments and calculationally analyzing the performance of this experiment.

  19. Aerosol Resuspension Model for MELCOR for Fusion and Very High Temperature Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B.J. Merrill

    2011-01-01

    Dust is generated in fusion reactors from plasma erosion of plasma facing components within the reactor’s vacuum vessel (VV) during reactor operation. This dust collects in cooler regions on interior surfaces of the VV. Because this dust can be radioactive, toxic, and/or chemically reactive, it poses a safety concern, especially if mobilized by the process of resuspension during an accident and then transported as an aerosol though out the reactor confinement building, and possibly released to the environment. A computer code used at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model aerosol transport for safety consequence analysis is the MELCOR code. A primary reason for selecting MELCOR for this application is its aerosol transport capabilities. The INL Fusion Safety Program (FSP) organization has made fusion specific modifications to MELCOR. Recent modifications include the implementation of aerosol resuspension models in MELCOR 1.8.5 for Fusion. This paper presents the resuspension models adopted and the initial benchmarking of these models.

  20. Magnetized Target Fusion project with high density FRC at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, T.; Park, J. Y.; Wurden, G. A.; Taccetti, J. M.; Tuszewski, M.; Zhang, S. Y.; Waganaar, W.; Furno, I.; Hsu, S.; Tejero, E.; Leonard, M.; Bass, C.; Grabowski, C.; Degnan, J. H.

    2003-08-13

    We describe a program to demonstrate the scientific basis of Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). MTF is a potentially low cost path to fusion which is intermediate in plasma regime between magnetic (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). MTF involves the compression of a magnetized target plasma and PdV heating to fusion relevant conditions inside a converging flux conserving boundary. We have chosen to demonstrate MTF by using a field-reversed configuration (FRC) as our magnetized target plasma and an imploding metal liner for compression. These choices take advantage of significant past scientific and technical accomplishments in MFE and Defense Programs research and should yield substantial plasma performance (n{tau}>10{sup 13}s-cm{sup -3}>5 keV) using an available pulsed-power implosion facility at modest cost. We have recently shown this FRC to be within a factor of 2-3 of required pressure and lifetime.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic modes analysis and control of Fusion Advanced Studies Torus high-current scenarios

    E-print Network

    Vlad, Gregorio

    ; published online 20 August 2014) One of the main FAST (Fusion Advanced Studies Torus) goals is to have and feedback control simulations per- formed with the codes MARS, MARS-F, CarMa (both assuming the presence

  2. Pulsed-power-driven high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion researcha)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzen, M. Keith; Sweeney, M. A.; Adams, R. G.; Asay, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Bennett, G. R.; Bliss, D. E.; Bloomquist, D. D.; Brunner, T. A.; Campbell, R. B.; Chandler, G. A.; Coverdale, C. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Davis, J.-P.; Deeney, C.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Donovan, G. L.; Garasi, C. J.; Haill, T. A.; Hall, C. A.; Hanson, D. L.; Hurst, M. J.; Jones, B.; Knudson, M. D.; Leeper, R. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McDaniel, D. H.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Nash, T. J.; Olson, C. L.; Porter, J. L.; Rambo, P. K.; Rosenthal, S. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruggles, L. E.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sanford, T. W. L.; Seamen, J. F.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Smith, I. C.; Struve, K. W.; Stygar, W. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Weinbrecht, E. A.; Wenger, D. F.; Yu, E. P.

    2005-05-01

    The Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman, W. A. Stygar, J. F. Seamen et al., Proceedings of the 11th International Pulsed Power Conference, Baltimore, MD, 1997, edited by G. Cooperstein and I. Vitkovitsky (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1997), Vol. 1, p. 709] at Sandia National Laboratories delivers ˜20MA load currents to create high magnetic fields (>1000T) and high pressures (megabar to gigabar). In a z-pinch configuration, the magnetic pressure (the Lorentz force) supersonically implodes a plasma created from a cylindrical wire array, which at stagnation typically generates a plasma with energy densities of about 10MJ/cm3 and temperatures >1keV at 0.1% of solid density. These plasmas produce x-ray energies approaching 2MJ at powers >200TW for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments. In an alternative configuration, the large magnetic pressure directly drives isentropic compression experiments to pressures >3Mbar and accelerates flyer plates to >30km/s for equation of state (EOS) experiments at pressures up to 10Mbar in aluminum. Development of multidimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic codes, coupled with more accurate material models (e.g., quantum molecular dynamics calculations with density functional theory), has produced synergy between validating the simulations and guiding the experiments. Z is now routinely used to drive ICF capsule implosions (focusing on implosion symmetry and neutron production) and to perform HEDP experiments (including radiation-driven hydrodynamic jets, EOS, phase transitions, strength of materials, and detailed behavior of z-pinch wire-array initiation and implosion). This research is performed in collaboration with many other groups from around the world. A five year project to enhance the capability and precision of Z, to be completed in 2007, will result in x-ray energies of nearly 3MJ at x-ray powers >300TW.

  3. High-power microwave transmission and launching systems for fusion plasma heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave power in the 30- to 300-GHz frequency range is becoming widely used for heating of plasma in present-day fusion energy magnetic confinement experiments. Microwave power is effective in ionizing plasma and heating electrons through the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) process. Since the power is absorbed in regions of the magnetic field where resonance occurs and launching antennas with narrow beam widths are possible, power deposition location can be highly controlled. This is important for maximizing the power utilization efficiency and improving plasma parameters. Development of the gyrotron oscillator tube has advanced in recent years so that a 1-MW continuous-wave, 140-GHz power source will soon be available. Gyrotron output power is typically in a circular waveguide propagating a circular electric mode (such as TE/sub 0,2/) or a whispering-gallery mode (such as TE/sub 15,2/), depending on frequency and power level. An alternative high-power microwave source currently under development is the free-electron laser (FEL), which may be capable of generating 2-10 MW of average power at frequencies of up to 500 GHz. The FEL has a rectangular output waveguide carrying the TE/sub 0,1/ mode. Because of its higher complexity and cost, the high-average-power FEL is not yet as extensively developed as the gyrotron. In this paper, several types of operating ECH transmission systems are discussed, as well systems currently being developed. The trend in this area is toward higher power and frequency due to the improvements in plasma density and temperature possible. Every system requires a variety of components, such as mode converters, waveguide bends, launchers, and directional couplers. Some of these components are discussed here, along with ongoing work to improve their performance. 8 refs.

  4. A high efficiency, low background neutron and gamma detector for cold fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, B.; Celani, F.; Corradi, M.; Ferrarotto, F.; Iucci, N.; Milone, V.; Spallone, A.; Villoresi, G.

    1995-02-01

    The present apparatus (named by the acrostic "FERMI" also to celebrate the 60 yr of the discovery, by Enrico Fermi and collaborators at Rome University, of the effects of moderation of neutrons) is mainly a moderated neutron detector developed for the search of cold fusion events. It is based on 7 BF 3 and 2 3He proportional counters with detection efficiency for neutrons 40%-8% in the range 1 keV-20 MeV, pulse shape acquisition and good time resolution for neutron bursts; it also allows us to perform a good reconstruction of the average original neutron energy. The neutron background measured in the Gran Sasso INFN underground laboratory is about 0.09 Hz. Gamma rays are revealed mostly by a complementary low background NaI detector with 26% solid angle coverage. The performances are controlled by a full MC simulation, experimentally tested. A high multiplicity (up to ˜ 100) neutrons' event has been detected during background runs. The system is being upgraded by the detection and identification of charged hadrons.

  5. Motional Stark Effect measurements of the local magnetic field in high temperature fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, R. C.; Bock, A.; Ford, O. P.; Reimer, R.; Burckhart, A.; Dinklage, A.; Hobirk, J.; Howard, J.; Reich, M.; Stober, J.

    2015-10-01

    The utilization of the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) experienced by the neutral hydrogen or deuterium injected into magnetically confined high temperature plasmas is a well established technique to infer the internal magnetic field distribution of fusion experiments. In their rest frame, the neutral atoms experience a Lorentz electric field, EL = v × B, which results in a characteristic line splitting and polarized line emission. The different properties of the Stark multiplet allow inferring, both the magnetic field strength and the orientation of the magnetic field vector. Besides recording the full MSE spectrum, several types of polarimeters have been developed to measure the polarization direction of the Stark line emission. To test physics models of the magnetic field distribution and dynamics, the accuracy requirements are quite demanding. In view of these requirements, the capabilities and issues of the different techniques are discussed, including the influence of the Zeeman Effect and the sensitivity to radial electric fields. A newly developed Imaging MSE system, which has been tested on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, is presented. The sensitivity allows to resolve sawtooth oscillations. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  6. High temperature surface effects of He + implantation in ICF fusion first wall materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenobia, Samuel J.; Radel, R. F.; Cipiti, B. B.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.

    2009-06-01

    The first wall armor of the inertial confinement fusion reactor chambers must withstand high temperatures and significant radiation damage from target debris and neutrons. The resilience of multiple materials to one component of the target debris has been investigated using energetic (20-40 keV) helium ions generated in the inertial electrostatic confinement device at the University of Wisconsin. The materials studied include: single-crystalline, and polycrystalline tungsten, tungsten-coated tantalum-carbide 'foams', tungsten-rhenium alloy, silicon carbide, carbon-carbon velvet, and tungsten-coated carbon-carbon velvet. Steady-state irradiation temperatures ranged from 750 to 1250 °C with helium fluences between 5 × 10 17 and 1 × 10 20 He +/cm 2. The crystalline, rhenium alloyed, carbide foam, and powder metallurgical tungsten specimens each experienced extensive pore formation after He + irradiation. Flaking and pore formation occurred on silicon carbide samples. Individual fibers of carbon-carbon velvet specimens sustained erosion and corrugation, in addition to the roughening and rupturing of tungsten coatings after helium ion implantation.

  7. Progress towards a high-gain and robust target design for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grant Logan, B.

    2012-07-15

    Recently [E. Henestroza et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 032702 (2011)], a new inertial-fusion target configuration, the X-target, using one-sided axial illumination has been explored. This class of target uses annular and solid-profile heavy ion beams to compress and ignite deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel that fills the interior of metal cases that have side-view cross sections in the shape of an 'X.' X-targets using all-DT-filled metal cases imploded by three annular ion beams resulted in fuel densities of {approx}50 g/cm{sup 3} at peak compression, and fusion gains of {approx}50, comparable to heavy ion driven hohlraum targets [D. A. Callahan-Miller and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2083 (2000)]. This paper discusses updated X-target configurations that incorporate inside the case a propellant (plastic) and a pusher (aluminum) surrounding the DT fuel. The updated configurations are capable of assembling higher fuel areal densities {approx}2 g/cm{sup 2} using two annular beams to implode the target to peak DT densities {approx}100 g/cm{sup 3}, followed by a fast-ignition solid ion beam which heats the high-density fuel to thermonuclear temperatures in {approx}200 ps to start the burn propagation, obtaining gains of {approx}300. These targets have been modeled using the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA [M. M. Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2275 (2001)] in two- and three- dimensions to study the properties of the implosion as well as the ignition and burn propagation phases. At typical Eulerian mesh resolutions of a few microns, the aluminum-DT interface shows negligible Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth; also, the shear flow of the DT fuel as it slides along the metal X-target walls, which drives the RT and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities, does not have a major effect on the burning rate. An analytic estimate of the RT instability process at the Al-DT interface shows that the aluminum spikes generated during the pusher deceleration phase would not reach the ignition zone in time to affect the burning process. Also, preliminary HYDRA calculations, using a higher resolution mesh to study the shear flow of the DT fuel along the X-target walls, indicate that metal-mixed fuel produced near the walls would not be transferred to the DT ignition zone (at maximum {rho}R) located at the vertex of the X-target.

  8. 1 Draft 0.7 25/10/2004 17:12 EX/3-4 Equilibrium and Stability of High-Beta Plasmas in Wendelstein 7-AS

    E-print Network

    Hudson, Stuart

    1 Draft 0.7 25/10/2004 17:12 EX/3-4 Equilibrium and Stability of High-Beta Plasmas in Wendelstein 7-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Assoc., D-17491 Greifswald, Germany e-mail contact of main author with volume averaged beta -values up to 3.5% were achieved in the five-period Wendelstein 7- AS stellarator [1

  9. A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Schissel, David P.; Abla, G.; Burruss, J. R.; Feibush, E.; Fredian, T. W.; Goode, M. M.; Greenwald, M. J.; Keahey, K.; Leggett, T.; Li, K.; McCune, D. C.; Papka, M. E.; Randerson, L.; Sanderson, A.; Stillerman, J.; Thompson, M. R.; Uram, T.; Wallace, G.

    2012-12-20

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES ??Grid (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid'??s resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  10. Observation of finite-. beta. MHD phenomena in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, K.M.

    1984-09-01

    Stable high-beta plasmas are required for the tokamak to attain an economical fusion reactor. Recently, intense neutral beam heating experiments in tokamaks have shown new effects on plasma stability and confinement associated with high beta plasmas. The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations at high beta is clearly dominated by the n = 1 mode when the q = 1 surface is in the plasma. The m/n = 1/1 mode drives other n = 1 modes through toroidal coupling and n > 1 modes through nonlinear coupling. On PDX, with near perpendicular injection, a resonant interaction between the n = 1 internal kink and the trapped fast ions results in loss of beam particles and heating power. Key parameters in the theory are the value of q/sub 0/ and the injection angle. High frequency broadband magnetic fluctuations have been observed on ISX-B and D-III and a correlation with the deterioration of plasma confinement was reported. During enhanced confinement (H-mode) discharges in divertor plasmas, two new edge instabilities were observed, both localized radially near the separatrix. By assembling results from the different tokamak experiments, it is found that the simple theoretical ideal MHD beta limit has not been exceeded. Whether this represents an ultimate tokamak limit or if beta optimized configurations (Dee- or bean-shaped plasmas) can exceed this limit and perhaps enter a second regime of stability remains to be clarified.

  11. Sub-millimeter nuclear medical imaging with high sensitivity in positron emission tomography using beta-gamma coincidences

    E-print Network

    C. Lang; D. Habs; K. Parodi; P. G. Thirolf

    2014-02-15

    We present a nuclear medical imaging technique, employing triple-gamma trajectory intersections from beta^+ - gamma coincidences, able to reach sub-millimeter spatial resolution in 3 dimensions with a reduced requirement of reconstructed intersections per voxel compared to a conventional PET reconstruction analysis. This '$\\gamma$-PET' technique draws on specific beta^+ - decaying isotopes, simultaneously emitting an additional photon. Exploiting the triple coincidence between the positron annihilation and the third photon, it is possible to separate the reconstructed 'true' events from background. In order to characterize this technique, Monte-Carlo simulations and image reconstructions have been performed. The achievable spatial resolution has been found to reach ca. 0.4 mm (FWHM) in each direction for the visualization of a 22Na point source. Only 40 intersections are sufficient for a reliable sub-millimeter image reconstruction of a point source embedded in a scattering volume of water inside a voxel volume of about 1 mm^3 ('high-resolution mode'). Moreover, starting with an injected activity of 400 MBq for ^76Br, the same number of only about 40 reconstructed intersections are needed in case of a larger voxel volume of 2 x 2 x 3~mm^3 ('high-sensitivity mode'). Requiring such a low number of reconstructed events significantly reduces the required acquisition time for image reconstruction (in the above case to about 140 s) and thus may open up the perspective for a quasi real-time imaging.

  12. V&V of MCNP 6.1.1 Beta Against Intermediate and High-Energy Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2014-09-08

    This report presents a set of validation and verification (V&V) MCNP 6.1.1 beta results calculated in parallel, with MPI, obtained using its event generators at intermediate and high-energies compared against various experimental data. It also contains several examples of results using the models at energies below 150 MeV, down to 10 MeV, where data libraries are normally used. This report can be considered as the forth part of a set of MCNP6 Testing Primers, after its first, LA-UR-11-05129, and second, LA-UR-11-05627, and third, LA-UR-26944, publications, but is devoted to V&V with the latest, 1.1 beta version of MCNP6. The MCNP6 test-problems discussed here are presented in the /VALIDATION_CEM/and/VALIDATION_LAQGSM/subdirectories in the MCNP6/Testing/directory. README files that contain short descriptions of every input file, the experiment, the quantity of interest that the experiment measures and its description in the MCNP6 output files, and the publication reference of that experiment are presented for every test problem. Templates for plotting the corresponding results with xmgrace as well as pdf files with figures representing the final results of our V&V efforts are presented. Several technical “bugs” in MCNP 6.1.1 beta were discovered during our current V&V of MCNP6 while running it in parallel with MPI using its event generators. These “bugs” are to be fixed in the following version of MCNP6. Our results show that MCNP 6.1.1 beta using its CEM03.03, LAQGSM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA, event generators describes, as a rule, reasonably well different intermediate- and high-energy measured data. This primer isn’t meant to be read from cover to cover. Readers may skip some sections and go directly to any test problem in which they are interested.

  13. A NPxY-independent {beta}5 integrin activation signal regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sukhwinder; D'mello, Veera; Henegouwen, Paul van Bergen en; Birge, Raymond B.

    2007-12-21

    Integrin receptors are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors with critical functions in cell adhesion and migration, cell cycle progression, differentiation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Integrins are activated by intracellular signaling that alter the binding affinity for extracellular ligands, so-called inside to outside signaling. A common element for integrin activation involves binding of the cytoskeletal protein talin, via its FERM domain, to a highly conserved NPxY motif in the {beta} chain cytoplasmic tails, which is involved in long-range conformation changes to the extracellular domain that impinges on ligand affinity. When the human beta-5 ({beta}5) integrin cDNA was expressed in {alpha}v positive, {beta}5 and {beta}3 negative hamster CS-1 cells, it promoted NPxY-dependent adhesion to VTN-coated surfaces, phosphorylation of FAK, and concomitantly, {beta}5 integrin-EGFP protein was recruited into talin and paxillin-containing focal adhesions. Expression of a NPxY destabilizing {beta}5 mutant (Y750A) abrogated adhesion and {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP was excluded from focal adhesions at the tips of stress fibers. Surprisingly, expression of {beta}5 Y750A integrin had a potent gain-of-function effect on apoptotic cell phagocytosis, and further, a {beta}5-Y750A-EGFP fusion integrin readily bound MFG-E8-coated 10 {mu}m diameter microspheres developed as apoptotic cell mimetics. The critical sequences in {beta}5 integrin were mapped to a YEMAS motif just proximal to the NPxY motif. Our studies suggest that the phagocytic function of {beta}5 integrin is regulated by an unconventional NPxY-talin-independent activation signal and argue for the existence of molecular switches in the {beta}5 cytoplasmic tail for adhesion and phagocytosis.

  14. Near-vacuum hohlraums for driving fusion implosions with high density carbon ablators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Achieving ignition requires reaching fast implosion velocities, which highlights the need for a highly efficient hohlraum to drive indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions. Gas-filled hohlraums are typically utilized due to the pulse length (15-20 ns) needed to drive plastic (CH) capsules. With the recent use of 3× denser high-density carbon (HDC) capsules, ignition pulses can be less than 10 ns in duration, providing the opportunity to utilize near-vacuum hohlraums (NVH) to drive ignition-relevant implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with minimal laser-plasma instabilities which complicate standard gas-filled hohlraums. Initial NVH implosions on the NIF have demonstrated coupling efficiency significantly higher than observed in gas-filled hohlraums - backscatter losses less than 2% and virtually no suprathermal electron generation. A major design challenge for the NVH is symmetry control. Without tamping gas, the hohlraum wall quickly expands filling the volume with gold plasma. However, results to-date indicate that the inner-cone beams propagate freely to the hohlraum wall for at least 6.5 ns. With minimal predicted cross-beam power transfer, this propagation enables symmetry control via dynamic beam phasing - time-dependent direct adjustment of the inner- and outer-cone laser pulses. A series of experiments with an HDC ablator and NVH culminated in a 6 ns, 1.2 MJ cryogenic DT layered implosion yielding 1.8 × 1015 neutrons--significantly higher yield than any CH implosion at comparable energy. This implosion reached an ignition-relevant velocity -350 km/s - with no observed ablator mix in the hot spot. Recent experiments have explored two-shock designs in a larger, 6.72 mm hohlraum, and upcoming experiments will incrementally extend the pulse duration toward a 9 ns long, three-shock ignition design. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Ion-scale spectral break of solar wind turbulence at high and low beta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C H K; Leung, L; Boldyrev, S; Maruca, B A; Bale, S D

    2014-01-01

    The power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind at 1 AU displays a break between two power laws in the range of spacecraft-frame frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz. These frequencies correspond to spatial scales in the plasma frame near the proton gyroradius ?i and proton inertial length di. At 1 AU it is difficult to determine which of these is associated with the break, since and the perpendicular ion plasma beta is typically ??i?1. To address this, several exceptional intervals with ??i?1 and ??i?1 were investigated, during which these scales were well separated. It was found that for ??i?1 the break occurs at di and for ??i?1 at ?i, i.e., the larger of the two scales. Possible explanations for these results are discussed, including Alfvén wave dispersion, damping, and current sheets. PMID:26074642

  16. High pressure structural study of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}: X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Ye; Zhang Qian; Wu Xiang; Qin Shan; Liu Jing

    2012-08-15

    The structural stability of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} (C2/m) has been investigated by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy with diamond anvil cells. {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} is stable up to about 26 GPa at room temperature. Isothermal pressure-volume relationship of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} is well presented by the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state with V{sub 0}=348.6(8) A{sup 3} and B{sub 0}=216(9) GPa. Axial compressibility presents obvious anisotropy. The a-axis and c-axis are more compressible than b-axis due to the different crystal structure arrangement of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} along b-axis and perpendicular to b-axis direction. The Grueneisen parameters of thirteen observed Raman modes are 0.79-1.74, whose mean is 1.32. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5}: the projection of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} along b-axis (Left) and the projection of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} along c-axis (Right). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High pressure structural stability of {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Ti{sub 3}O{sub 5} is stable up to about 26 GPa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Axial compressibility presents obvious anisotropy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pressure-volume relationship is well presented by Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Grueneisen parameters are 0.79-1.74.

  17. A NATIONAL COLLABORATORY TO ADVANCE THE SCIENCE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA PHYSICS FOR MAGNETIC FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Allen R. Sanderson; Christopher R. Johnson

    2006-08-01

    This report summarizes the work of the University of Utah, which was a member of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it the NFC built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was itself a collaboration, itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, and Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. The complete finial report is attached as an addendum. The In the collaboration, the primary technical responsibility of the University of Utah in the collaboration was to develop and deploy an advanced scientific visualization service. To achieve this goal, the SCIRun Problem Solving Environment (PSE) is used on FusionGrid for an advanced scientific visualization service. SCIRun is open source software that gives the user the ability to create complex 3D visualizations and 2D graphics. This capability allows for the exploration of complex simulation results and the comparison of simulation and experimental data. SCIRun on FusionGrid gives the scientist a no-license-cost visualization capability that rivals present day commercial visualization packages. To accelerate the usage of SCIRun within the fusion community, a stand-alone application built on top of SCIRun was developed and deployed. This application, FusionViewer, allows users who are unfamiliar with SCIRun to quickly create visualizations and perform analysis of their simulation data from either the MDSplus data storage environment or from locally stored HDF5 files. More advanced tools for visualization and analysis also were created in collaboration with the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling. Versions of SCIRun with the FusionViewer have been made available to fusion scientists on the Mac OS X, Linux, and other Unix based platforms and have been downloaded 1163 times. SCIRun has been used with NIMROD, M3D, BOUT fusion simulation data as well as simulation data from other SciDAC application areas (e.g., Astrophysics). The subsequent visualization results - including animations - have been incorporated into invited talks at multiple APS/DPP meetings as well as peer reviewed journal articles. As an example, SCIRun was used for the visualization and analysis of a NIMROD simulation of a disruption that occurred in a DIII-D experiment. The resulting animations and stills were presented as part of invited talks at APS/DPP meetings and the SC04 conference in addition to being highlighted in the NIH/NSF Visualization Research Challenges Report. By achieving its technical goals, the University of Utah played a key role in the successful development of a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. Many of the visualization tools developed as part of the NFC continue to be used by Fusion and other SciDAC application scientists and are currently being supported and expanded through follow-on up on SciDAC projects (Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technology, and the Visualization and Analysis in Support of Fusion SAP).

  18. High efficiency microfluidic beta detector for pharmacokinetic studies in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convert, Laurence; Girard-Baril, Frédérique; Renaudin, Alan; Grondin, Étienne; Jaouad, Abdelatif; Aimez, Vincent; Charette, Paul; Lecomte, Roger

    2011-10-01

    New radiotracers are continuously being developed to improve diagnostic efficiency using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) or Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The characterization of their pharmacokinetics requires blood radioactivity monitoring over time during the scan and is very challenging in small animals because of the low volume of blood available. In this work, a prototype microfluidic blood counter made of a microchannel atop a silicon substrate containing PIN photodiodes is proposed to improve beta detection efficiency in a small volume by eliminating unnecessary interfaces between fluid and detector. A flat rectangular-shaped epoxy channel, 36 ?m×1.26 mm cross section and 31.5 mm in length, was microfabricated over a die containing an array of 2×2 mm 2 PIN photodiodes, leaving only a few micrometers of epoxy floor layer between the fluid and the photodiode sensitive surface. This geometry leads to a quasi 2D source, optimizing geometrical detection efficiency that was estimated at 41% using solid angle calculation. CV- IV measurements were made at each fabrication step to confirm that the microchannel components had no significant effects on the diodes' electrical characteristics. The chip was wire-bonded to a PCB and connected to charge sensitive preamplifier and amplifier modules for pulse shaping. Energy spectra recorded for different isotopes showed continuous beta distribution for PET isotopes and monoenergetic conversion electron peaks for 99mTc. Absolute sensitivity was determined for the most popular PET and SPECT radioisotopes and ranged from 26% to 33% for PET tracers ( 18F, 13N, 11C, 68Ga) and more than 2% for 99mTc. Input functions were successfully simulated with 18F, confirming the setup's suitability for pharmacokinetic modeling of PET and SPECT radiotracers in animal experiments. By using standard materials and procedures, the fabrication process is well suited to on-chip microfluidic functionality, allowing full characterization of new radiotracers.

  19. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L. Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J.

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a k?{sub D} range of 0.15?

