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1

High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

T.Hebbeker High Energy Cosmic Rays Thomas Hebbeker RWTH Aachen University Gent 03.07.2008 1.2 http://www.physik.rwth-aachen.de/~hebbeker/ or: google hebbeker #12;T.Hebbeker Cosmic Rays Discovery / Properties Influence on Earth / Life / Science High Energy Cosmic Rays Cosmic Sources and Propagation Auger-Observatory First Auger Results #12;T

Hebbeker, Thomas

2

Cosmic Rays High Energy Particles  

E-print Network

T.Hebbeker Cosmic Rays High Energy Particles from the Universe Thomas Hebbeker RWTH Aachen.Hebbeker Cosmic Rays Discovery / Properties Influence on Earth / Life / Science High Energy Cosmic Rays Cosmic + + + + + + + + ++ + + + + Ionizing radiation discharges electrometer #12;T.Hebbeker Electric Properties of Cosmic Rays 1927 Clay

Hebbeker, Thomas

3

Cosmic Rays High Energy Particles  

E-print Network

T.Hebbeker Cosmic Rays High Energy Particles from the Universe Thomas Hebbeker RWTH Aachen #12;T.Hebbeker Cosmic Rays Discovery / Properties Influence on Earth / Life / Science High Energy Cosmic Rays Cosmic Sources and Propagation Auger-Observatory First Auger Results #12;T.Hebbeker Cosmic

Hebbeker, Thomas

4

High-energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the `knee' above $10^{15}$ eV and the `ankle' above $10^{18}$ eV. An important question is whether the highest energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

Thomas K. Gaisser; Todor Stanev

2005-10-11

5

Imaging the High Energy Cosmic Ray Sky  

E-print Network

Imaging the High Energy Cosmic Ray Sky PETTER HOFVERBERG Licentiate Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2006 #12;#12;Licentiate Thesis Imaging the High Energy Cosmic Ray Sky Petter Hofverberg Particle Stockholm, Sweden 2006 #12;Cover illustration: The sky coverage of cosmic rays for the SEASA array

Haviland, David

6

PAMELA measurements of high energy cosmic ray  

E-print Network

and optimised for the study of the antimatter component in the cosmic radiation. The PAMELA apparatus consistsPAMELA measurements of high energy cosmic ray positrons LAURA ROSSETTO Doctoral Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2012 #12;#12;Doctoral Thesis PAMELA measurements of high energy cosmic ray positrons Laura

Haviland, David

7

Terrestrial effects of high energy cosmic rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

On geological timescales, the Earth is likely to be exposed to higher than the usual flux of high energy cosmic rays (HECRs) from astrophysical sources such as nearby supernovae, gamma ray bursts or by galactic shocks. These high-energy particles strike the Earth's atmosphere, initiating an extensive air shower. As the air shower propagates deeper, it ionizes the atmosphere by producing

Dimitra Atri

2011-01-01

8

Resource Letter HECR-1: High-Energy Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on high energy cosmic rays and their associated messengers. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cosmic rays from high to ultrahigh energies, gamma-rays, neutrinos, high energy astrophysical sources, particle acceleration mechanisms, cosmic ray interactions and propagation.

Kotera, Kumiko; Olinto, Angela

2014-07-01

9

High energy physics in cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

Jones, Lawrence W. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-02-07

10

High energy physics in cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first half-century of cosmic ray physics, the primary research focus was on elementary particles; the positron, pi-mesons, mu-mesons, and hyperons were discovered in cosmic rays. Much of this research was carried out at mountain elevations; Pic du Midi in the Pyrenees, Mt. Chacaltaya in Bolivia, and Mt. Evans/Echo Lake in Colorado, among other sites. In the 1960s, claims of the observation of free quarks, and satellite measurements of a significant rise in p-p cross sections, plus the delay in initiating accelerator construction programs for energies above 100 GeV, motivated the Michigan-Wisconsin group to undertake a serious cosmic ray program at Echo Lake. Subsequently, with the succession of higher energy accelerators and colliders at CERN and Fermilab, cosmic ray research has increasingly focused on cosmology and astrophysics, although some groups continue to study cosmic ray particle interactions in emulsion chambers.

Jones, Lawrence W.

2013-02-01

11

EDITORIAL: Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays FOCUS ON HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The topic of high-energy cosmic rays has recently attracted significant attention. While the AGASA and HiRes Observatories have closed after many years of successful operation, the Pierre Auger Observatory began taking data in January 2004 and the first results have been reported. Plans for the next generation of instruments are in hand: funding is now being sought for the northern phase of the Auger Observatory and plans for a space detector, JEM-EUSO, to be launched in 2013-14 are well advanced with the long-term target of a dedicated satellite for the 2020s. It therefore seemed an appropriate time to make a collection of outstanding and original research articles from the leading experimental groups and from some of the theorists who seek to interpret the hard-won data and to speculate on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. This focus issue in New Journal of Physics on the topic of high energy cosmic rays, contains a comprehensive account of the work of the Yakutsk group (A A Ivanov, S P Knurenko and I Ye Sleptsov) who have used Cerenkov radiation produced by shower particles in the air to provide the basis for energy calibration. This technique contrasts with that of detecting fluorescence radiation from space that is proposed for the JEM-EUSO instrument to be placed on the International Space Station in 2013, described by Y Takahashi. Supplementing this is an article by A Santangelo and A Petrolini describing the scientific goals, requirements and main instrument features of the Super Extreme Universe Space Observatory mission (S-EUSO). The use of fluorescence light to measure energies was the key component of the HiRes instrument and is also used extensively by the Pierre Auger Collaboration so an article, by F Arqueros, F Blanco and J Rosado, summarizing the properties of fluorescence emission, still not fully understood, is timely. M Nagano, one of the architects of the AGASA Observatory, has provided an overview of the experimental situation with regard to the energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays. The remaining contributions are of a more theoretical nature and discuss propagation (T Stanev), the time structure of multi-messenger signals (G H W Sigl), ultra-high energy cosmic ray production near black holes (A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev), production in jets associated with black holes (C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J Finke and A Atoyan) and emission from a specific object, Cen A (M Kachelriess, S S Ostapchenko and R Tomas). Additionally the potential of high energy cosmic rays to give information about features of hadronic interactions, specifically the cross-section for p-air collisions, is discussed in the paper by R Ulrich et al. We thank all our authors most sincerely for their efforts and Tim Smith and his editorial team for their hard work. We believe that this collection of articles will be of great value to workers in the field: further contributions to this focus issue will be published during the course of 2009. Focus on High Energy Cosmic Rays Contents The cosmic ray energy spectrum as measured using the Pierre Auger Observatory Giorgio Matthiae The northern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory Johannes Blümer and the Pierre Auger Collaboration Searching for new physics with ultrahigh energy cosmic rays Floyd W Stecker and Sean T Scully On the measurement of the proton-air cross section using air shower data R Ulrich, J Blümer, R Engel, F Schüssler and M Unger High energy radiation from Centaurus A M Kachelrieß, S Ostapchenko and R Tomŕs Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays from black hole jets of radio galaxies C D Dermer, S Razzaque, J D Finke and A Atoyan Ultra-high energy cosmic ray production in the polar cap regions of black hole magnetospheres A Yu Neronov, D V Semikoz and I I Tkachev Time structure and multi-messenger signatures of ultra-high energy cosmic ray sources Günter Sigl Propagation of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays Todor Stanev Search for the end of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays M Nagano Analysis of the fluorescence emission from atmospheric ni

Teshima, Masahiro; Watson, Alan A.

2009-06-01

12

Clusters in Very High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

Arrival directions of cosmic rays with the energy E>4.10^{19} eV are analyzed by using data of the Yakutsk and AGASA (Japan) extensive air showers (EAS) arrays. It is supposed that the clusters can be formed as a result of decay of superheavy particles. The consequences of this supposition compare with experimental data.

A. A. Mikhailov

2004-03-10

13

Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays: present status and future prospects  

E-print Network

Reasons for the current interest in cosmic rays above 10^19 eV are described. The latest results on the energy spectrum, arrival direction distribution and mass composition of cosmic rays are reviewed, including data that were reported after the meeting in Blois in June 2001. The enigma set by the existence of ultra high-energy cosmic rays remains. Ideas proposed to explain it are discussed and progress with the construction of the Pierre Auger Observatory is outlined.

A. A. Watson

2001-12-20

14

FLUKA as a new high energy cosmic ray generator  

E-print Network

FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code, which can transport particles over a wide range of energies in user-defined geometries. Here we present a new FLUKA library, which allows the interaction and propagation of high energy cosmic rays in the Earth atmosphere and the transport of high energy muons in underground/underwater environments

Giuseppe Battistoni; Annarita Margiotta; Silvia Muraro; Maximiliano Sioli

2010-02-24

15

Observing Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays with Smartphones  

E-print Network

We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy ($>10^{18}$~eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

Daniel Whiteson; Michael Mulhearn; Chase Shimmin; Kyle Brodie; Dustin Burns

2014-10-10

16

Observing Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays with Smartphones  

E-print Network

We propose a novel approach for observing cosmic rays at ultra-high energy ($>10^{18}$~eV) by repurposing the existing network of smartphones as a ground detector array. Extensive air showers generated by cosmic rays produce muons and high-energy photons, which can be detected by the CMOS sensors of smartphone cameras. The small size and low efficiency of each sensor is compensated by the large number of active phones. We show that if user adoption targets are met, such a network will have significant observing power at the highest energies.

Whiteson, Daniel; Shimmin, Chase; Brodie, Kyle; Burns, Dustin

2014-01-01

17

Cosmic strings and ultra-high energy cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flux is calculated of ultrahigh energy protons due to the process of cusp evaporation from cosmic string loops. For the standard value of the dimensionless cosmic string parameter epsilon is identical to G(sub mu) approx. = 10(exp -6), the flux is several orders of magnitude below the observed cosmic ray flux of ultrahigh energy protons. However, the flux at any energy initially increases as the value of epsilon is decreased. This at first suggests that there may be a lower limit on the value of epsilon, which would imply a lower limit on the temperature of a cosmic string forming phase transition in the early universe. However, the calculation shows that this is not the case -- the particle flux at any energy reaches its highest value at epsilon approx. = 10(exp -15) and it then decreases for further decrease of the value of epsilon. This is due to the fact that for too small values of epsilon (less than 10(exp -15)), the energy loss of the loops through the cusp evaporation process itself (rather than gravitational energy loss of the loops) becomes the dominant factor that controls the behavior of the number density of the loops at the relevant times of emission of the particles. The highest flux at any energy remains at least four orders of magnitude below the observed flux. There is thus no lower limit on epsilon.

Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani

1989-01-01

18

Detectors for high energy cosmic rays on Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two instruments designed to determine the spectra of the individual cosmic-ray components at very high energies are described. One of these (CRNE) uses a combination of gas Cerenkov counters and transition radiation detectors for the cosmic-ray nuclei lithium to nickel; the other (TRIC) is optimized for the light cosmic rays (electrons, protons, helium) and uses a transition-radiation/ionization-calorimeter combination. The CRNE instrument, constructed at the University of Chicago, was delivered to NASA for a first Shuttle flight on Spacelab-2 in summer 1985. Some of the technical and programmatic requirements encountered during the hardware construction and integration are discussed, and the expected scientific return and the prospects of using such instrumentation on the Space Station are considered.

Lheureux, J.; Meyer, P.; Muller, D.; Swordy, S.

1985-01-01

19

Extragalactic Propagation of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

More than 100 years after the discovery of cosmic rays and various experimental efforts, the origin of ultra-high energies (E > 100 PeV) remains unclear. The understanding of production and propagation effects of these highest energetic particles in the universe is one of the most intense research fields of high-energy astrophysics. With the advent of advanced simulation engines developed during the last couple of years, and the increase of experimental data, we are now in a unique position to model source and propagation parameters in an unprecedented precision and compare it to measured data from large scale observatories. In this paper we revisit the most important propagation effects of cosmic rays through photon backgrounds and magnetic fields and introduce recent developments of propagation codes. Finally, by comparing the results to experimental data, possible implications on astrophysical parameters are given.

Kuempel, Daniel

2014-01-01

20

Anomalous Transport of High Energy Cosmic Rays in Galactic Superbubbles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-energy cosmic rays may exhibit anomalous transport as they traverse and are accelerated by a collection of supernovae explosions in a galactic superbubble. Signatures of this anomalous transport can show up in the particles' evolution and their spectra. In a continuous-time-random- walk (CTRW) model assuming standard diffusive shock acceleration theory (DSA) for each shock encounter, and where the superbubble (an OB stars association) is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks, acceleration and transport in the superbubble can be shown to be sub-diffusive. While the sub-diffusive transport can be attributed to the stochastic nature of the acceleration time according to DSA theory, the spectral break appears to be an artifact of transport in a finite medium. These CTRW simulations point to a new and intriguing phenomenon associated with the statistical nature of collective acceleration of high energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles.

Barghouty, Nasser F.

2014-01-01

21

Magnetic horizons of ultra-high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

The propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in extragalactic magnetic fields can be diffusive, depending on the strength and properties of the fields. In some cases the propagation time of the particles can be comparable to the age of the universe, causing a suppression in the flux measured on Earth. In this work we use magnetic field distributions from cosmological simulations to assess the existence of a magnetic horizon at energies around 10$^{18}$ eV.

Batista, Rafael Alves

2014-01-01

22

Double Pair Production by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Photons  

E-print Network

With use of CompHEP package we've made the detailed estimate of the influence of double e+e- pair production by photons (DPP) on the propagation of ultra high energy electromagnetic cascade. We show that in the models in which cosmic ray photons energy reaches few thousand EeV refined DPP analysis may lead to substantial difference in predicted photon spectrum compared to previous rough estimates.

S. V. Demidov; O. E. Kalashev

2008-12-04

23

pp interaction at very high energies in cosmic ray experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of p-air cross section data from extensive air shower measurements is presented, based on an analytical representation of the pp scattering amplitudes that describes with high precision all available accelerator data at ISR, SPS and LHC energies. The theoretical basis of the representation, together with the very smooth energy dependence of parameters controlled by unitarity and dispersion relations, permits reliable extrapolation to high energy cosmic ray (CR) and asymptotic energy ranges. Calculations of ? p-airprod based on Glauber formalism are made using the input values of the quantities ? , ? , BI and BR at high energies, with attention given to the independence of the slope parameters, with {{B}R}\

Kendi Kohara, A.; Ferreira, Erasmo; Kodama, Takeshi

2014-11-01

24

Exploring the High-Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum with a Toy Model of Cosmic Ray Diffusion  

E-print Network

We introduce a static toy model of the cosmic ray (CR) universe in which cosmic ray propagation is taken to be diffusive and cosmic ray sources are distributed randomly with a density the same as that of local L* galaxies, $5 \\times 10^{-3}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. These sources "fire" at random times through the history of the universe but with a set expectation time for the period between bursts. Our toy model model captures much of the essential CR physics despite its simplicity and, moreover, broadly reproduces CR phenomenology for reasonable parameter values and without extreme fine-tuning. Using this model we investigate -- and find tenable -- the idea that the Milky Way may itself be a typical high-energy cosmic ray source. We also consider the possible phenomenological implications of the magnetic CR horizon for the overall cosmic ray spectrum observed at Earth. Finally, we show that anisotropy studies should most profitably focus on cosmic rays detected at energies above the so-called GZK cut-off, $\\sim 6 \\times 10^{19}$ eV.

Roger Clay; Roland M. Crocker

2007-10-26

25

On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays II  

SciTech Connect

We show that accretion disks around Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) could account for the enormous power in observed ultra high energy cosmic rays {approx}10{sup 20} eV (UHEs). In our model, cosmic rays are produced by quasi-steady acceleration of ions in magnetic structures previously proposed to explain jets around Active Galactic Nuclei with supermassive black holes. Steady acceleration requires that an AGN accretion disk act as a dynamo, which we show to follow from a modified Standard Model in which the magnetic torque of the dynamo replaces viscosity as the dominant mechanism accounting for angular momentum conservation during accretion. A black hole of mass M{sub BH} produces a steady dynamo voltage V {proportional_to} {radical}M{sub BH} giving V {approx} 10{sup 20} volts for M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8} solar masses. The voltage V reappears as an inductive electric field at the advancing nose of a dynamo-driven jet, where plasma instability inherent in collisionless runaway acceleration allows ions to be steadily accelerated to energies {approx} V, finally ejected as cosmic rays. Transient events can produce much higher energies. The predicted disk radiation is similar to the Standard Model. Unique predictions concern the remarkable collimation of jets and emissions from the jet/radiolobe structure. Given MBH and the accretion rate, the model makes 7 predictions roughly consistent with data: (1) the jet length; (2) the jet radius; (3) the steady-state cosmic ray energy spectrum; (4) the maximum energy in this spectrum; (5) the UHE cosmic ray intensity on Earth; (6) electron synchrotron wavelengths; and (7) the power in synchrotron radiation. These qualitative successes motivate new computer simulations, experiments and data analysis to provide a quantitative verification of the model.

Fowler, T K; Colgate, S; Li, H; Bulmer, R H; Pino, J

2011-03-08

26

Measurement of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with CHICOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California HIgh school Cosmic ray ObServatory (CHICOS) is a ground-based scintillator array designed to measure the extended air showers of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The goal of the project is to gain insight into the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays by measuring the energy spectrum and the distribution of arrival directions. The CHICOS array has been in operation since 2003. It consists of 77 pairs of scintillator dectectors deployed at schools in the San Fernando and San Gabriel valleys near Los Angeles, and is designed to observe cosmic ray air showers at energies of 10^18 eV and above. In addition, the Chiquita subarray is designed to observe smaller showers in the energy range of 10^16 - 10^19 eV. We present new descriptions of the air shower lateral distribution function and time distribution function, which have been derived from AIRES-generated simulated air showers. The new functions are specific to the CHICOS altitude and allow for a maximum likelihood shower reconstruction method, which is more appropriate to the CHICOS data than the chi-squared minimization method. We present several analyses of the accuracy of the reconstruction software in the energy ranges available to the Chiquita and CHICOS arrays. The energy spectrum between 10^17 eV and 10^19 eV has been measured by the Chiquita subarray. At the lowest energy range, it is found to agree with previous measurements, while the measured flux falls below previous experiments for energies greater than approximately 10^17.5 eV. The CHICOS energy spectrum above 10^18.4 eV is found to agree with previous results published by AGASA. However, we do not observe the cutoff in the spectrum at 10^20 eV reported more recently by the Auger and HiRes Collaborations. A correlation analysis between CHICOS data and nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) was performed. No excess of cosmic rays was observed in the vicinity of nearby AGN. The maximum correlation was observed for cosmic ray events with E > 10^20 eV and for AGN with z < 0.009, with P_chance = 21%. This is consistent with random correlations from an isotropic distribution, a result also found by HiRes, but in disagreement with Auger.

Brobeck, Elina

27

High-Energy Cosmic Ray Event Data from the Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory  

DOE Data Explorer

The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory in Mendoza, Argentina is the result of an international collaboration funded by 15 countries and many different organizations. Its mission is to capture high-energy cosmic ray events or air showers for research into their origin and nature. The Pierre Auger Collaboration agreed to make 1% of its data available to the public. The Public Event Explorer is a search tool that allows users to browse or search for and display figures and data plots of events collected since 2004. The repository is updated daily, and, as of June, 2014, makes more than 35,000 events publicly available. The energy of a cosmic ray is measured in Exa electron volts or EeV. These event displays can be browsed in order of their energy level from 0.1 to 41.1 EeV. Each event has an individual identification number.

The event displays provide station data, cosmic ray incoming direction, various energy measurements, plots, vector-based images, and an ASCII data file.

28

Gamma-ray bursts: Potential sources of ultra high energy cosmic-rays  

E-print Network

The arguments suggesting an association between the sources of cosmological gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are presented. Recent GRB and UHECR observations are shown to strengthen these arguments. Predictions of the GRB model for UHECR production, that may be tested with large area high energy cosmic-ray detectors which are either operating or under construction, are outlined.

E. Waxman

2004-12-21

29

Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?  

E-print Network

The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgment. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

P. L. Biermann; J. K. Becker; L. Caramete; A. Curutiu; R. Engel; H. Falcke; L. A. Gergely; P. G. Isar; I. C. Maris; A. Meli; K. -H. Kampert; T. Stanev; O. Tascau; C. Zier

2008-11-12

30

On the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding physical mechanisms by which Nature succeeds in bestowing `macroscopic' amounts of energy on single `microscopic' particles remains one of the greatest challenges for both, astrophysicists seeking to understand the functioning of cosmic objects, and accelerator designers inventing new conjectures for more powerful machines. The first and introductory chapter of this contribution is a short retrospective on our early research work, in the `Mathematical Physics Division' at Kiel, on the origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Particles (UHECRP), beginning in the sixties and seventies with studies on Atmospheric Particle Propagation, proceeding in the seventies and eighties to investigations on Galactic Particle Transfer, and leading in the eighties and nineties to our present work on mechanisms for particle acceleration in pulsar magnetospheres. Cosmic rays, more than many fields of research, are found to be closely related to other branches of physics2. When looking on powerful cosmic accelerators from the point of view of fundamental physics, one has to study charged particle dynamics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields, of a kind that is expected near the surface of rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized neutron stars. Conventional Maxwell Theory (MT), for clearly discernable reasons, does not provide an adequate theoretical means of description in this case. Selfconsistent Electrodynamics (SCED), distinguished from MT through some of its essential premises offers itself, alternatively, as an appropriate language. Therefore, in the second chapter of my talk, I shall outline some features of SCED and reproduce the equation of particle motion on these grounds. In the third and concluding chapter, I shall discuss a mechanism to create very narrow bundles of energetic particles in the polar regions of aligned rotators3.

Thielheim, K. O.

1998-06-01

31

Cosmic-ray experiment on very high energy nuclear collisions  

SciTech Connect

The Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) was conceived in 1978 to study high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions and the composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays up to 10/sup 15/ eV. The primary detection aparatus is a balloon with a 0.8 x 1 m emulsion chamber whose acceptance aperture exceeds ..pi.. radians. The detector operation altitude and exposure time are 4g/cm/sup 2/ and 40 hrs, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to report on searches for new channels of particle production at high nuclear energy densities and temperatures via transverse momenta studies, particle correlations in the pion condensation region, and quark-gluon plasma studies. (AIP)

Jones, W.V.; Takahashi, Y.; Wosiek, B.; Miyamura, O.

1987-01-01

32

Simulations of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays propagation  

E-print Network

We compare two techniques for simulation of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) propagation, the Monte Carlo approach and method based on solving transport equations in one dimension. For the former we adopt publicly available tool CRPropa and for the later we use the code TransportCR developed by O.K. et al. and used in number of applications which is made available online with publishing this paper. While the CRPropa code is more universal, transport equation solver has advantage of roughly 100 times higher calculation speed. We conclude that the methods give practically identical results for the case of proton or neutron primaries provided that some accuracy improvements are introduced to CRPropa code.

Kalashev, O E

2014-01-01

33

High-Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

A complete model for the origin of high-energy >~10^{14} eV) cosmic rays from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and implications of this hypothesis are described. Detection of high-energy neutrinos from GRBs provide an unambiguous test of the model. Evidence for cosmic-ray acceleration in GRBs is suggested by the detection of anomalous gamma-ray components such as that observed from GRB 941017. Neutron beta-decay halos around star-forming galaxies such as the Milky Way are formed as a consequence of this model. Cosmic rays from GRBs in the Galaxy are unlikely to account for the ~10^{18} eV cosmic-ray excess reported by the Sydney University Giant Air Shower Recorder (SUGAR), but could contribute to past extinction events.

C. Dermer

2005-06-16

34

On the acceleration of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.  

PubMed

Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) hit the Earth's atmosphere with energies exceeding 10(18)eV. This is the same energy as carried by a tennis ball moving at 100 km h-1, but concentrated on a subatomic particle. UHECRs are so rare (the flux of particles with E>10(20)eV is 0.5 km -2 per century) that only a few such particles have been detected over the past 50 years. Recently, the HiRes and Auger experiments have reported the discovery of a high-energy cut-off in the UHECR spectrum, and Auger has found an apparent clustering of the highest energy events towards nearby active galactic nuclei. Consensus is building that the highest energy particles are accelerated within the radio-bright lobes of these objects, but it remains unclear how this actually happens, and whether the cut-off is due to propagation effects or reflects an intrinsically physical limitation of the acceleration process. The low event statistics presently allows for many different plausible models; nevertheless observations are beginning to impose strong constraints on them. These observations have also motivated suggestions that new physics may be implicated. We present a review of the key theoretical and observational issues related to the processes of propagation and acceleration of UHECRs and proposed solutions. PMID:18812295

Fraschetti, Federico

2008-12-13

35

Observations of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The status of measurements of the arrival directions, mass composition and energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 3 x 10^18 eV (3 EeV) is reviewed using reports presented at the 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference held in Pune, India, in August 2005. The paper is based on a plenary talk given at the TAUP2005 meeting in Zaragoza, 10 - 14 September 2005.

A A Watson

2005-11-29

36

Ultra-high energy cosmic rays threshold in Randers-Finsler space  

E-print Network

Kinematics in Finsler space is used to study the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays particles through the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find that the GZK threshold is lifted dramatically in Randers-Finsler space. A tiny deformation of spacetime from Minkowskian to Finslerian allows more ultra-high energy cosmic rays particles arrive at the earth. It is suggested that the lower bound of particle mass is related with the negative second invariant speed in Randers-Finsler space.

Zhe Chang; Xin Li

2008-09-27

37

High Energy Radiation From Black Holes: Gamma Rays, Cosmic Rays, and Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bright gamma-ray flares observed from sources far beyond our Milky Way Galaxy are best explained if enormous amounts of energy are liberated by black holes. The highest- energy particles in nature--the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays--cannot be confined by the Milky Way's magnetic field, and must originate from sources outside our Galaxy. In this talk, I summarize the themes of our book, just published by Princeton University Press, with the same title as this talk. We examine whether the Blandford-Znajek mechanism for energy extraction from rotating black holes can explain the differences between gamma-ray blazars and radio-quiet AGNs, Fermi evidence for cosmic ray acceleration in blazars and GRBs, and whether black holes accelerate the ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

Dermer, Charles D.; Menon, G.

2010-01-01

38

Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?  

E-print Network

We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corresponding neutrino bound. On the other hand, GRBs may account for the UHECRs in the ankle transition model if cosmic rays leak out from the source at the highest energies. In that case, we demonstrate that future neutrino observations can efficiently test most of the parameter space -- unless the baryonic loading is much larger than previously anticipated.

