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Sample records for high-dose pelvic irradiation

  1. Factors for Predicting Rectal Dose of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy After Pelvic Irradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Study With Radiography-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Engyen; Wang Chongjong; Lan Jenhong; Chen Huichun; Fang Fumin; Hsu, H.-C.; Huang Yujie; Wang Changyu; Wang Yuming

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the predictive factors for rectal dose of the first fraction of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From March 1993 through February 2008, 946 patients undergoing pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT were analyzed. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) at the first implantation of the applicator was usually performed in the early period. Rectal point was determined radiographically according to the 38th Report of the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The ICRU rectal dose (PRD) as a percentage of point A dose was calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to predict PRD. Results: Factors influencing successful rectal dose calculation were EUA (p < 0.001) and absence of diabetes (p = 0.047). Age (p < 0.001), body weight (p = 0.002), diabetes (p = 0.020), and EUA (p < 0.001) were independent factors for the PRD. The predictive equation derived from the regression model was PRD (%) = 57.002 + 0.443 x age (years) - 0.257 x body weight (kg) + 6.028 x diabetes (no: 0; yes: 1) - 8.325 x EUA (no: 0; yes: 1) Conclusion: Rectal dose at the first fraction of HDR-ICBT is positively influenced by age and diabetes, and negatively correlated with EUA and body weight. A small fraction size at point A may be considered in patients with a potentially high rectal dose to reduce the biologically effective dose if the ICRU rectal dose has not been immediately obtained in the first fraction of HDR-ICBT.

  2. Iliac arterial-enteric fistulas occurring after pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vetto, J.T.; Culp, S.C.; Smythe, T.B.; Chang, A.E.; Sindelar, W.F.; Sugarbaker, P.H.; Heit, H.A.; Giordano, J.M.; Kozloff, L.

    1987-05-01

    Fistulas from the iliac artery to the bowel constitute a condition that is often lethal. Excluding fistulas related to vascular grafts, a review of previously reported cases shows that they are most often due to atherosclerotic iliac aneurysms. Three unusual cases of this condition that occurred after high-dose pelvic irradiation for treatment of cancer are presented; in no case was recurrent tumor evident. These cases suggest that high-dose pelvic irradiation can predispose to the formation of iliac arterial-enteric fistulas, particularly if sepsis or inflammation develops. The definitive surgical management of these fistulas entails bowel resection, arterial ligation, and extra-anatomic bypass.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Debats, Oscar A.; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kollenburg, Peter van; Leer, Jan Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineated on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.

  4. High dose rate intraluminal irradiation in recurrent endobronchial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Seagren, S.L.; Harrell, J.H.; Horn, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Palliative therapy for previously irradiated patients with symptomatic recurrent endobronchial malignancy is a difficult problem. We have had the opportunity to treat 20 such patients with high dose rate (50-100 rad/min) endobronchial brachytherapy. Eligible patients had received previous high dose thoracic irradiation (TDF greater than or equal to 90), a performance status of greater than or equal to 50, and symptoms caused by a bronchoscopically defined and implantable lesion. The radiation is produced by a small cobalt-60 source (0.7 Ci) remotely afterloaded by cable control. The source is fed into a 4 mm diameter catheter which is placed with bronchoscopic guidance; it may oscillate if necessary to cover the lesion. A dose of 1,000 rad at 1 cm from the source is delivered. We have performed 22 procedures in 20 patients, four following YAG laser debulking. Most had cough, some with hemoptysis. Eight had dyspnea secondary to obstruction and three had obstructive pneumonitis. In 12, symptoms recurred with a mean time to recurrence of 4.3 months (range 1-9 months). Eighteen patients were followed-up and reexamined via bronchoscope 1-2.5 months following the procedure; two were lost to follow-up. All had at least 50 percent clearance of tumor, and six had complete clearance; most regressions were documented on film or videotape. In six, the palliation was durable. The procedure has been well tolerated with no toxicity. We conclude that palliative endobronchial high dose rate brachytherapy is a useful palliative modality in patients with recurrent endobronchial symptomatic carcinoma.

  5. The Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in High-Dose Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Catherine; Tudor, Gregory; Tudor, Julie; Katz, Barry P; MacVittie, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The most detailed reports of the response of the gastrointestinal system to high dose acute radiation have focused mainly on understanding the histopathology. However, to enable medical countermeasure assessment under the animal rule criteria, it is necessary to have a robust model in which the relationship between radiation dose and intestinal radiation syndrome incidence, timing and severity are established and correlated with histopathology. Although many mortality studies have been published, they have used a variety of mouse strains, ages, radiation sources and husbandry conditions, all of which influence the dose response. Further, it is clear that the level of bone marrow irradiation and supportive care can influence endpoints. In order to create robust baseline data we have generated dose response data in adult male mice, maintained under identical conditions, and exposed to either total or partial-body irradiation. Partial-body irradiation includes both extensive (40%) and minimal (5%) bone marrow sparing models, the latter designed to correlate with an established primate model and allow assessment of effects of any medical countermeasure on all three major radiation syndromes (intestinal, bone marrow and lung) in the surviving mice. Lethal dose (LD30, LD50 and LD70) data are described in the various models, along with the impact of enteric flora and response to supportive care. Correlation with diarrhea severity and histopathology are also described. This data can be used to aid the design of good laboratory practice (GLP) compliant Animal Rule studies that are reflective of the conditions following accidental radiation exposure. PMID:23091876

  6. High-dose neutron irradiation performance of dielectric mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Nimishakavi Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO2/SiO2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al2O3/SiO2 mirrors reduced to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the Al2O3/SiO2 specimens showed SiO2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO2/SiO2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al2O3/SiO2 mirror, though less evident in HfO2/SiO2 system. Lastly, the ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.

  7. High-dose neutron irradiation performance of dielectric mirrors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nimishakavi Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO2/SiO2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al2O3/SiO2 mirrors reduced to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopymore » (TEM) observation of the Al2O3/SiO2 specimens showed SiO2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO2/SiO2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al2O3/SiO2 mirror, though less evident in HfO2/SiO2 system. Lastly, the ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.« less

  8. Split-Course, High-Dose Palliative Pelvic Radiotherapy for Locally Progressive Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Hickey, Brigid; Baumann, Kathryn; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Holt, Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Local progression, in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer, often causes significant morbidity. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) provides effective palliation in this setting, with most published studies supporting the use of high-dose regimens. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of split-course hypofractionated RT used at our institution in treating this group of patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 men with locoregionally progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer, treated with a split course of pelvic RT (45-60 Gy in 18-24 fractions) between 2000 and 2008 were analyzed. The primary endpoints were the response rate and actuarial locoregional progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included overall survival, compliance, and acute and late toxicity. Results: The median age was 71 years (range, 53-88). Treatment resulted in an overall initial response rate of 91%, a median locoregional progression-free survival of 43 months, and median overall survival of 28 months. Compliance was excellent and no significant late toxicity was reported. Conclusions: The split course pelvic RT described has an acceptable toxicity profile, is effective, and compares well with other high-dose palliative regimens that have been previously reported.

  9. Lack of benefit of pelvic radiation in prostate cancer patients with a high risk of positive pelvic lymph nodes treated with high-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos Enrique; Galalae, Razavan; Demanes, Jeffrey; Harsolia, Asif; Meldolesi, Elisa; Nuernberg, Nils; Schour, Lionel; Martinez, Alvaro . E-mail: amartinez@beaumont.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The use of pelvic radiation for patients with a high risk of lymph node (LN) metastasis (>15%) remains controversial. We reviewed the data at three institutions treating patients with a combination of external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy to address the prognostic implications of the use of the Roach formula and the benefit of pelvic treatment. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2003, 1,491 patients were treated with external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The Roach formula [2/3 prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score -6) x 10] could be calculated for 1,357 patients. Group I consisted of patients having a risk of positive LN {<=}15% (n = 761), Group II had a risk >15% and {<=}30% (n = 422), and Group III had a risk of LN disease >30% (n 174). A >15% risk of having positive LN was found in 596 patients and was used to determine the benefit of pelvic radiation. The pelvis was treated at two of the cancer centers (n = 312), whereas at the third center (n = 284) radiation therapy was delivered to the prostate and seminal vesicles alone. Average biologic effective dose was {>=}100 Gy ({alpha}{beta} = 1.2). Biochemical failure was as per the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition. Statistics included the log-rank test as well as Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: For all 596 patients with a positive LN risk >15%, median follow-up was 4.3 years, with a mean of 4.8 years. For all cases, median follow-up was 4 years and mean follow-up was 4.4 years. Five-year results for the three groups based on their risk of positive LN were significantly different in terms of biochemical failure (p < 0.001), clinical control (p < 0.001), disease-free survival excluding biochemical failure (p < 0.001), cause-specific survival (p < 0.001), and overall survival (p < 0.001). For all patients with a risk of positive LN >15% (n 596), Group II (>15-30% risk), or Group III (>30% risk

  10. Sputtering of HOPG under high-dose ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. M.; Mashkova, E. S.; Nemov, A. S.; Virgiliev, Yu. S.

    2007-03-01

    The dependences of sputtering yield Y of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite under high fluences (1018-1019 ion/cm2) 30 keV N2+ irradiation at ion incidence angles from θ = 0 (normal incidence) to θ = 80° at room temperature (RT) and T = 400 °C have been measured to trace the radiation damage influence on angular behavior of sputtering yield. A difference has been found between angular dependences of sputtering yields at RT, when the irradiation leads to a high degree of disorder, and at temperatures, larger than the temperature Ta responsible for annealing the radiation damage at continuous ion bombardment.

  11. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruyn, Ingrid Nine

    2000-03-01

    During the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive "dried cooked" taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis. The meats are cooked, chilled, portioned, vacuum packed and irradiated to the required minimum dose of 45 kGy at a temperature of between -20 and -40°C to ensure absolute sterility even under tropical conditions. The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa.

  12. Elastic stability of high dose neutron irradiated spinel

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Chan, S.K.; Garner, F.A.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this effort is to identify ceramic materials that are suitable for fusion reactor applications. Elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 44}) of spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) single crystals irradiated to very high neutron fluences have geen measured by an ultrasonic technique. Although results of a neutron diffraction study show that cation occupation sites are significantly changed in the irradiated samples, no measurable differences occurred in their elastic properties. In order to understand such behavior, the elastic properties of a variety of materials with either normal or inverse spinel structures were studied. The cation valence and cation distribution appear to have little influence on the elastic properties of spinel materials.

  13. Pathologic Malgaigne fracture following pelvic irradiation. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.R.; Lachiewicz, P.F.

    1987-08-01

    A 48-year-old woman developed symptomatic superior and inferior pubic rami fractures with a concomitant subluxation of the ipsilateral sacroiliac joint three years after pelvic irradiation for a gynecologic malignancy. Pathologic pelvic fractures (PPF) caused by irradiation may be difficult to distinguish from those caused by metastatic disease. PPF produce prolonged disability.

  14. Cation disorder in high-dose, neutron-irradiated spinel

    SciTech Connect

    Sickafus, K.E.; Larson, A.C.; Yu, N.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this effort is to determine whether MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is a suitable ceramic for fusion applications. The crystal structures of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel single crystals irradiated to high neutron fluences [>5{times}10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} (E{sub n}>0.1 MeV)] were examined by neutron diffraction. Crystal structure refinement of the highese dose sample indicated that the average scattering strength of the tetrahedral crystal sites decreased by {approx}20% while increasing by {approx}8% on octahedral sites.

  15. Prophylactic pelvic girdle irradiation in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, T.A.; Giri, S.

    1981-06-01

    This is a report of a pilot study of the effectiveness of irradiation therapy to the pelvic girdle in decreasing the incidence of bony metastases in patients with prostatic cancer. Thirty-two patients were entered in the study; none of them failed in the pelvic bones and four failed outside the pelvis. A total tumor dose of 6800 rad was delivered, the pelvic nodes received 5000 rad and the pelvic girdle 800 rad. The non-conventional fractionation scheme used in this study diminishes the incidence of osseous metastases but produces unacceptable bowel injury. Forty-three percent of patients had proctitis and 20% of the patients required colostomy.

  16. Assessment of simulated high-dose partial-body irradiation by PCC-R assay

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ivonne; García, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I.; Gregoire, Eric; González, Jorge E.; Morales, Wilfredo; Martin, Cécile; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Voisin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of the dose and the irradiated fraction of the body is important information in the primary medical response in case of a radiological accident. The PCC-R assay has been developed for high-dose estimations, but little attention has been given to its applicability for partial-body irradiations. In the present work we estimated the doses and the percentage of the irradiated fraction in simulated partial-body radiation exposures at high doses using the PCC-R assay. Peripheral whole blood of three healthy donors was exposed to doses from 0–20 Gy, with 60Co gamma radiation. To simulate partial body irradiations, irradiated and non-irradiated blood was mixed to obtain proportions of irradiated blood from 10–90%. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with Colcemid and Calyculin-A before harvest. Conventional and triage scores were performed for each dose, proportion of irradiated blood and donor. The Papworth's u test was used to evaluate the PCC-R distribution per cell. A dose-response relationship was fitted according to the maximum likelihood method using the frequencies of PCC-R obtained from 100% irradiated blood. The dose to the partially irradiated blood was estimated using the Contaminated Poisson method. A new D0 value of 10.9 Gy was calculated and used to estimate the initial fraction of irradiated cells. The results presented here indicate that by PCC-R it is possible to distinguish between simulated partial- and whole-body irradiations by the u-test, and to accurately estimate the dose from 10–20 Gy, and the initial fraction of irradiated cells in the interval from 10–90%. PMID:23596200

  17. Cation disorder determined by MAS {sup 27}Al NMR in high dose neutron irradiated spinel

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.A.; Sickafus, K.E.; Hughes, C.D.; Earl, W.L.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Garner, F.A.; Bradt, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) single crystals which had been neutron irradiated to high doses (53-250 dpa) were examined using {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The sensitivity of this procedure to a specific cation (Al) residing in different crystallographic environments allowed one to determine the distribution of the Al between the two cation sites in the spinel structure. The samples were irradiated at two different temperatures (400 and 750{degrees}C) and various doses. These results indicate that the Al was nearly fully disordered over the two lattice sites after irradiation.

  18. No Salvage Using High-Dose Chemotherapy Plus/Minus Reirradiation for Relapsing Previously Irradiated Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Massimino, Maura Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo; Biassoni, Veronica; Luksch, Roberto; Collini, Paola; Solero, Carlo N.; Simonetti, Fabio; Pignoli, Emanuele; Cefalo, Graziella; Poggi, Geraldina; Modena, Piergiorgio Ph.D.; Mariani, Luigi; Potepan, Paolo; Podda, Marta; Casanova, Michela; Pecori, Emilia; Acerno, Stefania; Ferrari, Andrea; Terenziani, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Myeloablative regimens were frequently used for medulloblastoma relapsing after craniospinal irradiation (CSI): in 1997-2002, we used repeated surgery, standard-dose and myeloablative chemotherapy, and reirradiation. Methods and Materials: In 10 patients, reinduction included sequential high-dose etoposide, high-dose cyclophosphamide/vincristine, and high-dose carboplatin/vincristine, then two myeloablative courses with high-dose thiotepa ({+-} carboplatin); 6 other patients received two of four courses of cisplatin/etoposide. Hematopoietic precursor mobilization followed high-dose etoposide or high-dose cyclophosphamide or cisplatin/etoposide therapy. After the overall chemotherapy program, reirradiation was prescribed when possible. Results: Seventeen patients were treated: previous treatment included CSI of 19.5-36 Gy with posterior fossa/tumor boost and chemotherapy in 16 patients. Fifteen patients were in their first and 2 in their second and third relapses, respectively. First progression-free survival had lasted a median of 26 months. Relapse sites included leptomeninges in 9 patients, spine in 4 patients, posterior fossa in 3 patients, and brain in 1 patient. Three patients underwent complete resection of recurrence, and 10 underwent reirradiation. Twelve of 14 patients with assessable tumor had an objective response after reinduction; 2 experienced progression and were not given the myeloablative courses. Remission lasted a median of 16 months. Additional relapses appeared in 13 patients continuing the treatment. Fifteen patients died of progression and 1 died of pneumonia 13 months after relapse. The only survivor at 93 months had a single spinal metastasis that was excised and irradiated. Survival for the series as a whole was 11-93 months, with a median of 41 months. Conclusions: Despite responses being obtained and ample use of surgery and reirradiation, second-line therapy with myeloablative schedules was not curative, barring a few

  19. Precipitate behavior in self-ion irradiated stainless steels at high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z.; Was, G. S.

    2014-06-01

    To study radiation-induced precipitation at high doses, solution annealed 304L SS and cold worked 316 SS were irradiated to 46 and 260 dpa at 380 °C using 5 MeV Fe++ and the radiation-induced precipitates were examined using atom probe tomography. Ni/Si-rich clusters were observed in all examined conditions. G-phase precipitates were observed in 316 SS at 46 dpa but only appeared in 304L SS at 260 dpa. Using the neutron irradiation to 46 dpa at 320 °C as a reference, the temperature shift for cold worked 316 SS appeared to be smaller than that of solution annealed 304L SS, probably due to the high density of dislocations, which served as defect sinks and mitigated the effect of high dose rate.

  20. Effect of high-dose irradiation on quality characteristics of ready-to-eat chicken breast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Haeng Lee, Kyung; Jung Lee, Hyun; Woon Lee, Ju; Uk Ahn, Dong; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    High-dose (higher than 30 kGy) irradiation has been used to sterilize specific-purposed foods for safe and long-term storage. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on the quality characteristics of ready-to-eat chicken breast in comparison with those of the low-dose irradiation. Ready-to-eat chicken breast was manufactured, vacuum-packaged, and irradiated at 0, 5, and 40 kGy. The populations of total aerobic bacteria were 4.75 and 2.26 Log CFU/g in the samples irradiated at 0 and 5 kGy, respectively. However, no viable cells were detected in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy. On day 10, bacteria were not detected in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy but the number of bacteria in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy was increased. The pH at day 0 was higher in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy than those at 0 and 5 kGy. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of the samples were not significantly different on day 0. However, on day 10, the TBARS value was significantly higher in the samples irradiated at 40 kGy than those at 0 and 5 kGy. There was no difference in the sensory scores of the samples, except for off-flavor, which was stronger in samples irradiated at 5 and 40 kGy than control. However, no difference in off-flavor between the irradiated ones was observed. After 10 days of storage, only the samples irradiated at 40 kGy showed higher off-flavor score. SPME-GC-MS analysis revealed that 5 kGy of irradiation produced 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, which were not present in the control, whereas 40 kGy of irradiation produced hexane, heptane, pentanal, dimethly disulfide, heptanal, and nonanal, which were not detected in the control or the samples irradiated at 5 kGy. However, the amount of compounds such as allyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide decreased significantly in the samples irradiated at 5 kGy and 40 kGy.

  1. Pregnancy hemoperitoneum and placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure

    SciTech Connect

    Pridjian, G.; Rich, N.E.; Montag, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Placenta percreta in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation has never been described. Reported is a case of placenta percreta with hemoperitoneum associated with a second-trimester incomplete abortion in a patient with previous pelvic irradiation and ovarian failure.

  2. Chromosomal Aberrations in Normal and AT Cells Exposed to High Dose of Low Dose Rate Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, T.; Shigematsu, N.; Kawaguchi, O.; Liu, C.; Furusawa, Y.; Hirayama, R.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a human autosomally recessive syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune dysfunction, and genomic instability, and high rate of cancer incidence. A-T cell lines are abnormally sensitive to agents that induce DNA double strand breaks, including ionizing radiation. The diverse clinical features in individuals affected by A-T and the complex cellular phenotypes are all linked to the functional inactivation of a single gene (AT mutated). It is well known that cells deficient in ATM show increased yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations after high-dose-rate irradiation, but, less is known on how cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation. It has been shown that AT cells contain a large number of unrejoined breaks after both low-dose-rate irradiation and high-dose-rate irradiation, however sensitivity for chromosomal aberrations at low-dose-rate are less often studied. To study how AT cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation, we exposed confluent normal and AT fibroblast cells to up to 3 Gy of gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/day and analyzed chromosomal aberrations in G0 using fusion PCC (Premature Chromosomal Condensation) technique. Giemsa staining showed that 1 Gy induces around 0.36 unrejoined fragments per cell in normal cells and around 1.35 fragments in AT cells, whereas 3Gy induces around 0.65 fragments in normal cells and around 3.3 fragments in AT cells. This result indicates that AT cells can rejoin breaks less effectively in G0 phase of the cell cycle? compared to normal cells. We also analyzed chromosomal exchanges in normal and AT cells after exposure to 3 Gy of low-dose-rate rays using a combination of G0 PCC and FISH techniques. Misrejoining was detected in the AT cells only? When cells irradiated with 3 Gy were subcultured and G2 chromosomal aberrations were analyzed using calyculin-A induced PCC technique, the yield of unrejoined breaks decreased in both normal and AT

  3. Application of a pelvic phantom in brachytherapy dosimetry for high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir source based on Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Woo Sang; Choi, Wonsik; Shin, Seong Soo; Jung, Jinhong

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluate how the radial dose function is influenced by the source position as well as the phantom size and shape. A pelvic water phantom similar to the pelvic shape of a human body was designed by averaging dimensions obtained from computed tomography (CT) images of patients treated with brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Furthermore, for the study of the effects of source position on the dose distribution, the position of the source in the water phantom was determined by using the center of mass of the gross target volume (GTV) in the CT images. To obtain the dosimetric parameter of a high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir source, we performed Monte Carlo simulations by using the Monte Carlo n-particle extended code (MCNPX). The radial dose functions obtained using the pelvic water phantom were compared with those of spherical phantom with different sizes, including the Monte Carlo (MC) results of Williamson and Li. Differences between the radial dose functions from this study and the data in the literature increased with the radial distances. The largest differences appeared for spherical phantom with the smallest size. In contrast to the published MC results, the radial dose function of the pelvic water phantom significantly decreased with radial distance in the vertical direction because full scattering was not possible. When the source was located in posterior position 2 cm from the center in the pelvic water phantom, the differences between the radial dose functions rapidly decreased with the radial distance in the lower vertical direction. If the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements bladder and rectum points are considered, doses to these reference points could be underestimated by up to 1%-2% at a distance of 3 to 6 cm. Our simulation results provide a valid clinical reference data and can used to improve the accuracy of the doses delivered during brachytherapy applied to patients with cervical cancer.

  4. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >109 Gy s-1may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. Methods The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. Results At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. Conclusions At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly. PMID:22008289

  5. Tensile stress corrosion cracking of type 304 stainless steel irradiated to very high dose

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. M.; Ruther, W. E.; Strain, R. V.; Shack, W. J.

    2001-09-01

    Certain safety-related core internal structural components of light water reactors, usually fabricated from Type 304 or 316 austenitic stainless steels (SSs), accumulate very high levels of irradiation damage (20--100 displacement per atom or dpa) by the end of life. The data bases and mechanistic understanding of, the degradation of such highly irradiated components, however, are not well established. A key question is the nature of irradiation-assisted intergranular cracking at very high dose, i.e., is it purely mechanical failure or is it stress-commotion cracking? In this work, hot-cell tests and microstructural characterization were performed on Type 304 SS from the hexagonal fuel can of the decommissioned EBR-11 reactor after irradiation to {approximately}50 dpa at {approximately}370 C. Slow-strain-rate tensile tests were conducted at 289 C in air and in water at several levels of electrochemical potential (ECP), and microstructural characteristics were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microcopies. The material deformed significantly by twinning and exhibited surprisingly high ductility in air, but was susceptible to severe intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) at high ECP. Low levels of dissolved O and ECP were effective in suppressing the susceptibility of the heavily irradiated material to IGSCC, indicating that the stress corrosion process associated with irradiation-induced grain-boundary Cr depletion, rather than purely mechanical separation of grain boundaries, plays the dominant role. However, although IGSCC was suppressed, the material was susceptible to dislocation channeling at low ECP, and this susceptibility led to poor work-hardening capability and low ductility.

  6. Radiation tolerant nanocrystalline ZrN films under high dose heavy-ion irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, L.; Wang, H.; Yu, K. Y.; Chen, D.; Jacob, C.; Shao, L.; Zhang, X.

    2015-04-14

    ZrN, a refractory ceramic material, finds many potential applications in advanced nuclear reactors. However, the grain size dependent radiation response in nanocrystalline (nc) ZrN under high dose heavy ion irradiation has not yet been studied to date. Here, we compare the radiation response of nc-ZrN films (with a respective average grain size of ∼9 and 31 nm) to Fe{sup 2+} ion irradiations up to a damage level of 10 displacements-per-atom (dpa). The ZrN film with the average grain size of 9 nm shows prominently enhanced radiation tolerance as evidenced by suppressed grain growth, alleviated radiation softening, as well as reduced variation in electrical resistivity. In contrast, ZrN with the larger average grain size of 31 nm shows prominent radiation softening and resistivity increase, attributed to the high density of defect cluster formed inside the grains. The influence of grain boundaries on enhanced irradiation tolerance in nc-ZrN is discussed.

  7. High-dose irradiation induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hee Jin; Lee, Eun-Mi; Nguyen, Long Duy; Shim, Jaekyung; Song, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) treatment induces a DNA damage response, including cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, and apoptosis in metazoan somatic cells. Because little has been reported in germline cells, we performed a temporal analysis of the DNA damage response utilizing Drosophila oogenesis as a model system. Oogenesis in the adult Drosophila female begins with the generation of 16-cell cyst by four mitotic divisions of a cystoblast derived from the germline stem cells. We found that high-dose irradiation induced S and G2 arrests in these mitotically dividing germline cells in a grp/Chk1- and mnk/Chk2-dependent manner. However, the upstream kinase mei-41, Drosophila ATR ortholog, was required for the S-phase checkpoint but not for the G2 arrest. As in somatic cells, mnk/Chk2 and dp53 were required for the major cell death observed in early oogenesis when oocyte selection and meiotic recombination occurs. Similar to the unscheduled DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated from defective repair during meiotic recombination, IR-induced DSBs produced developmental defects affecting the spherical morphology of meiotic chromosomes and dorsal-ventral patterning. Moreover, various morphological abnormalities in the ovary were detected after irradiation. Most of the IR-induced defects observed in oogenesis were reversible and were restored between 24 and 96 h after irradiation. These defects in oogenesis severely reduced daily egg production and the hatch rate of the embryos of irradiated female. In summary, irradiated germline cells induced DSBs, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and developmental defects resulting in reduction of egg production and defective embryogenesis. PMID:24551207

  8. High-dose Extended-Field Irradiation and High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Cervical Cancer With Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of extended-field radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic nodes. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results for 33 women with Stage IB-IVB cervical cancer. Each patient had received 59.4 Gy, including a three-dimensional conformal boost to the para-aortic lymph nodes and 41.4-50.4 Gy of external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis. Each patient also underwent six or seven applications of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (median, 5 Gy to point A at each session). Results: The median follow-up period of surviving patients was 39 months. The most common acute toxicity was hematologic, observed in 23 women. Severe acute and late gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 3 and 4 patients, respectively. More than three-quarters of patients showed a complete response, encompassing the primary mass, metastatic pelvic, and para-aortic lymph nodes. Of the 33 women, 15 had no evidence of disease, 6 had persistent disease, 4 developed in-field failures, and 6 developed distant failures. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 47% and 42%, respectively. Conclusion: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with extended-field radiotherapy is feasible in women with uterine cervical carcinoma and positive para-aortic lymph nodes, with acceptable late morbidity and a high survival rate, although it was accompanied by substantial acute toxicity.

  9. Thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in HT9 steel after irradiation to high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Anderoglu, Osman; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2014-06-01

    The HT9 ferritic/martensitic steel with a nominal chemistry of Fe(bal.)12%Cr1%MoVW has been used as a primary core material for fast fission reactors such as FFTF because of its high resistance to radiation-induced swelling and embrittlement. Both static and dynamic fracture test results have shown that the HT9 steel can become brittle when it is exposed to high dose irradiation at a relatively low temperature (<430 °C). This article aims at a comprehensive discussion on the thermal annealing recovery of fracture toughness in the HT9 steel after irradiation up to 3148 dpa at 378504 °C. A specimen reuse technique has been established and applied to this study: the fracture specimens were tested Charpy specimens or broken halves of Charpy bars (13 × 3 × 4 mm). The post-anneal fracture test results indicated that much of the radiation-induced damage can be recovered by a simple thermal annealing schedule: the fracture toughness was incompletely recovered by 550 °C annealing, while nearly complete or complete recovery occurred after 650 °C annealing. This indicates that thermal annealing is a feasible damage mitigation technique for the reactor components made of HT9 steel. The partial recovery is probably due to the non-removable microstructural damages such as void or gas bubble formation, elemental segregation and precipitation.

  10. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given eigher as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to 4 x 10(8) cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis. In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after i vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  11. Engraftment of DLA-nonidentical unrelated canine marrow after high-dose fractionated total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Shulman, H.M.; Weiden, P.L.; Graham, T.C.; Thomas, E.D.

    1982-04-01

    Marrow transplants were carried out between unrelated DLA-nonidentical dogs. Recipients were conditioned for transplantation by total body irradiation (TBI) given either as a single dose of 9 Gy (900 rad) or fractionated in three increments of 6 Gy (600 rad) each at intervals of 48 hr. All recipients received marrow, less than or equal to to 4 X 10/sup 8/ cells/kg, and no buffy coat cells. No immunosuppression was given after grafting. All 10 dogs given single-dose total body irradiation failed to show engraftment and died with marrow aplasia and infectious complications (median survival 12 days). In contrast, all 10 dogs given fractionated TBI had sustained engraftment and died with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infectious complications (median survival 12.5 days). None of the dogs died from radiation-induced gastroenteritis.In conclusion, resistance to DLA-nonidentical unrelated marrow grafts can be abrogated by high-dose TBI. This technique may allow hemopoietic engraftment even after in vitro manipulation of the marrow such as lymphocyte depletion by cell separation or treatment with anti-T cell antisera.

  12. Tumorigenesis in high-dose total body irradiated rhesus monkeys--a life span study.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Carel F; Zurcher, Chris; Broerse, Johan J

    2003-01-01

    In the early sixties, studies have been performed at the TNO-Institutes for Health Research on acute effects of high dose total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays and fission neutrons in Rhesus monkeys and the protective effect of autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The surviving animals of this study were kept to investigate late radiation effects, ie, tumorigenesis. TBI in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with BMT is increasingly used for the treatment of hematological malignancies and refractory autoimmune disease. The risk of radiation carcinogenesis after this treatment is of growing concern in man. Studies on tumor induction in nonhuman primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. The group of long-term surviving monkeys comprised nine neutron irradiated animals (average total body dose 3A Gy, range 2.3-4.4 Gy) and 20 X-irradiated monkeys (average total body dose 7.1 Gy, range 2.8-8.6 Gy). A number of 21 age-matched nonirradiated Rhesus monkeys served as a control-group. All animals wereregularly screened for the occurrence of tumors. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At postirradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of malignant tumors was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with 1 or more malignant tumors. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumors in the control group, in seven out of 21 animals, appeared at much older age compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the malignant tumors was diverse, as was the case for benign tumors. The observed shortening of latency periods and life span, as well as, the increase of mean number of tumors per tumor bearing animal for benign neoplasms parallels the trend observed for malignant tumors. The results of this study were compared to other radiation late effects after

  13. Recovery of spermatogenesis following pelvic irradiation for Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Pedrick, T J; Hoppe, R T

    1986-01-01

    Spermatogenesis of 18 male patients who underwent pelvic irradiation for Hodgkin's disease was assessed. All patients had supplemental testicular shielding to limit the testicular dose. The total calculated gonadal dose ranged from 28 to 135 rad, delivered in 22 to 29 fractions, whereas the adjacent lymph nodes were treated to 3750-4500 rad. Sperm concentration of 20 million per ml or greater was considered fertile. Oligospermic and azoospermic determinations were considered subfertile. Whereas only one of six patients (17%) was fertile when tested less than 18 months following pelvic radiotherapy, four of six (66%) were fertile when tested between 18 and 26 months following therapy. Seven of eight patients (88%) were fertile when tested more than 26 mo following completion of treatment. The results are compared to other reports in the literature. Our data support the concept of a time-dependent recovery of spermatogenesis following irradiation. The observed relatively short duration of temporary sterilization should encourage the use of meticulous pelvic shielding, including supplemental testicular shielding to minimize the absorbed gonadal dose. PMID:3943983

  14. Kr and Xe irradiations in lanthanum (La) doped ceria: Study at the high dose regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Di; Oaks, Aaron J.; Chen, Wei-ying; Kirk, Marquis A.; Rest, Jeffrey; Insopov, Zinetula Z.; Yacout, Abdellatif M.; Stubbins, James F.