  20. A fast and efficient microfluidic system for highly selective one-to-one droplet fusion.

    PubMed

    Mazutis, Linas; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Griffiths, Andrew D

    2009-09-21

    Microdroplets in microfluidic systems can be used as independent microreactors to perform a range of chemical and biological reactions. However, in order to add new reagents to pre-formed droplets at defined times, to start, modify, or terminate a reaction, it is necessary to perform a controlled fusion with a second droplet. We describe and characterize a simple and extremely reliable technique for the one-to-one fusion of droplet pairs in a microfluidic system at kHz frequencies. The technique does not require special channel treatment, electrical fields or lasers to induce droplet fusion. Instead, we make use of transient states in the stabilization of the droplet interface by surfactant, coupled to a proper geometrical design of a coalescence module, to induce the selective fusion of a droplet stabilized by surfactant (re-injected) with a droplet which is not fully stabilized (generated on-chip). Using a 1.2-fold excess of the surfactant-stabilized droplets approximately 99% of the partially stabilized droplets were fused one-to-one with surfactant-stabilized droplets. Even when the surfactant-stablized droplets were in 5-fold excess, over 96% of the partially stabilized droplets were fused one-to-one. The fused droplet contains enough surfactant to inhibit further fusion events. After fusion, the droplets were fully stabilized by additional surfactant provided in the carrier oil, which allowed the fused droplets to be collected, incubated off-chip and re-injected onto a microfluidic device without any undesired coalescence. PMID:19704982

  1. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    E-print Network

    Sorbom, B N; Palmer, T R; Mangiarotti, F J; Sierchio, J M; Bonoli, P; Kasten, C; Sutherland, D A; Barnard, H S; Haakonsen, C B; Goh, J; Sung, C; Whyte, D G

    2014-01-01

    The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design study aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q_p~13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ~63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ~23 T peak field on coil with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External cu...

  2. High level transient production of recombinant antibodies and antibody fusion proteins in HEK293 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand of monospecific high affinity binding reagents, particularly monoclonal antibodies, has been steadily increasing over the last years. Enhanced throughput of antibody generation has been addressed by optimizing in vitro selection using phage display which moved the major bottleneck to the production and purification of recombinant antibodies in an end-user friendly format. Single chain (sc)Fv antibody fragments require additional tags for detection and are not as suitable as immunoglobulins (Ig)G in many immunoassays. In contrast, the bivalent scFv-Fc antibody format shares many properties with IgG and has a very high application compatibility. Results In this study transient expression of scFv-Fc antibodies in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was optimized. Production levels of 10-20 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody were achieved in adherent HEK293T cells. Employment of HEK293-6E suspension cells expressing a truncated variant of the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1 in combination with production under serum free conditions increased the volumetric yield up to 10-fold to more than 140 mg/L scFv-Fc antibody. After vector optimization and process optimization the yield of an scFv-Fc antibody and a cytotoxic antibody-RNase fusion protein further increased 3-4-fold to more than 450 mg/L. Finally, an entirely new mammalian expression vector was constructed for single step in frame cloning of scFv genes from antibody phage display libraries. Transient expression of more than 20 different scFv-Fc antibodies resulted in volumetric yields of up to 600 mg/L and 400 mg/L in average. Conclusion Transient production of recombinant scFv-Fc antibodies in HEK293-6E in combination with optimized vectors and fed batch shake flasks cultivation is efficient and robust, and integrates well into a high-throughput recombinant antibody generation pipeline. PMID:23802841

  3. Highly toxic and broad-spectrum insecticidal local Bacillus strains engineered using protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    El-Kawokgy, Tahany M A; Hussein, Hashem A; Aly, Nariman A H; Mohamed, Shereen A H

    2015-01-01

    Protoplast fusion was performed between a local Bacillus thuringiensis UV-resistant mutant 66/1a (Bt) and Bacillus sphaericus GHAI (Bs) to produce new Bacillus strains with a wider spectrum of action against different insects. Bt is characterized as sensitive to polymyxin and streptomycin and resistant to rifampicin and has shown 87% mortality against Spodoptera littoralis larvae at concentration of 1.5 × 10(7) cells/mL after 7 days of feeding; Bs is characterized as resistant to polymyxin and streptomycin and sensitive to rifampicin and has been shown to have 100% mortality against Culex pipiens after 1 day of feeding at the same concentration as that of Bt. Among a total of 64 Bt::Bs fusants produced on the selective medium containing polymyxin, streptomycin, and rifampicin, 17 fusants were selected because of their high mortality percentages against S. littoralis (Lepidoptera) and C. pipiens (Diptera). While Bt harboured 3 plasmids (600, 350, and 173 bp) and Bs had 2 plasmids (544 and 291 bp), all the selected fusants acquired plasmids from both parental strains. SDS-PAGE protein analysis of the 17 selected fusants and their parental strains confirmed that all fusant strains acquired and expressed many specific protein bands from the 2 parental strains, especially the larvicidal proteins to both lepidopteran and dipteran species with molecular masses of 65, 70, 80, 88, 100, and 135 kDa. Four protein bands with high molecular masses of 281, 263, 220, and 190 kDa, which existed in the Bt parental strain and did not exist in the Bs parental strain, and 2 other protein bands with high molecular masses of 185 and 180 kDa, which existed in the Bs parental strain and did not exist in the Bt parental strain, were expressed in most fusants. The results indicated the expression of some cry genes encoded for insecticidal crystal proteins from Bt and the binary toxin genes from Bs in all fusant strains. The recombinant fusants have more efficient and potential values for agricultural application compared with both the insecticidal Bt and the mosquitocidal Bs strains alone against S. littoralis and C. pipiens larvae, respectively. PMID:25485592

  4. The National Ignition Facility Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    E-print Network

    Moses, E I

    2001-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control roo...

  5. Achievement of High Fusion Performance in JT-60U Reversed Shear Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, S.; Fujita, T.; Akasaka, H.; Akino, N.; Annou, K.; Aoyagi, T.; Arai, T.; Arakawa, K.; Asakura, N.; Azumi, M.; Budny, R.; Chiba, S.; da Costa, O.; Ebisawa, N.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Funahashi, A.; Grisham, L.; Gunji, S.; Hamamatsu, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hatae, T.; Higashijima, S.; Hiratsuka, H.; Hirauchi, S.; Hirayama, T.; Honda, A.; Honda, M.; Hosogane, N.; Ichige, H.; Ide, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Isaka, M.; Isayama, A.; Isei, N.; Ishii, Y.; Isozaki, N.; Itami, K.; Itoh, T.; Iwahashi, T.; Kamada, Y.; Kaminaga, A.; Kashiwabara, T.; Kawai, M.; Kawamata, Y.; Kawano, Y.; Kazama, D.; Kazawa, M.; Kikuchi, M.; Kimura, H.; Kimura, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kitamura, S.; Kiyono, K.; Kodama, K.; Koide, Y.; Kokusen, S.; Kondoh, T.; Konoshima, S.; Koog, J.; Kramer, G. J.; Kubo, H.; Kurihara, K.; Kurita, G.; Kuriyama, M.; Kusama, Y.; Masaki, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matukawa, M.; Miura, T.; Miya, N.; Miyachi, K.; Miyata, H.; Miyo, Y.; Mogaki, K.; Mori, M.; Morimoto, M.; Morioka, S.; Moriyama, S.; Nagami, M.; Nagashima, A.; Nagashima, K.; Nagaya, S.; Naito, O.; Nakamura, Y.; Nemoto, M.; Neyatani, Y.; Nishitani, T.; Ogiwara, N.; Ohga, T.; Ohsawa, M.; Ohshima, T.; Oikawa, T.; Okabe, T.; Okano, J.; Omori, K.; Omori, S.; Omori, Y.; Onose, Y.; Oohara, H.; Ozeki, T.; Saidoh, M.; Saigusa, M.; Saito, N.; Sakasai, A.; Sakata, S.; Sakurai, S.; Sasajima, T.; Sato, M.; Scott, S. D.; Seimiya, M.; Seiki, H.; Seki, M.; Shimada, M.; Shimizu, K.; Shimizu, M.; Shimono, M.; Shinozaki, S.; Shirai, H.; Shitomi, M.; Suganuma, K.; Sugie, T.; Sunaoshi, H.; Takahashi, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeji, S.; Takenaga, H.; Takizuka, T.; Tamai, H.; Terakado, M.; Terakado, T.; Tobita, K.; Tokuda, S.; Totsuka, T.; Toyokawa, Y.; Toyoshima, N.; Tsuchiya, K.; Tsugita, T.; Tsukahara, Y.; Tuda, T.; Uramoto, Y.; Ushigusa, K.; Usui, K.; Yagyu, J.; Yamagiwa, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamashita, O.; Yokokura, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshino, R.

    1997-11-01

    Fusion performance of reversed shear discharges with an L-mode edge has been significantly improved in a thermonuclear dominant regime with up to 2.8 MA of plasma current in the JT-60U tokamak. The core plasma energy is efficiently confined due to the existence of persistent internal transport barriers formed for both ions and electrons at a large minor radius of r/a~0.7 near the boundary of the reversed shear region. In an assumed deuterium-tritium fuel, the peak fusion amplification factor defined for transient conditions involving the dW/dt term would be in excess of unity.

  6. Identifying heavy-ion-beam fusion design and system features with high economic leverage

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-03-03

    We have conducted parametric economic studies for heavy-ion-beam fusion electric power plants. We examined the effects on the cost of electricity of several design parameters: maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. We found with reasonable assumptions on driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, a 2 to 3 GWe heavy-ion-beam fusion power plant, with a chamber pulse rate of 5 to 10 Hz, can be competitive with nuclear and coal power plants.

  7. Beta-manganese dioxide nanorods for sufficient high-temperature electromagnetic interference shielding in X-band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei-Li; Cao, Mao-Sheng; Hou, Zhi-Ling; Lu, Ming-Ming; Wang, Chan-Yuan; Yuan, Jie; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2014-09-01

    As the development of electronic and communication technology, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and attenuation is an effective strategy to ensure the operation of the electronic devices. Among the materials for high-performance shielding in aerospace industry and related high-temperature working environment, the thermally stable metal oxide semiconductors with narrow band gap are promising candidates. In this work, beta-manganese dioxide ( ?-MnO2) nanorods were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The bulk materials of the ?-MnO2 were fabricated to evaluate the EMI shielding performance in the temperature range of 20-500 °C between 8.2 and 12.4 GHz (X-band). To understand the mechanisms of high-temperature EMI shielding, the contribution of reflection and absorption to EMI shielding was discussed based on temperature-dependent electrical properties and complex permittivity. Highly sufficient shielding effectiveness greater than 20 dB was observed over all the investigated range, suggesting ?-MnO2 nanorods as promising candidates for high-temperature EMI shielding. The results have also established a platform to develop high-temperature EMI shielding materials based on nanoscale semiconductors.

  8. High temperature conductivity of potassium-beta(double prime)-alumina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M. L.; Ryan, M. A.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1992-01-01

    Potassium beta(double prime)-alumina (BDPA) single crystals have been reported by several groups to leave higher ionic conductivity than sodium BDPA crystals at room temperature, and similar conductivities are obtained at temperatures up to 600-700 K. Potassium BDPA ceramics have been reported to have significantly poorer conductivities than those of sodium BDPA ceramics, but conductivity measurements at temperatures above 625 K have not been reported. In this study, K(+)-BDPA ceramics were prepared from Na(+)-BDPA ceramic using a modified version of the exchange reaction with KCl vapor reported by Crosbie and Tennenhouse (1982), and the conductivity has been measured in K vapor at temperatures up to 1223 K, using the method of Cole et al. (1979). The results indicate reasonable agreement with earlier data on K(+)-BDPA ceramic measured in a liquid K cell, but show that the K(+)-BDPA ceramic's conductivity approaches that of Na(+)-BDPA ceramic at higher temperatures, being within a factor of four at 700 K and 60 percent of the conductivity of Na(+)-BDPA at T over 1000 K. Both four-probe dc conductivity and four probe ac impedance measurements were used to characterize the conductivity. A rather abrupt change in the grain boundary resistance suggesting a possible phase change in the intergranular material, potassium aluminate, is seen in the ac impedance behavior.

  9. High glucose concentration induces the overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta through the activation of a platelet-derived growth factor loop in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Di Paolo, S.; Gesualdo, L.; Ranieri, E.; Grandaliano, G.; Schena, F. P.

    1996-01-01

    High glucose concentration has been shown to induce the overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 mRNA and protein in different cell types, including murine mesangial cells, thus possibly accounting for the expansion of mesangial extracellular matrix observed in diabetic glomerulopathy. In the present study, we evaluated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain and PDGF-beta receptor gene expression in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to different concentrations of glucose and then sought a possible relationship between a PDGF loop and the modulation of TGF-beta 1 expression. HMC [3H]thymidine incorporation was upregulated by 30 mmol/L glucose (HG) up to 24 hours, whereas it was significantly inhibited at later time points. Neutralizing antibodies to PDGF BB abolished the biphasic response to HG, whereas anti-TGF-beta antibodies reversed only the late inhibitory effect of hyperglycemic medium. HG induced an early and persistent increase of PDGF B-chain gene expression, as evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, whereas PDGF-beta receptor mRNA increased by twofold after 6 hours, thereafter declining at levels 70% lower than in controls after 24 hours. 125I-Labeled PDGF BB binding studies in HMCs exposed to HG for 24 hours confirmed the decrease of PDGF-beta receptor expression. TGF-beta 1-specific transcripts showed 43 and 78% increases after 24 and 48 hours of incubation in HG, respectively, which was markedly diminished by anti-PDGF BB neutralizing antibodies or suramin. We conclude that HG induces an early activation of a PDGF loop that, in turn, causes an increase of TGF-beta 1 gene expression, thus modulating both HMC proliferation and mesangial matrix production. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8952542

  10. CTNNB1 mutations and beta-catenin protein accumulation in human hepatocellular carcinomas associated with high exposure to aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Devereux, T R; Stern, M C; Flake, G P; Yu, M C; Zhang, Z Q; London, S J; Taylor, J A

    2001-06-01

    beta-Catenin plays a key role in the Wnt signaling pathway, and mutations of CTNNB1, the gene that encodes beta-catenin, have been identified in about one-fourth of human hepatocellular carcinomas from regions of low aflatoxin B1 exposure. In this study 62 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) from people highly exposed to aflatoxin B1 in Guangxi, People's Republic of China, were laser-capture microdissected and examined for CTNNB1 mutations. In addition, 41 of the HCCs were evaluated for the presence of the beta-catenin protein by immunohistochemical methods. Twenty of the HCCs showed positive results for beta-catenin, with strong membrane staining, while adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissue lacked or showed only weak membrane staining. One HCC, in which a CTNNB1 mutation was not detected, showed nuclear staining for the beta-catenin protein. Mutations of CTNNB1 were identified in five HCCs. These consisted of four point mutations in the glycogen serine kinase-3beta phosphorylation region of codons 32-45 and one deletion of codons 32-38. These mutations were similar to those previously reported for human HCC, although at a lower frequency. A signature mutation profile associated with aflatoxin B1 exposure could not be identified. The immunohistochemical findings indicate a role for accumulation of beta-catenin and possibly increased Wnt signaling in aflatoxin B1-associated HCC. The low frequency of CTNNB1 mutations, however, suggests that mutation of another Wnt signaling component, such as the Wnt scaffolding protein axin or the adenomatous polyposis coli protein, both of which modulate beta-catenin stability, also may be involved in aflatoxin-associated HCC. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11429783

  11. High-speed repeating hydrogen pellet injector for long-pulse magnetic confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattolillo, A.; Migliori, S.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Milora, S. L.

    1996-05-01

    The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement fusion devices [e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)] indicate the need for a flexible plasma fueling capability, including both gas puffing and low- and high-speed pellet injection. Conventional injectors, based on single-stage pneumatic guns or centrifuges, can reliably provide frozen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes) at speeds up to 1.3 km/s and at suitable repetition rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). Injectors based on two-stage pneumatic guns and ``in situ'' condensation of hydrogen pellets can reliably achieve velocities over 3 km/s; however, they are not suitable for long-pulse repetitive operations. An experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-speed (?2 km/s) repeating (˜1 Hz) pneumatic pellet injector for long-pulse operation. A test facility has been assembled at ORNL, combining a Frascati repeating two-stage light-gas gun and an ORNL deuterium extruder, equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly. The main issues to be investigated were the strength of extruded deuterium ice as opposed to that produced by in situ condensation in pipe guns (hence the highest acceleration which can be given to the pellet without fracturing it), and the maximum repetition rate at which the system can operate without degradation in performance. Pellet velocities of up to 2.55 km/s have been achieved in joint experiments at ORNL. A new pressure tailoring valve was developed by the Frascati group for this application and proved to be a crucial component for good performance. Tests carried out in repeating mode, at frequencies of 0.2-0.5 Hz and speeds up to 2.2 km/s, indicate no significant degradation in performance with increasing repetition rate. Some preliminary tests using 3.7 mm pellets gave very encouraging results. The equipment and the experimental results are described in this article.

  12. Cluster expression in fission and fusion in high-dimensional macroscopic-microscopic calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamoto, A.; Ichikawa, T.; Moller, P.; Sierk, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the fission-fusion potential-energy surfaces of very heavy nuclei and the formation process of these nuclei in cold-fusion reactions. In the potential-energy surfaces, we find a pronounced valley structure, with one valley corresponding to the cold-fusion reaction, the other to fission. As the touching point is approached in the cold-fusion entrance channel, an instability towards dynamical deformation of the projectile occurs, which enhances the fusion cross section. These two 'cluster effects' enhance the production of superheavy nuclei in cold-fusion reactions, in addition to the effect of the low compound-system excitation energy in these reactions. Heavy-ion fusion reactions have been used extensively to synthesize heavy elements beyond actinide nuclei. In order to proceed further in this direction, we need to understand the formation process more precisely, not just the decay process. The dynamics of the formation process are considerably more complex than the dynamics necessary to interpret the spontaneous-fission decay of heavy elements. However, before implementing a full dynamical description it is useful to understand the basic properties of the potential-energy landscape encountered in the initial stages of the collision. The collision process and entrance-channel landscape can conveniently be separated into two parts, namely the early-stage separated system before touching and the late-stage composite system after touching. The transition between these two stages is particularly important, but not very well understood until now. To understand better the transition between the two stages we analyze here in detail the potential energy landscape or 'collision surface' of the system both outside and inside the touching configuration of the target and projectile. In Sec. 2, we discuss calculated five-dimensional potential-energy landscapes inside touching and identify major features. In Sec. 3, we present calculated 'collision surfaces' for still separated targets and projectiles. Implications for SHE formation are discussed. Section 4 is a short summary of the present analysis.

  13. Beta experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A focused laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was developed for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter (beta) from aerosols at infrared wavelengths. A Doppler signal generator was used in mapping the coherent sensitive focal volume of a focused LDV system. System calibration data was analyzed during the flight test activity scheduled for the Beta system. These analyses were performed to determine the acceptability of the Beta measurement system's performance.

  14. Comparison of separation performances of amylose- and cellulose-based stationary phases in the high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of stereoisomers of beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Pataj, Zoltán; Ilisz, István; Berkecz, Róbert; Forró, Eniko; Fülöp, Ferenc; Péter, Antal

    2010-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the separation of the enantiomers of 19 beta-lactams. The direct separations were performed on chiral stationary phases containing either amylose-tris-3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate, (Kromasil AmyCoat column) or cellulose-tris-3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate, (Kromasil CelluCoat column) as chiral selector. The different methods were compared in systematic chromatographic examinations. The separations were carried out with good selectivity and resolution. The AmyCoat and CelluCoat columns appear to be highly complementary. The best separations of bi- and tricyclic beta-lactam stereoisomers were obtained with the AmyCoat column, whereas the 4-aryl-substituted beta-lactams were better separated on the CelluCoat column. The elution sequence was determined in all cases; no general rule could be established. PMID:19455614

  15. Direct observation of the intergrown {alpha}-phase in {beta}-TmAlB{sub 4} via high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yubuta, Kunio; Mori, Takao; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Grin, Yuri; Okada, Shigeru; Shishido, Toetsu

    2009-08-05

    A TmAlB{sub 4} crystal with a ThMoB{sub 4}-type ({beta}-type) structure phase related to a hexagonal AlB{sub 2}-type structure was studied by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. A high-resolution image clearly exhibits an intergrown lamellar structure of a YCrB{sub 4}-type ({alpha}-type) phase in the matrix of the {beta}-type phase in TmAlB{sub 4} crystal. The lamellar structure can be characterized by a tiling of deformed hexagons, which are a common structure unit in the {alpha}-type and {beta}-type structures. The intergrown nanostructure is considered to be attributed to the origin of low temperature anomalies in physical properties.

  16. Accessible Passively Stored Highly Spin-Polarized Deuterium in Solid Hydrogen Deuterium, with Application to Inertially Confined Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Neil Brooks

    1992-01-01

    Highly spin-polarized D in solid HD was produced in a dilution refrigerator-magnet system under conditions whereby the polarization remains high upon removal of the sample to a 1K, modest field (~0.1 T) environment. This retained polarization remains for many hours to days, sufficient to allow the polarized material to be transported to distant locations and utilized there. The first intended application of this system is for inertially confined fusion (ICF) experiments with spin-polarized D fuel. The actual (vector) polarization attained thus far is P^{rm D} = 38%. The maximum D polarization obtainable with our present refrigerator and magnet (8 mK and 13 T) is 61%. The difference is due to our reluctance to wait the full time constants in these demonstration experiments and due to the inability to attain full efficiency in radio-frequency dynamic polarization transfer between D and H, the maximum polarizability of the latter in our system equaling about 85%. In addition to implementation of the polarization method, it was also necessary to develop methods for cold (4 K) sample transfer with engagement and disengagement provisions for the dilution-refrigerator apparatus, a storage -transport cryostat, various sample-preparation and diagnostic apparatuses, and an interface to an experimental destination facility, in the present case, the OMEGA fusion chamber at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The nature of the fusion experiments required designing and constructing a complex mating system with interchange of cold shrouds to ascertain the sample was always shielded from room temperature black body radiation, and still provide means for positioning the target to within a few microns of the intersection of the high power laser beams. Means of filling plastic target shells to high pressure (at room temperature) with our special isotopic composition of HD with H_2 and D_2 impurities, and condensing them at cryogenic temperatures, were also perfected.

  17. Simulation studies of hydrodynamic aspects of magneto-inertial fusion and high order adaptive algorithms for Maxwell equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingling

    Three-dimensional simulations of the formation and implosion of plasma liners for the Plasma Jet Induced Magneto Inertial Fusion (PJMIF) have been performed using multiscale simulation technique based on the FronTier code. In the PJMIF concept, a plasma liner, formed by merging of a large number of radial, highly supersonic plasma jets, implodes on the target in the form of two compact plasma toroids, and compresses it to conditions of the nuclear fusion ignition. The propagation of a single jet with Mach number 60 from the plasma gun to the merging point was studied using the FronTier code. The simulation result was used as input to the 3D jet merger problem. The merger of 144, 125, and 625 jets and the formation and heating of plasma liner by compression waves have been studied and compared with recent theoretical predictions. The main result of the study is the prediction of the average Mach number reduction and the description of the liner structure and properties. We have also compared the effect of different merging radii. Spherically symmetric simulations of the implosion of plasma liners and compression of plasma targets have also been performed using the method of front tracking. The cases of single deuterium and xenon liners and double layer deuterium - xenon liners compressing various deuterium-tritium targets have been investigated, optimized for maximum fusion energy gains, and compared with theoretical predictions and scaling laws of [P. Parks, On the efficacy of imploding plasma liners for magnetized fusion target compression, Phys. Plasmas 15, 062506 (2008)]. In agreement with the theory, the fusion gain was significantly below unity for deuterium - tritium targets compressed by Mach 60 deuterium liners. In the most optimal setup for a given chamber size that contained a target with the initial radius of 20 cm compressed by 10 cm thick, Mach 60 xenon liner, the target ignition and fusion energy gain of 10 was achieved. Simulations also showed that composite deuterium - xenon liners reduce the energy gain due to lower target compression rates. The effect of heating of targets by alpha particles on the fusion energy gain has also been investigated. The study of the dependence of the ram pressure amplification on radial compressibility showed a good agreement with the theory. The study concludes that a liner with higher Mach number and lower adiabatic index gamma (the radio of specific heats) will generate higher ram pressure amplification and higher fusion energy gain. We implemented a second order embedded boundary method for the Maxwell equations in geometrically complex domains. The numerical scheme is second order in both space and time. Comparing to the first order stair-step approximation of complex geometries within the FDTD method, this method can avoid spurious solution introduced by the stair step approximation. Unlike the finite element method and the FE-FD hybrid method, no triangulation is needed for this scheme. This method preserves the simplicity of the embedded boundary method and it is easy to implement. We will also propose a conservative (symplectic) fourth order scheme for uniform geometry boundary.

  18. SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Simonin, A.; Christin, L.; Esch, H. de; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Villecroze, F.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Vandevraye, M.; Brillet, A.; Chaibi, W.

    2011-09-26

    An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R and D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment.The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed.The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R and D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

  19. Facility for high-heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C.; Snead, Lance L.; Schaich, Charles R.

    2014-04-01

    A new high-heat flux testing (HHFT) facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon plasma arc lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can accommodate irradiated plasma facing component materials and sub-size mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW m-2, which are prototypic of fusion steady state heat flux conditions, over a heated area of 9 × 12 and 1 × 10 cm2, respectively. The use of PAL permits the heat source to be environmentally separated from the components of the test chamber, simplifying the design to accommodate safe testing of low-level irradiated articles and materials under high-heat flux. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing of tungsten samples are presented and discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this photon-based HHFT facility are compared to existing e-beam and particle beam facilities used for similar purposes.

  20. SIPHORE: Conceptual Study of a High Efficiency Neutral Beam Injector Based on Photo-detachment for Future Fusion Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonin, A.; Christin, L.; de Esch, H.; Garibaldi, P.; Grand, C.; Villecroze, F.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C.; Drag, C.; Vandevraye, M.; Brillet, A.; Chaibi, W.

    2011-09-01

    An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R&D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo-detachment. The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto-neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo-detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70-80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed. The paper presents the on-going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R&D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo-neutralization for Siphore.