Philipp Baerwald; Mauricio Bustamante; Walter Winter

2014-01-08

39

Energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

The construction of the southern site of the Pierre Auger Observatory is almost completed. Three independent measurements of the flux of the cosmic rays with energies larger than 1 EeV have been performed during the construction phase. The surface detector data collected until August 2007 have been used to establish a flux suppression at the highest energies with a 6 sigma significance. The observations of cosmic rays by the fluorescence detector allowed the extension of the energy spectrum to lower energies, where the efficiency of the surface detector is less than 100% and a change in the spectral index is expected.

Ioana C. Maris; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2008-08-12

40

High energy neutrinos from astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing experimental efforts to detect cosmic sources of high energy neutrinos are guided by the expectation that astrophysical accelerators of cosmic ray protons would also generate neutrinos through interactions with ambient matter and/or photons. However, there will be a reduction in the predicted neutrino flux if cosmic ray sources accelerate not only protons but also significant numbers of heavier nuclei, as is indicated by recent air shower data. We consider plausible extragalactic sources such as active galactic nuclei, gamma ray bursts and starburst galaxies and demand consistency with the observed cosmic ray composition and energy spectrum at Earth after allowing for propagation through intergalactic radiation fields. This allows us to calculate the expected neutrino fluxes from the sources, normalized to the observed cosmic ray spectrum. We find that the likely signals are still within reach of next generation neutrino telescopes such as IceCube.PACS95.85.Ry98.70.Rz98.54.Cm98.54.EpReferencesFor a review, see:F.HalzenD.HooperRep. Prog. Phys.6520021025A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.972006221101A.AchterbergIceCube CollaborationAstropart. Phys.262006282arXiv:astro-ph/0611063arXiv:astro-ph/0702265V.NiessANTARES CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8672006217I.KravchenkoPhys. Rev. D732006082002S.W.BarwickANITA CollaborationPhys. Rev. Lett.962006171101V.Van ElewyckPierre Auger CollaborationAIP Conf. Proc.8092006187For a survey of possible sources and event rates in km3 detectors see e.g.,W.BednarekG.F.BurgioT.MontaruliNew Astron. Rev.4920051M.D.KistlerJ.F.BeacomPhys. Rev. D742006063007A. Kappes, J. Hinton, C. Stegmann, F.A. Aharonian, arXiv:astro-ph/0607286.A.LevinsonE.WaxmanPhys. Rev. Lett.872001171101C.DistefanoD.GuettaE.WaxmanA.LevinsonAstrophys. J.5752002378F.A.AharonianL.A.AnchordoquiD.KhangulyanT.MontaruliJ. Phys. Conf. Ser.392006408J.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenAstrophys. J.5762002L33F.VissaniAstropart. Phys.262006310F.W.SteckerC.DoneM.H.SalamonP.SommersPhys. Rev. Lett.6619912697(Erratum-ibid. 69 (1992) 2738)F.W.SteckerPhys. Rev. D722005107301A.AtoyanC.D.DermerPhys. Rev. Lett.872001221102L.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenT.J.WeilerPhys. Lett. B6002004202E.WaxmanJ.N.BahcallPhys. Rev. Lett.7819972292C.D.DermerA.AtoyanPhys. Rev. Lett.912003071102D.GuettaD.HooperJ.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenE.ReuveniAstropart. Phys.202004429J.Alvarez-MunizF.HalzenD.W.HooperPhys. Rev. D622000093015A.LoebE.WaxmanJCAP06052006003S. Inoue, G. Sigl, F. Miniati, E. Armengaud, arXiv:astro-ph/0701167.E.WaxmanJ.N.BahcallPhys. Rev. D591999023002Phys. Rev. D642001023002K.MannheimR.J.ProtheroeJ.P.RachenPhys. Rev. D632001023003arXiv:astro-ph/9908031M.AhlersL.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenA.RingwaldT.J.WeilerPhys. Rev. D722005023001E.WaxmanAstrophys. J.4521995L1Note that the neutrino spectral shape can deviate from that for protons if the Feynman plateau is not flat in pseudo-rapidity space;L.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergC.NunezPhys. Rev. D712005065014This is in fact suggested by Tevatron data;F.AbeCDF CollaborationPhys. Rev. D4119902330J.G.LearnedS.PakvasaAstropart. Phys.31995267F.HalzenD.SaltzbergPhys. Rev. Lett.8119984305J.F.BeacomN.F.BellD.HooperS.PakvasaT.J.WeilerPhys. Rev. D682003093005(Erratum-ibid. D 72 (2005) 019901)L.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenT.J.WeilerPhys. Lett. B593200442L.A.AnchordoquiH.GoldbergF.HalzenT.J.WeilerPhys. Lett. B621200518A.M.HillasAnn. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.221984425For a general discussion on the acceleration time-scale in these sources see, e.g.,D.F.TorresL.A.AnchordoquiRep. Prog. Phys.6720041663M.C.BegelmanB.RudakM.SikoraAstrophys. J.362199038M.J.ChodorowskiA.A.ZdziarskiM.SikoraAstrophys. J.4001992181S.MichalowskiD.AndrewsJ.EickmeyerT.GentileN.MistryR.TalmanK.UenoPhys. Rev. Lett.391977737J.L.PugetF.W.SteckerJ.H.BredekampAstrophys. J.2051976638D.HooperS.SarkarA.M.TaylorAstropart. Phys.272007199The non-thermal energy release in GRBs is much smaller than that output by AGN.P.L.BiermannP.A.StrittmatterAstrophys. J.3221987643R.J.ProtheroeA.P.SzaboPhys. Rev. Lett.6919922885J.P.RachenP.L.BiermannAstron. Astrophys.2721993161J.P.Ra

Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Hooper, Dan; Sarkar, Subir; Taylor, Andrew M.

2008-02-01

41

Study of the Shadow of the Moon in Very High Energy Cosmic Rays with the Milagrito Water Cherenkov Detector  

E-print Network

Study of the Shadow of the Moon in Very High Energy Cosmic Rays with the Milagrito Water Cherenkov of California at Riverside 2001 #12; Study of the Shadow of the Moon in Very High Energy Cosmic Rays of the Moon in Very High Energy Cosmic Rays with the Milagrito Water Cherenkov Detector by Morgan O

California at Santa Cruz, University of

42

Are gamma-ray bursts the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays?  

E-print Network

We reconsider the possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the sources of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) within the internal shock model, assuming a pure proton composition of the UHECRs. For the first time, we combine the information from gamma-rays, cosmic rays, prompt neutrinos, and cosmogenic neutrinos quantitatively in a joint cosmic ray production and propagation model, and we show that the information on the cosmic energy budget can be obtained as a consequence. In addition to the neutron model, we consider alternative scenarios for the cosmic ray escape from the GRBs, i.e., that cosmic rays can leak from the sources. We find that the dip model, which describes the ankle in UHECR observations by the pair production dip, is strongly disfavored in combination with the internal shock model because a) unrealistically high baryonic loadings (energy in protons versus energy in electrons/gamma-rays) are needed for the individual GRBs and b) the prompt neutrino flux easily overshoots the corres...

Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

2014-01-01

43

The Fly's Eye Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum D.J. Bird,1  

E-print Network

The Fly's Eye Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum D.J. Bird,1 S.C. Corbato,3 H.Y. Dai,3 B present our latest results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum above 1017 eV observed by Fly's Eye. Tracks detected by both eyes can be well reconstructed and therefore have very good energy resolution

44

Roadmap for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Physics and Astronomy (whitepaper for Snowmass 2013)  

E-print Network

We summarize the remarkable recent progress in ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics and astronomy enabled by the current generation of cosmic ray observatories. We discuss the primary objectives for future measurements and describe the plans for near-term enhancements of existing experiments as well as the next generation of observatories.

Luis A. Anchordoqui; Glennys R. Farrar; John F. Krizmanic; Jim Matthews; John W. Mitchell; Dave Nitz; Angela V. Olinto; Thomas C. Paul; Pierre Sokolsky; Gordon B. Thomson; Thomas J. Weiler

2013-07-19

45

Obtaining Bounds from Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in Isotropic Modified Maxwell Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reviews the methods used to obtain a two-sided bound on isotropic modified Maxwell theory from experimental data of ultra high-energy cosmic rays in 2008. The bound is updated with results from the HEGRA experiment.

Schreck, M.

2014-01-01

46

What Do We Expect to Learn from Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Observations?  

E-print Network

By a short tour through the exciting field of very high-energy and ultra high-energy cosmic rays studies, a brief review is given about the current questions approached, in particular by the KASCADE experiment and the Pierre Auger project. The present status of the investigations of the knee region of the cosmic ray spectrum by KASCADE is presented and open problems are discussed.

H. Rebel

2001-09-27

47

HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION INDUCED BY ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY PHOTONS AS A PROBE OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATORS EMBEDDED IN THE COSMIC WEB  

SciTech Connect

The photomeson production in ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray (UHECR) accelerators such as {gamma}-ray bursts and active galaxies may lead to ultra-high-energy (UHE) {gamma}-ray emission. We show that the generation of UHE pairs in magnetized structured regions where the sources are embedded is inevitable, and accompanying {approx}> 0.1 TeV synchrotron emission provides an important probe of UHECR acceleration. It would especially be relevant for powerful transient sources, and synchrotron pair echoes may be detected by future CTA via coordinated search for transients of duration {approx}0.1-1 yr for the structured regions of {approx}Mpc. Detections will be useful for knowing structured extragalactic magnetic fields as well as properties of the sources.

Murase, Kohta [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2012-02-15

48

On the ultra high energy cosmic rays and the origin of the cosmic microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

Some inconsistencies to the assumption of a cosmological origin of the cosmic microwave background CMB, such as the absence of gravitational lensing in the WMAP data, open the doors to some speculations such as a local origin to the CMB. We argue here that this assumption agrees with the absence of the GZK cutoff (at least according to AGASA data) in the energy spectrum of the cosmic ray due to the cosmic interaction with the CMB at $6\\times 10^{19} eV$ or above. Within 50 Mpc from Earth, the matter and light distributions are close to an anisotropic distribution, where the local cluster and local super-clusters of galaxies can be identified. In contrast, the ultra high energy comic rays data is consistent to an almost isotropic distribution, and there is no correlation between their arrival direction and astronomical sources within our local cluster. This means that the events above the GZK cutoff come from distances above 50 Mpc, without an apparent energy loss. This scenario is plausible under the assumption of the CMB concentrated only within 3-4 Mpc from Earth. In other words, the CMB has a local origin linked only to the local super-cluster of galaxies. In addition, the galactic and extragalactic energy spectra index within the energy equipartition theorem strongly constrains the dark matter and dark energy hypothesis, essential in the Big Bang cosmology.

C. E. Navia; C. R. A. Augusto; K. H. Tsui

2007-07-12

49

Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts from Axion Stars  

E-print Network

We propose a model in which ultra high energy cosmic rays and gamma ray bursts are produced by collisions between neutron stars and axion stars. The acceleration of such a cosmic ray is made by the electric field, $\\sim 10^{15} (B/10^{12} {G}) {eV} {cm}^{-1}$, which is induced in an axion star by relatively strong magnetic field $B>10^{12}$ G of a neutron star. On the other hand, similar collisions generate gamma ray bursts when magnetic field is relatively small, e.g. $\\leq 10^{10}$ G. Assuming that the axion mass is $\\sim 10^{-9}$ eV, we can explain huge energies of the gamma ray bursts $\\sim 10^{54}$ erg as well as the ultra high energies of the cosmic rays $\\sim 10^{20}$ eV. We estimate rate of energy release in the collisions and we find that the rate roughly agrees with observations. In addition, we show that these axion stars are plausible candidates for MACHOs. Since the axion star induces oscillating electric current under the magnetic field, observable monochromatic radiations are emitted.

Aiichi Iwazaki

2000-08-29

50

Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (?10 GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

Sedrati, R.; Attallah, R.

2014-04-01

51

High Energy Gamma Rays from Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays in Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

It has recently been proposed that ultrahigh energy ($\\gtrsim 10^{19}$ eV) cosmic rays (UHECRs) are accelerated by the blast waves associated with GRBs. We calculate the observed synchrotron radiation spectrum from protons and energetic leptons formed in the cascades initiated by photopion production, taking into account $\\gamma\\gamma$ attenuation at the source. Normalizing to the emission characteristics of GRB~970508, we predict $\\sim 10$ MeV - 100 GeV fluxes at a level which may have been observed with EGRET from bright GRBs, and could be detected with the proposed GLAST experiment or with ground-based air \\v Cerenkov telescopes having thresholds $\\lesssim $ several hundred GeV. The temporal decay of the UHECR-induced high-energy $\\gamma$-ray afterglows is significantly slower than that of the lower-energy burst and associated synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) radiation, which provides a direct way to test the hadronic origin of a high-energy GRB afterglow. Besides testing the UHECR origin hypothesis, the short wavelength emission and afterglows can be used to probe the level of the diffuse intergalactic infrared radiation field or constrain redshifts of GRB sources.

M. Boettcher; C. D. Dermer

1998-01-06

52

Inverse problem for extragalactic transport of ultra-high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

The energy spectra and composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are changing in a course of propagation in the expanding Universe filled with background radiation. We developed a numerical code for solution of inverse problem for cosmic-ray transport equations that allows the determination of average source spectra of different nuclei from the cosmic ray spectra observed at the Earth. Employing this approach, the injection spectra of protons and Iron nuclei in extragalactic sources are found assuming that only these species are accelerated at the source. The data from the Auger experiment and the combined data from the Telescope Array + HiRes experiments are used to illustrate the method.

Zirakashvili, V S Ptuskin S I Rogovaya V N

2014-01-01

53

High-energy cosmic ray muons in the Earth's atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

We present the calculations of the atmospheric muon fluxes at energies 10-10{sup 7} GeV based on a numerical-analytical method for solving the hadron-nucleus cascade equations. It allows the non-power-law behavior of the primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum, the violation of Feynman scaling, and the growth of the total inelastic cross sections for hadron-nucleus collisions with increasing energy to be taken into account. The calculations have been performed for a wide class of hadron-nucleus interaction models using directly the PCR measurements made in the ATIC-2 and GAMMA experiments and the parameterizations of the primary spectrum based on a set of experiments. We study the dependence of atmospheric muon flux characteristics on the hadronic interaction model and the influence of uncertainties in the PCR spectrum and composition on the muon flux at sea level. Comparison of the calculated muon energy spectra at sea level with the data from a large number of experiments shows that the cross sections for hadron-nucleus interactions introduce the greatest uncertainty in the energy region that does not include the knee in the primary spectrum.

Kochanov, A. A., E-mail: kochanov@iszf.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Russian Federation); Sinegovskaya, T. S. [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation)] [Irkutsk State Railway University (Russian Federation); Sinegovsky, S. I., E-mail: sinegovsky@api.isu.ru [Irkutsk State University (Russian Federation)

2013-03-15

54

Plasma Effects on Extragalactic Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Ray Hadron Beams in Cosmic Voids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam (? b ? 106) in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of collective electrostatic and aperiodic electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays (E > 1015 eV) from their distant sources to Earth. We calculate minimum instability growth times that are orders of magnitude shorter than the cosmic ray propagation time in the IGM. Due to nonlinear effects, especially the modulation instability, the cosmic ray beam stabilizes and can propagate with nearly no energy loss through the IGM.

Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R.

2014-07-01

55

Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays: the present position and the need for mass composition measurements  

E-print Network

The present situation with regard to experimental data on ultra high-energy cosmic rays is briefly reviewed. Whilst detailed knowledge of the shape of the energy spectrum is still lacking, it is clear that events above 10^20 eV do exist. Evidence for clustering of the directions of some of the highest energy events remains controversial. Clearly, more data are needed and these will come from the southern branch of the Pierre Auger Observatory in the next few years. What is evident is that our knowledge of the mass composition of cosmic rays is deficient at all energies above 10^18 eV. It must be improved if we are to discover the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. The major part of the paper is concerned with this problem: it is argued that there is no compelling evidence to support the common assumption that cosmic rays of the highest energies are protons.

A. A. Watson

2003-12-18

56

Source position and magnetic field reconstruction from ultr a-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the possibility to reconstruct the position of ultr a-high energy cosmic ray sources and some properties of the magnetic field along the line of sight t owards them in the case that several events from the same source are detected. By considering a realistic model for the galactic magnetic field, including both a regular and a turbulent comp

Geraldina Golup; Diego Harari; Silvia Mollerach; Esteban Roulet

57

Meson synchrotron radiation threshold for ultra-high energy cosmic ray protons  

Microsoft Academic Search

High energy protons in uniform circular motion can emit the equivalent of synchrotron radiation composed by mesons. Here, we consider this process in an astrophysical context. We show, in particular, that astrophysical sources of cosmic rays endowed with a magnetic field B> 1012 Gauss cannot accelerate protons to energies higher than E? 1015 eV since, in this situation, the threshold

Douglas Fregolente

58

Ultra-high energy cosmic rays and the extragalactic gamma ray flux  

E-print Network

Ultra-high energy cosmic rays interacting with the radiation fields in the universe cause electromagnetic cascades resulting in a flux of extragalactic gamma rays, detectable to some 100 GeV. Recent precise measurements of the extragalactic gamma ray flux by Fermi-LAT, coupled with estimates of the background from active galactic nuclei of various types, allows limits to be set on the cascade component. By comparison with prediction and, making various assumptions, ie taking a particular model, limits can be set on the maximum energy to which ultra-high energy particle can be accelerated. If our model is correct, it is unlikely that the maximum energy is above 100 EeV, in turn, the apparent 'GZK' cut-off in the measured ultra-high energy spectrum could instead be due to a fall-off in the intrinsic emergent particle spectrum. However, it is not plausible to be dogmatic at the present time because of uncertainty in many of the parameters involved. We have used recent estimates of the range of parameters and hav...

Erlykin, A D

2014-01-01

59

LAT Perspectives in Detection of High Energy Cosmic Ray Electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) science objectives and capabilities in the detection of high energy electrons in the energy range from 20 GeV to approx. 1 TeV are presented. LAT simulations are used to establish the event selections. It is found that maintaining the efficiency of electron detection at the level of 30% the residual hadron contamination does not exceed 2-3% of the electron flux. LAT should collect approx. ten million of electrons with the energy above 20 GeV for each year of observation. Precise spectral reconstruction with high statistics presents us with a unique opportunity to investigate several important problems such as studying galactic models of IC radiation, revealing the signatures of nearby sources such as high energy cutoff in the electron spectrum, testing the propagation model, and searching for KKDM particles decay through their contribution to the electron spectrum.

Moiseev, Alexander; Ormes, J. F.; Funk, Stefan

2007-01-01

60

Lunar detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos  

E-print Network

The origin of the most energetic particles in nature, the ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays, is still a mystery. Due to their extremely low flux, even the 3,000 km^2 Pierre Auger detector registers only about 30 cosmic rays per year with sufficiently high energy to be used for directional studies. A method to provide a vast increase in collecting area is to use the lunar technique, in which ground-based radio telescopes search for the nanosecond radio flashes produced when a cosmic ray interacts with the Moon's surface. The technique is also sensitive to the associated flux of UHE neutrinos, which are expected from cosmic ray interactions during production and propagation, and the detection of which can also be used to identify the UHE cosmic ray source(s). An additional flux of UHE neutrinos may also be produced in the decays of topological defects from the early Universe. Observations with existing radio telescopes have shown that this technique is technically feasible, and established the required proced...

Bray, J D; Buitink, S; Dagkesamanskii, R D; Ekers, R D; Falcke, H; Gayley, K G; Huege, T; James, C W; Mevius, M; Mutel, R L; Protheroe, R J; Scholten, O; Spencer, R E; ter Veen, S

2014-01-01

61

Ultra high energy cosmic ray generation in black hole magnetosphere: testing by polarimetric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop the method that allows to estimate ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) production in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We used the model developed by Neronov et al. (New J. Phys. 11:065015, 2009) and estimated the magnetic field strength near the innermost stable orbit in an accretion disk and at the horizon radius of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) using the data of polarimetric observations of broad lines emission. It allows to estimate the kinetic power of the relativistic jet at the base of Blandford-Znajek mechanism. In a result we estimated the cosmic ray power for a number of AGNs with known values of SMBH spins.

Piotrovich, M. Y.; Gnedin, Y. N.; Buliga, S. D.; Natsvlishvili, T. M.

2014-10-01

62

Dark matter distribution in the universe and ultra-high energy cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

Two of the greatest mysteries of modern physics are the origin of the dark matter in the universe and the nature of the highest energy particles in the cosmic ray spectrum. The authors discuss here possible direct and indirect connections between these two problems, with particular attention to two cases: in the first they study the local clustering of possible sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) driven by the local dark matter overdensity. In the second case they study the possibility that UHECRs are directly generated by the decay of weakly unstable super heavy dark matter.

Pasquale Blasi

2000-10-10

63

Disentangling Signatures of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays from a Unique Gamma-ray Blazar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blazars have been postulated as possible progenitors of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs; E>1 PeV) for decades. This is particularly compelling in the case of blazars observed as TeV gamma-ray sources, since acceleration of particles to extreme energies must take place there. Unfortunately, convincing evidence supporting this theory has yet to be collected, mainly due to lack of firm measurements of blazar distances. Leveraging a novel technique that we successfully used to robustly pin-down redshifts in four blazars via absorption spectroscopy, we propose HST/COS observations of B2 1215+30, a blazar with the unique potential to address the validity of blazars as acceleration sources of UHECRs. These observations will provide firm limits on the distance to B2 1215+30, which will be used in conjunction with archival observations in the very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) band to enable a detailed study of the interaction of UHECRs with the lower-energy extragalactic photon fields along the line of sight between B2 1215+30 and the Earth.

Furniss, Amy

2014-10-01

64

The Need for Direct High-Energy Cosmic-Ray Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measuring the chemical composition of the cosmic rays in the energy region of greater than or equal to 10(exp 12)eV would be highly useful in settling several nagging questions concerning the propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy. In particular an accurate measurement of secondary to primary ratios such as Boron to Carbon would gibe clear evidence as to whether the propagation of cosmic rays is determined by a diffusion coefficient that varies with the particle's energy as E(sup 0.5) or E(sup 0.3). This would go a long ways in helping us to understand the anistropy (or lack thereof) of the highest energy cosmic rays and the power requirements for producing those particles at approximately equal to 10(exp 18) eV which are believed to be highest energy particles produced in the Galaxy. This would be only one of the benefits of a mission such as ACCESS to perform direct particle measurements on very high energy cosmic rays.

Jones, Frank C.; Streitmatter, Robert

2004-01-01

65

Clustering of ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions on medium scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-point autocorrelation function of ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) arrival directions has a broad maximum around 25°, combining the data with energies above 4×1019eV (in the HiRes energy scale) of the HiRes stereo, AGASA, Yakutsk and SUGAR experiments. This signal is not or only marginally present analyzing events of a single experiment, but becomes significant when data from several

M. Kachelrieß; D. V. Semikoz

2006-01-01

66

Cosmic Ray Origin: Lessons from Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and the Galactic/Extragalactic Transition  

E-print Network

We examine the question of the origin of the Galactic cosmic-rays (GCRs) in the light of the data available at the highest energy end of the spectrum. We argue that the data of the Pierre Auger Observatory and of the KASCADE-Grande experiment suggest that the transition between the Galactic and the extragalactic components takes place at the energy of the ankle in the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum, and at an energy of the order of $10^{17}$ eV for protons. Such a high energy for Galactic protons appears difficult to reconcile with the general view that GCRs are accelerated by the standard diffusive shock acceleration process at the forward shock of individual supernova remnants (SNRs). We also review various difficulties of the standard SNR-GCR connection, related to the evolution of the light element abundances and to significant isotopic anomalies. We point out that most of the power injected by the supernovae in the Galaxy is actually released inside superbubbles, which may thus play an important role i...

Parizot, Etienne

2014-01-01

67

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Radio Detection of UltraHigh Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

ray radar reflection [14, 27] --- it did not succeed but detected the radar reflection of Sputnik instead and made history. Radio detection of air showers has a number of advantages: the detector material itself, a simple wire, is cheap, radio emission is not absorbed in the atmosphere and can thus see

Falcke, Heino

68

How Many Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays Could we Expect from Centaurus A?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pierre Auger Observatory has associated a few ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with the direction of Centaurus A. This source has been deeply studied in radio, infrared, X-ray, and ?-rays (MeV-TeV) because it is the nearest radio-loud active galactic nucleus. Its spectral energy distribution or spectrum shows two main peaks, the low-energy peak, at an energy of 10-2 eV, and the high-energy peak, at about 150 keV. There is also a faint very high energy (VHE; E >= 100 GeV) ?-ray emission fully detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System experiment. In this work, we describe the entire spectrum: the two main peaks with a synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model, and the VHE emission with a hadronic model. We consider p? and pp interactions. For the p? interaction, we assume that the target photons are those produced at 150 keV in leptonic processes. On the other hand, for the pp interaction we consider as targets the thermal particle densities in the lobes. Requiring a satisfactory description of the spectra at very high energies with p? interaction, we obtain an excessive luminosity in UHECRs (even exceeding the Eddington luminosity). However, when considering the pp interaction to describe the ?-spectrum, the number of UHECRs obtained is in agreement with Pierre Auger observations. We also calculate the possible neutrino signal from pp interactions on a Km3 neutrino telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

Fraija, N.; González, M. M.; Perez, M.; Marinelli, A.

2012-07-01

69

Physics from the Very-High Energy Cosmic-Ray Shadows of the Moon and Sun with Milagro  

E-print Network

Physics from the Very-High Energy Cosmic-Ray Shadows of the Moon and Sun with Milagro by Grant E. I'd also like to thank Jonathan Roberts for helpful comments on the Sun. After moving into a new of the Moon and Sun in TeV cosmic rays are unique probes of the character of these particles and the magnetic

California at Santa Cruz, University of

70

High energy cosmic-ray interactions with particles from the Sun  

E-print Network

Cosmic-ray protons with energies above $10^{16}$ eV passing near the Sun may interact with photons emitted by the Sun and be excited to a $\\Delta^+$ resonance. When the $\\Delta^+$ decays, it produces pions which further decay to muons and photons which may be detected with terrestrial detectors. A flux of muons, photon pairs (from $\\pi^0$ decay), or individual high-energy photons coming from near the Sun would be a rather striking signature, and the flux of these particles is a fairly direct measure of the flux of cosmic-ray nucleons, independent of the cosmic-ray composition. In a solid angle within $15^\\circ$ around the Sun the flux of photon pairs is about $\\SI{1.3e-3}{}$ particles/(km$^2\\cdot$yr), while the flux of muons is about $\\SI{0.33e-3}{}$ particles/(km$^2\\cdot$yr). This is beyond the reach of current detectors like the Telescope Array, Auger, KASCADE-Grande or IceCube. However, the muon flux might be detectable by next-generation air shower arrays or neutrino detectors such as ARIANNA or ARA. We discuss the experimental prospects in some detail. Other cosmic-ray interactions occuring close to the Sun are also briefly discussed.