    2011-11-01

    In order to understand cavity and bubble formation and growth in oxide nuclear fuel materials, ion beam irradiation experiments were conducted with two common fission gas species: Kr and Xe. Ceria (CeO 2) was selected as a surrogate material for uranium dioxide (UO 2) due to its many similar properties to UO 2. Ion beam energies were chosen such that both cavities and gas bubbles structures were induced by ion irradiations. The ion irradiation experiments were carried out at 600 °C, at which temperature, cavity/gas bubble structures are believed to be immobile in this material. Lanthanum (La) was chosen as a dopant in CeO 2 to investigate the effect of impurities. The presence of La in the CeO 2 lattice also introduces a predictable initial concentration of oxygen vacancies, similar to the introduction of oxygen vacancies by the existence of Pu 3+ in MOX fuel [1]. The influence of two La concentrations, 5% and 25%, were examined. The study focused on the high dose regime where cavity/gas bubble structures were clearly identifiable with their sizes and number densities readily measurable. Cavity/gas bubble coarsening by coalescence was identified with TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) characterizations of as-irradiated La doped CeO 2 specimens. The results revealed that lanthanum trapping has significant influence on the cavity/bubble growth in the material lattice by comparing the cavity/gas bubble size distributions between 5% La doped ceria and 25% La doped ceria. Lattice and kinetic Monte Carlo calculations described in a previous work have provided insights to the interpretations of the experimental results [2]. Solid state Xe precipitates were observed in low energy Xe implantation in 5% La doped ceria to a very high fluence of 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at 600 °C. The solid state Xe precipitate structures are represented by faceted morphology. Very similar observations of solid state/near solid state Xe bubbles were made by Nogita et al. in the outer region

  15. Postoperative vaginal irradiation with high dose rate afterloading technique in endometrial carcinoma stage I

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbe, B.G.; Smeds, A.C. )

    1990-02-01

    A high dose rate ({sup 60}Co) afterloading technique was used for postoperative prophylactic vaginal irradiation in a series of 404 women with endometrial carcinoma Stage I. The total recurrence rate was 3.7% with 0.7% vaginal deposits. The crude 5-year survival rate for the complete series was 91.8% compared to 13.3% for those with recurrences. Depth of myometrial infiltration (greater than 1/3 of the uterine wall) and nuclear grade were the most important prognostic factors. Clinically significant late radiation reactions (bladder and/or rectum) were recorded in 6.9%. Dose per fraction and the size of the target volume were highly significantly related to the occurrence of both early and late radiation reactions. Vaginal shortening is closely related to the dose per fraction, length of the reference isodose, and the applicator diameter. The shape of the vaginal applicator versus the isodoses and the importance of the source train geometry and relative activity for dose gradient inhomogeneities within the target volume are discussed. Cumulative radiation effect (CRE) and linear-quadratic (LQ) calculations have been performed and related to tissue reactions within the target volume and in the risk organs. An alpha-beta quotient of 8.8 for vaginal shrinkage effect and 2.0 for late rectal complications are suggested on the basis of calculations using a maximum likelihood method for quantal radiation data.

  16. Treatment of Irradiated Mice with High-Dose Ascorbic Acid Reduced Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure. PMID:25651298

  17. Effects of topical pimecrolimus 1% on high-dose ultraviolet B-irradiated epidermal Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, ZhiQiang; Xu, JiaLi; Zhang, ZhiHong; Luo, Dan

    2012-12-01

    Some studies reported no changes in the number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) that were observed in mice treated with pimecrolimus, and low-dose stimulated solar radiation (once)-induced changers in LC are minimally affected by pimecrolimus. This study is to investigate the effects of topical pimecrolimus 1% on high-dose ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated epidermal LC. Forty human foreskin tissues were randomly divided into 4 groups of 10 tissues each: Group A, control; Group B, pimecrolimus 1% (once)-only; Group C, 180 mJ/cm(2) UVB (once)-only; Group D, UVB+pimecrolimus. Each tissue was cut into 4 pieces corresponding to 4 time points. All the tissues were cultured at 37 °C. After being treated, the tissues were collected respectively and processed for immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence staining. For UVB-only group, epidermal CD1a(+) LC number at 18h decreased from 39.6 ± 8.30 to 22.3 ± 2.26/5 high magnification, compared to CD1a(+) LC number at 0 h (P<0.01). The CD1a(+) LC number of UVB-only group was significantly less than other groups at 18 h, 24h and 48 h (P<0.05, respectively). Similar results were obtained with immunofluorescence staining for CD 1a and immunohistochemical staining for Langerin. The numbers of epidermal HLA-DR(+) LC had no significant differences among all groups at different time points. Our study found a single 180 mJ/cm(2) UVB irradiation significantly reduced epidermal LC numbers at 18 h, 24h and 48 h, however, topical pimecrolimus could reverse these changes. UVB plus pimecrolimus treatment did not affect human LC maturation. PMID:23079131

  18. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Yoo, Hyun; Kwak, Woori; Choi, Won Hoon; Cho, Seoae; Choi, Yu Jeong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Cho, Jaeho

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm(2) fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C-C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. PMID:26047701

  19. Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33 secreted from impaired vessels in the skin compared to fractionated irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Jun Won; Yoo, Hyun; Kwak, Woori; Choi, Won Hoon; Cho, Seoae; Choi, Yu Jeong; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Cho, Jaeho

    2015-08-14

    We have revealed in a porcine skin injury model that eosinophil recruitment was dose-dependently enhanced by a single high-dose irradiation. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of eosinophil-associated skin fibrosis and the effect of high-dose-per-fraction radiation. The dorsal skin of a mini-pig was divided into two sections containing 4-cm{sup 2} fields that were irradiated with 30 Gy in a single fraction or 5 fractions and biopsied regularly over 14 weeks. Eosinophil-related Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and C–C motif chemokine-11 (CCL11/eotaxin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. RNA-sequencing using 30 Gy-irradiated mouse skin and functional assays in a co-culture system of THP-1 and irradiated-human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed to investigate the mechanism of eosinophil-mediated radiation fibrosis. Single high-dose-per-fraction irradiation caused pronounced eosinophil accumulation, increased profibrotic factors collagen and transforming growth factor-β, enhanced production of eosinophil-related cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, CCL11, IL-13, and IL-33, and reduced vessels compared with 5-fraction irradiation. IL-33 notably increased in pig and mouse skin vessels after single high-dose irradiation of 30 Gy, as well as in irradiated HUVECs following 12 Gy. Blocking IL-33 suppressed the migration ability of THP-1 cells and cytokine secretion in a co-culture system of THP-1 cells and irradiated HUVECs. Hence, high-dose-per-fraction irradiation appears to enhance eosinophil-mediated fibrotic responses, and IL-33 may be a key molecule operating in eosinophil-mediated fibrosis in high-dose-per fraction irradiated skin. - Highlights: • Single high-dose irradiation aggravates eosinophil-mediated fibrosis through IL-33. • Vascular endothelial cells damaged by high-dose radiation secrete IL-33. • Blocking IL-33 suppressed migration of inflammatory cells and cytokine secretion. • IL

  20. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, M; Maloy, S

    2013-01-01

    Static fracture toughness tests have been performed for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens to expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were from the ACO-3 duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3 148 dpa at 378 504oC. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa m occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed in all tests at higher irradiation temperatures. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa m was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the dose range 3 148 dpa. A post upper-shelf behavior was observed for the non-irradiated and high temperature (>430 C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  1. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-14

    To expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials, fracture toughness has been evaluated for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were machined from the ACO-3 fuel duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3–148 dpa at 378–504 C. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa pm occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed when irradiation temperature was higher. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa pm was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the wide dose range 3–148 dpa. A slow decrease of fracture toughness with test temperature above room temperature was observed for the nonirradiated and high temperature (>430 *C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile–brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  2. High-dose neutron irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites. Part 2: Mechanical and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao; Ozawa, Kazumi; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Porter, Wally; Snead, Lance L.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear-grade silicon carbide (SiC) composite material was examined for mechanical and thermophysical properties following high-dose neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at a temperature range of 573-1073 K. The material was chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC-matrix composite with a two-dimensional satin weave Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC fiber reinforcement and a multilayered pyrocarbon/SiC interphase. Moderate (1073 K) to very severe (573 K) degradation in mechanical properties was found after irradiation to >70 dpa, whereas no evidence was found for progressive evolution in swelling and thermal conductivity. The swelling was found to recover upon annealing beyond the irradiation temperature, indicating the irradiation temperature, but only to a limited extent. The observed strength degradation is attributed primarily to fiber damage for all irradiation temperatures, particularly a combination of severe fiber degradation and likely interphase damage at relatively low irradiation temperatures.

  3. High Dose Neutron Irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S Silicon Carbide Composites, Part 2. Mechanical and Physical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Ozawa, Kazumi; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Porter, Wallace D; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-07

    Nuclear-grade silicon carbide (SiC) composite material was examined for mechanical and thermophysical properties following high-dose neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at a temperature range of 573–1073 K. Likewise, the material was chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC-matrix composite with a two-dimensional satin weave Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC fiber reinforcement and a multilayered pyrocarbon/SiC interphase. Moderate (1073 K) to very severe (573 K) degradation in mechanical properties was found after irradiation to >70 dpa, whereas no evidence was found for progressive evolution in swelling and thermal conductivity. The swelling was found to recover upon annealing beyond the irradiation temperature, indicating the irradiation temperature, but only to a limited extent. Moreover, the observed strength degradation is attributed primarily to fiber damage for all irradiation temperatures, particularly a combination of severe fiber degradation and likely interphase damage at relatively low irradiation temperatures.

  4. The effect of heating rate on thermoluminescence of anion-defective alumina after high-dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, S. V.; Kortov, V. S.; Makkambaev, B. A.; Aminov, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    The dependences of the light sum of peaks of thermoluminescence (TL) at 180 and 300°C on the rate of heating of single crystals of anion-defective alumina after high-dose irradiation are investigated. It is found that these dependences for the peak at 180°C are the same for all studied samples and match the known dependence measured after low-dose irradiation. The curves for the TL peak at 300°C vary significantly from one sample to another. The parameters of thermal TL quenching are calculated for both peaks using the Monte Carlo method. Practical suggestions regarding the use of the obtained results in high-dose dosimetry are provided.

  5. Reconstructive surgery for the complications of pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bricker, E.M.; Johnston, W.D.; Kraybill, W.G.; Lopez, M.J.

    1984-02-01

    Severe damage to the pelvic viscera is a complication of irradiation therapy that, unfortunately, cannot always be avoided. Resulting rectal and rectocolonic strictures, rectovaginal fistulas, and shortening and stenosis of the vagina present very difficult problems that frequently require a colostomy for relief and may permanently impair sexual function. The authors present a new approach to correction of these unfortunate lesions based on the use of proximal nonirradiated colon which serves as a vascular pedicle graft to correct the defect without a complicated and massive resection. Twenty-two such operations have been done with 19 satisfactory to excellent results and two total failures (one death from small bowel complications). All patterns and combinations of irradiation injury have been found amenable to this technique of repair. These have included both web and linear strictures with and without fistulas. In half of the patients, it was possible to make use of normal colon bypassed by a prior colostomy. Normal nonirradiated colon with good blood supply will heal satisfactorily to irradiated colon or rectum, thus making excision of all the irradiated tissue unnecessary. The results of this surgical approach have thus far been gratifying and warrant further trials for these distressing injuries.

  6. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung-Do; Lee, Kang-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. Materials and Methods The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. Results The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. Conclusion These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow. PMID:24701458

  7. Pregnancies following high-dose cyclophosphamide with or without high-dose busulfan or total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J E; Hawley, J; Levy, W; Gooley, T; Buckner, C D; Deeg, H J; Doney, K; Storb, R; Sullivan, K; Witherspoon, R; Appelbaum, F R

    1996-04-01

    Patients successfully treated with a marrow transplant often have concerns about fertility and pregnancy. This study was performed to determine pregnancy outcome among patients who had received high-dose chemotherapy alone or with total-body irradiation (TBI) and marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia or hematologic malignancy. Records of 1,326 postpubertal and 196 prepubertal patients currently more than 12 years of age after marrow transplant in Seattle from August 1971 to January 1992 were reviewed to determine the patients with normal gonadal function and pregnancies. Among 708 postpubertal women, 110 recovered normal ovarian function and 32 became pregnant. In addition, nine formerly prepubertal girls with normal gonadal function became pregnant. Among 618 postpubertal men, 157 recovered testicular function and partners of 33 became pregnant. An additional two formerly prepubertal men had partners who became pregnant. Forty-one female patients and partners of 35 male patients had 146 pregnancies after transplant. All 76 patients responded to a questionnaire requesting pregnancy history, outcome, infant birth weight, and congenital anomalies information for all clinically recognized pregnancies. There were 115 live births among 146 (79%) pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion terminated four of 56 (7%) pregnancies for 28 female cyclophosphamide (CY) recipients and six of 16 (37%) pregnancies for 13 TBI recipients (P = .02). Partners of 28 male CY recipients had four of 62 (6.4%) pregnancies terminate with spontaneous abortion, but there were no spontaneous abortions among eight pregnancies of five TBI recipients' partners. Preterm delivery occurred for eight of 44 (18%) and five of eight (63%) live births for 24 CY and eight TBI female recipients (P = .01). This 25% incidence among all female patient pregnancies is higher than the expected incidence of 8% to 10% (P = .0001). The 13 preterm deliveries resulted in 10 low birth weight ([LBW] 1.8 to 2.24 kg) and

  8. Effect of high-dose irradiation on the optically stimulated luminescence of Al2O3:C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yukihara, E. G.; Whitley, V. H.; McKeever, S. W. S.; Akselrod, A. E.; Akselrod, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of high-dose irradiation on the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of Al2O3:C, principally on the shape of the OSL decay curve and on the OSL sensitivity. The effect of the degree of deep trap filling on the OSL was also studied by monitoring the sensitivity changes after doses of beta irradiation and after step-annealing of samples previously irradiated with high doses. The OSL response to dose shows a linear-supralinear-saturation behavior, with a decrease in the response for doses higher than those required for saturation. This behavior correlates with the sensitivity changes observed in the samples annealed only to 773 K, which show sensitization for doses up to 20-50 Gy and desensitization for higher doses. Data from the step-annealing study leads to the suggestion that the sensitization is caused by the filling of deep electron traps, which become thermally unstable at 1100-1200 K, whereas the desensitization is caused by the filling of deep hole traps, which become thermally unstable at 800-875 K, along with a concomitant decrease in the concentration of recombination centers (F+ -centers). Changes in the shape of the OSL decay curves are also observed at high doses, the decay becoming faster as the dose increases. These changes in the OSL decay curves are discussed in terms of multiple overlapping components, each characterized by different photoionization cross-sections. However, using numerical solutions of the rate equations for a simple model consisting of a main trap and a recombination center, it is shown that the kinetics of OSL process may also be partially responsible for the changes in the OSL curves at high doses in Al2O3:C. Finally, the implication of these results for the dosimetry of heavy charged particles is discussed. c2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Full-term newborn after repeated ovarian tissue transplants in a patient treated for Ewing sarcoma by sterilizing pelvic irradiation and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Karlström, Per-Olof; Rezapour, Masoumeh; Castellanos, Enrique; Hreinsson, Julius; Rasmussen, Carsten; Sheikhi, Mona; Ouvrier, Bettina; Bozóky, Béla; Olofsson, Jan I; Lundqvist, Monalill; Hovatta, Outi

    2015-03-01

    We report the first successful transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian cortical tissue into heavily irradiated tissues in a patient who had received sterilizing pelvic radiotherapy (54 Gy) and 40 weeks of intensive high-dose chemotherapy for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma 14 years earlier. Repeated transplantation procedures were required to obtain fully functional follicular development. Enlargement of the transplants over time and increase of the size of the uterus were demonstrated on sequential ultrasonographic examinations. Eggs of good quality that could be fertilized in vitro were obtained only after a substantial incremental increase of the amount of ovarian tissue transplanted. Single embryo replacement resulted in a normal pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child by cesarean section at full-term. No neonatal or maternal postoperative complications occurred. Women facing high-dose pelvic radiotherapy should not be systematically excluded from fertility preservation options, as is currently the trend. PMID:25545009

  10. Irradiation dose and temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high dose HT9 steel from the fuel duct of FFTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    To expand the knowledge base for fast reactor core materials, fracture toughness has been evaluated for high dose HT9 steel using miniature disk compact tension (DCT) specimens. The HT9 steel DCT specimens were machined from the ACO-3 fuel duct of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), which achieved high doses in the range of 3-148 dpa at 378-504 °C. The static fracture resistance (J-R) tests have been performed in a servohydraulic testing machine in vacuum at selected temperatures including room temperature, 200 °C, and each irradiation temperature. Brittle fracture with a low toughness less than 50 MPa √m occurred in room temperature tests when irradiation temperature was below 400 °C, while ductile fracture with stable crack growth was observed when irradiation temperature was higher. No fracture toughness less than 100 MPa √m was measured when the irradiation temperature was above 430 °C. It was shown that the influence of irradiation temperature was dominant in fracture toughness while the irradiation dose has only limited influence over the wide dose range 3-148 dpa. A slow decrease of fracture toughness with test temperature above room temperature was observed for the nonirradiated and high temperature (>430 °C) irradiation cases, which indicates that the ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) in those conditions are lower than room temperature. A comparison with the collection of existing data confirmed the dominance of irradiation temperature in the fracture toughness of HT9 steels.

  11. In Vivo Dosimetry of High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in the Pelvic Region: Use of a Radiophotoluminescence Glass Dosimeter for Measurement of 1004 Points in 66 Patients With Pelvic Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Nose, Takayuki Koizumi, Masahiko; Yoshida, Ken; Nishiyama, Kinji; Sasaki, Junichi; Ohnishi, Takeshi; Kozuka, Takuyo; Gomi, Kotaro; Oguchi, Masahiko; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Yamashita, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To perform the largest in vivo dosimetry study for interstitial brachytherapy yet to be undertaken using a new radiophotoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLGD) in patients with pelvic malignancy and to study the limits of contemporary planning software based on the results. Patients and Methods: Sixty-six patients with pelvic malignancy were treated with high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy, including prostate (n = 26), gynecological (n = 35), and miscellaneous (n = 5). Doses for a total of 1004 points were measured by RPLGDs and calculated with planning software in the following locations: rectum (n = 549), urethra (n = 415), vagina (n = 25), and perineum (n = 15). Compatibility (measured dose/calculated dose) was analyzed according to dosimeter location. Results: The compatibility for all dosimeters was 0.98 {+-} 0.23, stratified by location: rectum, 0.99 {+-} 0.20; urethra, 0.96 {+-} 0.26; vagina, 0.91 {+-} 0.08; and perineum, 1.25 {+-} 0.32. Conclusions: Deviations between measured and calculated doses for the rectum and urethra were greater than 20%, which is attributable to the independent movements of these organs and the applicators. Missing corrections for inhomogeneity are responsible for the 9% negative shift near the vaginal cylinder (specific gravity = 1.24), whereas neglect of transit dose contributes to the 25% positive shift in the perineal dose. Dose deviation of >20% for nontarget organs should be taken into account in the planning process. Further development of planning software and a real-time dosimetry system are necessary to use the current findings and to achieve adaptive dose delivery.

  12. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Speiser, B.L. ); Spratling, L.

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% for the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Available evidence on re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy following high-dose previous thoracic radiotherapy for lung malignancies.

    PubMed

    De Bari, Berardino; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Mazzola, Rosario; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Trovò, Marco; Livi, Lorenzo; Alongi, Filippo

    2015-06-01

    Patients affected with intra-thoracic recurrences of primary or secondary lung malignancies after a first course of definitive radiotherapy have limited therapeutic options, and they are often treated with a palliative intent. Re-irradiation with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) represents an appealing approach, due to the optimized dose distribution that allows for high-dose delivery with better sparing of organs at risk. This strategy has the goal of long-term control and even cure. Aim of this review is to report and discuss published data on re-irradiation with SABR in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Results indicate that thoracic re-irradiation may offer satisfactory disease control, however the data on outcome and toxicity are derived from low quality retrospective studies, and results should be cautiously interpreted. As SABR may be associated with serious toxicity, attention should be paid for an accurate patients' selection. PMID:25913714

  14. Extrapolation of the dna fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation to predict effects at low doses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Sachs, R. K.; Brenner, D. J.; Peterson, L. E.

    2001-01-01

    The patterns of DSBs induced in the genome are different for sparsely and densely ionizing radiations: In the former case, the patterns are well described by a random-breakage model; in the latter, a more sophisticated tool is needed. We used a Monte Carlo algorithm with a random-walk geometry of chromatin, and a track structure defined by the radial distribution of energy deposition from an incident ion, to fit the PFGE data for fragment-size distribution after high-dose irradiation. These fits determined the unknown parameters of the model, enabling the extrapolation of data for high-dose irradiation to the low doses that are relevant for NASA space radiation research. The randomly-located-clusters formalism was used to speed the simulations. It was shown that only one adjustable parameter, Q, the track efficiency parameter, was necessary to predict DNA fragment sizes for wide ranges of doses. This parameter was determined for a variety of radiations and LETs and was used to predict the DSB patterns at the HPRT locus of the human X chromosome after low-dose irradiation. It was found that high-LET radiation would be more likely than low-LET radiation to induce additional DSBs within the HPRT gene if this gene already contained one DSB.

  15. Impact of high dose krypton ion irradiation on corrosion behavior of laser beam welded zircaloy-4

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Qian . E-mail: wanqian99@tsinghua.org.cn; Bai Xinde; Zhang Xiangyu

    2006-02-02

    In order to study the effect of krypton ion irradiation on the aqueous corrosion behavior of laser beam welded zircaloy-4 (LBWZr4), the butt weld joint of zircaloy-4 was made by means of a carbon dioxide laser, subsequently the LBWZr4 samples were irradiated with Kr ions using an accelerator at an energy of 300 keV, with a dose range from 1 x 10{sup 15} to 3 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} at about 150 deg. C. Three-sweep potentiodynamic polarization measurement was employed to evaluate the aqueous corrosion behavior of Kr-irradiated LBWZr4 in a 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface topography of the Kr-irradiated LBWZr4 after the potentiodynamic polarization measurement. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to examine the change of microstructures in the irradiated surface. The polarization tests showed that compared with the passive current density of the as-received LBWZr4, the Kr-irradiated LBWZr4 is much lower; however, with the irradiation dose increasing from 1 x 10{sup 15} to 3 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, the passive current density, closely related to the surface corrosion resistance, increased remarkably. The mechanism of the corrosion behavior transformation was due to the recrystallization of the amorphous phase induced by the lower ion irradiation.

  16. Response of nanostructured ferritic alloys to high-dose heavy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Chad M.; White, Ryan M.; LeBeau, James M.; Miller, Michael K.

    2014-02-01

    A latest-generation aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscope (STEM) is used to study heavy-ion-irradiated nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Results are presented for STEM X-ray mapping of NFA 14YWT irradiated with 10 MeV Pt to 16 or 160 dpa at -100°C and 750°C, as well as pre-irradiation reference material. Irradiation at -100°C results in ballistic destruction of the beneficial microstructural features present in the pre-irradiated reference material, such as Ti-Y-O nanoclusters (NCs) and grain boundary (GB) segregation. Irradiation at 750°C retains these beneficial features, but indicates some coarsening of the NCs, diffusion of Al to the NCs, and a reduction of the Cr-W GB segregation (or solute excess) content. Ion irradiation combined with the latest-generation STEM hardware allows for rapid screening of fusion candidate materials and improved understanding of irradiation-induced microstructural changes in NFAs.

  17. Structural, optical and compositional stability of MoS2 multi-layer flakes under high dose electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotunno, E.; Fabbri, F.; Cinquanta, E.; Kaplan, D.; Longo, M.; Lazzarini, L.; Molle, A.; Swaminathan, V.; Salviati, G.

    2016-06-01

    MoS2 multi-layer flakes, exfoliated from geological molybdenite, have been exposed to high dose electron irradiation showing clear evidence of crystal lattice and stoichiometry modifications. A massive surface sulfur depletion is induced together with the consequent formation of molybdenum nanoislands. It is found that a nanometric amorphous carbon layer, unwillingly deposited during the transmission electron microscope experiments, prevents the formation of the nanoislands. In the absence of the carbon layer, the formation of molybdenum grains proceeds both on the top and bottom surfaces of the flake. If carbon is present on both the surfaces then the formation of Mo grains is completely prevented.

  18. High Dose Neutron Irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S Silicon Carbide Composites, Part 2. Mechanical and Physical Properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Katoh, Yutai; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Ozawa, Kazumi; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Porter, Wallace D; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-07

    Nuclear-grade silicon carbide (SiC) composite material was examined for mechanical and thermophysical properties following high-dose neutron irradiation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at a temperature range of 573–1073 K. Likewise, the material was chemical vapor-infiltrated SiC-matrix composite with a two-dimensional satin weave Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC fiber reinforcement and a multilayered pyrocarbon/SiC interphase. Moderate (1073 K) to very severe (573 K) degradation in mechanical properties was found after irradiation to >70 dpa, whereas no evidence was found for progressive evolution in swelling and thermal conductivity. The swelling was found to recover upon annealing beyond the irradiation temperature, indicating themore » irradiation temperature, but only to a limited extent. Moreover, the observed strength degradation is attributed primarily to fiber damage for all irradiation temperatures, particularly a combination of severe fiber degradation and likely interphase damage at relatively low irradiation temperatures.« less

  19. Absence of bile acid malabsorption as a late effect of pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, J.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Demers, L.M.; Mortel, R.

    1986-09-01

    The pathophysiology of chronic radiation-induced diarrhea was evaluated in 28 patients who had undergone pelvic irradiation for gynecologic neoplasms 2 to 7 years previously. Twenty-seven patients undergoing radiotherapy with techniques that did not require abdominal or pelvic irradiation served as controls. The glycine conjugates of cholic acid (GC) were measured in serum by radioimmunoassay. Fasting and 2 hr. pp GC levels for the pelvic irradiated patients were 11.0 +/- 11.1 (mean +/- SD) and 24.8 +/- 17.3 micrograms/dl. Fasting and 2 hr. pp GC levels for controls were 12.6 +/- 7.4 and 28.0 +/- 14.7. There were no significant differences in the post-prandial increases in serum GC between pelvic irradiated patients and controls (p = .23, Type II error probability = .13). There was also no significant difference in the 2 hr. pp and fasting GC ratio (p = .39). There was significant difference between the stool frequency (p less than .01) and the prevalence of diarrhea (p less than .02) between pelvic irradiated patients and controls. The data suggest that bile acid malabsorption due to ileal dysfunction is not an inevitable late complication of pelvic irradiation and is not the major determinant in the pathophysiology of chronic radiation-induced diarrhea.

  20. Differential expression of immune-associated cancer regulatory genes in low- versus high-dose-rate irradiated AKR/J mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Suk Chul; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Kang, Yu Mi; Kim, Kwanghee; Lim, Seon Ah; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Hee Sun

    2011-06-01

    AKR/J mice carrying leukemia viral inserts develop thymic lymphoma. Recently, we demonstrated that the incidence of thymic lymphoma was decreased when these mice were raised in a low-dose-rate γ-irradiation facility. In contrast, mice irradiated at a high-dose rate developed severe thymic lymphoma and died much earlier. To understand the genetic changes occurred by low- versus high-dose-rate γ-irradiation whole genome microarray was performed. Both groups of mice demonstrated up-regulation of Ifng, Igbp1, and IL7 in their thymuses, however, mice exposed to high-dose-rate γ-irradiation exhibited marked down-regulation of Sp3, Il15, Traf6, IL2ra, Pik3r1, and Hells. In contrast, low-dose-rate irradiated mice demonstrated up-regulation of Il15 and Jag2. These gene expression profiles imply the impaired immune signaling pathways by high-dose-rate γ-irradiation while the facilitation of anti-tumor immune responses by low-dose-rate γ-irradiation. Therefore, our data delineate common and distinct immune-associated pathways downstream of low- versus high-dose-rate irradiation in the process of cancer progression in AKR/J mice. PMID:21266193

  1. Bone embrittlement and collagen modifications due to high-dose gamma-irradiation sterilization.

    PubMed

    Burton, Brianne; Gaspar, Anne; Josey, David; Tupy, Jindra; Grynpas, Marc D; Willett, Thomas L

    2014-04-01

    Bone allografts are often used in orthopedic reconstruction of skeletal defects resulting from trauma, bone cancer or revision of joint arthroplasty. γ-Irradiation sterilization is a widely-used biological safety measure; however it is known to embrittle bone. Irradiation has been shown to affect the post-yield properties, which are attributed to the collagen component of bone. In order to find a solution to the loss of toughness in irradiated bone allografts, it is important to fully understand the effects of irradiation on bone collagen. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the structure and integrity of bone collagen as a result of γ-irradiation, with the hypothesis that irradiation fragments collagen molecules leading to a loss of collagen network connectivity and therefore loss of toughness. Using cortical bone from bovine tibiae, sample beams irradiated at 33kGy on dry ice were compared to native bone beams (paired controls). All beams were subjected to three-point bend testing to failure followed by characterization of the decalcified bone collagen, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hydrothermal isometric tension testing (HIT), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The carbonyl content of demineralized bone collagen was also measured chemically to assess oxidative damage. Barium sulfate staining after single edge notch bending (SEN(B)) fracture testing was also performed on bovine tibia bone beams with a machined and sharpened notch to evaluate the fracture toughness and ability of irradiated bone to form micro-damage during fracture. Irradiation resulted in a 62% loss of work-to-fracture (p≤0.001). There was significantly less micro-damage formed during fracture propagation in the irradiated bone. HPLC showed no significant effect on pentosidine, pyridinoline, or hydroxypyridinoline levels suggesting that the loss of toughness is not due to changes in these stable crosslinks. For

  2. High dose effects in neutron irradiated face-centered cubic metals

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B.

    1993-06-01

    During neutron irradiation, most face-centered cubic metals and alloys develop saturation or quasi-steady state microstructures. This, in turn, leads to saturation levels in mechanical properties and quasi-steady state rates of swelling and creep deformation. Swelling initially plays only a small role in determining these saturation states, but as swelling rises to higher levels, it exerts strong feedback on the microstructure and its response to environmental variables. The influence of swelling, either directly or indirectly via second order mechanisms, such as elemental segregation to void surfaces, eventually causes major changes, not only in irradiation creep and mechanical properties, but also on swelling itself. The feedback effects of swelling on irradiation creep are particularly complex and lead to problems in applying creep data derived from highly pressurized creep tubes to low stress situations, such as fuel pins in liquid metal reactors.