  1. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    FISHER,RK

    2002-10-01

    OAK B202 HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION IMAGING OF INERTIAL FUSION TARGET PLASMAS USING BUBBLE NEWTRON DETECTORS. Bubble detectors, which can detect neutrons with a spatial resolution of 5 to 30 {micro}, are a promising approach to high-resolution imaging of NIF target plasmas. Gel bubble detectors were used in successful proof-of-principle imaging experiments on OMEGA. Until recently, bubble detectors appeared to be the only approach capable of achieving neutron images of NIF targets with the desired 5 {micro} spatial resolution in the target plane. In 2001, NIF reduced the required standoff distance from the target, so that diagnostic components can now be placed as close as 10 cm to the target plasma. This will allow neutron imaging with higher magnification and may make it possible to obtain 5 {micro}m resolution images on NIF using deuterated scintillators. Having accomplished all that they can hope to on OMEGA using gel detectors, they suggested that the 2002 NLUF shots be used to allow experimental tests of the spatial resolution of the CEA-built deuterated scintillators. The preliminary CEA data from the June 2002 run appears to show the spatial resolution using the deuterated scintillator detector array is improved over that obtained in earlier experiments using the proton-based scintillators. Gel detectors, which consist of {approx} 10 {micro}m diameter drops of bubble detector liquid suspended in an inactive support gel that occupies {approx} 99% of the detector volume, were chosen for the initial tests on OMEGA since they are easy to use. The bubbles could be photographed several hours after the neutron exposure. Imaging NIF target plasmas at neutron yields of 10{sup 15} will require a higher detection efficiency detector. Using a liquid bubble chamber detector should result in {approx} 1000 times higher neutron detection efficiency which is comparable to that possible using scintillation detectors. A pressure-cycled liquid bubble detector will require a light scattering system to record the bubble locations a few microseconds after the neutron exposure when the bubbles have grown to be {approx} 10 {micro}m in diameter. The next major task planned under this grant will be to perform experimental tests to determine how accurately the spatial distribution of the bubble density can be measured under the conditions expected in NIF. The bubble density will be large enough to produce significant overlap in the two-dimensional images, so that they will need to be able to measure bubbles behind bubbles. One of the goals of these tests is to determine if a simple light transmission approach is feasible. One of the concerns at very high bubble densities is that light scattered out of the path can be rescattered back into the transmitted light path by bubbles in neighboring paths.

  2. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  3. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of nanostructured materials using DPF device will discussed to establish this device as versatile tool for plasma nanotechnology.

  4. Petawatt laser pulses for proton-boron high gain fusion with avalanche reactions excluding problems of nuclear radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Lalousis, Paraskevas; Giuffrida, Lorenzo; Margarone, Daniele; Korn, Georg; Eliezer, Shalom; Miley, George H.; Moustaizis, Stavros; Mourou, Gérard

    2015-05-01

    An alternative way may be possible for igniting solid density hydrogen-11B (HB11) fuel. The use of >petawatt-ps laser pulses from the non-thermal ignition based on ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks by the nonlinear (ponderomotive) force, has to be combined with the measured ultrahigh magnetic fields in the 10 kilotesla range for cylindrical trapping. The evaluation of measured alpha particles from HB11 reactions arrives at the conclusion that apart from the usual binary nuclear reactions, secondary reactions by an avalanche multiplication may cause the high gains, even much higher than from deuterium tritium fusion. This may be leading to a concept of clean economic power generation.

  5. The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) will be the first experiment able to study high-beta plasma confined by a magnetic dipole with near classi-

    E-print Network

    -temperature superconducting magnet · Levitation and stabilization system with distant, upper levitation coil #12;FirstThe Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) will be the first experiment able to study high-beta plasma confined by a magnetic dipole with near classi- cal energy confinement. LDX consists of three

  6. Separation and Purification and Beta Liquid Scintillation Analysis of Sm-151 in Savannah River Site and Hanford Site DOE High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-02-13

    This paper describes development work to obtain a product phase of Sm-151 pure of any other radioactive species so that it can be determined in US Department of Energy high level liquid waste and low level solid waste by liquid scintillation {beta}-spectroscopy. The technique provides separation from {mu}Ci/ml levels of Cs-137, Pu alpha and Pu-241 {beta}-decay activity, and Sr-90/Y-90 activity. The separation technique is also demonstrated to be useful for the determination of Pm-147.

  7. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of serum concentrations of cyproterone acetate and 15 beta-hydroxycyproterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Yodo, K; Saisho, S; Shimozawa, K; Yata, J

    1988-02-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of cyproterone acetate (CPA), 15 beta-hydroxycyproterone acetate (15 beta-OH-CPA) and cyproterone (CP) was reported. This method was specific, sensitive, precise, easy and rapid for determination of the serum concentrations of these steroids in patients receiving CPA. Although no peak corresponding to CP was observed for serum, peaks corresponding to CPA and 15 beta-OH-CPA were detected and well separated in all subjects undergoing long-term CPA therapy. In these patients, there seemed to be a dose-dependent relationship between the amount of CPA administered and the serum concentrations of these steroids, and the serum concentrations of CPA were either similar or low compared with those of 15 beta-OH-CPA. In conclusion, this simplified method is thought to be very valuable for studies on the pharmacokinetics of CPA and 15 beta-OH-CPA, and on the relationship between the CPA dosage and the therapeutic or side effects on adrenal and gonadal steroid production. PMID:2969328

  8. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    E-print Network

    Renner, J; Hernando, J A; Imzaylov, A; Monrabal, F; Muñoz, J; Nygren, D; Gomez-Cadenas, J J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0nbb) decay experiments using a high pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0nbb decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0nbb decay (Qbb ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign (direction) of curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0nbb) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (s...

  9. Properties of the open cluster Tombaugh 1 from high resolution spectroscopy and uvbyCaH$\\beta$ photometry

    E-print Network

    Silva, João V Sales; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J; Bidin, Christian Moni; Costa, Edgardo; Twarog, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Open clusters can be the key to deepen our knowledge on various issues involving the structure and evolution of the Galactic disk and details of stellar evolution because a cluster's properties are applicable to all its members. However the number of open clusters with detailed analysis from high resolution spectroscopy and/or precision photometry imposes severe limitation on studies of these objects. To expand the number of open clusters with well-defined chemical abundances and fundamental parameters, we investigate the poorly studied, anticenter open cluster Tombaugh 1. Using precision uvbyCaH$\\beta$ photometry and high resolution spectroscopy, we derive the cluster's properties and, for the first time, present detailed abundance analysis of 10 potential cluster stars. Using radial position from the cluster center and multiple color indices, we have isolated a sample of unevolved probable, single-star members of Tombaugh 1. The weighted photometric metallicity from $m_1$ and $hk$ is [Fe/H] = -0.10 $\\pm$ 0....

  10. Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimova, Alevtina A.; Petrova, Evgeniya V.; Grokhovsky, Victor I.; Oshtrakh, Michael I. Semionkin, Vladimir A.

    2014-10-27

    Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust, fallen on February 15, 2013, in Russian Federation, was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The Mössbauer spectra of the internal matter and fusion crust were fitted and all components were related to iron-bearing phases such as olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and chromite in the internal matter and olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and magnesioferrite in the fusion crust. A comparison of the content of different phases in the internal matter and in the fusion crust of this fragment showed that ferric compounds resulted from olivine, pyroxene, and troilite combustion in the atmosphere.

  11. Spleen tyrosine kinase mediates high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 up-regulation in proximal tubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Won Seok; Chang, Jai Won; Han, Nam Jeong; Lee, Sang Koo; Park, Su-Kil

    2012-09-10

    The role of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in high glucose-induced intracellular signal transduction has yet to be elucidated. We investigated whether Syk is implicated in high glucose-induced transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) up-regulation in cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cell). High glucose increased TGF-{beta}1 gene expression through Syk, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B. High glucose-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was decreased by Syk inhibitors and U0126 (an ERK inhibitor). Syk inhibitors suppressed high glucose-induced ERK activation, whereas U0126 had no effect on Syk activation. High glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity was also decreased by Syk inhibitors. High glucose increased nuclear translocation of p65 without serine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} and without degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, but with an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha} that may account for the activation of NF-{kappa}B. Both Syk inhibitors and Syk-siRNA attenuated high glucose-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} tyrosine phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation. Depletion of p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) by transfection of Pak2-siRNA abolished high glucose-induced Syk activation. In summary, high glucose-induced TGF-{beta}1 gene transcription occurred through Pak2, Syk and subsequent ERK/AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B pathways. This suggests that Syk might be implicated in the diabetic kidney disease.

  12. Trident: a versatile high-power Nd:glass laser facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncur, N. K.; Johnson, R. P.; Watt, R. G.; Gibson, R. B.

    1995-07-01

    The Trident Nd:glass laser system operates as an experimental facility supporting the national Inertial Confinement Fusion program at Los Alamos. The laser has two identical main beam lines with 14-cm-disk final amplifiers. The beams are frequency doubled, expanded to 19.2 cm, and focused on target with a variety of focusing optics. A third beam with 10-cm disk final amplifiers is also frequency doubled and used as a target-shooting or diagnostic beam simultaneously with the other two beams. The facility provides a flexible combination of energy, pulse-shaping capabilities, and diagnostic tools for laser-target interaction experiments.

  13. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  14. Steepened magnetosonic waves in the high. beta. plasma surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Smith, E.J.; Thorne, R.M.; Gosling, J.T.; Matsumoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    We extend the previous studies of intense hydromagnetic waves at Giacobini-Zinner to investigate the mode and direction of wave propagation. Simultaneous high-resolution measurements of electron density fluctuations demonstrate that the long period (approx.100 s) waves are propagating in the magnetosonic mode. Principal axis analyses of the long period waves and accompanying partial rotations show that the sum of the wave phase rotations is 360/sup 0/C, indicating that both are parts of the same wave oscillation. From the time sequence of the steepened waveforms observed by ICE, we demonstrate that the waves must propagate towards the sun with C/sub ph/ < V/sub sw/. All available observations are consistent with wave generation by the resonant ion ring or ion beam instability which predicts right-hand polarized waves propagating in the ion beam (solar) direction. The large amplitudes ..delta.. polarized B/absolute value of Bapprox.0(1) and small scale sizes (rotational discontinuities) of the cometary waves suggest that rapid pitch-angle scattering and energy transfer with energetic ions should occur. Since the waves are highly compressive, ..delta.. absolute value of B/absolute value of B = 0(0.5), one can also anticipate first-order Fermi acceleration. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  15. A Novel Highly Thermostable Multifunctional Beta-Glycosidase from Crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans

    PubMed Central

    Gumerov, Vadim M.; Rakitin, Andrey L.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.

    2015-01-01

    We expressed a putative ?-galactosidase Asac_1390 from hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Acidilobus saccharovorans in Escherichia coli and purified the recombinant enzyme. Asac_1390 is composed of 490 amino acid residues and showed high sequence similarity to family 1 glycoside hydrolases from various thermophilic Crenarchaeota. The maximum activity was observed at pH 6.0 and 93°C. The half-life of the enzyme at 90°C was about 7 hours. Asac_1390 displayed high tolerance to glucose and exhibits hydrolytic activity towards cellobiose and various aryl glucosides. The hydrolytic activity with p-nitrophenyl (pNP) substrates followed the order pNP-?-D-galactopyranoside (328?U?mg?1), pNP-?-D-glucopyranoside (246?U?mg?1), pNP-?-D-xylopyranoside (72?U?mg?1), and pNP-?-D-mannopyranoside (28?U?mg?1). Thus the enzyme was actually a multifunctional ?-glycosidase. Therefore, the utilization of Asac_1390 may contribute to facilitating the efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and help enhance bioconversion processes. PMID:26539062

  16. Induction of a high affinity fibronectin receptor in Candida albicans by caspofungin: requirements for beta (1,6) glucans and the developmental regulator Hbr1p.

    PubMed

    Pendrak, Michael L; Rodrigues, Rui G; Roberts, David D

    2007-03-01

    Candida albicans expresses at least two biochemically distinct fibronectin receptors. Hemoglobin induces expression of a low affinity receptor recognizing the fibronectin cell-binding domain, whereas growth in complex media induces a high affinity receptor recognizing the collagen-binding domain. We now show that sub-inhibitory concentrations of caspofungin and nikkomycin Z, but not fluconazole, induce the high affinity fibronectin receptor in a dose-dependent manner. Macromolecular complexes mechanically sheared from caspofungin-treated cells retained high affinity fibronectin binding that was sensitive to protease, disulfide reduction, and beta (1,3) glucanase digestion. The high affinity fibronectin receptor was not inducible in a Kre9 mutant strain of C. albicans deficient in beta (1,6) glucans. Conversely, a mutant strain lacking the fibronectin binding protein Als5p showed no defects in induction of high or low affinity fibronectin receptors. Heterozygous mutants of a regulator of white-opaque phenotypic switching, HBR1, lacked any detectable high affinity fibronectin receptor expression in response to caspofungin, and re-introduction of the gene restored activity. Therefore, sub-inhibitory dosages of caspofungin induce a high affinity fibronectin receptor that is distinct from the known receptor Als5p and is dependent on beta (1,6) glucans and HBR1. PMID:17365652

  17. On the power and size of tokamak fusion pilot plants and reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costley, A. E.; Hugill, J.; Buxton, P. F.

    2015-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the route to fusion power involves large devices of ITER scale or larger. However, we show, contrary to expectations, that for steady state tokamaks operating at fixed fractions of the density and beta limits, the fusion gain, Qfus, depends mainly on the absolute level of the fusion power and the energy confinement, and only weakly on the device size. Our investigations are carried out using a system code and also by analytical means. Further, we show that for the two qualitatively different global scalings that have been developed to fit the data contained in the ITER ELMy H-mode database, i.e. the normally used beta-dependent IPB98y2 scaling and the alternative beta-independent scalings, the power needed for high fusion performance differs substantially, typically by factors of three to four. Taken together, these two findings imply that lower power, smaller, and hence potentially lower cost, pilot plants and reactors than currently envisaged may be possible. The main parameters of a candidate low power (˜180 MW), high Qfus (˜5), relatively small (˜1.35 m major radius) device are given.

  18. A highly functional mini-dystrophin/GFP fusion gene for cell and gene therapy studies of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Kimura, En; Ng, Rainer; Fall, Brent M; Meuse, Leonard; Reyes, Morayma; Faulkner, John A; Chamberlain, Jeffrey S

    2006-05-15

    A promising approach for treating Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is by autologous cell transplantation of myogenic stem cells transduced with a therapeutic expression cassette. Development of this method has been hampered by a low frequency of cellular engraftment, the difficulty of tracing transplanted cells, the rapid loss of autologous cells carrying marker genes that are unable to halt muscle necrosis and the difficulty of stable transfer of a large dystrophin gene into myogenic stem cells. We engineered a 5.7 kb miniDys-GFP fusion gene by replacing the dystrophin C-terminal domain (DeltaCT) with an eGFP coding sequence and removing much of the dystrophin central rod domain (DeltaH2-R19). In a transgenic mdx(4Cv) mouse expressing the miniDys-GFP fusion protein under the control of a skeletal muscle-specific promoter, the green fusion protein localized on the sarcolemma, where it assembled the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex and completely prevented the development of dystrophy in transgenic mdx(4Cv) muscles. When myogenic and other stem cells from these mice were transplanted into mdx(4Cv) recipients, donor cells can be readily identified in skeletal muscle by direct green fluorescence or by using antibodies against GFP or dystrophin. In mdx(4Cv) mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells from the transgenic mice, we monitored engraftment in various muscle groups and found the number of miniDys-GFP(+) fibers increased with time. We suggest that these transgenic mdx(4Cv) mice are highly useful for developing autologous cell therapies for DMD. PMID:16595609

  19. High-beta effects and anomalous diffusion in plasmas expanding into magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    A metallic laser-produced plasma is allowed to expand transversely into an applied magnetic field, under conditions where the typical ion cyclotron radius is much larger, and the electron cyclotron radius much smaller, than the experimental dimensions. A stationary background plasma may also be present. Initially, the flow energy density exceeds (B squared/8 times pi), where B is the ambient magnetic field. Magnetic coil probes, Langmuir probes, and microwave diagnostics are used to study the plasma-field interaction. Field compression at the leading edge and field exclusion within the expanding plasma are seen. The diagnostic measurements and comparison with a theoretical model demonstrate plasma turbulence and anomalously high diffusion of field into the expanding plasma.

  20. Investigation of Resistive Wall Mode Stabilization Physics in High-beta Plasmas Using Applied Non-axisymmetric Fields in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, A. C.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Zhu, W.; Menard, J. E.; Bell, R. E.; Bialek, J. M.; Bell, M. G.; Gates, D. A.; Glasser, A. H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Shaing, K. C.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K. L.

    2009-06-16

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) offers an operational space characterized by high-beta (?t = 39%, ?N > 7, ?N/?no-wall N > 1.5) and low aspect ratio (A > 1.27) to leverage the plasma parameter dependences of RWM stabilization and plasma rotation damping physics giving greater confidence for extrapolation to ITER. Significant new capability for RWM research has been added to the device with the commissioning of a set of six nonaxisymmetric magnetic field coils, allowing generation of fields with dominant toroidal mode number, n, of 1–3. These coils have been used to study the dependence of resonant field amplification on applied field frequency and RWMstabilization physics by reducing the toroidal rotation profile belowits steady-state value through non-resonant magnetic braking. Modification of plasma rotation profiles shows that rotation outside q = 2.5 is not required for passive RWM stability and there is large variation in the RWM critical rotation at the q = 2 surface, both of which are consistent with distributed dissipation models.

  1. Evaluation of radioactive background rejection in 76Ge neutrino-lessdouble-beta decay experiments using a highly segmented HPGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Yuen-Dat; Campbell, D.B.; Vetter, K.; Henning, R.; Lesko, K.; Chan, Y.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Perry, M.; Hurley, D.; Smith, A.R.

    2007-02-05

    A highly segmented coaxial HPGe detector was operated in a low background counting facility for over 1 year to experimentally evaluate possible segmentation strategies for the proposed Majorana neutrino-less double-beta decay experiment. Segmentation schemes were evaluated on their ability to reject multi-segment events while retaining single-segment events. To quantify a segmentation scheme's acceptance efficiency the percentage of peak area due to single segment events was calculated for peaks located in the energy region 911-2614 keV. Single interaction site events were represented by the double-escape peak from the 2614 keV decay in {sup 208}Tl located at 1592 keV. In spite of its prototypical nature, the detector performed well under realistic operating conditions and required only minimal human interaction. Though the energy resolution for events with interactions in multiple segments was impacted by inter-segment cross-talk, the implementation of a cross-talk correlation matrix restored acceptable resolution. Additionally, simulations utilizing the MaGe simulation package were performed and found to be in good agreement with experimental observations verifying the external nature of the background radiation.

  2. Theory of coupled whistler-electron temperature gradient mode in high beta plasma: Application to linear plasma device

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.; Jha, R.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a theory of coupled whistler (W) and electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode using two-fluid model in high beta plasma. Non-adiabatic ion response, parallel magnetic field perturbation ({delta}B{sub z}), perpendicular magnetic flutter ({delta}B{sub perpendicular}), and electron collisions are included in the treatment of theory. A linear dispersion relation for whistler-electron temperature gradient (W-ETG) mode is derived. The numerical results obtained from this relation are compared with the experimental results observed in large volume plasma device (LVPD) [Awasthi et al., Phys. Plasma 17, 42109 (2010)]. The theory predicts that the instability grows only where the temperature gradient is finite and the density gradient flat. For the parameters of the experiment, theoretically estimated frequency and wave number of W-ETG mode match with the values corresponding to the peak in the power spectrum observed in LVPD. By using simple mixing length argument, estimated level of fluctuations of W-ETG mode is in the range of fluctuation level observed in LVPD.

  3. ZORNOC: a 1 1/2-D tokamak data analysis code for studying noncircular high beta plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zurro, B.; Wieland, R.M.; Murakami, M.; Swain, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    A new tokamak data analysis code, ZORNOC, was developed to study noncircular, high beta plasmas in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B). These plasmas exhibit significant flux surface shifts and elongation in both ohmically heated and beam-heated discharges. The MHD equilibrium flux surface geometry is determined by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation based on: (1) the shape of the outermost flux surface, deduced from the magnetic loop probes; (2) a pressure profile, deduced by means of Thomson scattering data (electrons), charge exchange data (ions), and a Fokker-Planck model (fast ions); and (3) a safety factor profile, determined from the experimental data using a simple model (Z/sub eff/ = const) that is self-consistently altered while the plasma equilibrium is iterated. For beam-heated discharches the beam deposition profile is determined by means of a Monte Carlo scheme and the slowing down of the fast ions by means of an analytical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The code also carries out an electron power balance and calculates various confinement parameters. The code is described and examples of its operation are given.

  4. Cathepsin Inhibition-Induced Lysosomal Dysfunction Enhances Pancreatic Beta-Cell Apoptosis in High Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minjeong; Lee, Jaemeun; Seo, Hye-Young; Lim, Ji Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. We previously showed that the inhibition of autophagy causes pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy is a protective mechanism for the survival of pancreatic ?-cells. The current study demonstrates that treatment with inhibitors and knockdown of the lysosomal cysteine proteases such as cathepsins B and L impair autophagy, enhancing the caspase-dependent apoptosis of INS-1 cells and islets upon exposure to high concentration of glucose. Interestingly, treatment with cathepsin B and L inhibitors prevented the proteolytic processing of cathepsins B, D and L, as evidenced by gradual accumulation of the respective pro-forms. Of note, inhibition of aspartic cathepsins had no effect on autophagy and cell viability, suggesting the selective role of cathepsins B and L in the regulation of ?-cell autophagy and apoptosis. Lysosomal localization of accumulated pro-cathepsins in the presence of cathepsin B and L inhibitors was verified via immunocytochemistry and lysosomal fractionation. Lysotracker staining indicated that cathepsin B and L inhibitors led to the formation of severely enlarged lysosomes in a time-dependent manner. The abnormal accumulation of pro-cathepsins following treatment with inhibitors of cathepsins B and L suppressed normal lysosomal degradation and the processing of lysosomal enzymes, leading to lysosomal dysfunction. Collectively, our findings suggest that cathepsin defects following the inhibition of cathepsin B and L result in lysosomal dysfunction and consequent cell death in pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:25625842

  5. The Copper Substrate Developments for the HIE-ISOLDE High-Beta Quarter Wave Resonator

    E-print Network

    Alberty, L; Aviles, I; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; Foffano, G; Kadi, Y; Moyret, P; Schirm, K-M; Tardy, T; Venturini Delsolaro, W; D'Elia, A

    2013-01-01

    A new Linac using superconducting Quarter-Wave Resonators (QWRs) is under construction at CERN in the framework of the HIE-ISOLDE project. The QWRs are made by niobium sputtered on a bulk copper substrate. The working frequency at 4.5 K is 101.28 MHz and they will provide 6 MV/m accelerating gradient on the beam axis with a total maximum power dissipation of 10 W. The properties of the cavity substrate have a direct impact on the final cavity performance. The copper substrate has to ensure an optimum surface for the niobium sputtered layer. It has also to fulfil the required geometrical tolerances, the mechanical stability during operation and the thermal performance to optimally extract the RF dissipated power on cavity walls. The paper presents the mechanical design of the high ? cavities. The procurement process of the copper raw material is detailed, including specifications and tests. The manufacturing sequence of the complete cavity is then explained and the structural and thermo-mechanical behaviour...

  6. A low wall-loading DEMO reactor design with high priority for early and reliable realization of a tokamak fusion reactor over the cost performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Wang, Jifang; Yamamoto, Takashi; Okano, Kunihiko

    1995-12-01

    Based on scientific databases adopted for designing ITER plasmas and on the advancement of fusion nuclear technology from the recent R&D program, a low wall-loading DEMO fusion reactor has been designed, where high priority has been given to the early and reliable realization of a tokamak fusion plasma over the cost performance. Since the major radius of this DEMO reactor is chosen to be 10 m, plasma ignition is achievable with a low fusion power of 0.8 GW and an operation period of 4-5 hours is available only with inductive current drive. The low ignition power makes it possible to adopt a first wall with an austenitic stainless steel, for which significant databases and operating experience exists, due to its use in the presence of neutron irradiation in fission reactors. In step with development of advanced materials, a step-wise increase of the fusion power seems to be feasible and realistic, because this DEMO reactor has the potential to produce a fusion power of ˜5 GW.

  7. Beta-methyl substitution of cyclohexylalanine in Dmt-Tic-Cha-Phe peptides results in highly potent delta opioid antagonists.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Géza; Ioja, Eniko; Tömböly, Csaba; Ballet, Steven; Tourwé, Dirk; Péter, Antal; Martinek, Tamás; Chung, Nga N; Schiller, Peter W; Benyhe, Sándor; Borsodi, Anna

    2007-01-25

    The opioid peptide TIPP (H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH, Tic:1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) was substituted with Dmt (2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and a new unnatural amino acid, beta-MeCha (beta-methyl-cyclohexylalanine). This double substitution led to a new series of opioid peptides displaying subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and mu agonist or antagonist properties depending on the configuration of the beta-MeCha residue. The most promising analog, H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3S)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH was a very selective delta antagonist both in the mouse vas deferens (MVD) assay (Ke = 0.241 +/- 0.05 nM) and in radioligand binding assay (K i delta = 0.48 +/- 0.05 nM, K i mu/K i delta = 2800). The epimeric peptide H-Dmt-Tic-(2S,3R)-beta-MeCha-Phe-OH and the corresponding peptide amide turned out to be mixed partial mu agonist/delta antagonists in the guinea pig ileum and MVD assays. Our results constitute further examples of the influence of Dmt and beta-methyl substitution as well as C-terminal amidation on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of TIPP related peptides. Some of these compounds represent valuable pharmacological tools for opioid research. PMID:17228874

  8. Reversible Hydrogel–Solution System of Silk with High Beta-Sheet Content

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Silkworm silk has been widely used as a textile fiber, as biomaterials and in optically functional materials due to its extraordinary properties. The ?-sheet-rich natural nanofiber units of about 10–50 nm in diameter are often considered the origin of these properties, yet it remains unclear how silk self-assembles into these hierarchical structures. A new system composed of ?-sheet-rich silk nanofibers about 10–20 nm in diameter is reported here, where these nanofibers formed into “flowing hydrogels” at 0.5–2% solutions and could be transformed back into the solution state at lower concentrations, even with a high ?-sheet content. This is in contrast with other silk processed materials, where significant ?-sheet content negates reversibility between solution and solid states. These fibers are formed by regulating the self-assembly process of silk in aqueous solution, which changes the distribution of negative charges while still supporting ?-sheet formation in the structures. Mechanistically, there appears to be a shift toward negative charges along the outside of the silk nanofibers in our present study, resulting in a higher zeta potential (above ?50 mV) than previous silk materials which tend to be below ?30 mV. The higher negative charge on silk nanofibers resulted in electrostatic repulsion strong enough to negate further assembly of the nanofibers. Changing silk concentration changed the balance between hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic repulsion of ?-sheet-rich silk nanofibers, resulting in reversible hydrogel–solution transitions. Furthermore, the silk nanofibers could be disassembled into shorter fibers and even nanoparticles upon ultrasonic treatment following the transition from hydrogel to solution due to the increased dispersion of hydrophobic smaller particles, without the loss of ?-sheet content, and with retention of the ability to transition between hydrogel and solution states through reversion to longer nanofibers during self-assembly. These reversible solution-hydrogel transitions were tunable with ultrasonic intensity, time, or temperature. PMID:25056606

  9. Proceedings of US/Japan workshop, Q219 on high heat flux components and plasma surface interactions for next fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Stevens, P.L.; Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.