Kristoffer K. Andersen; Spencer R. Klein

2011-03-25

71

Monocular measurement of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Telescope Array Project was designed to observe cosmic rays with energies greater than 1018 eV. Its goals are to study the physics of cosmic rays by measuring their anisotropy, composition, and energy spectrum. This work makes a monocular measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray spectrum and analyzes the physics produced from that spectrum. The flux of cosmic rays observed on Earth follows a power law over 12 decades in energy and 32 decades in flux. At the highest energies, the spectrum has detailed structure. Studying these features can tell us about the astrophysics of the production and propagation of cosmic rays. First, it can tell us about the sources of cosmic rays such as they capable of producing a power law spectrum and the maximum energy of cosmic rays that they can produce. Second, the acceleration mechanisms that can boost cosmic rays to ultra high energies can be studied. Third, the spectral features themselves can tell us about their possible cause for formation. For example, the ankle feature in the ultra high energy regime can tell us if it is the galactic-extragalactic transition or if it is due to e+e- pair production. Fourth, the energy losses that cosmic rays incur can tell us about their physical interactions during propagation. Studying the physics of the cosmic ray spectrum in the ultra high energy regime with data from the Telescope Array Project is the goal of this analysis. The Telescope Array Project consists of three fluorescence detectors overlooking an array of 507 scintillation surface detectors. Due to their extremely low flux at these energies, cosmic rays can only be observed indirectly via an extensive air shower produced when they collide with the nucleus of an atom in the Earth's atmosphere. These charged secondary particles produce fluorescence light. The array of surface detectors observes the lateral footprint of the extensive air shower when it reaches the ground. The fluorescence detectors observe the longitudinal profile of this fluorescence light. This thesis analyzes the data from one of the fluorescence detectors, Middle Drum, using a different geometry reconstruction technique, the Time versus Angle geometry. The results of this analysis show an ultra high energy cosmic ray spectrum that is consistent with the results previously published by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment, the Telescope Array surface detectors, and other experiments in this energy region. Due to insufficient statistics at this date, the GZK cutoff cannot be confirmed in this analysis, but a fit shows the cutoff to be at log10 E (E/eV) = 19.56 ą 0.36, with a spectral index after the cutoff of - 3.86 ą 2.0. This is within the range determined previously by other measurements. This analysis shows that the feature known as the ankle occurs at log10 E (E/eV) = 18.63 ą 0.09, with a spectral index of - 3.27 ą 0.07 before the ankle and a spectral index of - 2.81 ą 0.10 after the ankle. The normalized log likelihood per degree of freedom is 0.90. The ankle is observed at the 4 — 5 ? confidence level. The fit to the ankle is also in excellent agreement with previous measurements, and even more remarkable given that some other measurements use different techniques. While this study cannot tell us information about the sources or the acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays, it does show us a feature and tell us about energy losses during propagation. The dip at the ankle is clearly visible in the spectrum. The results of this study are consistent with the energy loss model of extragalactic protons interacting with the cosmic microwave background radiation and supports the idea that the ankle is excavated due to e+e- pair production. The location of the ankle at a threshold greater than for e+e- pair production supports that the ankle is a composite feature where the redshift energy losses begin to dominate the e+e- pair production losses. The location of the ankle also implies that sources at larger distances than the GZK cutoff contribute to its formation.

Shah, Priti Dhanesh

72

Telescope Array Radar (TARA) Observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest "conventional" cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs, extending their detection aperture far beyond what is accessible by conventional means. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

Abbasi, R; Allen, C; Beard, L; Belz, J; Besson, D; Byrne, M; Farhang-Boroujeny, B; Gardner, A; Gillman, W H; Hanlon, W; Hanson, J; Jayanthmurthy, C; Kunwar, S; Larson, S L; Myers, I; Prohyra, S; Ratzlaff, K; Sokolsky, P; Takai, H; Thomson, G B; Von Maluski, D

2014-01-01

73

Telescope Array Radar (TARA) observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction was completed during summer 2013 on the Telescope Array RAdar (TARA) bi-static radar observatory for Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). TARA is co-located with the Telescope Array, the largest “conventional” cosmic ray detector in the Northern Hemisphere, in radio-quiet Western Utah. TARA employs an 8 MW Effective Radiated Power (ERP) VHF transmitter and smart receiver system based on a 250 MS/s data acquisition system in an effort to detect the scatter of sounding radiation by UHECR-induced atmospheric ionization. TARA seeks to demonstrate bi-static radar as a useful new remote sensing technique for UHECRs. In this report, we describe the design and performance of the TARA transmitter and receiver systems.

Abbasi, R.; Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Beard, L.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Byrne, M.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Gardner, A.; Gillman, W. H.; Hanlon, W.; Hanson, J.; Jayanthmurthy, C.; Kunwar, S.; Larson, S. L.; Myers, I.; Prohira, S.; Ratzlaff, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.; Thomson, G. B.; Von Maluski, D.

2014-12-01

74

"Explosive regime" should dominate collisions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

Since the launch of LHC experiments it has been discovered that the high multiplicity trigger in pp, pA collisions finds events behaving differently from the typical (minimally biased) ones. In central pPb case it has been proven that those possess collective phenomena known as the radial, elliptic and triangular flows, similar to what is known in heavy ion (AA) collisions. In this paper we argue that at the ultra-high energies, E_lab ~ 10^{20} eV, of the observed cosmic rays this regime changes from a small-probability fluctuation to a dominant one. We estimate velocity of the transverse collective expansion for the light-light and heavy-light collisions, and find it comparable to what is observed at LHC for the central PbPb case. We argue that significant changes of spectra of various secondaries associated with this phenomenon should be important for the development of the cosmic ray cascades.

Tigran Kalaydzhyan; Edward Shuryak

2014-07-11

75

Relations Between High Energy Astroparticle Physics, Cosmic Ray Physics and Space Situational Awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper overviews high energy galactic and solar cosmic ray data respectively models, which contributes to the physics behind space situational awareness (SSA) activities. The European SSA programme was signed during the ESA Ministerial Conference in November 2008. SSA activities related to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and space weather (SW) will be explained in detail. Technological, societal economic impacts due to SW will be highlighted. In addition European and international endeavors for the forecast of SW storms and protection of critical infrastructures against SW will be sketched. New technologies and scientific inputs from microphysics detector developments like Medipix will significant contribute - by means of monitoring galactic, solar cosmic ray particles and imaging CMEs (Coronal Mass Ejections) on their propagation from the Sun towards Earth - to SW related nowcast and to applications of a new generation of highly miniaturized active space radiation and imaging monitors.

Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Jörg

2010-04-01

76

Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays from Young Neutron Star Winds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-held notion that the highest energy cosmic rays are of distant extragalactic origin is challenged by observations that events above ~1020 eV do not exhibit the expected high-energy cutoff from photopion production off the cosmic microwave background. We suggest that these unexpected ultra-high-energy events are due to iron nuclei accelerated from young strongly magnetized neutron stars through relativistic MHD winds. We find that neutron stars whose initial spin periods are shorter than ~10 ms and whose surface magnetic fields are in the 1012-1014 G range can accelerate iron cosmic rays to greater than ~1020 eV. These ions can pass through the remnant of the supernova explosion that produced the neutron star without suffering significant spallation reactions or energy loss. For plausible models of the Galactic magnetic field, the trajectories of the iron ions curve sufficiently to be consistent with the observed, largely isotropic arrival directions of the highest energy events.

Blasi, P.; Epstein, R. I.; Olinto, A. V.

2000-04-01

77

Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed Gamma-Rays From Gamma-Ray Bursts  

SciTech Connect

Regenerated high energy emissions from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are studied in detail. If the primary emission spectrum extends to TeV range, these very high energy photons will be absorbed by the cosmic infrared background (CIB). The created high energy electron-positron pairs up-scatter not only cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons but also CIB photons, and secondary photons are generated in the GeV-TeV range. These secondary delayed photons may be observed in the near future, and useful for a consistency check for the primary spectra and GRB physical parameters. The up-scattered CIB photons cannot be neglected for low redshift bursts and/or GRBs with a relatively low maximum photon energy. The secondary gamma-rays also give us additional information on the CIB, which is uncertain in observations so far.

Murase, Kohta; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto; Asano, Katsuaki; /Natl. Astron. Observ. of Japan; Nagataki, Shigehiro; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2007-04-06

78

The Most Likely Sources of High Energy Cosmic-Ray Electrons in Supernova Remnants  

E-print Network

Evidences of non-thermal X-ray emission and TeV gamma-rays from the supernova remnants (SNRs) has strengthened the hypothesis that primary Galactic cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated in SNRs. High energy electrons lose energy via synchrotron and inverse Compton processes during propagation in the Galaxy. Due to these radiative losses, TeV electrons liberated from SNRs at distances larger than ~1 kpc, or times older than ~10^5 yr, cannot reach the solar system. We investigated the cosmic-ray electron spectrum observed in the solar system using an analytical method, and considered several candidate sources among nearby SNRs which may contribute to the high energy electron flux. Especially, we discuss the effects for the release time from SNRs after the explosion, as well as the deviation of a source spectrum from a simple power-law. From this calculation, we found that some nearby sources such as the Vela, Cygnus Loop, or Monogem could leave unique signatures in the form of identifiable structure in the energ...

Kobayashi, T; Yoshida, K; Nishimura, J

2004-01-01

79

Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Rays: a probe into New Physics  

E-print Network

The most energetic particles ever detected exceed $10^{20}$ eV in energy. Their existence represents at the same time a great challenge for particle physics and astrophysics, and a great promise of providing us for a probe of the validity of the laws of Nature in extreme conditions. We review here the most recent data and the future perspectives for detection of cosmic rays at ultra-high energies, and discuss possible ways of using these data to test the possibility that new Physics and/or new Astrophsyics may be awaiting around the corner.

Pasquale Blasi

2002-06-28

80

Tidal disruption jets as the source of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

Observations of the spectacular, blazar-like tidal disruption event (TDE) candidates Swift J1644+57 and J2058+05 show that the conditions required for accelerating protons to 10^{20} eV appear to be realized in the outer jet, and possibly in the inner jet as well. Direct and indirect estimates of the rate of jetted-TDEs, and of the energy they inject, are compatible with the observed flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and the abundance of presently contributing sources. Thus TDE-jets can be a major source of UHECRs, even compabile with a pure proton composition.

Farrar, Glennys R

2014-01-01

81

High-energy gamma rays and the large-scale distribution of gas and cosmic rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COS-B gamma-ray survey is compared with C-12O and H I surveys in a region containing the Orion complex and in the outer Galaxy. The observed gamma-ray intensities in the Orion region (E between 100 MeV and 5 GeV) can be ascribed to the interaction of uniformly distributed cosmic rays with the interstellar gas. Calibration of the ratio between molecular

W. Hermsen; J. B. G. M. Bloemen

1985-01-01

82

HOW MANY ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS COULD WE EXPECT FROM CENTAURUS A?  

SciTech Connect

The Pierre Auger Observatory has associated a few ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with the direction of Centaurus A. This source has been deeply studied in radio, infrared, X-ray, and {gamma}-rays (MeV-TeV) because it is the nearest radio-loud active galactic nucleus. Its spectral energy distribution or spectrum shows two main peaks, the low-energy peak, at an energy of 10{sup -2} eV, and the high-energy peak, at about 150 keV. There is also a faint very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray emission fully detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System experiment. In this work, we describe the entire spectrum: the two main peaks with a synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model, and the VHE emission with a hadronic model. We consider p{gamma} and pp interactions. For the p{gamma} interaction, we assume that the target photons are those produced at 150 keV in leptonic processes. On the other hand, for the pp interaction we consider as targets the thermal particle densities in the lobes. Requiring a satisfactory description of the spectra at very high energies with p{gamma} interaction, we obtain an excessive luminosity in UHECRs (even exceeding the Eddington luminosity). However, when considering the pp interaction to describe the {gamma}-spectrum, the number of UHECRs obtained is in agreement with Pierre Auger observations. We also calculate the possible neutrino signal from pp interactions on a Km{sup 3} neutrino telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

Fraija, N.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Perez, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.U., A. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Marinelli, A., E-mail: nifraija@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: magda@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: jguillen@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: antonio.marinelli@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, C.U., A. Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2012-07-01

83

High energy galactic gamma radiation from cosmic rays concentrated in spiral arms. [using SAS-B satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for the emission of high energy ( 100 MeV) gamma rays from the galactic disk was developed and compared to recent SAS-2 observations. In the calculation, it is assumed that (1) the high energy galactic gamma rays result primarily from the interaction of cosmic rays with galactic matter; (2) on the basis of theoretical and experimental arguments the cosmic ray density is proportional to the matter density on the scale of galactic arms; and (3) the matter in the galaxy, atomic and molecular, is distributed in a spiral pattern consistent with density wave theory and the experimental data on the matter distribution.

Bignami, G. F.; Fichtel, C. E.; Thompson, D. J.; Kniffen, D. A.

1974-01-01

84

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE A Search for Prompt Very High Energy Emission from Satellite-detected Gamma-  

E-print Network

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE A Search for Prompt Very High Energy Emission from Satellite-detected Gamma- ray Bursts using Milagro P. M. SAZ PARKINSON & B. L. DINGUS ÂĄ FOR THE MILAGRO@scipp.ucsc.edu; dingus@lanl.gov Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been detected up to GeV energies and are predicted

California at Santa Cruz, University of

85

Ultra high energy cosmic rays: implications of Auger data for source spectra and chemical composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a kinetic-equation approach to describe the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei and calculate the expected spectra and mass composition at the Earth for different assumptions on the source injection spectra and chemical abundances. When compared with the spectrum, the elongation rate Xmax(E) and dispersion ?(Xmax) as observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, several important consequences can be drawn: a) the injection spectra of nuclei must be very hard, ~ E-? with ?~ 1- 1.6; b) the maximum energy of nuclei of charge Z in the sources must be ~ 5Z× 1018 eV, thereby not requiring acceleration to extremely high energies; c) the fit to the Auger spectrum can be obtained only at the price of adding an ad hoc light extragalactic component with a steep injection spectrum ~ E-2.7). In this sense, at the ankle EA? 5× 1018 eV) all the components are of extragalactic origin, thereby suggesting that the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays occurs below the ankle. Interestingly, the additional light extragalactic component postulated above compares well, in terms of spectrum and normalization, with the one recently measured by KASCADE-Grande.

Aloisio, R.; Berezinsky, V.; Blasi, P.

2014-10-01

86

CONSTRAINTS ON THE SOURCE OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS USING ANISOTROPY VERSUS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The joint analysis of anisotropy signals and chemical composition of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays offers strong potential for shedding light on the sources of these particles. Following up on an earlier idea, this paper studies the anisotropies produced by protons of energy >E/Z, assuming that anisotropies at energy >E have been produced by nuclei of charge Z, which share the same magnetic rigidity. We calculate the number of secondary protons produced through photodisintegration of the primary heavy nuclei. Making the extreme assumption that the source does not inject any proton, we find that the source(s) responsible for anisotropies such as reported by the Pierre Auger Observatory should lie closer than ?20-30, 80-100, and 180-200 Mpc if the anisotropy signal is mainly composed of oxygen, silicon, and iron nuclei, respectively. A violation of this constraint would otherwise result in the secondary protons forming a more significant anisotropy signal at lower energies. Even if the source were located closer than this distance, it would require an extraordinary metallicity ?> 120, 1600, and 1100 times solar metallicity in the acceleration zone of the source, for oxygen, silicon, and iron, respectively, to ensure that the concomitantly injected protons do not produce a more significant low-energy anisotropy. This offers interesting prospects for constraining the nature and the source of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with the increase in statistics expected from next-generation detectors.

Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Taylor, Andrew M. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Lemoine, Martin [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Waxman, Eli, E-mail: lemoine@iap.fr [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute, P.O. Box 26, Rehovot 7600 (Israel)

2013-10-20

87

New detection technologies for ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even with an accumulated data set from an integrated six years of lifetime from the Auger experiment, no point sources of charged cosmic rays have be identified at the highest energies. Significantly increased apertures such as promised by the JEMEUSO mission will be required to identify these sources from the cosmic ray signatures themselves. However, in employing water-cherenkov surface detectors as well as fluorescence telescopes, Auger has demonstrated the power provided by the hybrid technology approach. New detection technologies thus provide a valuable tool, in particular for the study of systematic effects. Over the past decade, in particular radio detection of cosmic ray air-showers has become a viable future detection technology to enhance and complement existing air-shower experiments. Following the proof-of-principle provided by the Lopes experiment, this technology is now being pursued in all major air-shower detectors. In the MHz regime, the radio signal is dominated by geomagnetic emission from the electrons deflected in the earth magnetic field, with secondary contributions from a global charge excess. As the majority of the energy in the shower is carried by these electron and the radio signal traverses the atmosphere basically unattenuated, this approach not only promises superior energy resolution but may also provide an independent handle on the longitudinal shower development and hence the primary composition. Theoretical signal predictions provided by detailed Monte-Carlo simulations as well as analytic shower parametrizations are in good agreement with measurements provided by the AERA and Codalema experiments. Recent efforts also include studies of the radio emission in the GHz regime, where the ambient noise is significantly reduced, yet the emission mechanism in this regime has not been firmly established yet. As neutrinos are not deflected in the intergalactic magnetic fields, the detection of neutrino-induced cascades in dense media provides another promising approachfor the identification of the sources of cosmic rays. The low event rates and large required target volumes limit the experimental methods to far-ranging signatures .from the cascade, such as acoustic emission from the quasi-instantaneous energy deposit or Cherenkov emission from the charged particles in the cascade. Searching for optical Cherenkov photons in a cubic-kilometer of Antarctic ice, the IceCube experiment has recently found an excess of high-energy neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range.Yet its effective volume is too small to detect the GZK flux predicted from interaction of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the ambient cosmic microwave background. Seeking to increase the observed target volume, radio observations of the rim of the moon have energy thresholds well beyond the EeV scale and thus are more likely to find interactions of charged cosmic rays than GZK neutrinos. The currently best sensitivity to this flux is provided from searches for GHz radio emission of neutrino-induced cascades in the antarctic ice from the ANITA ballon experiment. While no high-energy neutrinos have been found, a geomagnetic emission component from air-showers

Böser, Sebastian

2013-06-01

88

ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS FROM CENTAURUS A: JET INTERACTION WITH GASEOUS SHELLS  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with energies above {approx}6 x 10{sup 19} eV, seem to show a weak correlation with the distribution of matter relatively near to us in the universe. It has earlier been proposed that UHECRs could be accelerated in either the nucleus or the outer lobes of the nearby radio galaxy Cen A. We show that UHECR production at a spatially intermediate location about 15 kpc northeast from the nucleus, where the jet emerging from the nucleus is observed to strike a large star-forming shell of gas, is a plausible alternative. A relativistic jet is capable of accelerating lower energy heavy seed cosmic rays (CRs) to UHECRs on timescales comparable to the time it takes the jet to pierce the large gaseous cloud. In this model, many CRs arising from a starburst, with a composition enhanced in heavy elements near the knee region around PeV, are boosted to ultra-high energies by the relativistic shock of a newly oriented jet. This model matches the overall spectrum shown by the Auger data and also makes a prediction for the chemical composition as a function of particle energy. We thus predict an observable anisotropy in the composition at high energy in the sense that lighter nuclei should preferentially be seen toward the general direction of Cen A. Taking into consideration the magnetic field models for the Galactic disk and a Galactic magnetic wind, this scenario may resolve the discrepancy between HiRes and Auger results concerning the chemical composition of UHECRs.

Gopal-Krishna [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune, 411 007 (India); Biermann, Peter L. [Max-Planck-Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); De Souza, Vitor [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense 400, Centro, CEP 13566-590, Sao Carlos (Brazil); Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: krishna@ncra.tifr.res.i [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States)

2010-09-10

89

Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays from Centaurus A: Jet Interaction with Gaseous Shells  

E-print Network

Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), with energies above ~6 x 10^19 eV, seem to show a weak correlation with the distribution of matter relatively near to us in the universe. It has earlier been proposed that UHECRs could be accelerated in either the nucleus or the outer lobes of the nearby radio galaxy Cen A. We show that UHECR production at a spatially intermediate location about 15 kpc northeast from the nucleus, where the jet emerging from the nucleus is observed to strike a large star-forming shell of gas, is a plausible alternative. A relativistic jet is capable of accelerating lower-energy heavy seed cosmic rays (CRs) to UHECRs on timescales comparable to the time it takes the jet to pierce the large gaseous cloud. In this model many CRs arising from a starburst, with a composition enhanced in heavy elements near the knee region around PeV, are boosted to ultra-high energies by the relativistic shock of a newly oriented jet. This model matches the overall spectrum shown by the Auger data and also makes a prediction for the chemical composition as a function of particle energy. We thus predict an observable anisotropy in the composition at high energy in the sense that lighter nuclei should preferentially be seen toward the general direction of Cen A. Taking into consideration the magnetic field models for the Galactic disk and a Galactic magnetic wind, this scenario may resolve the discrepancy between HiRes and Auger results concerning the chemical composition of UHECRs.

Gopal-Krishna; Peter L. Biermann; Vitor de Souza; Paul J. Wiita

2010-06-25

90

A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Véron-Cetty Véron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt–L, 2pt+

P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; M. Ahlers; E. J. Ahn; I. F. M. Albuquerque; D. Allard; I. Allekotte; J. Allen; P. Allison; A. Almela; J. Alvarez Castillo; J. Alvarez-Muńiz; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; T. Anticic; C. Aramo; E. Arganda; F. Arqueros; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; M. Avenier; G. Avila; T. Bäcker; A. M. Badescu; M. Balzer; K. B. Barber; A. F. Barbosa; R. Bardenet; S. L. C. Barroso; B. Baughman; J. Bäuml; J. J. Beatty; B. R. Becker; K. H. Becker; A. Bellétoile; J. A. Bellido; S. BenZvi; C. Berat; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; F. Blanco; M. Blanco; C. Bleve; H. Blümer; M. Bohácová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; R. Bonino; N. Borodai; J. Brack; I. Brancus; P. Brogueira; W. C. Brown; R. Bruijn; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; R. E. Burton; K. S. Caballero-Mora; B. Caccianiga; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; O. Catalano; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; J. Chauvin; S. H. Cheng; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; J. Chirinos Diaz; J. Chudoba; M. Cilmo; R. W. Clay; M. R. Coluccia; R. Conceiçăo; F. Contreras; H. Cook; M. J. Cooper; J. Coppens; A. Cordier; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; A. Creusot; A. Criss; J. Cronin; A. Curutiu; S. Dagoret-Campagne; R. Dallier; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; M. De Domenico; C. De Donato; S. J. de Jong; G. De La Vega; I. De Mitri; V. de Souza; K. D. de Vries; L. del Peral; M. del Río; O. Deligny; H. Dembinski; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; M. L. Díaz Castro; P. N. Diep; F. Diogo; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. DOlivo; P. N. Dong; A. Dorofeev; J. C. dos Anjos; M. T. Dova; D. DUrso; I. Dutan; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; C. O. Escobar; J. Espadanal; A. Etchegoyen; P. Facal San Luis; I. Fajardo Tapia; H. Falcke; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; B. Fick; A. Filevich; A. Filipcic; S. Fliescher; C. E. Fracchiolla; E. D. Fraenkel; O. Fratu; U. Fröhlich; B. Fuchs; R. Gaior; R. F. Gamarra; S. Gambetta; B. García; S. T. Garcia Roca; D. Garcia-Gamez; D. Garcia-Pinto; A. Gascon; H. Gemmeke; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giller; H. Glass; M. S. Gold; G. Golup; F. Gomez Albarracin; M. Gómez Berisso; P. F. Gómez Vitale; P. Gonçalves; D. Gonzalez; J. G. Gonzalez; B. Gookin; A. Gorgi; P. Gouffon; E. Grashorn; S. Grebe; N. Griffith; M. Grigat; A. F. Grillo; Y. Guardincerri; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; A. Guzman; J. D. Hague; P. Hansen; D. Harari; S. Harmsma; T. A. Harrison; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; A. E. Herve; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; V. C. Holmes; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; P. Horvath; M. Hrabovský; T. Huege; A. Insolia; F. Ionita; A. Italiano; C. Jarne; S. Jiraskova; M. Josebachuili; K. Kadija; K. H. Kampert; P. Karhan; P. Kasper; B. Kégl; B. Keilhauer; A. Keivani; J. L. Kelley; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; J. Knapp; D.-H. Koang; K. Kotera; N. Krohm; O. Krömer; D. Kruppke-Hansen; F. Kuehn; D. Kuempel; J. K. Kulbartz; N. Kunka; G. La Rosa; C. Lachaud; R. Lauer; P. Lautridou; S. Le Coz; M. S. A. B. Leăo; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link; R. López; A. Lopez Agüera; K. Louedec; J. Lozano Bahilo; L. Lu; A. Lucero; M. Ludwig; H. Lyberis; C. Macolino; S. Maldera; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; J. Marin; V. Marin; I. C. Maris; H. R. Marquez Falcon; G. Marsella; D. Martello; L. Martin; H. Martinez; O. Martínez Bravo; H. J. Mathes; J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurel; D. Maurizio; P. O. Mazur; G. Medina-Tanco; M. Melissas; D. Melo; E. Menichetti; A. Menshikov; P. Mertsch; C. Meurer; S. Micanovic; M. I. Micheletti; I. A. Minaya; L. Miramonti; L. Molina-Bueno; S. Mollerach; M. Monasor; D. Monnier Ragaigne; F. Montanet; B. Morales; C. Morello; E. Moreno; J. C. Moreno; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; M. A. Muller; G. Müller; M. Münchmeyer; R. Mussa; G. Navarra; J. L. Navarro; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; J. Neuser; P. T. Nhung; M. Niechciol; L. Niemietz; N. Nierstenhoefer; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; L. Nožka; M. Nyklicek; J. Oehlschläger; A. Olinto; M. Ortiz; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; N. Palmieri; G. Parente; E. Parizot; A. Parra; S. Pastor; T. Paul; M. Pech; J. Pekala; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; R. Pesce; E. Petermann; S. Petrera; P. Petrinca; A. Petrolini; Y. Petrov; J. Petrovic; C. Pfendner; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; V. H. Ponce; M. Pontz; A. Porcelli; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; S. Riggi; M. Risse; P. Ristori; H. Rivera; V. Rizi; J. Roberts; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; G. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez Martino; J. Rodriguez Rojo; I. Rodriguez-Cabo; M. D. Rodríguez-Frías; G. Ros; J. Rosado; T. Rossler; M. Roth; B. Rouillé-dOrfeuil; E. Roulet

2012-01-01

91

Galactic PeVatrons: modeling the new sources of high-energy cosmic rays.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations (experiments Tunka, KASCADE, etc.) indicate that the spectrum of galactic cosmic rays in the energy range of 10(14) - 10(16) eV has notable features (fluctuations) against the background of a general power law. There are breaks in the spectrum and the spectral index varies from 2.93 to 3.21 on them. A possible explanation for this behavior of the spectrum is the imposition of particle spectra from the sources with different spectral indices of accelerated particles. One of these sources could be the systems of two colliding shocks. Such systems can often occur, for example, in active starforming regions near the Galactic Center or in stellar clusters. Special attention is paid to the regions where the shock of the expanding supernova remnant approaches the stellar wind of nearby massive star (or stars). The number of these systems is estimated as 10 systems per Galaxy. Using the non-linear time-dependent model of charged particle acceleration in two shocks colliding system we have shown that these systems have a set of important features and can make a significant contribution to the total flux of galactic cosmic rays in the high energy range 10(12) - 10(16) eV. Numerical calculations showed that the particles accelerated in the system have very hard spectral energy distribution with the index gamma=1. Maximal energies of the proton component accelerated via two-shocks systems extend well above the “knee” and can reach up to 10(15)-10({17)) eV depending on the magnitude of the amplified magnetic field, flows velocities and the system’s size. Hard spectrum of the particles on these energies and high proton intensity (up to 10(36) erg/s) make these sources possibly responsible for the fluctuations in the galactic cosmic rays spectrum.