  3. [Urinary diversion in patients treated with pelvic irradiation: transverse colon conduit revisited].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshiyuki; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Negoro, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Terada, Naoki; Sugino, Yoshio; Yamasaki, Toshinari; Inoue, Takahiro; Kamba, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Koji; Ogawa, Osamu

    2014-08-01

    In patients receiving pelvic irradiation for gynecological or genitourinary malignancies, urinary diversion is sometimes required for complete resection of malignancies or treatment of urological complications by irradiation. We report our attempts to promote healing and prevent complications by urinary diversion using a transverse colon conduit in cases in which urinary reconstruction was performed with irradiated lower abdominal organs such as small intestine or distal ureters. Between 2008 and 2012, 9 patients with pelvic irradiation received transverse colon conduit urinary diversion. Six patients received diversion for genitourinary complications, while 3 patients received complete resection of pelvic malignancies. Colostomy formation and lithotripsy of vesical stones were simultaneously performed in 4 cases. Wallace method was adopted for ureterointestinal anastomosis. There was no operative mortality. Although acute pyelonephritis, ileus, wound dehiscence and pelvic abscess formation were seen as postoperative complications, all but two improved without any additional procedure. Cases of pelvic abscess or wound dehiscence were treated by abscess drainage. In observation periods, no patients required urinary stent placement and none suffered from defecation problems. We think that transverse colon conduit can be a viable option for patients with pelvic irradiation history, affording them reasonable quality of life postoperatively. PMID:25179985

  4. Storage of platelet concentrates after high-dose ultraviolet B irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, E.L.; Beardsley, D.S.; Smith, B.R.; Horne, W.; Johnson, R.; Wooten, T.; Napychank, P.A.; Male, P.; Buchholz, D.H. )

    1991-07-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation of platelet concentrates (PCs) may prevent the development of posttransfusion HLA alloimmunization. As irradiation performed in a blood center or a hospital will probably be associated with a variable postirradiation delay before transfusion, the ability to store PCs after UVB irradiation becomes important. The effects have been studied of a UVB dose of 10,000 mJ per cm2, the dose used in our institution for UVB clinical trials, on PCs pooled and stored for up to 96 hours after irradiation. Results showed that after 96 hours of storage, though there were no changes in pH, platelet count, white cell count, percent discharge of lactate dehydrogenase, or {beta}-thromboglobulin, there were significant decreases in morphology score and osmotic recovery. These changes, however, were not evident after 24 hours of storage. Similarly, there was a 60% decrease in immunoreactive membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib after 96 hours of storage, but these changes were not seen after 48 hours of storage. No changes were seen in levels of GPIIb/IIIa in either group during the 96 hours of storage. On computer-analyzed two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PCs irradiated at 10,000 mJ per cm2 and stored for 72 hours had changes in over 50 platelet proteins as compared to those proteins in nonirradiated age-matched control PCs. It can be concluded that UVB irradiation of PCs at 10,000 mJ per cm2 does not lead to significant platelet deterioration after short-term storage (24-48 hours) but is likely to be deleterious after long-term (72-96 hours) storage.

  5. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties.

  6. Dosimetry of single fraction high dose total body irradiation as measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.C.; Bacza, E.T.; Findley, D.O.; Forell, B.W.

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five patients with acute myelogenous or acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated at the Cit of Hope National Medicine Center with chemotherapy, total body irradiation, and bone marrow transplant. The average mid-line dose to these patients was 1002 rad with a uniformity of 8%.

  7. Atom probe tomography analysis of high dose MA957 at selected irradiation temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Nathan A.; Stergar, Erich; Toloczko, Mychailo; Hosemann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are meritable structural materials for nuclear reactor systems due to the exemplary resistance to radiation damage and high temperature creep. Summarized in this work are atom probe tomography (APT) investigations on a heat of MA957 that underwent irradiation in the form of in-reactor creep specimens in the Fast Flux Test Facility-Materials Open Test Assembly (FFTF-MOTA) for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program. The oxide precipitates appear stable under irradiation at elevated temperature over extended periods of time. Nominally, the precipitate chemistry is unchanged by the accumulated dose; although, evidence suggests that ballistic dissolution and reformation processes are occurring at all irradiation temperatures. At 412 °C-109 dpa, chromium enrichments - consistent with the α‧ phase - appear between the oxide precipitates, indicating radiation induced segregation. Grain boundaries, enriched with several elements including nickel and titanium, are observed at all irradiation conditions. At 412 °C-109 dpa, the grain boundaries are also enriched in molecular titanium oxide (TiO).

  8. Prospective study of treatment techniques to minimize the volume of pelvic small bowel with reduction of acute and late effects associated with pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M.J.; Brereton, H.D.; Rostock, R.A.; Zero, J.M.; Zekoski, D.A.; Poyss, L.F.; Richter, M.P.; Kligerman, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    The volume, distribution, and mobility of opacified pelvic small bowel (PSB) were determined by fluoroscopy and orthogonal radiographs in 150 consecutive patients undergoing pelvic irradiation. Various techniques including uteropexy, omental transposition, bladder distention, inclining the patient, and anterior abdominal wall compression in the supine and prone treatment position were studied for their effect on the volume and location of small bowel within the pelvis. Abdominal wall compression in the prone position combined with bladder distention was selected for further investigation because of its simplicity, reproducibility, patient comfort, and ability to displace the small bowel. Factors correlating with the volume of pelvic small bowel (PSB) included prior pelvic surgery, pelvic irradiation (XRT), and body mass index. After pelvic surgery, especially following abdominoperineal resection (APR), there was a greater volume of PSB which was also less mobile. The severity of acute gastrointestinal effects positively correlated with the volume of irradiated small bowel. Overall, 67% of patients experienced little or no diarrhea, 30% developed mild diarrhea, and no patient required treatment interruption. Late gastrointestinal effects correlated with the prior pelvic surgery and with the volume of small bowel receiving greater than 45 Gy. Small bowel obstruction was not observed in 75 patients who had no previous pelvic surgery. However, following pelvic surgery excluding APR, 2/50 patients and following APR, 3/25 patients developed small bowel obstruction.

  9. Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described.

  10. Aging of magnesium stearate under high doses gamma irradiation and oxidative conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeau, D.; Beuvier, L.; Cornaton, M.; Miserque, F.; Tabarant, M.; Esnouf, S.; Ferry, M.

    2015-05-01

    In nuclear waste packages conditioning processes, magnesium stearate is widely used because of its high lubricating properties. For safety purposes, the radiolytic degradation of these organic materials has to be better understood to be able to predict their aging in repository conditions. This study reports the radiolytic degradation of magnesium stearate, using gamma-rays at room temperature and under air. Modifications were followed using different analytical tools (XPS, ATR-FTIR, ICP-AES, ATG and mass spectrometry). It has been observed that molecules mainly formed up to 1000 kGy of gamma irradiation dose under radio-oxidation are alkanes, hydroperoxides, double bonds in the aliphatic chain, carboxylates with aliphatic chain shorter than the one of stearate and ketones. At a dose of 4000 kGy, dicarboxylic acids are observed: the formation of these molecules needs a dose of at least 1000 kGy to be created under radio-oxidation. These observations allow us to propose a non-exhaustive degradation mechanism of magnesium stearate under gamma-irradiation at room temperature and under air.

  11. Leukemia patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines exhibit increased induction of leukemia-associated transcripts following high-dose irradiation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A; Granter, N

    1999-09-01

    Improvement in diagnostic cytogenetic techniques has led to the recognition of an increasing number of leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations and inversions. These genetic lesions frequently are associated with the disruption of putative transcription factors and the production of hybrid transcripts that are implicated in leukemogenesis. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that some, but not all, individuals with a history of gamma-irradiation exposure are at increased risk of developing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML is characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome and transcription of the resulting hybrid BCR-ABL gene. Utilizing the leukemia-associated BCR-ABL p210 transcript as a marker, we sought differences in the induction of illegitimate genetic recombination following high-dose gamma-irradiation of karyotypically normal lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) derived from individuals with and without a history of myeloid leukemias. Six LCL [4 leukemia patient derived [2 acute myeloid leukemia and 2 CML] and 2 from normal individuals were analyzed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for BCR-ABL under stringent conditions following exposure to 0, 50, or 100 Gy of LET gamma-irradiation delivered via a Varian linear accelerator at 4 MV. Transcripts identical to disease-associated b2a2 and b3a2 transcripts were detected both spontaneously (background illegitimate genetic recombination) and following gamma-irradiation. Background BCR-ABL positivity was demonstrable in 4 of the 6 LCL, with no significant difference in detection between leukemic- and nonleukemic-derived LCL. Overall, increasing gamma-irradiation dose resulted in an increased frequency of BCR-ABL transcript detection (0 Gy vs 50 Gy vs 100 Gy,p = 0.0023, Chi-square test). Within the leukemic- but not the nonleukemic-derived LCL there was significantly greater BCR-ABL positivity after gamma-irradiation compared to unirradiated equivalents. Furthermore, the BCR-ABL positivity of both

  12. Hypofractionated high-dose irradiation for the treatment of malignant astrocytomas using simultaneous integrated boost technique by IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Iuchi, Toshihiko; Hatano, Kazuo; Narita, Yuichiro; Kodama, Takashi; Yamaki, Tomohiro; Osato, Katsunobu

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the clinical significance of hypofractionated high-dose irradiation using simultaneous integrated boost technique with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of malignant astrocytomas (MAs). Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with MAs were treated by IMRT. Three layered planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured. PTV-1 was the area of enhanced lesion with 5-mm margin; PTV-2 was the area with 15-mm margin surrounding the PTV-1; PTV-3 was the area of perifocal edema. Irradiation was performed in 8 fractions, and only the dose for PTV-1 was escalated from 48 Gy to 68 Gy while maintaining the dose for PTV-2 (40 Gy) and PTV-3 (32 Gy). The clinical outcome of IMRT was compared with 60 MA patients treated by conventional external beam irradiation (EBI). Results: The progression-free survival of patients in the IMRT group was significantly longer than that in the EBI group (p < 0.0001). No distant failure was observed in both groups. In the IMRT group, dissemination was the most frequent cause of death (70%). The overall survival of patients in the IMRT group was better than that in the EBI group (p = 0.043). Conclusions: Our regimen of IMRT contributed to the control of both the regional and infiltrating tumors, resulting in better survival of patients.

  13. Cluster dynamics modeling of the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructure of austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimbal, Daniel; Fournier, Lionel; Barbu, Alain

    2016-01-01

    A mean field cluster dynamics model has been developed in order to study the effect of high dose irradiation and helium on the microstructural evolution of metals. In this model, self-interstitial clusters, stacking-fault tetrahedra and helium-vacancy clusters are taken into account, in a configuration well adapted to austenitic stainless steels. For small helium-vacancy cluster sizes, the densities of each small cluster are calculated. However, for large sizes, only the mean number of helium atoms per cluster size is calculated. This aspect allows us to calculate the evolution of the microstructural features up to high irradiation doses in a few minutes. It is shown that the presence of stacking-fault tetrahedra notably reduces cavity sizes below 400 °C, but they have little influence on the microstructure above this temperature. The binding energies of vacancies to cavities are calculated using a new method essentially based on ab initio data. It is shown that helium has little effect on the cavity microstructure at 300 °C. However, at higher temperatures, even small helium production rates such as those typical of sodium-fast-reactors induce a notable increase in cavity density compared to an irradiation without helium.

  14. Mechanism of action for anti-radiation vaccine in reducing the biological impact of high-dose gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after high-dose gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naïve animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which they mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  15. Effects of High-Dose Microbeam Irradiation on Tumor Microvascular Function and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fontanella, Andrew N.; Boss, Mary-Keara; Hadsell, Michael; Zhang, Jian; Schroeder, Thies; Berman, Katherine G.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Chang, Sha; Palmer, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a form of cancer treatment in which a single large dose of radiation is spatially fractionated in-line or grid-like patterns. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that MRT is capable of eliciting high levels of tumor response while sparing normal tissue that is exposed to the same radiation field. Since a large fraction of the MRT-treated tumor is in the dose valley region that is not directly irradiated, tumor response may be driven by radiation bystander effects, which in turn elicit a microvascular response. Differential alterations in hemodynamics between the tumor and normal tissue may explain the therapeutic advantages of MRT. Direct observation of these dynamic responses presents a challenge for conventional ex vivo analysis. Furthermore, knowledge gleaned from in vitro studies of radiation bystander response has not been widely incorporated into in vivo models of tumor radiotherapy, and the biological contribution of the bystander effect within the tumor microenvironment is unknown. In this study, we employed noninvasive, serial observations of the tumor microenvironment to address the question of how tumor vasculature and HIF-1 expression are affected by microbeam radiotherapy. Tumors (approximately 4 mm in diameter) grown in a dorsal window chamber were irradiated in a single fraction using either a single, microplanar beam (300 micron wide swath) or a wide-field setup (whole-window chamber) to a total dose of 50 Gy. The tumors were optically observed daily for seven days postirradiation. Microvascular changes in the tumor and surrounding normal tissue differed greatly between the wide-field and microbeam treatments. We present evidence that these changes may be due to dissimilar spatial and temporal patterns of HIF-1 expression induced through radiation bystander effects. PMID:25574586

  16. Effects of high-dose microbeam irradiation on tumor microvascular function and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fontanella, Andrew N; Boss, Mary-Keara; Hadsell, Michael; Zhang, Jian; Schroeder, Thies; Berman, Katherine G; Dewhirst, Mark W; Chang, Sha; Palmer, Gregory M

    2015-02-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a form of cancer treatment in which a single large dose of radiation is spatially fractionated in-line or grid-like patterns. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that MRT is capable of eliciting high levels of tumor response while sparing normal tissue that is exposed to the same radiation field. Since a large fraction of the MRT-treated tumor is in the dose valley region that is not directly irradiated, tumor response may be driven by radiation bystander effects, which in turn elicit a microvascular response. Differential alterations in hemodynamics between the tumor and normal tissue may explain the therapeutic advantages of MRT. Direct observation of these dynamic responses presents a challenge for conventional ex vivo analysis. Furthermore, knowledge gleaned from in vitro studies of radiation bystander response has not been widely incorporated into in vivo models of tumor radiotherapy, and the biological contribution of the bystander effect within the tumor microenvironment is unknown. In this study, we employed noninvasive, serial observations of the tumor microenvironment to address the question of how tumor vasculature and HIF-1 expression are affected by microbeam radiotherapy. Tumors (approximately 4 mm in diameter) grown in a dorsal window chamber were irradiated in a single fraction using either a single, microplanar beam (300 micron wide swath) or a wide-field setup (whole-window chamber) to a total dose of 50 Gy. The tumors were optically observed daily for seven days postirradiation. Microvascular changes in the tumor and surrounding normal tissue differed greatly between the wide-field and microbeam treatments. We present evidence that these changes may be due to dissimilar spatial and temporal patterns of HIF-1 expression induced through radiation bystander effects. PMID:25574586

  17. Laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic irradiation in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohshiro, Taihei; Fujita, Shin

    2015-12-01

    In the report, we describe the first case of laparoscopic ovarian transposition prior to pelvic radio-chemo therapy in a young female patient with advanced rectal cancer in Japan. A 14-year-old female visited a hospital because of consistent diarrhea and melena. Colonoscopy examination showed a bulky tumor of the rectum, which was diagnosed as moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The diagnosis was cT3N2aM1a (due to lymph node in pelvic side wall), cStage IVA. In an attempt to improve local control and sphincter preservation, neoadjuvant concurrent radio-chemo therapy was planned. Considering that pelvic irradiation particularly in young female might cause ovarian failure, laparoscopic ovarian transposition was carried out prior to pelvic irradiation. Sequentially the patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum and lymphadenectomy including pelvic side wall. The menstruation was maintained with delay for 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. There is no evidence of cancer recurrence at 3 years after the surgery.In premenopausal patients with rectal cancer undergoing pelvic irradiation, laparoscopic ovarian transposition is one of the choices to prevent ovarian failure. PMID:26943437

  18. Endometrial cancers occurring 10 or more years after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.; Hart, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen patients who developed cancer of the endometrium 10 or more years after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma were selected for study from a group of 64 cases of postirradiation malignant pelvic tumors diagnosed during a 48-year span. The average interval between radiotherapy and diagnosis of the subsequent endometrial cancer was 17.2 years. Irradiation initially had been done for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in 13 cases (87%) and for ovarian tumors in two instances. Almost all patients had received megavoltage external radiation combined with radium implants. Two-thirds of the tumors were adenocarcinomas and one-third were carcinosarcomas (either homologous or heterologous). Although the risk of second primary malignant tumors following therapeutic irradiation for pelvic tumors probably is very low, the emergence of new genital tract cancers in long-term survivors must be anticipated, regardless of whether the postirradiation cancers are spontaneous or radiation-induced.

  19. Effect of different treatment plans on irradiated small-bowel volume in gynecologic patients undergoing whole-pelvic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih-Chen; Lee, Hsiao-Fei; Ting, Hui-Min; Pan, Tzu-Chao; Liu, Shu-Yu; Chen, Chien-Fu; Wang, Teng-Yi; Juan, Kuo-Jung; Liao, Tsung-I; Huang, Eng-Yen

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different treatment plans for whole-pelvic irradiation on small-bowel volumes (SBVs) in patients with gynecologic malignancies, 40 patients were enrolled in this study. Computed tomography (CT) simulations were performed, and the small bowel of each patient was outlined manually. Treatment plans with equal-weighted (EW) and non-equal-weighted (NEW) (70% in bilateral directions) techniques of four-field and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were performed. The V10–V100 represented the volume (cm3) at different levels of the prescribed doses (10–100%). The V10–V100 was compared among the different treatment planning techniques, and patients who were suitable for IMRT or NEW were identified. IMRT and NEW significantly reduced the V50–V100 and V40–V60 levels compared with EW, respectively. NEW caused a significant reduction in the V30–V60 levels in patients with a BMI ≥26 kg/m2. Patients with IMRT demonstrated lower V70–V100 levels compared with those with NEW. In patients with a BMI ≥26 kg/m2 or an age ≥55 years, lower V20–V50 levels were noted using NEW compared with IMRT. Treatment planning with larger weighting in the bilateral directions in four-field radiotherapy reduces the low-dose SBV in patients with gynecologic malignancies, especially in those with a high BMI or the elderly. IMRT effectively reduces high-dose SBV, especially in patients with a low BMI. PMID:23536544

  20. Proposed strategy for the use of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and intrathecal topotecan without whole-brain irradiation for infantile classic medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ai; Moritake, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Sachiyo; Yamashita, Shinji; Takeshima, Hideo; Nunoi, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    We describe a 6-month-old infant with classic medulloblastoma. Gross total resection of the left cerebellar tumor was performed; however, relapse occurred during the administration of intrathecal and intravenous methotrexate-based chemotherapy. After undergoing resection, high-dose chemotherapy was administered consisting of topotecan, melphalan, and cyclophosphamide with autologous peripheral stem cell rescue followed by local irradiation and intrathecal topotecan, which resulted in a complete response for more than two years. The administration of high-dose chemotherapy followed by intrathecal topotecan as maintenance therapy is an effective strategy, without losses in the cognitive function, for avoiding the use of whole-brain irradiation for infantile classic medulloblastoma. PMID:25174961

  1. Mechanism of Action for Anti-Radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-Dose Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. We partially analyzed the biochemical characteristics of the SRDs. The SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  2. Mechanism of Action for Anti-radiation Vaccine in Reducing the Biological Impact of High-dose Gamma Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maliev, Vladislav; Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Casey, Rachael C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a major health risk of long-term space travel, the biological consequences of which include genetic and oxidative damage. In this study, we propose an original mechanism by which high doses of ionizing radiation induce acute toxicity. We identified biological components that appear in the lymphatic vessels shortly after gamma irradiation. These radiation-induced toxins, which we have named specific radiation determinants (SRD), were generated in the irradiated tissues and then collected and circulated throughout the body via the lymph circulation and bloodstream. Depending on the type of SRD elicited, different syndromes of acute radiation sickness (ARS) were expressed. The SRDs were developed into a vaccine used to confer active immunity against acute radiation toxicity in immunologically naive animals. Animals that were pretreated with SRDs exhibited resistance to lethal doses of gamma radiation, as measured by increased survival times and survival rates. In comparison, untreated animals that were exposed to similar large doses of gamma radiation developed acute radiation sickness and died within days. This phenomenon was observed in a number of mammalian species. Initial analysis of the biochemical characteristics indicated that the SRDs were large molecular weight (200-250 kDa) molecules that were comprised of a mixture of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and mineral. Further analysis is required to further identify the SRD molecules and the biological mechanism by which the mediate the toxicity associated with acute radiation sickness. By doing so, we may develop an effective specific immunoprophylaxis as a countermeasure against the acute effects of ionizing radiation.

  3. Evaluation of two intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices for irradiating additional and irregularly shaped volumes of breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sharon M; Scanderbeg, Daniel J; Barna, Patrick; Yashar, William; Yashar, Catheryn

    2012-01-01

    The SAVI and Contura breast brachytherapy applicators represent 2 recent advancements in brachytherapy technology that have expanded the number of women eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Early clinical experience with these 2 single-entry, multichannel high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices confirms their ease of use and dosimetric versatility. However, current clinical guidelines for SAVI and Contura brachytherapy may result in a smaller or less optimal volume of treated tissue compared with traditional interstitial brachytherapy. This study evaluates the feasibility of using the SAVI and Contura to irradiate larger and irregularly shaped target volumes, approaching what is treatable with the interstitial technique. To investigate whether additional tissue can be treated, 17 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected. For each patient, the planning target volume (PTV) was modified to extend 1.1 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.5 cm beyond the tumor bed cavity. To evaluate dose conformance to an irregularly shaped target volume, 9 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected from the original 20 patients. The following asymmetric PTV margin combinations were assessed for each patient: 1.5/0.3, 1.3/0.3, and 1.1/0.3 cm. For all patients, treatment planning was performed, adopting the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project guidelines, and dosimetric comparisons were made. The 6-1 and 8-1 SAVI devices can theoretically treat a maximal tissue margin of 1.5 cm and an asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 cm. The 10-1 SAVI and Contura can treat a maximal margin of 1.3 cm and 1.1 cm, respectively, and asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3-1.3 cm. Compared with the Contura, the SAVI demonstrated greater dosimetric flexibility. Risk of developing excessive hot spots increased with the size of the SAVI device. Both the SAVI and Contura appear

  4. External beam boost irradiation for clinically positive pelvic nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Takuro; Toita, Takafumi; Kasuya, Goro; Nagai, Yutaka; Inamine, Morihiko; Kudaka, Wataru; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Aoki, Youichi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the treatment results of boost external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to clinically positive pelvic nodes in patients with uterine cervical cancer. The study population comprised 174 patients with FIGO stages 1B1–4A cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT). Patients with positive para-aortic or common iliac nodes (≥10 mm in the shortest diameter, as evaluated by CT/MRI) were ineligible for the study. Fifty-seven patients (33%) had clinically positive pelvic nodes. The median maximum diameter of the nodes was 15 mm (range, 10–60 mm) and the median number of positive lymph nodes was two (range, one to four). Fifty-two of 57 patients (91%) with positive nodes were treated with boost EBRT (6–10 Gy in three to five fractions). The median prescribed dose of EBRT for nodes was 56 Gy. The median follow-up time for all patients was 66 months (range, 3–142 months). The 5-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate and pelvic control rate for patients with positive and negative nodes were 73% and 92% (P = 0.001), 58% and 84% (P < 0.001), and 83% and 92% (P = 0.082), respectively. Five of 57 node-positive patients (9%) developed pelvic node recurrences. All five patients with nodal failure had concomitant cervical failure and/or distant metastases. No significant difference was observed with respect to the incidence or severity of late complications by application of boost EBRT. The current retrospective study demonstrated that boost EBRT to positive pelvic nodes achieves favorable nodal control without increasing late complications. PMID:23365264

  5. Limitations of current dosimetry for intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation with high dose rate iridium-192 and electronic brachytherapy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffi, Julie A.

    Intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is a method of treating early stage breast cancer using a high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy source positioned within the lumpectomy cavity. An expandable applicator stretches the surrounding tissue into a roughly spherical or elliptical shape and the dose is prescribed to 1 cm beyond the edge of the cavity. Currently, dosimetry for these treatments is most often performed using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group No. 43 (TG-43) formalism. The TG-43 dose-rate equation determines the dose delivered to a homogeneous water medium by scaling the measured source strength with standardized parameters that describe the radial and angular features of the dose distribution. Since TG-43 parameters for each source model are measured or calculated in a homogeneous water medium, the dosimetric effects of the patient's dimensions and composition are not accounted for. Therefore, the accuracy of TG-43 calculations for intracavitary APBI is limited by the presence of inhomogeneities in and around the target volume. Specifically, the breast is smaller than the phantoms used to determine TG-43 parameters and is surrounded by air, ribs, and lung tissue. Also, the composition of the breast tissue itself can affect the dose distribution. This dissertation is focused on investigating the limitations of TG-43 dosimetry for intracavitary APBI for two HDR brachytherapy sources: the VariSource TM VS2000 192Ir source and the AxxentRTM miniature x-ray source. The dose for various conditions was determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Monte Carlo (MC) calculations. Accurate measurements and calculations were achieved through the implementation of new measurement and simulation techniques and a novel breast phantom was developed to enable anthropomorphic phantom measurements. Measured and calculated doses for phantom and patient geometries were compared with TG-43 calculated doses to

  6. Treatment of prostatic carcinoma by pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary Iridium-192 implant, and external irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tansey, L.A.; Shanberg, A.M.; Nisar Syed, A.M.; Puthawala, A.

    1983-06-01

    Forty patients with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate have been treated by a combination of pelvic lymphadenectomy, temporary Iridium-192 implantation, and external irradiation with follow-up of one to five years. 192Ir implant delivers a minimum tumor dose of 3,000 rad to A2 and B1 lesions and 3,500 to B2 and C lesions. Two weeks later patients receive 4,000 rad of external irradiation to the prostate over four to five weeks. Patients with pelvic nodal metastases receive 5,000 rad to the pelvis with a midline block at 4,000 rad. All patients have had a complete local response as judged by clinical criteria. Prostate needle biopsies have been performed on 16 patients one year or less after treatment, with 15 biopsies benign. The technique appears to offer excellent local control of prostatic adenocarcinoma with acceptably low morbidity.

  7. Hip prostheses during pelvic irradiation: effects and corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Hazuka, M.B.; Ibbott, G.S.; Kinzie, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    Treatment of pelvic malignancies frequently includes the use of lateral, arc, or rotational fields. The presence of hip prostheses in these treatment fields will perturb the dose distribution. Correction factors for metal-based alloys used in artificial hips have not previously been reported. Prostheses constructed from frequently used alloys were obtained and measurements were made of the transmission of 4MV and 10MV photons. These measured data were compared with computed correction factors. The computer uses the ratio of tissue-maximum ratios (TMR's) method of heterogeneity correction. The computer was provided with both the physical density and the relative electron density of each prosthesis for comparison purposes, since electron densities for hip prostheses are not widely known. Correction factors determined from electron densities demonstrated better agreement with measured data. The ratio of TMR's correction algorithm does not consider the contribution of scattered radiation in the dose computations. Consequently, a small adjustment to the relative electron density of the prosthetic hip was required at lower X ray beam energies. Agreement was satisfactory for higher energy X rays, and thus no adjustment was necessary. Relative electron densities and adjusted electron densities for alloys used in artificial hips are provided for computer-aided treatment planning. Recommendations for incorporating the hip prosthesis into the treatment planning process are also provided.

  8. Pelvic irradiation modulates the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in the plasma and lymphatic system

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Wang, Li-Ying; Tai, Hung-Chi; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin (CDDP) is employed to enhance radiotherapy’s (RT) effect for various cancers. However, the effects of local RT on chemotherapeutics in the plasma and lymphatic system remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the influence of pelvic irradiation on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CDDP using rats as an experimental model. Methods and Materials: RT with 2 Gy and 0.5 Gy were delivered to the whole pelvis of Sprague-Dawley rats. CDDP at 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg was intravenously infused 24 hours after radiation for the plasma and lymphatic system, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of CDDP in the plasma and lymphatic system were calculated. Results: Compared with sham-irradiated controls, the whole pelvic irradiation increased the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of CDDP (5 mg/kg) in the plasma by 80% at 0.5 Gy and 87% at 2 Gy, respectively. In contrast, the AUC of CDDP decreased in bile by 13% at both dose levels. Intriguingly, RT could also increase the AUC of CDDP (10 mg/kg) in the lymphatic fluid by 87% at 2 Gy. In addition, the AUC in CDDP without and with RT was 2.8-fold and 3.4-fold greater for the lymph system than for the plasma, respectively. Conclusions: A local pelvic RT could modulate the systemic PK of CDDP in both the plasma and lymphatic fluids of the rats. The RT-PK phenomena are worth further investigation. PMID:25901204

  9. Korean space food development: Ready-to-eat Kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable, sterilized with high-dose gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. It was confirmed that the space food was sterilized by an irradiation at 25 kGy through incubation at 37 °C for 30 days. The hardness of the Space Kimchi (SK) was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated Kimchi (IR). Also, this result was supported by the scanning electron microscopic observation. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. According to the Ames test, Kimchi sterilized with a high-dose irradiation exerted no mutagenic activity in the bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium. And, the SK was certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems.

  10. Does initial 45Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduce late complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer? A cohort control study using definitive chemoradiotherapy with high-dose rate brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chien, Chun-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparing initial 45 Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and non-IMRT in terms of the late toxicities associated with advanced cervical cancer that has also been treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB). Patients and methods This retrospective study included 320 stage IB2-IIIB cervical cancer patients treated with CCRT (83 IMRT and 237 non-IMRT). The two groups had similar stage and HDRICB ratings. Following 45 Gy to the pelvis, HDRICB of 24 Gy in four courses was prescribed. Late toxicities, including rectal complications (RC), bladder complications (BC) and non-rectal intestinal injury (NRRII), were scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. A logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of the complications. Results With a median follow-up duration of 33 and 77 months for IMRT and non-IMRT, 33 patients had Grade 2 or higher late RC (7.2% IMRT, 11.4% non-IMRT), whereas that for BC was 40 (9.6% IMRT, 13.5% non-IMRT) and for NRRII was 48 (12.0% IMRT, 16.0% non-IMRT). The cumulative rate for total grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities was 8.4% and 11.8% (p = 0.33). IMRT did not reduce the OR for all endpoints; however, the ORs for rectum and bladder reference doses to Point A were associated with RC and BC. Conclusions Locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with initial 45Gy of pelvic IMRT and HDRICB have similar treatment-related late toxicities as those treated with non-IMRT. Optimization of the brachytherapy scheme is essential to minimize late toxicities. PMID:23801915

  11. Pelvic irradiation does not increase the risk of hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dybvik, Eva; Furnes, Ove; D. Fosså, Sophie; Trovik, Clement; Lie, Stein Atle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term survivors of cancer can develop adverse effects of the treatment. 60% of cancer patients survive for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Pelvic irradiation can cause bone damage in these long-term survivors, with increased risk of fracture and degeneration of the hip. Patients and methods — Analyses were based on linkage between the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN) and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). All women who had been exposed to radiation for curative radiotherapy of gynecological cancer (40–60 Gy for at least 28 days) were identified in the CRN. Radiotherapy had been given between 1998 and 2006 and only patients who were irradiated within 6 months of diagnosis were included. The control group contained women with breast cancer who had also undergone radiotherapy, but not to the pelvic area. Fine and Gray competing-risk analysis was used to calculate subhazard-rate ratios (subHRRs) and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for the risk of having a prosthesis accounting for differences in mortality. Results — Of 962 eligible patients with gynecological cancer, 26 (3%) had received a total hip replacement. In the control group without exposure, 253 (3%) of 7,545 patients with breast cancer had undergone total hip replacement. The 8-year CIF for receiving a total hip replacement was 2.7% (95% CI: 2.6–2.8) for gynecological cancer patients and 3.0% (95% CI: 2.95–3.03) for breast cancer patients; subHRR was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.53–1.22; p = 0.3). In both groups, the most common reason for hip replacement was idiopathic osteoarthritis. Interpretation — We did not find any statistically significantly higher risk of undergoing total hip replacement in patients with gynecological cancer who had had pelvic radiotherapy than in women with breast cancer who had not had pelvic radiotherapy. PMID:25238432

  12. Time dose relationships in endometrial adenocarcinoma: importance of the interval from external pelvic irradiation to surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Chahbazian, C.M.; del Regato, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium received external pelvic irradiation (EPI) as a preoperative surgical adjuvant to total abdominal hysterectomy between March, 1951 and February, 1977. Either 400 KVP x-rays, Cobalt teletherapy or 25 MeV photons were used. In more than one third of the hysterectomy specimens, there was no histopathological evidence of residual cancer. Statistical analysis shows a significant reduction in the proportion of positive specimens as the interval to hysterectomy increased. The data support the concept that adenocarcinomas are not radioresistant but may be slow to regress following irradiation. Caution is advised against making decisions about therapy based on histopathological findings in patients who receive surgery immediately following short course or intracavitary preoperative irradiation.