    1996-12-01

    This report contains the viewgraphs from the proceedings of US/Japan Workshop on High Heat Flux Components and Plasma Surface Interactions for Next Fusion Devices. Some of the general topics covered by this report are: PFC/PSI in tokamak and helical devices; development of high heat flux components; PSIS and plasma facing materials;tritium; and material damage.

  10. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%.

  11. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf supplementation improves antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena

    2009-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and ?-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711

  12. Fusion excitation function revisited

    E-print Network

    Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

    2012-09-28

    We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

  13. Fusion of Kinect depth data with trifocal disparity estimation for near real-time high quality depth maps generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, Guillaume; Kerbiriou, Paul; Drazic, Valter; Bureller, Olivier; Sabater, Neus; Schubert, Arno

    2014-03-01

    Generating depth maps along with video streams is valuable for Cinema and Television production. Thanks to the improvements of depth acquisition systems, the challenge of fusion between depth sensing and disparity estimation is widely investigated in computer vision. This paper presents a new framework for generating depth maps from a rig made of a professional camera with two satellite cameras and a Kinect device. A new disparity-based calibration method is proposed so that registered Kinect depth samples become perfectly consistent with disparities estimated between rectified views. Also, a new hierarchical fusion approach is proposed for combining on the flow depth sensing and disparity estimation in order to circumvent their respective weaknesses. Depth is determined by minimizing a global energy criterion that takes into account the matching reliability and the consistency with the Kinect input. Thus generated depth maps are relevant both in uniform and textured areas, without holes due to occlusions or structured light shadows. Our GPU implementation reaches 20fps for generating quarter-pel accurate HD720p depth maps along with main view, which is close to real-time performances for video applications. The estimated depth is high quality and suitable for 3D reconstruction or virtual view synthesis.

  14. Pulsed Operation of a Compact Fusion Neutron Source Using a High-Voltage Pulse Generator Developed for Landmine Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Eiki; Yuura, Morimasa

    2005-05-15

    Preliminary experimental results of pulsed neutron source based on a discharge-type beam fusion called Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) for landmine detection are presented. In Japan, a research and development project for constructing an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using IECF, which is effective not only for metal landmines but also for plastic ones, is now in progress. This project consists of some R and D topics, and one of them is R and D of a high-voltage pulse generator system specialized for landmine detection, which can be used in the severe environment such as that in the field in Afghanistan. Thus a prototype of the system for landmine detection was designed and fabricated in consideration of compactness, lightness, cooling performance, dustproof and robustness. By using this prototype pulse generator system, a conventional IECF device was operated as a preliminary experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the suggested pulse generator system is suitable for landmine detection system, and the results follow the empirical law obtained by the previous experiments. The maximum neutron production rate of 2.0x10{sup 8} n/s was obtained at a pulsed discharge of -51 kV, 7.3 A.

  15. Maltose-Binding Protein Fusion Allows for High Level Bacterial Expression and Purification of Bioactive Mammalian Cytokine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Pennati, Andrea; Deng, Jiusheng; Galipeau, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Fusokines are chimeric proteins generated by the physical coupling of cytokines in a single polypeptide, resulting in proteins with highly pleiotropic activity and the potential to treat cancer and autoimmune ailments. For instance, the fusokine GIFT15 (GM-CSF and Interleukin 15 Fusion Transgene) has been shown to be a powerful immunosuppressive protein able to convert naïve B cells into IL-10-producing B cells. To date, the mammalian cell systems used for the expression of GIFT15 allow for secretion of the protein in the culturing media, an inefficient system for producing GMP-compliant fusokines. In this study we report the bacterial expression of bioactive recombinant GIFT15 (rGIFT15). Indeed, there is a constant demand to improve the expression systems for therapeutic proteins. Expression of a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion protein efficiently allowed the accumulation of soluble protein in the intracellular milieu. Optimizing the bacterial culture significantly increased the yield of recombinant protein. The biological activity of rGIFT15 was comparable to that of fusokine derived from a mammalian source. This approach led to the production of soluble, endotoxin-free functional protein, averaging 5 mg of rGIFT15 per liter of culture. This process is amenable to scale up for the development of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-compliant immune-modulatory rGIFT15. PMID:25198691

  16. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    E-print Network

    E. I. Moses

    2001-11-09

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

  17. New Vectors for Chromosomal Integration Enable High-Level Constitutive or Inducible Magnetosome Expression of Fusion Proteins in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Sarah; Hofmann, Julia; Pollithy, Anna; Lang, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense biomineralizes magnetosomes, which consist of monocrystalline magnetite cores enveloped by a phospholipid bilayer containing specific proteins. Magnetosomes represent magnetic nanoparticles with unprecedented magnetic and physicochemical characteristics. These make them potentially useful in a number of biotechnological and biomedical applications. Further functionalization can be achieved by expression of foreign proteins via genetic fusion to magnetosome anchor peptides. However, the available genetic tool set for strong and controlled protein expression in magnetotactic bacteria is very limited. Here, we describe versatile vectors for either inducible or high-level constitutive expression of proteins in M. gryphiswaldense. The combination of an engineered native PmamDC promoter with a codon-optimized egfp gene (Mag-egfp) resulted in an 8-fold increase in constitutive expression and in brighter fluorescence. We further demonstrate that the widely used Ptet promoter is functional and tunable in M. gryphiswaldense. Stable and uniform expression of the EGFP and ?-glucuronidase (GusA) reporters was achieved by single-copy chromosomal insertion via Tn5-mediated transposition. In addition, gene duplication by Mag-EGFP–EGFP fusions to MamC resulted in further increased magnetosome expression and fluorescence. Between 80 and 210 (for single MamC–Mag-EGFP) and 200 and 520 (for MamC–Mag-EGFP–EGFP) GFP copies were estimated to be expressed per individual magnetosome particle. PMID:24532068

  18. Transport of carbon ion test particles and hydrogen recycling in the plasma of the Columbia tokamak HBT'' (High Beta Tokamak)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Hua.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon impurity ion transport is studied in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT), using a carbon tipped probe which is inserted into the plasma (n{sub e} {approx} 1 {minus} 5 {times} 10{sup 14} (cm{sup {minus}3}), T{sub e} {approx} 4 {minus} 10 (eV), B{sub t} {approx} 0.2 {minus} 0.4(T)). Carbon impurity light, mainly the strong lines of C{sub II}(4267A, emitted by the C{sup +} ions) and C{sub III} (4647A, emitted by the C{sup ++} ions), is formed by the ablation or sputtering of plasma ions and by the discharge of the carbon probe itself. The diffusion transport of the carbon ions is modeled by measuring the space-and-time dependent spectral light emission of the carbon ions with a collimated optical beam and photomultiplier. The point of emission can be observed in such a way as to sample regions along and transverse to the toroidal magnetic field. The carbon ion diffusion coefficients are obtained by fitting the data to a diffusion transport model. It is found that the diffusion of the carbon ions is classical'' and is controlled by the high collisionality of the HBT plasma; the diffusion is a two-dimensional problem and the expected dependence on the charge of the impurity ion is observed. The measurement of the spatial distribution of the H{sub {alpha}} emissivity was obtained by inverting the light signals from a 4-channel polychromator, the data were used to calculate the minor-radial influx, the density, and the recycling time of neutral hydrogen atoms or molecules. The calculation shows that the particle recycling time {tau}{sub p} is comparable with the plasma energy confinement time {tau}{sub E}; therefore, the recycling of the hot plasma ions with the cold neutrals from the walls is one of the main mechanisms for loss of plasma energy.

  19. Improved background rejection in neutrinoless double beta decay experiments using a magnetic field in a high pressure xenon TPC

    E-print Network

    J. Renner; A. Cervera; J. A. Hernando; A. Imzaylov; F. Monrabal; J. Muñoz; D. Nygren; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas

    2015-09-06

    We demonstrate that the application of an external magnetic field could lead to an improved background rejection in neutrinoless double-beta (0nbb) decay experiments using a high pressure xenon (HPXe) TPC. HPXe chambers are capable of imaging electron tracks, a feature that enhances the separation between signal events (the two electrons emitted in the 0nbb decay of 136Xe) and background events, arising chiefly from single electrons of kinetic energy compatible with the end-point of the 0nbb decay (Qbb ). Applying an external magnetic field of sufficiently high intensity (in the range of 0.5-1 Tesla for operating pressures in the range of 5-15 atmospheres) causes the electrons to produce helical tracks. Assuming the tracks can be properly reconstructed, the sign (direction) of curvature can be determined at several points along these tracks, and such information can be used to separate signal (0nbb) events containing two electrons producing a track with two different directions of curvature from background (single-electron) events producing a track that should spiral in a single direction. Due to electron multiple scattering, this strategy is not perfectly efficient on an event-by-event basis, but a statistical estimator can be constructed which can be used to reject background events by one order of magnitude at a moderate cost (approx. 30%) in signal efficiency. Combining this estimator with the excellent energy resolution and topological signature identification characteristic of the HPXe TPC, it is possible to reach a background rate of less than one count per ton-year of exposure. Such a low background rate is an essential feature of the next generation of 0nbb experiments, aiming to fully explore the inverse hierarchy of neutrino masses.

  20. Symmetric inertial confinement fusion implosions at ultra-high laser energies

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; MacGowan, B J; Michel, P; Meezan, N B; Suter, L J; Dixit, S N; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Dzenitis, E; Edwards, J; Hamza, A V; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Kalantar, D H; Kilkenny, J D; Landen, O L; Lindle, J D; LePape, S; Moody, J D; Nikroo, A; Parham, T; Schneider, M B; Town, R J; Wegner, P; Widmann, K; Whitman, P; Young, B F; Van Wonterghem, B; Atherton, J E; Moses, E I

    2009-12-03

    The first indirect-drive hohlraum experiments at the National Ignition Facility have demonstrated symmetric capsule implosions at unprecedented laser drive energies of 0.7 MJ. 192 simultaneously fired laser beams heat ignition hohlraums to radiation temperatures of 3.3 million Kelvin compressing 1.8-millimeter capsules by the soft x rays produced by the hohlraum. Self-generated plasma-optics gratings on either end of the hohlraum tune the laser power distribution in the hohlraum producing symmetric x-ray drive as inferred from capsule self-emission measurements. These experiments indicate conditions suitable for compressing deuterium-tritium filled capsules with the goal to achieve burning fusion plasmas and energy gain in the laboratory.

  1. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor refueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1991-08-01

    This report contains three documents describing the progress made by the University of Illinois electromagnetic railgun program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of the United States Department of Energy during the period from July 16, 1990 to August 16, 1991. The first document contains a brief summary of the tasks initiated, continued, or completed, the status of major tasks, and the research effort distribution, estimated and actual, during the period. The second document contains a description of the work performed on time resolved laser interferometric density measurement of the railgun plasma-arc armature. The third document is an account of research on the spectroscopic measurement of the electron density and temperature of the railgun plasma arc.

  2. Simulations of alpha parameters in a TFTR DT supershot with high fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.V.; Bell, M.G.; Janos, A.C.

    1995-07-01

    A TFTR supershot with a plasma current of 2.5 MA, neutral beam heating power of 33.7 MW, and a peak DT fusion power of 7.5 MW is studied using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Simulations of alpha parameters such as the alpha heating, pressure, and distributions in energy and v{sub parallel}/v are given. The effects of toroidal ripple and mixing of the fast alpha particles during the sawteeth observed after the neutral beam injection phase are modeled. The distributions of alpha particles on the outer midplane are peaked near forward and backward v{sub parallel}/v. Ripple losses deplete the distributions in the vicinity of v{sub parallel}/v {approximately}{minus}0.4. Sawtooth mixing of fast alpha particles is computed to reduce their central density and broaden their width in energy.

  3. Highly precise Re-Os dating for molybdenite using alkaline fusion and NTIMS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markey, R.; Stein, H.; Morgan, J.

    1998-01-01

    The technique described in this paper represents the modification and combination of two previously existing methods, alkaline fusion and negative thermal ion mass spectrometry (NTIMS). We have used this technique to analyze repeatedly a homogeneous molybdenite powder used as a reference standard in our laboratory. Analyses were made over a period of 18 months, using four different calibrations of two different spike solutions. The age of this standard reproduces at a level of ?? 0.13%. Each individual age analysis carries an uncertainty of about 0.4% that includes the uncertainty in the decay constant for 187Re. This new level of resolution has allowed us to recognize real differences in ages for two grain-size populations of molybdenite from some Archean samples.

  4. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to diver

  5. Development of a low-energy and high-current pulsed neutral beam injector with a washer-gun plasma source for high-beta plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ii, Toru; Gi, Keii; Umezawa, Toshiyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Asai, Tomohiko

    2012-08-15

    We have developed a novel and economical neutral-beam injection system by employing a washer-gun plasma source. It provides a low-cost and maintenance-free ion beam, thus eliminating the need for the filaments and water-cooling systems employed conventionally. In our primary experiments, the washer gun produced a source plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 5 eV and an electron density of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, i.e., conditions suitable for ion-beam extraction. The dependence of the extracted beam current on the acceleration voltage is consistent with space-charge current limitation, because the observed current density is almost proportional to the 3/2 power of the acceleration voltage below approximately 8 kV. By optimizing plasma formation, we successfully achieved beam extraction of up to 40 A at 15 kV and a pulse length in excess of 0.25 ms. Its low-voltage and high-current pulsed-beam properties enable us to apply this high-power neutral beam injection into a high-beta compact torus plasma characterized by a low magnetic field.

  6. Development of a low-energy and high-current pulsed neutral beam injector with a washer-gun plasma source for high-beta plasma experiments.

    PubMed

    Ii, Toru; Gi, Keii; Umezawa, Toshiyuki; Asai, Tomohiko; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a novel and economical neutral-beam injection system by employing a washer-gun plasma source. It provides a low-cost and maintenance-free ion beam, thus eliminating the need for the filaments and water-cooling systems employed conventionally. In our primary experiments, the washer gun produced a source plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 5 eV and an electron density of 5 × 10(17) m(-3), i.e., conditions suitable for ion-beam extraction. The dependence of the extracted beam current on the acceleration voltage is consistent with space-charge current limitation, because the observed current density is almost proportional to the 3/2 power of the acceleration voltage below approximately 8 kV. By optimizing plasma formation, we successfully achieved beam extraction of up to 40 A at 15 kV and a pulse length in excess of 0.25 ms. Its low-voltage and high-current pulsed-beam properties enable us to apply this high-power neutral beam injection into a high-beta compact torus plasma characterized by a low magnetic field. PMID:22938291

  7. Experimental Fusion of Contrast Enhanced High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Micro-Computed Tomography in Imaging the Mouse Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Nagy, Kálmán; Berglin, Cecilia Engmér; Laurell, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Imaging cochlear, vestibular, and 8th cranial nerve abnormalities remains a challenge. In this study, the membranous and osseous labyrinths of the wild type mouse inner ear were examined using volumetric data from ultra high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast at 9.4 Tesla and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT) to visualize the scalae and vestibular apparatus, and to establish imaging protocols and parameters for comparative analysis of the normal and mutant mouse inner ear. Methods: For in vivo MRI acquisition, animals were placed in a Milleped coil situated in the isocenter of a horizontal 9.4 T Varian magnet. For µCT examination, cone beam scans were performed ex vivo following MRI using the µCT component of a nanoScan PET/CT in vivo scanner. Results: The fusion of Gd enhanced high field MRI and high-resolution µCT scans revealed the dynamic membranous labyrinth of the perilymphatic fluid filled scala tympani and scala vestibule of the cochlea, and semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus, within the µCT visualized contours of the contiguous osseous labyrinth. The ex vivo µCT segmentation revealed the surface contours and structural morphology of each cochlea turn and the semicircular canals in 3 planes. Conclusions: The fusion of ultra high-field MRI and high-resolution µCT imaging techniques were complementary, and provided high-resolution dynamic and static visualization of the complex morphological features of the normal mouse inner ear structures, which may offer a valuable approach for the investigation of cochlear and vestibular abnormalities that are associated with birth defects related to genetic inner ear disorders in humans. PMID:26401173

  8. Lrg1p Is a Rho1 GTPase-activating protein required for efficient cell fusion in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Pamela G; Gammie, Alison E; Lee, Debbie J; de Candal, Valeria Brizzio; Rose, Mark D

    2004-10-01

    To identify additional cell fusion genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we performed a high-copy suppressor screen of fus2Delta. Higher dosage of three genes, BEM1, LRG1, and FUS1, partially suppressed the fus2Delta cell fusion defect. BEM1 and FUS1 were high-copy suppressors of many cell-fusion-defective mutations, whereas LRG1 suppressed only fus2Delta and rvs161Delta. Lrg1p contains a Rho-GAP homologous region. Complete deletion of LRG1, as well as deletion of the Rho-GAP coding region, caused decreased rates of cell fusion and diploid formation comparable to that of fus2Delta. Furthermore, lrg1Delta caused a more severe mating defect in combination with other cell fusion mutations. Consistent with an involvement in cell fusion, Lrg1p localized to the tip of the mating projection. Lrg1p-GAP domain strongly and specifically stimulated the GTPase activity of Rho1p, a regulator of beta(1-3)-glucan synthase in vitro. beta(1-3)-glucan deposition was increased in lrg1Delta strains and mislocalized to the tip of the mating projection in fus2Delta strains. High-copy LRG1 suppressed the mislocalization of beta(1-3) glucan in fus2Delta strains. We conclude that Lrg1p is a Rho1p-GAP involved in cell fusion and speculate that it acts to locally inhibit cell wall synthesis to aid in the close apposition of the plasma membranes of mating cells. PMID:15514049

  9. Beta Beams

    E-print Network

    M. Mezzetto

    2004-11-12

    Beta Beams could address the needs of long term neutrino oscillation experiments. They can produce extremely pure neutrino beams through the decays of relativistic radioactive ions. The baseline scenario is described, together with its physics performances. Using a megaton water Cerenkov detector installed under the Frejus, Beta Beams could improve by a factor 200 the present limits on $\\sin^2{2 \\thetaot}$ and discover leptonic CP violating effects if the CP phase delta would be greater than 30 degree and theta13 greater than 1 degree. These performances can be further improved if a neutrino SuperBeam generated by the SPL 4MW, 2.2 GeV, proton Linac would be fired to the same detector. Innovative ideas on higher and lower energy Beta Beams are also described.

  10. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of beta-catenin mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Sarah J; Presneau, Nadège; Kalimuthu, Sangeetha; Dileo, Palma; Berisha, Fitim; Tirabosco, Roberto; Amary, M Fernanda; Flanagan, Adrienne M

    2015-08-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatoses are locally aggressive and frequently recurrent tumours, and an accurate diagnosis is essential for patient management. The majority of sporadic lesions harbour beta-catenin (CTNNB1) mutations. We used next-generation sequencing to detect CTNNB1 mutations and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of next-generation sequencing with currently employed mutation detection techniques: mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion and polymerase chain reaction amplification. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded needle biopsy or resection tissue sections from 144 patients with sporadic desmoid-type fibromatoses, four patients with syndrome-related desmoid-type fibromatoses and 11 morphological mimics. Two primer pairs were designed for CTNNB1 mutation hotspots. Using ?10 ng of DNA, libraries were generated by Fluidigm and sequenced on the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Next-generation sequencing had a sensitivity of 92.36 % (133/144, 95 % CIs: 86.74 to 96.12 %) and a specificity of 100 % for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations in desmoid-type fibromatoses-like spindle cell lesions. All mutations detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion were identified by next-generation sequencing. Next-generation sequencing identified additional mutations in 11 tumours that were not detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion, two of which have not been previously described. Next-generation sequencing is highly sensitive for the detection of CTNNB1 mutations. This multiplex assay has the advantage of detecting additional mutations compared to those detected by mutation-specific restriction enzyme digestion (sensitivity 82.41 %). The technology requires minimal DNA and is time- and cost-efficient. PMID:25838078

  11. Sean Finnegan & Ann Satsangi Fusion Energy Sciences

    E-print Network

    Sean Finnegan & Ann Satsangi Fusion Energy Sciences Program Management Team for HEDLP Fusion Power Associates15 December 2011 Comments on the DOE-SC Program in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasma Science & Inertial Fusion Energy Science #12;summary 2 Fusion Energy Sciences is pursuing a strategic vision

  12. High-throughput clonal selection of recombinant CHO cells using a dominant selectable and amplifiable metallothionein-GFP fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Charles G; Tait, A Sasha; Sunstrom, Noelle-Ann

    2002-12-20

    Transfected mammalian cells can be used for the production of fully processed recombinant proteins for medical and industrial purposes. However, the isolation of high-producing clones is traditionally time-consuming. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput screening method to reduce the time and effort required to isolate high-producing cells. This involved the construction of an expression vector containing the amplifiable gene metallothionein (MT), fused in-frame to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The fusion gene (MTGFP) confers metal resistance similar to that of the wild-type metallothionein and expression can be monitored using either flow cytometry or a fluorometer to measure green fluorescence. Expression of MTGFP acted as a dominant selectable marker allowing rapid and more efficient selection of clones at defined metal concentrations than with the antibiotic G418. Cells harboring MTGFP responded to increasing metal concentrations with a corresponding increase in fluorescence. There was also a corresponding increase in recombinant protein production, indicating that MTGFP could be used as a selectable and amplifiable gene for the coexpression of foreign genes. Using our expression vector encoding MTGFP, we demonstrate a high-throughput clonal selection protocol for the rapid isolation of high-producing clones from transfected CHO cells. We were able to isolate cell lines reaching specific productivities of >10 microg hGH/10(6) cells/day within 4 weeks of transfection. The advantage of this method is that it can be easily adapted for automated procedures using robotic handling systems. PMID:12378608

  13. The Role of Strong Coupling in Z-Pinch-Driven Approaches to High Yield Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    MEHLHORN,THOMAS A.; DESJARLAIS,MICHAEL P.; HAILL,THOMAS A.; LASH,JOEL S.; ROSENTHAL,STEPHEN E.; SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; STOLTZ,PETER H.; VESEY,ROGER A.; OLIVER,B.

    1999-11-08

    Peak x-ray powers as high as 280 {+-} 40 TW have been generated from the implosion of tungsten wire arrays on the Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. The high x-ray powers radiated by these z-pinches provide an attractive new driver option for high yield inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The high x-ray powers appear to be a result of using a large number of wires in the array which decreases the perturbation seed to the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability and diminishes other 3-D effects. Simulations to confirm this hypothesis require a 3-D MHD code capability, and associated databases, to follow the evolution of the wires from cold solid through melt, vaporization, ionization, and finally to dense imploded plasma. Strong coupling plays a role in this process, the importance of which depends on the wire material and the current time history of the pulsed power driver. Strong coupling regimes are involved in the plasmas in the convolute and transmission line of the powerflow system. Strong coupling can also play a role in the physics of the z-pinch-driven high yield ICF target. Finally, strong coupling can occur in certain z-pinch-driven application experiments.

  14. Robotics and local fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerman, Philip J.

    2005-05-01

    Teams of robots or mixed teams of warfighters and robots on reconnaissance and other missions can benefit greatly from a local fusion station. A local fusion station is defined here as a small mobile processor with interfaces to enable the ingestion of multiple heterogeneous sensor data and information streams, including blue force tracking data. These data streams are fused and integrated with contextual information (terrain features, weather, maps, dynamic background features, etc.), and displayed or processed to provide real time situational awareness to the robot controller or to the robots themselves. These blue and red force fusion applications remove redundancies, lessen ambiguities, correlate, aggregate, and integrate sensor information with context such as high resolution terrain. Applications such as safety, team behavior, asset control, training, pattern analysis, etc. can be generated or enhanced by these fusion stations. This local fusion station should also enable the interaction between these local units and a global information world.

  15. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to researchers around the world. The paper will conclude with a discussion of LIFE, its development path and potential to enable a carbon-free clean energy future.

  16. Reactivity of thin metal films on sodium beta'' alumina ceramic in high temperature, low pressure sodium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A. K.; Homer, M. L.; Manatt, K.; Shields, V. B.; Ryan, M. A.

    2001-02-01

    Electrochemical techniques including impedance spectroscopy are routinely used to test the performance of AMTEC electrodes. These experiments may be carried out in an actual AMTEC cell. or in an sodium exposure test cell SETC where the sodium pressure and the temperature are identical at both the anode and cathode. These tests reveal details of electrode material grain growth, electrode decomposition and reaction of electrode materials with the sodium beta'' alumina solid electrolyte. Tests of the same sort may be used to examine the compatibility of metals and sodium beta'' alumina under simulated AMTEC operating conditions. Preliminary tests comparing rhodium/tungsten, molybdenum, titanium and vanadium electrodes are reported. .