Gladilin, Petr; Bykov, Andrey; Osipov, Sergey

92

Gamma ray signatures of ultra high energy cosmic ray accelerators: electromagnetic cascade versus synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons  

E-print Network

We discuss the possibility of observing ultra high energy cosmic ray sources inhigh energy gamma rays. Protons propagating away from their accelerators produce secondary electrons during interactions with cosmic microwave background photons. These electrons start an electromagnetic cascade that results in a broad band gamma ray emission. We show that in a magnetized Universe ($B \\gtrsim 10^{-12}$ G) such emission is likely to be too extended to be detected above the diffusebackground. A more promising possibility comes from the detection of synchrotron photons from the extremely energetic secondary electrons. Although this emission is produced in a rather extended region of size $\\sim 10Mpc$, it is expected to be point-like and detectable at GeV energies if the intergalactic magnetic field is at the nanogauss level.

Stefano Gabici; Felix A. Aharonian

2006-10-12

93

The UCSD high energy X-ray timing experiment cosmic ray particle anticoincidence detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HEXTE, part of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), is designed to make high sensitivity temporal and spectral measurements of X-rays with energies between 15 and 250 keV using NaI/CsI phoswich scintillation counters. To achieve the required sensitivity it is necessary to provide anticoincidence of charged cosmic ray particles incident upon the instrument, some of which interact to produce background X-rays. The proposed cosmic ray particle anticoincidence shield detector for HEXTE uses a novel design based on plastic scintillators and wavelength-shifter bars. It consists of five segments, each with a 7 mm thick plastic scintillator, roughly 50 cm x 50 cm in size, coupled to two wavelength-shifter bars viewed by 1/2 inch photomultiplier tubes. These segments are configured into a five-sided, box-like structure around the main detector system. Results of laboratory testing of a model segment, and calculations of the expected performance of the flight segments and particle anticoincidence detector system are presented to demonstrate that the above anticoincidence detector system satisfies its scientific requirements.

Hink, P. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pelling, M. R.; Macdonald, D. R.; Gruber, D. E.

1991-01-01

94

The UCSD high energy X-ray timing experiment cosmic ray particle anticoincidence detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HEXTE, part of the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), is designed to make high sensitivity temporal and spectral measurements of X-rays with energies between 15 and 250 keV using NaI/CsI phoswich scintillation counters. To achieve the required sensitivity it is necessary to provide anticoincidence of charged cosmic ray particles incident upon the instrument, some of which interact to produce background X-rays. The proposed cosmic ray particle anticoincidence shield detector for HEXTE uses a novel design based on plastic scintillators and wavelength-shifter bars. It consists of five segments, each with a 7 mm thick plastic scintillator, roughly 50 cm x 50 cm in size, coupled to two wavelength-shifter bars viewed by 1/2 inch photomultiplier tubes. These segments are configured into a five-sided, box-like structure around the main detector system. Results of laboratory testing of a model segment, and calculations of the expected performance of the flight segments and particle anticoincidence detector system are presented to demonstrate that the above anticoincidence detector system satisfies its scientific requirements.

Hink, P. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pelling, M. R.; MacDonald, D. R.; Gruber, D. E.

1991-10-01

95

Magnetic Deflections of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays from Centaurus A  

E-print Network

We present the results of a study that simulates trajectories of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from Centaurus A to Earth, for particle rigidities from $E/Z = 2$ EV to 100 EV, i.e., covering the possibility of primary particles as heavy as Fe nuclei with energies exceeding 50 EeV. The Galactic magnetic field is modeled using the recent work of Jansson and Farrar (JF12) which fitted its parameters to match extragalactic Faraday rotation measures and WMAP7 synchrotron emission maps. We include the random component of the GMF using the JF12 3D model for $B_{\\rm rand}(\\vec{r})$ and explore the impact of different random realizations, coherence length and other features on cosmic ray deflections. Gross aspects of the arrival direction distribution such as mean deflection and the RMS dispersion depend mainly on rigidity and differ relatively little from one realization to another. However different realizations exhibit non-trivial substructure whose specific features vary considerably from one realization to another...

Keivani, Azadeh; Sutherland, Michael

2014-01-01

96

Magnetic diffusion effects on the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum and composition  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the effects of diffusion of high energy cosmic rays in turbulent extra-galactic magnetic fields. We find an approximate expression for the low energy suppression of the spectrum of the different mass components (with charge Z) in the case in which this suppression happens at energies below ? Z EeV, so that energy losses are dominated by the adiabatic ones. The low energy suppression appears when cosmic rays from the closest sources take a time comparable to the age of the Universe to reach the Earth. This occurs for energies E < Z EeV (B/nG)?(l{sub c}/Mpc)(d{sub s}/70Mpc) in terms of the magnetic field RMS strength B, its coherence length l{sub c} and the typical separation between sources d{sub s}. We apply this to scenarios in which the sources produce a mixed composition and have a relatively low maximum rigidity (E{sub max} ? (2–10)Z EeV), finding that diffusion has a significant effect on the resulting spectrum, the average mass and on its spread, in particular reducing this last one. For reasonable values of B and l{sub c} these effects can help to reproduce the composition trends observed by the Auger Collaboration for source spectra compatible with Fermi acceleration.

Mollerach, Silvia; Roulet, Esteban, E-mail: mollerach@cab.cnea.gov.ar, E-mail: roulet@cab.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500 (8400) (Argentina)

2013-10-01

97

Patterns in ultra-high energy cosmic ray arrival directions: a possible footprint of large scale cosmic structures  

SciTech Connect

The public available data of cosmic ray arrival directions with energies above 4 x 10{sup 19} eV present a broad maximum in the cumulative two-point autocorrelation function around 25 degrees. This has been interpreted as the first imprint of the filamentary pattern of large scale structures (LSS) of matter in the near universe. We analyze this suggestion in light of the clustering properties expected from a catalogue of galaxies of the local universe (redshift z {approx}< 0:06). The data reproduce particularly well the clustering properties of the nearby universe within z {approx}< 0:02. There is no statistically significant cross-correlation between data and structures, although intriguingly the nominal cross-correlation chance probability for displacements within {approx}50 degree drops from O(50%) to O(10%) using the catalogue with a smaller horizon. Our results suggest a relevant role of magnetic fields (possibly extragalactic ones, too) and/or possibly some heavy nuclei fraction in the ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /Fermilab

2007-07-01

98

Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays from a Magnetized Strange Star Central Engine for Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been tried to be related to the most varied and powerful sources known in the universe. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are natural candidates. Here, we argue that cosmic rays can be accelerated by large amplitude electromagnetic waves (LAEMWs) when the MHD approximation of the field in the wind generated by the GRB's magnetized central engine breaks down. The central engine considered here is a strange star born with differential rotation from the accretion induced conversion of a neutron star into a strange star in a low-mass X-ray binary system. The LAEMWs generated this way accelerate light ions to the highest energies $E = q\\eta\\Delta\\Phi_{max}$ with an efficiency $\\eta \\sim 10^{-1}$ that accounts for all plausible energy losses. Alternatively, we also consider the possibility that, once formed, the LAEMWs are unstable to creation of a relativistically strong electromagnetic turbulence due to an overturn instability. Under this assumption, a lower limit to the efficiency of acceleration is estimated to be about $\\eta \\sim 10^{-2.5}$. Due to their age, low mass X-ray binary systems can be located in regions of low interstellar medium density as, e.g., globular clusters or even intergalactic medium in case of high proper motion systems, and cosmic ray energy losses due to proton collisions with photons at the decelerating region are avoided, thus opening the possibility for particles to exploit the full voltage available, well beyond that currently observed.

O. Esquivel; D. Page

2008-04-04

99

High energy irradiations simulating cosmic-ray-induced planetary gamma ray production. I - Fe target  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two thick Fe targets were bombarded by a series of 6 GeV proton irradiations for the purpose of simulating the cosmic ray bombardment of planetary objects in space. Gamma ray energy spectra were obtained with a germanium solid state detector during the bombardment, and 46 of the gamma ray lines were ascribed to the Fe targets. A comparison between observed and predicted values showed good agreement for Fe lines from neutron inelastic scattering and spallation reactions, and less satisfactory agreement for neutron capture reactions, the latter attributed to the difference in composition between the Fe target and the mean lunar abundance used in the modeling. Through an analysis of the irradiation results together with continuum data obtained in lunar orbit, it was found that 100 hours of measurement with a current instrument should generate a spectrum containing approximately 20 lines due to Fe alone, with a 2-sigma sensitivity for detection of about 0.2 percent.

Metzger, A. E.; Parker, R. H.; Yellin, J.

1986-01-01

100

High-energy cosmic ray fluxes in the Earth atmosphere: calculations vs experiments  

E-print Network

A new calculation of the atmospheric fluxes of cosmic-ray hadrons and muons in the energy range 10-10^5 GeV has been performed for the set of hadron production models, EPOS 1.6, QGSJET II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, and others that are of interest to cosmic ray physicists. The fluxes of secondary cosmic rays at several levels in the atmosphere are computed using directly data of the ATIC-2, GAMMA experiments, and the model proposed recently by Zatsepin and Sokolskaya as well as the parameterization of the primary cosmic ray spectrum by Gaisser and Honda. The calculated energy spectra of the hadrons and muon flux as a function of zenith angle are compared with measurements as well as other calculations. The effect of uncertainties both in the primary cosmic ray flux and hadronic model predictions on the spectra of atmospheric hadrons and muons is considered.

A. A. Kochanov; T. S. Sinegovskaya; S. I. Sinegovsky

2008-03-20

101

On ultra-high energy cosmic ray acceleration at the termination shock of young pulsar winds  

E-print Network

We examine the possibility that pulsars born with $\\sim\\,$millisecond periods can accelerate ions to ultra-high energies at the termination shock of the pulsar wind. Assuming that such pulsars inject ions into the wind, and that the wind luminosity is substantially converted into particle random kinetic energy through dissipation/acceleration processes around the termination shock, we find that the confinement energy can be as large as $4\\times10^{20}\\,$eV for protons, for a fiducial rotation period $P=1\\,$msec and a pulsar magnetic field $B_{\\star}=10^{13}\\,$G, implying a fiducial wind luminosity $L_{\\rm p}\\,\\sim\\,10^{45}\\,$erg/s and a spin-down time $t_{\\rm sd}\\,\\sim 3\\times 10^7\\,$s; the maximum energy associated to photopion interactions (for protons) is even larger, for the same fiducial parameters. Therefore, such sources could indeed populate the ultra-high energy cosmic ray range with nuclei. We derive an associated neutrino flux produced by interactions in the source region. Our maximum flux lies sli...

Lemoine, Martin; Pétri, Jérôme

2014-01-01

102

ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION IN THE JET OF CENTAURUS A  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the achievable maximum energy of nuclei diffusively accelerated by shock wave in the jet of Cen A, based on an updated model involving the stochastic magnetic fields that are responsible for recent synchrotron X-ray measurements. For the maximum energy analysis, conceivable energy constraints from spatiotemporal scales are systematically considered for the jet-wide including discrete X-ray knots. We find that in the inner region within approx1 arcmin from galactic core, which includes knots AX and BX, proton and iron nucleus can be accelerated to 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} and 10{sup 21} eV (10-100 EeV and ZeV) ranges, respectively. The upper cutoff energy of the very energetic neutrinos produced via photopion interaction is also provided. These are essential for identifying the acceleration site of the ultra-high energy cosmic ray detected in the Pierre Auger Observatory, which signifies the arrival from nearby galaxies including Cen A.

Honda, Mitsuru [Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory, Institute for Global Science, Mie (Japan)

2009-12-01

103

Optimal Radio Window for the Detection of Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos off the Moon  

E-print Network

When high-energy cosmic rays impinge on a dense dielectric medium, radio waves are produced through the Askaryan effect. We show that at wavelengths comparable to the length of the shower produced by an Ultra-High Energy cosmic ray or neutrino, radio signals are an extremely efficient way to detect these particles. Through an example it is shown that this new approach offers, for the first time, the realistic possibility of measuring UHE neutrino fluxes below the Waxman-Bahcall limit. It is shown that in only one month of observing with the upcoming LOFAR radio telescope, cosmic-ray events can be measured beyond the GZK-limit, at a sensitivity level of two orders of magnitude below the extrapolated values.

O. Scholten; J. Bacelar; R. Braun; A. G. de Bruyn; H. Falcke; B. Stappers; R. G. Strom

2005-08-26

104

Perturbations to aquatic photosynthesis due to high-energy cosmic ray induced muon flux in the extragalactic shock model  

E-print Network

We modify a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the perturbations that high energy muons could make on aquatic primary productivity. Then we apply this in the context of the extragalactic shock model, according to which Earth receives an enhanced dose of high-energy cosmic rays when it is at the galactic north. We obtain considerable reduction in the photosynthesis rates, consistent with potential drops in biodiversity.

Rodriguez, Lien; Rodriguez, Oscar

2013-01-01

105

Detection of meteors and sub-relativistic dust grains by the fluorescence detectors of ultra high energy cosmic rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence detectors of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) allow to record not only the extensive air showers, initiated by the UHECR particles, but also to detect light, produced by meteors and by the fast dust grains. It is shown that the fluorescence detector operated at the mountain site can register signals from meteors with kinetic energy threshold of about

B. A. Khrenov; V. P. Stulov

2006-01-01

106

Optimized Trigger for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic-Ray and Neutrino Observations with the Low Frequency Radio Array  

E-print Network

When an ultra-high energy neutrino or cosmic ray strikes the Lunar surface a radio-frequency pulse is emitted. We plan to use the LOFAR radio telescope to detect these pulses. In this work we propose an e?cient trigger implementation for LOFAR optimized for the observation of short radio pulses.

Singh, K; Scholten, O; Anderson, J M; van Ardenne, A; Arts, M; Avruch, M; Asgekar, A; Bell, M; Bennema, P; Bentum, M; Bernadi, G; Best, P; Boonstra, A -J; Bregman, J; van de Brink, R; Broekema, C; Brouw, W; Brueggen, M; Buitink, S; Butcher, H; van Cappellen, W; Ciardi, B; Coolen, A; Damstra, S; Dettmar, R; van Diepen, G; Dijkstra, K; Donker, P; Doorduin, A; Drost, M; van Duin, A; Eisloeffel, J; Falcke, H; Garrett, M; Gerbers, M; Griessmeier, J; Grit, T; Gruppen, P; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M; Hoeft, M; Holties, H; Horandel, J; Horneffer, L A; Huijgen, A; James, C; de Jong, A; Kant, D; Kooistra, E; Koopman, Y; Koopmans, L; Kuper, G; Lambropoulos, P; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, M; Maat, P; Mallary, C; McFadden, R; Meulman, H; Mol, J -D; Morawietz, J; Mulder, E; Munk, H; Nieuwenhuis, L; Nijboer, R; Norden, M; Noordam, J; Overeem, R; Paas, H; Pandey, V N; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; de Reijer, J; Renting, A; Riemers, P; Roettgering, H; Romein, J; Roosjen, J; Ruiter, M; Schoenmakers, A; Schoonderbeek, G; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B; Steinmetz, M; Stiepel, H; Stuurwold, K; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; ter Veen, S; Vermeulen, R; de Vos, M; Vogt, C; van der Wal, E; Weggemans, H; Wijnholds, S; Wise, M; Wucknitz, O; Yattawatta, S; van Zwieten, J

2011-01-01

107

Design and Data Analysis Method of Hsrl Receivers for Atmospheric Monitoring in Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the design method of a prototype High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) in bi-static mode is presented, while a novel analysis method of the data recorded by the receivers is proposed. This HSRL could be used for measuring the aerosol phase function in Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Experiments, useful for correcting the air-fluorescence light mixed by the

S. Maltezos; E. Fokitis; P. Fetfatzis; A. Georgakopoulou; V. Gika; G. Koutelieris; I. Mantros; A. Aravantinos

2010-01-01

108

The estimation of background production by cosmic rays in high-energy gamma ray telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A calculational method of estimating instrumental background in high-energy gamma-ray telescopes, using the hadronic Monte Carlo code FLUKA87, is presented. The method is applied to the SAS-2 and EGRET telescope designs and is also used to explore the level of background to be expected for alternative configurations of the proposed GRITS telescope, which adapts the external fuel tank of a Space Shuttle as a gamma-ray telescope with a very large collecting area. The background produced in proton-beam tests of EGRET is much less than the predicted level. This discrepancy appears to be due to the FLUKA87 inability to transport evaporation nucleons. It is predicted that the background in EGRET will be no more than 4-10 percent of the extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation.

Edwards, H. L.; Nolan, P. L.; Lin, Y. C.; Koch, D. G.; Bertsch, D. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kniffen, D. A.; Hughes, E. B.

1991-01-01

109

Strangelets in Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The properties of strangelets are reviewed and two experiments searching for them in cosmic rays are described. The prospects for strangelets as ultra-high energy cosmic rays beyond the classical GZK-cutoff are discussed.

Jes Madsen

2006-12-29

110

Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays from Low-Luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei  

E-print Network

We investigate the production of ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) in relativistic jets from low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). We start by proposing a model for the UHECR contribution from the black holes (BHs) in LLAGN, which present a jet power $P_{\\mathrm{j}} \\leqslant 10^{46}$ erg s$^{-1}$. This is in contrast to the opinion that only high-luminosity AGN can accelerate particles to energies $ \\geqslant 50$ EeV. We rewrite the equations which describe the synchrotron self-absorbed emission of a non-thermal particle distribution to obtain the observed radio flux density from sources with a flat-spectrum core and its relationship to the jet power. We find that the UHECR flux is dependent on the {\\it observed radio flux density, the distance to the AGN, and the BH mass}, where the particle acceleration regions can be sustained by the magnetic energy extraction from the BH at the center of the AGN. We use a complete sample of 29 radio sources with a total flux density at 5 GHz greater than 0.5 ...

Dutan, Ioana

2014-01-01

111

On the Possible Association of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Active Galaxies  

SciTech Connect

Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies >57 EeV that suggests a correlation with the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within {approx}75 Mpc. However, this analysis does not take into account AGN morphology. A detailed study of the sample of AGN whose positions correlate with the CR events shows that most of them are classified as Seyfert 2 and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies which do not differ from other local AGN of the same types. Therefore, the claimed correlation between the CR events observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory and local active galaxies should be considered as resulting from a chance coincidence, if the production of the highest energy CRs is not episodic in nature, but operates in a single object on long ({ge} Myr) timescales. Additionally, most of the selected sources do not show significant jet activity, and hence--in the framework of the jet paradigm--there are no reasons for expecting them to accelerate CRs up to the highest energies, {approx}10{sup 20} eV, at all. If the extragalactic magnetic fields and the sources of these CRs are coupled with matter, it is possible that the deflection angle is larger than expected in the case of a uniform source distribution due to effectively larger fields. A future analysis has to take into account AGN morphology and may yield a correlation with a larger deflection angle and/or more distant sources. We further argue that Cen A alone could be associated with at least 4 events due to its large radio extent, and Cen B can be associated with more than 1 event due to its proximity to the Galactic plane and, correspondingly, the stronger Galactic magnetic field the ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) encounter during propagation. If the UHECRs associated with these events are indeed accelerated by Cen A and Cen B, their deflection angles may provide information on the structure of the magnetic field in the direction of these putative sources. Future -ray observations (by, e.g., Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope [GLAST], High Energy Stereoscopic System [HESS]) may provide additional clues to the nature of the accelerators of the UHECRs in the local Universe.

Moskalenko, Igor V.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Porter, Troy A.; Cheung, Chi C.

2008-05-14

112

Anisotropy expectations for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with future high-statistics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have attracted a lot of attention in astroparticle physics and high-energy astrophysics, due to their challengingly high energies, and to their ability to constrain the physical processes and astrophysical parameters in the most energetic sources of the universe. Despite their very large acceptance, current detectors have failed to detect significant anisotropies in their arrival directions, which had been expected to lead to the long-sought identification of their sources. Some indications about the composition of the UHECRs, which may become heavier at the highest energies, have even called into question the possibility that such a goal could be achieved in the foreseeable future. Aims: We investigate the potential value of a new-generation detector, with an exposure increased by one order of magnitude, to overcome the current situation and make notable progress in detecting anisotropies and thus in the study of UHECRs. We take as an example the expected performances of the JEM-EUSO detector, assuming a uniform full-sky coverage with a total exposure of 300 000 km2 sr yr. Methods: We simulated realistic UHECR sky maps for a wide range of possible astrophysical scenarios allowed by the current constraints, taking the energy losses and photo-dissociation of the UHE protons and nuclei into account, as well as their deflections by intervening magnetic fields. These sky maps, built for both the expected statistics of JEM-EUSO and the current Pierre Auger Observatory statistics, as a reference, were analysed from the point of view of their intrinsic anisotropies, using the two-point correlation function. A statistical study of the resulting anisotropies was performed for each astrophysical scenario, varying the UHECR source composition and spectrum and the source density and exploring a set of five hundred independent realizations for each choice of a parameter set. Results: We find that significant anisotropies are expected to be detected by a next-generation UHECR detector, for essentially all the astrophysical scenarios studied, and give precise, quantitative meaning to this statement. Conclusions: Our results show that a gain of one order of magnitude in the total exposure of UHECR detectors would make a significant difference compared to the existing experiments, and would allow considerable progress in the study of these mysterious particles and their sources.

Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Allard, D.; Lachaud, C.; Parizot, E.; Blaksley, C.; Nagataki, S.

2014-07-01

113

Cosmic Physics: The High Energy Frontier  

E-print Network

Cosmic rays have been observed up to energies $10^8$ times larger than those of the best particle accelerators. Studies of astrophysical particles (hadrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. Thus, the cosmic high energy frontier is the nexus to new particle physics. This overview discusses recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic gamma-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. These topics touch on questions of grand unification, violation of Lorentz invariance, as well as Planck scale physics and quantum gravity.

F. W. Stecker

2003-09-01

114

Cosmic Rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of web pages gives an elementary discussion of cosmic rays, followed by sections on high energy particles in the universe and high-energy particles from the Sun. It describes the existence particles whose velocity approaches that of light, their probable sources, and their measurement. This is part of a large work, "The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere", that gives a non-mathematical introduction to planetary and solar magnetic fields, space weather, aurora, and charged particle motion. A Spanish translation is available.

Stern, David

2005-04-27

115

Cosmic Rays Above the Second Knee from Clusters of Galaxies and Associated High-Energy Neutrino Emission  

E-print Network

Accretion and merger shocks in clusters of galaxies are potential accelerators of high-energy protons, which can give rise to high-energy neutrinos through pp interactions with the intracluster gas. We discuss the possibility that protons from cluster shocks make a significant contribution to the observed cosmic rays in the energy range between the second knee around 10^17.5 eV and the ankle around 10^18.5 eV. The accompanying cumulative neutrino background above PeV may be detectable by upcoming neutrino telescopes such as IceCube or KM3NeT, providing a test of this scenario as well as a probe of cosmic-ray confinement properties in clusters.

Kohta Murase; Susumu Inoue; Shigehiro Nagataki

2008-05-01

116

Layered water Cherenkov detector for the study of ultra high energy cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new design for the water Cherenkov detectors that are in use in various cosmic ray observatories. This novel design can provide a significant improvement in the independent measurement of the muonic and electromagnetic component of extensive air showers. From such multi-component data an event by event classification of the primary cosmic ray mass becomes possible. According to popular hadronic interaction models, such as EPOS-LHC or QGSJetII-04, the discriminating power between iron and hydrogen primaries reaches Fisher values of ~2 or above for energies in excess of 1019 eV with a detector array layout similar to that of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Billoir, Pierre; Blanco, Miguel; Mari?, Ioana C.; Settimo, Mariangela

2014-12-01

117

Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays from Extensive Air Showers Radio Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cosmic rays with the help of radio detection from extensive air showers may be an alternative to traditional detecting methods, which use a large area array installed with hundreds and thousands of scintillation detectors for charged particles, or the detectors of measuring the emission produced by relativistic particles of EAS in the optical wavelengths. Processes that lead to the emission of electromagnetic radiation are well known and calculations show that the air shower radio emission depends on the processes of development of the electromagnetic cascade, i.e. related with the longitudinal development of the shower, with the magnetic field near sea level etc. In this regard, there is a question to establish the correlation between characteristics of EAS both longitudinal and lateral development and radio emission parameters observed when air shower particles pass through the atmosphere. For this purpose, in Yakutsk, radio array for detecting air shower radio emission was established. The array consists of the antenna field on which crossed antennas are installed; antennas oriented E - W and N - S. Radio emission measurements are conducted at frequency 32 MHz, free from industrial noise. In 2008 - 2013 years, Yakutsk array has measured several seasons of registration of EAS events, including showers with energies above 10 (19) eV. In the course of the data analysis the following results were obtained: a) lateral distribution of the radio signal plotted as a function of distance from the shower axis ; b) a correlation between the amplitude of the radio signal with the energy of the shower, which is determined by measuring the fluxes of charged particles , muons and EAS Cerenkov radiation (energy balance method); c) we made evaluation of the depth of maximum development of the shower using form of radio emission LDF measured in ultra-high energy showers; g) a comparison of the Yakutsk array data with data from other arrays.