  13. Preoperative whole pelvic external irradiation in Stage I endometrial cancer. [/sup 60/Co; /sup 226/Ra

    SciTech Connect

    Ritcher, N.; Lucas, W.E.; Yon, J.L.; Sanford, F.G.

    1981-07-01

    Between 1966 and 1978, 201 patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium were treated at two hospitals in San Diego. Of these patients, 161 had disease limited to the corpus at the time of diagnosis. The majority of these patients received external whole-pelvic irradiation, followed as soon as possible by simple extrafascial hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. When this treatment method was used, actuarial survivals of 95% for Stage I disease were achieved. Also reported is the low incidence of wound complications in the group of patients operated soon after cessation of irradiation. The patients treated in this fashion had good survival rates, little morbidity from the adjunctive irradiation, and fewer wound complications than previously anticipated.

  14. High Dose-Per-Fraction Irradiation of Limited Lung Volumes Using an Image-Guided, Highly Focused Irradiator: Simulating Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Regimens in a Small-Animal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaeho; Kodym, Reinhard; Seliounine, Serguei

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the underlying biology associated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), both in vivo models and image-guided, highly focal irradiation systems are necessary. Here, we describe such an irradiation system and use it to examine normal tissue toxicity in a small-animal model at lung volumes similar to those associated with human therapy. Methods and Materials: High-dose radiation was delivered to a small volume of the left lung of C3H/HeJCr mice using a small-animal stereotactic irradiator. The irradiator has a collimation mechanism to produce focal radiation beams, an imaging subsystem consisting of a fluorescent screen coupled to a charge-coupled device camera, and a manual positioning stage. Histopathologic examination and micro-CT were used to evaluate the radiation response. Results: Focal obliteration of the alveoli by fibrous connective tissue, hyperplasia of the bronchiolar epithelium, and presence of a small number of inflammatory cells are the main reactions to low-volume/high-dose irradiation of the mouse lung. The tissue response suggested a radiation dose threshold for early phase fibrosis lying between 40 and 100 Gy. The irradiation system satisfied our requirements of high-dose-rate, small beam diameter, and precise localization and verification. Conclusions: We have established an experimental model and image-guided animal irradiation system for the study of high dose per fraction irradiations such as those used with SBRT at volumes analogous to those used in human beings. It will also allow the targeting of specific anatomical structures of the thorax or ultimately, orthotopic tumors of the lung.

  15. Low cycle fatigue properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels after high-dose neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaganidze, E.; Petersen, C.; Aktaa, J.; Povstyanko, A.; Prokhorov, V.; Diegele, E.; Lässer, R.

    2011-08-01

    This paper focuses on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated to a displacement damage dose of up to 70 dpa at 330-337 °C in the BOR 60 reactor within the ARBOR 2 irradiation programme. The influence of neutron irradiation on the fatigue behaviour was determined for the as-received EUROFER97, pre-irradiation heat-treated EUROFER97 HT and F82H-mod steels. Strain-controlled push-pull loading was performed using miniaturized cylindrical specimens at a constant temperature of 330 °C with total strain ranges between 0.8% and 1.1%. Comparison of the LCF behaviour of irradiated and reference unirradiated specimens was performed for both the adequate total and inelastic strains. Neutron irradiation-induced hardening may have various effects on the fatigue behaviour of the steels. The reduction of inelastic strain in the irradiated state compared with the reference unirradiated state at common total strain amplitudes may increase fatigue lifetime. The increase in the stress at the adequate inelastic strain, by contrast, may accelerate fatigue damage accumulation. Depending on which of the two effects mentioned dominates, neutron irradiation may either extend or reduce the fatigue lifetime compared with the reference unirradiated state. The results obtained for EUROFER97 and EUROFER97 HT confirm these considerations. Most of the irradiated specimens show fatigue lifetimes comparable to those of the reference unirradiated state at adequate inelastic strains. Some irradiated specimens, however, show lifetime reduction or increase in comparison with the reference state at adequate inelastic strains.

  16. Ionizing radiation and autoimmunity: Induction of autoimmune disease in mice by high dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and its prevention by inoculating normal T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, N.; Sakaguchi, S. Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA PRESTO, JRDC, Institute of Phical and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki ); Miyai, K. )

    1992-11-01

    Ionizing radiation can functionally alter the immune system and break self-tolerance. High dose (42.5 Gy), fractionated (2.5 Gy 17 times) total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on mice caused various organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis, depending on the radiation dosages, the extent of lymphoid irradiation, and the genetic background of the mouse strains. Radiation-induced tissue damage is not the primary cause of the autoimmune disease because irradiation of the target organs alone failed to elicit the autoimmunity and shielding of the organs from irradiation was unable to prevent it. In contrast, irradiation of both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid organs/tissues was required for efficient induction of autoimmune disease by TLI. TLI eliminated the majority of mature thymocytes and the peripheral T cells for 1 mo, and inoculation of spleen cell, thymocyte, or bone marrow cell suspensions (prepared from syngeneic nonirradiated mice) within 2 wk after TLI effectively prevented the autoimmune development. Depletion of T cells from the inocula abrogated the preventive activity. CD4[sup +] T cells mediated the autoimmune prevention but CD8[sup +] T cells did not. CD4[sup +] T cells also appeared to mediate the TLI-induced autoimmune disease because CD4[sup +] T cells from disease-bearing TLI mice adoptively transferred the autoimmune disease to syngeneic naive mice. Taken together, these results indicate that high dose, fractionated ionizing radiation on the lymphoid organs/tissues can cause autoimmune disease by affecting the T cell immune system, rather than the target self-Ags, presumably by altering T cell-dependent control of self-reactive T cells. 62 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Differential expression of cancer pathway-related genes in low-versus high-dose-rate-irradiated AKR/J mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong Bong, Jin; Kang, Yu Mi; Shin, Suk Chul; Choi, Moo Hyun; Choi, Seung Jin; Kim, Hee Sun

    2012-11-01

    To understand the biological effects of ionizing radiation on lymphomagenesis, we reared AKR/J mice for 130 days with exposure to either high-dose-rate (HDR, 0.8 Gy/min, a single dose of 4.5 Gy) or low-dose-rate (LDR, 0.7 mGy/h, a cumulative dose of 2.1 Gy) irradiation. After 130 days, we compared the mean thymus weight, analyzed the histological changes, and measured apoptotic cell numbers using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. We also used microarrays and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis (qPCR) to analyze the expression profiles of cancer pathway-related genes in the thymuses of the mice. The mean thymus weight of the LDR-irradiated mice decreased relative to Sham- and HDR-irradiated mice. Histopathological examination revealed that the neoplastic cells in the thymuses of the Sham- and HDR-irradiated mice were pleomorphic, with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, whereas the cells and their nuclei were relatively small and uniform in size in the LDR-irradiated mice. Furthermore, TUNEL assays showed that the number of apoptotic cells was higher in the LDR-irradiated mice than in the Sham- and HDR-irradiated mice. Microarray analysis showed differentially expressed genes according to carcinogenic stage (DNA repair/genomic instability, DNA damage signaling pathway, cell cycle, cancer pathway, p53 signaling pathway, apoptosis, and T- and B-cell activation). qPCR data for cancer pathway-related genes showed that Cds1 gene expression was upregulated in the LDR-irradiated mice, whereas expression of the Itga4, Myc, and Itgb1 genes was upregulated in the irradiated mice. However, the functions of cancer pathway-related genes require further study and validation.

  18. Transient engraftment of syngeneic bone marrow after conditioning with high-dose cyclophosphamide and thoracoabdominal irradiation in a patient with aplastic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Matsue, K.; Niki, T.; Shiobara, S.; Ueda, M.; Ohtake, S.; Mori, T.; Matsuda, T.; Harada, M. )

    1990-01-01

    We describe the clinical course of a 16 year old girl with aplastic anemia who was treated by syngeneic bone marrow transplantation. Engraftment was not obtained by simple infusion of bone marrow without immunosuppression. The patient received a high-dose cyclophosphamide and thoracoabdominal irradiation, followed by second marrow transplantation from the same donor. Incomplete but significant hematologic recovery was observed; however, marrow failure recurred 5 months after transplantation. Since donor and recipient pairs were genotypically identical, graft failure could not be attributed to immunological reactivity of recipient cells to donor non-HLA antigens. This case report implies that graft failure in some cases of aplastic anemia might be mediated by inhibitory cells resistant to cyclophosphamide and irradiation.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF HIGH DOSE IRRADIATION ON THE CROSS-LINKING OF VITAMIN E-BLENDED ULTRAHIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE

    PubMed Central

    Oral, Ebru; Beckos, Christine Godleski; Malhi, Arnaz S.; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin E-stabilized, highly cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a promising oxidation and wear resistant UHMWPE with improved mechanical strength in comparison with the first generation, irradiated and melted UHMWPE. One approach of incorporating vitamin E in UHMWPE is through blending of vitamin E in UHMWPE powder followed by consolidation and radiation crosslinking. However radiation crosslinking efficiency of UHMWPE decreases in the presence of vitamin E. Therefore an optimum vitamin E concentration and radiation dose level needs to be determined to achieve a cross-link density comparable to 100-kGy irradiated and melted UHMWPE, which has shown excellent wear properties in vivo. We investigated the cross-link density and mechanical properties of vitamin E-blended UHMWPEs as a function of vitamin E concentration in the blend and gamma irradiation doses up to 200 kGy. We found that 0.3 wt% vitamin E-blended UHMWPE could not be cross-linked above a cross-link density achieved at a radiation dose of 65 kGy for virgin UHMWPE and 1.0 wt% vitamin E-blended UHMWPE could not be cross-linked above a cross-link density achieved at a radiation dose of 25 kGy for virgin UHMWPE even when the former were irradiated to a radiation dose of 200 kGy. In addition, higher plasticity at vitamin E concentrations at and above 0.3 wt% indicated that increased chain scissioning may be prevalent. Since the wear resistance of this irradiated UHMWPE would be expected to be low, vitamin E concentrations equal to or above 0.3 wt% are not recommended for subsequent irradiation to achieve a wear resistant cross-linked UHMWPE. The long–term oxidative stability of irradiated blends with low vitamin E concentrations has yet to be studied to determine an optimum between cross-link density and long-term oxidative stability. PMID:18514813

  20. High dose neutron irradiations of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites, Part 1: Microstructural evaluations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Perez-Bergquist, Alex G.; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Leonard, Keith J.; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-07-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of silicon carbide (SiC) composites, composed of near-stoichiometric SiC fibers embedded in a crystalline SiC matrix, to the point that such materials can now be considered nuclear grade. Recent neutron irradiation studies of Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites showed excellent radiation response at damage levels of 30-40 dpa at temperatures of 300-800 °C. However, more recent studies of these same fiber composites irradiated to damage levels of >70 dpa at similar temperatures showed a marked decrease in ultimate flexural strength, particularly at 300 °C. Here, electron microscopy ismore » used to analyze the microstructural evolution of these irradiated composites in order to investigate the cause of the degradation. While minimal changes were observed in Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites irradiated at 800 °C, substantial microstructural evolution is observed in those irradiated at 300° C. Furthermore, carbonaceous particles in the fibers grew by 25% compared to the virgin case, and severe cracking occurred at interphase layers.« less

  1. High dose neutron irradiations of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites, Part 1: Microstructural evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bergquist, Alex G.; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Leonard, Keith J.; Snead, Lance Lewis; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-07-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of silicon carbide (SiC) composites, composed of near-stoichiometric SiC fibers embedded in a crystalline SiC matrix, to the point that such materials can now be considered nuclear grade. Recent neutron irradiation studies of Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites showed excellent radiation response at damage levels of 30-40 dpa at temperatures of 300-800 °C. However, more recent studies of these same fiber composites irradiated to damage levels of >70 dpa at similar temperatures showed a marked decrease in ultimate flexural strength, particularly at 300 °C. Here, electron microscopy is used to analyze the microstructural evolution of these irradiated composites in order to investigate the cause of the degradation. While minimal changes were observed in Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites irradiated at 800 °C, substantial microstructural evolution is observed in those irradiated at 300° C. Furthermore, carbonaceous particles in the fibers grew by 25% compared to the virgin case, and severe cracking occurred at interphase layers.

  2. Influence of high doses γ-irradiation on oxygen permeability of linear low-density polyethylene and cast polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepac, Damir; Ščetar, Mario; Baranović, Goran; Galić, Kata; Valić, Srećko

    2014-04-01

    Linear low density polyethylene (PE-LLD) and cast polypropylene (PPcast) films were irradiated in a 60Co γ-source. The total irradiation dose varied from 0 kGy (unirradiated samples) to 200 kGy. Oxygen transport was investigated by a manometric method and the structural changes were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Free radicals decay as a function of time was monitored by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The results show that the γ-irradiation reduces oxygen permeability coefficient in both films. The reduction was associated with an increase in crystallinity. DSC thermograms revealed a decrease in PPcast melting point with increasing irradiation dose, indicating higher degradation compared to PE-LLD. The observed peak in FTIR spectra for both samples at 1716 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching of the carbonyl and carboxylic groups which arise from the reaction of oxygen with the free radicals produced in the polymer matrix as a result of irradiation.

  3. High dose neutron irradiation of Hi-Nicalon Type S silicon carbide composites, Part 1: Microstructural evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G.; Nozawa, Takashi; Shih, Chunghao; Leonard, Keith J.; Snead, Lance L.; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the development of silicon carbide (SiC) composites, composed of near-stoichiometric SiC fibers embedded in a crystalline SiC matrix, to the point that such materials can now be considered nuclear grade. Recent neutron irradiation studies of Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites showed excellent radiation response at damage levels of 30-40 dpa at temperatures of 300-800 °C. However, more recent studies of these same fiber composites irradiated to damage levels of >70 dpa at similar temperatures showed a marked decrease in ultimate flexural strength, particularly at 300 °C. Here, electron microscopy is used to analyze the microstructural evolution of these irradiated composites in order to investigate the cause of the degradation. While minimal changes were observed in Hi-Nicalon Type S SiC composites irradiated at 800 °C, substantial microstructural evolution is observed in those irradiated at 300 °C. Specifically, carbonaceous particles in the fibers grew by 25% compared to the virgin case, and severe cracking occurred at interphase layers.

  4. Effects of high-dose gamma irradiation on tensile properties of human cortical bone: Comparison of different radioprotective treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Allaveisi, Farzaneh; Mirzaei, Majid

    2016-08-01

    There are growing interests in the radioprotective methods that can reduce the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on sterilized bone allografts. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 50kGy (single dose, and fractionated) gamma irradiation, in presence and absence of l-Cysteine (LC) free radical scavenger, on tensile properties of human femoral cortical bone. A total of 48 standard tensile test specimens was prepared from diaphysis of femurs of three male cadavers (age: 52, 52, and 54 years). The specimens were assigned to six groups (n=8) according to different irradiation schemes, i.e.; Control (Non-irradiated), LC-treated control, a single dose of 50kGy (sole irradiation), a single dose of 50kGy in presence of LC, 10 fractions of 5kGy (sole irradiation), and 10 fractions of 5kGy in presence of LC. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the variations in tensile properties of the specimens. Fractographic analysis was performed to examine the microstructural features of the fracture surfaces. The results of multivariate analysis showed that fractionation of the radiation dose, as well as the LC treatment of the 50kGy irradiated specimens, significantly reduced the radiation-induced impairment of the tensile properties of the specimens (P<0.05). The fractographic observations were consistent with the mechanical test results. In summary, this study showed that the detrimental effects of gamma sterilization on tensile properties of human cortical bone can be substantially reduced by free radical scavenger treatment, dose fractionation, and the combined treatment of these two methods. PMID:27124804

  5. New technique to protect ovarian function before pelvic irradiation. Heterotopic ovarian autotransplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Leporrier, M.; von Theobald, P.; Roffe, J.L.; Muller, G.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe a new technique for the subcutaneous heterotopic transplantation of the ovary before pelvic irradiation to treat Hodgkin's disease. Creation of a cavity to receive the transplant and the use of two surgical teams and the surgical microscope during the operation ensured its successful outcome. The transplanted ovary was followed up clinically and by ultrasound monitoring: ovarian cycles remained regular despite radiotherapy, and follicle growth occurred normally. In comparison to other types of oophoropexy described in the literature, the advantages of this technique included total protection of the ovary from irradiation, and conservation of ovarian function and fertility. One year after the procedure, puncture of the ovarian compartment produced a mature oocyte specimen.

  6. Microbiological quality and biogenic amines in ready-to-eat grilled chicken fillets under vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose irradiation.

    PubMed

    Baptista, R F; Lemos, M; Teixeira, C E; Vital, H C; Carneiro, C S; Mársico, E T; Conte Júnior, C A; Mano, S B

    2014-06-01

    The combined effects of cooking, vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose gamma irradiation in the microbiological conservation and in biogenic amine (BA) contents of ready-to-eat grilled breast chicken fillets are investigated in this work. After seasoning, cooking, and vacuum packing, one-third of the samples were stored at -25°C (T1). The remaining two-thirds were treated with 48 kGy, one-third being stored at -25°C (T2) and the other one-third kept at room temperature (T3). All samples were periodically analyzed to determine growth of heterotrophic aerobic mesophilic bacteria (HAMB) and levels of BA (tyramine, TYM; putrescine, PUT; cadaverine, CAD; spermidine, SPD; histamine, HYM; and spermine, SPM). Variance analysis was performed to determine significant changes in the measured data. Grilling caused HAMB counts in seasoned samples to drop from 5.3 log cfu/g to zero. In addition, no viable HAMB cells were detected in the samples throughout the 12-mo storage time. Regarding the BA analyses, the highest mean levels were measured for SPM and CAD with significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) being determined in nonirradiated samples (T1). Furthermore, significantly lower mean levels for the total content of BA were observed in the irradiated samples. Relative to T1 (7.5 ± 1.5 mg/kg), the figures were 47 ± 23% for T2 and 60 ± 25% for T3, mostly due to loss of CAD by radiolysis. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of grilling, vacuum packing, freezing, and high-dose gamma irradiation efficiently eliminated HAMB, while sustaining acceptable levels of BA in ready-to-eat chicken breast fillets throughout the 12 mo of storage at room temperature. PMID:24879707

  7. Radiation-induced failures and degradation of wireless real-time dosimeter under high-dose-rate irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kuroki, K.; Akiba, N.; Kurosawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Nishiyama, J.; Harano, H.

    2010-04-01

    Radiation-induced malfunction and degradation of electronic modules in certain operating conditions are described in this report. The cumulative radiation effects on Atmel AVR microcontrollers, and 2.4 GHz and 303 MHz wireless network devices were evaluated under gamma ray irradiation with dose rates of 100, 10 and 3 Gy/h. The radiation-induced malfunctions occurred at doses of 510+/-22 Gy for AVR microcontrollers, and 484+/-111 and 429+/-14 Gy for 2.4 GHz and 303 MHz wireless network devices, respectively, under a 100 Gy/h equivalent dose rate. The degradation of microcontrollers occurred for total ionizing doses between 400 and 600 Gy under X-ray irradiation. In addition, we evaluated the reliability of neutron dosimeters using a standard neutron field. One of the neutron dosimeters gave a reading that was half of the standard field value.

  8. Long-term follow-up for brain metastases treated by percutaneous stereotactic single high-dose irradiation.

    PubMed

    Engenhart, R; Kimmig, B N; Höver, K H; Wowra, B; Romahn, J; Lorenz, W J; van Kaick, G; Wannenmacher, M

    1993-02-15

    Surgery is considered the treatment of choice for solitary brain lesions, and radiation therapy is indicated for metastases only in vital or sensitive regions that cannot be excised without risk of disabling neurologic defects. In these cases, radiosurgery may be an alternative to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy. At the Heidelberg linear accelerator-based radiosurgery facility, 69 patients were treated for 102 inoperable brain metastases. The primary tumor sites included non-small cell lung carcinoma (n = 24), renal cell carcinoma (n = 14), melanoma (skin) (n = 14), colorectal carcinoma (n = 6), carcinoma of unknown primary (n = 4), and others (n = 7). Eleven patients were treated for relapse after surgery or after conventional whole-brain irradiation. The doses at the isocenter varied from 15-50 Gy (mean, 21.5 Gy). Ten patients with multiple metastases received a planned combination of whole-brain irradiation plus a single boost of 15 Gy. The median survival time for the entire group was 6 months, with a 1-year-survival of 28.3%. Factors associated with significant improvement of survival were brain metastases without other metastatic disease and good response to radiation therapy. Five of 22 patients (22.9%) with metastases located only in the brain survived longer than 2 years. An improvement in neurologic function was found in 81% within a period of 3 months. With imaging techniques, complete remission was found in 20%, partial remission in 35%, stable disease in 40%, and relapse in 5%. The authors concluded that radiosurgery is an effective and safe therapy for brain metastases. It can be applied as primary treatment, as boost in combination with whole-brain irradiation, or as treatment for patients with relapse in a previously irradiated field. PMID:8435811

  9. Defect evolution in a Nisbnd Mosbnd Crsbnd Fe alloy subjected to high-dose Kr ion irradiation at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Reyes, Massey; Voskoboinikov, Roman; Kirk, Marquis A.; Huang, Hefei; Lumpkin, Greg; Bhattacharyya, Dhriti

    2016-06-01

    A candidate Nisbnd Mosbnd Crsbnd Fe alloy (GH3535) for application as a structural material in a molten salt nuclear reactor was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr2+ ions (723 K, max dose of 100 dpa) at the IVEM-Tandem facility. The evolution of defects like dislocation loops and vacancy- and self-interstitial clusters was examined in-situ. For obtaining a deeper insight into the true nature of these defects, the irradiated sample was further analysed under a TEM post-facto. The results show that there is a range of different types of defects formed under irradiation. Interaction of radiation defects with each other and with pre-existing defects, e.g., linear dislocations, leads to the formation of complex microstructures. Molecular dynamics simulations used to obtain a greater understanding of these defect transformations showed that the interaction between linear dislocations and radiation induced dislocation loops could form faulted structures that explain the fringed contrast of these defects observed in TEM.

  10. Defect evolution in a Nisbnd Mosbnd Crsbnd Fe alloy subjected to high-dose Kr ion irradiation at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Reyes, Massey; Voskoboinikov, Roman; Kirk, Marquis A.; Huang, Hefei; Lumpkin, Greg; Bhattacharyya, Dhriti

    2016-06-01

    A candidate Nisbnd Mosbnd Crsbnd Fe alloy (GH3535) for application as a structural material in a molten salt nuclear reactor was irradiated with 1 MeV Kr2+ ions (723 K, max dose of 100 dpa) at the IVEM-Tandem facility. The evolution of defects like dislocation loops and vacancy- and self-interstitial clusters was examined in-situ. For obtaining a deeper insight into the true nature of these defects, the irradiated sample was further analysed under a TEM post-facto. The results show that there is a range of different types of defects formed under irradiation. Interaction of radiation defects with each other and with pre-existing defects, e.g., linear dislocations, leads to the formation of complex microstructures. Molecular dynamics simulations used to obtain a greater understanding of these defect transformations showed that the interaction between linear dislocations and radiation induced dislocation loops could form faulted structures that explain the fringed contrast of these defects observed in TEM.

  11. Swelling and microstructure of austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 CW after high dose neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu. V.; Garner, F. А.

    2009-08-01

    Austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 serving as fuel pin cladding was irradiated in the 20% cold-worked condition in the BN-600 fast reactor in the range 56-84 dpa. This steel was developed to replace EI-847 which was limited by its insufficient resistance to void swelling. Comparison of swelling between EI-847 and ChS-68 under similar irradiation conditions showed improvement of the latter steel by an extended transient regime of an additional ˜10 dpa. Concurrent with swelling was the development of a variety of phases. In the temperature range 430-460 °С where the temperature peak of swelling was located, the principal type of phase generated during irradiation was G-phase, with volume fraction increasing linearly with dose to ˜0.5% at 84 dpa. While the onset of swelling is concurrent with formation of G-phase, the action of G-phase cannot be confidently ascribed to significant removal from solution of swelling-suppressive elements such as silicon. A plausible mechanism for the higher resistance to void swelling of ChS-68 as compared with EI-847 may be related to an observed higher stability of faulted dislocation loops in ChS-68 that impedes the formation of a glissile dislocation network. The higher level of boron in ChS-68 is thought to be one contributor that might play this role.

  12. Genistein Protects Against Biomarkers of Delayed Lung Sequelae in Mice Surviving High-Dose Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    DAY, Regina M.; BARSHISHAT-KUPPER, Michal; MOG, Steven R.; MCCART, Elizabeth A.; PRASANNA, P. G. S.; DAVIS, Thomas A.; LANDAUER, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment + Sham (NC), Vehicle + Sham (VC), Genistein + Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle + Radiation (VR), Genistein + Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13–28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. PMID:18434686

  13. Factors Associated With Chest Wall Toxicity After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Sheree; Vicini, Frank; Vanapalli, Jyotsna R.; Whitaker, Thomas J.; Pope, D. Keith; Lyden, Maureen; Bruggeman, Lisa; Haile, Kenneth L.; McLaughlin, Mark P.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate dose-volume relationships associated with a higher probability for developing chest wall toxicity (pain) after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by using both single-lumen and multilumen brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Rib dose data were available for 89 patients treated with APBI and were correlated with the development of chest wall/rib pain at any point after treatment. Ribs were contoured on computed tomography planning scans, and rib dose-volume histograms (DVH) along with histograms for other structures were constructed. Rib DVH data for all patients were sampled at all volumes {>=}0.008 cubic centimeter (cc) (for maximum dose related to pain) and at volumes of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 cc for analysis. Rib pain was evaluated at each follow-up visit. Patient responses were marked as yes or no. No attempt was made to grade responses. Eighty-nine responses were available for this analysis. Results: Nineteen patients (21.3%) complained of transient chest wall/rib pain at any point in follow-up. Analysis showed a direct correlation between total dose received and volume of rib irradiated with the probability of developing rib/chest wall pain at any point after follow-up. The median maximum dose at volumes {>=}0.008 cc of rib in patients who experienced chest wall pain was 132% of the prescribed dose versus 95% of the prescribed dose in those patients who did not experience pain (p = 0.0035). Conclusions: Although the incidence of chest wall/rib pain is quite low with APBI brachytherapy, attempts should be made to keep the volume of rib irradiated at a minimum and the maximum dose received by the chest wall as low as reasonably achievable.

  14. Stage 4 neuroblastoma: sequential hemi-body irradiation or high-dose chemotherapy plus autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation to consolidate primary treatment

    PubMed Central

    Luksch, R; Podda, M; Gandola, L; Polastri, D; Piva, L; Castellani, R; Collini, P; Massimino, M; Cefalo, G; Terenziani, M; Ferrari, A; Casanova, M; Spreafico, F; Meazza, C; Bozzi, F; Marchianò, A; Ravagnani, F; Fossati-Bellani, F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two consecutive nonrandomised treatment programs applied between 1989 and 1999 at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan in an unselected cohort of 59 children over the age of one with stage 4 neuroblastoma. Both treatment programs consisted of two phases, the induction of the remission phase and the consolidation phase. The induction of the remission phase consisted of intensive chemotherapy, and remained the same throughout the study period. The consolidation phase consisted of sequential hemi-body irradiation (HBI) (10 Gy per session, 6 weeks apart) in the first period (1988–June 1994) and sequential high-dose cyclophosphamide, etoposide, mitoxantrone+L-PAM and autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation in the second (July 1994–1999). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significantly better outcome for patients treated with the second program, the 5-year event-free survival probability being 0.12 for program 1 and 0.31 for program 2 (P=0.03). This finding led us to conclude that sequential HBI is useless as consolidation treatment. The high-dose chemotherapy adopted in the second program enabled a proportion of patients to obtain long-term survival but, since the clinical results remain unsatisfactory, new treatment strategies are warranted. PMID:15900298

  15. Kinetics of the current response in TlBr detectors under a high dose rate of {gamma}-ray irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gazizov, I. M.; Zaletin, V. M.; Kukushkin, V. M.; Kuznetsov, M. S.; Lisitsky, I. S.

    2012-03-15

    The kinetics of the photocurrent response in doped and undoped TlBr samples subjected to irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons from a {sup 137}Cs source with the dose rate 0.033 to 3.84 Gy/min are studied. The crystals were grown by the directional crystallization of the melt method using the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The Pb impurity mass fraction introduced into the doped TlBr crystals was 1-10 ppm and amounted to 150 ppm for the Ca impurity. The crystals were grown in a vacuum, in bromine vapors, in a hydrogen atmosphere, and in air. Decay of the photocurrent is observed for extrinsic semiconductor crystals doped with bivalent cations (irrespective of the growth atmosphere), and also for crystals grown in hydrogen and crystals grown in an excess of thallium. The time constant of photocurrent decay {tau} amounted to 30-1400 s and was proportional to resistivity. It is shown that the current response can be related to photolysis in the TlBr crystals during irradiation with {gamma}-ray photons. The energy of hole traps responsible for a slow increase in the photo-current has been estimated and found to be equal to 0.6-0.85 eV.

  16. Role of carbon impurities on the surface morphology evolution of tungsten under high dose helium ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ajlony, A.; Tripathi, J. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of carbon impurities on the surface evolution (e.g., fuzz formation) of tungsten (W) surface during 300 eV He ions irradiation was studied. Several tungsten samples were irradiated by He ion beam with a various carbon ions percentage. The presence of minute carbon contamination within the He ion beam was found to be effective in preventing the fuzz formation. At higher carbon concentration, the W surface was found to be fully covered with a thick graphitic layer on the top of tungsten carbide (WC) layer that cover the sample surface. Lowering the ion beam carbon percentage was effective in a significant reduction in the thickness of the surface graphite layer. Under these conditions the W surface was also found to be immune for the fuzz formation. The effect of W fuzz prevention by the WC formation on the sample surface was more noticeable when the He ion beam had much lower carbon (C) ions content (0.01% C). In this case, the fuzz formation was prevented on the vast majority of the W sample surface, while W fuzz was found in limited and isolated areas. The W surface also shows good resistance to morphology evolution when bombarded by high flux of pure H ions at 900 °C.

  17. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy in a 68-year-old patient with previous heart transplantation and pelvic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Axcrona, Karol; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Hovland, Jarl; Brennhovd, Bjørn; Kongsgaard, Ulf; Giercksky, Karl-Erik

    2012-03-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man who had previously undergone heart transplantation and pelvic irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma and who was under active surveillance for prostate cancer. In response to his increased prostate-specific antigen levels and elevated Gleason score, he was offered robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. PMID:22408687

  18. Analysis of Chromosomal Aberrations after Low and High Dose Rate Gamma Irradiation in ATM or NBS Suppressed Human Fibroblast Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z.; Pluth, J. M.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the biological effects of heavy nuclei is needed for space radiation protection and for cancer therapy. High-LET radiation produces more complex DNA lesions that may be non-repairable or that may require additional processing steps compared to endogenous DSBs, increasing the possibility of misrepair. Interplay between radiation sensitivity, dose, and radiation quality has not been studied extensively. Previously we studied chromosome aberrations induced by low- and high- LET radiation in several cell lines deficient in ATM (ataxia telangactasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. We found that the yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations were significantly increased in the DSB repair defective cells compared to normal cells. The increased aberrations observed for the ATM and NBS defective lines was due to a significantly larger quadratic dose-response term compared to normal fibroblasts for both simple and complex aberrations, while the linear dose-response term was significantly higher in NBS cells only for simple exchanges. These results point to the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that function to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. To further understand the sensitivity differences that were observed in ATM and NBS deficient cells, in this study, chromosomal aberration analysis was performed in normal lung fibroblast cells treated with KU-55933, a specific ATM kinase inhibitor, or Mirin, an MRN complex inhibitor involved in activation of ATM. We are also testing siRNA knockdown of these proteins. Normal and ATM or NBS suppressed cells were irradiated with gamma-rays and chromosomes were collected with a premature chromosome

  19. The effect of high dose on residual radicals in open air irradiated α-T UHMWPE resin powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Malik S.; Shah, Jahan M.; Mishra, Sanjay R.; Walters, Benjamin M.