  17. High Resolution Characterization of Heterogeneous Arctic Tundra Subsurface Properties using a Multiscale Bayesian Fusion Approach with

    E-print Network

    Hubbard, Susan

    High Resolution Characterization of Heterogeneous Arctic Tundra Subsurface Properties using of heterogeneous fields in the arctic tundra system, where the mechanistic process models are highly complex

  18. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic modes analysis and control of Fusion Advanced Studies Torus high-current scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Villone, F.; Mastrostefano, S.; Calabrò, G.; Vlad, G.; Crisanti, F.; Fusco, V.; Marchiori, G.; Bolzonella, T.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2014-08-15

    One of the main FAST (Fusion Advanced Studies Torus) goals is to have a flexible experiment capable to test tools and scenarios for safe and reliable tokamak operation, in order to support ITER and help the final DEMO design. In particular, in this paper, we focus on operation close to a possible border of stability related to low-q operation. To this purpose, a new FAST scenario has then been designed at I{sub p}?=?10 MA, B{sub T}?=?8.5?T, q{sub 95}???2.3. Transport simulations, carried out by using the code JETTO and the first principle transport model GLF23, indicate that, under these conditions, FAST could achieve an equivalent Q???3.5. FAST will be equipped with a set of internal active coils for feedback control, which will produce magnetic perturbation with toroidal number n?=?1 or n?=?2. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode analysis and feedback control simulations performed with the codes MARS, MARS-F, CarMa (both assuming the presence of a perfect conductive wall and using the exact 3D resistive wall structure) show the possibility of the FAST conductive structures to stabilize n?=?1 ideal modes. This leaves therefore room for active mitigation of the resistive mode (down to a characteristic time of 1?ms) for safety purposes, i.e., to avoid dangerous MHD-driven plasma disruption, when working close to the machine limits and magnetic and kinetic energy density not far from reactor values.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic modes analysis and control of Fusion Advanced Studies Torus high-current scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villone, F.; Calabrò, G.; Marchiori, G.; Mastrostefano, S.; Vlad, G.; Bolzonella, T.; Crisanti, F.; Fusco, V.; Liu, Y. Q.; Mantica, P.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.

    2014-08-01

    One of the main FAST (Fusion Advanced Studies Torus) goals is to have a flexible experiment capable to test tools and scenarios for safe and reliable tokamak operation, in order to support ITER and help the final DEMO design. In particular, in this paper, we focus on operation close to a possible border of stability related to low-q operation. To this purpose, a new FAST scenario has then been designed at Ip = 10 MA, BT = 8.5 T, q95 ? 2.3. Transport simulations, carried out by using the code JETTO and the first principle transport model GLF23, indicate that, under these conditions, FAST could achieve an equivalent Q ? 3.5. FAST will be equipped with a set of internal active coils for feedback control, which will produce magnetic perturbation with toroidal number n = 1 or n = 2. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode analysis and feedback control simulations performed with the codes MARS, MARS-F, CarMa (both assuming the presence of a perfect conductive wall and using the exact 3D resistive wall structure) show the possibility of the FAST conductive structures to stabilize n = 1 ideal modes. This leaves therefore room for active mitigation of the resistive mode (down to a characteristic time of 1 ms) for safety purposes, i.e., to avoid dangerous MHD-driven plasma disruption, when working close to the machine limits and magnetic and kinetic energy density not far from reactor values.

  1. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; Ivancic, S.; Jarrott, L. C.; Marshall, F. J.; McKiernan, G.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Patel, P. K.; Pérez, F.; Sangster, T. C.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Shvydky, A.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achieve areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm#2;-2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.

  2. Time-resolved compression of a capsule with a cone to high density for fast-ignition laser fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Theobald, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Anderson, K. S.; Beg, F. N.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Habara, H.; et al

    2014-12-12

    The advent of high-intensity lasers enables us to recreate and study the behaviour of matter under the extreme densities and pressures that exist in many astrophysical objects. It may also enable us to develop a power source based on laser-driven nuclear fusion. Achieving such conditions usually requires a target that is highly uniform and spherically symmetric. Here we show that it is possible to generate high densities in a so-called fast-ignition target that consists of a thin shell whose spherical symmetry is interrupted by the inclusion of a metal cone. Using picosecond-time-resolved X-ray radiography, we show that we can achievemore »areal densities in excess of 300 mg cm#2;-2 with a nanosecond-duration compression pulse -- the highest areal density ever reported for a cone-in-shell target. Such densities are high enough to stop MeV electrons, which is necessary for igniting the fuel with a subsequent picosecond pulse focused into the resulting plasma.« less

  3. Hydrophobin Fusion of an Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Allows High Transient Expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, Easy Purification and Immune Response with Neutralizing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Navarre, Catherine; Desmecht, Daniel; Boutry, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The expression of recombinant hemagglutinin in plants is a promising alternative to the current egg-based production system for the influenza vaccines. Protein-stabilizing fusion partners have been developed to overcome the low production yields and the high downstream process costs associated with the plant expression system. In this context, we tested the fusion of hydrophobin I to the hemagglutinin ectodomain of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus controlled by the hybrid En2PMA4 transcriptional promoter to rapidly produce high levels of recombinant antigen by transient expression in agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The fusion increased the expression level by a factor of ?2.5 compared to the unfused protein allowing a high accumulation level of 8.6% of the total soluble proteins. Hemagglutinin was located in ER-derived protein bodies and was successfully purified by combining an aqueous-two phase partition system and a salting out step. Hydrophobin interactions allowed the formation of high molecular weight hemagglutinin structures, while unfused proteins were produced as monomers. Purified protein was shown to be biologically active and to induce neutralizing antibodies after mice immunization. Hydrophobin fusion to influenza hemagglutinin might therefore be a promising approach for rapid, easy, and low cost production of seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines in plants. PMID:25541987

  4. A comparative study of multi-sensor data fusion methods for highly accurate assessment of manufactured parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannachi, Ammar; Kohler, Sophie; Lallement, Alex; Hirsch, Ernest

    2015-04-01

    3D modeling of scene contents takes an increasing importance for many computer vision based applications. In particular, industrial applications of computer vision require efficient tools for the computation of this 3D information. Routinely, stereo-vision is a powerful technique to obtain the 3D outline of imaged objects from the corresponding 2D images. As a consequence, this approach provides only a poor and partial description of the scene contents. On another hand, for structured light based reconstruction techniques, 3D surfaces of imaged objects can often be computed with high accuracy. However, the resulting active range data in this case lacks to provide data enabling to characterize the object edges. Thus, in order to benefit from the positive points of various acquisition techniques, we introduce in this paper promising approaches, enabling to compute complete 3D reconstruction based on the cooperation of two complementary acquisition and processing techniques, in our case stereoscopic and structured light based methods, providing two 3D data sets describing respectively the outlines and surfaces of the imaged objects. We present, accordingly, the principles of three fusion techniques and their comparison based on evaluation criterions related to the nature of the workpiece and also the type of the tackled application. The proposed fusion methods are relying on geometric characteristics of the workpiece, which favour the quality of the registration. Further, the results obtained demonstrate that the developed approaches are well adapted for 3D modeling of manufactured parts including free-form surfaces and, consequently quality control applications using these 3D reconstructions.

  5. Comparative Investigation of Fusion Reactions for Space Propulsion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkow, Dejan; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Gabrielli, Roland; Zeile, Oliver

    A space propulsion system based on the acceleration of fusion ash is discussed by use of the energy balance equation and a hypothetic ash extraction and acceleration system. The fusion reactions D-T, D-3He, p-11B and 3He-3He are investigated under the condition of thermal generation of high energy ions and equal plasma system conditions in terms of Ti/Te relation and plasma beta. External plasma heating is defined by an equal efficiency concerning thermal energy conversion and energy transfer back into the plasma. There is no additional external heating applied to the fusion system. Power losses are based on neutrons, bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation and convection. We compare the plasma pressures, volumetric power densities, magnetic field strengths, heat waste, exhaust velocities and thrust density levels depending on the temperature and the hot ion mode. We show that, based on the fusion products, the exhaust velocity may reach several percent of speed of light in the case of 3He-3He. The temperature driven radiation losses of the 3He-3He reaction puts the purely aneutronic property into perspective. The mass flow rate densities of the considered fusion products are very low leading to very low thrust power densities. Considering the supposed system masses of a fusion based space vessel the thrust density levels are negligible and reach the order of 1 N/m3 near the optimum in the case of 3He-3He. We conclude that a propulsion system based on the acceleration of fusion products or ash is unfeasible for typical manned missions e.g. to Mars.

  6. Development of high intensity linear accelerator for heavy ion inertial fusion driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liang; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ishibashi, Takuya; Okamura, Masahiro; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Zhao, Hongwei; He, Yuan

    2013-11-01

    In order to verify the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS), an acceleration test was carried out in 2001 using a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) heavy ion linear accelerator (linac) and a CO2-laser ion source (LIS) (Okamura et al., 2002) [1]. The accelerated carbon beam was observed successfully and the obtained current was 9.22 mA for C4+. To confirm the capability of the DPIS, we succeeded in accelerating 60 mA carbon ions with the DPIS in 2004 (Okamura et al., 2004; Kashiwagi and Hattori, 2004) [2,3]. We have studied a multi-beam type RFQ with an interdigital-H (IH) cavity that has a power-efficient structure in the low energy region. We designed and manufactured a two-beam type RFQ linac as a prototype for the multi-beam type linac; the beam acceleration test of carbon beams showed that it successfully accelerated from 5 keV/u up to 60 keV/u with an output current of 108 mA (2×54 mA/channel) (Ishibashi et al., 2011) [4]. We believe that the acceleration techniques of DPIS and the multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac are technical breakthroughs for heavy-ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF). The conceptual design of the RF linac with these techniques for HIF is studied. New accelerator-systems using these techniques for the HIF basic experiment are being designed to accelerate 400 mA carbon ions using four-beam type IH-RFQ linacs with DPIS. A model with a four-beam acceleration cavity was designed and manufactured to establish the proof of principle (PoP) of the accelerator.

  7. Zonal flow and zonal magnetic field generation by finite beta drift waves: a theory for low to high transitions in tokamaks.

    PubMed

    Guzdar, P N; Kleva, R G; Das, A; Kaw, P K

    2001-07-01

    The understanding of low to high (L-H) transition in tokamaks has been an important area of investigation for more than a decade. Recent 3D finite beta simulations of drift-resistive ballooning modes in a flux tube geometry by Rogers et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4396 (1998)] have provided a unique parametrization of the transition in a two-dimensional phase space. Comparison of the threshold curve in this phase space with data from ASDEX and C-MOD has shown very good agreement. In this Letter we provide a simple theory, based on the generation of zonal flow and zonal magnetic field in a finite-beta plasma, which explains this threshold curve for L-H transition in tokamaks. PMID:11461469

  8. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  9. High-Heat Flux Testing of Irradiated Tungsten based Materials for Fusion Applications using Infrared Plasma Arc Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans Jr, James O; Schaich, Charles Ross; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis; Byun, Thak Sang

    2014-01-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research has proved challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat flux testing facility based on water-wall Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) is now being used for materials and small component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12,000 C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, are currently in use. The first PAL system provides a maximum incident heat flux of 4.2 MW/m2 over an area of 9x12 cm2. The second PAL available at ORNL provides a maximum incident heat flux of 27 MW/m2 over an area of 1x10 cm2. The absorbed heat fluxes into a tungsten target for the two PALs are approximately 1.97 and 12.7 MW/m2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design of the new PAL facilities as well as the design and implementation of the Irradiated Material Target Station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interested, such as those for plasma facing components. Moreover, IMTS designs are underway to extend the testing of small mock-ups for assessing the combined heating and thermomechanical effects of cooled, irradiated components. For the testing of material coupons , the specimens are placed in a shallow recess within the molybdenum holder that is attached to a water-cooled copper alloy rod. As the measurement of the specimen temperature for PAL is historically challenging since traditional approaches of temperature measurement cannot be employed due to the infrared heating and proximity of the PAL reflector to the specimen that does not allow a direct line of site, experiments for temperature calibration are presented. Finally, results for the high-heat flux testing of tungsten-based materials using the PAL are presented. As a demonstration of the system, results will be shown of thermal fatigue and high-heat flux testing of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in the HFIR reactor to neutron dose consistent to ITER lifetime.

  10. The nano-particle dispersion strengthening of V-4Cr-4Ti alloys for high temperature application in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengfei; Chen, Jiming; Xu, Zengyu; Duan, Xuru

    2013-10-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti was identified as an attractive structural material for Li blanket in fusion reactors. However, both high temperature and irradiation induced degradation are great challenges for this material. It was thought that the nano-particles with high thermal stability can efficiently strengthen the alloy at elevated temperatures, and accommodate the irradiation induced defects at the boundaries. This study is a starting work aiming at improving the creep resistance and reducing the irradiation induced degradation for V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Currently, we focus on the preparation of some comparative nano-particle dispersion strengthened V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. A mechanical alloying (MA) route is used to fabricate yttrium and carbides added V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. Nano-scale yttria, carbides and other possible particles have a combined dispersion-strengthening effect on the matrices of these MA-fabricated V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. High-temperature annealing is carried out to stabilize the optimized nano-particles. Mechanical properties are tested. Microstructures of the MA-fabricated V-4Cr-4Ti alloys with yttrium and carbide additions are characterized. Based on these results, the thermal stability of different nano-particle agents are classified. ITER related China domestic project 2011GB108007.

  11. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; Nygren, D.

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase o_ers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  12. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at the 136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  13. Characterization of Nuclear Recoils in High Pressure Xenon Gas: Towards a Simultaneous Search for WIMP Dark Matter and Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Renner, J.; Gehman, V. M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Oliveira, C. A.B.; Nygren, D.

    2015-03-24

    Xenon has recently been the medium of choice in several large scale detectors searching for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. Though present-day large scale experiments use liquid xenon, the gas phase offers advantages favorable to both types of searches such as improved intrinsic energy resolution and fewer fluctuations in the partition of deposited energy between scintillation and ionization channels. We recently constructed a high pressure xenon gas TPC as a prototype for the NEXT (Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC) neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and have demonstrated the feasibility of 0.5% FWHM energy resolution at themore »136Xe double beta Q-value with 3-D tracking capabilities. We now present results from this prototype on the simultaneous observation of scintillation and ionization produced by nuclear recoils at approximately 14 bar pressure. The recoils were produced by neutrons of approximately 2-6 MeV emitted from a radioisotope plutonium-beryllium source, and primary scintillation (S1) and electroluminescent photons produced by ionization (S2) were observed. We discuss the potential of gaseous xenon to distinguish between electron and nuclear recoils through the ratio of these two signals S2/S1. From these results combined with the possibility of using columnar recombination to sense nuclear recoil directionality at high pressures we envision a dual-purpose, ton-scale gaseous xenon detector capable of a combined search for WIMP dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. This work has been performed within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  14. Research on fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-01

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  15. Research on fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-19

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  16. Status of fusion research and implications for D/He-3 systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.

    1988-01-01

    World wide programs in both magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion research have made steady progress towards the experimental demonstration of energy breakeven. However, after breakeven is achieved, considerable time and effort must still be expended to develop a usable power plant. The main program described is focused on Deuterium-Tritium devices. In magnetic confinement, three of the most promising high beta approaches with a reasonable experimental data base are the Field Reversed Configuration, the high field tokamak, and the dense Z-pinch. The situation is less clear in inertial confinement where the first step requires an experimental demonstration of D/T spark ignition. It appears that fusion research has reached a point in time where an R and D plan to develop a D/He-3 fusion reactor can be laid out with some confidence of success.

  17. Differential adrenergic regulation of the gene expression of the beta-adrenoceptor subtypes beta1, beta2 and beta3 in brown adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, T; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    2000-01-01

    In brown adipocytes, fundamental cellular processes (cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis) are regulated by adrenergic stimulation, notably through beta-adrenergic receptors. The presence of all three beta-receptor subtypes has been demonstrated in brown adipose tissue. Due to the significance of the action of these receptors and indications that the subtypes govern different processes, the adrenergic regulation of the expression of the beta(1)-(,) beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor genes was examined in murine brown-fat primary cell cultures. Moderate levels of beta(1)-receptor mRNA, absence of beta(2)-receptor mRNA and high levels of beta(3)-receptor mRNA were observed in mature brown adipocytes (day 6 in culture). Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) addition led to diametrically opposite effects on beta(1)- (markedly enhanced expression) and beta(3)-gene expression (full cessation of expression, as previously shown). beta(2)-Gene expression was induced by noradrenaline, but only transiently (<1 h). The apparent affinities (EC(50)) of noradrenaline were clearly different (7 nM for the beta(1)-gene andbeta(3)-gene), as were the mediation pathways (solely via beta(3)-receptors and cAMP for the beta(1)-gene and via beta(3)-receptors and cAMP, as well as via alpha(1)-receptors and protein kinase C, for the beta(3)-gene). The half-lives of the corresponding mRNA species were very short but different (17 min for beta(1)-mRNA and 27 min for beta(3)-mRNA), and these degradation rates were not affected by noradrenaline, implying that the mRNA levels were controlled by transcription. Inhibition of protein synthesis also led to diametrically opposite effects on beta(1)- and beta(3)-gene expression, but - notably - these effects were congruent with the noradrenaline effects, implying that a common factor regulating beta(1)-gene expression negatively and beta(3)-gene expression positively could be envisaged. In conclusion, very divergent effects of adrenergic stimulation on the expression of the different beta-receptor genes were found within one cell type, and no unifying concept of adrenergic control of beta-receptor gene expression can be formulated, either concerning different cell types, or concerning the different beta-receptor subtype genes. PMID:10769166

  18. Newer lumbar interbody fusion techniques.

    PubMed

    Nasca, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update the reader on more recent, less invasive lumbar interbody fusion procedures. The article contains a brief history on the development of lumbar interbody fusion methods, as well as the indications and descriptions of the various open and minimally invasive procedures, their complications, and outcomes. In contrast to the more traditional open methods of performing anterior and posterior interbody fusions, surgeons doing the less invasive techniques of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, extreme lateral and direct lateral interbody fusion, and the presacral axial approach are reporting less morbidity, shorter hospital stays, high rates of fusion, and improved patient outcomes. Although each technique has a different anatomical plane of approach, the goal is to achieve a solid interbody fusion of the pain generating segment(s) without complications. PMID:23628562

  19. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  20. Fusion Engineering and Design 55 (2001) 5595 Design and material issues for high performance

    E-print Network

    Raffray, A. René

    2001-01-01

    and under irradiation are still not well known and need to be better characterized. This paper summarizes to be the rather low thermal conductivity at high temperatures and under irradiation, and the maximum allowable safety advantages arising from its low induced radioactivity and afterheat, and the possibility of high

  1. Fragmentation of Thin Wires under High Voltage Pulses and Bipolar Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgiou, C. D.; Raptis, T. E.

    2010-01-21

    In this article we present an alternative explanation of the phenomenon of wire fragmentation under high transient currents based on classical electromagnetism. We also explain how this phenomenon can be utilized as a primitive example of low energy-high power disruptive phenomena that can affect even nuclear matter.

  2. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  3. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  4. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, M. Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.

    2014-02-15

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  5. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.

    2014-02-01

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  6. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Kojima, A; Yoshida, M; Taniguchi, M; Dairaku, M; Maejima, T; Yamanaka, H; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions. PMID:24593597

  7. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction for the selective determination of 17beta-estradiol in fishery samples with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianhe; Zhao, Lixia; Chu, Baolin; Feng, Qinzhong; Yan, Wei; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2009-04-30

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been synthesized by a thermo-polymerization method using methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker, acetonitrile as porogenic solvent, and 17beta-estradiol as template. The MIP showed obvious affinity for 17beta-estradiol in acetonitrile solution, which was confirmed by absorption experiments. After optimization of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) conditions, three structurally related estrogenic compounds (17beta-estradiol, estriol, and diethylstilbestrol) were used to evaluate the selectivity of the MIP cartridges. The MIP cartridges exhibited highly selectivity for E(2), the recoveries were 84.8+/-6.53% for MIPs and 19.1+/-1.93% for non-imprinted polymer (NIP) cartridges. The detection and quantification limits correspond to 0.023 and 0.076 mg L(-1). Furthermore, the MISPE methods were used to selectively extract E(2) from fish and prawn tissue prior to HPLC analysis. This MISPE-HPLC procedure could eliminate all matrix interference simultaneously and had good recoveries (78.3-84.5%). PMID:19203606

  8. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H. S.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.; Renner, J.

    2015-11-01

    Liquid Xe TPCs are among the most popular choices for double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. Gaseous Xe has intrinsic advantages when compared to Liquid Xe, specifically, tracking capability and better energy resolution for double beta decay searches. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which are expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). These features may provide better tracking and energy resolution for double-beta decay searches. They are also expected to enhance columnar recombination for nuclear recoils, which can be used for searches for WIMP dark matter with directional sensitivity. We constructed a test ionization chamber and successfully measured scintillation and ionization yields at high precision with various Xe and TMA mixtures and pressures. We observed the Penning effect and an increase in recombination with the addition of TMA. However, many undesired features for dark matter searches, such as strong suppression of the scintillation light and no sign of recombination light, were also found. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  9. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield with high-pressure gaseous mixtures of Xe and TMA for improved neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter searches

    E-print Network

    Y. Nakajima; A. Goldschmidt; H. S. Matis; D. Nygren; C. Oliveira; J. Renner

    2015-05-14

    Liquid Xe TPCs are among the most popular choices for double beta decay and WIMP dark matter searches. Gaseous Xe has intrinsic advantages when compared to Liquid Xe, specifically, tracking capability and better energy resolution for double beta decay searches. The performance of gaseous Xe can be further improved by molecular additives such as trimethylamine(TMA), which are expected to (1) cool down the ionization electrons, (2) convert Xe excitation energy to TMA ionizations through Penning transfer, and (3) produce scintillation and electroluminescence light in a more easily detectable wavelength (300 nm). These features may provide better tracking and energy resolution for double-beta decay searches. They are also expected to enhance columnar recombination for nuclear recoils, which can be used for searches for WIMP dark matter with directional sensitivity. We constructed a test ionization chamber and successfully measured scintillation and ionization yields at high precision with various Xe and TMA mixtures and pressures. We observed the Penning effect and an increase in recombination with the addition of TMA. However, many undesired features for dark matter searches, such as strong suppression of the scintillation light and no sign of recombination light, were also found. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.

  10. Miro1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction under high nutrient stress is linked to NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3)-dependent inflammatory responses in rat pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianfeng; Sang, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Tian; Pan, Jiawen; Dai, Ming; Zhou, Li; Yang, Sijun

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with a state of low-grade inflammation that leads to insulin resistance under sustained high-fat and glucose (HFG) stress. Mitochondria from pancreatic beta cells play an essential role by metabolizing nutrients and generating signals required for both triggering and amplifying pathways of insulin secretion responding to HFG. However, the underlying pathway linking mitochondrial function to initiate and integrate inflammatory responses within the pancreatic beta cells under HFG stress remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrated that HFG induced Ca(2+)-mediated deleterious effects on mitochondrial rho GTPase 1 (Miro1), a protein allowing mitochondria to move along microtubules to regulate mitochondria dynamics. This redistribution of Miro1 by HFG led to aggravation of proinflammatory responses in rat islets due to damaged mitochondria-producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, HFG-induced Ca(2+)-mediated increased expression of mitochondrial dynamin-like protein (DLP1) was assembled on the outer membrane of mitochondria to initiate fission events. Higher expression of DLP1 induced mitochondria fragmentation as expected but was not essential for ROS-induced proinflammatory responses, while Miro1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction induced proinflammatory responses under HFG stress. Combined, we proposed in this study that HFG stress caused mtROS release mainly through Miro1-mediated effects on mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells triggering the NLRP3-dependent proinflammatory responses and, subsequently, damaged insulin secretion. PMID:26427885

  11. High affinity (/sup 3/H). beta. -Alanine uptake by scar margins of ferric chloride-induced epileptogenic foci in rat isocortex

    SciTech Connect

    Robitaille, Y.; Sherwin, A.

    1984-07-01

    Cortical astrocytes of normal mammalian brain are endowed with a high affinity uptake system for ..beta..-Alanine which is competitively inhibited by gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter strongly implicated in epileptogenesis. The authors evaluated (/sup 3/H) ..beta..-Alanine uptake by reactive astrocytes proliferating within scar of epileptogenic foci induced in rat motor cortex by microinjections of 100 mM ferric chloride. Following in vitro incubation of scar tissue with (/sup 3/H) ..beta..-Alanine, ultrastructural morphometry of grain patterns at 5, 30 and 120 days post injection revealed early and significant grain count increases over astroglial processes, predominantly those related to perivascular glial end-feet. Astrocytic cell body and endothelial cell counts showed a more gradual and stepwise increase. Similar data were obtained by comparing visual and edited mean astrocytic grain counts. These results suggest that the enhanced uptake of reactive astrocytes may reflect a marked decrease of inhibitory GABAergic neurons within ferric chloride-induced scars. 7 figures, 1 table.

  12. A role for transforming growth factor-{beta} apoptotic signaling pathway in liver injury induced by ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Rafael, A.I.; Almeida, A.; Santos, P.; Parreira, I.; Madeira, V.M.S.; Alves, R.; Cabrita, A.M.S.; Alpoim, M.C.

    2007-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] exposure is commonly associated with lung cancer. Although other adverse health effects have been reported, some authors, on assuming that orally ingested Cr(VI) is efficiently detoxified upon reduction by body fluids, believe that Cr(VI) do not target cells other than respiratory tract cells. In rodents, ingested Cr(VI)-contaminated water was reported to induce, in the liver, increases in TGF-{beta} transcripts. As TGF-{beta} dependent signaling pathways are closely associated with hepatic injury, the present study was undertaken addressing two specific issues: the effects of ingestion of water contaminated with high levels of Cr(VI) in rat liver structure and function; and the role of the TGF-{beta} pathway in Cr(VI)-induced liver injury. Examination of Wistar rats exposed to 20 ppm Cr(VI)-contaminated water for 10 weeks showed increased serum glucose and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Liver histological examination revealed hepatocellular apoptosis, further confirmed by immunohystochemical study of Caspase 3 expression. Liver gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of Smad2/Smad4 and Dapk, suggesting the involvement of the TGF-{beta} pathway in the apoptotic process. Since no changes in Smad3 expression were observed it appears apoptosis is using a Smad3-independent pathway. Increased expression of both Caspase 8 and Daxx genes suggests also the involvement of the Fas pathway. Gene expression analysis also revealed that a p160{sup ROCK}-Rho-independent pathway operates, leading to cell contraction and membrane blebbing, characteristic apoptotic features. These findings suggest that either the amount of Cr(VI) ingested overwhelmed the body fluids reductive capacity or some Cr(VI) escapes the reductive protection barrier, thus targeting the liver and inducing apoptosis.