Petrov, Igor; Kozlov, Vladimir; Petrov, Zim; Knurenko, Stanislav; Pravdin, Mikhail

118

High-energy cosmic rays and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although cosmic rays were discovered over 100 years ago their origin remains uncertain. They have an energy spectrum that extends from ˜1 GeV to beyond 1020 eV, where the rate is less than 1 particle per km2 per century. Shortly after the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965, it was pointed out that the spectrum of cosmic rays should steepen fairly abruptly above about 4 × 1019 eV, provided the sources are distributed uniformly throughout the Universe. This prediction, by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min, has become known as the GZK effect and in this article I discuss the current position with regard to experimental data on the energy spectrum of the highest cosmic-ray energies that have been accumulated in a search that has lasted nearly 50 years. Although there is now little doubt that a suppression of the spectrum exists near the energy predicted, it is by no means certain that this is a manifestation of the GZK effect as it might be that this energy is also close to the maximum to which sources can accelerate particles, with the highest energy beam containing a large fraction of nuclei heavier than protons. The way forward is briefly mentioned.

Watson, A. A.

2014-03-01

119

High-energy cosmic rays and the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect.  

PubMed

Although cosmic rays were discovered over 100 years ago their origin remains uncertain. They have an energy spectrum that extends from ?1 GeV to beyond 10(20) eV, where the rate is less than 1 particle per km(2) per century. Shortly after the discovery of the cosmic microwave background in 1965, it was pointed out that the spectrum of cosmic rays should steepen fairly abruptly above about 4 × 10(19) eV, provided the sources are distributed uniformly throughout the Universe. This prediction, by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min, has become known as the GZK effect and in this article I discuss the current position with regard to experimental data on the energy spectrum of the highest cosmic-ray energies that have been accumulated in a search that has lasted nearly 50 years. Although there is now little doubt that a suppression of the spectrum exists near the energy predicted, it is by no means certain that this is a manifestation of the GZK effect as it might be that this energy is also close to the maximum to which sources can accelerate particles, with the highest energy beam containing a large fraction of nuclei heavier than protons. The way forward is briefly mentioned. PMID:24552650

Watson, A A

2014-03-01

120

Model-dependent Estimate on the Connection between Fast Radio Bursts and Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of fast radio bursts (FRBs), a new type of extragalatic transient, has recently been established, and quite a few models have been proposed. In this work, we discuss the possible connection between the FRB sources and ultra high energy (>1018 eV) cosmic rays. We show that in the blitzar model and the model of merging binary neutron stars, which includes the huge energy release of each FRB central engine together with the rather high rate of FRBs, the accelerated EeV cosmic rays may contribute significantly to the observed ones. In other FRB models, including, for example, the merger of double white dwarfs and the energetic magnetar radio flares, no significant EeV cosmic ray is expected. We also suggest that the mergers of double neutron stars, even if they are irrelevant to FRBs, may play a nonignorable role in producing EeV cosmic ray protons if supramassive neutron stars are formed in a sufficient fraction of mergers and the merger rate is >~ 103 yr–1 Gpc–3. Such a possibility will be unambiguously tested in the era of gravitational wave astronomy.

Li, Xiang; Zhou, Bei; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

2014-12-01

121

Observation of Ultra-high-energy Cosmic Rays with the ANITA Balloon-borne Radio Interferometer  

E-print Network

We report the observation of sixteen cosmic ray events of mean energy of $1.5 \\times 10^{19}$ eV, via radio pulses originating from the interaction of the cosmic ray air shower with the Antarctic geomagnetic field, a process known as geosynchrotron emission. We present the first ultra-wideband, far-field measurements of the radio spectral density of geosynchrotron emission in the range from 300-1000 MHz. The emission is 100% linearly polarized in the plane perpendicular to the projected geomagnetic field. Fourteen of our observed events are seen to have a phase-inversion due to reflection of the radio beam off the ice surface, and two additional events are seen directly from above the horizon.

Hoover, S; Gorham, P W; Grashorn, E; Allison, P; Barwick, S W; Beatty, J J; Belov, K; Besson, D Z; Binns, W R; Chen, C; Chen, P; Clem, J M; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P F; DuVernois, M A; Field, R C; Goldstein, D; Vieregg, A G; Hast, C; Hebert, C L; Israel, M H; Javaid, A; Kowalski, J; Learned, J G; Liewer, K M; Link, J T; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B C; Miki, C; Mio?inovi?, P; Naudet, C J; Ng, J; Nichol, R J; Palladino, K; Reil, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Rosen, M; Ruckman, L; Saltzberg, D; Seckel, D; Varner, G S; Walz, D; Wu, F

2010-01-01

122

Layered water Cherenkov detector for the study of ultra high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

We present a new design for the water Cherenkov detectors that are in use in various cosmic ray observatories. This novel design can provide a significant improvement in the independent measurement of the muonic and electromagnetic component of extensive air showers. From such multi-component data an event by event classification of the primary cosmic ray mass becomes possible. According to popular hadronic interaction models, such as EPOS-LHC or QGSJetII-04, the discriminating power between iron and hydrogen primaries reaches Fisher values of $\\sim$ 2 or above for energies in excess of $10^{19}$ eV with a detector array layout similar to that of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Blanco, Miguel; Maris, Ioana C; Settimo, Mariangela

2014-01-01

123

Prospects for studies of high-energy solar cosmic rays with ATLAS  

E-print Network

The ATLAS detector is intended to verify the standard model and to search for new physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC, CERN). In addition to this primary goal, it also allows detection of muons of cosmic rays. On the other hand, unusual bursts of the muon intensity, which correlate with powerful solar flares were recorded and investigated earlier at the Baksan Underground Scintillation Telescope (BUST, INR, Russia) in period from 1981 to 2006 (~2.5 solar cycles). The nature of the muon bursts and their probable relation to the solar cosmic rays is still not quite clear. ATLAS has an excellent muon system allowing search for similar muon bursts. Within the next few years, when the LHC and ATLAS should start to operate, an increase in the solar activity is expected in the new 24th cycle. It increases the probability of finding the muon bursts from powerful flares. Hence ATLAS has a good opportunity to verify the relation of muon bursts to the solar cosmic rays.

S. N. Karpov; Z. M. Karpova; V. A. Bednyakov

2008-11-18

124

High-energy cosmic rays and tests of basic principles of Physics. Looking at the Planck scale and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the present understanding of data, the observed flux suppression for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) at energies above 4.1019 eV can be a signature of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff or be related to a similar mechanism. But it may also correspond, for instance, to the maximum energies available at the relevant sources. In both cases, violations of special relativity modifying cosmic-ray propagation or acceleration at very high energy can potentially play a role. Other violations of fundamental principles of standard particle physics (quantum mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, vacuum homogeneity and "static" properties, effective space dimensions, quark confinement…) can also be relevant at these energies. In particular, UHECR data would in principle allow to set bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation (LSV) in patterns incorporating a privileged local reference frame (the "vacuum rest frame", VRF). But the precise analysis is far from trivial, and other effects can also be present. The effective parameters can be related to Planckscale physics, or even to physics beyond Planck scale, as well as to the dynamics and effective symmetries of LSV for nucleons, quarks, leptons and the photon. LSV can also be at the origin of GZK-like effects. In the presence of a VRF, and contrary to a "grand unification" view, LSV and other violations of standard principles can modify the internal structure of particles at very high energy and conventional symmetries may cease to be valid at energies close to the Planck scale. We present an updated discussion of these topics, including experimental prospects, new potentialities for high-energy cosmic ray phenomenology and the possible link with unconventional pre-Big Bang scenarios, superbradyon (superluminal preon) patterns… The subject of a possible superluminal propagation of neutrinos at accelerator energies is also dealt with.

Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

2014-04-01

125

ACCELERATION OF ULTRA-HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC RAYS IN THE COLLIDING SHELLS OF BLAZARS AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE  

SciTech Connect

Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope measurements of spectra, variability timescales, and maximum photon energies give lower limits to the apparent jet powers and, through {gamma}{gamma} opacity arguments, the bulk Lorentz factors of relativistic jets. The maximum cosmic-ray particle energy is limited by these two quantities in Fermi acceleration scenarios. Recent data are used to constrain the maximum energies of cosmic-ray protons and Fe nuclei accelerated in colliding shells of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and blazars. The Fermi results indicate that Fe rather than protons are more likely to be accelerated to ultra-high energies in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), whereas powerful GRBs can accelerate both protons and Fe to {approx}>10{sup 20} eV. Emissivity of nonthermal radiation from radio galaxies and blazars is estimated from the First Fermi AGN Catalog, and shown to favor BL Lac objects and FR1 radio galaxies over flat spectrum radio quasars, FR2 radio galaxies, and long-duration GRBs as the sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

Dermer, Charles D.; Razzaque, Soebur, E-mail: dermer@nrl.navy.mi [Space Science Division, Code 7653, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

2010-12-01

126

ROLE OF LINE-OF-SIGHT COSMIC-RAY INTERACTIONS IN FORMING THE SPECTRA OF DISTANT BLAZARS IN TeV GAMMA RAYS AND HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINOS  

SciTech Connect

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus, the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGNs. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGNs.

Essey, Warren; Kusenko, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Kalashev, Oleg [Institute for Nuclear Research, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Beacom, John F. [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2011-04-10

127

Role of line-of-sight cosmic ray interactions in forming the spectra of distant blazars in TeV gamma rays and high-energy neutrinos  

E-print Network

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus the observed spectrum in the TeV range does not depend on the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum, while it depends on the output of the source in cosmic rays. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the extragalactic background light and for the production of cosmic rays in AGN. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe acceleration of cosmic rays in AGN.

Warren Essey; Oleg Kalashev; Alexander Kusenko; John F. Beacom

2010-11-29

128

Solar panels as air Cherenkov detectors for extremely high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

Increasing interest towards the observation of the highest energy cosmic rays has motivated the development of new detection techniques. The properties of the Cherenkov photon pulse emitted in the atmosphere by these very rare particles indicate low-cost semiconductor detectors as good candidates for their optical read-out. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the viability of solar panels for this purpose. The experimental framework resulting from measurements performed with suitably-designed solar cells and large conventional photovoltaic areas is presented. A discussion on the obtained and achievable sensitivities follows.

S. Cecchini; I. D'Antone; L. Degli Esposti; G. Giacomelli; M. Guerra; I. Lax; G. Mandrioli; A. Parretta; A. Sarno; R. Schioppo; M. Sorel; M. Spurio

2000-02-07

129

Concept and Analysis of a Satellite for Space-Based Radio Detection of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a concept for on-orbit radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) that has the potential to provide collection rates of ~100 events per year for energies above 10^20 eV. The synoptic wideband orbiting radio detector (SWORD) mission's high event statistics at these energies combined with the pointing capabilities of a space-borne antenna array could enable charged particle astronomy. The detector concept is based on ANITA's successful detection UHECRs where the geosynchrotron radio signal produced by the extended air shower is reflected off the Earth's surface and detected in flight.

Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Gorham, P.; Booth, J.; Chen, P.; Duren, R. M.; Liewer, K.; Nam, J.; Saltzberg, D.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Wissel, S.; Zairfian, P.

2014-01-01

130

Analysis of the hadronic energy spectrum in high-energy cosmic-ray families detected by emulsion chambers  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the hadronic energy spectrum for cosmic-ray families detected by emulsion chambers in the high-energy region, by means of the solution of diffusion equations for the hadronic cascade induced by one single nucleon in the atmosphere, assuming three different models for the energy distribution function in multiple pion production. We describe the experimental data for the energy of three high-energy families detected in emulsion chamber of Brazil-Japan Colloboration (BJC) at Mt. Chacaltaya and of two families detected by Pamir Collaboration (PC). We look also for consistency of the rapidity-density distribution, obtained for the different hypotheses for multiple pion production above, with accelerator data in the ISR and Collider regions. Finally, the Models are analysed with respect to the energy dependence of the mean inelasticity.

Bellandi, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Covolan, R.J.M.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Guzzo, M.M.; Mundim, L.M. (Departamento de Raios Cosmicos e Cronologia, IFGW Unicamp, C. Postal 6165, Campinas, SP 13081-970 (Brazil))

1993-06-15

131

A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Véron-Cetty Véron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt–L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20,30,...,110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 49.3 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universitŕ di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Ahlers, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahn, E.J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Albuquerque, I.F.M. [Universidade de Săo Paulo, Instituto de Física, Săo Paulo, SP (Brazil); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Université Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Allison, P. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Almela, A. [Universidad Tecnológica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Muńiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C. [Universitŕ di Napoli 'Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Aminaei, A. [IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Antici'c, T. [Rudjer Boškovi'c Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Arganda, E. [IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Arqueros, F., E-mail: auger_spokesperson@fnal.gov [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

2012-04-01

132

A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Véron-Cetty Véron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20,30,...,110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 49.3 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muńiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antici'c, T.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badescu, A. M.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Bohácová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceiçăo, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; del Río, M.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lauer, R.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leăo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi'canovi'c, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.

2012-04-01

133

MEASUREMENTS OF THE RELATIVE ABUNDANCES OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY NUCLEI IN THE TeV/NUCLEON REGION  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the relative abundances of cosmic-ray nuclei in the energy range of 500-3980 GeV/nucleon from the second flight of the Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass balloon-borne experiment. Particle energy was determined using a sampling tungsten/scintillating-fiber calorimeter, while particle charge was identified precisely with a dual-layer silicon charge detector installed for this flight. The resulting element ratios C/O, N/O, Ne/O, Mg/O, Si/O, and Fe/O at the top of atmosphere are 0.919 {+-} 0.123{sup stat} {+-} 0.030{sup syst}, 0.076 {+-} 0.019{sup stat} {+-} 0.013{sup syst}, 0.115 {+-} 0.031{sup stat} {+-} 0.004{sup syst}, 0.153 {+-} 0.039{sup stat} {+-} 0.005{sup syst}, 0.180 {+-} 0.045{sup stat} {+-} 0.006{sup syst}, and 0.139 {+-} 0.043{sup stat} {+-} 0.005{sup syst}, respectively, which agree with measurements at lower energies. The source abundance of N/O is found to be 0.054 {+-} 0.013{sup stat} {+-} 0.009{sup syst+0.010esc} {sub -0.017}. The cosmic-ray source abundances are compared to local Galactic (LG) abundances as a function of first ionization potential and as a function of condensation temperature. At high energies the trend that the cosmic-ray source abundances at large ionization potential or low condensation temperature are suppressed compared to their LG abundances continues. Therefore, the injection mechanism must be the same at TeV/nucleon energies as at the lower energies measured by HEAO-3, CRN, and TRACER. Furthermore, the cosmic-ray source abundances are compared to a mixture of 80% solar system abundances and 20% massive stellar outflow (MSO) as a function of atomic mass. The good agreement with TIGER measurements at lower energies confirms the existence of a substantial fraction of MSO material required in the {approx}TeV per nucleon region.

Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Malinin, A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Allison, P. S.; Beatty, J. J.; Brandt, T. J. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S. [Department of Physics, University of Siena and INFN, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Barbier, L. [Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Childers, J. T.; DuVernois, M. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jeon, J. A.; Lee, J., E-mail: ipark@ewha.ac.k [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-01

134

Reconstruction of Longitudinal Profiles of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers from Fluorescence and Cherenkov Light Measurements  

E-print Network

We present a new method for the reconstruction of the longitudinal profile of extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays. In contrast to the typically considered shower size profile, this method employs directly the ionization energy deposit of the shower particles in the atmosphere. Due to universality of the energy spectra of electrons and positrons, both fluorescence and Cherenkov light can be used simultaneously as signal to infer the shower profile from the detected light. The method is based on an analytic least-square solution for the estimation of the shower profile from the observed light signal. Furthermore, the extrapolation of the observed part of the profile with a Gaisser-Hillas function is discussed and the total statistical uncertainty of shower parameters like total energy and shower maximum is calculated.

M. Unger; B. R. Dawson; R. Engel; F. Schüssler; R. Ulrich

2008-01-28

135

Germ cell mutagenesis in medaka fish after exposures to high-energy cosmic ray nuclei: A human model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts beyond the Earth's orbit are exposed to high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei with high values of linear energy transfer (LET), resulting in much more biological damage than from x-rays or -rays and may result in mutations and cancer induction. The relative biological effectiveness of these nuclei depends on the LET, rising to as high as 50 at LET values of 100-200 keV/ľm. An endpoint of concern is germ cell mutations passed on to offspring, arising from exposure to these nuclei. A vertebrate model for germ cell mutation is Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We exposed wild type males to doses of 1 GeV per nucleon Fe nuclei or to 290 MeV per nucleon C nuclei. They were mated to females with recessive mutations at five-color loci. The transparent embryos from >100 days of mating (representing exposed sperm, spermatids, or spermatogonia) were observed so as to detect dominant lethal mutations and total color mutations, even though the embryos might not hatch. The relative number of mutant embryos as a function of dose were compared with those induced by -rays. The relative biological effectiveness values for dominant lethal mutations and total color mutations for exposed sperm and spermatids were 1.3-2.1 for exposure to C nuclei and 1.5-3.0 for exposure to Fe nuclei. (The spermatogonial data were uncertain.) These low values, and the negligible number of viable mutations, compared with those for mutations in somatic cells and for neoplastic transformation, indicate that germ cell mutations arising from exposures to cosmic ray nuclei are not a significant hazard to astronauts. astronaut hazards | linear energy transfer | relative biological effect

Shimada, Atsuko; Shima, Akihiro; Nojima, Kumie; Seino, Yo; Setlow, Richard B.

2005-04-01

136

The Dynamics of High-energy Cosmic Rays In Near Earth Space and Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of correlation between short-term variations of high energy charged par- ticle fluxes in the near Earth space and seismic activity was discovered at the end of 1980s in MARIA experiment on board SALYUT-7 orbital station. Basing on 15 years investigations of high energy charged particles fluxes dynamics in magnetosphere by means of instruments installed on spacecraft it was

S. Alexandrin; A. Galper; L. Grishantseva; S. Koldashov; L. Maslennikov; A. Murashov; P. Picozza; S. Voronov

2002-01-01

137

Origin of the high energy cosmic neutrino background.  

PubMed

The diffuse background of very high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos recently discovered with IceCube is compatible with that expected from cosmic ray interactions in the Galactic interstellar medium plus that expected from hadronic interactions near the source and in the intergalactic medium of the cosmic rays which have been accelerated by the jets that produce gamma ray bursts. PMID:25415894

Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

2014-11-01

138

Origin of the High Energy Cosmic Neutrino Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffuse background of very high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos recently discovered with IceCube is compatible with that expected from cosmic ray interactions in the Galactic interstellar medium plus that expected from hadronic interactions near the source and in the intergalactic medium of the cosmic rays which have been accelerated by the jets that produce gamma ray bursts.

Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

2014-11-01

139

Acceleration of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in the Colliding Shells of Blazars and GRBs: Constraints from the Fermi Gamma ray Space Telescope  

E-print Network

Fermi Gamma ray Space Telescope measurements of spectra, variability time scale, and maximum photon energy give lower limits to the apparent jet powers and, through gammagamma opacity arguments, the bulk Lorentz factors of relativistic jets. The maximum cosmic-ray particle energy is limited by these two quantities in Fermi acceleration scenarios. Recent data are used to constrain the maximum energies of cosmic-ray protons and Fe nuclei accelerated in colliding shells of GRBs and blazars. The Fermi results indicate that Fe rather than protons are more likely to be accelerated to ultra-high energies in AGNs, whereas powerful GRBs can accelerate both protons and Fe to >~ 10^{20} eV. Emissivity of nonthermal radiation from radio galaxies and blazars is estimated from the First Fermi AGN Catalog, and shown to favor BL Lac objects and FR1 radio galaxies over flat spectrum radio quasars, FR2 radio galaxies, and long-duration GRBs as the sources of UHECRs.

Charles D. Dermer; Soebur Razzaque

2010-04-24

140

Ion Composition of Cosmic Radiation in HEA03-C2, and Propagation in the Presence of Interstellar Helium. GRIMTEL, A Telescope for Studying High Energy gamma Rays, Experimental Test in an Accelerator and Numerical Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays were investigated by studying charged cosmic rays and high energy gamma radiation. The isotopic composition of cosmic rays at 3 GeV/nucleus is established from HEA03-C2 data. An abnormal component w...

P. Ferrando

1987-01-01

141

First observation of high-energy cosmic-ray events obtained in coincidence between EAS-TOP and LVD at Gran Sasso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We present the first results of the combined measurements of the EAS-TOP (at the surface) and LVD (deep underground) detectors operating as a combined telescope in the study of UHE cosmic rays and their interactions. Examples of different classes of events and their significance in different high-energy and astrophysical studies are discussed.

M. Aglietta; B. Alpat; E. D. Alyea; B. Alessandro; P. Antonioli; G. Anzivino; F. Arneodo; G. Badino; Y. Ban; G. Bari; M. Basile; L. Bellagamba; A. Benelli; V. S. Berezinsky; L. Bergamasco; S. Bianco; A. Bizzetti; G. Bruni; A. Campos Fauth; Y. Cao; G. Cara Romeo; R. Casaccia; C. Castagnoli; A. Castellina; C. Cattadori; K. Chen; R. Chen; J. A. Chinellato; A. Chiavassa; L. Cifarelli; G. Cini; S. Cong; A. Contin; V. L. Dadikin; M. Dardo; A. De Silva; B. D’Ettorre Piazzoli; M. Deutsch; G. Di Sciascio; L. G. Dos Santos; R. I. Enikeev; F. L. Fabbri; W. Fulgione; P. Galeotti; P. L. Ghia; P. Giusti; F. Grianti; S. Gu; E. S. Hafen; P. Haridas; G. Iacobucci; M. Iacovacci; N. Inoue; F. F. Khalchukov; E. V. Korolkova; P. V. Kortchaguin; V. B. Kortchaguin; V. A. Kudryavtsev; G. Landi; K. Lau; X. Lin; L. Lu; J. Ma; Z. Ma; G. Maccarrone; A. S. Malguin; G. Mannocchi; Z. Mao; A. Margotti; M. A. Markov; T. Massam; B. Mayes; N. Mengotti Silva; A. Misaki; G. H. Mo; B. Monteleoni; C. Morello; J. Moromisato; R. Nania; G. Navarra; L. Panaro; D. Parks; P. G. Pelfer; L. Periale; P. Picchi; P. Pinna; L. Pinsky; I. A. Pless; M. Pu; J. Pyrlyk; J. Qiu; L. Riccati; V. G. Ryasny; O. G. Ryazhskaya; O. Saavedra; K. Saitoh; D. Sanders; G. Sartorelli; S. Sarwar; D. Shen; V. P. Talochkin; H. Tang; J. Tang; W. Tian; G. C. Trinchero; A. Turtelli; I. Uman; P. Vallania; S. Vernetto; E. von Goeler; L. Votano; T. Wada; F. Wang; H. Wang; S. Wang; R. Weathers; R. Weinstein; M. Widgoff; L. Xu; Z. Xu; V. F. Yakushev; I. Yamamoto; G. Yi; A. Zallo; G. T. Zatsepin; X. Zhou; Q. Zhu; X. Zhu; B. Zhuan; A. Zichichi

1992-01-01

142

Constraining the Cosmic Ray Electron Distribution and the Halo Dark Matter from the High Energy Gamma-Ray Background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an independent estimate of the high latitude (|b|>20 deg) contribution to the E>30 MeV gamma-ray background from Galactic nucleon-nucleon, electron bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton processes. In particular, the inverse Compton contribution has been estimated for different cosmic ray electron distributions and after factoring in the anisotropy in the interstellar radiation field and the anisotropic Klein-Nishina scattering cross section. We find that the emission from the inverse Compton process when the anisotropy in the radiation field is included can be higher by up to 50% when compared to estimates that adopt an isotropic radiation field. Simulated inverse Compton maps with a cosmic ray electron distribution represented by a ``pill box'' extending up to a distance of 5 kpc above the Galactic plane provide better fits to the EGRET intensity maps suggesting that the cosmic ray halo may be larger than previously thought. Fitting for the Galactic components of gamma-ray emission confirms the existence of an isotropic component with an intensity that can be represented by the form 27.7*(E/MeV)-2.16 ph m-2 s-1 sr-1 MeV-1, in excellent agreement with previous estimates. The spectrum of the isotropic component further argues strongly in favor of unresolved gamma-ray blazars being the source of this emission. Introduction of an anisotropic component improves the quality of the fits. However, this component, which could potentially arise from the dark matter in the Galactic halo, is not well characterized by a single power law which might be associated with any single dark matter candidate. It has an intensity of about a third of the isotropic background above E > 100 MeV at the level of 3*10-2 ph m-2 s-1 sr-1. The best fit power law spectrum to this component has a photon index of -1.7. Based on the intensity and spectrum of the anisotropic component we derive upper limits of 109Msun for the mass of cold, baryonic gas within the solar circle and a primordial black hole number density limit of 7*107 pc-3 which is more than an order of magnitude smaller than previous limits. If the spectrum of the anisotropic component is indeed confirmed to have an index of -1.7, it appears more likely that the signal arises in unresolved Galactic sources such as pulsars.

Chary, R.; Wright, E. L.

2000-10-01

143

Solar panels as air Cherenkov detectors for extremely high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

Increasing interest towards the observation of the highest energy cosmic rayshas motivated the development of new detection techniques. The properties ofthe Cherenkov photon pulse emitted in the atmosphere by these very rareparticles indicate low-cost semiconductor detectors as good candidates fortheir optical read-out. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the viability of solar panels for thispurpose. The experimental framework resulting from measurements performed withsuitably-designed solar cells and large conventional photovoltaic areas ispresented. A discussion on the obtained and achievable sensitivities follows.