    2013-03-01

    Powder samples of UHMWPE (GUR 1020) containing 0.1 wt%. vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-T) were irradiated at room temperature in air for doses of 30-kGy, 65-kGy or 100-kGy (60Co). After irradiation, they were stored at -78.5 °C (dry ice temperature) for 1 year and then opened to air at room temperature. Following the decay of the primary alkyl and allyl radicals (at room temperature in air), growth of the carbon-centered polyenyl R1 (-˙CH-[-CHCH-]m-, m≥3), and the oxygen-centered di- or tri-enyl R2 (-˙OCH-[-CHCH-]m-, m≤3) residual radicals were measured for 8 weeks. An X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer was used for radical measurements. The initial relative radical concentrations (R2/R1) were found to be 10.13, 4.6 and 3.7 for the 65-kGy, 30-kGy and 100-kGy samples, respectively. R1 and R2 were both found to grow significantly in the 65-kGy sample while they grew only slightly in the 30-kGy and 100-kGy samples. In 65-kGy sample, R1 grew faster than R2 and the relative concentration R2/R1 was reduced from 10.13 to 2.9 for the 65-kGy sample while those for the 30-kGy and 100-kGy samples reduced only slightly, from 4.6 to 3.5 and 3.7 to 3.2, respectively. The behavior of the residual radicals can be explained by Raman spectroscopic data which suggest that the 65-kGy samples had a higher percentage of amorphous regions when compared to the 30-kGy or 100-kGy ones (21.7 compared to 15.7 or 17.9) and also suggest a lower percentage of interfacial regions (16.4 compared to 25.6 or 17.5) and a lower level of structural disorder (0.26 compared to 0.44 or 0.27).

  20. Combination Short-Course Preoperative Irradiation, Surgical Resection, and Reduced-Field High-Dose Postoperative Irradiation in the Treatment of Tumors Involving the Bone

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Timothy D. Kobayashi, Wendy; Dean, Susan; Goldberg, Saveli I.; Kirsch, David G.; Suit, Herman D.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Pedlow, Francis X.; Raskin, Kevin A.; Springfield, Dempsey S.; Yoon, Sam S.; Gebhardt, Marc C.; Mankin, Henry J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and outcomes of combination short-course preoperative radiation, resection, and reduced-field (tumor bed without operative field coverage) high-dose postoperative radiation for patients with solid tumors mainly involving the spine and pelvis. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2006, a total of 48 patients were treated using this treatment strategy for solid tumors involving bone. Radiation treatments used both photons and protons. Results: Of those treated, 52% had chordoma, 31% had chondrosarcoma, 8% had osteosarcoma, and 4% had Ewing's sarcoma, with 71% involving the pelvis/sacrum and 21% elsewhere in the spine. Median preoperative dose was 20 Gy, with a median of 50.4 Gy postoperatively. With 31.8-month median follow-up, the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate is 65%; 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate, 53.8%; and 5-year local control (LC) rate, 72%. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, and LC according to histologic characteristics. Between primary and recurrent disease, there was no significant difference in OS rates (74.4% vs. 51.4%, respectively; p = 0.128), in contrast to DFS (71.5% vs. 18.3%; p = 0.0014) and LC rates (88.9% vs. 30.9%; p = 0.0011) favoring primary disease. After resection, 10 patients experienced delayed wound healing that did not significantly impact on OS, DFS, or LC. Conclusion: This approach is promising for patients with bone sarcomas in which resection will likely yield close/positive margins. It appears to inhibit tumor seeding with an acceptable rate of wound-healing complications. Dose escalation is accomplished without high-dose preoperative radiation (likely associated with higher rates of acute wound healing delays) or large-field postoperative radiation only (likely associated with late normal tissue toxicity). The LC and DFS rates are substantially better for patients with primary than recurrent sarcomas.

  1. Preservation of ovarian function by ovarian transposition performed before pelvic irradiation during childhood.

    PubMed

    Thibaud, E; Ramirez, M; Brauner, R; Flamant, F; Zucker, J M; Fékété, C; Rappaport, R

    1992-12-01

    Ovarian transposition in adults has been shown to protect ovarian function in about 60% of cases by reducing ovarian exposure to less than 4 to 7 Gy. We therefore evaluated the effect of ovarian transposition during childhood or adolescence. Eighteen girls had ovarian transposition performed at a mean (+/- SEM) age of 9.4 +/- 1.2 years (range, 1.2 to 16 years). Twelve were prepubertal and six had menstruated at the time of ovarian transposition. The initial abnormalities were Hodgkin disease (5 cases), iliac Ewing sarcoma (3), medulloblastoma (2), ovarian seminoma (1), and vaginal or uterine tumor (7). The irradiation was external in 11 cases and local by vaginal curietherapy in 7 cases. Fifteen girls received chemotherapy. The ovarian transposition was bilateral in 15 patients and unilateral in 3 cases; in the latter the other ovary had been destroyed by the tumor or by abdominal irradiation. Ovaries were placed just below the iliac crest (15 cases) or posterolateral to the uterus (3); thus, the calculated ovarian radiation dose was up to 9.5 Gy. At the time of evaluation (8.6 +/- 0.9 years after ovarian transposition), 16 girls had menstruated and 2 remained amenorrheic because of major lesions of the vagina and uterus caused by the vaginal curietherapy. Basal plasma gonadotropin values were normal. Ovulation was documented in seven cases. Two pregnancies occurred. Complications of ovarian transposition were present in four patients: intestinal occlusion, dyspareunia, functional ovarian cysts, and pelvic adhesions with tubal obstruction. We conclude that ovarian transposition, performed before abdominopelvic irradiation during childhood, can preserve ovarian function. Longer follow-up is required to assess the risk of ovarian dystrophy because of vascular lesions or chemotherapy. PMID:1447649

  2. High dose neutron irradiation of MgAl2O4 spinel: effects of post-irradiation thermal annealing on EPR and optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, A.; Bravo, D.; Lopez, F J.; Garner, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra were measured during thermal annealing for stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel that was previously irradiated in FFTF-MOTA at {approx}405 C to {approx}50 dpa. Both F and F+ centres are to persist up to very high temperatures (over 700C), suggesting the operation of an annealing mechanism based on evaporation from extended defects Using x-ray irradiation following the different annealing steps it was shown that the optical absorption band is related to a sharp EPR band at g=2.0005 and that the defect causing these effects is the F+ centre.

  3. Predicting Radiosensitivity with Gamma-H2AX Foci Assay after Single High-Dose-Rate and Pulsed Dose-Rate Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    van Oorschot, Bregje; Hovingh, Suzanne; Dekker, Annelot; Stalpers, Lukas J; Franken, Nicolaas A P

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-H2AX foci detection is the standard method to quantify DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair. In this study, we investigated the induction and decay of γ-H2AX foci of different tumor cell lines and fibroblasts with known mutations in DNA damage repair genes, including ATM, LigIV, DNA-PKcs, Rad51 and Rad54. A radiation dose of 2.4 Gy was used for either an acute single high-dose-rate (sHDR) exposure or a pulsed dose-rate (pDR) exposure over 24 h. The number of γ-H2AX foci was determined at 30 min and 24 h after sHDR irradiation and directly after pDR irradiation. In a similar manner, γ-H2AX foci were also examined in lymphocytes of patients with differences in normal tissue toxicity after a total radiation dose of 1 Gy. In an initial count of the number of foci 30 min after sHDR irradiation, repair-proficient cell types could not be distinguished from repair-deficient cell types. However at 24 h postirradiation, while we observed a large decrease in foci numbers in NHEJ-proficient cells, the amount of γ-H2AX foci in cell types with mutated NHEJ repair remained at high levels. Except for IRS-1SF cells, HR-deficient cell types eventually did show a moderate decrease in foci number over time, albeit to a lesser extent than their corresponding parentals or repair-proficient control cells. In addition, analysis of γ-H2AX foci after sHDR exposure of patients with different sensitivity status clearly showed individual differences in radiation response. Radiosensitive patients could be distinguished from the more radioresistant patients with γ-H2AX foci decay ratios (initial number of foci divided by residual number of foci). Significantly higher decay ratios were observed in patients without toxicities, indicating more proficient repair compared to patients with radiation-induced side effects. After pDR irradiation, no consistent correlation could be found between foci number and radiosensitivity. In conclusion, γ-H2AX formation is a rapid and

  4. Treatment of aggressive multiple myeloma by high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation followed by blood stem cells autologous graft

    SciTech Connect

    Fermand, J.P.; Levy, Y.; Gerota, J.; Benbunan, M.; Cosset, J.M.; Castaigne, S.; Seligmann, M.; Brouet, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Eight patients with stage III aggressive multiple myeloma, refractory to current chemotherapy in six cases, were treated by high-dose chemotherapy (nitrosourea, etoposide, and melphalan) (HDC) and total body irradiation (TBI), followed by autografting with blood stem cells. These cells were previously collected by leukapheresis performed during hematologic recovery following cytotoxic drug-induced bone marrow aplasia. Seven patients were alive 9 to 17 months after HDC-TBI and graft. One died at day 40 from cerebral bleeding. All living patients achieved a 90% or greater reduction in tumor mass. In two cases, a complete remission (CR) has persisted at a follow-up of 15 and 16 months. Three patients have been well and off therapy with stable minimal residual disease (RD) since 10, 11, and 17 months, respectively. A patient in apparent CR and another with RD have relapsed 9 to 12 months posttreatment. Autologous blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells induced successful and sustained engraftment in all living patients. These results, although still preliminary, indicate that HDC and TBI, followed by blood stem cells autograft, which has both practical and theoretical interest over allogeneic or autologous bone marrow transplantation, deserve consideration in selected patients with multiple myeloma.

  5. Modified total body irradiation as a planned second high-dose therapy with stem cell infusion for patients with bone-based malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Zaucha, Renata E.; Buckner, Dean C.; Barnett, Todd; Holmberg, Leona A.; Gooley, Ted; Hooper, Heather A. P.A.-C.; Maloney, David G.; Appelbaum, Frederick; Bensinger, William I. . E-mail: wbensing@fhcrc.org

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the maximum tolerated dose of hyperfractionated total marrow irradiation (TMI) as a second consolidation after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous or syngeneic blood stem cell transfusion for patients with bone/bone marrow-based malignant disease. Patients and Methods: Fifty-seven patients aged 3-65 years (median, 45 years), including 21 with multiple myeloma, 24 with breast cancer, 10 with sarcoma, and 2 with lymphoma, were treated with 1.5 Gy administered twice daily to a total dose of 12 Gy (n = 27), 13.5 Gy (n = 12), and 15 Gy (n = 18). Median time between the 2 transplants was 105 days (range, 63-162 days). Results: All patients engrafted neutrophils (median, Day 11; range, Day 9-23) and became platelet independent (median, Day 9; range, Day 7-36). There were 5 cases of Grade 3-4 regimen-related pulmonary toxicity, 1 at 12 Gy, and 4 at 15 Gy. Complete responses, partial responses, and stabilizations were achieved in 33%, 26%, and 41% of patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival for 56 evaluable patients are 24% and 36%, respectively. Median time of follow-up among survivors was 96 months (range, 77-136 months). Conclusion: Total marrow irradiation as a second myeloablative therapy is feasible. The estimated maximum tolerated dose for TMI in a tandem transplant setting was 13.5 Gy. Because 20% of patients are surviving at 8 years free of disease, further studies of TMI are warranted.

  6. Management of high-grade stage I adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: hysterectomy following low dose external beam pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimm, D.S.; Wang, C.C.; Fuller, A.F. Jr.; Nelson, J.H. Jr.; Nikrui, N.; Young, R.H.; Scully, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Sixty-eight patients with FIGO stage I, grade 2 or 3 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium were treated according to a protocol involving 10 Gy external pelvic irradiation, prompt hysterectomy with surgical staging, and postoperative therapy individualized according to surgical-pathologic findings. Five-year survival for the entire group was 78%, 87% for those with grade 2 disease, and 59% for those with grade 3 disease. For patients whose disease was found to be confined to the uterus, surgical stage I, the 5-year survival was 98%. Patients with surgical stage I, grades 2 and 3 disease had 97 and 100% probabilities of surviving 5 years, respectively. Five-year disease-free probability was 96% for all patients with surgical stage I carcinoma, 97% for patients with grade 2 disease, and 94% for patients with grade 3 disease. Myometrial penetration influenced survival; no patient with less than 50% myometrial penetration died or suffered a relapse, while only 40% of patients with deeper penetration survived 5 years. Twenty-three percent of patients with surgically confirmed disease spread beyond the corpus survived 5 years; 29% remained disease-free at this interval. Ten of the 68 patients developed recurrences, none has had a known pelvic recurrence. Two major complications, one requiring surgery, were seen, both in patients receiving postoperative external beam irradiation. The rationale behind low-dose, preoperative external pelvic irradiation is described, and an approach to high-grade, FIGO stage I adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is outlined.

  7. High-dose neutron irradiation of MgAl 2O 4 spinel: effects of post-irradiation thermal annealing on EPR and optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, A.; Bravo, D.; Lopez, F. J.; Garner, F. A.

    2005-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption spectra were measured during thermal annealing of stoichiometric MgAl 2O 4 spinel that was previously irradiated in the Materials Open Test Assembly in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF/MOTA) at ≈680 K to ≈50 dpa. Both F and F + centres are to persist up to very high temperatures (over 1000 K) suggesting the operation of an annealing mechanism controlled by the thermal stability of extended defects. Using X-ray irradiation following the different annealing steps it was shown that an optical absorption band at 37 000 cm -1 is related to a sharp EPR band at g = 2.0005 and that the defect causing these effects is the F + centre.

  8. Treatment of Urethral Strictures from Irradiation and Other Nonsurgical Forms of Pelvic Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Khourdaji, Iyad; Parke, Jacob; Chennamsetty, Avinash; Burks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), photon beam therapy (PBT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryotherapy are noninvasive treatment options for pelvic malignancies and prostate cancer. Though effective in treating cancer, urethral stricture disease is an underrecognized and poorly reported sequela of these treatment modalities. Studies estimate the incidence of stricture from BT to be 1.8%, EBRT 1.7%, combined EBRT and BT 5.2%, and cryotherapy 2.5%. Radiation effects on the genitourinary system can manifest early or months to years after treatment with the onus being on the clinician to investigate and rule-out stricture disease as an underlying etiology for lower urinary tract symptoms. Obliterative endarteritis resulting in ischemia and fibrosis of the irradiated tissue complicates treatment strategies, which include urethral dilation, direct-vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU), urethral stents, and urethroplasty. Failure rates for dilation and DVIU are exceedingly high with several studies indicating that urethroplasty is the most definitive and durable treatment modality for patients with radiation-induced stricture disease. However, a detailed discussion should be offered regarding development or worsening of incontinence after treatment with urethroplasty. Further studies are required to assess the nature and treatment of cryotherapy and HIFU-induced strictures. PMID:26494994

  9. Treatment of Urethral Strictures from Irradiation and Other Nonsurgical Forms of Pelvic Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Khourdaji, Iyad; Parke, Jacob; Chennamsetty, Avinash; Burks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), photon beam therapy (PBT), high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and cryotherapy are noninvasive treatment options for pelvic malignancies and prostate cancer. Though effective in treating cancer, urethral stricture disease is an underrecognized and poorly reported sequela of these treatment modalities. Studies estimate the incidence of stricture from BT to be 1.8%, EBRT 1.7%, combined EBRT and BT 5.2%, and cryotherapy 2.5%. Radiation effects on the genitourinary system can manifest early or months to years after treatment with the onus being on the clinician to investigate and rule-out stricture disease as an underlying etiology for lower urinary tract symptoms. Obliterative endarteritis resulting in ischemia and fibrosis of the irradiated tissue complicates treatment strategies, which include urethral dilation, direct-vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU), urethral stents, and urethroplasty. Failure rates for dilation and DVIU are exceedingly high with several studies indicating that urethroplasty is the most definitive and durable treatment modality for patients with radiation-induced stricture disease. However, a detailed discussion should be offered regarding development or worsening of incontinence after treatment with urethroplasty. Further studies are required to assess the nature and treatment of cryotherapy and HIFU-induced strictures. PMID:26494994

  10. Prospective evaluation of pulmonary function in cancer patients treated with total body irradiation, high-dose melphalan, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Gandola, L.; Siena, S.; Bregni, M.; Sverzellati, E.; Piotti, P.; Stucchi, C.; Gianni, A.M.; Lombardi, F. )

    1990-09-01

    Pulmonary function tests (standard vital capacity, SVC; total lung capacity, TLC; forced expiratory volume in 1 second-forced vital capacity ratio, FEV1/FVC; carbon monoxide transfer factor, DLCO) were prospectively evaluated in patients (median age 25 years, 13-52 years; median follow-up 20 months, 6-51 months) with Hodgkin's disease (15 patients), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (9 patients), and inflammatory breast cancer (3 patients) treated with sequential high-dose therapy comprising the following phases over approximately 2 months: (a) cyclophosphamide (7 g/m2); (b) vincristine (1.4 mg/m2), methotrexate (8 g/m2), and cisplatinum (120 mg/m2) or etoposide (2 g/m2); (c) total body irradiation (TBI; 12.5 gy, 5 fractions over 48 hours), intravenous melphalan (120-180 mg/m2), and transplantation of autologous peripheral blood and/or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. Within 2 months after transplantation, 12 patients also received 25 Gy radiotherapy boost to mediastinum and clavicular regions. In vivo dosimetry evaluations of fractionated TBI treatments showed that mean radiation dose absorbed by lungs was 12.18 Gy (97.4% of TBI dose). Despite such a high radiation dose, we observed only transient and subclinical decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO. The decrease of SVC, TLC, and DLCO was more evident and prolonged in patients receiving radiotherapy boost. All parameters progressively recovered to normal values within 2 years after transplantation. In contrast, FEV1/FVC remained within normal limits in all patients, thus demonstrating the absence of obstructive ventilatory changes. In addition, no interstitial pneumonia was observed.

  11. Results of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation After Treatment With Different High-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Regimens in Five Dutch Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Loes van Kempen-Harteveld, M. Brand, Ronald; Kal, Henk B.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Hofman, Pieter; Schattenberg, Anton V.; Maazen, Richard W. van der; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Eijkenboom, Wil M.H.; Lelie, Johannes P. van der; Oldenburger, Foppe; Barge, Renee M.; Biezen, Anja van; Vossen, Jaak M.J.J.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate results of high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,032 patients underwent TBI in one or two fractions before autologous or allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The TBI regimens were normalized by using the biological effective dose (BED) concept. The BED values were divided into three dose groups. Study end points were relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis was performed, stratified by disease. Results: In the highest TBI dose group, RI was significantly lower and NRM was higher vs. the lower dose groups. However, a significant influence on RFS and OS was not found. Relapses in the eye region were found only after shielding to very low doses. Age was of significant influence on OS, RFS, and NRM in favor of younger patients. The NRM of patients older than 40 years significantly increased, and OS decreased. There was no influence of age on RI. Men had better OS and RFS and lower NRM. Type of transplantation significantly influenced RI and NRM for patients with acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no influence on RFS and OS. Conclusions: Both RI and NRM were significantly influenced by the size of the BED of single-dose or two-fraction TBI regimens; OS and RFS were not. Age was of highly significant influence on NRM, but there was no influence of age on RI. Hyperfractionated TBI with a high BED might be useful, assuming NRM can be reduced.

  12. Intrapelvic prosthesis to prevent injury of the small intestine with high dosage pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarbaker, P.H.

    1983-09-01

    The major complication to delivering tumoricidal dosages of radiation to the pelvis is radiation damage to the loops of the small intestine located within the radiation field. To exclude the small intestine from the pelvis after extensive pelvic surgical treatment, prosthetic materials are used. A transabdominal baffle made of prosthetic mesh separates pelvic and abdominal cavities. A Silastic implant, usually used in the reconstruction of the breast, is used in the pelvis to occupy space. In so doing, all of the small intestine can be excluded from the pelvic cavity and dosages of radiation to 6,500 rads can be administered.

  13. Offline multiple adaptive planning strategy for concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Peng; Xia, Ping; Pouliot, Jean; Roach, Mack

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Concurrent irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes (PLNs) can be challenging due to the independent motion of the two target volumes. To address this challenge, the authors have proposed a strategy referred to as Multiple Adaptive Planning (MAP). To minimize the number of MAP plans, the authors’ previous work only considered the prostate motion in one major direction. After analyzing the pattern of the prostate motion, the authors investigated a practical number of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans needed to accommodate the prostate motion in two major directions simultaneously. Methods: Six patients, who received concurrent irradiation of the prostate and PLNs, were selected for this study. Nine MAP-IMRT plans were created for each patient with nine prostate contours that represented the prostate at nine locations with respect to the PLNs, including the original prostate contour and eight contours shifted either 5 mm in a single anterior-posterior (A-P), or superior-inferior (S-I) direction, or 5 mm in both A-P and S-I directions simultaneously. From archived megavoltage cone beam CT (MV-CBCT) and a dual imaging registration, 17 MV-CBCTs from 33 available MV-CBCT from these patients showed large prostate displacements (>3 mm in any direction) with respect to the pelvic bones. For each of these 17 fractions, one of nine MAP-IMRT plans was retrospectively selected and applied to the MV-CBCT for dose calculation. For comparison, a simulated isocenter-shifting plan and a reoptimized plan were also created for each of these 17 fractions. The doses to 95% (D95) of the prostate and PLNs, and the doses to 5% (D5) of the rectum and bladder were calculated and analyzed. Results: For the prostate, D95 > 97% of the prescription dose was observed in 16, 16, and 17 of 17 fractions for the MAP, isocenter-shifted, and reoptimized plans, respectively. For PLNs, D95 > 97% of the prescription doses was observed in 10, 3, and 17 of 17 fractions for

  14. SU-E-T-157: Evaluation and Comparison of Doses to Pelvic Lymph Nodes and to Point B with 3D Image Guided Treatment Planning for High Dose Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandare, N.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare the doses received by the obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes and point Methods: CT-MR fused image sets of 15 patients obtained for each of 5 fractions of HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring applicator, were used to generate treatment plans optimized to deliver a prescription dose to HRCTV-D90 and to minimize the doses to organs at risk (OARs). For each set of image, target volume (GTV, HRCTV) OARs (Bladder, Rectum, Sigmoid), and both left and right pelvic lymph nodes (obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes) were delineated. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated for pelvic nodal groups (left and right obturator group, internal and external iliac chains) Per fraction DVH parameters used for dose comparison included dose to 100% volume (D100), and dose received by 2cc (D2cc), 1cc (D1cc) and 0.1 cc (D0.1cc) of nodal volume. Dose to point B was compared with each DVH parameter using 2 sided t-test. Pearson correlation were determined to examine relationship of point B dose with nodal DVH parameters. Results: FIGO clinical stage varied from 1B1 to IIIB. The median pretreatment tumor diameter measured on MRI was 4.5 cm (2.7– 6.4cm).The median dose to bilateral point B was 1.20 Gy ± 0.12 or 20% of the prescription dose. The correlation coefficients were all <0.60 for all nodal DVH parameters indicating low degree of correlation. Only 2 cc of obturator nodes was not significantly different from point B dose on t-test. Conclusion: Dose to point B does not adequately represent the dose to any specific pelvic nodal group. When using image guided 3D dose-volume optimized treatment nodal groups should be individually identified and delineated to obtain the doses received by pelvic nodes.

  15. Alleviation of pre-exposure of mouse brain with low-dose 12C6+ ion or 60Co gamma-ray on male reproductive endocrine damages induced by subsequent high-dose irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Liu, Bing; Zhou, Qingming; Zhou, Guangming; Yuan, Zhigang; Li, Wenjian; Duan, Xin; Min, Fengling; Xie, Yi; Li, Xiaoda

    2006-12-01

    Irradiation has been widely reported to damage organisms by attacking on proteins, nucleic acid and lipids in cells. However, radiation hormesis after low-dose irradiation has become the focus of research in radiobiology in recent years. To investigate the effects of pre-exposure of mouse brain with low-dose (12)C6+ ion or 60Co gamma (gamma)-ray on male reproductive endocrine capacity induced by subsequent high-dose irradiation, the brains of the B6C3F1 hybrid strain male mice were irradiated with 0.05 Gy of (12)C6+ ion or 60Co gamma-ray as the pre-exposure dose, and were then irradiated with 2 Gy as challenging irradiation dose at 4 h after pre-exposure. Serum pituitary gonadotropin hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, testis weight, sperm count and shape were measured on the 35th day after irradiation. The results showed that there was a significant reduction in the levels of serum FSH, LH, testosterone, testis weight and sperm count, and a significant increase in sperm abnormalities by irradiation of the mouse brain with 2 Gy of (12)C6+ ion or 60Co gamma-ray. Moreover, the effects were more obvious in the group irradiated by (12)C6+ ion than in that irradiated by 60Co gamma-ray. Pre-exposure with low-dose (12)C6+ ion or 60Co gamma-ray significantly alleviated the harmful effects induced by a subsequent high-dose irradiation. PMID:17121657

  16. Accelerated partial breast irradiation: An analysis of variables associated with late toxicity and long-term cosmetic outcome after high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wazer, David E. . E-mail: dwazer@tufts-nemc.org; Kaufman, Seth; Cuttino, Laurie; Di Petrillo, Thomas; Arthur, Douglas W.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of variables associated with late tissue effects of high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in a large cohort of patients with prolonged follow-up. Methods and Materials: Beginning in 1995, 75 women with Stage I/II breast cancer were enrolled in identical institutional trials evaluating APBI as monotherapy after lumpectomy. Patients eligible included those with T1-2, N0-1 ({<=}3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular nodal extension, and negative results on postexcision mammogram. All patients underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation with HDR interstitial brachytherapy. The planning target volume was defined as the excision cavity plus a 2-cm margin. Treatment was delivered with a high-activity Ir-192 source at 3.4 Gy per fraction twice daily for 5 days to a total dose of 34 Gy. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. All patients were evaluated at 3-6-month intervals and assessed with a standardized cosmetic rating scale and according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late normal tissue toxicity scoring criteria. Clinical and therapy-related features were analyzed for their relationship to cosmetic outcome and toxicity rating. Clinical features analyzed included age, volume of resection, history of diabetes or hypertension, extent of axillary surgery, and systemic therapies. Therapy-related features analyzed included volume of tissue encompassed by the 100%, 150%, and 200% isodose lines (V100, V150, and V200, respectively), the dose homogeneity index (DHI), number of source dwell positions, and planar separation. Results: The median follow-up of all patients was 73 months (range, 43-118 months). The cosmetic outcome at last follow-up was rated as excellent, good, and fair/poor in 67%, 24%, and 9% of patients, respectively

  17. A simple method of alignment for pelvic irradiation in obese patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sweigart, Kenneth

    2002-12-31

    Administering radiation therapy to obese pelvic patients can pose a difficult challenge to even the veteran radiation therapist. Daily reproducibility can be achieved with the sacrifice of additional time and filming. We have developed a technique which has shown consistent reproducibility of the radiation treatments with a minimum of inconvenience to busy schedules.

  18. Dose-Volume Relationships for Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Pelvic Nodal Irradiation for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorino, Claudio Alongi, Filippo; Perna, Lucia; Broggi, Sara; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Cozzarini, Cesare; Di Muzio, Nadia; Fazio, Ferruccio; Calandrino, Riccardo

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To find correlation between dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the intestinal cavity (IC) and moderate-severe acute bowel toxicity in men with prostate cancer treated with pelvic nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 191 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent whole-pelvis radiotherapy with radical or adjuvant/salvage intent during January 2004 to November 2007. Complete planning/clinical data were available in 175 of these men, 91 of whom were treated with a conventional four-field technique (50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction) and 84 of whom were treated with IMRT using conventional Linac (n = 26, 50.4 Gy, 1.8 Gy/fraction) or Helical TomoTherapy (n = 58, 50-54 Gy, 1.8-2 Gy/fraction). The IC outside the planning target volume (PTV) was contoured and the DVH for the first 6 weeks of treatment was recovered in all patients. The correlation between a number of clinical and DVH (V10-V55) variables and toxicity was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses. The correlation between DVHs for the IC outside the PTV and DVHs for the whole IC was also assessed. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced toxicity (3/22 in the IMRT/tomotherapy group). Univariate analyses showed a significant correlation between V20-V50 and toxicity (p = 0.0002-0.001), with a higher predictive value observed for V40-V50. Previous prostatectomy (p = 0.066) and abdominal/pelvic surgery (p = 0.12) also correlated with toxicity. Multivariate analysis that included V45, abdominal/pelvic surgery, and prostatectomy showed that the most predictive parameters were V45 (p = 0.002) and abdominal/pelvic surgery (p = 0.05, HR = 2.4) Conclusions: Our avoidance IMRT approach drastically reduces the incidence of acute bowel toxicity. V40-V50 of IC and, secondarily, previous abdominal/pelvic surgery were the main predictors of acute bowel toxicity.

  19. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, J. F.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-07-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient's entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  20. Irradiation of the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes with an adaptive algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, A. B.; Chen, J.; Nguyen, T. B.; Gottschalk, A. G.; Roach, M. R. III; Pouliot, J.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: The simultaneous treatment of pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate in radiotherapy for prostate cancer is complicated by the independent motion of these two target volumes. In this work, the authors study a method to adapt intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans so as to compensate for this motion by adaptively morphing the multileaf collimator apertures and adjusting the segment weights. Methods: The study used CT images, tumor volumes, and normal tissue contours from patients treated in our institution. An IMRT treatment plan was then created using direct aperture optimization to deliver 45 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes and 50 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles. The prostate target volume was then shifted in either the anterior-posterior direction or in the superior-inferior direction. The treatment plan was adapted by adjusting the aperture shapes with or without re-optimizing the segment weighting. The dose to the target volumes was then determined for the adapted plan. Results: Without compensation for prostate motion, 1 cm shifts of the prostate resulted in an average decrease of 14% in D-95%. If the isocenter is simply shifted to match the prostate motion, the prostate receives the correct dose but the pelvic lymph nodes are underdosed by 14% {+-} 6%. The use of adaptive morphing (with or without segment weight optimization) reduces the average change in D-95% to less than 5% for both the pelvic lymph nodes and the prostate. Conclusions: Adaptive morphing with and without segment weight optimization can be used to compensate for the independent motion of the prostate and lymph nodes when combined with daily imaging or other methods to track the prostate motion. This method allows the delivery of the correct dose to both the prostate and lymph nodes with only small changes to the dose delivered to the target volumes.

  1. Indirect Tumor Cell Death After High-Dose Hypofractionated Irradiation: Implications for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiation Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chang W.; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Griffin, Robert J.; Park, Inhwan; Koonce, Nathan A.; Hui, Susanta; Kim, Mi-Sook; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Sperduto, Paul W.; Cho, L. Chinsoo

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal the biological mechanisms underlying stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: FSaII fibrosarcomas grown subcutaneously in the hind limbs of C3H mice were irradiated with 10 to 30 Gy of X rays in a single fraction, and the clonogenic cell survival was determined with in vivo–in vitro excision assay immediately or 2 to 5 days after irradiation. The effects of radiation on the intratumor microenvironment were studied using immunohistochemical methods. Results: After cells were irradiated with 15 or 20 Gy, cell survival in FSaII tumors declined for 2 to 3 days and began to recover thereafter in some but not all tumors. After irradiation with 30 Gy, cell survival declined continuously for 5 days. Cell survival in some tumors 5 days after 20 to 30 Gy irradiation was 2 to 3 logs less than that immediately after irradiation. Irradiation with 20 Gy markedly reduced blood perfusion, upregulated HIF-1α, and increased carbonic anhydrase-9 expression, indicating that irradiation increased tumor hypoxia. In addition, expression of VEGF also increased in the tumor tissue after 20 Gy irradiation, probably due to the increase in HIF-1α activity. Conclusions: Irradiation of FSaII tumors with 15 to 30 Gy in a single dose caused dose-dependent secondary cell death, most likely by causing vascular damage accompanied by deterioration of intratumor microenvironment. Such indirect tumor cell death may play a crucial role in the control of human tumors with SBRT and SRS.