  13. Higher-multipole deformations and compactness of hot fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Manhas, Monika; Gupta, Raj K.; Li, Qingfeng; Greiner, Walter; Patra, S. K.

    2006-09-15

    The effect of adding the higher-multipole deformations {beta}{sub 6} and {beta}{sub 8}, and the octupole deformation {beta}{sub 3} (in addition to quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations {beta}{sub 2} and {beta}{sub 4}), on the distribution of barriers in orientation degrees of freedom is studied for a ''compact'' configuration of spherical-plus-deformed or deformed-plus-deformed nuclei in hot fusion reactions. Though {beta}{sub 3} is known to be nonzero for only a few nuclei, its role toward compactness of hot fusion reactions is found to be as important as that of {beta}{sub 4}. With {beta}{sub 3} included, depending on its sign and magnitude, the belly-to-belly compact, bbc (or equatorial compact, ec), configuration due to {beta}{sub 4} changes to not-belly-to-belly compact, nbbc (or not-equatorial compact, nec), and vice versa. Similarly, {beta}{sub 6} is found to be as important as {beta}{sub 3} and/or {beta}{sub 4} for spherical-plus-deformed nuclei, but is rather insignificant for collisions involving deformed-plus-deformed nuclei. On the other hand, the addition of {beta}{sub 8} is shown to be insignificant also for spherical-plus-deformed nuclei.

  14. Higgs pair production in [beta][beta][tau][tau] final states at the HL-LHC

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, Jay Mathew

    2015-01-01

    A measurement of standard model Higgs pair production in [beta][beta][tau][tau] final states at the High Luminosity LHC is investigated. Higgs pair production can be used to measure the Higgs trilinear coupling constant, ...

  15. Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion

    E-print Network

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Beyond for Latent Variables", Feb. 2-4 2015 1 / 64 #12;Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Context Multi School "Search for Latent Variables", Feb. 2-4 2015 2 / 64 #12;Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion

  16. Predicting neutrinoless double beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.; Villanova del Moral, A.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2005-11-01

    We give predictions for the neutrinoless double beta decay rate in a simple variant of the A{sub 4} family symmetry model. We show that there is a lower bound for the {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} amplitude even in the case of normal hierarchical neutrino masses, corresponding to an effective mass parameter vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar {>=}0.17{radical}({delta}m{sub ATM}{sup 2}). This result holds both for the CP conserving and CP violating cases. In the latter case we show explicitly that the lower bound on vertical bar m{sub ee} vertical bar is sensitive to the value of the Majorana phase. We conclude therefore that in our scheme, {beta}{beta}{sub 0{nu}} may be accessible to the next generation of high sensitivity experiments.

  17. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  18. Application of railgun principle to high-velocity hydrogen pellet injection for magnetic fusion reactor fueling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Zhang, J.

    1992-01-01

    Three separate papers are included which report research progress during this period: (1) A new railgun configuration with perforated sidewalls, (2) development of a fuseless small-bore railgun for injection of high-speed hydrogen pellets into magnetically confined plasmas, and (3) controls and diagnostics on a fuseless railgun for solid hydrogen pellet injection.

  19. Inertial Fusion Energy's Role in Developing the Market for High Power Laser Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ladran, A L; Ault, E R; Beach, R J; Campbell, J H; Erlandson, A C; Felker, A J; Freitas, B L; Meier, W R; Telford, S; Ebbers, C A; Caird, J A; Barty, C J

    2007-11-29

    Production-cost models for high-power laser-diodes indicate systems of 10GW peak power coupled with facilitization of semi-conductor manufacturing capacity could yield costs below $0.02/Watt. This is sufficient to make IFE competitive with other nuclear power technologies.

  20. NNSA Defense Programs Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign

    E-print Network

    , Nike · University activities and High Energy Density Physics roadmapping #12;#12;4 Deputy Administrator Management & ES&H Support Director Michael A. Thompson NA-117 Office of Pit Projects Director Dr. Jerry M of Operations and Construction Management Director Xavier Ascanio NA-124 Assistant Deputy Administrator

  1. Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much_gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

  2. Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

  3. Hardware acceleration of lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm for high-performance real-time video processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Tyler; Jackson, Christopher; Cayci, Furkan; Carhart, Gary W.; Liu, J. J.; Kiamilev, Fouad

    2015-06-01

    "Lucky-region" fusion (LRF) is a synthetic imaging technique that has proven successful in enhancing the quality of images distorted by atmospheric turbulence. The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions of an image obtained from a series of short exposure frames from fast, high-resolution image sensors, and fuses the sharp regions into a final, improved image. In our previous research, the LRF algorithm had been implemented on CPU and field programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. The CPU did not have sufficient processing power to handle real-time processing of video. Last year, we presented a real-time LRF implementation using an FPGA. However, due to the slow register-transfer level (RTL) development and simulation time, it was difficult to adjust and discover optimal LRF settings such as Gaussian kernel radius and synthetic frame buffer size. To overcome this limitation, we implemented the LRF algorithm on an off-the-shelf graphical processing unit (GPU) in order to take advantage of built-in parallelization and significantly faster development time. Our initial results show that the unoptimized GPU implementation has almost comparable turbulence mitigation to the FPGA version. In our presentation, we will explore optimization of the LRF algorithm on the GPU to achieve higher performance results, and adding new performance capabilities such as image stabilization.

  4. Structural basis for immunization with postfusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion F glycoprotein (RSV F) to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Kurt A.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Shaw, Christine A.; Dey, Antu K.; Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Carfi, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of infant bronchiolitis, remains a major unmet vaccine need despite more than 40 years of vaccine research. Vaccine candidates based on a chief RSV neutralization antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein, have foundered due to problems with stability, purity, reproducibility, and potency. Crystal structures of related parainfluenza F glycoproteins have revealed a large conformational change between the prefusion and postfusion states, suggesting that postfusion F antigens might not efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. We have generated a homogeneous, stable, and reproducible postfusion RSV F immunogen that elicits high titers of neutralizing antibodies in immunized animals. The 3.2-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of this substantially complete RSV F reveals important differences from homology-based structural models. Specifically, the RSV F crystal structure demonstrates the exposure of key neutralizing antibody binding sites on the surface of the postfusion RSV F trimer. This unanticipated structural feature explains the engineered RSV F antigen's efficiency as an immunogen. This work illustrates how structural-based antigen design can guide the rational optimization of candidate vaccine antigens.

  5. Plasma-Materials Interactions (PMI) and High-Heat-Flux (HHF) component research and development in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.

    1986-10-01

    Plasma particle and high heat fluxes to in-vessel components such as divertors, limiters, RF launchers, halo plasma scrapers, direct converters, and wall armor, and to the vacuum chamber itself, represent central technical issues for fusion experiments and reactors. This is well recognized and accepted. It is also well recognized that the conditions at the plasma boundary can directly influence core plasma confinement. This has been seen most dramatically, on the positive side, in the discovery of the H-mode using divertors in tokamaks. It is also reflected in the attention devoted worldwide to the problems of impurity control. Nowadays, impurities are controlled by wall conditioning, special discharge cleaning techniques, special coatings such as carbonization, the use of low-Z materials for limiters and armor, a careful tailoring of heat loads, and in some machines, through the use of divertors. All programs, all experiments, and all designers are now keenly aware that PMI and HHF issues are key to the successful performance of their machines. In this brief report we present general issues in Section 2, critical issues in Section 3, existing US PMI/HHF experiments and facilities in Section 4, US International Cooperative PMI/HHF activities in Section 5, and conclude with a discussion on major tasks in PMI/HHF in Section 6.

  6. Design and development of high-temperature superconducting magnet system with joint-winding for the helical fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, N.; Ito, S.; Terazaki, Y.; Seino, Y.; Hamaguchi, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Mito, T.; Hashizume, H.; Sagara, A.

    2015-05-01

    An innovative winding method is developed by connecting high-temperature superconducting (HTS) conductors to enable efficient construction of a magnet system for the helical fusion reactor FFHR-d1. A large-current capacity HTS conductor, referred to as STARS, is being developed by the incorporation of several innovative ideas, such as the simple stacking of state-of-the-art yttrium barium copper oxide tapes embedded in a copper jacket, surrounded by electrical insulation inside a conductor, and an outer stainless-steel jacket cooled by helium gas. A prototype conductor sample was fabricated and reached a current of 100 kA at a bias magnetic field of 5.3 T with the temperature at 20 K. At 4.2 K, the maximum current reached was 120 kA, and a current of 100 kA was successfully sustained for 1 h. A low-resistance bridge-type mechanical lap joint was developed and a joint resistance of 2 n? was experimentally confirmed for the conductor sample.

  7. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  8. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

  9. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, Sam; Guo, Zhefeng

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these residues are most critical for A{beta}42 oligomerization.

  10. Assisted fusion

    E-print Network

    German Kälbermann

    2009-10-19

    A model of nuclear fusion consisting of a wave packet impinging into a well located between square one dimensional barriers is treated analytically. The wave function inside the well is calculated exactly for the assisted tunneling induced by a perturbation mimicking a constant electric field with arbitrary time dependence. Conditions are found for the enhancement of fusion.

  11. Phase transformations in the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy after quenching from the high temperature triclinic beta phase

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval-Jimenez, A.; Torres-Villasenor, G.

    2010-11-15

    Ribbons of the Zn-Al eutectoid alloy obtained by melt-spinning, were heat treated at 350 deg. C during 30 min in a free atmosphere furnace, and then quenched in liquid nitrogen. The temperature correspond to {beta} phase zone, which has a triclinic crystalline structure [1, 2]. Some evidence, obtained by X-ray diffraction, show that the structures present in the just quenched material are both close-packed hexagonal ({eta}-phase) and rhombohedral (R-phase). X-ray diffractograms taken in the same ribbons after annealed 500 h at room temperature, show that the R phase its transform to {alpha} and {eta} phases.

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gardner, S.

    2012-10-15

    The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

  13. Spectroscopy of multiply charged titanium ions in high-density magnetic fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Clementson, J T; Beiersdorfer, P; Wood, R D

    2008-08-27

    The M-shell line emission from multiply charged titanium ions has been investigated at the sustained spheromak physics experiment in Livermore. Titanium was introduced into the relatively low-temperature, high-density magnetically confined spheromak plasmas using a titanium gettering system. The measurements were done using a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer with a 1200 lines/mm grating and a Photometrics charged-coupled device camera. Spectral lines from the transition array 3s{sup 2}3p{sup k}-3s{sup 2}3p{sup k-1}3d in argon-like Ti{sup 4+}, chlorine-like Ti{sup 5+}, and sulfur-like Ti{sup 6+} have been observed in the 240-370 {angstrom} interval.

  14. Prompt Beta Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Mix in Ignited NIF Capsules

    E-print Network

    Hayes, A C; Solem, J C; Bradley, P A; Rundberg, R S

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) technology is designed to drive deuterium-tritium (DT) internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets to ignition using indirect radiation from laser beam energy captured in a hohlraum. Hydrodynamical instabilities at interfaces in the ICF capsule leading to mix between the DT fue l and the ablator shell material are of fundamental physical interest and can affect the performance characteristics of the capsule. In this Letter we describe new radiochemical diagnostics for mix processes in ICF capsules with plastic or Be (0.9%Cu) ablator shells. Reactions of high-energy tritons with shell material produce high-energy $\\beta$-emitters. We show that mix between the DT fuel and the shell material enhances high-energy prompt beta emission from these reactions by more than an order of magnitude over that expected in the absence of mix.

  15. Prompt Beta Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic for Mix in Ignited NIF Capsules

    E-print Network

    A. C. Hayes; G. Jungman; J. C. Solem; P. A. Bradley; R. S. Rundberg

    2004-08-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) technology is designed to drive deuterium-tritium (DT) internal confinement fusion (ICF) targets to ignition using indirect radiation from laser beam energy captured in a hohlraum. Hydrodynamical instabilities at interfaces in the ICF capsule leading to mix between the DT fue l and the ablator shell material are of fundamental physical interest and can affect the performance characteristics of the capsule. In this Letter we describe new radiochemical diagnostics for mix processes in ICF capsules with plastic or Be (0.9%Cu) ablator shells. Reactions of high-energy tritons with shell material produce high-energy $\\beta$-emitters. We show that mix between the DT fuel and the shell material enhances high-energy prompt beta emission from these reactions by more than an order of magnitude over that expected in the absence of mix.

  16. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  17. Beta measurements at Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, L.A.; Swinth, K.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a two-step process to characterize the current beta measurement practices at DOE facilities. PNL issued a survey questionnaire on beta measurement practices to DOE facilities and reported the results. PNL measured beta doses and spectra at seven selected DOE facilities and compared selected measurement techniques in the facility environment. This report documents the results of the radiation field measurements and the comparison of measurement techniques at the seven facilities. Data collected included beta dose and spectral measurements at seven DOE facilities that had high beta-to-gamma ratios (using a silicon surface barrier spectrometer, a plastic scintillator spectrometer, and a multielement beta dosimeter). Other dosimeters and survey meters representative of those used at DOE facilities or under development were also used for comparison. Field spectra were obtained under two distinct conditions. Silicon- and scintillation-based spectrometer systems were used under laboratory conditions where high beta-to-gamma dose ratios made the beta spectra easier to observe and analyze. In the second case, beta spectrometers were taken into actual production and maintenance areas of DOE facilities. Analyses of beta and gamma spectra showed that /sup 234/Th- /sup 234m/Pa, /sup 231/Th, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y were the major nuclides contributing to beta doses at the facilities visited. Beta doses from other fission products and /sup 60/Co were also measured, but the potential for exposure was less significant. 21 refs., 64 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. High-purity selection and maintenance of gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells stably over-expressing GFP fusion protein. Application for opioid receptors desensitization studies.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Benjamin; Roussel, Mikel; Jauzac, Philippe; Allouche, Stéphane

    2006-10-01

    Chronic use of opiates such as morphine is associated with drug tolerance, which is correlated with the desensitization of opioid receptors. This latter process involves phosphorylation of opioid receptors by G protein-coupled receptors kinases (GRKs) and subsequent uncoupling by beta-arrestins. To explore these molecular mechanisms, neuronal cell lines, endogenously expressing the opioid receptors, provide an ideal cellular model. Unfortunately, there are two major drawbacks: (1) these cells are refractory to cDNA introduction, resulting in low transfection efficiency; (2) continuous culturing of transfected cells invariably leads to phenotypic drift of the cultures even after an antibiotic selection. So, these cells were dropped in favor of heterologous expression systems, which are easier to transfect but whose relevance as adequate cellular model for studying opioid receptor regulation should be questioned, as recently demonstrated by [Haberstock-Debic, H., Kim, K.A.,Yu, Y.J., von Zastrow, M., 2005. Morphine promotes rapid, arrestin-dependent endocytosis of mu-opioid receptors in striatal neurons. J. Neurosci. 25, 7847-7857]. In this work, we describe a method, based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), to select and maintain a high proportion of transfected SK-N-BE cells (a neuronal cell line endogenously expressing human Delta-Opioid Receptor (hDOR)), expressing the beta-arrestin1 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). While in functional experiments, we were not able to observe a major effect in non-sorted SK-N-BE cells expressing beta-arrestin1-GFP, the enrichment by 18-fold with FACS resulted in a robust increase of beta-arrestin1-GFP expression associated with strong hDOR desensitization. Moreover, this method also allows to counteract the phenotypic drift and to maintain a high-purity selection of SK-N-BE cells expressing beta-arrestin1-GFP. Thus, this approach provides a valuable tool for exploring opioid receptors desensitization in neuronal cells. PMID:16938287

  19. pBaSysBioII: an integrative plasmid generating gfp transcriptional fusions for high-throughput analysis of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Botella, Eric; Fogg, Mark; Jules, Matthieu; Piersma, Sjouke; Doherty, Geoff; Hansen, Annette; Denham, Emma L; Le Chat, Ludovic; Veiga, Patrick; Bailey, Kirra; Lewis, Peter J; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Aymerich, Stéphane; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Devine, Kevin M

    2010-06-01

    Plasmid pBaSysBioII was constructed for high-throughput analysis of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis. It is an integrative plasmid with a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) site, allowing the generation of transcriptional gfpmut3 fusions with desired promoters. Integration is by a Campbell-type event and is non-mutagenic, placing the fusion at the homologous chromosomal locus. Using phoA, murAA, gapB, ptsG and cggR promoters that are responsive to phosphate availability, growth rate and carbon source, we show that detailed profiles of promoter activity can be established, with responses to changing conditions being measurable within 1 min of the stimulus. This makes pBaSysBioII a highly versatile tool for real-time gene expression analysis in growing cells of B. subtilis. PMID:20150235

  20. An improved chemo-enzymatic synthesis of 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides: highly chemoselective enzymatic removal of protecting groups from corresponding methyl acetyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Baba, Akiko; Yoshioka, Tadao

    2007-12-01

    An improved and widely applicable chemo-enzymatic method for the synthesis of a series of 1-beta-O-acyl glucuronides 5a-f has been developed from the corresponding methyl acetyl derivatives 3a-f, which were stereospecifically synthesized from cesium salts of carboxylic acids 1a-f and methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1-bromo-1-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranuronate (2). Chemoselectivity of lipase AS Amano (LAS) in the hydrolytic removal of O-acetyl groups of 3a-f to provide methyl esters 4a-f was influenced by the nature of their 1-beta-O-acyl groups; high selectivity was evident only for 3b and 3f. Carboxylesterase from Streptomyces rochei (CSR), newly screened as an alternative to LAS, showed much greater chemoselectivity toward the O-acetyl groups than LAS; 3a, 3d, and 3e were chemoselectively hydrolyzed only by CSR. The combination of CSR with LAS yielded better results in the hydrolysis of 3c and 3f than did single usage of CSR. Final deprotection of the methyl ester groups of 4a-f to provide 5a-f was chemoselectively achieved by using lipase from Candida antarctica type B (CAL-B) as well as esterase from porcine liver (PLE), although CAL-B possessed higher chemoselectivity and catalytic efficiency than did PLE. CSR also exhibited high chemoselectivity in the synthesis of (S)-naproxen 1-beta-O-acyl glucopyranoside (7) from its 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl derivative 6. PMID:17985922

  1. Ablation of high-Z material dust grains in edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    The model, including shielding effects of high-Z dust grain ablation in tokamak edge plasma, is presented. In a contrast to shielding models developed for pellets ablation in a hot plasma core, this model deals with the dust grain ablation in relatively cold edge plasma. Using some simplifications, a closed set of equations determining the grain ablation rate ? is derived and analyzed both analytically and numerically. The scaling law for ? versus grain radius and ambient plasma parameters is obtained and confirmed by the results of numerical solutions. The results obtained are compared with both dust grain models containing no shielding effects and the pellet ablation models.

  2. Ablation of high-Z material dust grains in edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Marenkov, E. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2014-12-15

    The model, including shielding effects of high-Z dust grain ablation in tokamak edge plasma, is presented. In a contrast to shielding models developed for pellets ablation in a hot plasma core, this model deals with the dust grain ablation in relatively cold edge plasma. Using some simplifications, a closed set of equations determining the grain ablation rate ? is derived and analyzed both analytically and numerically. The scaling law for ? versus grain radius and ambient plasma parameters is obtained and confirmed by the results of numerical solutions. The results obtained are compared with both dust grain models containing no shielding effects and the pellet ablation models.

  3. Charge exchange processes involving highly charged ions and targets of interest in astrophysics and fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otranto, S.

    2012-11-01

    Renewed interest in charge exchange processes involving highly charged ions arises because of their crucial role in the planned ITER reactor as well as to recent X-ray observations in the astrophysical context. In this work, the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method (CTMC) is used to calculate state selective single charge exchange n-level cross sections and line emission cross sections pertinent to both fields. These are contrasted to recent laboratory data from KVI for the Xe18+ + Na(3s) collision system and NIST/BERLIN-EBIT data for the Ar18+ +Ar system.

  4. Development of high power CW 3.7 GHz klystrons for fusion experiments on Tore Supra

    SciTech Connect

    Magne, R.; Armitano, A.; Berger-By, G.; Bouquey, F.; Corbel, E.; Delpech, L.; Mollard, P.; Prou, M.; Samaille, F.; Volpe, D.; Beunas, A.; Kazarian, F.

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the CIMES project, a collaborative effort between Association Euratom-CEA and Thales Electron Devices (TED) has led to the development of a high power CW klystron TH 2103 C, working at 3.7 GHz, for plasma heating and current drive for the Tokamak Tore Supra. A prototype has been manufactured and thoroughly tested on water load in December 2007 to verify that all the parameters met the specifications. The paper will present in detail the process and results of the test of the klystrons.

  5. High-performance chiral separation of fourteen triazole fungicides by sulfated beta-cyclodextrin-mediated capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y S; Lee, H K; Li, S F

    2001-03-30

    In this paper, sulfated beta-cyclodextrin-mediated capillary electrophoresis (CE) is evaluated as a new approach for the chiral separation of triazole-type fungicides. The 14 fungicides investigated were bitertanol, cyproconazole, difenoconazole, diniconazole, flutriafol, hexaconazole, myclobutanil, paclobutrazol, penconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, triadimefon and triadimenol. Under the optimal conditions, excellent enantioseparation was achieved for all the 14 fungicides, including those fungicides containing two chiral centers. To our knowledge, this is the only system to date that offers outstanding enantiodiscrimination towards all triazole-type fungicides. The impact of the molecular structures of the triazole compounds on their migration behavior was studied. Similar to other chemical systems involving host-guest complexation, the interaction between sulfated beta-cyclodextrin and the triazole compounds was found to be affected by a variety of factors, including electrostatic force, hydrogen bonding, steric effect and hydrophobicity. These factors, coupled with the countercurrent electroosmotic flow (EOF), were believed to be the major forces behind the exceptional chiral selectivity. PMID:11307981

  6. Near-vacuum hohlraums for driving fusion implosions with high density carbon ablatorsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; Divol, L.; Meezan, N. B.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Ho, D. D.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S.; Milovich, J. L.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Casey, D.; Celliers, P. M.; Pak, A.; Peterson, J. L.; Ralph, J.; Rygg, J. R.

    2015-05-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility [M. J. Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] have explored driving high-density carbon ablators with near-vacuum hohlraums, which use a minimal amount of helium gas fill. These hohlraums show improved efficiency relative to conventional gas-filled hohlraums in terms of minimal backscatter, minimal generation of suprathermal electrons, and increased hohlraum-capsule coupling. Given these advantages, near-vacuum hohlraums are a promising choice for pursuing high neutron yield implosions. Long pulse symmetry control, though, remains a challenge, as the hohlraum volume fills with material. Two mitigation methodologies have been explored, dynamic beam phasing and increased case-to-capsule ratio (larger hohlraum size relative to capsule). Unexpectedly, experiments have demonstrated that the inner laser beam propagation is better than predicted by nominal simulations, and an enhanced beam propagation model is required to match measured hot spot symmetry. Ongoing work is focused on developing a physical model which captures this enhanced propagation and on utilizing the enhanced propagation to drive longer laser pulses than originally predicted in order to reach alpha-heating dominated neutron yields.

  7. Built-up Areas Extraction in High Resolution SAR Imagery based on the method of Multiple Feature Weighted Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhao, Z.; Ma, A. D.

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic aperture radar in the application of remote sensing technology is becoming more and more widely because of its all-time and all-weather operation, feature extraction research in high resolution SAR image has become a hot topic of concern. In particular, with the continuous improvement of airborne SAR image resolution, image texture information become more abundant. It's of great significance to classification and extraction. In this paper, a novel method for built-up areas extraction using both statistical and structural features is proposed according to the built-up texture features. First of all, statistical texture features and structural features are respectively extracted by classical method of gray level co-occurrence matrix and method of variogram function, and the direction information is considered in this process. Next, feature weights are calculated innovatively according to the Bhattacharyya distance. Then, all features are weighted fusion. At last, the fused image is classified with K-means classification method and the built-up areas are extracted after post classification process. The proposed method has been tested by domestic airborne P band polarization SAR images, at the same time, two groups of experiments based on the method of statistical texture and the method of structural texture were carried out respectively. On the basis of qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis based on the built-up area selected artificially is enforced, in the relatively simple experimentation area, detection rate is more than 90%, in the relatively complex experimentation area, detection rate is also higher than the other two methods. In the study-area, the results show that this method can effectively and accurately extract built-up areas in high resolution airborne SAR imagery.

  8. Development of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for fusion and light-source research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Efthimion, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.

    2014-09-01

    One dimensional spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy with spherically bent crystals and 2D pixelated detectors is an established technique on magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) experiments world wide for Doppler measurements of spatial profiles of plasma ion temperature and flow velocity. This technique is being further developed for diagnosis of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) plasmas at laser-plasma facilities and synchrotron/x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. Useful spatial resolution (micron scale) of such small-scale plasma sources requires magnification, because of the finite pixel size of x-ray CCD detectors (13.5 ?m). A von-Hamos like spectrometer using spherical crystals is capable of magnification, as well as uniform sagittal focusing across the full x-ray spectrum, and is being tested in laboratory experiments using a tungsten-target microfocus (5-10 ?m) x-ray tube and 13-?m pixel x-ray CCD. A spatial resolution better than 10 ?m has been demonstrated. Good spectral resolution is indicated by small differences (0.02 - 0.1 eV) of measured line widths with best available published natural line widths. Progress and status of HEDP measurements and the physics basis for these diagnostics are presented. A new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer with a convex spherically bent crystal is also reported. The status of testing of a 2D imaging microscope using matched pairs of spherical crystals with x rays will also be presented. The use of computational x-ray optics codes in development of these instrumental concepts is addressed.

  9. Low pressure and high power rf sources for negative hydrogen ions for fusion applications (ITER neutral beam injection).