  2. Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer in Patients With Prior Pelvic Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Prajnan; Delclos, Marc E.; Skibber, John M.; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A.; Feig, Barry W.; Chang, George J.; Eng, Cathy; Bedi, Manpreet; Krishnan, Sunil; Crane, Christopher H.

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine rates of toxicity, freedom from local progression, and survival in rectal cancer patients treated with reirradiation. Methods and Materials: Between February 2001 and February 2005, 50 patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy were treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for primary (n = 2 patients) or recurrent (n = 48 patients) rectal adenocarcinoma. Patients were treated with 150-cGy fractions twice daily, with a total dose of 39 Gy (n = 47 patients) if the retreatment interval was >=1 year or 30 Gy (n = 3) if the retreatment interval was <1 year. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 48 (96%) patients. Eighteen (36%) patients underwent surgical resection following radiotherapy. Results: Two patients had grade 3 acute toxicity and 13 patients had grade 3 to 4 late toxicity. The 3-year rate of grade 3 to 4 late toxicity was 35%. The 3-year rate of freedom from local progression was 33%. The 3-year freedom from local progression rate was 47% in patients undergoing surgery and 21% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.057). The 3-year overall survival rate was 39%. The 3-year overall survival rate was 66% in patients undergoing surgery and 27% in those not undergoing surgery (p = 0.003). The 3-year overall survival rate was 53% in patients with a retreatment interval of >2 years and 21% in those with a retreatment interval of <=2 years (p = 0.001). Conclusions: Hyperfractionated, accelerated reirradiation was well tolerated, with low rates of acute toxicity and moderate rates of late toxicity. Reirradiation may help improve pelvic control in rectal cancer patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy.

  3. Influence of high dose neutron irradiation at 385 and 750°C on the microhardness of MgAl 2O 4 spinel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C. A.; Garner, F. A.; Bradt, R. C.

    1994-09-01

    High-purity specimens of stoichiometric MgAl 2O 4 single crystal spinel and a hot-pressed polycrystalline ceramic spinel were irradiated to exposures as large as 24.9 × 10 22 n cm -2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) in FFTF at 385 and 750°C. The specimens did not develop any brittleness or fragility, and maintained their physical integrity. Microhardness measurements revealed that initially all specimens hardened a small amount and then recovered slightly. At the lower irradiation temperature, the dependence of microhardness on orientation observed prior to irradiation tended to disappear. There was also some evidence that a secondary slip system was being activated. Following 750°C irradiation, the orientation dependence was not lost, and the evidence for activation of a secondary slip system was stronger.

  4. Pelvic Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Exam, Pelvic Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1500x1230 View Download Large: 3000x2460 View Download Title: Exam, Pelvic Description: Pelvic exam; drawing shows a side ...

  5. Extracorporeal Irradiation and Reimplantation with Total Hip Arthroplasty for Periacetabular Pelvic Resections: A Review of 9 Cases.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lester Wai Mon; Imanishi, Jungo; Ngan, Samuel Y; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Thorson, Renae; Pang, Grant; Choong, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report the early results of nine patients with periacetabular malignancies treated with Enneking and Dunham type 2 resection and reconstruction using extracorporeally irradiated (ECI) tumour bone combined with total hip arthroplasty (THA). Diagnosis was chondrosarcoma in six patients, osteosarcoma in two patients, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one patient. All patients underwent surgical resection and the resected specimen was irradiated with 50 Gy in a single fraction before being prepared for reimplantation as a composite autograft. The mean follow-up was 21 months (range, 3-59). All patients were alive at latest follow-up. No local recurrence was observed. One patient serially developed three pulmonary metastases, all of which were resected. One experienced hip dislocation due to incorrect seating of an acetabular liner. This was successfully treated with revision of the liner with no further episodes of instability. There were no cases of deep infection or loss of graft. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was 75% (range, 57-87%). Type 2 pelvic reconstruction with ECI and THA has shown excellent early oncological and functional results in our series. Preservation of the gluteus maximus and hip abductors is important for joint stability and prevention of infection. PMID:27199613

  6. Extracorporeal Irradiation and Reimplantation with Total Hip Arthroplasty for Periacetabular Pelvic Resections: A Review of 9 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lester Wai Mon; Imanishi, Jungo; Ngan, Samuel Y.; Chander, Sarat; Chu, Julie; Thorson, Renae; Pang, Grant; Choong, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report the early results of nine patients with periacetabular malignancies treated with Enneking and Dunham type 2 resection and reconstruction using extracorporeally irradiated (ECI) tumour bone combined with total hip arthroplasty (THA). Diagnosis was chondrosarcoma in six patients, osteosarcoma in two patients, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one patient. All patients underwent surgical resection and the resected specimen was irradiated with 50 Gy in a single fraction before being prepared for reimplantation as a composite autograft. The mean follow-up was 21 months (range, 3–59). All patients were alive at latest follow-up. No local recurrence was observed. One patient serially developed three pulmonary metastases, all of which were resected. One experienced hip dislocation due to incorrect seating of an acetabular liner. This was successfully treated with revision of the liner with no further episodes of instability. There were no cases of deep infection or loss of graft. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was 75% (range, 57–87%). Type 2 pelvic reconstruction with ECI and THA has shown excellent early oncological and functional results in our series. Preservation of the gluteus maximus and hip abductors is important for joint stability and prevention of infection. PMID:27199613

  7. Dosimetric evaluation of three adaptive strategies for prostate cancer treatment including pelvic lymph nodes irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cantin, Audrey; Gingras, Luc; Archambault, Louis; Lachance, Bernard; Foster, William; Goudreault, Julie

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: The movements of the prostate relative to the pelvic lymph nodes during intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment can limit margin reduction and affect the protection of the organs at risk (OAR). In this study, the authors performed an analysis of three adaptive treatment strategies that combine information from both bony and gold marker registrations. The robustness of those treatments against the interfraction prostate movements was evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on five prostate cancer patients with 7–13 daily cone-beam CTs (CBCTs). The clinical target volumes (CTVs) consisting of pelvic lymph nodes, prostate, and seminal vesicles as well as the OARs were delineated on each CBCT and the initial CT. Three adaptive strategies were analyzed. Two of these methods relied on a two-step patient positioning at each fraction. First step: a bony registration was used to deliver the nodal CTV prescription. Second step: a gold marker registration was then used either to (1) complete the dose delivered to the prostate (complement); (2) or give almost the entire prescription to the prostate with a weak dose gradient between the targets to compensate for possible motions (gradient). The third method (COR) used a pool of precalculated plans based on images acquired at previous treatment fractions. At each new fraction, a plan is selected from that pool based on the daily position of prostate center-of-mass. The dosimetric comparison was conducted and results are presented with and without the systematic shift in the prostate position on the CT planning. The adaptive strategies were compared to the current clinical standard where all fractions are treated with the initial nonadaptive plan. Results: The minimum daily prostate D{sub 95%} is improved by 2%, 9%, and 6% for the complement, the gradient, and the COR approaches, respectively, compared to the nonadaptive method. The average nodal CTV D{sub 95%} remains constant across the

  8. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  9. Effects of high-dose 40 MeV proton irradiation on the electroluminescent and electrical performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Rohit; Allums, K.K.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Kim, Jihyun; Ren, F.; Dwivedi, R.; Fogarty, T.N.; Wilkins, R.

    2004-10-11

    InGaN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in the form of unpackaged die with emission wavelengths from 410 to 525 nm were irradiated with 40 MeV protons to doses of 5x10{sup 9}-5x10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}. The highest dose is equivalent to more than 100 years in low-earth orbit. The projected range of these protons is >50 {mu}m in GaN and thus they traverse the entire active region. The electroluminescent intensity from the LEDs decreased by only 15%-25% even for the highest doses and the reverse breakdown voltage increased by 1-2 V from their control values of {approx}21-29 V. The percentage change in breakdown voltage and electroluminescence intensity was independent of the initial emission wavelength over the range investigated, within experimental error. The GaN LEDs exhibit extremely good stability to these high-energy proton irradiations with no measurable change in contact resistance or contact morphology.

  10. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  11. Ultrasound-guided high dose rate conformal brachytherapy boost in prostate cancer: Treatment description and preliminary results of a phase I/II clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Stromberg, J.; Martinez, A.; Edmundson, G.

    1995-08-30

    To improve results for locally advanced prostate cancer, a prospective clinical trial of concurrent external beam irradiation and fractionated iridium-192 (IR-192) high dose rate (HDR) conformal boost brachytherapy was initiated. This technique of concurrent external pelvic irradiation and conformal HDR brachytherapy was well tolerated. No significant intraoperative or perioperative complications occurred. Three patients (9%) experienced Grade 3 acute toxicity (two dysuria and one diarrhea). All toxicities were otherwise Grades 1 or 2 and were primarily as expected from pelvic external irradiation. Persistent implant-related toxicities included Grades 1-2 perineal pain (12%) and hematospermia (15%). Median follow-up time was 13 months. Serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) levels normalized in 91% of patients (29 out of 32) within 1-14 months (median 2.8 months) after irradiation. PSA levels were progressively decreasing in the other three patients at last measurement. Prospectively planned prostatic rebiopsies done at 18 months in the first 10 patients were negative in 9 out of 10 (90%). Acute toxicity has been acceptable with this unique approach using conformal high dose rate IR-192 boost brachytherapy with concurrent external irradiation. The initial tumor response as assessed by serial PSA measurement and rebiopsy is extremely encouraging. Dose escalation will proceed in accordance with the protocol guidelines. Further patient accrual and longer follow-up will allow comparison to other techniques. 58 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sorbe, Bengt; Horvath, Gyoergy; Andersson, Hakan; Boman, Karin; Lundgren, Caroline; Pettersson, Birgitta

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of adjuvant external beam pelvic radiotherapy as adjunct to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in medium-risk endometrial carcinoma, with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive series of 527 evaluable patients were included in this randomized trial. Median follow-up for patients alive was 62 months. The primary study endpoints were locoregional recurrences and overall survival. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free interval, cancer-specific survival, and toxicity. Results: Five-year locoregional relapse rates were 1.5% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus VBT and 5% after vaginal irradiation alone (p = 0.013), and 5-year overall survival rates were 89% and 90%, respectively (p = 0.548). Endometrial cancer-related death rates were 3.8% after EBRT plus VBT and 6.8% after VBT (p = 0.118). Pelvic recurrences (exclusively vaginal recurrence) were reduced by 93% by the addition of EBRT to VBT. Deep myometrial infiltration was a significant prognostic factor in this medium-risk group of endometrioid carcinomas but not International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade or DNA ploidy. Combined radiotherapy was well tolerated, with serious (Grade 3) late side effects of less than 2%. However, there was a significant difference in favor of VBT alone. Conclusions: Despite a significant locoregional control benefit with combined radiotherapy, no survival improvement was recorded, but increased late toxicity was noted in the intestine, bladder, and vagina. Combined RT should probably be reserved for high-risk cases with two or more high-risk factors. VBT alone should be the adjuvant treatment option for purely medium-risk cases.

  13. Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi; Masuda, Norikazu; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

  14. Leg length discrepancy following irradiation for childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Butler, M.S.; D'Angio, G.J.; Rate, W.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Leg length inequality developed in 12 of 67 children who were treated with radiation therapy to the kidney, abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities. All these children survived childhood cancer to the age of skeletal maturity. Of the 12 with anisomelia, seven were symptomatic. There were significant relationships between the development of leg length inequality and the total dose of radiation to the pelvic area, asymmetric irradiation to the pelvis, and high-dose irradiation to the leg.

  15. Pelvic Support Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... correct pelvic support problems? • Glossary What are pelvic support problems? The pelvic organs include the vagina , cervix , uterus , bladder , urethra , small intestines, and rectum . The pelvic ...

  16. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, Marvin . E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Bundy, Brian; Lentz, Samuel S.; Muderspach, Laila I.; Zaino, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or

  17. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reviewed: 04/12/2013 Related A-Z Topics Endometriosis Menstruation and Menstrual Problems Pelvic Floor Disorders All related topics NICHD News and Spotlights Endometriosis linked to increased risk for heart disease, NIH- ...

  18. Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic pain occurs mostly in the lower abdomen area. The pain might be steady, or it might come and go. If the pain is severe, it might get in the way ... re a woman, you might feel a dull pain during your period. It could also happen during ...

  19. High-dose secondary calibration laboratory accreditation program

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    There is a need for high-dose secondary calibration laboratories to serve the multi-billion dollar radiation processing industry. This need is driven by the desires of industry for less costly calibrations and faster calibration-cycle response time. Services needed include calibration irradiations of routine processing dosimeters and the supply of reference standard transfer dosimeters for irradiation in the production processing facility. In order to provide measurement quality assurance and to demonstrate consistency with national standards, the high-dose secondary laboratories would be accredited by means of an expansion of an existing National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program. A laboratory performance criteria document is under development to implement the new program.

  20. High-Dose Induced Thermoluminescence of Light-Colored Lithology in Chelyabinsk Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, I. A.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the study results of high-dose irradiation effects on the laboratory TL parameters in Chelyabinsk LL5 chondrite fragments with light-colored lithology. Obtained data are analyzed in terms of the general order kinetic formalism.

  1. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prosthetics Urogynecologic Surgical Mesh Implants Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... What is Pelvic Organ Prolapse? Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the tissue and muscles of the ...

  2. Long-Term Follow-Up of Preoperative Pelvic Radiation Therapy and Concomitant Boost Irradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Patients: A Multi-Institutional Phase II Study (KROG 04-01)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Nam, Taek-Keun; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Lee, Doo Seok; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Chang, Hee Jin; Yoon, Mee Sun; Jeong, Jae-Uk; Jang, Hong Seok

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a prospective phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant small-field boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, mid-to-lower rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. They had received preoperative chemoradiation therapy and total mesorectal excision. Pelvic radiation therapy of 43.2 Gy in 24 fractions plus concomitant boost radiation therapy of 7.2 Gy in 12 fractions was delivered to the pelvis and tumor bed for 5 weeks. Two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin were administered for 3 days in the first and fifth week of radiation therapy. The pathologic response, survival outcome, and treatment toxicity were evaluated for the study endpoints. Results: Of 69 patients, 8 (11.6%) had a pathologically complete response. Downstaging rates were 40.5% for T classification and 68.1% for N classification. At the median follow-up of 69 months, 36 patients have been followed up for more than 5 years. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 66.0% and 75.3%, respectively. Higher pathologic T (P = .045) and N (P = .032) classification were significant adverse prognostic factors for DFS, and high-grade histology was an adverse prognostic factor for both DFS (P = .025) and overall survival (P = .031) on the multivariate analysis. Fifteen patients (21.7%) experienced grade 3 or 4 acute toxicity, and 7 patients (10.1%) had long-term toxicity. Conclusion: Preoperative pelvic radiation therapy with concomitant boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks showed acceptable acute and long-term toxicities. However, the benefit of concomitant small-field boost irradiation for 5 weeks in rectal cancer patients was not demonstrated beyond conventional irradiation for 6 weeks in terms of tumor response and

  3. High Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy for Cervical Carcinomas With Lower Vaginal Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kazumoto, Tomoko Kato, Shingo; Tabushi, Katsuyoshi; Kutsutani-Nakamura, Yuzuru; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Michiko; Shiromizu, Kenji; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: This report presents the clinical applications of an automated treatment-planning program of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) for advanced uterine cervical cancer infiltrating the parametrium and the lower vagina. Methods and Materials: We adopted HDR-ICBT under optimized dose distribution for 22 cervical cancer patients with tumor infiltration of the lower half of the vagina. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics clinical stages IIB-IVA. After whole pelvic external beam irradiation with a median dose of 30.6 Gy, a conventional ICBT was applied as 'pear-shaped' isodose curve. Then 3-4 more sessions per week of this new method of ICBT were performed. With a simple determination of the treatment volume, the cervix-parametrium, and the lower vagina were covered automatically and simultaneously by this program, that was designated as 'utero-vaginal brachytherapy'. The mean follow-up period was 87.4 months (range, 51.8-147.9 months). Results: Isodose curve for this program was 'galaxy-shaped'. Five-year local-progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 90.7% and 81.8%, respectively. Among those patients with late complications higher than Grade 2 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer morbidity score, only one (4.5%) developed severe proctitis. Conclusions: Because of the favorable treatment outcomes, this treatment-planning program with a simplified target-volume based dosimetry was proposed for cervical cancer with lower vaginal infiltration.

  4. On carbon nitride synthesis at high-dose ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, E. A.; Bespalova, O. V.; Borisov, A. M.; Goryaga, N. G.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Sukharev, V. G.; Zatekin, V. V.

    1998-04-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used for the study of high dose 35 keV nitrogen ions implantation into graphites and glassy carbon. Quantitative data on depth profiles and its dependencies on irradiation fluence and ion beam density were obtained. The stationary dome-shaped depth profile with maximum nitrogen concentration 22-27 at.% and half-width more than twice exceeding projected range of ions is reached at fluence Φ ˜10 18 cm -2. The dependence of the maximum concentration in the profile on ion current density was studied. The largest concentration was obtained at reduced ion current density.

  5. SU-E-T-315: The Change of Optically Stimulated Luminescent Dosimeters (OSLDs) Sensitivity by Accumulated Dose and High Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S; Jung, H; Kim, M; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Choi, S; Park, S; Yoo, H; Yi, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate radiation sensitivity of optical stimulated luminance dosimeters (OSLDs) by accumulated dose and high dose. Methods: This study was carried out in Co-60 unit (Theratron 780, AECL, and Canada) and used InLight MicroStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL) for reading. We annealed for 30 min using optical annealing system which contained fluorescent lamps (Osram lumilux, 24 W, 280 ∼780 nm). To evaluate change of OSLDs sensitivity by repeated irradiation, the dosimeters were repeatedly irradiated with 1 Gy. And whenever a repeated irradiation, we evaluated OSLDs sensitivity. To evaluate OSLDs sensitivity after accumulated dose with 5 Gy, We irradiated dose accumulatively (from 1 Gy to 5 Gy) without annealing. And OSLDs was also irradiated with 15, 20, 30 Gy to certify change of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation. After annealing them, they were irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly. Results: The OSLDs sensitivity increased up to 3% during irradiating seven times and decreased continuously above 8 times. That dropped by about 0.35 Gy per an irradiation. Finally, after 30 times irradiation, OSLDs sensitivity decreased by about 7%. For accumulated dose from 1 Gy to 5 Gy, OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy increased until 4.4% after second times accumulated dose compared with before that. OSLDs sensitivity about 1 Gy decreased by 1.6% in five times irradiation. When OSLDs were irradiated ten times with 1Gy after irradiating high dose (10, 15, 20 Gy), OSLDs sensitivity decreased until 6%, 9%, 12% compared with it before high dose irradiation, respectively. Conclusion: This study certified OSLDs sensitivity by accumulated dose and high dose. When irradiated with 1Gy, repeatedly, OSLDs sensitivity decreased linearly and the reduction rate of OSLDs sensitivity after high dose irradiation had dependence on irradiated dose.

  6. Comparison of high-dose-rate and low-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fayed, Alaa; Mutch, David G.; Rader, Janet S.; Gibb, Randall K. |; Powell, Matthew A. |; Wright, Jason D.; El Naqa, Issam; Zoberi, Imran |; Grigsby, Perry W. |||. E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes for endometrial carcinoma patients treated with either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: This study included 1,179 patients divided into LDR (1,004) and HDR groups (175). Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) surgical Stages I-III were included. All patients were treated with postoperative irradiation. In the LDR group, the postoperative dose applied to the vaginal cuff was 60-70 Gy surface doses to the vaginal mucosa. The HDR brachytherapy prescription was 6 fractions of 2 Gy each to a depth of 0.5 cm from the surface of the vaginal mucosa. Overall survival, disease-free survival, local control, and complications were endpoints. Results: For all stages combined, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control at 5 years in the LDR group were 70%, 69%, and 81%, respectively. For all stages combined, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control at 5 years in the HDR group were 68%, 62%, and 78%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early or late Grade III and IV complications in the HDR or LDR groups. Conclusion: Survival outcomes, pelvic tumor control, and Grade III and IV complications were not significantly different in the LDR brachytherapy group compared with the HDR group.

  7. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and layers of connective tissue, which are called fascia, become weakened, stretched, or are torn the pelvic ... delivery) can cause injury to the muscles or fascia of the pelvic floor. The increased pressure of ...

  8. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... see what else may be causing your symptoms. Appendicitis or pockets of infection around your tubes and ... pelvic organs. This can lead to: Chronic pelvic pain Ectopic pregnancy Infertility Tuboovarian abscess If you have ...

  9. Pelvic laparoscopy - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hysterectomy Ovarian Cysts Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic Pain Uterine Fibroids A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  10. Chronic Pelvic Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... found. How is chronic pelvic pain diagnosed? Your health care provider will ask about your medical history. You will have a physical exam, including a pelvic exam . Tests also may be done to find the cause. ...

  11. Effect of high doses of gamma radiation on the functional characteristics of amniotic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rita; Purohit, Sumita; Chacharkar, M. P.

    2007-06-01

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation viz. 25, 36 and 50 kGy on the chemical and functional characteristics of the amniotic membrane was studied. The change in the chemical structure of amniotic membranes at high doses of gamma irradiation was evaluated by means of Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy. The degradation of amnion on irradiation with gamma rays could produce a relative variation in IR absorption troughs. This kind of variation was absent in the samples irradiated to doses of 25, 36 and 50 kGy indicating no qualitative change in the material property of amnion. No significant differences in the water absorption capacity and water vapour transmission rate of amniotic membranes irradiated to different doses were observed. Impermeability of the amniotic membranes to different microorganisms was also not affected at high doses of gamma radiation. Gamma irradiation at doses of 25-50 kGy did not evoke undesirable changes in the functional properties of the amniotic membrane.

  12. Quality of Life after Post-Prostatectomy Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Pelvic Nodal Irradiation Is Not Associated with Worse Bladder, Bowel, or Sexual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Melotek, James M.; Liao, Chuanhong; Liauw, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Limited data exist regarding toxicity and quality of life (QOL) after post-prostatectomy intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and whether pelvic nodal RT influences these outcomes. Methods 118 men were treated with curative-intent RT after radical prostatectomy. 69 men (58%) received pelvic nodal RT. QOL data and physician-assigned toxicity were prospectively collected. Changes in QOL from baseline were assessed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and risk factors associated with each domain were identified with generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Late freedom from (FF) toxicity was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and comparisons were tested using the log-rank test. Results Urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, and sexual domain scores declined at 2 months (all P ≤ 0.01) but were no different than baseline at subsequent visits through 4 years of follow-up. At 4 years, FF grade 2+ GI toxicity was 90% and FF grade 2+ GU toxicity was 89%. On GEE analysis, pelvic nodal RT was associated with decreased bowel function (P = 0.09) and sexual function (P = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, however, there was no significant association with either decreased bowel (P = 0.31) or sexual (P = 0.84) function. There was also no association with either FF grade 2+ GI toxicity (P = 0.24) or grade 2+ GU toxicity (P = 0.51). Conclusions Receipt of pelvic nodal RT was not associated with inferior QOL or toxicity compared to prostate bed alone RT. For the entire cohort, RT was associated with only temporary declines in patient-reported urinary, bowel, or sexual QOL. PMID:26512986

  13. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E.-Y.; Sung, C.-C.; Ko, S.-F.; Wang, C.-J.; Yang, Kuender D.

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 {+-} 27 cm{sup 3} and 489 {+-} 34 cm{sup 3} (p < 0.001) in Group I patients with Grade 0-1 and Grade 2-3 diarrhea, respectively. The corresponding mean V100 of Group II patients was 56 {+-} 14 cm{sup 3} and 132 {+-} 19 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery.

  14. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  15. Pelvic and acetabular fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, D.C.; Rubash, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise focuses primarily on the clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatments of pelvic and acetabular fractures. However, considerable attention is also paid to the radiographic diagnosis of trauma and postoperative effects. The book begins with a succinct review of pelvic and acetabular anatomy and pelvic biomechanics. It continues with a radiographic classification of pelvic injury, which will represent the major source of the book's interest for radiologists. The remainder of the book is concerned with clinical management of pelvic and acetabular trauma, including preoperative planning, surgical approaches, techniques of reduction, internal fixation, eternal fixation, post-operative care, and late problems. Even throughout this later portion of the book there are extensive illustrations, including plain radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, reconstructed three-dimensional CT scans, and schematic diagrams of diverse pelvic and acetabular fractures and the elementary surgical techniques for their repair.

  16. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises designed to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor. ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women ... Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery ...

  17. Peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in multiple myeloma following high-dose melphalan-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, H; Hegenbart, U; Wallmeier, M; Hohaus, S; Engenhart, R; Wannenmacher, M; Haas, R

    1998-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of a high-dose melphalan-based therapy with or without total body irradiation (TBI) followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma. Between June 1992 and June 1996, 104 patients (71 male, 33 female) with a median age of 51 years (range 30-65 years) underwent transplantation at our center. PBPC were mobilized using high-dose chemotherapy followed by treatment with G-CSF. Fifty patients were treated with TBI+melphalan 140 mg/m2 while 54 patients received melphalan 200 mg/m2. Following PBPC autografting, the median time to attainment of platelets > or = 20 x 10(9)/l and neutrophils > or = 0.5 x 10(9)/l was 11 and 14 days, with no difference between the treatment groups. In the TBI group significantly longer periods of total parenteral nutrition were required due to the occurrence of severe mucositis. Two patients from the TBI group died of transplantation-related complications. Following high-dose treatment, remission state improved in 43 out of 102 patients. No statistically significant advantage in reaching complete or partial remission was observed with TBI+high-dose melphalan compared to the treatment with high-dose melphalan alone. The optimal high-dose treatment, with particular reference to the inclusion or omission of TBI, should be prospectively investigated. PMID:9304704

  18. High-dose naloxone in tardive dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, J P; Gardner, E; Goldberg, E; Opler, L A; Kay, S R; van Praag, H M; Weiner, M; Zukin, S

    1988-10-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is thought to result from nigrostriatal dopaminergic supersensitivity secondary to prolonged neuroleptic exposure. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the opiate antagonist naloxone can acutely reverse a haloperidol-induced hyperdopaminergic state. In a trial of high-dose naloxone, 20 patients with TD received i.v. naloxone (20 mg, 40 mg, and placebo) under double-blind conditions. At baseline and at regular postdrug intervals, patients were evaluated using a battery of motor, clinical, and neuropsychological measures to study effects on neurological, behavioral, and cognitive functions. There was a significant improvement in involuntary movements at 30 min postnaloxone, together with improvement in clinical ratings at that time point, as well as some cognitive changes. The implications of these findings for the putative functional relationship between dopaminergic and enkephalinergic systems in the nigrostriatal area are discussed. PMID:3070611

  19. [High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin treatment].

    PubMed

    Taneichi, Hiromichi; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2011-03-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was introduced as replacement therapy for patients with congenital agammaglobulinemia. For the last three decades, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (HD-IVIg) has been used for autoimmune diseases and systemic inflammatory diseases, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease, myasthenia gravis and Guillain-Barré/syndrome. Although the immunomodulatory mechanisms of HD-IVIg remains unclear. Its use in many other diseases have been expected. Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy is a complex neurological syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathogenicity of brain dysfunction is still unknown. This review provides an overview and discussion of mechanisms that may be responsible for HD-IVIg effects in acute encephalitis/encephalopathy. PMID:21400848

  20. High-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy with chemotherapy for surgically staged localized uterine serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Susan A.; Ratner, Elena; De Leon, Maria C.; Mani, Sheida; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Santin, Alessandro; Rutherford, Thomas; Schwartz, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate our institutional experience combining carboplatin-paclitaxel (C/T) chemotherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) intra-vaginal brachytherapy (IVB) following comprehensive surgical staging in localized uterine serous carcinoma (USC). Material and methods Institutional chart review identified 56 patients with FIGO 2009 stage I-II USC treated between 2000-2010. Patients underwent total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy, and comprehensive surgical staging including pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, omentectomy, and peritoneal cytology. Chemotherapy was 6 cycles of C/T, and the IVB dose was 14 Gy in 2 fractions, prescribed to 0.5 cm from the cylinder surface. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Results The median follow-up time was 49 months (range: 9-145). The 5-yr RFS and OS were 85% and 93%, respectively. In all cases of recurrence (n = 8), the first site of failure was extra-pelvic. There were no isolated vaginal recurrences, however, there was one vaginal apex recurrence recorded at 19 months in a patient with simultaneous lung metastases. Thus, the 2-year vaginal RFS was 98%. Conclusions Excellent vaginal/pelvic control rates were observed. Further study of HDR brachytherapy dose and fractionation in combination with chemotherapy is worthwhile. PMID:25829935

  1. Modern trends and development in high-dose luminescent measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortov, V.

    2014-11-01

    Main application areas of high-dose dosimetry are described. The requirements to the materials for high-dose luminescent detectors are set. The examples of successful high-dose measurements using radiation-resistant phosphors are given. Viability of using materials with deep traps to detect intensive radiation flows is grounded. Characteristics of high-dose measurements using highly sensitive detectors TLD-500 (Al2O3:C) and LiF:Mg,Cu,P are discussed.

  2. Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Janette D.; Machan, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Patients with pelvic congestion syndrome present with otherwise unexplained chronic pelvic pain that has been present for greater than 6 months, and anatomic findings that include pelvic venous insufficiency and pelvic varicosities. It remains an underdiagnosed explanation for pelvic pain in young, premenopausal, usually multiparous females. Symptoms include noncyclical, positional lower back, pelvic and upper thigh pain, dyspareunia, and prolonged postcoital discomfort. Symptoms worsen throughout the day and are exacerbated by activity or prolonged standing. Examination may reveal ovarian tenderness and unusual varicosities—vulvoperineal, posterior thigh, and gluteal. Diagnosis is suspected by clinical history and imaging that demonstrates pelvic varicosities. Venography is usually necessary to confirm ovarian vein reflux, although transvaginal ultrasound may be useful in documenting this finding. Endovascular therapy has been validated by several large patient series with long-term follow-up using standardized pain assessment surveys. Embolization has been shown to be significantly more effective than surgical therapy in improving symptoms in patients who fail hormonal therapy. Although there has been variation in approaches between investigators, the goal is elimination of ovarian vein reflux with or without direct sclerosis of enlarged pelvic varicosities. Symptom reduction is seen in 70 to 90% of the treated females despite technical variation. PMID:24436564

  3. Effects of high dose intraperitoneal cytosine arabinoside on the radiation tolerance of the rat spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Menten, J.; Landuyt, W.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.

    1989-07-01

    The effect of intraperitoneal high dose (9 g/kg) cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) on the early delayed radiation response of the rat cervical spinal cord has been studied. When given 2 hrs before irradiation, systemically administered Ara-C significantly reduces the isoeffect doses for the induction of paralysis due to white matter necrosis by a factor of approximately 1.2 for both a single irradiation treatment and for a two fraction irradiation with 24 hr interval. No effect on the latency time to develop paralysis was recorded.

  4. High dose rate sources in remote afterloading brachytherapy: Implications for intracavitary and interstitial treatment of carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Syzek, E.J.; Bogardus, C.R. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    Remote afterloading brachytherapy provides effective cancer treatment with zero personnel radiation exposure compared to conventional low dose rate systems requiring inpatient use of iridium, radium, or cesium sources. Clinical use of high dose rate brachytherapy is broadened to encompass curative treatment of cervical, endometrial, endobronchial, head and neck, esophageal, rectal, and prostatic carcinomas as well as palliation of intra-abdominal metastasis intraoperatively. Complications encountered with high dose rate sources will be compared to those of low dose rate systems commonly used in conjunction with external beam irradiation. Radiobiological effectiveness and economic benefits will be addressed to provide support for use of remote afterloading using high dose rate brachytherapy in palliative and curative treatment of selected carcinoma. 36 refs.

  5. Gene expression profiling in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma induced by high-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hyun Soon; Choi, Moo Hyun; Kim, Cha Soon; Choi, Seung Jin

    2016-06-01

    Published gene expression studies for radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis have used various methodologies. In this study, we identified differential gene expression in a human thyroid epithelial cell line after exposure to high-dose γ-radiation. HTori-3 cells were exposed to 5 or 10 Gy of ionizing radiation using two dose rates (high-dose rate: 4.68 Gy/min, and low-dose rate: 40 mGy/h) and then implanted into the backs of BALB/c nude mice after 4 (10 Gy) or 5 weeks (5 Gy). Decreases in cell viability, increases in giant cell frequency, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo were observed. Particularly, the cells irradiated with 5 Gy at the high-dose rate or 10 Gy at the low-dose rate demonstrated more prominent tumorigenicity. Gene expression profiling was analyzed via microarray. Numerous genes that were significantly altered by a fold-change of >50% following irradiation were identified in each group. Gene expression analysis identified six commonly misregulated genes, including CRYAB, IL-18, ZNF845, CYP24A1, OR4N4 and VN1R4, at all doses. These genes involve apoptosis, the immune response, regulation of transcription, and receptor signaling pathways. Overall, the altered genes in high-dose rate (HDR) 5 Gy and low-dose rate (LDR) 10 Gy were more than those of LDR 5 Gy and HDR 10 Gy. Thus, we investigated genes associated with aggressive tumor development using the two dosage treatments. In this study, the identified gene expression profiles reflect the molecular response following high doses of external radiation exposure and may provide helpful information about radiation-induced thyroid tumors in the high-dose range. PMID:27006382

  6. Gene expression profiling in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma induced by high-dose radiation

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Soon; Choi, Moo Hyun; Kim, Cha Soon; Choi, Seung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Published gene expression studies for radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis have used various methodologies. In this study, we identified differential gene expression in a human thyroid epithelial cell line after exposure to high-dose γ-radiation. HTori-3 cells were exposed to 5 or 10 Gy of ionizing radiation using two dose rates (high-dose rate: 4.68 Gy/min, and low-dose rate: 40 mGy/h) and then implanted into the backs of BALB/c nude mice after 4 (10 Gy) or 5 weeks (5 Gy). Decreases in cell viability, increases in giant cell frequency, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and tumorigenicity in vivo were observed. Particularly, the cells irradiated with 5 Gy at the high-dose rate or 10 Gy at the low-dose rate demonstrated more prominent tumorigenicity. Gene expression profiling was analyzed via microarray. Numerous genes that were significantly altered by a fold-change of >50% following irradiation were identified in each group. Gene expression analysis identified six commonly misregulated genes, including CRYAB, IL-18, ZNF845, CYP24A1, OR4N4 and VN1R4, at all doses. These genes involve apoptosis, the immune response, regulation of transcription, and receptor signaling pathways. Overall, the altered genes in high-dose rate (HDR) 5 Gy and low-dose rate (LDR) 10 Gy were more than those of LDR 5 Gy and HDR 10 Gy. Thus, we investigated genes associated with aggressive tumor development using the two dosage treatments. In this study, the identified gene expression profiles reflect the molecular response following high doses of external radiation exposure and may provide helpful information about radiation-induced thyroid tumors in the high-dose range. PMID:27006382

  7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  8. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. PMID:25108498

  9. Spatially resolved measurement of high doses in microbeam radiation therapy using samarium doped fluorophosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Go; Morrell, Brian; Koughia, Cyril; Kasap, Safa; Edgar, Andy; Varoy, Chris; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2011-09-19

    The measurement of spatially resolved high doses in microbeam radiation therapy has always been a challenging task, where a combination of high dose response and high spatial resolution (microns) is required for synchrotron radiation peaked around 50 keV. The x-ray induced Sm{sup 3+}{yields} Sm{sup 2+} valence conversion in Sm{sup 3+} doped fluorophosphates glasses has been tested for use in x-ray dosimetry for microbeam radiation therapy. The conversion efficiency depends almost linearly on the dose of irradiation up to {approx}5 Gy and saturates at doses exceeding {approx}80 Gy. The conversion shows strong correlation with x-ray induced absorbance of the glass which is related to the formation of phosphorus-oxygen hole centers. When irradiated through a microslit collimator, a good spatial resolution and high ''peak-to-valley'' contrast have been observed by means of confocal photoluminescence microscopy.

  10. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. PMID:26880505

  11. Salvage high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzon, Antônio Cássio Assis

    2016-01-01

    For tumors of the lower third of the rectum, the only safe surgical procedure is abdominal-perineal resection. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy is a promising treatment for local recurrence of previously irradiated lower rectal cancer, due to the extremely high concentrated dose delivered to the tumor and the sparing of normal tissue, when compared with a course of external beam radiation therapy. PMID:27403021

  12. Delayed activation of human microglial cells by high dose ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxin; Chong, Zhao Zhong; De Toledo, Sonia M; Azzam, Edouard I; Elkabes, Stella; Souayah, Nizar

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that microglia affects the fate of neural stem cells in response to ionizing radiation, which suggests a role for microglia in radiation-induced degenerative outcomes. We therefore investigated the effects of γ-irradiation on cell survival, proliferation, and activation of microglia and explored associated mechanisms. Specifically, we evaluated cellular and molecular changes associated with exposure of human microglial cells (CHME5) to low and high doses of acute cesium-137 γ rays. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, cell cycle analyses revealed dose-dependent decreases in the fraction of cells in S and G2/M phase, which correlated with significant oxidative stress. By one week after irradiation, 20-30% of the cells exposed to high doses of γ rays underwent apoptosis, which correlated with significant concomitant decrease in metabolic activity as assessed by the MTT assay, and microglial activation as judged by both morphological changes and increased expression of Glut-5 and CR43. These changes were associated with increases in the mRNA levels for IL-1α, IL-10 and TNFα. Together, the results show that human CHME5 microglia are relatively resistant to low and moderate doses of γ rays, but are sensitive to acute high doses, and that CHME5 cells are a useful tool for in vitro study of human microglia. PMID:27265419

  13. Monitoring performance of the cameras under the high dose-rate gamma ray environments.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2014-05-01

    CCD/CMOS cameras, loaded on a robot system, are generally used as the eye of the robot and monitoring unit. A major problem that arises when dealing with images provided by CCD/CMOS cameras under severe accident situations of a nuclear power plant is the presence of speckles owing to the high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. To use a CCD/CMOS camera as a monitoring unit in a high radiation area, the legibility of the camera image in such intense gamma-radiation fields should therefore be defined. In this paper, the authors describe the monitoring index as a figure of merit of the camera's legibleness under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation environment. From a low dose-rate (10 Gy h) to a high dose-rate (200 Gy h) level, the legible performances of the cameras owing to the speckles are evaluated. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. The legibility of the sensor indicator (thermo/hygrometer) owing to the number of speckles is also presented. PMID:24667385

  14. Pelvic Insufficiency Fracture After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Dongryul; Huh, Seung Jae Nam, Heerim; Park, Won; Han, Youngyih; Lim, Do Hoon; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lee, Jeong Won; Kim, Byoung Gie; Bae, Duk Soo; Lee, Je Ho

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Medical records and imaging studies, including bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI of 557 patients with cervical cancer who received whole-pelvic RT between January 1998 and August 2005 were reviewed. Results: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed as having PIF after pelvic RT. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PIF was 19.7%. The most commonly involved site was the sacroiliac joint. Pelvic pain developed in 48 patients (57.8%) at diagnosis. Eleven patients (13.3%) needed admission or narcotics because of severe pain, and others had good relief of symptoms with conservative management. In univariate analysis, age {>=}55 years (p < 0.001), anteroposterior/posteroanterior parallel opposing technique (p = 0.001), curative treatment (p < 0.001), and radiation dose {>=}50.4 Gy (p = 0.005) were the predisposing factors for development of PIF. Concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.78) was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that age {>=}55 years (p < 0.001), body weight <55 kg (p = 0.02), curative treatment (p = 0.03), and radiation dose {>=}50.4 Gy (p = 0.04) were significant predisposing factors for development of PIF. Conclusion: The development of PIF is not rare after pelvic RT. The use of multibeam arrangements to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture, especially in elderly women with low body weight.

  15. Phase I/II trial of whole-abdominal plus pelvic irradiation for Astler-Coller stage beta 2, C colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Patanaphan, V.; Salazar, O.M.; Slawson, R.G.; Sewchand, W.

    1988-02-01

    From 1982 to 1986, after radical surgery (S) for carcinoma of the rectum and rectosigmoid colon, 25 consecutive patients were entered into a Phase I/II study exploring adjuvant radiation (RT). The latter was given with a single fraction of whole abdomen (mid-body) irradiation (MBI), followed by conventional whole pelvis irradiation (WPI). The minimum follow-up time was 12 months, and the maximum was 44 months. There was escalation of the single MBI dose: 5 Gy in 11 patients, 6 Gy in two patients, and 8 Gy in 10 patients. The 2-year survival rate has been 100 and 45% for Stages B2 and C patients. Only 1/7 Astler-Coller Stage B2 patients failed; this failure was in the lungs. Seven of 15 patients with Stage C failed: one locally, three in the liver, and three in the lungs. Single MBI doses greater than 5 Gy have yielded a high incidence of intestinal obstruction when combined with routine WPI. Consequently, this combination requires both some modification and careful attention if used in future trials exploring new treatment approaches for colorectal cancer.

  16. Treatment of Unstable Pelvic Ring Injuries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic fractures are classified according to the stability of the pelvic ring. Unlike stable pelvic fractures, which heal without complications, unstable fractures may lead to pelvic ring deformities, which cause severe complications. An orthopedic surgeon must determine the stability of the pelvic ring by radiography and physical examination of the patient in order to ensure early, prompt treatment. This article includes anatomy of the pelvic ring, classification of pelvic ring injuries, its treatment algorithm, and corresponding cases involving unstable pelvic ring injury.

  17. High doses of gamma radiation suppress allergic effect induced by food lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Antônio F. M.; Souza, Marthyna P.; Vieira, Leucio D.; Aguiar, Jaciana S.; Silva, Teresinha G.; Medeiros, Paloma L.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire A.; Santana, Lucimeire A.; Oliva, Maria L. V.; Perez, Katia R.; Cuccovia, Iolanda M.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Correia, Maria T. S.

    2013-04-01

    One of the most promising areas for the development of functional foods lies in the development of effective methods to reduce or eliminate food allergenicity, but few reports have summarized information concerning the progress made with food irradiation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between allergenicity and molecular structure of a food allergen after gamma irradiation and evaluate the profile of the allergic response to irradiated allergens. Cramoll, a lectin isolated from a bean and used as a food allergen, was irradiated and the possible structural changes were accompanied by spectrofluorimetry, circular dichroism and microcalorimetry. Subsequently, sensitized animals subjected to intragastric administration of non-irradiated and irradiated Cramoll were treated for 7 days. Then, body weight, leukocytes, cytokine profiles and histological parameters were also determined. Cramoll showed complete inhibition of intrinsic activity after high radiation doses. Changes in fluorescence and CD spectra with a simultaneous collapse of the tertiary structure followed by a pronounced decrease of native secondary structure were observed after irradiation. After oral challenge, sensitized mice demonstrate an association between Cramoll intake, body weight loss, eosinophilia, lymphocytic infiltrate in the gut and Eotaxin secretion. Irradiation significantly reduces, according to the dose, the effects observed by non-irradiated food allergens. We confirm that high-dose radiation may render protein food allergens innocuous by irreversibly compromising their molecular structure.

  18. Surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as pain during sex, pelvic pain, or urinary incontinence . What are the types of surgery for pelvic ... performed through the abdomen. A procedure to prevent urinary incontinence may be done at the same time. • Anterior ...

  19. Development of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Module to Assess the Quality of Life of Patients With Proctitis After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Spry, Nigel; Halkett, Georgia Aoun, Samar; Spry, Jane; Yeoh, Eric

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a proctitis-specific quality-of-life module to supplement the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: The module was developed according to EORTC guidelines, which consisted of an extensive literature review to identify previously described issues and interviews conducted with seven health professionals and 10 patients to rationalize the item list for construction into a provisional module. The module developed was then pretested with 28 patients and five health professionals. Results: The final module contains 21-items that are suitable to obtain information about the patients' quality of life after high-dose pelvic irradiation. The questionnaire has now been translated into four languages and commenced field testing in late 2007. Conclusions: The EORTC QLQ-C30, supplemented by EORTC QLQ-PRT21, will enable health professionals to more accurately monitor the side effects that patients experience after pelvic irradiation.

  20. Stage IIB carcinoma of the cervix that is associated with pelvic kidney: A therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Lataifeh, Isam; Amarin, Zouhair; Jaradat, Imad

    2007-12-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer with congenital pelvic kidney is reported uncommonly. A 50-year-old patient with stage IIB cervical cancer and pelvic kidney was treated with irradiation and concurrent chemotherapy. Follow-up evaluation for 2 years revealed normal renal function and no evidence of recurrent disease. PMID:18060936

  1. [PELVIC FLOOR RECONSTRUCTION AFTER PELVIC EVISCERATION USING GRACILIS MUSCULOCUTANEOUS FLAP].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, V N; Bakirov, A A; Kabirov, I R; Izmajlov, A A; Kutlijarov, L M; Safiullin, R L; Urmancev, M F; Sultanov, I M; Abdrahimov, R V

    2015-01-01

    Evisceration of the pelvic organs (EPO) is a fairly uncommon surgical treatment that removes all organs from a patient's pelvic cavity. We use gracilis musculocutaneous flap to repair pelvic floor after EPO. Over the period from November 2013 to December 2014 we carried out EPO with reconstructive repair of the pelvic floor with gracilis musculocutaneous flap in 10 patients with locally advanced pelvic tumors. We describe the surgical procedure and surgical outcomes in these patients. Mean age of the patients was 55 years. Mean duration of EPO with the pelvic floor repair was 285 min., mean blood loss--595 mL and the average length of hospital stay--19 days. Gracilis musculocutaneous flap has a sufficient arterial supply and mobility for pelvic floor reconstruction. Necrosis of flap's distal edge occurred in one of the 10 clinical cases, while the remaining flaps were fully preserved. Complete healing of wounds with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor muscles was observed in all cases. Pelvic floor reconstruction is an essential procedure in order to reduce complications associated with the evisceration of the pelvic organs. The Gracilis musculocutaneous flap is the logical alternative to repair pelvic floor defect. It does not contribute to complications like functional deficiency of the lower limbs, complications of stoma formation or weakening of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:26390558

  2. Pelvic Floor Disorders Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... to develop and perform research studies related to women with pelvic floor disorders. In this way, studies can be done more quickly than if the medical centers were working alone. Doctors, nurses, other health care workers, and support staff all play important roles.The ...

  3. High-dose reirradiation of head and neck cancer with curative intent

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, K.R.; Britsch, A.; Moss, W.T.

    1994-07-01

    This study evaluates the response of new or recurrent head and neck cancers and the response of associated normal tissues to high dose reirradiation with curative intent. From 1964 to 1991, 15 patients with in-field new second head and neck cancers and 85 patients with recurrent head and neck cancers have had high-dose reirradiation that overlapped with previously irradiated volumes. Reirradiation was given only to patients with no more than apparent minimal clinical radiation effects from the first radiation course. The reirradiation consisted of external beam on in 82 patients, external beam plus intracavitary or interstitial implant irradiation in 14 patients, and interstitial implant irradiation only in four patients. The combined overlapping dose from both the initial and subsequent irradiation was 69-79 Gy in 14 patients, 90-99 Gy in 15 patients, 100-1999 Gy in 27 patients, and 120 Gy or greater in 44 patients. Four patients had areas of overlap that received greater than 180 Gy. The actuarial 5-year survival was 37% for patients with new second primary cancers and 17% for patients with recurrent cancers. Loco-regional tumor control was achieved in 60% of the patients with new tumors and in 27% of the patients with recurrent tumors. Nine of the 100 patients developed severe adverse normal tissue effects from the reirradiation. High-dose reirradiation of head and neck cancers can be successful curative treatment in a significant proportion of patients. It is associated with substantial but acceptable risks in properly selected patients. 46 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    PubMed

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:25921509

  5. Image guided radiation therapy boost in combination with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy for the treatment of cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianliang; Li, Jie; Yuan, Ke; Yin, Gang; Wan, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the dosimetric and clinical feasibility of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) combined with high-dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) to improve dose distribution in cervical cancer treatment. Material and methods For 42 cervical cancer patients, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired after completion of whole pelvic irradiation 45-46 Gy and 5 fractions of B + I (ICBT + IGRT) treatment were subsequently received. The high risk clinical target volume (HRCTV), intermediate risk clinical target volume (IRCTV), bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were contoured on the computed tomography (CT) scans. The total planning aim doses for HRCTV was D90% > 85 Gy, whilst constraints for rectum and sigmoid were D2cc < 75 Gy and D2cc < 90 Gy for bladder in terms of an equivalent dose in 2 Gy (EQD2) for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy boost. The IGRT plan was optimized on top of the ICBT dose distribution. A dosimetric comparison was made between B + I and optimized ICBT (O-ICBT) only. Results The mean D90% of HRCTV was comparable for B + I and O-ICBT (p = 0.82). For B + I plan, HRCTV D100%, IRCTV D100%, and IRCTV D90% were significantly increased by a mean of 10.52 Gy, 5.61 Gy, and 2.70 Gy, respectively (p < 0.01). The D2cc for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were lower by a mean of 21.36, 6.78, and 10.65 Gy, respectively (p < 0.01). The mean rectum V60 Gy value over 42 patients was almost the same for both techniques but for bladder and sigmoid B + I had higher V60 Gy mean values as compared with the O-ICBT. Conclusions B + I can improve dose distribution in cervical cancer treatment; it could be useful for tumors extended beyond the reach of intracavitary/interstitial brachytherapy (IC/ISBT) or for centers that are inexperienced or ill-equipped with IC/ISBT techniques. Additional confirmatory prospective studies with larger numbers of patients and longer follow-up are required to

  6. Pelvic aneurysmal bone cyst

    PubMed Central

    Sharifah, MIA; Nor Hazla, MH; Suraya, A; Tan, SP

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an extremely rare case of a huge aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) in the pelvis, occurring in the patient’s 5th decade of life. The patient presented with a history of painless huge pelvic mass for 10 years. Plain radiograph and computed tomography showed huge expansile lytic lesion arising from the right iliac bone. A biopsy was performed and histology confirmed diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to profuse bleeding from the tumour. PMID:22279501

  7. Pelvic Fasciae in Urology

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, B; Cahill, D

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Despite the vast literature on pelvic fascia, there is confusion over the periprostatic structures and their nomenclature, including their orientation, the neurovascular bundles and the existence of the prostatic ‘capsule’. In this review, we seek to clarify some of these issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS Review of published medical literature relating to the anatomy of the pelvic fascia including a Pubmed search using the terms – pelvic fascia, Denonvilliers' fascia, prostate capsule, neurovascular bundle of Walsh, pubo-prostatic ligament and the detrusor apron. CONCLUSIONS The findings of the study were as follows: The ‘capsule’ of the prostate does not exist. Rather, the fibromuscular band surrounding the prostate forms an integral part of the gland.The prostate is surrounded by fascial structures – anteriorly/anterolaterally by the prostatic fascia and posteriorly by the Denonvilliers' fascia. Laterally, the prostatic fascia merges with the endopelvic fascia.The posterior longitudinal fascia of the detrusor comprises a ‘posterior layer’ of the detrusor apron, extending from the bladder neck to the prostate base.The neurovascular structures tend to be located posterolaterally, but may not always form a bundle. A significant proportion of fibres may lie away from the main nerve structures, along the lateral/posterior aspects of the prostate. PMID:18828961

  8. A Prospective Cohort Study to Compare Treatment Results Between 2 Fractionation Schedules of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Hao; Lan, Jen-Hong; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu; Wang, Chong-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the treatment results of 2 fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2001 through January 2008, 267 patients with stage IB-IVA cervical cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 4-field pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT. The median central and parametrial doses were 39.6 Gy and 45 Gy, respectively. Patient underwent either 6 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4 (HDR-4) (n=144) or 4.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 6 (HDR-6) (n=123) to point A of ICBT using {sup 192}Ir isotope twice weekly. The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, proctitis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were compared between HDR-4 and HDR-6. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic data between HDR-4 and HDR-6 except for total treatment time. The 5-year proctitis rates were 23.0% and 21.5% in HDR-4 and HDR-6 (P=.399), respectively. The corresponding rates of grade 2-4 proctitis were 18.7% and 9.6% (P=.060). The corresponding rates of grades 3-4 proctitis were 5.2% and 1.3% (P=.231). Subgroup analysis revealed that HDR-4 significantly increased grade 2-4 proctitis in patients aged {>=}62 years old (P=.012) but not in patients aged <62 years (P=.976). The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were not significantly different between HDR-4 and HDR-6 schedules. Conclusion: The small fraction size of HDR-ICBT is associated with grade 2 proctitis without compromise of prognosis in elderly patients. This schedule is suggested for patients who tolerate an additional 2 applications of HDR-ICBT.

  9. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  10. Pelvic radiation disease: Updates on treatment options.

    PubMed

    Frazzoni, Leonardo; La Marca, Marina; Guido, Alessandra; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Bazzoli, Franco; Fuccio, Lorenzo

    2015-12-10

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and radiotherapy represents one of the main treatment options. The irradiation field usually encompasses healthy intestinal tissue, especially of distal large bowel, thus inducing gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity. Indeed, up to half of radiation-treated patients say that their quality of life is affected by GI symptoms (e.g., rectal bleeding, diarrhoea). The constellation of GI symptoms - from transient to long-term, from mild to very severe - experienced by patients who underwent radiation treatment for a pelvic tumor have been comprised in the definition of pelvic radiation disease (PRD). A correct and evidence-based therapeutic approach of patients experiencing GI radiation-induced toxicity is mandatory. Therapeutic non-surgical strategies for PRD can be summarized in two broad categories, i.e., medical and endoscopic. Of note, most of the studies have investigated the management of radiation-induced rectal bleeding. Patients with clinically significant bleeding (i.e., causing chronic anemia) should firstly be considered for medical management (i.e., sucralfate enemas, metronidazole and hyperbaric oxygen); in case of failure, endoscopic treatment should be implemented. This latter should be considered the first choice in case of acute, transfusion requiring, bleeding. More well-performed, high quality studies should be performed, especially the role of medical treatments should be better investigated as well as the comparative studies between endoscopic and hyperbaric oxygen treatments. PMID:26677440

  11. Mechanical Performance of Ferritic Martensitic Steels for High Dose Applications in Advanced Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderoglu, Osman; Byun, Thak Sang; Toloczko, Mychailo; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are considered for core applications and pressure vessels in Generation IV reactors as well as first walls and blankets for fusion reactors. There are significant scientific data on testing and industrial experience in making this class of alloys worldwide. This experience makes F/M steels an attractive candidate. In this article, tensile behavior, fracture toughness and impact property, and creep behavior of the F/M steels under neutron irradiations to high doses with a focus on high Cr content (8 to 12) are reviewed. Tensile properties are very sensitive to irradiation temperature. Increase in yield and tensile strength (hardening) is accompanied with a loss of ductility and starts at very low doses under irradiation. The degradation of mechanical properties is most pronounced at <0.3 T M ( T M is melting temperature) and up to 10 dpa (displacement per atom). Ferritic/martensitic steels exhibit a high fracture toughness after irradiation at all temperatures even below 673 K (400 °C), except when tested at room temperature after irradiations below 673 K (400 °C), which shows a significant reduction in fracture toughness. Creep studies showed that for the range of expected stresses in a reactor environment, the stress exponent is expected to be approximately one and the steady state creep rate in the absence of swelling is usually better than austenitic stainless steels both in terms of the creep rate and the temperature sensitivity of creep. In short, F/M steels show excellent promise for high dose applications in nuclear reactors.

  12. Relative safety profiles of high dose statin regimens

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Carlos; Echarri, Rocio; Barrios, Vivencio

    2008-01-01

    Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses. PMID:18827903

  13. Vaginal tolerance of CT based image-guided high-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy for gynecological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Purpose of this study was to identify predictors of vaginal ulcer after CT based three-dimensional image-guided high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for gynecologic malignancies. Methods Records were reviewed for 44 female (14 with primary disease and 30 with recurrence) with gynecological malignancies treated with HDR-ISBT with or without external beam radiation therapy. The HDR-ISBT applicator insertion was performed with image guidance by trans-rectal ultrasound and CT. Results The median clinical target volume was 35.5 ml (2.4-142.1 ml) and the median delivered dose in equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) for target volume D90 was 67.7 Gy (48.8-94.2 Gy, doses of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy were combined). For re-irradiation patients, median EQD2 of D2cc for rectum and bladder, D0.5cc, D1cc, D2cc, D4cc, D6cc and D8cc for vaginal wall was 91.1 Gy, 100.9 Gy, 260.3 Gy, 212.3 Gy, 170.1 Gy, 117.1 Gy, 105.2 Gy, and 94.7 Gy, respectively. For those without prior radiation therapy, median EQD2 of D2cc for rectum and bladder, D0.5cc, D1cc, D2cc, D4cc, D6cc and D8cc for vaginal wall was 56.3 Gy, 54.3 Gy, 147.4 Gy, 126.2 Gy, 108.0 Gy, 103.5 Gy, 94.7 Gy, and 80.7 Gy, respectively. Among five patients with vaginal ulcer, three had prior pelvic radiation therapy in their initial treatment and three consequently suffered from fistula formation. On univariate analysis, re-irradiation and vaginal wall D2cc in EQD2 was the clinical predictors of vaginal ulcer (p = 0.035 and p = 0.025, respectively). The ROC analysis revealed that vaginal wall D2cc is the best predictor of vaginal ulcer. The 2-year incidence rates of vaginal ulcer in the patients with vaginal wall D2cc in EQD2 equal to or less than 145 Gy and over 145 Gy were 3.7% and 23.5%, respectively, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.026). Conclusions Re-irradiation and vaginal D2cc is a significant predictor of vaginal ulcer after HDR-ISBT for

  14. Ocular toxicity following high dose chemotherapy and autologous transplant.

    PubMed

    Rubin, P; Hulette, C; Khawly, J A; Elkordy, M; Hussein, A; Vredenburgh, J J; Jaffe, G J; Peters, W P

    1996-07-01

    A 49-year-old woman received an autologous transplant for breast cancer. Six weeks later she noticed visual disturbance of the left eye which correlated with a visual field abnormality. There was a milder degree of visual disturbance in the right eye. Treatment with high-dose steroids partially stabilized the problem, which was felt to be an ischemic optic neuropathy. She ultimately died of respiratory failure. Pathology of the optic nerves revealed demyelination. Visual disturbances following high-dose chemotherapy are uncommon; the pathology to date has not been elucidated. Steroid therapy may be useful. PMID:8832031

  15. Comparison between conventional salvage therapy and high-dose therapy with autografting for recurrent or refractory Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Yuen, A R; Rosenberg, S A; Hoppe, R T; Halpern, J D; Horning, S J

    1997-02-01

    Sixty patients with Hodgkin's disease, refractory to or at first recurrence after chemotherapy, received cytoreductive therapy followed by high-dose etoposide, cyclophosphamide and either total body irradiation or carmustine and autografting (median follow-up, 3.6 years; range, 1.1 to 7.5 years). A matched conventional salvage group of 103 patients was selected from patients treated at Stanford University Medical Center between January 1976 and January 1989 (median follow-up, 10.3 years; range, 3.0 to 15.7 years). Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and freedom from progression (FFP) at 4 years follow-up favored patients who received high-dose therapy compared with conventional salvage treatment (OS: 54% v 47%, P = .25; EFS: 53% v 27%, P < .01; FFP: 62% v 32%, P < .01). In Cox regression analysis, response to cytoreductive or salvage therapy and B symptoms at relapse were the most important predictors of OS. The use of high-dose therapy at relapse, a longer duration of remission, and favorable response to cytoreductive or salvage therapy were most predictive of superior FFP and EFS. These data from a single institution comparing conventional and high-dose therapy in matched patients demonstrate an advantage for high-dose therapy and autografting in the sustained control of Hodgkin's disease. As with primary therapy, it is difficult to demonstrate a statistically significant survival advantage, despite an apparently superior cure rate. However, patients failing induction therapy or relapsing within 1 year benefited significantly from high-dose therapy by all outcome measures (OS, EFS, FFP). As the transplant-related mortality rates decline in Hodgkin's disease, it is predicted that cure rates and late effects will become ultimate determinants of the success of high-dose therapy and autografting. PMID:9028312

  16. An Ectopic Pelvic Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bhoil, Rohit; Sood, Dinesh; Singh, Yash Paul; Nimkar, Kshama; Shukla, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background If a kidney does not ascend as it should in normal fetal development, it remains in the pelvic area and is called a pelvic kidney. Often a person with a pelvic kidney will go through his/her whole life unaware of this condition, unless it is discovered during neonatal kidney ultrasound screening or if complications arise later in life due to this or a completely different reason and the condition is noted during investigations. Generally, this is not a harmful condition but it can lead to complications like in our case. With appropriate testing and treatment, if needed, an ectopic kidney should cause no serious long-term health complications and all that may be required for the patient is reassurance with advice to follow up at regular intervals. Case Report A 28-year-old male presented with recurrent pain in his lower left abdomen for one month and an episode of hematuria 3 days earlier accompanied by an attack of acute pain lasting for 3–4 hours. He gave a history of passing 2 small (about 5 mm each) calculi in his urine after the occurrence of hematuria, following which pain decreased in intensity. No history of fever was present. Conclusions Although a simple ectopic kidney seldom causes symptoms, the association of malrotation of the renal pelvis with calculus increases the risk of hematuria and/or hydronephrosis, presenting with colicky pain as in the present case. The clinician should be aware of these in such a case. If asymptomatic, no treatment is required. However, the patient should be advised to have follow-up ultrasounds at regular intervals to detect complications like calculus, hydronephrosis, etc. With appropriate testing and treatment, if required, an ectopic kidney should not cause serious long-term health complications. PMID:26413178

  17. Single high-dose vs. fractionated radiotherapy: Effects on plant growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Guedea, Marc; Castel, Antoni; Arnalte, Marc; Mollera, Alex; Muñoz, Victor; Guedea, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the differential effects of fractionated vs. high-dose radiotherapy on plant growth. Background Interest in hypofractionated radiotherapy has increased substantially in recent years as tumours (especially of the lung, prostate, and liver) can be irradiated with ever greater accuracy due to technological improvements. The effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on plant growth have been studied extensively, yet few studies have investigated the effect of high-dose, hypofractionated radiotherapy on plant growth development. Materials and methods A total of 150 plants from the genus Capsicum annuum were randomized to receive fractionated radiotherapy (5 doses of 10 Gy each), single high-dose (SHD) radiotherapy (single 50 Gy dose), or no radiotherapy (control group). Irradiation was delivered via linear accelerator and all samples were followed daily for 26 days to assess and compare daily growth. Results On day 26, plants in the control, fractionated, and SHD groups had grown to a mean height of 7.55 cm, 4.32 cm, and 2.94 cm, respectively. These differences in overall growth were highly significant (P = 0.005). The SHD group showed the least amount of growth. Conclusions SHD effectively stunts plant growth and development. Despite the evident differences between plant and animal cells, ionizing radiation is believed to work in a similar manner in all biological cells. These findings highlight the need to continue investigating the use of hypofractionated schemes in humans to improve cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:24416565

  18. Persistent DNA Damage after High Dose In Vivo Gamma Exposure of Minipig Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Emad A.; Agay, Diane; Schrock, Gerrit; Drouet, Michel; Meineke, Viktor; Scherthan, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation (IR) can lead to localized radiation injury of the skin and exposed cells suffer dsDNA breaks that may elicit cell death or stochastic changes. Little is known about the DNA damage response after high-dose exposure of the skin. Here, we investigate the cellular and DNA damage response in acutely irradiated minipig skin. Methods and Findings IR-induced DNA damage, repair and cellular survival were studied in 15 cm2 of minipig skin exposed in vivo to ∼50 Co-60 γ rays. Skin biopsies of control and 4 h up to 96 days post exposure were investigated for radiation-induced foci (RIF) formation using γ-H2AX, 53BP1, and active ATM-p immunofluorescence. High-dose IR induced massive γ-H2AX phosphorylation and high 53BP1 RIF numbers 4 h, 20 h after IR. As time progressed RIF numbers dropped to a low of <1% of keratinocytes at 28–70 days. The latter contained large RIFs that included ATM-p, indicating the accumulation of complex DNA damage. At 96 days most of the cells with RIFs had disappeared. The frequency of active-caspase-3-positive apoptotic cells was 17-fold increased 3 days after IR and remained >3-fold elevated at all subsequent time points. Replicating basal cells (Ki67+) were reduced 3 days post IR followed by increased proliferation and recovery of epidermal cellularity after 28 days. Conclusions Acute high dose irradiation of minipig epidermis impaired stem cell replication and induced elevated apoptosis from 3 days onward. DNA repair cleared the high numbers of DBSs in skin cells, while RIFs that persisted in <1% cells marked complex and potentially lethal DNA damage up to several weeks after exposure. An elevated frequency of keratinocytes with persistent RIFs may thus serve as indicator of previous acute radiation exposure, which may be useful in the follow up of nuclear or radiological accident scenarios. PMID:22761813

  19. Finnish spectrolite as high-dose gamma detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2015-11-01

    A natural material called spectrolite, from Finland, was studied in this work. The purpose was to test it in gamma radiation beams to verify its performance as a high-dose detector. From this material, pellets were manufactured with two different concentrations of Teflon and spectrolite, and their responses were verified using two luminescent techniques: thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The TL and OSL signals were evaluated by means of characterization tests of the material response, after exposure to a nominal absorbed dose interval of 5 Gy to 10 kGy. The results obtained, for both concentrations, showed a good performance of this material in beams of high-dose gamma radiation. Both techniques were utilized in order to investigate the properties of the spectrolite+Teflon samples for different applications.