    PubMed

    Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Kraus, W; Falter, H D; Berger, M; Christ-Koch, S; Fröschle, M; Gutser, R; Heinemann, B; Martens, C; McNeely, P; Riedl, R; Speth, E; Wünderlich, D

    2008-02-01

    The international fusion experiment ITER requires for the plasma heating and current drive a neutral beam injection system based on negative hydrogen ion sources at 0.3 Pa. The ion source must deliver a current of 40 A D(-) for up to 1 h with an accelerated current density of 200 Am/(2) and a ratio of coextracted electrons to ions below 1. The extraction area is 0.2 m(2) from an aperture array with an envelope of 1.5 x 0.6 m(2). A high power rf-driven negative ion source has been successfully developed at the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at three test facilities in parallel. Current densities of 330 and 230 Am/(2) have been achieved for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively, at a pressure of 0.3 Pa and an electron/ion ratio below 1 for a small extraction area (0.007 m(2)) and short pulses (<4 s). In the long pulse experiment, equipped with an extraction area of 0.02 m(2), the pulse length has been extended to 3600 s. A large rf source, with the width and half the height of the ITER source but without extraction system, is intended to demonstrate the size scaling and plasma homogeneity of rf ion sources. The source operates routinely now. First results on plasma homogeneity obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probes are very promising. Based on the success of the IPP development program, the high power rf-driven negative ion source has been chosen recently for the ITER beam systems in the ITER design review process. PMID:18315132

  10. A 1.8 Mev K+ injector for the high current beam transport experiment fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Bieniosek,F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

    2002-05-20

    For the High Current Beam Transport Experiment (HCX) at LBNL, an injector is required to deliver up to 1.8 MV of 0.6 A K{sup +} beam with an emittance of {approx}1 p-mm-mrad. We have successfully operated a 10-cm diameter surface ionization source together with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator to meet these requirements. The pulse length is {approx}4 {micro}s, firing at once every 10-15 seconds. By optimizing the extraction diode and the ESQ voltages, we have obtained an output beam with good current density uniformity, except for a small increase near the beam edge. Characterization of the beam emerging from the injector included measurements of the intensity profile, beam imaging, and transverse phase space. These data along with comparison to computer simulations provide the knowledge base for designing and understanding future HCX experiments.

  11. Development, validation, and fusion of high resolution active and passive optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissett, W. P.; DeBra, Sharon; Kadiwala, Mubin; Kohler, David D. R.; Mobley, Curtis; Steward, Robert G.; Weidemann, Alan; Davis, Curtiss O.; Lillycrop, Jeff; Pope, Robert

    2005-05-01

    HyperSpectral Imagery (HSI) of the coastal zone often focuses on the estimation of bathymetry. However, the estimation of bathymetry requires knowledge, or the simultaneous solution, of water column Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) and bottom reflectance. The numerical solution to the simultaneous set of equations for bathymetry, IOPs, and bottom reflectance places high demands on the spectral quality, calibration, atmospheric correction, and Signal-to-Noise (SNR) of the HSI data stream. In October of 2002, a joint FERI/NRL/NAVO/USACE HSI/LIDAR experiment was conducted off of Looe Key, FL. This experiment yielded high quality HSI data at a 2 m resolution and bathymetric LIDAR data at a 4 m resolution. The joint data set allowed for the advancement and validation of a previously generated Look-Up-Table (LUT) approach to the simultaneous retrieval of bathymetry, IOPs, and bottom type. Bathymetric differences between the two techniques were normally distributed around a 0 mean, with the exception of two peaks. One peak related to a mechanical problem in the LIDAR detector mirrors that causes errors on the edges of the LIDAR flight lines. The other significant difference occurred in a single geographic area (Hawk Channel) suggesting an incomplete IOP or bottom reflectance description in the LUT data base. In addition, benthic habitat data from NOAA"s National Ocean Service (NOS) and the Florida Wildlife Research Institute (FWRI) provided validation data for the estimation of bottom type. Preliminary analyses of the bottom type estimation suggest that the best retrievals are for seagrass bottoms. One source of the potential difficulties may be that the LUT database was generated from a more pristine location (Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas). It is expected that fusing the HSI/LIDAR data streams should reduce the errors in bottom typing and IOP estimation.

  12. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.

  13. Long-Term Pancreatic Beta Cell Exposure to High Levels of Glucose but Not Palmitate Induces DNA Methylation within the Insulin Gene Promoter and Represses Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kota; Tsunekawa, Shin; Ikeniwa, Makoto; Izumoto, Takako; Iida, Atsushi; Ogata, Hidetada; Uenishi, Eita; Seino, Yusuke; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Hamada, Yoji; Kuroda, Akio; Shinjo, Keiko; Kondo, Yutaka; Oiso, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated epigenetics in the pathophysiology of diabetes. Furthermore, DNA methylation, which irreversibly deactivates gene transcription, of the insulin promoter, particularly the cAMP response element, is increased in diabetes patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to investigate insulin promoter DNA methylation in an over-nutrition state. INS-1 cells, the rat pancreatic beta cell line, were cultured under normal-culture-glucose (11.2 mmol/l) or experimental-high-glucose (22.4 mmol/l) conditions for 14 days, with or without 0.4 mmol/l palmitate. DNA methylation of the rat insulin 1 gene (Ins1) promoter was investigated using bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing analysis. Experimental-high-glucose conditions significantly suppressed insulin mRNA and increased DNA methylation at all five CpG sites within the Ins1 promoter, including the cAMP response element, in a time-dependent and glucose concentration-dependent manner. DNA methylation under experimental-high-glucose conditions was unique to the Ins1 promoter; however, palmitate did not affect DNA methylation. Artificial methylation of Ins1 promoter significantly suppressed promoter-driven luciferase activity, and a DNA methylation inhibitor significantly improved insulin mRNA suppression by experimental-high-glucose conditions. Experimental-high-glucose conditions significantly increased DNA methyltransferase activity and decreased ten-eleven-translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase activity. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress did not affect DNA methylation of the Ins1 promoter. High glucose but not palmitate increased ectopic triacylglycerol accumulation parallel to DNA methylation. Metformin upregulated insulin gene expression and suppressed DNA methylation and ectopic triacylglycerol accumulation. Finally, DNA methylation of the Ins1 promoter increased in isolated islets from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. This study helps to clarify the effect of an over-nutrition state on DNA methylation of the Ins1 promoter in pancreatic beta cells. It provides new insights into the irreversible pathophysiology of diabetes. PMID:25658116

  14. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1993-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System (GIS), integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a boreal forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case 1) calibrated DC-8 SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case 2) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with extensive measurements on the tropical rain forest itself. The extreme range of these sites, one an Arctic forest, the other a tropical rain forest, has been deliberately chosen to find common problems which can lead to generalized observations and unique problems with data which raise issues for the EOS System.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation with beta-casein A1 or A2 on markers of disease development in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chin-Dusting, Jaye; Shennan, Jane; Jones, Emma; Williams, Carolyn; Kingwell, Bronwyn; Dart, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with beta-casein A1 promotes an increased risk relative to supplementation with beta-casein A2 in patients traditionally at high risk of developing CVD. The study was conducted in fifteen asymptomatic participants (six male; nine female) at high risk of developing CVD. A double-blind cross-over study design was used with a total duration of 24 weeks. Dietary intervention was a daily supplementation (25 g) of either casein A1 or A2 (for 12 weeks each). Surrogate measures of cardioprotection studied included the examination of vascular (endothelium and arterial) function, resting blood pressure, plasma lipids and biochemical markers of inflammation. Total plasma cholesterol levels were significantly lower following 12 weeks of both casein A1 and A2 interventions but the decrease was not different between intervention. Plasma insulin, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, protein C and S and von Willebrand factor levels were not different between the two casein supplements. Endothelium function, measured as a vascular response using venous occlusion plethysmography to intra-arterial infusions of the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine, were not different between the two casein interventions. Similarly, neither blood pressure nor measures of large artery stiffness were affected by differing the casein variant. We therefore conclude that there is no evidence from the present study that supplementation with casein A1 has any cardiovascular health disadvantage over consumption of casein A2. PMID:16441926

  16. Electron capture and beta-decay rates for sd-shell nuclei in stellar environments relevant to high density O-Ne-Mg cores

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Toshio; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Electron capture and beta-decay rates for nuclear pairs in sd-shell are evaluated at high densities and high temperatures relevant to the final evolution of electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of stars with the initial masses of 8-10 solar mass. Electron capture induces a rapid contraction of the electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg core. The outcome of rapid contraction depends on the evolutionary changes in the central density and temperature, which are determined by the competing processes of contraction, cooling, and heating. The fate of the stars are determined by these competitions, whether they end up with electron-capture supernovae or Fe core-collapse supernovae. Since the competing processes are induced by electron capture and beta-decay, the accurate weak rates are crucially important. The rates are obtained for pairs with A=20, 23, 24, 25 and 27 by shell-model calculations in sd-shell with the USDB Hamiltonian. Effects of Coulomb corrections on the rates are evaluated. The rates for pairs with A=23 and 25 ar...

  17. Dependence of plasma rotation braking on ion temperature and non-axisymmetric magnetic field spectra in high normalized beta KSTAR plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J. M.; Ko, W. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Bak, J. G.; Hahn, S. H.; Kim, J.; Lee, S. G.; Jardin, S.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.

    2014-10-01

    H-mode plasma operation of KSTAR has surpassed the ideal MHD n = 1 no-wall limit by achieving high normalized beta up to 2.8 while reducing plasma internal inductance to near 0.7. Non-axisymmetric fields were applied using in-vessel control coils with varied n = 2 field spectra, ECH, and supersonic molecular beam injection to alter the plasma toroidal rotation profile in high beta H-mode plasmas and to analyze their distinct effects on the rotation. The rotation profile was significantly altered in a self-similar fashion with rotation level reduced by more than 60% without tearing activity or mode locking using the full range of techniques. Changes in the steady-state rotation profiles are analyzed to determine the physical aspects of NTV. The NTV scaling with ?B2 shows good agreement with the measured profile change. The NTV coefficient scales as Ti2 . 27 , in general agreement with the low collisionality ``1/ ?'' regime scaling of NTV theory. Resistive tearing stability determined by examining the classical tearing stability index is discussed, and the result is compared with two-fluid resistive MHD solutions from the M3D-C1 code. The effect of plasma rotation profile on tearing stability is examined using the M3D-C1 analyses. Supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG02-99ER54524.

  18. Thermophilic Beta-Glycosidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grogan, Dennis W.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes identification of thermophilic Beta-glycosidase enzyme from isolate of Sulfolobus solfataricus, sulfur-metabolizing archaebacteria growing aerobically and heterotrophically to relatively high cell yields. Enzyme useful in enzymatic conversion of cellulose to D-glucose and important in recycling of biomass. Used for removal of lactose from milk products. Offers promise as model substance for elucidation of basic principles of structural stabilization of proteins.

  19. Polarization Issues with High Power Injection and Low Power Emission in Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, T. P.; Felici, F.; Udintsev, V. S.

    2009-11-26

    All tokamak experiments using ECCD require setting of the beam elliptical polarization for proper coupling to the plasma. This is done either in the matching optics unit (MOU) at the output of the gyrotron, or in a couple of miter bends of the transmission line. Similarly, oblique ECE receivers require selection of the correct elliptical polarization to provide localized measurements. For the TCV tokamak at the CRPP, gyrotron and oblique-ECE polarizers are characterized during either high- or low- power testing of equipment: for the gyrotrons the behaviour is determined at a single frequency, but for the oblique-ECE the broadband response is needed. These characteristics are included in the calibration database and used during subsequent analysis of the power coupling to, or from, the sources (gyrotron, plasma, or low power transmitting antenna). A more detailed characterization has been carried out (at low power) with the MOU for the EU, 170 GHz, 2 MW, gyrotron prototype for ITER. This paper discusses the methodology and results of these measurements, as well as a review of nearly a decade's worth of experimental data from the 6 gyrotron, 3 MW, 82.6 GHz TCV system. In particular, the consistency between the calibrations and the subsequent data from tokamak experiments is analysed.

  20. SciDAC Fusiongrid Project--A National Collaboratory to Advance the Science of High Temperature Plasma Physics for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    SCHISSEL, D.P.; ABLA, G.; BURRUSS, J.R.; FEIBUSH, E.; FREDIAN, T.W.; GOODE, M.M.; GREENWALD, M.J.; KEAHEY, K.; LEGGETT, T.; LI, K.; McCUNE, D.C.; PAPKA, M.E.; RANDERSON, L.; SANDERSON, A.; STILLERMAN, J.; THOMPSON, M.R.; URAM, T.; WALLACE, G.

    2006-08-31

    This report summarizes the work of the National Fusion Collaboratory (NFC) Project funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Program (SciDAC) to develop a persistent infrastructure to enable scientific collaboration for magnetic fusion research. A five year project that was initiated in 2001, it built on the past collaborative work performed within the U.S. fusion community and added the component of computer science research done with the USDOE Office of Science, Office of Advanced Scientific Computer Research. The project was a collaboration itself uniting fusion scientists from General Atomics, MIT, and PPPL and computer scientists from ANL, LBNL, Princeton University, and the University of Utah to form a coordinated team. The group leveraged existing computer science technology where possible and extended or created new capabilities where required. Developing a reliable energy system that is economically and environmentally sustainable is the long-term goal of Fusion Energy Science (FES) research. In the U.S., FES experimental research is centered at three large facilities with a replacement value of over $1B. As these experiments have increased in size and complexity, there has been a concurrent growth in the number and importance of collaborations among large groups at the experimental sites and smaller groups located nationwide. Teaming with the experimental community is a theoretical and simulation community whose efforts range from applied analysis of experimental data to fundamental theory (e.g., realistic nonlinear 3D plasma models) that run on massively parallel computers. Looking toward the future, the large-scale experiments needed for FES research are staffed by correspondingly large, globally dispersed teams. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large portion of national program efforts are organized around coordinated efforts to develop promising operational scenarios. Substantial efforts to develop integrated plasma modeling codes are also underway in the U.S., Europe and Japan. As a result of the highly collaborative nature of FES research, the community is facing new and unique challenges. While FES has a significant track record for developing and exploiting remote collaborations, with such large investments at stake, there is a clear need to improve the integration and reach of available tools. The NFC Project was initiated to address these challenges by creating and deploying collaborative software tools. The original objective of the NFC project was to develop and deploy a national FES 'Grid' (FusionGrid) that would be a system for secure sharing of computation, visualization, and data resources over the Internet. The goal of FusionGrid was to allow scientists at remote sites to participate as fully in experiments and computational activities as if they were working on site thereby creating a unified virtual organization of the geographically dispersed U.S. fusion community. The vision for FusionGrid was that experimental and simulation data, computer codes, analysis routines, visualization tools, and remote collaboration tools are to be thought of as network services. In this model, an application service provider (ASP) provides and maintains software resources as well as the necessary hardware resources. The project would create a robust, user-friendly collaborative software environment and make it available to the US FES community. This Grid's resources would be protected by a shared security infrastructure including strong authentication to identify users and authorization to allow stakeholders to control their own resources. In this environment, access to services is stressed rather than data or software portability.

  1. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  2. High-speed repetitive pellet injector for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    The projected fueling requirements of future magnetic confinement devices for controlled thermonuclear research [e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)] indicate that a flexible plasma fueling capability is required. This includes a mix of traditional gas puffing and low- and high-velocity deuterium-tritium pellets. Conventional pellet injectors (based on light gas guns or centrifugal accelerators) can reliably provide frozen hydrogen pellets (1- to 6-mm-diam sizes tested) up to {approximately}1.3-km/s velocity at the appropriate pellet fueling rates (1 to 10 Hz or greater). For long-pulse operation in a higher velocity regime (>2 km/s), an experiment in collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ENEA Frascati is under way. This activity will be carried out in the framework of a collaborative agreement between the US Department of Energy and European Atomic Energy Community -- ENEA Association. In this experiment, an existing ORNL hydrogen extruder (equipped with a pellet chambering mechanism/gun barrel assembly) and a Frascati two-stage light gas gun driver have been combined on a test facility at ORNL. Initial testing has been carried out with single deuterium pellets accelerated up to 2.05 km/s with the two-stage driver; in addition, some preliminary repetitive testing (to commission the diagnostics) was performed at reduced speeds, including sequences at 0.5 to 1 Hz and 10 to 30 pellets. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate repetitive operation (up to {approximately}1 Hz) with speeds in the 2- to 3-km/s range. In addition, the strength of extruded hydrogen ice as opposed to that produced in situ by direct condensation in pipe guns can be investigated. The equipment and initial experimental results are described.

  3. Beta Thalassemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Robert Irvine Pregnant? What to Expect Beta Thalassemia KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Heart & Blood Vessels > Beta ... Types of Beta Thalassemia Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  4. High-throughput screening for human lysosomal beta-N-Acetyl hexosaminidase inhibitors acting as pharmacological chaperones.

    PubMed

    Tropak, Michael B; Blanchard, Jan E; Withers, Stephen G; Brown, Eric D; Mahuran, Don

    2007-02-01

    The adult forms of Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff diseases result when the activity of beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex) falls below approximately 10% of normal due to decreased transport of the destabilized mutant enzyme to the lysosome. Carbohydrate-based competitive inhibitors of Hex act as pharmacological chaperones (PC) in patient cells, facilitating exit of the enzyme from the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby increasing the mutant Hex protein and activity levels in the lysosome 3- to 6-fold. To identify drug-like PC candidates, we developed a fluorescence-based real-time enzyme assay and screened the Maybridge library of 50,000 compounds for inhibitors of purified Hex. Three structurally distinct micromolar competitive inhibitors, a bisnaphthalimide, nitro-indan-1-one, and pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyridazin-1-one were identified that specifically increased lysosomal Hex protein and activity levels in patient fibroblasts. These results validate screening for inhibitory compounds as an approach to identifying PCs. PMID:17317569

  5. Development and characterization of a Rift Valley fever virus cell-cell fusion assay using alphavirus replicon vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Filone, Claire Marie; Heise, Mark; Doms, Robert W. . E-mail: doms@mail.med.upenn.edu; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea . E-mail: aciarlet@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-12-20

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a member of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae family, is transmitted by mosquitoes and infects both humans and domestic animals, particularly cattle and sheep. Since primary RVFV strains must be handled in BSL-3+ or BSL-4 facilities, a RVFV cell-cell fusion assay will facilitate the investigation of RVFV glycoprotein function under BSL-2 conditions. As for other members of the Bunyaviridae family, RVFV glycoproteins are targeted to the Golgi, where the virus buds, and are not efficiently delivered to the cell surface. However, overexpression of RVFV glycoproteins using an alphavirus replicon vector resulted in the expression of the glycoproteins on the surface of multiple cell types. Brief treatment of RVFV glycoprotein expressing cells with mildly acidic media (pH 6.2 and below) resulted in rapid and efficient syncytia formation, which we quantified by {beta}-galactosidase {alpha}-complementation. Fusion was observed with several cell types, suggesting that the receptor(s) for RVFV is widely expressed or that this acid-dependent virus does not require a specific receptor to mediate cell-cell fusion. Fusion occurred over a broad temperature range, as expected for a virus with both mosquito and mammalian hosts. In contrast to cell fusion mediated by the VSV-G glycoprotein, RVFV glycoprotein-dependent cell fusion could be prevented by treating target cells with trypsin, indicating that one or more proteins (or protein-associated carbohydrate) on the host cell surface are needed to support membrane fusion. The cell-cell fusion assay reported here will make it possible to study the membrane fusion activity of RVFV glycoproteins in a high-throughput format and to screen small molecule inhibitors for the ability to block virus-specific membrane fusion.

  6. Modified screen printed electrode for development of a highly sensitive label-free impedimetric immunosensor to detect amyloid beta peptides.

    PubMed

    Lien, Truong T N; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C

    2015-09-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting approximately 26 million people world-wide, and the number is increasing as life expectancy increases. Since the only reliable diagnosis for the pathology is histochemical post-mortem examination, there is a rather urgent need for reliable, sensitive and quick detection techniques. Amyloid beta, being one of the established and widely accepted biomarkers of AD is a target biomolecule. Herein, we present fabrication of a labelless impedimetric amyloid beta immunosensor on carbon DEP (disposable electrochemical printed) chip. Three types of amyloid ? impedimetric immunosensors were fabricated in a systematic step-wise manner in order to understand the effects that each surface modification chemistry had on detection sensitivity. We found that compared to a bare electrode, surface modification through formation of SAM of AuNPs increased sensitivity by approximately three orders of magnitude (LoD from 2.04 ?M to 2.65 nM). A further modification using protein G, which helps orientate antibodies to an optimum position for interaction with antigen, lowered the LoD further to 0.57 nM. We have demonstrated that the presence of one of the most abundance proteins in biological fluids, bovine serum albumin (BSA), did not interfere with the sensitivity of the sensor. Since the DEP chips are disposable and the detection platform label-free, the developed sensor is relatively fast and cheap. These methods could easily be applied for detection of other antigens, with selection of the detection platform based on the desired for sensitivity. PMID:26388476

  7. High temperature liquid and glass heat contents and the heats of fusion of diopside, albite, sanidine and nepheline

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, J.F.; Carmichael, I.S.E.; Weill, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have measured the relative enthalpy, H/sub T/ - H/sub 300K//sup glass/, and the heat capacities of CaMgSi/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (Di) stable liquid and glass; of KAlSi/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (Sa) stable and supercooled liquid and glass; of NaAlSi/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (Ab) liquid derived directly by melting solid albite; of crystalline, disordered albite itself; and of NaAlSiO/sub 4/ (Ne) liquid and glass. The authors have also determined the effect of annealing at 981 K on the enthalpy of the glasses quenched from liquids at high temperature. This effect is relatively small, ranging from 0 to 1100 cal/mol. Albite liquid prepared by melting of the crystalline phase has a heat capacity and relative enthalpy indistinguishable from those of a liquid produced by heating the glass. The enthalpy of crystalline, disordered albite is equal to that predicted by heat capacity data collected below 1000 K for the triclinic phase by Hemingway et al (1981). The liquid heat capacities of Ab and Sa (88.2 and 89.5 ca/mol x K) are nearly equal and are much lower than that for An liquid (113 cal/mol x K), suggesting that the latter undergoes greater structural changes, possibly depolymerization, with increasing T. The entropies of fusion of Ab and Sa (10.9 and 9.4 cal/mol x K) are similar, and much of the difference between these values and that for An (17.7 cal/mol x K) could be due to Al/Si order in crystalline An. 55 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  8. A transforming growth factor. beta. (TGF-. beta. ) receptor from human placenta exhibits greater affinity for TGF-. beta. 2 than for TGF-. beta. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, E.J.; O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. )

    1991-04-30

    Affinity-labeling techniques have been used to identify three types of high-affinity receptors for transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) on the surface of many cells in culture. Here the authors demonstrate that membrane preparations from tissue sources may also be used as an alternative system for studying the binding properties of TGF-{beta} receptors. Using a chemical cross-linking technique with {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 and {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS{sup 3}), they have identified and characterized two high-affinity binding components in membrane preparations derived from human term placenta. The larger species, which migrates as a diffuse band of molecular mass 250-350 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels, is characteristic of the TGF-{beta} receptor type III, a proteoglycan containing glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of chondroitin and heparan sulfate. The smaller species of molecular mass 140 kDa was identified as the core glycoprotein of this type III receptor by using the techniques of enzymatic deglycosylation and peptide mapping. Competition experiments, using {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}1 or {sup 125}I-TGF-{beta}2 and varying amounts of competing unlabeled TGF-{beta}1 or TGF-{beta}2, revealed that both the placental type III proteoglycan and its core glycoprotein belong to a novel class of type III receptors that exhibit a greater affinity for TGF-{beta}2 than for TGF-{beta}1. This preferential binding of TGF-{beta}2 to placental type III receptors suggests differential roles for TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta} 1 in placental function.

  9. Long-range rapidity correlations in high energy AA collisions in Monte Carlo model with string fusion

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Kovalenko; Vladimir Vechernin

    2013-08-29

    The magnitude of long-range correlations between observables in two separated rapidity windows, proposed as a signature of the string fusion and percolation phenomenon, is studied in the framework of non-Glauber Monte Carlo string-parton model, based on the picture of elementary collisions of color dipoles. The predictions, obtained with and without string fusion, demonstrate effects of color string fusion on the observables in Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC: decrease of n-n correlation coefficient with centrality and negative pt-n correlations, if the sufficiently effective centrality estimator is applied. In general case it is shown that the values of n-n and pt-n correlation coefficients strongly depend on the method of collision centrality fixation. In contrast, the predictions obtained for pt-pt correlation have almost no effect of centrality determination method and the corresponding experimental data would produce the strong limitation on the transverse radius of a string.

  10. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2015-01-01

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in "sandwiches" of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The "sandwiches" were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  11. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, K. Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  12. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  14. High-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted MRI/CT image data fusion for cholesteatoma surgical planning: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Koji; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Obara, Makoto; Yoshiura, Takashi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of high-resolution three-dimensional diffusion-weighted images (HR3D-DWIs)/multi-detector row CT (MDCT) images' data fusion for surgical planning for cholesteatoma. A total of 12 patients (7 male and 5 female; age range 11-72 years; mean 38.1 years) with cholesteatoma underwent preoperative MRI using a 3.0-T clinical unit and an 8-channel array-head coil. For each subject, HR3D-DWIs were obtained using a turbo field-echo with diffusion-sensitized driven-equilibrium preparation with 1.5 mm iso-voxel dimension. These patients also underwent MDCT with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. Fusion of the HR3D-DWIs and MDCT images was performed using an automated rigid registration and subsequent manual fine-tuning by a board-certified neuroradiologist on a workstation. Fused images were compared to CT and findings confirmed based on operation reports. On the fused images, the extent of the cholesteatoma, which was depicted as a conspicuous high-intensity lesion could be easily evaluated with background bony structures. In all patients, the location and extent of the cholesteatoma on the fused images corresponded well with the intraoperative findings. Image fusion between HR3D-DWIs and MDCT images is feasible, and provides valuable preoperative information for surgical planning to otorhinolaryngologists. PMID:25543305

  15. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  16. Fusion of high-resolution DEMs derived from COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X InSAR datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Houjun; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Yong; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-06-01

    Voids caused by shadow, layover, and decorrelation usually occur in digital elevation models (DEMs) of mountainous areas that are derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) datasets. The presence of voids degrades the quality and usability of the DEMs. Thus, void removal is considered as an integral part of the DEM production using InSAR data. The fusion of multiple DEMs has been widely recognized as a promising way for the void removal. Because the vertical accuracy of multiple DEMs can be different, the selection of optimum weights becomes a key problem in the fusion and is studied in this article. As a showcase, two high-resolution InSAR DEMs near Mt. Qilian in northwest China are created and then merged. The two pairs of InSAR data were acquired by TerraSAR-X from an ascending orbit and COSMO-SkyMed from a descending orbit. A maximum likelihood fusion scheme with the weights optimally determined by the height of ambiguity and the variance of phase noise is adopted to syncretize the two DEMs in our study. The fused DEM has a fine spatial resolution of 10 m and depicts the landform of the study area well. The percentage of void cells in the fused DEM is only 0.13 %, while 6.9 and 5.7 % of the cells in the COSMO-SkyMed DEM and the TerraSAR-X DEM are originally voids. Using the ICESat/GLAS elevation data and the Chinese national DEM of scale 1:50,000 as references, we evaluate vertical accuracy levels of the fused DEM as well as the original InSAR DEMs. The results show that substantial improvements could be achieved by DEM fusion after atmospheric phase screen removal. The quality of fused DEM can even meet the high-resolution terrain information (HRTI) standard.