  20. High-dose thiamine as initial treatment for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Antonio; Pala, Maria Immacolata; Compagnoni, Laura; Colangeli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a systemic disease with motor and non-motor deficits. We recruited three patients with newly diagnosed PD. They were not under anti-Parkinson's therapy. Plasmatic thiamine was within healthy reference range. We performed the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and started a parenteral therapy with high doses of thiamine. The therapy led to a considerable improvement in the motor part of the UPDRS ranging from 31.3% to 77.3%. From this clinical observation, it is reasonable to infer that a focal, severe thiamine deficiency due to a dysfunction of thiamine metabolism could cause a selective neuronal damage in the centres that are typically hit in this disease. Injection of high doses of thiamine was effective in reversing the symptoms, suggesting that the abnormalities in thiamine-dependent processes could be overcome by diffusion-mediated transport at supranormal thiamine concentrations. PMID:23986125

  1. High-Dose Intravenous Corticosteroids for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Charkoudian, Leon D.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Pujari, Siddharth S.; Gangaputra, Sapna; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Kempen, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effectiveness and risk of complications of high-dose intravenous pulsed corticosteroids for non-infectious ocular inflammatory diseases. Methods Retrospective cohort study. One hundred four eyes of seventy patients who received high-dose intravenous corticosteroids for treatment of active ocular inflammation were identified from five centers. The main outcome measures were control of inflammation and occurrence of ocular or systemic complications within one month after treatment. Results Within ≤1 month of starting treatment, 57% of eyes achieved complete control of inflammation (95% confidence interval (CI): 33-83%), improving to 82% when near-complete control was included (95% CI: 61-96%). Most eyes (85%; 95% CI: 70-95%) gained clinically significant improvement in anterior chamber inflammation. One patient developed a colon perforation during treatment. No other major complications were recorded. Conclusions Treatment of ocular inflammation with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids resulted in substantial clinical improvement for most cases within one month. Complications of therapy were infrequent. PMID:22409561

  2. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Cartigny, A.; Blakely, E.A.; Lyman, J.T.; Zink, S.R.

    1985-02-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons.

  3. Effects of “Danzhi Decoction” on Chronic Pelvic Pain, Hemodynamics, and Proinflammatory Factors in the Murine Model of Sequelae of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yanxia; Lu, Qiudan; Jin, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of Danzhi decoction (DZD) on chronic pelvic pain (CPP), hemodynamics, and proinflammatory factors of sequelae of pelvic inflammatory diseases (SPID) in murine model. Methods. SPID mice were randomly treated with high-dose DZD, mid-dose DZD, low-dose DZD, aspirin, and vehicle for 3 estrous circles. The Mouse Grimace Scale (MGS) was performed to evaluate CPP; blood flows of the upper genital tract, pelvic wall, and mesentery were used to assess hemodynamics in SPID mice; expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and osteopontin (OPN) were measured by Western blot and immunochemistry. Results. Treatment with dose-dependent DZD significantly decreased the MGS scores, accelerated blood flows of the pelvis, and reduced expressions of VEGF, Ang-2, and OPN in the upper genital tract. Conclusions and Discussions. DZD was effective in relieving CPP and improving hemodynamics of the pelvic blood-stasis microenvironment in SPID mice. There was a relationship between CPP and the pelvic blood-stasis microenvironment. Furthermore, DZD might play a positive role in the anti-inflammatory process. PMID:27087818

  4. Reassessing the Annual Pelvic Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... recommendation released Tuesday, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force said it couldn't weigh in for or ... pelvic exams based on current evidence. "The Task Force is calling for more research to better understand ...

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258946 . Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091581 . Herderschee R, Hay-Smith EJC, Herbison GP, Roovers JP, Heineman MJ. Feedback ...

  6. Adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix: pattern of cancer recurrence in patients undergoing elective radiation following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A.H.; Tong, D.Y.; Figge, D.C.; Tamimi, H.K.; Greer, B.E.; Elder, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Thirty-seven patients with invasive cervical cancer have been referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Washington following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients at high-risk for tumor recurrence were selected for adjuvant pelvic irradiation because of adverse risk factors identified on pathological study of the hysterectomy specimen. All patients were treated because of possible residual, microscopic carcinoma. Fourteen patients (38%) developed recurrent cancer, of whom 10 (27%) manifested initial failure within the irradiated volume. Possible explanations for this observation are discussed.

  7. Surgical aspects of intestinal injury due to pelvic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, P.A.; Thomson, H.J.; Ludgate, S.N.; Small, W.P.; Smith, A.N.

    1985-04-01

    Seventy-one patients with intestinal injury secondary to pelvic irradiation had predominantly large bowel lesions. Seventeen cases were treated conservatively and 54 came to surgery, 28 patients having more than one operation. Following this essentially salvage surgery there were more ileal than colonic anastomotic leaks. Thirty-four patients died during the follow-up period (2-12 years), 19 from recurrent malignancy, and nine as a result of continuing radiation effects. Seventy per cent of the patients who had a radiation fistula died as a result of malignancy. Of 42000 cases of pelvic malignancy treated by irradiation over the decade 1972-1982, surgical referrals for complications constituted 1.7%, with an overall radiation-related mortality of 0.2%. It is our opinion that colostomy alone has little part to play in this condition, and a policy based on excisional surgery is suggested.

  8. Post partum pelvic floor changes.

    PubMed

    Fonti, Ylenia; Giordano, Rosalba; Cacciatore, Alessandra; Romano, Mattea; La Rosa, Beatrice

    2009-10-01

    Pelvic-perineal dysfunctions, are the most common diseases in women after pregnancy. Urinary incontinence and genital prolapsy, often associated, are the most important consequences of childbirth and are determined by specific alterations in the structure of neurological and musculo-fascial pelvic support.Causation is difficult to prove because symptom occur remote from delivery.Furthermore it is unclear whether changes are secondary to the method of childbirth or to the pregnancy itself.This controversy fuels the debate about whether or not women should be offered the choice of elective caesarean delivery to avoid the development of subsequent pelvic floor disfunction.But it has been demonstrated that pregnancy itself, by means of mechanical changes of pelvic statics and changes in hormones, can be a significant risk factor for these diseases. Especially is the first child to be decisive for the stability of the pelvic floor.During pregnancy, the progressive increase in volume of the uterus subject perineal structures to a major overload. During delivery, the parties present and passes through the urogenital hiatus leading to growing pressure on the tissues causing the stretching of the pelvic floor with possible muscle damage, connective tissue and / or nervous.In this article we aim to describe genitourinary post partum changes with particular attention to the impact of pregnancy or childbirth on these changes. PMID:22439048

  9. Pelvic floor ultrasonography: an update.

    PubMed

    Shek, K L; Dietz, H-P

    2013-02-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a number of highly prevalent clinical conditions such as female pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence, and sexual dysfunction. The etiology and pathophysiology of those conditions are, however, not well understood. Recent technological advances have seen a surge in the use of imaging, both in research and clinical practice. Among the techniques available such as sonography, X-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound is superior for pelvic floor imaging, especially in the form of perineal or translabial imaging. The technique is safe with no radiation, simple, cheap, easily accessible and provides high spatial and temporal resolutions. Translabial or perineal ultrasound is useful in determining residual urinary volume, detrusor wall thickness, bladder neck mobility and in assessing pelvic organ prolapse as well as levator function and anatomy. It is at least equivalent to other imaging techniques in diagnosing, such diverse conditions as urethral diverticula, rectal intussusception and avulsion of the puborectalis muscle. Ultrasound is the only imaging method capable of visualizing modern slings and mesh implants and may help selecting patients for implant surgery. Delivery-related levator injury seems to be the most important etiological factor for pelvic organ prolapse and recurrence after prolapse surgery, and it is most conveniently diagnosed by pelvic floor ultrasound. This review gives an overview of the methodology. Its main current uses in clinical assessment and research will also be discussed. PMID:23412016

  10. Prevention of pelvic radiation disease.

    PubMed

    Fuccio, Lorenzo; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Guido, Alessandra

    2015-02-01

    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Treatment of patients requires a multidisciplinary approach that frequently includes radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal (GI) radiation-induced toxicity is a major complication and the transient or long-term problems, ranging from mild to very severe, arising in non-cancerous tissues resulting from radiation treatment to a tumor of pelvic origin, are actually called as pelvic radiation disease. The incidence of pelvic radiation disease changes according to the radiation technique, the length of follow up, the assessment method, the type and stage of cancer and several other variables. Notably, even with the most recent radiation techniques, i.e., intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the incidence of radiation-induced GI side effects is overall reduced but still not negligible. In addition, radiation-induced GI side effects can develop even after several decades; therefore, the improvement of patient life expectancy will unavoidably increase the risk of developing radiation-induced complications. Once developed, the management of pelvic radiation disease may be challenging. Therefore, the prevention of radiation-induced toxicity represents a reasonable way to avoid a dramatic drop of the quality of life of these patients. In the current manuscript we provide an updated and practical review on the best available evidences in the field of the prevention of pelvic radiation disease. PMID:25664197

  11. High-dose chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pasini, F; Durante, E; De Manzoni, D; Rosti, G; Pelosi, G

    2002-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly sensitive both to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Given its high chemo sensitivity, even two decades ago, SCLC was one of the first malignancies deemed suitable for maximising the dose and dose intensity with the support of autologous bone marrow (ABMT). On the whole, results were disappointing and the procedure was practically abandoned. Nowadays some interest is again emerging due to improvements in supportive care, such as the availability of hematopoietic growth factors and the peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC). Data of 505 patients included in 26 studies were reviewed. About two thirds of these patients had LD (limited disease). Late intensification protocols were used in 311 patients who, however, represented only the 30% of the population initially given conventional chemotherapy. Of the patients not achieving complete remission (CR) after induction, high-dose induced a CR in 39% of the cases. The use of early intensification was reported in 8 studies including 194 patients. The CR rate was 51.5%. Overall, the probability of achieving the CR was 2-3 times higher in LD than in ED (extensive disease). Relapses occurred at the site of the primary in more than half of the cases, showing that the course of the disease was not modified by the use of high-dose chemotherapy. Toxic deaths occurred in 7% of the treated patients, without difference in the two treatment methods. Though the schedules were too variable to draw firm conclusions, the ICE (ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide) and the CBP (cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, carmustine) regimens apparently provided better results, with a 2-year survival rate of 30-50% in the LD subset. An european multicenter randomized trial is ongoing. At the present time high-dose chemotherapy is still to be considered experimental treatment, since major problems such as the selection of the patients, doses and timing of chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain unsolved. PMID:12552940

  12. High-dose enzyme replacement therapy in murine Hurler syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ou, Li; Herzog, Tyler; Koniar, Brenda L; Gunther, Roland; Whitley, Chester B

    2014-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive disease that is systemic, including progressive neurodegeneration, mental retardation and death before the age of 10 years. MPS I results from deficiency of α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) in lysosomes and subsequent accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Clinical enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with intravenous laronidase reverses some aspects of MPS I disease (e.g., hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, glycosaminoglycanuria) and ameliorates others (e.g., pulmonary function, cardiac disease, arthropathy, exercise tolerance). However, neurologic benefits are thought to be negligible because the blood-brain barrier (BBB) blocks enzyme from reaching the central nervous system (CNS). We considered the possibility that a very high dose of intravenous laronidase might be able to traverse the BBB in small quantities, and provide some metabolic correction in the brain. To address this question, high-dose laronidase was administered (11.6 mg/kg, once per week, 4 weeks) to adult MPS I mice. IDUA enzyme activity in the cortex of treated mice increased to 97% of that in wild type mice (p<0.01). GAG levels in cortex were reduced by 63% of that from untreated MPS I mice (p<0.05). Further, immunohistochemical analysis showed that treatment reduced secondary GM3-ganglioside accumulation in treated MPS I mice. Water T-maze tests showed that the learning abnormality in MPS I mice was reduced (p<0.0001). In summary, repeated, high-dose ERT facilitated laronidase transit across the BBB, reduced GAG accumulation within the CNS, and rescued cognitive impairment. PMID:24100243

  13. High dose calcitriol may reduce thrombosis in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Beer, Tomasz M; Venner, Peter M; Ryan, Christopher W; Petrylak, Daniel P; Chatta, Gurkamal; Dean Ruether, J; Chi, Kim N; Curd, John G; DeLoughery, Thomas G

    2006-11-01

    The incidence of venous and arterial thrombosis in a placebo-controlled randomised trial of DN-101 (high dose calcitriol) with docetaxel versus docetaxel was compared. Of the 13 thrombotic events observed in the 250 patients enroled in this study, two occurred in DN-101 and 11 in placebo-treated patients (P = 0.01). This difference remained significant after adjustment for baseline history of thrombosis, atrial fibrillation and use of anti-thrombotic agents. In vitro and vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout mouse studies predict that nanomolar concentrations of calcitriol may act as an antithrombotic agent. We report the first clinical observation that supports this hypothesis in humans. PMID:16984385

  14. Pharmacokinetic interaction between high-dose methotrexate and oxacillin.

    PubMed

    Titier, Karine; Lagrange, Fabrice; Péhourcq, Fabienne; Moore, Nicholas; Molimard, Mathieu

    2002-08-01

    An 18-year-old man received two high-dose methotrexate cycles for the treatment of an osteosarcoma. Fifteen grams of methotrexate were infused over 6 hours. During the second cycle, co-administration of oxacillin (1g/8h) resulted in prolonged and marked elevation of methotrexate plasma concentrations. The patient experienced acute toxicity with renal failure, myelosuppression, mucitis, fever, and dermatologic abnormalities. After an initial improvement with folinic acid rescue and hemodialysis, the patient died. Oxacillin may thus inhibit the elimination of methotrexate. PMID:12142645

  15. Skin wound trauma, following high-dose radiation exposure, amplifies and prolongs skeletal tissue loss.

    PubMed

    Swift, Joshua M; Swift, Sibyl N; Smith, Joan T; Kiang, Juliann G; Allen, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated the detrimental effects of non-lethal, high-dose (whole body) γ-irradiation on bone, and the impact that radiation combined with skin trauma (i.e. combined injury) has on long-term skeletal tissue health. Recovery of bone after an acute dose of radiation (RI; 8 Gy), skin wounding (15-20% of total body skin surface), or combined injury (RI+Wound; CI) was determined 3, 7, 30, and 120 days post-irradiation in female B6D2F1 mice and compared to non-irradiated mice (SHAM) at each time-point. CI mice demonstrated long-term (day 120) elevations in serum TRAP 5b (osteoclast number) and sclerostin (bone formation inhibitor), and suppression of osteocalcin levels through 30 days as compared to SHAM (p<0.05). Radiation-induced reductions in distal femur trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular number through 120 days post-exposure were significantly greater than non-irradiated mice (p<0.05) and were exacerbated in CI mice by day 30 (p<0.05). Negative alterations in trabecular bone microarchitecture were coupled with extended reductions in cancellous bone formation rate in both RI and CI mice as compared to Sham (p<0.05). Increased osteoclast surface in CI animals was observed for 3 days after irradiation and remained elevated through 120 days (p<0.01). These results demonstrate a long-term, exacerbated response of bone to radiation when coupled with non-lethal wound trauma. Changes in cancellous bone after combined trauma were derived from extended reductions in osteoblast-driven bone formation and increases in osteoclast activity. PMID:26335157

  16. High-dose simultaneously integrated breast boost using intensity-modulated radiotherapy and inverse optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurkmans, Coen W. . E-mail: coen.hurkmans@cze.nl; Meijer, Gert J.; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Cassee, Jorien

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: Recently a Phase III randomized trial has started comparing a boost of 16 Gy as part of whole-breast irradiation to a high boost of 26 Gy in young women. Our main aim was to develop an efficient simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) technique for the high-dose arm of the trial. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning was performed for 5 left-sided and 5 right-sided tumors. A tangential field intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique added to a sequentially planned 3-field boost (SEQ) was compared with a simultaneously planned technique (SIB) using inverse optimization. Normalized total dose (NTD)-corrected dose volume histogram parameters were calculated and compared. Results: The intended NTD was produced by 31 fractions of 1.66 Gy to the whole breast and 2.38 Gy to the boost volume. The average volume of the PTV-breast and PTV-boost receiving more than 95% of the prescribed dose was 97% or more for both techniques. Also, the mean lung dose and mean heart dose did not differ much between the techniques, with on average 3.5 Gy and 2.6 Gy for the SEQ and 3.8 Gy and 2.6 Gy for the SIB, respectively. However, the SIB resulted in a significantly more conformal irradiation of the PTV-boost. The volume of the PTV-breast, excluding the PTV-boost, receiving a dose higher than 95% of the boost dose could be reduced considerably using the SIB as compared with the SEQ from 129 cc (range, 48-262 cc) to 58 cc (range, 30-102 cc). Conclusions: A high-dose simultaneously integrated breast boost technique has been developed. The unwanted excessive dose to the breast was significantly reduced.

  17. ELDRS Characterization for a Very High Dose Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Richard D.; McClure, Steven S.; Rax, Bernard G.; Kenna, Aaron J.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.; Clark, Karla B.; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of bipolar linear parts which may have Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS) is problematic for missions that have very high dose radiation requirements. The accepted standards for evaluating parts that display ELDRS require testing at a very low dose rate which could be prohibitively long for very high dose missions. In this work, a methodology for ELDRS characterization of bipolar parts for mission doses up to 1 Mrad(Si) is evaluated. The procedure employs an initial dose rate of 0.01 rad(Si)/s to a total dose of 50 krad(Si) and then changes to 0.04 rad(Si)/s to a total dose of 1 Mrad(Si). This procedure appears to work well. No change in rate of degradation with dose has been observed when the dose rate is changed from 0.01 to 0.04 rad(Si)/s. This is taken as an indication that the degradation due to the higher dose rate is equivalent to that at the lower dose rate at the higher dose levels, at least for the parts studied to date. In several cases, significant parameter degradation or functional failure not observed at HDR was observed at fairly high total doses (50 to 250 krad(Si)) at LDR. This behavior calls into question the use of dose rate trend data and enhancement factors to predict LDR performance.

  18. Total rod ERG suppression with high dose compassionate Fenretinide usage.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Michael F; Jain, Atul; Moshfeghi, Darius

    2008-11-01

    Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid that interferes with the attachment of retinol to retinol binding protein. It may inhibit accumulation of A2E and lipofuscin, and is proposed as therapy for Stargardt disease. It is currently used for cancer therapy, and mild depression of rod function and dark adaptation is a side effect at standard dosage. We studied two youngsters (aged between 12 and 13) receiving high doses as compassionate treatment for neuroblastoma: 800 mg daily for 1 out of every 3 weeks, for roughly 2 years. Goldmann-Weekers dark adaptometry, ISCEV standard ERG and mfERG were performed, and blood was analyzed for vitamin A. Neither child complained of night blindness or showed retinal fundus abnormalities. On initial exam, dark adaptation thresholds were elevated by 3 log units, and there were no detectable rod ERG responses. However, cone responses and mfERG were normal. Retesting one subject 3 months after stopping the drug revealed normal rod thresholds (slightly delayed) and low normal rod ERG responses. Serum vitamin A levels were normal from both subjects, but there is no record of whether the samples were drawn during cycles on or off drug. Our study demonstrates that high dose Fenretinide can suppress rod function quite completely, although serum vitamin A and rod function apparently return to normal or near normal levels rapidly once the drug is stopped. It is intriguing that cone function and access to vitamin A seems largely independent of Fenretinide effects on retinol availability. PMID:18523815

  19. [Clinical trials of ultra-high-dose methylcobalamin in ALS].

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yuishin; Kaji, Ryuji

    2007-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting both upper and lower motor neurons. Weakness may begin in the legs, hands, proximal arms, or pharynx. The course is relentless and progressive without remissions, relapses, or even stable plateaus. There is no effective drug therapy for ALS, although riluzole has been shown to prolong life in sufferers, without tracheostomy. A vitamin B12 analog, methylcobalamin, has a protective effect on cultured cortical neurons against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. We have shown the ultra-high-dose methylcobalamin (25 mg/day i.m.) slows down the progressive reduction of the CMAP (compound muscle action potential) amplitudes in ALS in the short term (4 weeks). The latencies of SSR (sympathetic skin response) were shorter after treatment (50 mg/day i.v., 2 weeks). In the long-term effect of methylcobalamin (50 mg/day i.m., twice a week), the survival time (or the period to become respirator-bound) was significantly longer in the treated group than in the untreated. Larger-scale randomized double blind trial was started in Japan in order to evaluate the long-term efficacy and the safety of ultra-high-dose methylcobalamin for sporadic or familial cases of ALS. PMID:17969354

  20. Pharmacokinetics of high-dose busulfan in children.

    PubMed

    Vassal, G; Gouyette, A; Hartmann, O; Pico, J L; Lemerle, J

    1989-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of high-dose busulfan given orally at 1 mg/kg every 6 h over 4 days (total dose, 16 mg/kg) in combined chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation was studied in 12 children with a mean age of 7 years (range, 4-14 years). Busulfan levels in biological fluids were measured by a gas chromatographic assay with mass fragmentographic detection, using a deuterated analogue as the internal standard. In a high-dose regimen, busulfan followed one-compartment model kinetics with zero-order absorption. A mean maximal concentration of 803 +/- 228 ng/ml was achieved at 92-255 min after dosing. The mean elimination half-life was 2.33 h, and the mean total clearance was 119 +/- 54 ml/min per m2, with an apparent distribution volume of 27.10 +/- 11.50 l/m2. A mean trough level of 370 ng/ml was found throughout the 4 days of the chemotherapy course. There were no significant variations in pharmacokinetic parameters measured after the first and last doses. Busulfan was monitored in the CSF of nine children at 3.25-7 h after the last dose and was detected in all patients, with a mean CSF-to-plasma concentration ratio of 0.95 (range, 0.5-1.4). PMID:2791192

  1. Spectroscopic gamma camera for use in high dose environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Isao; Ishitsu, Takafumi; Tadokoro, Takahiro; Okada, Koichi; Nagumo, Yasushi; Fujishima, Yasutake; Kometani, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Umegaki, Kikuo

    2016-06-01

    We developed a pinhole gamma camera to measure distributions of radioactive material contaminants and to identify radionuclides in extraordinarily high dose regions (1000 mSv/h). The developed gamma camera is characterized by: (1) tolerance for high dose rate environments; (2) high spatial and spectral resolution for identifying unknown contaminating sources; and (3) good usability for being carried on a robot and remotely controlled. These are achieved by using a compact pixelated detector module with CdTe semiconductors, efficient shielding, and a fine resolution pinhole collimator. The gamma camera weighs less than 100 kg, and its field of view is an 8 m square in the case of a distance of 10 m and its image is divided into 256 (16×16) pixels. From the laboratory test, we found the energy resolution at the 662 keV photopeak was 2.3% FWHM, which is enough to identify the radionuclides. We found that the count rate per background dose rate was 220 cps h/mSv and the maximum count rate was 300 kcps, so the maximum dose rate of the environment where the gamma camera can be operated was calculated as 1400 mSv/h. We investigated the reactor building of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant using the gamma camera and could identify the unknown contaminating source in the dose rate environment that was as high as 659 mSv/h.

  2. High-temperature thermoluminescence of anion-deficient alumina and possibilities of its application in high-dose dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdo, A. I.; Milman, I. I.; Abashev, R. M.; Vlasov, M. I.

    2014-12-01

    Results of studies of the thermoluminescence (TL) of anion-deficient alumina (α-Al2O3 - δ) single crystals and based on them TLD-500 detectors exposed to pulsed X-ray and electron radiation in a wide range of doses D, pulsed dose rates P p , and temperatures are described. The TL responses of α-Al2O3 - δ for continuous and pulsed X-ray irradiation at D = 0.05-150 Gy are compared. Unlike continuous irradiation, in the case of pulsed irradiation at P p ≥ 6 × 106 Gy/s, a linear increase in the TL response as a function of D is registered in the main and "chromium" peaks at 450 and 580 K, respectively, with a decrease in the slope of the dose dependence at D > 2 Gy for the peak at 450 K. It is found that high-dose irradiation (>60 Gy) leads to the formation of a new TL peak at 830 K and the preferential redistribution of the stored light sums into this peak. The dose dependence for the TL peak at 830 K is studied. It is established that it is linear in a super-high dose range of 104 to 6 × 106 Gy at P p = 2.6 × 1011 Gy/s.

  3. Characterization of power transistors as high dose dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Lavalle, M.; Corda, U.; Kovacs, A.; Peimel-Stuglik, Z.; Gombia, E.

    2009-02-01

    A bipolar transistor, previously investigated as a possible radiation dosimeter and tested under industrial irradiation conditions in high-activity gamma and high-energy, high-power electron beam facilities has been subjected to stability test in order to understand its behaviour and help to improve its performances. Charge carrier lifetime was measured for several sets of transistors which were then irradiated with various doses (3-60 kGy): seven sets with 60Co gamma rays and eight with a 10 MeV electron beam. After irradiation all the transistors were measured and each set was divided into three groups: one group was left untreated, the second group was heated at 100 °C for 30 minutes and the third group was heated at 150 °C for 30 minutes, for testing the stability of the lifetime. Our data showed that heat treatment quite successfully eliminates post-irradiation changes in the response. Response measurements of the irradiated transistors, heat-treated and untreated, were carried out at room temperature over several weeks after irradiation to establish post-irradiation stability and assess if these transistors could be used for recording dose history. Calibration curves in the range 3-60 kGy for the thermally treated and untreated devices are presented. Dependence of the response of the transistors on the temperature of the measurements in the range 20-50 °C is reported.

  4. Radiation-induced lung fibrosis after treatment of small cell carcinoma of the lung with very high-dose cyclophosphamide

    SciTech Connect

    Trask, C.W.; Joannides, T.; Harper, P.G.; Tobias, J.S.; Spiro, S.G.; Geddes, D.M.; Souhami, R.L.; Beverly, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five previously untreated patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were treated with cyclophosphamide 160 to 200 mg/kg (with autologous bone marrow support) followed by radiotherapy (4000 cGy) to the primary site and mediastinum. No other treatment was given until relapse occurred. Nineteen patients were assessable at least 4 months after radiotherapy; of these, 15 (79%) developed radiologic evidence of fibrosis, which was symptomatic in 14 (74%). The time of onset of fibrosis was related to the volume of lung irradiated. A retrospective analysis was made of 20 consecutive patients treated with multiple-drug chemotherapy and an identical radiotherapy regimen as part of a randomized trial. Radiologic and symptomatic fibrosis was one half as frequent (35%) as in the high-dose cyclophosphamide group. Very high-dose cyclophosphamide appears to sensitize the lung to radiotherapy and promotes the production of fibrosis.

  5. Membrane Signaling Induced by High Doses of Ionizing Radiation in the Endothelial Compartment. Relevance in Radiation Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Corre, Isabelle; Guillonneau, Maëva; Paris, François

    2013-01-01

    Tumor areas can now be very precisely delimited thanks to technical progress in imaging and ballistics. This has also led to the development of novel radiotherapy protocols, delivering higher doses of ionizing radiation directly to cancer cells. Despite this, radiation toxicity in healthy tissue remains a major issue, particularly with dose-escalation in these new protocols. Acute and late tissue damage following irradiation have both been linked to the endothelium irrigating normal tissues. The molecular mechanisms involved in the endothelial response to high doses of radiation are associated with signaling from the plasma membrane, mainly via the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide pathway. This review describes this signaling pathway and discusses the relevance of targeting endothelial signaling to protect healthy tissues from the deleterious effects of high doses of radiation. PMID:24252908

  6. Screening Pelvic Examination in Nonpregnant Adult Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening Pelvic Examination in Nonpregnant Adult Women: Recommendations From the American ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening Pelvic Examination in Adult Women: A Clinical Practice Guideline From ...

  7. Kegel Exercises for Your Pelvic Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... control until after 6 to 12 weeks of daily exercises. Still, most women notice an improvement after just ... Weak pelvic muscles often lead to urine leakage. Daily exercises can strengthen pelvic muscles. These exercises often improve ...

  8. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment and Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Herpes Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ... is pelvic inflammatory disease treated? Several types of antibiotics can cure PID. Antibiotic treatment does not, however, reverse any ...

  9. Management of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life is adversely affected by pelvic organ prolapse, the prevalence of which is increasing because of the persistently growing older population. Today, the tension-free vaginal mesh kit has grown in popularity owing to its comparable cure rate to traditional reconstructive surgery and the feasibility of an early return to normal life. However, significant debate remains over the long-term cure rate and the safety of tension-free vaginal mesh in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends obtaining informed consent about the safety and cure rate when the patient chooses surgery using the tension-free vaginal mesh kit or meshes before surgery. The goal of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is the restoration of anatomic defects. This review article provides an overview of basic surgical techniques and the results, advantages, and disadvantages of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:25405010

  10. Microbiota and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Harsha; Tal, Reshef; Clark, Natalie A.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tract microbiota play a crucial role in maintaining health. Disequilibrium of the microbiota has been associated with increased risk of pelvic infections. In recent years, culture-independent molecular techniques have expanded understanding of the composition of genital microbiota and the dynamic nature of the microbiota. There is evidence that upper genital tract may not be sterile and may harbor microflora in the physiologic state. The isolation of bacterial vaginosis-associated organisms in women with genital infections establishes a link between pelvic infections and abnormal vaginal flora. With the understanding of the composition of the microbiota in healthy and diseased states, the next logical step is to identify the function of the newly identified microbes. This knowledge will further expand our understanding of the causation of pelvic infections, which may lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24390920