  17. Cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Selective cell fusion is a natural part of development. It is found in sexually reproducing organisms that require fertilization to propagate and in muscles, placenta, bones, lens of the eye and stem cells. Cell fusion is particularly important in the development of C. elegans: in addition to 300 sperm and oocytes that fuse during fertilization, 300 of the 1090 somatic cells born, fuse throughout development. Studies of cell fusion in C. elegans have shown that although different types of cells fuse, cell membrane merger is initiated through a common mechanism involving the action of one gene, eff-1. In worms with mutations that inactivate eff-1, almost none of the 300 somatic cells that normally fuse do so, but appear to differentiate, attach and behave in the same way as fusing cells. Such worms develop and survive but have numerous morphological, behavioral and fertility defects associated to cell fusion failure in the epidermis, pharynx, male tail, vulva and uterus. Cell fusion in embryonic dorsal epithelial cells has been analyzed in great detail by confocal microscopy using membrane fluorescent probes, apical junction markers and cytoplasmic aqueous fluorescent probes allowing the direct observation of membrane disappearance, pore expansion and cytoplasmic content mixing. The complete elimination of the membranes between two fusing cells takes about 30 min and involves vesiculation of the fusing membranes. Genetic and cell biological evidence indicates that eff-1 activity is both necessary and sufficient to fuse epithelial and myoepithelial cells in vivo. Based on electron microscopic analyses of intermediates of cell fusion in eff-1 mutants, it appears that eff-1 is required for both initiation and expansion of fusion pores, similar to the fusogen of Influenza virus. While only one gene encoding a novel candidate component of the cell membrane fusion machinery has been found, the nematode's cell fusion program is under the control of many cell-specific transcriptional regulators. A large number of these conserved regulators prevent cell fusion by repressing eff-1 activity. For example, if either ceh-16/engrailed or the GATA factor EGL-18/ELT-5 is inactivated, the lateral epidermal cells that normally do not fuse in the embryo will fuse causing embryonic lethality. And if either the Hox protein lin-39/Deformed or its cofactor ceh-20/Extradenticle is inactivated, the ventral epidermal vulval precursor cells that normally do not fuse in the larvae will fuse and the hermaphrodite will have no vulva. In addition, there is evidence for coordinated and complex regulation of lin-39 in the ventral epidermis by Ras, Wnt, Rb/E2F, NuRD and lin-15 pathways. It appears that in many cells that normally do not fuse, specific transcription complexes repress eff-1 expression preventing cell fusion. ref-2 (REgulator of Fusion-2) encodes a Zn-finger protein that is required to generate ventral Pn.p cells and to keep them unfused both in males and hermaphrodites. ref-2 is necessary, but not sufficient, to maintain Pn.p cells unfused. This review shows that far from cell fusion being an unusual phenomenon, there is the clear prospect that animal cells in all tissues are intrinsically programmed to fuse, and are only prevented from fusing by transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. There are three major questions that remain open for future research: (1) How does eff-1 fuse cells? (2) How do Ras, Wnt, Rb, NuRD, E2F, heterochronic and other pathways control cell fusion? (3) What are the implications of cell fusion beyond worms? PMID:18050486

  18. RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion

    E-print Network

    Pelizzari, Charles A.

    RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph.D. Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology The University of Chicago #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion "Fusion and limitations) ·Where do we need to go? (future directions) #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Terminology

  19. Using multi-satellite data fusion to estimate daily high spatial resolution evapotranspiration over a forested site in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse model and associated disaggregation scheme (ALEXI/DisALEXI). Satellite-based ET retrievals from both the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectoradiometer (MODIS; 1km, daily) and Landsat (30m, bi-weekly) are fused with The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflective Fusion ...

  20. Next-Step Spherical Torus Experiment and Spherical Torus Strategy in the Fusion Energy Development Path

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M. Peng; C. Kessel; C. Neumeyer; J. Schmidt; J. Chrzanowski; D. Darrow; L. Grisham; P. Heitzenroeder; T. Jarboe; C. Jun; S. Kaye; J. Menard; R. Raman; T. Stevenson; M. Viola; J. Wilson; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2003-10-27

    A spherical torus (ST) fusion energy development path which is complementary to proposed tokamak burning plasma experiments such as ITER is described. The ST strategy focuses on a compact Component Test Facility (CTF) and higher performance advanced regimes leading to more attractive DEMO and Power Plant scale reactors. To provide the physics basis for the CTF an intermediate step needs to be taken which we refer to as the ''Next Step Spherical Torus'' (NSST) device and examine in some detail herein. NSST is a ''performance extension'' (PE) stage ST with the plasma current of 5-10 MA, R = 1.5 m, and Beta(sub)T less than or equal to 2.7 T with flexible physics capability. The mission of NSST is to: (1) provide a sufficient physics basis for the design of CTF, (2) explore advanced operating scenarios with high bootstrap current fraction/high performance regimes, which can then be utilized by CTF, DEMO, and Power Plants, and (3) contribute to the general plasma/fusion science of high beta toroidal plasmas. The NSST facility is designed to utilize the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (or similar) site to minimize the cost and time required for the design and construction.

  1. Short communication: the beta-casein (CSN2) silent allele C1 is highly spread in goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Küpper, J; Pagnacco, G; Erhardt, G; Caroli, A

    2008-11-01

    Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the goat milk casein genes, most of them modifying the amino acid sequence of the coded protein. At least 9 variants have been found in goat beta-CN (CSN2); 6 of them were characterized at the DNA level (A, A1, C, E, 0, and 0'), whereas the other 3 variants were described only at the protein level. The recently identified silent A1 allele is characterized by a C-->T transition at the 180th nucleotide of the ninth exon. In the present work, typing results from different breeds (3 Italian, 3 German, and a composite of African breeds for a total of 335 samples) demonstrated that the same mutation is carried by the CSN2*C allele. In addition, the T nucleotide at the 180th nucleotide of the ninth exon was always associated with CSN2*C in all the breeds analyzed. Thus, another silent allele occurs at goat CSN2 and can be named CSN2*C1. The much wider distribution of C1 with respect to the A1 allele indicates that the single nucleotide polymorphisms characterizing the silent mutation originated from CSN2*C. A method for the identification of this allele simultaneously with 5 of the 6 DNA-characterized alleles is also proposed. The mutation involved codifies for the same protein of the C allele; nevertheless, its location in the 3' untranslated region of the gene might affect the specific casein expression. PMID:18946150

  2. PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS OF CONTINUOUSLY DRIVEN MIRROR AND ION CYCLOTRON INSTABILITIES IN HIGH BETA ASTROPHYSICAL AND HELIOSPHERIC PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot; Verscharen, Daniel E-mail: eliot@berkeley.edu

    2015-02-10

    We use particle-in-cell simulations to study the nonlinear evolution of ion velocity space instabilities in an idealized problem in which a background velocity shear continuously amplifies the magnetic field. We simulate the astrophysically relevant regime where the shear timescale is long compared to the ion cyclotron period, and the plasma beta is ? ? 1-100. The background field amplification in our calculation is meant to mimic processes such as turbulent fluctuations or MHD-scale instabilities. The field amplification continuously drives a pressure anisotropy with p > p {sub ?} and the plasma becomes unstable to the mirror and ion cyclotron instabilities. In all cases, the nonlinear state is dominated by the mirror instability, not the ion cyclotron instability, and the plasma pressure anisotropy saturates near the threshold for the linear mirror instability. The magnetic field fluctuations initially undergo exponential growth but saturate in a secular phase in which the fluctuations grow on the same timescale as the background magnetic field (with ?B ? 0.3 (B) in the secular phase). At early times, the ion magnetic moment is well-conserved but once the fluctuation amplitudes exceed ?B ? 0.1 (B), the magnetic moment is no longer conserved but instead changes on a timescale comparable to that of the mean magnetic field. We discuss the implications of our results for low-collisionality astrophysical plasmas, including the near-Earth solar wind and low-luminosity accretion disks around black holes.

  3. Early stages in the high temperature cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl: An x-ray reflectivity study

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidharan, G.; You, Hoydoo; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    1996-12-31

    Early stages in the cyclic oxidation of {beta}-NiAl at 500{degrees}C, 600{degrees}C, 700{degrees}C and 800{degrees}C were investigated using the technique of x-ray reflectivity. By fitting the data to a model function, oxide layer thickness, roughness of the oxide-vapor interface, and the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface were obtained as a function of oxidation time and temperature of oxidation. The time dependence of the oxide thickness was observed to be logarithmic at lower temperatures (500{degrees}C and 600{degrees}C) while a conventional t{sup 0.5} kinetics was observed at the higher temperatures. Comparison of the roughness of the oxide-substrate interface with that of the oxide-vapor interface shows that for comparable oxide thicknesses and identical substrate conditions, the oxide-vapor interface was rougher than the oxide-substrate interface at all temperatures. This is consistent with the previously postulated growth mechanism (outward diffusion of cations) for oxide growth during the early stages of oxidation at these temperatures. Thus, x-ray reflectivity offers a convenient way of determining the oxide growth rates, and the roughness of the interfaces when the oxide layer is thin; this regime cannot be easily studied with the techniques that are currently used for oxidation studies.

  4. Beta-glucosidase, exo-beta-glucanase and pyridoxine transglucosylase activities of rice BGlu1.

    PubMed Central

    Opassiri, Rodjana; Hua, Yanling; Wara-Aswapati, Onnop; Akiyama, Takashi; Svasti, Jisnuson; Esen, Asim; Ketudat Cairns, James R

    2004-01-01

    The bglu1 cDNA for a beta-glucosidase cloned from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings was expressed as a soluble and active protein in Escherichia coli and designated BGlu1. This enzyme hydrolysed beta-1,4-linked oligosaccharides with increasing catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) values as the DP (degree of polymerization) increased from 2 to 6. In contrast, hydrolysis of beta-1,3-linked oligosaccharides decreased from DP 2 to 3, and polymers with a DP greater than 3 were not hydrolysed. The enzyme also hydrolysed p -nitrophenyl beta-D-glycosides and some natural glucosides but with lower catalytic efficiency than beta-linked oligosaccharides. Pyridoxine 5'-O-beta-D-glucoside was the most efficiently hydrolysed natural glycoside tested. BGlu1 also had high transglucosylation activity towards pyridoxine, producing pyridoxine 5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in the presence of the glucose donor p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucoside. PMID:14692878

  5. High level expression of alpha-human atrial natriuretic factor as a fusion polypeptide with phage fr coat protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Berzins, V; Jansone, I; Skangals, A; Kalnins, P; Liepa, S; Baumanis, V

    1993-08-01

    A synthetic DNA sequence coding for the 28 amino acid residues of alpha-human atrial natriuretic factor (alpha-hANF) and the N-terminal linker tripeptide Ile-Asp-Lys was inserted in the 3'-terminal part of the RNA bacteriophage fr coat protein gene. The cloned hybrid gene was isolated and placed into an expression vector under the control of the inducible E. coli tryptophan promoter and phage fr coat protein translation initiation region (TIR) sequence. In an appropriate host strain the expressed fusion protein accounts for at least 10% of the total cellular protein. In order to achieve high-cell density in a bioreactor while maintaining efficiency of alpha-hANF expression, improved cultivation conditions were selected using modified Shielach-Bauer's culture media containing glucose, yeast extract and bacto tryptone at an initial concentration of 2 g l-1 of each, adding concentrate of medium throughout the microbial growth and maintaining the dissolved oxygen in a range of 25-30%. At 13-14 h cultivation, the cell density reached 40 g cell dry weight per liter and the yield of fusion protein exceeded 45 mg g-1 cell dry weight. Fusion protein from solubilized E. coli cells was purified to homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-, CM-cellulose, QAE Sephadex A25 columns and selective precipitation. PMID:7764035

  6. Linear high-boost fusion of Stokes vector imagery for effective discrimination and recognition of real targets in the presence of multiple identical decoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Saba, Aed; Sakla, Wesam A.

    2010-04-01

    Recently, the use of imaging polarimetry has received considerable attention for use in automatic target recognition (ATR) applications. In military remote sensing applications, there is a great demand for sensors that are capable of discriminating between real targets and decoys. Accurate discrimination of decoys from real targets is a challenging task and often requires the fusion of various sensor modalities that operate simultaneously. In this paper, we use a simple linear fusion technique known as the high-boost fusion method for effective discrimination of real targets in the presence of multiple decoys. The HBF assigns more weight to the polarization-based imagery in forming the final fused image that is used for detection. We have captured both intensity and polarization-based imagery from an experimental laboratory arrangement containing a mixture of sand/dirt, rocks, vegetation, and other objects for the purpose of simulating scenery that would be acquired in a remote sensing military application. A target object and three decoys that are identical in physical appearance (shape, surface structure and color) and different in material composition have also been placed in the scene. We use the wavelet-filter joint transform correlation (WFJTC) technique to perform detection between input scenery and the target object. Our results show that use of the HBF method increases the correlation performance metrics associated with the WFJTC-based detection process when compared to using either the traditional intensity or polarization-based images.

  7. Catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei Stars

    E-print Network

    Anamarija Stankov; Gerald Handler

    2005-06-21

    We present an extensive and up-to-date catalog of Galactic Beta Cephei stars. This catalog is intended to give a comprehensive overview of observational characteristics of all known Beta Cephei stars. 93 stars could be confirmed to be Beta Cephei stars. For some stars we re-analyzed published data or conducted our own analyses. 61 stars were rejected from the final Beta Cephei list, and 77 stars are suspected to be Beta Cephei stars. A list of critically selected pulsation frequencies for confirmed Beta Cephei stars is also presented. We analyze the Beta Cephei stars as a group, such as the distributions of their spectral types, projected rotational velocities, radial velocities, pulsation periods, and Galactic coordinates. We confirm that the majority of these stars are multiperiodic pulsators. We show that, besides two exceptions, the Beta Cephei stars with high pulsation amplitudes are slow rotators. We construct a theoretical HR diagram that suggests that almost all 93 Beta Cephei stars are MS objects. We discuss the observational boundaries of Beta Cephei pulsation and their physical parameters. We corroborate that the excited pulsation modes are near to the radial fundamental mode in frequency and we show that the mass distribution of the stars peaks at 12 solar masses. We point out that the theoretical instability strip of the Beta Cephei stars is filled neither at the cool nor at the hot end and attempt to explain this observation.

  8. Cereal beta-glucans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal beta-glucans occur predominantly in oats and barley, but can be found in other cereals. Beta-glucan structure is a mixture of single beta-1,3-linkages and consecutive beta-1,4-linkages, and cellotriosyl and cellotetraosyl units typically make up 90-95% of entire molecule. Lichenase can hydr...

  9. Pattern of rise in subplasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} concentration determines type of fusing insulin granules in pancreatic {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara-Imaizumi, Mica; Aoyagi, Kyota; Nakamichi, Yoko; Nishiwaki, Chiyono; Sakurai, Takashi; Nagamatsu, Shinya

    2009-07-31

    We simultaneously analyzed insulin granule fusion with insulin fused to green fluorescent protein and the subplasma membrane Ca{sup 2+} concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM}) with the Ca{sup 2+} indicator Fura Red in rat {beta} cells by dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We found that rapid and marked elevation in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} caused insulin granule fusion mostly from previously docked granules during the high KCl-evoked release and high glucose-evoked first phase release. In contrast, the slow and sustained elevation in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} induced fusion from newcomers translocated from the internal pool during the low KCl-evoked release and glucose-evoked second phase release. These data suggest that the pattern of the [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub PM} rise directly determines the types of fusing granules.

  10. The resolved layer of a collisionless, high beta, supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shock wave. I - Rankine-Hugoniot geometry, currents, and stationarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Aggson, T. L.; Mangeney, A.; Lacombe, C.; Harvey, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    Data collected by the ISEE dual-spacecraft mission (on November 7, 1977) on a slowly moving, supercritical, high-beta, quasi-perpendicular bow shock are presented, and the local geometry, spatial scales, and stationarity of this shock wave are assessed in a self-consistent Rankine-Hugoniot-constrained frame of reference. Included are spatial profiles of the ac and dc magnetic and electric fields, electron and proton fluid velocities, current densities, electron and proton number densities, temperatures, pressures, and partial densities of the reflected protons. The observed layer profile is shown to be nearly phase standing and one-dimensional in a Rankine-Hugoniot frame, empirically determined by the magnetofluid parameters outside the layer proper.

  11. High-resolution, far-ultraviolet study of Beta Draconis (G2 Ib-II) - Transition region structure and energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.; Jordan, C.; Stencel, R. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution far ultraviolet spectra of the star Beta Draconis have been obtained with the IUE satellite. The observations and emission line data from the spectra are presented, the interpretation of the emission line widths and shifts is discussed, and the implications are given in terms of atmospheric properties. The emission measure distribution is derived, and density diagnostics involving both line ratios and line opacity arguments is investigated. The methods for calculating spherically symmetric models of the atmospheric structure are outlined, and several such models are presented. The extension of these models to log T(e) greater than 5.3 using the observed X-ray flux is addressed, the energy balance of an 'optimum' model is investigated, and possible models of energy transport and deposition are discussed.

  12. Enhanced Charged Higgs Production through W^\\pm-Higgs Fusion

    E-print Network

    Abdesslam Arhrib; Kingman Cheung; Jae Sik Lee; Chih-Ting Lu

    2015-09-03

    We study the associated production of a charged Higgs boson with a bottom quark and a light quark at the LHC via p p \\to H^\\pm\\,b\\,j in the Two Higgs Doublet Models (2HDMs). Using the effective W approximation, we show that there is exact cancellation among various Feynman diagrams in high energy limit. This may imply that the production of charged Higgs can be significantly enhanced in the presence of large mass differences among the neutral Higgs bosons via W^\\pm-Higgs fusion in the p p \\to H^\\pm\\,b\\,j process. Particularly, we emphasize the potential enhancement due to a light pseudoscalar boson $A$, which is still allowed by the current data by which we explicitly calculate the allowed regions in (M_A,\\,\\tan\\beta) plane, and show that the production cross section can be as large as 0.1 pb for large $\\tan\\beta$. We also show that the transverse momentum distribution of the b quark can potentially distinguish the W^\\pm-A fusion diagram from the top diagram. Finally, we point out further enhancement when we go beyond the 2HDMs.

  13. Electron capture and beta-decay rates for sd-shell nuclei in stellar environments relevant to high density O-Ne-Mg cores

    E-print Network

    Toshio Suzuki; Hiroshi Toki; Ken'ichi Nomoto

    2015-12-01

    Electron capture and beta-decay rates for nuclear pairs in sd-shell are evaluated at high densities and high temperatures relevant to the final evolution of electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of stars with the initial masses of 8-10 solar mass. Electron capture induces a rapid contraction of the electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg core. The outcome of rapid contraction depends on the evolutionary changes in the central density and temperature, which are determined by the competing processes of contraction, cooling, and heating. The fate of the stars are determined by these competitions, whether they end up with electron-capture supernovae or Fe core-collapse supernovae. Since the competing processes are induced by electron capture and beta-decay, the accurate weak rates are crucially important. The rates are obtained for pairs with A=20, 23, 24, 25 and 27 by shell-model calculations in sd-shell with the USDB Hamiltonian. Effects of Coulomb corrections on the rates are evaluated. The rates for pairs with A=23 and 25 are important for nuclear URCA processes that determine the cooling rate of O-Ne-Mg core, while those for pairs with A=20 and 24 are important for the core-contraction and heat generation rates in the core. We provide these nuclear rates at stellar environments in tables with fine enough meshes at various densities and temperatures for the studies of astrophysical processes sensitive to the rates. In particular, the accurate rate tables are crucially important for the final fates of not only O-Ne-Mg cores but also a wider range of stars such as C-O cores of lower mass stars.

  14. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  15. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  16. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  17. Generic problems with Li/sub 2/O breeders and tritium control in high-temperature fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.

    1982-04-01

    Within the past year, major reactor design studies have been performed using Li/sub 2/O as a breeder material. These are the INTOR and STARFIRE/DEMO projects. We in our studies on fusion/synfuels are embarking on another, but our blanket will operate at significantly higher temperatures than these two. Some of the problems inherent in using this material are aggravated and some are diminished by operating at higher temperatures. For the conditions of the above two design studies many of the problems were mentioned in the respective references. This report reviews the available data, the educated guesses about unavailable data, and the design options that have been and are being chosen. The review of this information is a needed part for our proposed use of Li/sub 2/O as a breeder in a fusion/synfuel reactor blanket. Further details will be available in various appropriate sections of our FY82 project report.

  18. Beta-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Beta-thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin resulting in variable phenotypes ranging from severe anemia to clinically asymptomatic individuals. The total annual incidence of symptomatic individuals is estimated at 1 in 100,000 throughout the world and 1 in 10,000 people in the European Union. Three main forms have been described: thalassemia major, thalassemia intermedia and thalassemia minor. Individuals with thalassemia major usually present within the first two years of life with severe anemia, requiring regular red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. Findings in untreated or poorly transfused individuals with thalassemia major, as seen in some developing countries, are growth retardation, pallor, jaundice, poor musculature, hepatosplenomegaly, leg ulcers, development of masses from extramedullary hematopoiesis, and skeletal changes that result from expansion of the bone marrow. Regular transfusion therapy leads to iron overload-related complications including endocrine complication (growth retardation, failure of sexual maturation, diabetes mellitus, and insufficiency of the parathyroid, thyroid, pituitary, and less commonly, adrenal glands), dilated myocardiopathy, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis). Patients with thalassemia intermedia present later in life with moderate anemia and do not require regular transfusions. Main clinical features in these patients are hypertrophy of erythroid marrow with medullary and extramedullary hematopoiesis and its complications (osteoporosis, masses of erythropoietic tissue that primarily affect the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, chest and spine, and bone deformities and typical facial changes), gallstones, painful leg ulcers and increased predisposition to thrombosis. Thalassemia minor is clinically asymptomatic but some subjects may have moderate anemia. Beta-thalassemias are caused by point mutations or, more rarely, deletions in the beta globin gene on chromosome 11, leading to reduced (beta+) or absent (beta0) synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin (Hb). Transmission is autosomal recessive; however, dominant mutations have also been reported. Diagnosis of thalassemia is based on hematologic and molecular genetic testing. Differential diagnosis is usually straightforward but may include genetic sideroblastic anemias, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, and other conditions with high levels of HbF (such as juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and aplastic anemia). Genetic counseling is recommended and prenatal diagnosis may be offered. Treatment of thalassemia major includes regular RBC transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. In some circumstances, spleen removal may be required. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only definitive cure currently available. Individuals with thalassemia intermedia may require splenectomy, folic acid supplementation, treatment of extramedullary erythropoietic masses and leg ulcers, prevention and therapy of thromboembolic events. Prognosis for individuals with beta-thalassemia has improved substantially in the last 20 years following recent medical advances in transfusion, iron chelation and bone marrow transplantation therapy. However, cardiac disease remains the main cause of death in patients with iron overload. PMID:20492708

  19. High expression of human beta S- and alpha-globins in transgenic mice: erythrocyte abnormalities, organ damage, and the effect of hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, M E; Costantini, F; Pachnis, A; Suzuka, S M; Bank, N; Aynedjian, H S; Factor, S M; Nagel, R L

    1992-01-01

    A line of transgenic mice with two cointegrated transgenes, the human beta S- and alpha 2-globin genes, linked to the beta-globin locus control region was produced and bred with mice carrying a deletion of the mouse beta major-globin gene. In transgenic mice homozygous for the beta major deletion (alpha H beta S[beta MDD]; where alpha H is human alpha-globin and MD is mouse deletion), 72.5 +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SD) of the beta-chains are beta S and the ratio of alpha H- to beta S-globin was 0.73. Introduction of a heterozygous mouse alpha-globin deletion into mice homozygous for the beta major deletion (alpha H beta S[alpha MD beta MDD]) resulted in 65.1 +/- 8.5% beta S and a human alpha/beta ratio of 0.89 +/- 0.2. Sickling occurs in 95% of erythrocytes from alpha H beta S[beta MDD] mice after slow deoxygenation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed polymer fiber formation but not fascicles of fiber. Increased organ weight was noted in lung, spleen, and kidney of transgenic mice vs. controls that may be due to hypertrophy or increased blood volume in the lungs and/or increased tissue water content. The hemoglobin content of lung, spleen, and kidney was also elevated in transgenic animals due to trapped hemoglobin and/or increased blood volume. When transgenic and control mice were examined by magnetic resonance imaging at 9.4 tesla, some transgenic animals had enlarged kidneys with prolonged relaxation time, consistent with increased organ weight and water content. The glomerular filtration rate was elevated in transgenic animals, which is characteristic of young sickle cell patients. Furthermore, exposure to hypoxia resulted in significantly decreased hematocrit, increased erythrocyte density, and induced a urine-concentrating defect. We conclude that the transgenic mouse line reported here has chronic organ damage and further hematological and organ dysfunction can be induced by hypoxia. Images PMID:1465455

  20. asahi.com>ENGLISH> Opinion,Editorial Fusion reactor bid

    E-print Network

    Experimental Reactor (ITER) project to build a facility for joint research in nuclear fusion, a field highly. Considering the hefty cost and weighty questions about the ultimate feasibility of nuclear fusion, we see to harness nuclear fusion-creating energy by causing a nuclear fusion reaction. It's a process that would