Cecchini, S; Esposti, L D; Giacomelli, G; Guerra, M; Lax, I; Mandrioli, G; Parretta, A; Sarno, A; Schioppo, R; Sorel, M; Spurio, M

2000-01-01

144

Nuclear interactions of super high energy cosmic-rays observed in mountain emulsion chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a summary of joint discussions on the results of three mountain experiments with large-scale emulsion chambers, at Pamir, Mt. Fuji and Chacaltaya. Observations cover gamma quanta, hadrons and their clusters (called ``families''). The following topics are covered, concerning the characteristics of nuclear interactions the energy region 1014-1016 eV: (i) rapid dissipation seen in atmospheric diffusion of high-energy

S. G. Bayburina; A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; A. M. Dunaevskii; E. A. Kanevskaya; V. M. Maximenko; S. V. Pashkov; V. S. Puchkov; S. B. Shaulov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Urysson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; G. B. Zhdanov; L. G. Afanasjeva; L. T. Baradzei; E. I. Gorochova; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; G. B. Khristiansen; T. V. Lazareva; A. K. Managadze; E. A. Murzina; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; N. G. Ryabova; G. T. Zatsepin; R. A. Mukhamedshin; S. D. Cananov; L. A. Khisanishvili; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidge; J. A. Tecliashvili; T. V. Varsimashvili; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bodojanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; Kh. Shobaronov; N. A. Dobrotin; Yu. A. Emeljanov; Yu. T. Lukin; B. F. Shorin; E. G. Zaitseva; S. A. Azimov; A. R. Dzhuraev; E. G. Mulladjanov; Kh. Nutritdinov; D. A. Talipov; I. Shamansurov; T. S. Juldashbaev; Z. Buja; E. Gladysz; J. Mazurkiewicz; S. Mikocki; M. Szarska; L. Zawiejski; H. Bielawska; R. Juskiewicz; J. L. Kacperski; A. Krys; J. Malinowski; K. Milczarek; J. Sroka; A. Tomaszewski; J. A. Wrotniak; K. Maluszynska; Z. Wlodarczyk; M. Akashi; M. Amenomori; E. Konishi; H. Nanjo; Z. Watanabe; K. Mizutani; K. Kasahara; S. Torii; T. Yuda; T. Shirai; N. Tateyama; T. Taira; I. Mito; M. Shibata; H. Sugimoto; K. Taira; N. Hotta; M. Ballester; C. Santos; J. Bellandi Filho; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; C. M. G. Lattes; A. Marques; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. Silva; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fuyimoto; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; T. Tabuki; M. Tamada; K. Tanaka; S. Yamashita; N. Arata; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa

1981-01-01

145

Mass entrainment and turbulence-driven acceleration of ultra-high energy cosmic rays in Centaurus A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the FR I radio galaxy Centaurus A in radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands provide evidence for lepton acceleration up to several TeV and clues about hadron acceleration to tens of EeV. Synthesising the available observational constraints on the physical conditions and particle content in the jets, inner lobes and giant lobes of Centaurus A, we aim to evaluate its feasibility as an ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray source. We apply several methods of determining jet power and affirm the consistency of various power estimates of ~1 × 1043 erg s-1. Employing scaling relations based on previous results for 3C 31, we estimate particle number densities in the jets, encompassing available radio through X-ray observations. Our model is compatible with the jets ingesting ~3 × 1021 g s-1 of matter via external entrainment from hot gas and ~7 × 1022 g s-1 via internal entrainment from jet-contained stars. This leads to an imbalance between the internal lobe pressure available from radiating particles and magnetic field, and our derived external pressure. Based on knowledge of the external environments of other FR I sources, we estimate the thermal pressure in the giant lobes as 1.5 × 10-12 dyn cm-2, from which we deduce a lower limit to the temperature of ~1.6 × 108 K. Using dynamical and buoyancy arguments, we infer ~440-645 Myr and ~560 Myr as the sound-crossing and buoyancy ages of the giant lobes respectively, inconsistent with their spectral ages. We re-investigate the feasibility of particle acceleration via stochastic processes in the lobes, placing new constraints on the energetics and on turbulent input to the lobes. The same "very hot" temperatures that allow self-consistency between the entrainment calculations and the missing pressure also allow stochastic UHECR acceleration models to work.

Wykes, Sarka; Croston, Judith H.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Eilek, Jean A.; Biermann, Peter L.; Achterberg, Abraham; Bray, Justin D.; Lazarian, Alex; Haverkorn, Marijke; Protheroe, Ray J.; Bromberg, Omer

2013-10-01

146

Do cosmic rays drive jets?  

E-print Network

A sudden release of high energy cosmic rays at the centre of a wind sustaining a spiral magnetic field produces cavities of low density and low magnetic field along the axis. The trajectories of high energy cosmic rays are focussed onto the axis, and lower energy cosmic rays and thermal plasma can escape through the cavities. This may explain the jets often seen in accretion systems and elsewhere.

A. R. Bell

2005-07-21

147

Design of a wireless sensor network with nanosecond time resolution for mapping of high-energy cosmic ray shower events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a low-cost, low-power wireless sensor network we are developing for high time-resolution (ns-scale) characterization of particle showers produced by ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays, to infer shower direction at sites where hard-wired data connections may be inconvenient to install. The front-end particle detector is a scintillator block monitored by a photomultiplier tube (PMT). We keep the sensor nodes synchronized to within 1 ns using periodic highintensity optical pulses from a light-emitting-diode (LED) overdriven at very high current (~30 A) in short (4 ns) bursts. With minimal optics, this signal is resolvable under free-space transmission in ambient light conditions at multi-meter distances using a high-speed avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver at each node. PMT pulse waveforms are digitized relative to this precise time reference on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using a Time-over-Threshold (ToT)/Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) digitizer developed at BNL. A central server receives timestamped, digitized PMT pulse waveforms from the sensor nodes via Wi-Fi and performs real-time data visualization & analysis. Total cost per sensor node is a few thousand dollars, with total power consumption per sensor node under 1 Watt, suitable for, e.g., solar-powered installations at remote field locations.

Frank, Michael P.; Junnarkar, Sachin S.; Fagan, Triesha; O'Neal, Ray H.; Takai, Helio

2010-04-01

148

The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 1017 and 1019 eV and zenith angles up to 65°. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muńiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anti?i?, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Bohá?ová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceiçăo, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filip?i?, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leăo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi?anovi?, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; P?kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.

2011-12-01

149

The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the ultra-high energy cosmic ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 10{sup 17} and 10{sup 19} eV and zenith angles up to 65{sup o}. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP; Aglietta, M.; /INFN, Turin /Turin Observ. /Turin U.; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

2011-01-01

150

The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-print Network

In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an extensive air shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory consisting of a 1.5 km spaced grid of about 1600 water Cherenkov stations. Using Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-high energy showers the LTP functions are derived for energies in the range between 10^{17} and 10^{19} eV and zenith angles up to 65 degs. A parametrization combining a step function with an exponential is found to reproduce them very well in the considered range of energies and zenith angles. The LTP functions can also be obtained from data using events simultaneously observed by the fluorescence and the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory (hybrid events). We validate the Monte-Carlo results showing how LTP functions from data are in good agreement with simulations.

The Pierre Auger Collaboration; P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; E. J. Ahn; I. F. M. Albuquerque; D. Allard; I. Allekotte; J. Allen; P. Allison; J. Alvarez Castillo; J. Alvarez-Muńiz; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; T. Anti?i?; A. Anzalone; C. Aramo; E. Arganda; F. Arqueros; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; M. Ave; M. Avenier; G. Avila; T. Bäcker; M. Balzer; K. B. Barber; A. F. Barbosa; R. Bardenet; S. L. C. Barroso; B. Baughman; J. Bäuml; J. J. Beatty; B. R. Becker; K. H. Becker; A. Bellétoile; J. A. Bellido; S. BenZvi; C. Berat; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; F. Blanco; M. Blanco; C. Bleve; H. Blümer; M. Bohá?ová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; R. Bonino; N. Borodai; J. Brack; P. Brogueira; W. C. Brown; R. Bruijn; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; R. E. Burton; K. S. Caballero-Mora; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; O. Catalano; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; J. Chauvin; S. H. Cheng; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; A. Chou; J. Chudoba; R. W. Clay; M. R. Coluccia; R. Conceiçăo; F. Contreras; H. Cook; M. J. Cooper; J. Coppens; A. Cordier; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; A. Creusot; A. Criss; J. Cronin; A. Curutiu; S. Dagoret-Campagne; R. Dallier; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; M. De Domenico; C. De Donato; S. J. de Jong; G. De La Vega; W. J. M. de Mello Junior; J. R. T. de Mello Neto; I. De Mitri; V. de Souza; K. D. de Vries; G. Decerprit; L. del Peral; M. del Río; O. Deligny; H. Dembinski; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; J. C. Diaz; M. L. Díaz Castro; P. N. Diep; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. D'Olivo; P. N. Dong; A. Dorofeev; J. C. dos Anjos; M. T. Dova; D. D'Urso; I. Dutan; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; C. O. Escobar; J. Espadanal; A. Etchegoyen; P. Facal San Luis; I. Fajardo Tapia; H. Falcke; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; A. Ferrero; B. Fick; A. Filevich; A. Filip?i?; S. Fliescher; C. E. Fracchiolla; E. D. Fraenkel; U. Fröhlich; B. Fuchs; R. Gaior; R. F. Gamarra; S. Gambetta; B. García; D. García Gámez; D. Garcia-Pinto; A. Gascon; H. Gemmeke; K. Gesterling; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giller; H. Glass; M. S. Gold; G. Golup; F. Gomez Albarracin; M. Gómez Berisso; P. Gonçalves; D. Gonzalez; J. G. Gonzalez; B. Gookin; D. Góra; A. Gorgi; P. Gouffon; S. R. Gozzini; E. Grashorn; S. Grebe; N. Griffith; M. Grigat; A. F. Grillo; Y. Guardincerri; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; A. Guzman; J. D. Hague; P. Hansen; D. Harari; S. Harmsma; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; A. E. Herve; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; V. C. Holmes; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; M. Hrabovský; T. Huege; A. Insolia; F. Ionita; A. Italiano; C. Jarne; S. Jiraskova; M. Josebachuili; K. Kadija; K. H. Kampert; P. Karhan; P. Kasper; B. Kégl; B. Keilhauer; A. Keivani; J. L. Kelley; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; J. Knapp; D. -H. Koang; K. Kotera; N. Krohm; O. Krömer; D. Kruppke-Hansen; F. Kuehn; D. Kuempel; J. K. Kulbartz; N. Kunka; G. La Rosa; C. Lachaud; P. Lautridou; M. S. A. B. Leăo; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Lemiere; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link; R. López; A. Lopez Agüera; K. Louedec; J. Lozano Bahilo; L. Lu; A. Lucero; M. Ludwig; H. Lyberis; M. C. Maccarone; C. Macolino; S. Maldera; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; J. Marin; V. Marin; I. C. Maris; H. R. Marquez Falcon; G. Marsella; D. Martello; L. Martin; H. Martinez; O. Martínez Bravo; H. J. Mathes; J. Matthews; J. A. J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurizio; P. O. Mazur; G. Medina-Tanco; M. Melissas; D. Melo; E. Menichetti; A. Menshikov; P. Mertsch; C. Meurer; S. Mi?anovi?; M. I. Micheletti; W. Miller; L. Miramonti; L. Molina-Bueno; S. Mollerach; M. Monasor; D. Monnier Ragaigne; F. Montanet; B. Morales; C. Morello; E. Moreno; J. C. Moreno; C. Morris; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; S. Mueller; M. A. Muller; G. Müller; M. Münchmeyer; R. Mussa; G. Navarra ‡; J. L. Navarro; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; J. Neuser; P. T. Nhung; L. Niemietz; N. Nierstenhoefer; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; L. Nožka; M. Nyklicek; J. Oehlschläger; A. Olinto; P. Oliva; V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja; M. Ortiz; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; N. Palmieri; G. Parente; E. Parizot; A. Parra; R. D. Parsons; S. Pastor; T. Paul; M. Pech; J. P?kala; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; R. Pesce; E. Petermann; S. Petrera; P. Petrinca; A. Petrolini; Y. Petrov; J. Petrovic; C. Pfendner; N. Phan; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; V. H. Ponce; M. Pontz; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; S. Riggi; M. Risse; P. Ristori; H. Rivera; V. Rizi; J. Roberts; C. Robledo; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; G. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez Martino; J. Rodriguez Rojo

2011-11-28

151

The Tunka - Multi-component EAS detector for high energy cosmic ray studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EAS Cherenkov array Tunka-133, with about 3 km2 sensitive area, has been installed in the Tunka Valley, Siberia. The accessible energy range is 1015-1018 eV. In this contribution, a description of the array and main results obtained so far are presented. A current update of the array includes the deployment of scintillation stations, radio antennas, as well as optical stations. The deployments of these optical stations are the first step towards Tunka-HiSCORE, a wide-angle, large field-of-view gamma-ray telescope.

Berezhnev, S. F.; Besson, D.; Budnev, N. M.; Büker, M.; Brüeckner, M.; Chiavassa, A.; Chvalaev, O. A.; Gress, O. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Epimakhov, S. N.; Hampf, D.; Haungs, A.; Hiller, R.; Horns, D.; Ivanova, A.; Karpov, N. I.; Kalmykov, N. N.; Kazarina, Yu.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Kostunin, D.; Korobchenko, A. V.; Korosteleva, E. E.; Kozhin, V. A.; Kunnas, M.; Kuzmichev, L. A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Lubsandorzhiev, N. B.; Mirgazov, R. R.; Monhoev, R.; Nachtigall, R.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Pankov, L. V.; Pankov, A. L.; Pokhorukov, A.; Popova, E. G.; Porelli, A.; Prosin, V. V.; Ptuskin, V. S.; Rowell, G. P.; Schröder, F. G.; Semeney, Yu. A.; Shaibonov, B. A.; Silaev, A. A.; Silaev, A. A.; Skurikhin, A. V.; Spiering, C.; Spitschan, D.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Wischnewski, R.; Yashin, I. V.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.

2013-12-01

152

On the Origin of High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos  

E-print Network

Recently, the IceCube collaboration made a big announcement of the first discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. Their origin is a new interesting mystery in astroparticle physics. The present multimessenger data may give us hints of connection to cosmic-ray and/or gamma-ray sources. We look over possible scenarios for the cosmic neutrino signal, and emphasize the importance of multimessenger approaches in identifying the PeV neutrino sources and obtaining crucial clues to the cosmic-ray origin. We also discuss some possibilities to study neutrino properties and probe new physics.

Murase, Kohta

2014-01-01

153

Photodetection Aspects of JEM-EUSO and Studies of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Sky  

E-print Network

In this thesis, an introduction to the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) field is given, including air shower physics, UHECR astrophysics, and experimental techniques. The current questions in UHECR physics are mentioned, along with the experimental challenges encountered in the field. The physics of air fluorescence is also presented, and the JEM-EUSO experiment is introduced in detail. The original contributions in this thesis are divided into experimental work on photodetection aspects of JEM-EUSO and phenomenological studies of UHECR composition and source statistics. A comprehensive introduction to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and single photoelectron counting are given, and the measurement of PMT efficiency with an uncertainty of a few percent is discussed in detail. An experimental setup for measuring the air fluorescence yield is also introduced, and tests of the EUSO-Balloon high voltage power supply prototype are presented. A setup for sorting the JEM-EUSO PMTs is developed, including the assembly and calibration of data acquisition hardware and the development of acquisition and analysis software. This system is used to perform an absolute calibration of the EUSO-Balloon focal surface, along with measurements of the PMT pixel width and dead-space. In the phenomenological part of this work, it is shown that a distribution of source maximum energies must be considered in order to understand the energy spectrum and the composition of UHECRs. The number of sources which can be expected to contribute to the UHECR sky is also studied, finding that on the order of 1 source(s) contributes more than 50% of the flux at 100 EeV.

Carl Blaksley

2014-06-23

154

The Lateral Trigger Probability function for the UltraHigh Energy Cosmic Ray showers detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce the concept of Lateral Trigger Probability (LTP) function, i.e., the probability for an Extensive Air Shower (EAS) to trigger an individual detector of a ground based array as a function of distance to the shower axis, taking into account energy, mass and direction of the primary cosmic ray. We apply this concept to the surface

P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; E. J. Ahn; I. F. M. Albuquerque; D. Allard; I. Allekotte; J. Allen; P. Allison; J. Alvarez Castillo; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; T. Anti?i?; A. Anzalone; C. Aramo; E. Arganda; F. Arqueros; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; M. Avenier; G. Avila; T. Bäcker; M. Balzer; K. B. Barber; A. F. Barbosa; R. Bardenet; S. L. C. Barroso; B. Baughman; J. Bäuml; J. J. Beatty; B. R. Becker; K. H. Becker; A. Bellétoile; J. A. Bellido; S. BenZvi; C. Berat; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; F. Blanco; M. Blanco; H. Blümer; M. Bohá?ová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; R. Bonino; N. Borodai; J. Brack; P. Brogueira; W. C. Brown; R. Bruijn; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; R. E. Burton; K. S. Caballero-Mora; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; O. Catalano; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; J. Chauvin; S. H. Cheng; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; J. Chudoba; R. W. Clay; M. R. Coluccia; F. Contreras; H. Cook; M. J. Cooper; A. Cordier; U. Cotti; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; A. Creusot; J. Cronin; A. Curutiu; S. Dagoret-Campagne; R. Dallier; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; C. De Donato; S. J. de Jong; G. De La Vega; I. De Mitri; V. de Souza; K. D. de Vries; G. Decerprit; L. del Peral; O. Deligny; H. Dembinski; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; J. C. Diaz; M. L. D?´az Castro; P. N. Diep; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. D’Olivo; P. N. Dong; A. Dorofeev; J. C. dos Anjos; M. T. Dova; D. D’Urso; I. Dutan; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; C. O. Escobar; A. Etchegoyen; P. Facal San Luis; I. Fajardo Tapia; H. Falcke; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; A. Ferrero; B. Fick; A. Filevich; S. Fliescher; C. E. Fracchiolla; U. Fröhlich; B. Fuchs; R. Gaior; R. F. Gamarra; S. Gambetta; B. Garc?´a; D. Garc?´a Gámez; D. García Gámez; A. Gascon; H. Gemmeke; K. Gesterling; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giller; H. Glass; M. S. Gold; G. Golup; F. Gomez Albarracin; M. Gómez Berisso; P. Gonçalves; D. Gonzalez; J. G. Gonzalez; B. Gookin; D. Góra; A. Gorgi; P. Gouffon; S. R. Gozzini; E. Grashorn; S. Grebe; N. Griffith; M. Grigat; A. F. Grillo; Y. Guardincerri; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; A. Guzman; J. D. Hague; P. Hansen; D. Harari; S. Harmsma; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; A. E. Herve; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; V. C. Holmes; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; M. Hrabovský; T. Huege; A. Insolia; F. Ionita; A. Italiano; C. Jarne; S. Jiraskova; K. Kadija; K. H. Kampert; P. Karhan; B. Kégl; B. Keilhauer; A. Keivani; J. L. Kelley; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; D.-H. Koang; K. Kotera; N. Krohm; O. Krömer; D. Kruppke-Hansen; F. Kuehn; D. Kuempel; J. K. Kulbartz; N. Kunka; G. La Rosa; C. Lachaud; P. Lautridou; M. S. A. B. Leăo; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link; R. López; A. Lopez Agüera; K. Louedec; J. Lozano Bahilo; A. Lucero; M. Ludwig; H. Lyberis; M. C. Maccarone; S. Maldera; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; J. Marin; V. Marin; I. C. Maris; H. R. Marquez Falcon; G. Marsella; D. Martello; L. Martin; H. Martinez; O. Mart?´nez Bravo; H. J. Mathes; J. A. J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurizio; P. O. Mazur; G. Medina-Tanco; M. Melissas; D. Melo; E. Menichetti; A. Menshikov; P. Mertsch; C. Meurer; S. Mi?anovi?; M. I. Micheletti; W. Miller; L. Miramonti; S. Mollerach; M. Monasor; D. Monnier Ragaigne; F. Montanet; B. Morales; C. Morello; E. Moreno; J. C. Moreno; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; S. Mueller; M. A. Muller; G. Müller; M. Münchmeyer; R. Mussa; G. Navarra; J. L. Navarro; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; P. T. Nhung; L. Niemietz; N. Nierstenhoefer; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; L. Nožka; M. Nyklicek; J. Oehlschläger; A. Olinto; P. Oliva; V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; N. Palmieri; G. Parente; E. Parizot; A. Parra; R. D. Parsons; S. Pastor; T. Paul; M. Pech; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; R. Pesce; E. Petermann; S. Petrera; P. Petrinca; A. Petrolini; Y. Petrov; J. Petrovic; C. Pfendner; N. Phan; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; V. H. Ponce; M. Pontz; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; S. Riggi; M. Risse; P. Ristori; H. Rivera; V. Rizi; J. Roberts; C. Robledo; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; G. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez Martino; I. Rodriguez-Cabo; M. D. Rodr?´guez-Fr?´as; G. Ros; J. Rosado; T. Rossler; M. Roth; B. Rouillé-d’Orfeuil; E. Roulet; A. C. Rovero; F. Salamida; H. Salazar; G. Salina; F. Sánchez; M. Santander; C. E. Santo; E. M. Santos; F. Sarazin; B. Sarkar; S. Sarkar; R. Sato; N. Scharf; V. Scherini; H. Schieler; P. Schiffer; A. Schmidt; F. Schmidt; T. Schmidt; O. Scholten; H. Schoorlemmer; J. Schovancova

2011-01-01

155

On the Possibility of Radar Detection of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Ray- and Neutrino-induced Air Showers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We show that cosmic rays air showers resulting from primaries with energies above 10(sup 19) eV should be straightforward to detect with radar ranging techniques, where the radar echoes are produced by scattering from the column of ionized air produced by the shower.

Gorham, P.

1999-01-01

156

24. Cosmic rays 1 24. COSMIC RAYS  

E-print Network

24. Cosmic rays 1 24. COSMIC RAYS Revised August 2011 by J.J. Beatty (Ohio State Univ.) and J or longer. Technically, "primary" cosmic rays are those particles accelerated at astrophysical sources decelerates and partially excludes the lower energy galactic cosmic rays from the inner solar system

157

26. Cosmic rays 1 26. COSMIC RAYS  

E-print Network

26. Cosmic rays 1 26. COSMIC RAYS Revised August 2011 by J.J. Beatty (Ohio State Univ.) and J or longer. Technically, "primary" cosmic rays are those particles accelerated at astrophysical sources decelerates and partially excludes the lower energy galactic cosmic rays from the inner solar system

158

24. Cosmic rays 1 24. COSMIC RAYS  

E-print Network

24. Cosmic rays 1 24. COSMIC RAYS Revised August 2009 by T.K. Gaisser and T. Stanev (Bartol or longer. Technically, "primary" cosmic rays are those particles accelerated at astrophysical sources decelerates and partially excludes the lower energy galactic cosmic rays from the inner solar system

159

ANALYSIS OF LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS IN HiRes DATA  

SciTech Connect

Stereo data collected by the HiRes experiment over a six-year period are examined for large-scale anisotropy related to the inhomogeneous distribution of matter in the nearby universe. We consider the generic case of small cosmic-ray deflections and a large number of sources tracing the matter distribution. In this matter tracer model the expected cosmic-ray flux depends essentially on a single free parameter, the typical deflection angle {theta} {sub s}. We find that the HiRes data with threshold energies of 40 EeV and 57 EeV are incompatible with the matter tracer model at a 95% confidence level unless {theta} {sub s} > 10 deg. and are compatible with an isotropic flux. The data set above 10 EeV is compatible with both the matter tracer model and an isotropic flux.

Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Archbold, G.; Belov, K.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Brusova, O. A.; Burt, G. W.; Cannon, C.; Cao, Z.; Deng, W.; Fedorova, Y.; Findlay, J.; Gray, R. C.; Hanlon, W. F. [Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Amann, J. F.; Hoffman, C. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Finley, C. B. [Department of Physics and Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)] (and others)

2010-04-10

160

Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies $E>E_{th}=5.5\\\\times 10^{19}$ eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at $E>E_{th}$ are heavy nuclei with charge $Z$,

P. Abreu; M. Aglietta; E. J. Ahn; I. F. M. Albuquerque; D. Allard; I. Allekotte; J. Allen; P. Allison; J. Alvarez Castillo; J. Alvarez-Muńiz; M. Ambrosio; A. Aminaei; L. Anchordoqui; S. Andringa; T. Anticic; A. Anzalone; C. Aramo; E. Arganda; F. Arqueros; H. Asorey; P. Assis; J. Aublin; M. Avenier; G. Avila; T. Bäcker; M. Balzer; K. B. Barber; A. F. Barbosa; R. Bardenet; S. L. C. Barroso; B. Baughman; J. Bäuml; J. J. Beatty; B. R. Becker; K. H. Becker; A. Bellétoile; J. A. Bellido; S. BenZvi; C. Berat; X. Bertou; P. L. Biermann; P. Billoir; F. Blanco; M. Blanco; C. Bleve; H. Blümer; M. Bohácová; D. Boncioli; C. Bonifazi; R. Bonino; N. Borodai; J. Brack; P. Brogueira; W. C. Brown; R. Bruijn; P. Buchholz; A. Bueno; R. E. Burton; K. S. Caballero-Mora; L. Caramete; R. Caruso; A. Castellina; O. Catalano; G. Cataldi; L. Cazon; R. Cester; J. Chauvin; S. H. Cheng; A. Chiavassa; J. A. Chinellato; A. Chou; J. Chudoba; R. W. Clay; M. R. Coluccia; R. Conceiçăo; F. Contreras; H. Cook; M. J. Cooper; J. Coppens; A. Cordier; U. Cotti; S. Coutu; C. E. Covault; A. Creusot; A. Criss; J. Cronin; A. Curutiu; S. Dagoret-Campagne; R. Dallier; S. Dasso; K. Daumiller; B. R. Dawson; R. M. de Almeida; M. De Domenico; C. De Donato; S. J. de Jong; G. De La Vega; W. J. M. de Mello Junior; I. De Mitri; V. de Souza; K. D. de Vries; G. Decerprit; L. del Peral; O. Deligny; H. Dembinski; N. Dhital; C. Di Giulio; J. C. Diaz; M. L. Díaz Castro; P. N. Diep; C. Dobrigkeit; W. Docters; J. C. D'Olivo; P. N. Dong; A. Dorofeev; J. C. dos Anjos; M. T. Dova; D. D'Urso; I. Dutan; J. Ebr; R. Engel; M. Erdmann; C. O. Escobar; A. Etchegoyen; P. Facal San Luis; I. Fajardo Tapia; H. Falcke; G. Farrar; A. C. Fauth; N. Fazzini; A. P. Ferguson; A. Ferrero; B. Fick; A. Filevich; A. Filipcic; S. Fliescher; C. E. Fracchiolla; E. D. Fraenkel; U. Fröhlich; B. Fuchs; R. Gaior; R. F. Gamarra; S. Gambetta; B. García; D. García Gámez; D. Garcia-Pinto; A. Gascon; H. Gemmeke; K. Gesterling; P. L. Ghia; U. Giaccari; M. Giller; H. Glass; M. S. Gold; G. Golup; F. Gomez Albarracin; M. Gómez Berisso; P. Gonçalves; D. Gonzalez; J. G. Gonzalez; B. Gookin; D. Góra; A. Gorgi; P. Gouffon; S. R. Gozzini; E. Grashorn; S. Grebe; N. Griffith; M. Grigat; A. F. Grillo; Y. Guardincerri; F. Guarino; G. P. Guedes; A. Guzman; J. D. Hague; P. Hansen; D. Harari; S. Harmsma; J. L. Harton; A. Haungs; T. Hebbeker; D. Heck; A. E. Herve; C. Hojvat; N. Hollon; V. C. Holmes; P. Homola; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; M. Hrabovský; T. Huege; A. Insolia; F. Ionita; A. Italiano; C. Jarne; S. Jiraskova; K. Kadija; K. H. Kampert; P. Karhan; P. Kasper; B. Kégl; B. Keilhauer; A. Keivani; J. L. Kelley; E. Kemp; R. M. Kieckhafer; H. O. Klages; M. Kleifges; J. Kleinfeller; J. Knapp; D.-H. Koang; K. Kotera; N. Krohm; O. Krömer; D. Kruppke-Hansen; F. Kuehn; D. Kuempel; J. K. Kulbartz; N. Kunka; G. La Rosa; C. Lachaud; P. Lautridou; M. S. A. B. Leăo; D. Lebrun; P. Lebrun; M. A. Leigui de Oliveira; A. Lemiere; A. Letessier-Selvon; I. Lhenry-Yvon; K. Link R. López; A. Lopez Agüera; K. Louedec; J. Lozano Bahilo; A. Lucero; M. Ludwig; H. Lyberis; M. C. Maccarone; C. Macolino; S. Maldera; D. Mandat; P. Mantsch; A. G. Mariazzi; J. Marin; V. Marin; I. C. Maris; H. R. Marquez Falcon; G. Marsella; D. Martello; L. Martin; H. Martinez; O. Martínez Bravo; H. J. Mathes; J. Matthews; G. Matthiae; D. Maurizio; P. O. Mazur; G. Medina-Tanco; M. Melissas; D. Melo; E. Menichetti; A. Menshikov; P. Mertsch; C. Meurer; S. Micanovic; M. I. Micheletti; W. Miller; L. Miramonti; S. Mollerach; M. Monasor; D. Monnier Ragaigne; F. Montanet; B. Morales; C. Morello; E. Moreno; J. C. Moreno; C. Morris; M. Mostafá; C. A. Moura; S. Mueller; M. A. Muller; G. Müller; M. Münchmeyer; R. Mussa; G. Navarra; J. L. Navarro; S. Navas; P. Necesal; L. Nellen; A. Nelles; P. T. Nhung; L. Niemietz; N. Nierstenhoefer; D. Nitz; D. Nosek; L. Nozka; M. Nyklicek; J. Oehlschläger; A. Olinto; P. Oliva; V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja; M. Ortiz; N. Pacheco; D. Pakk Selmi-Dei; M. Palatka; J. Pallotta; N. Palmieri; G. Parente; E. Parizot; A. Parra; R. D. Parsons; S. Pastor; T. Paul; M. Pech; J. Pekala; R. Pelayo; I. M. Pepe; L. Perrone; R. Pesce; E. Petermann; S. Petrera; P. Petrinca; A. Petrolini; Y. Petrov; J. Petrovic; C. Pfendner; N. Phan; R. Piegaia; T. Pierog; P. Pieroni; M. Pimenta; V. Pirronello; M. Platino; V. H. Ponce; M. Pontz; P. Privitera; M. Prouza; E. J. Quel; S. Querchfeld; J. Rautenberg; O. Ravel; D. Ravignani; B. Revenu; J. Ridky; S. Riggi; M. Risse; P. Ristori; H. Rivera; V. Rizi; J. Roberts; C. Robledo; W. Rodrigues de Carvalho; G. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez Martino; J. Rodriguez Rojo; I. Rodriguez-Cabo; M. D. Rodríguez-Frías; G. Ros; J. Rosado; T. Rossler; M. Roth; B. Rouillé-d'Orfeuil; E. Roulet; A. C. Rovero; C. Rühle; F. Salamida; H. Salazar; G. Salina

2011-01-01

161

The Heliosphere and Galactic Cosmic Rays  

NASA Video Gallery

The heliosphere deflects galactic cosmic rays from entering the system. Galactic cosmic rays are a very high energy form of particle radiation that are extremely difficult to shield against and are...

162

Cosmic ray strangelets  

E-print Network

Searching for strangelets in cosmic rays may be the best way to test the possible stability of strange quark matter. I review calculations of the astrophysical strangelet flux in the GV--TV rigidity range, which will be investigated from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) on the International Space Station, and discuss the merits of strangelets as ultra-high energy cosmic rays at EeV--ZeV energies, beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff. I also address some ``counter-arguments'' sometimes raised against the possibility of stable strangelets. It will be argued that stability of strange quark matter remains a viable possibility, which must be tested by experiments.

Jes Madsen

2004-11-22

163

High energy gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SAS-2 gamma ray experiment and its detection of celestial gamma rays are described. Data also cover intensity of high energy gamma rays, gamma ray distribution, gamma ray origin, and diffuse radiation.

Fichtel, C. E.

1974-01-01

164

PHYSICS OF OUR DAYS Physical conditions in potential accelerators of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: updated Hillas plot and radiation-loss constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review basic constraints on the acceleration of ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) in astrophysical sources, namely, the geometric (Hillas) criterion and the restrictions from radiation losses in different acceleration regimes. Using the latest available astrophysical data, we redraw the Hillas plot and find potential UHECR accelerators. For the acceleration in the central engines of active galactic nuclei, we constrain the maximal UHECR energy for a given black hole mass. Among active galaxies, only the most powerful ones, radio galaxies and blazars, are able to accelerate protons to UHE, although acceleration of heavier nuclei is possible in much more abundant lower-power Seyfert galaxies.

Ptitsyna, Kseniya V.; Troitsky, Sergei V.

2010-10-01

165

Gamma rays, cosmic rays, and galactic structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of cosmic and gamma radiation by SAS-2 satellite are summarized and analyzed to determine processes responsible for producing observed galactic radiation. In addition to the production of gamma rays in discrete galactic objects such as pulsars, there are three main mechanisms by which high-energy (greater than 100 MeV) radiation is produced by high-energy interactions involving cosmic rays in interstellar space. These processes, which produce what may be called diffuse galactic gamma-rays, are: (1) the decay of pi mesons produced by interactions of cosmic ray nucleons with interstellar gas nuclei; (2) the bremsstrahlung radiation produced by cosmic ray electrons interacting in the Coulomb fields of nuclei of interstellar gas atoms; and (3) Compton interactions between cosmic ray electrons and low-energy photons in interstellar space.

Stecker, F. W.

1977-01-01

166

A radio detector system for ultra high energy cosmic showers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive radio detection system is proposed for the detection and study of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) showers and meteors. TV and FM radio signals reflected by ionization clouds produced by meteors are clearly detectable. This technique known as radio meteor scatter is well established. UHECRs produces in principle similar ionization trails. A radio detection station operating at

Denis Oliveira Damazio; Helio Takai

2003-01-01

167

Cosmic Rays from Cosmic Strings with Condensates  

E-print Network

We re-visit the production of cosmic rays by cusps on cosmic strings. If a scalar field (``Higgs'') has a linear interaction with the string world-sheet, such as would occur if there is a bosonic condensate on the string, cusps on string loops emit narrow beams of very high energy Higgses which then decay to give a flux of ultra high energy cosmic rays. The ultra-high energy flux and the gamma to proton ratio agree with observations if the string scale is $\\sim 10^{13}$ GeV. The diffuse gamma ray and proton fluxes are well below current bounds. Strings that are {\\it lighter} and have linear interactions with scalars produce an excess of direct and diffuse cosmic rays and are ruled out by observations, while heavier strings ($\\sim 10^{15}$ GeV) are constrained by their gravitational signatures. This leaves a narrow window of parameter space for the existence of cosmic strings with bosonic condensates.

Tanmay Vachaspati

2009-11-13

168

Power-law partition and entropy production of high-energy cosmic rays: Knee-ankle structure of the all-particle spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical description of the all-particle cosmic-ray spectrum is given in the 10^{14}\\ \\text{eV} to 10^{20}\\ \\text{eV} interval. The high-energy cosmic-ray flux is modeled as an ultra-relativistic multi-component plasma, whose components constitute a mixture of nearly ideal but nonthermal gases of low density and high temperature. Each plasma component is described by an ultra-relativistic power-law density manifested as spectral peak in the wideband fit. The “knee” and “ankle” features of the high- and ultra-high-energy spectrum turn out to be the global and local extrema of the double-logarithmic E3-scaled flux representation in which the spectral fit is performed. The all-particle spectrum is covered by recent data sets from several air shower arrays, and can be modeled as three-component plasma in the indicated energy range extending over six decades. The temperature, specific number density, internal energy and entropy of each plasma component are extracted from the partial fluxes in the broadband fit. The grand partition function and the extensive entropy functional of a non-equilibrated gas mixture with power-law components are derived in phase space by ensemble averaging.

Tomaschitz, Roman

2013-10-01

169

Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 × 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muńiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anti?i?, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bäuml, J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Bohá?ová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceiçăo, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Fajardo Tapia, I.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filip?i?, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gascon, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Guzman, A.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leăo, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Aüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Mertsch, P.; Meurer, C.; Mi?anovi?, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Nhung, P. T.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; P?kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.

2011-06-01

170

Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

Abreu, P [Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M [IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E J [Fermilab; Albuquerque, I F.M. [Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D [APC, Paris; Allekotte, I [Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J [New York U.; Allison, P [Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J [Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J [Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M [Napoli Seconda U.; INFN, Naples; Nijmegen U., IMAPP

2011-06-17

171

Cosmic Necklaces and Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic necklaces are hybrid topological defects consisting of monopoles and strings, with two strings attached to each monopole. We argue that the cosmological evolution of necklaces may significantly differ from that of cosmic strings. The typical velocity of necklaces can be much smaller than the speed of light, and the characteristic scale of the network much smaller than the horizon. We estimate the flux of high-energy protons produced by monopole annihilation in the decaying closed loops. For some reasonable values of the parameters it is comparable to the observed flux of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Berezinsky, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 67010 Assergi (Antarctica) (Italy)] [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, 67010 Assergi (Antarctica) (Italy); Vilenkin, A. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)] [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

1997-12-01

172

Cosmic-Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic-rays are subatomic particles of energies ranging between a few eV to hundreds of TeV. These particles register a power-law spectrum, and it seems that most of them originate from astrophysical galactic and extragalactic sources. The shock acceleration in superalfvenic astrophysical plasmas, is believed to be the main mechanism responsible for the production of the non-thermal cosmic-rays. Especially, the importance of the very high energy cosmic-ray acceleration, with its consequent gamma-ray radiation and neutrino production in the shocks of the relativistic jets of Gamma Ray Bursts, is a favourable theme of study. I will discuss the cosmic-ray shock acceleration mechanism particularly focusing on simulation studies of cosmic-ray acceleration occurring in the relativistic shocks of GRB jets.

Meli, A.

2013-07-01

173

Anisotropy and chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using arrival directions measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory  

SciTech Connect

The Pierre Auger Collaboration has reported evidence for anisotropy in the distribution of arrival directions of the cosmic rays with energies E > Eth = 5.5 x 1019 eV. These show a correlation with the distribution of nearby extragalactic objects, including an apparent excess around the direction of Centaurus A. If the particles responsible for these excesses at E > Eth are heavy nuclei with charge Z, the proton component of the sources should lead to excesses in the same regions at energies E/Z. We here report the lack of anisotropies in these directions at energies above Eth/Z (for illustrative values of Z = 6,13,26). If the anisotropies above Eth are due to nuclei with charge Z, and under reasonable assumptions about the acceleration process, these observations imply stringent constraints on the allowed proton fraction at the lower energies.

Abreu, P [Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M [IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E J [Fermilab; Albuquerque, I F.M. [Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D [APC, Paris; Allekotte, I [Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J [New York U.; Allison, P [Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J [Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J [Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M [Napoli Seconda U.; INFN, Naples; Nijmegen U., IMAPP

2011-06-17

174

The Origin of Cosmic Rays  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic Rays reach the Earth from space with energies of up to more than 1020 eV, carrying information on the most powerful particle accelerators that Nature has been able to assemble. Understanding where and how cosmic rays originate has required almost one century of investigations, and, although the last word is not written yet, recent observations and theory seem now to fit together to provide us with a global picture of the origin of cosmic rays of unprecedented clarity. Here we will describe what we learned from recent observations of astrophysical sources (such as supernova remnants and active galaxies) and we will illustrate what these observations tell us about the physics of particle acceleration and transport. We will also discuss the 'end' of the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum, which bridges out attention towards the so called ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). At {approx}1020 eV the gyration scale of cosmic rays in cosmic magnetic fields becomes large enough to allow us to point back to their sources, thereby allowing us to perform 'cosmic ray astronomy', as confirmed by the recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. We will discuss the implications of these observations for the understanding of UHECRs, as well as some questions which will likely remain unanswered and will be the target of the next generation of cosmic ray experiments.

Blasi, Pasquale (INAF/Arcetri-Italy and Fermilab) [INAF/Arcetri-Italy and Fermilab

2008-02-20

175

The Origin of Cosmic Rays  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic Rays reach the Earth from space with energies of up to more than 1020 eV, carrying information on the most powerful particle accelerators that Nature has been able to assemble. Understanding where and how cosmic rays originate has required almost one century of investigations, and, although the last word is not written yet, recent observations and theory seem now to fit together to provide us with a global picture of the origin of cosmic rays of unprecedented clarity. Here we will describe what we learned from recent observations of astrophysical sources (such as supernova remnants and active galaxies) and we will illustrate what these observations tell us about the physics of particle acceleration and transport. We will also discuss the “end” of the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum, which bridges out attention towards the so called ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). At ~1020 eV the gyration scale of cosmic rays in cosmic magnetic fields becomes large enough to allow us to point back to their sources, thereby allowing us to perform “cosmic ray astronomy”, as confirmed by the recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. We will discuss the implications of these observations for the understanding of UHECRs, as well as some questions which will likely remain unanswered and will be the target of the next generation of cosmic ray experiments.

Pasquale Blasi

2008-02-20

176

The Origin of Cosmic Rays  

ScienceCinema

Cosmic Rays reach the Earth from space with energies of up to more than 1020 eV, carrying information on the most powerful particle accelerators that Nature has been able to assemble. Understanding where and how cosmic rays originate has required almost one century of investigations, and, although the last word is not written yet, recent observations and theory seem now to fit together to provide us with a global picture of the origin of cosmic rays of unprecedented clarity. Here we will describe what we learned from recent observations of astrophysical sources (such as supernova remnants and active galaxies) and we will illustrate what these observations tell us about the physics of particle acceleration and transport. We will also discuss the ?end? of the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum, which bridges out attention towards the so called ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). At ~1020 eV the gyration scale of cosmic rays in cosmic magnetic fields becomes large enough to allow us to point back to their sources, thereby allowing us to perform ?cosmic ray astronomy?, as confirmed by the recent results obtained with the Pierre Auger Observatory. We will discuss the implications of these observations for the understanding of UHECRs, as well as some questions which will likely remain unanswered and will be the target of the next generation of cosmic ray experiments.

Pasquale Blasi

2010-01-08

177

Composition of primary cosmic rays at energies ~1015 eV from data on high-energy muons in extensive air showers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical analysis of experimental data on high-energy muons in air showers is carried out to derive information about the composition of primary cosmic rays near the bend in the energy spectrum at ~1015 eV. A set of Monte Carlo simulated air showers from different elemental species have been used to study expectations for three different experiments: the Tien Shan study of muons with energy above 5 GeV at an altitude of 690 g/cm2, the Moscow State University experiment for muons with energy above 10 GeV at sea level, and the Kolar-gold-field experiment for muons with energy above 220 GeV at 930 g/cm2. The results show that when showers are grouped according to shower size the sensitivity of the total number of high-energy muons to primary composition is greatly reduced. In fact, it is found that the data cannot discriminate between models which assume energy-independent low-energy composition and those which assume energy spectra which steepen above some value of rigidity cutoff around 1014 eV/nucleon. In order to make a compositionsensitive measurement of the high-energy muon component it is necessary to make these measurements at fixed energy rather than at fixed shower size.

Yodh, G. B.; Goodman, J. A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.

1984-03-01

178

Dual Phase Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

A calculation based on flat spacetime symmetries shows how there can be two quantum phases. For one, extreme phase change determines a conventional classical trajectory and four-momentum, i.e. mass times four-velocity. The other phase occurs in an effective particle state, with the effective energy and momentum being the rate of change of the phase with respect to time and distance. A cosmic ray proton moves along a classical trajectory, but exists in an effective particle state with an effective energy that depends on the local gravitational potential. Assumptions are made so that a cosmic ray proton in an ultra-high energy state detected near the Earth was in a much less energetic state in interstellar space. A 300 EeV proton incident on the Earth was a 2 PeV proton in interstellar space. The model predicts such protons are in states with even more energy near the Sun than when near the Earth.

Richard Shurtleff

2007-12-30

179

Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Composition Using Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector and Surface Array in Hybrid Mode  

E-print Network

Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic composition using simulations from a variety of hadronic models for the comparison of both elongation rate and shower fluctuations. This is in good agreement with the HiRes results. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Anderson, R; Azuma, R; Barcikowski, E; Belz, J W; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Cady, R; Chae, M J; Cheon, B G; Chiba, J; Chikawa, M; Cho, W R; Fujii, T; Fukushima, M; Goto, T; Hanlon, W; Hayashi, Y; Hayashida, N; Hibino, K; Honda, K; Ikeda, D; Inoue, N; Ishii, T; Ishimori, R; Ito, H; Ivanov, D; Jui, C C H; Kadota, K; Kakimoto, F; Kalashev, O; Kasahara, K; Kawai, H; Kawakami, S; Kawana, S; Kawata, K; Kido, E; Kim, H B; Kim, J H; Kim, J H; Kitamura, S; Kitamura, Y; Kuzmin, V; Kwon, Y J; Lan, J; Lim, S I; Lundquist, J P; Machida, K; Martens, K; Matsuda, T; Matsuyama, T; Matthews, J N; Minamino, M; Mukai, Y; Myers, I; Nagasawa, K; Nagataki, S; Nakamura, T; Nonaka, T; Nozato, A; Ogio, S; Ogura, J; Ohnishi, M; Ohoka, H; Oki, K; Okuda, T; Ono, M; Oshima, A; Ozawa, S; Park, I H; Pshirkov, M S; Rodriguez, D C; Rubtsov, G; Ryu, D; Sagawa, H; Sakurai, N; Sampson, A L; Scott, L M; Shah, P D; Shibata, F; Shibata, T; Shimodaira, H; Shin, B K; Shin, H S; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Stratton, S R; Stroman, T; Suzawa, T; Takamura, M; Takeda, M; Takeishi, R; Taketa, A; Takita, M; Tameda, Y; Tanaka, H; Tanaka, K; Tanaka, M; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tinyakov, P; Tkachev, I; Tokuno, H; Tomida, T; Troitsky, S; Tsunesada, Y; Tsutsumi, K; Uchihori, Y; Udo, S; Urban, F; Vasiloff, G; Wong, T; Yamane, R; Yamaoka, H; Yamazaki, K; Yang, J; Yashiro, K; Yoneda, Y; Yoshida, S; Yoshiia, H; Zollinger, R; Zundel, Z

2014-01-01

180

Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses topics related to high-energy, gamma-ray astronomy (including cosmic radiation, gamma-ray detectors, high-energy gamma-ray sources, and others). Also considers motivation for the development of this field, the principal results to date, and future prospects. (JN)

Weekes, Trevor C.

1986-01-01

181

Very high energy gamma rays from active galactic nuclei: Cascading on the cosmic background radiation fields and the formation of pair halos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent high-energy gamma-ray observations (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) of blazar Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) show emission spectra with no clear upper energy cutoff. AGNs, considered to be possible sources for the observed flux of cosmic rays beyond 10(exp 19) eV, may well have emission extending into the very high energy (VHE), (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV) domain. Because VHE gamma-rays are absorbed by pair production on the intergalactic background radiation fields, much of this emission may not be directly visible. The electromagnetic cascades initiated by absorbed VHE gamma-rays, however, may be observable. Since, most probably, the velocities of (e(+), e(-)) pairs produced in a cascade are quickly isotropized by an ambient random magnetic field, extended 'halos' (R greater than 1 Mpc) of pairs will be formed around AGNs with VHE emission. The cascade radiation from these pair halos is emitted isotropically and should be observable at energies below a few TeV. The halo radiation can be distinguished by its characteristic variation in spectrum and intensity with angular distance from the central source. This variation depends weakly on the details of the central source model, e.g., the orientation and beaming/opening angle of an emitting jet. Limiting or determining the intensity of the pair halo can thus serve as a model-independent bound on or measure of the VHE power of AGNs. Next-generation Cherenkov telescopes may be able to image a pair halo.

Aharonian, F. A.; Coppi, P. S.; Voelk, H. J.

1994-01-01

182

Solar cosmic ray phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review attempts to present an integrated view of the several types of solar cosmic ray phenomena. The relevant large and small scale properties of the interplanetary medium are first surveyed, and their use in the development of a quantitative understanding of the cosmic ray propagation processes summarised. Solar cosmic ray events, in general, are classified into two phenomenological categories:

K. G. McCracken; U. R. Rao

1970-01-01

183

Cosmic Rays at the Knee  

E-print Network

Several kinds of measurements are combined in an attempt to obtain a consistent estimate of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic radiation through the knee region. Assuming that the knee is a signal of the high-energy end of a galactic cosmic-ray population, I discuss possible signatures of a transition to an extra-galactic population and how they might be detected.

Thomas K. Gaisser

2006-08-25

184

A Simplified Model for the Acceleration of Cosmic Ray Particles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two important questions concerning cosmic rays are: Why are electrons in the cosmic rays less efficiently accelerated than nuclei? How are particles accelerated to great energies in ultra-high energy cosmic rays? In order to answer these questions we construct a simple model of the acceleration of a charged particle in the cosmic ray. It is not…

Gron, Oyvind

2010-01-01

185

Very High Energy Gamma Ray Observations with the MAGIC  

E-print Network

Very High Energy Gamma Ray Observations with the MAGIC Telescope (a biased selection) Nepomuk Otte The non-thermal universe in VHE gamma-rays GRBs AGNs Origin of cosmic rays Cosmology Dark matter Space Physik / Humboldt Universität Berlin VHE gamma-ray sources status ICRC 2007 Rowell 71 known sources

California at Santa Cruz, University of

186

Propagation of Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrophysics of cosmic rays and gamma rays depends very much on the quality of the data, which become increasingly accurate each year and therefore more constraining. While direct measurements of cosmic rays are possible in only one location on the outskirts of the Milky Way, the Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission provides insights into the spectra of cosmic rays in distant locations, therefore complementing the local cosmic-ray studies. This connection, however, requires extensive modeling and is yet to be explored in detail. The GLAST mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2007 and is capable of measuring gamma-rays in the range 20 MeV - 300 GeV, will change the status quo dramatically. The detailed spectra and skymaps of the Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission gathered by GLAST will require adequate theoretical models. The efforts will be rewarded by the wealth of information on cosmic ray spectra and fluxes in remote locations. In its turn, a detailed cosmic ray propagation model will provide a reliable basis for other studies such as search for dark matter signals in cosmic rays and diffuse gamma rays, spectrum and origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray'emission, theories of nucleosynthesis and evolution of elements etc. In this talk, I will discuss what we can learn studying the cosmic ray propagation and diffuse gamma-ray emission.

Moskalenko, I. V.

2004-01-01

187

Cosmic Ray Propagation Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astrophysics of cosmic rays and gamma rays depends very much on the quality of the data, which become increasingly accurate each year and therefore more constraining. While direct measurements of cosmic rays are possible in only one location on the outskirts of the Milky Way, the Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission provides insights into the spectra of cosmic rays in distant locations, therefore complementing the local cosmic-ray studies. This connection, however, requires extensive modeling and is yet to be explored in detail. The GUST mission, which is scheduled for launch in 2007 and is capable of measuring gamma-rays in the range 20 MeV - 300 GeV, will change the status quo dramatically. Galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission gathered by GUST will require adequate theoretical models. The efforts will be rewarded by the wealth of information on cosmic ray spectra and fluxes in remote locations. In its turn, a detailed cosmic ray propagation model will provide a reliable basis for other studies such as search for dark matter signals in cosmic rays and diffuse gamma rays, spectrum and origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission, theories of nucleosynthesis and evolution of elements etc. In this talk, I will discuss what we can learn studying the cosmic ray propagation and diffuse gamma-ray emission.

Moskalenko, I. V.

2004-01-01

188

CORRELATIONS OF THE ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS WITH EXTRAGALACTIC OBJECTS AS OBSERVED BY THE TELESCOPE ARRAY EXPERIMENT  

SciTech Connect

We search for correlations between the positions of extragalactic objects and the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energy E ? 40 EeV as observed by the surface detector array of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment during the first 40 months of operation. We examine several public astronomical object catalogs, including the Veron-Cetty and Veron catalog of active galactic nuclei. We count the number of TA events correlated with objects in each catalog as a function of three parameters: the maximum angular separation between a TA event and an object, the minimum energy of the events, and the maximum redshift of the objects. We determine the combination of these parameters that maximizes the correlations, and we calculate the probability of having the same levels of correlations from an isotropic distribution of UHECR arrival directions. No statistically significant correlations are found when penalties for scanning over the above parameters and for searching in several catalogs are taken into account.

Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W. [High Energy Astrophysics Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Aida, R. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Azuma, R.; Fukuda, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Cheon, B. G.; Cho, E. J. [Department of Physics and The Research Institute of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Department of Physics, Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, W. R. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); and others

2013-11-10

189

High energy gamma ray astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

Fichtel, Carl E.

1987-01-01

190

Cosmic x ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1990-01-01

191

Cosmic x ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1991-01-01

192

Cosmic-ray detectors on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of cosmic ray physics is reviewed. It is concluded that the nonexistent lunar magnetic field, the low lunar radiation background, and the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon provide an excellent environment for the study of high energy primary cosmic rays.

Linsley, John

1988-01-01

193

Cosmic Ray Astronomy  

E-print Network

Cosmic ray astronomy attempts to identify and study the sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. It is unique in its reliance on charged particles as the information carriers. While no discrete source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays has been identified so far, a new generation of detectors is acquiring the huge exposure that is needed at the highest energies, where deflection by magnetic fields is minimized and the background from distant sources is eliminated by pion photoproduction. In this paper, we summarize the status of cosmic ray astronomy, describing the detectors and the analysis techniques.

Paul Sommers; Stefan Westerhoff

2008-02-09

194

Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large

M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

2007-01-01

195

High and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proceedings of the All-Union Conference on Cosmic Rays held in Dagomys, November 1-3, 1990, are briefly reviewed. In particular, attention is given to studies of the energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the region of the high energy limit (greater than 10 to the 19th eV); search for high-energy gamma sources; and methods of separating air showers from

N. N. Kalmykov; G. V. Kulikov

1991-01-01

196

Cosmic Rays above the Knee  

E-print Network

An overview on the present observational status and phenomenological understanding of cosmic rays above 10^16 eV is given. Above these energies the cosmic ray flux is expected to be gradually dominated by an extra-galactic component. In order to investigate the nature of this transition, current experimental activities focus on the measurement of the cosmic ray flux and composition at the 'ankle' or 'dip' feature at several EeV. At the ultra high energy end of the spectrum, the flux suppression above 50 EeV is now well established by the measurements of HiRes and the Pierre Auger Observatory and we may enter the era of charged particle astronomy.

Michael Unger

2008-12-15

197

Terrestrial cosmic rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the basic physics of those cosmic rays which can affect terrestrial electronics. Cosmic rays at sea level consist mostly of neutrons, protons, pions, muons, electrons, and photons. The particles which cause significant soft fails in electronics are those particles with the strong interaction: neutrons, protons, and pions. At sea level, about 95% of these particles are neutrons.

James F. Ziegler

1996-01-01

198

Origin of Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents Introduction S 1. Primary Cosmic Rays Near the Earth a) Chemical composition b) Energy spectrum S 2. Radio-Astronomical Data a) Magnetic bremsstrahlung (synchrotron radiation) b) Certain results of observations and their interpretation (structure of the Galaxy, discrete sources) S 3. Lifetime of Cosmic Rays and Character of Their Motion in the Galaxy and the Metagalaxy a) Nuclear lifetime of

V. L. Ginzburg; S. I. Syrovatsky

1961-01-01

199

Local superbubble model of cosmic ray propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The consequences for cosmic ray phenomena of the solar system being inside a superbubble are explored. The superbubble is found to expand with time, thus causing the contained relativistic cosmic rays to lose energy. The local superbubble model offers a natural explanation for features in the high energy cosmic ray anisotropy and spectrum which occur around 10 to the 15th eV and which are due to failure of the superbubble wall to contain cosmic rays of high energy. In the energy range from 3 x 10 to the 14th eV to 10 to the 17th eV, the direction of the measured anisotropy indicates a net local flow from the nearby wall, whereas above 10 to the 17th eV the anisotropy direction is reversed, indicating a return to net outward flow of cosmic rays toward the local wall.

Streitmatter, R. E.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Protheroe, R. J.

1983-01-01

200

Review of the Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Second School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held in Puebla, Mexico, on August 30 to September 8, 2006. It included subjects like experimental techniques, primary spectrum and composition of cosmic rays, high-energy interactions, gamma ray astronomy, neutrino astrophysics, cosmic ray detectors, etc. I present a very short review of some of the lectures given there.

Martínez, Humberto

2009-04-01

201

Detection of cosmic neutrino clustering by cosmic ray spectra  

E-print Network

We propose a method to investigate the scenario that cosmic relic neutrinos are highly clustered around stars and galaxies, or dark-matter clusters, rather than uniformly distributed in the universe. Such a scenario can be detected or constrained by the interaction of high energy cosmic ray protons and nuclei with the cosmic neutrinos. There should be observable signature in the energy spectra of cosmic ray protons and nuclei for a neutrino clustering factor beyond $10^{13}$. We provide a relation on the signature onset positions between proton and nuclei spectra, and discuss possible support from existing experiments. It is also suggested that the relative abundance of cosmic ray nuclei may detect or constrain the cosmic neutrinos with smaller clustering.

W-Y. P. Hwang; Bo-Qiang Ma

2005-02-18

202

OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY ELECTRONS FROM 30 GeV TO 3 TeV WITH EMULSION CHAMBERS  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a series of cosmic-ray electron observations using balloon-borne emulsion chambers since 1968. While we previously reported the results from subsets of the exposures, the final results of the total exposures up to 2001 are presented here. Our successive experiments have yielded a total exposure of 8.19 m{sup 2} sr day at altitudes of 4.0-9.4 g cm{sup -2}. The performance of the emulsion chambers was examined by accelerator beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations, and the on-board calibrations were carried out by using the flight data. In this work, we present the cosmic-ray electron spectrum in the energy range from 30 GeV to 3 TeV at the top of the atmosphere, which is well represented by a power-law function with an index of -3.28 {+-} 0.10. The observed data can also be interpreted in terms of diffusive propagation models. The evidence of cosmic-ray electrons up to 3 TeV suggests the existence of cosmic-ray electron sources at distances within {approx}1 kpc and times within {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} yr ago.

Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan); Komori, Y. [Faculty of Health and Social Services, Kanagawa University of Human Services, Yokosuka 238-0013 (Japan); Yoshida, K.; Yanagisawa, K. [College of Systems Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.; Saito, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara 229-8510 (Japan); Tateyama, N. [Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Yuda, T. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Wilkes, R. J., E-mail: tadasik-112850@jasper.dti.ne.jp, E-mail: komori-y@kuhs.ac.jp, E-mail: yoshida@shibaura-it.ac.jp, E-mail: nisimura@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tateyama@n.kanagawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yuda@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: wilkes@u.washington.edu [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)

2012-12-01

203

On the determination of the cosmic infrared background radiation from the high-energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper Stecker, De Jager, & Salamon have suggested using the observed approximately MeV to TeV spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources as probes of the local density of the cosmic infrared background radiation (CIBR) and have subsequently claimed a first possible measurement of the CIBR from the analysis of the gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 421 (De Jager, Stecker,

Eli Dwek; Jonathan Slavin

1994-01-01

204

Cosmic-ray astrochemistry.  

PubMed

Gas-phase chemistry in the interstellar medium is driven by fast ion-molecule reactions. This, of course, demands a mechanism for ionization, and cosmic rays are the ideal candidate as they can operate throughout the majority of both diffuse and dense interstellar clouds. Aside from driving interstellar chemistry via ionization, cosmic rays also interact with the interstellar medium in ways that heat the ambient gas, produce gamma rays, and produce light element isotopes. In this paper we review the observables generated by cosmic-ray interactions with the interstellar medium, focusing primarily on the relevance to astrochemistry. PMID:23812538

Indriolo, Nick; McCall, Benjamin J

2013-10-01

205

Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts in the Galaxy  

E-print Network

The rate of terrestrial irradiation events by galactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is estimated using recent standard-energy results. We assume that GRBs accelerate high-energy cosmic rays, and present results of three-dimensional simulations of cosmic rays moving in the Galactic magnetic field and diffusing through pitch-angle scattering. An on-axis GRB extinction event begins with a powerful prompt gamma-ray and neutron pulse, followed by a longer-lived phase from cosmic-ray protons and neutron-decay protons that diffuse towards Earth. Our results force a reinterpretation of reported ~ 10^{18} eV cosmic-ray anisotropies and offer a rigorous test of the model where high-energy cosmic rays originate from GRBs, which will soon be tested with the Auger Observatory.

Charles D. Dermer; Jeremy M. Holmes

2005-04-06

206

Research Concerning Detection of Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout my academic career at Loyola I have carried out research with the Loyola University Cosmic Event Detection System concerning the possibility of detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) based on radio meteor scattering methods. This research was furthered through summer internships and research fellowships at Adler Planetarium Chicago and Stony Brook University in New York. At Adler

Maxwell Grady; John Cunningham; Steve Kuhlmann; Hal Spinka; Dave Underwood; Mark Hammergren

2010-01-01

207

Evidences of high energy protons with energies beyond 0.4 GeV in the solar particle spectrum as responsible for the cosmic rays solar diurnal anisotropy  

E-print Network

Analysis on the daily variations of cosmic ray muons with $E_{\\mu}\\geq 0.2 GeV$ based on the data of two directional muon telescopes at sea level and with a rigidity of response to cosmic proton spectrum above 0.4 GV is presented. The analysis covers two months of observations and in 60% of days, abrupt transitions between a low to a high muon intensity and vice-verse is observed, the period of high muon intensity is from $\\sim 8.0h$ up to $\\sim 19.0h$ (local time) and coincides with the period when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines overtake the Earth. This behavior strongly suggest that the high muon intensity is due to a contribution of solar protons (ions) on the muon intensity produced by the galactic cosmic rays, responsible for the low muon intensity. This implies that the solar particle spectrum extends to energies beyond 1 GeV. We show that this picture can explain the solar daily variation origin, and it is a most accurate scenario than the assumption of corotating galactic cosmic ray with the IMF lines, specially in the high rigidity region. Obtained results are consistent with the data reported in others papers. Some aspects on the sensitivity of our muon telescopes are also presented.

C. E. Navia; C. R. A. Augusto; M. B. Robba; K. H. Tsui

2007-06-26

208

THE NuSTAR EXTRAGALACTIC SURVEY: A FIRST SENSITIVE LOOK AT THE HIGH-ENERGY COSMIC X-RAY BACKGROUND POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at {approx}> 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR-detected sources are Almost-Equal-To 100 times fainter than those previously detected at {approx}> 10 keV and have a broad range in redshift and luminosity (z = 0.020-2.923 and L{sub 10-40{sub keV}} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41}-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1}); the median redshift and luminosity are z Almost-Equal-To 0.7 and L{sub 10-40{sub keV}} Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}, respectively. We characterize these sources on the basis of broad-band Almost-Equal-To 0.5-32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L{sub 10-40{sub keV}} > 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}, of which Almost-Equal-To 50% are obscured with N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR sources are Compton thick (N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) and we place a 90% confidence upper limit on the fraction of Compton-thick quasars (L{sub 10-40{sub keV}} > 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) selected at {approx}> 10 keV of {approx}< 33% over the redshift range z = 0.5-1.1. We jointly fitted the rest-frame Almost-Equal-To 10-40 keV data for all of the non-beamed sources with L{sub 10-40{sub keV}} > 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} to constrain the average strength of reflection; we find R < 1.4 for {Gamma} = 1.8, broadly consistent with that found for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed at {approx}> 10 keV. We also constrain the host-galaxy masses and find a median stellar mass of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }, a factor Almost-Equal-To 5 times higher than the median stellar mass of nearby high-energy selected AGNs, which may be at least partially driven by the order of magnitude higher X-ray luminosities of the NuSTAR sources. Within the low source-statistic limitations of our study, our results suggest that the overall properties of the NuSTAR sources are broadly similar to those of nearby high-energy selected AGNs but scaled up in luminosity and mass.

Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Aird, J. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Stern, D.; Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ajello, M.; Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Civano, F.; Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W 120th Street, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); and others

2013-08-20

209

Is the Ultra-high Energy Cosmic-Ray Excess Observed by the Telescope Array Correlated with IceCube Neutrinos?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Telescope Array (TA) has observed a statistically significant excess in cosmic rays with energies above 57 EeV in a region of approximately 1150 deg2 centered on coordinates R.A. = 146.7, decl. = 43.2. We note that the location of this excess correlates with 2 of the 28 extraterrestrial neutrinos recently observed by IceCube. The overlap between the two IceCube neutrinos and the TA excess is statistically significant at the 2? level. Furthermore, the spectrum and intensity of the IceCube neutrinos is consistent with a single source which would also produce the TA excess. Finally, we discuss possible source classes with the correct characteristics to explain the cosmic-ray and neutrino fluxes with a single source.

Fang, Ke; Fujii, Toshihiro; Linden, Tim; Olinto, Angela V.

2014-10-01

210

arXiv:1002.1444v1[astro-ph.HE]7Feb2010 Analysis of large-scale anisotropy of ultra-high energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

. W. Springer,1 B. T. Stokes,1,3 S. R. Stratton,3 J. R. Thomas,1 S. B. Thomas,1 G. B. Thomson,1,3 P cosmic rays in HiRes data R. U. Abbasi,1 T. Abu-Zayyad,1 M. Allen,1 J. F. Amann,2 G. Archbold,1 K. Belov. Deng,1 Y. Fedorova,1 J. Findlay,1 C. B. Finley,5 R. C. Gray,1 W. F. Hanlon,1 C. M. Hoffman,2 M. H

211

Observation of a high-energy cosmic-ray family caused by a Centauro-type nuclear interaction in the joint emulsion chamber experiment at the Pamirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exotic cosmic-ray family event is observed in the large emulsion chamber exposed by the joint at the Pamirs (4360 m above sea level). The family is composed of 120gamma-ray-induced showers and 37 hadron-induced showers with individual visible energy exceeding 1 TeV. The decisive feature of the event is the hadron dominance: SigmaEgamma, SigmaE(gamma)h, , and being

A. S. Borisov; K. V. Cherdyntseva; Z. M. Guseva; V. G. Denisova; A. M. Dunaevsky; E. A. Kanevskaya; V. M. Maximenko; R. A. Nam; V. S. Puchkov; S. A. Slavatinsky; M. D. Smirnova; Yu. A. Smorodin; A. V. Uryson; N. G. Zelevinskaya; M. V. Zimin; G. B. Zhdanov; I. A. Mikhailova; R. A. Mukhamedshin; O. E. Nedel'Ko; L. P. Nikolaeva; G. T. Zatsepin; T. P. Amineva; L. T. Baradzei; I. P. Ivanenko; N. P. Iljina; T. V. Lazareva; A. K. Managadze; E. A. Murzina; E. I. Pomelova; E. G. Popova; I. V. Rakobolskaya; T. M. Roganova; N. G. Ryabova; L. G. Sveshnikova; S. D. Cananov; L. Kh. Chadranyan; L. A. Khisanishvilli; M. K. Ladarija; G. G. Leptukh; N. N. Roinishvili; M. S. Svanidze; Z. A. Azimov; I. B. Bobodjanov; N. E. Gubar; Yu. A. Gulov; F. Normuradov; Kh. Shoboronov; S. A. Azimov; D. A. Khalilov; Sh. Myrtojieva; E. G. Mullajanov; A. N. Nosov; Kh. Nuritdinov; T. S. Yuldashbaev; S. E. Bakhtigereev; N. A. Dobrotin; Yu. A. Emelyanov; E. G. Zaitseva; H. Bielawska; H. Bialobrzeska; M. Linke; J. Malinowski; J. Maciaszszyk; A. Krys; A. Tomaszewski; J. Nowicka; Z. Wlodarczyk; J. A. Chinellato; C. Dobrigkeit; J. Bellandi Filho; A. C. Fauth; C. M. G. Lattes; M. J. Menon; C. E. Navia O; K. Sawayanagi; E. H. Shibuya; A. Turtelli; N. M. Amato; N. Arata; F. M. Oliveira Castro; R. H. C. Maldonado; H. Aoki; Y. Fujimoto; Y. Funayama; S. Hasegawa; H. Kumano; H. Semba; M. Tamada; S. Yamashita; T. Shibata; K. Yokoi; A. Ohsawa

1987-01-01

212

Cosmic rays and hadronic interactions  

SciTech Connect

The cosmic ray spectrum extends to particles with energy E{approx} 10{sup 20} eV, that corresponds (assuming that the primary particle is a proton) to a nucleon-nucleon c.m. energy {radical}(s) Asymptotically-Equal-To 430TeV, 50 times higher than the current LHC energy. These very high energy particles can be studied via the observation of the showers they generate in the atmosphere. The interpretation of the data requires therefore the modeling of hadronic interactions in an energy range beyond what can be studied in accelerator experiments. The theoretical problem of estimating the relevant properties of hadronic interactions in this energy range is therefore of central importance for the interpretation of the cosmic ray data. Viceversa, it is in principle possible to obtain information about hadronic interactions from the cosmic ray observations, but this program has to confront the fact that the (freely available) cosmic ray beam has an unknown energy spectrum and an unknown mass composition.

Lipari, Paolo [INFN sez. Roma, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Sapienza (Italy)

2013-03-25

213

Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 6 flights of the Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) balloon payload over Antarctica accumulated 161 days of exposure. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors for direct measurements of high energy cosmic ray elemental spectra. The calorimeter and Silicon Charge Detectors (SCD) from one of the two instruments are being re-configured for the International Space Station, dubbed ISS-CREAM. The other calorimeter and detectors that are too large to fit in the ISS Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility envelope are kept for balloon flights. The large area Timing Charged Detector (TCD) and newly developed Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) will be used for studying the propagation history of cosmic rays by measuring relative abundances of secondary particles, e.g., Boron. This Boron and Carbon Cosmic Rays in the Upper Stratosphere (BACCUS) balloon payload will provide in-flight cross calibration of the calorimeter and TRD for Z > 3 particles. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation will be reported.

Seo, Eun-Suk

214

Science with the new generation high energy gamma- ray experiments  

E-print Network

This Conference is the fifth of a series of Workshops on High Energy Gamma- ray Experiments, following the Conferences held in Perugia 2003, Bari 2004, Cividale del Friuli 2005, Elba Island 2006. This year the focus was on the use of gamma-ray to study the Dark Matter component of the Universe, the origin and propagation of Cosmic Rays, Extra Large Spatial Dimensions and Tests of Lorentz Invariance.

M. Alvarez; D. D'Armiento; G. Agnetta; A. Alberdi; A. Antonelli; A. Argan; P. Assis; E. A. Baltz; C. Bambi; G. Barbiellini; H. Bartko; M. Basset; D. Bastieri; P. Belli; G. Benford; L. Bergstrom; R. Bernabei; G. Bertone; A. Biland; B. Biondo; F. Bocchino; E. Branchini; M. Brigida; T. Bringmann; P. Brogueira; A. Bulgarelli; J. A. Caballero; G. A. Caliandro; P. Camarri; F. Cappella; P. Caraveo; R. Carbone; M. Carvajal; S. Casanova; A. J. Castro-Tirado; O. Catalano; R. Catena; F. Celi; A. Celotti; R. Cerulli; A. Chen; R. Clay; V. Cocco; J. Conrad; E. Costa; A. Cuoco; G. Cusumano; C. J. Dai; B. Dawson; B. De Lotto; G. De Paris; A. de Ugarte Postigo; E. Del Monte; C. Delgado; A. Di Ciaccio; G. Di Cocco; S. Di Falco; G. Di Persio; B. L. Dingus; A. Dominguez; F. Donato; I. Donnarumma; M. Doro; J. Edsjo; J. M. Espino Navas; M. C. Espirito Santo; Y. Evangelista; C. Evoli; D. Fargion; C. Favuzzi; M. Feroci; M. Fiorini; L. Foggetta; N. Fornengo; T. Froysland; M. Frutti; F. Fuschino; J. L. Gomez; M. Gomez; D. Gaggero; N. Galante; M. I. Gallardo; M. Galli; J. E. Garcia; M. Garczarczyk; F. Gargano; M. Gaug; F. Gianotti; S. Giarrusso; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; P. Giommi; F. Giordano; A. Giuliani; J. Glicenstein; P. Goncalves; D. Grasso; M. Guerriero; H. L. He; A. Incicchitti; J. Kirk; H. H. Kuang; A. La Barbera; G. La Rosa; C. Labanti; G. Lamanna; I. Lapshov; F. Lazzarotto; S. Liberati; F. Liello; P. Lipari; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. Lozano; P. G. Lucentini De Sanctis; J. M. Ma; M. C. Maccarone; L. Maccione; V. Malvezzi; A. Mangano; M. Mariotti; M. Marisaldi; I. Martel; A. Masiero; E. Massaro; M. Mastropietro; E. Mattaini; F. Mauri; M. N. Mazziotta; S. Mereghetti; T. Mineo; S. Mizobuchi; A. Moiseev; M. Moles; C. Monte; F. Montecchia; E. Morelli; A. Morselli; I. Moskalenko; F. Nozzoli; J. F. Ormes; M. A. Peres-Torres; L. Pacciani; A. Pellizzoni; F. Perez-Bernal; F. Perotti; P. Picozza; L. Pieri; M. Pietroni; M. Pimenta; A. Pina; C. Pittori; C. Pontoni; G. Porrovecchio; F. Prada; M. Prest; D. Prosperi; R. Protheroe; G. Pucella; J. M. Quesada; J. M. Quintana; J. R. Quintero; S. Raino; M. Rapisarda; M. Rissi; J. Rodriguez; E. Rossi; G. Rowell; A. Rubini; F. Russo; M. Sanchez-Conde; B. Sacco; V. Scapin; M. Schelke; A. Segreto; A. Sellerholm; X. D. Sheng; A. Smith; P. Soffitta; R. Sparvoli; P. Spinelli; V. Stamatescu; L. S. Stark; M. Tavani; G. Thornton; L. G. Titarchuk; B. Tome; A. Traci; M. Trifoglio; A. Trois; P. Vallania; E. Vallazza; S. Vercellone; S. Vernetto; V. Vitale; N. Wild; Z. P. Ye; A. Zambra; F. Zandanel; D. Zanello

2007-12-04

215

Cosmic Ray Feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays produced or deposited at sites in hot cluster gas are thought to provide the pressure that forms X-ray cavities. While cavities have a net cooling effect on cluster gas, young, expanding cavities drive shocks that increase the local entropy. Cavities also produce radial filaments of thermal gas and are sources of cluster cosmic rays that diffuse through cavity walls, as in Virgo where a radio lobe surrounds a radial thermal filament. Cosmic rays also make the hot gas locally buoyant, allowing large masses of low entropy gas to be transported out beyond the cooling radius. Successive cavities maintain a buoyant outflow that preserves the cluster gas temperature and gas fraction profiles and dramatically reduces the cooling rate onto the central black hole.

Mathews, William G.

2009-12-01

216

Cosmic ray fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a result of numerous experiments and calculations (1978-2011) is elaborated the method of short-term prediction and diagnostics of shock waves by means of ground-based observations of cosmic-ray scintillations. It is shown that high-frequency scintillations with periods of the order of 10-20 and 40-50 min are most sensitive to interplanetary medium disturbances near the Earth (a few hours before the arrival of the perturbation to the Earth). Found that the fluctuations in the cosmic rays are associated with large-scale disturbances of the interplanetary magnetic field - "magnetic plugs". A comparison between the theoretical and experimental estimates has demonstrated an important role of the cosmic ray anisotropy spectrum in the generation of the power spectrum as the latter is rearranged before the interplanetary medium disturbances.t; t;

Libin, I.

2013-05-01

217

29th International Cosmic Ray Conference Pune (2005) 00, 101104 Discovery of Very High Energy -ray emission from the extreme BL  

E-print Network

energy between radio and X-ray domain. The currently accepted unified picture of blazars [1] suggests unique cosmological information about galaxy formation and evolution, but whose direct measurement

218

Research in particles and fields. [cosmic rays, gamma rays, and cosmic plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are reviewed. Energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons were used to carry out the investigations. Specific instruments mentioned are: the high energy isotope spectrometer telescope, the electron/isotope spectrometer, the heavy isotope spectrometer telescope, and magnetometers. Solar flares, planetary magnetospheres, element abundance, the isotopic composition of low energy cosmic rays, and heavy nuclei are among the topics receiving research attention.

Stone, E. C.; Buffington, A.; Davis, L., Jr.; Prince, T. A.; Vogt, R. E.

1984-01-01

219

Cosmic reionization by primordial cosmic rays  

E-print Network

After the so-called cosmic recombination, the expanding universe entered into a period of darkness since most of the matter was in a neutral state. About a billion years later, however, the intergalactic space was once again ionized. The process, known as the cosmic reionization, required the operation of mechanisms that are not well understood. Among other ionizing sources, Population III stars, mini-quasars, and X-ray emitting microquasars have been invoked. In this article we propose that primordial cosmic rays, accelerated at the termination points of the jets of the first microquasars, may have contributed to the reionization of the intergalactic space as well. For this we quantify the ionization power of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) in the primordial intergalactic medium using extensive particle cascade simulations. We establish that, depending on the fraction of electrons to protons accelerated in the microquasar jets, cosmic rays should have contributed to the reionization of the primordial int...

Tueros, Matias; Romero, Gustavo Esteban

2014-01-01

220

On the determination of the cosmic infrared background radiation from the high-energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a recent paper Stecker, De Jager, & Salamon have suggested using the observed approximately MeV to TeV spectra of extragalactic gamma-ray sources as probes of the local density of the cosmic infrared background radiation (CIBR) and have subsequently claimed a first possible measurement of the CIBR from the analysis of the gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 421 (De Jager, Stecker, & Salamon). The CIBR from normal galaxies consists of two components: a stellar emission component (CIBRs), and a thermal dust emission component (CIBRd). Photons with energies in the approximately 0.1-2 TeV range interact primarily with the CIBRs, whereas interactions with CIBRd dominate the absorption of photons in the approximately 2-100 TeV energy range. SDS 92 and DSS94 considered only the interaction of the gamma-rays with the dust emission component of the CIBR. We present here an improved analysis of the absorption of extragalactic TeV gamma rays by the CIBR, taking the dual nature of its origin into account. Applying the analysis to the observed gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 421, a BL Lac object at z = 0.031, we find agreement with DSS94 tentative evidence for absorption by the CINRs. Our analysis therefore limits the detection of the CIBR to the approximately 15-40 micron wavelength regime which, considering the uncertainties in the highest energy (greater than 4 TeV) data and ion the possibility of absorption inside the source, many turn out to be an upper limit on its energy density. At shorter wavelengths (lambda approximately = 1-15 microns), where the gamma-ray interactions are dominated by the CIBRs, our analysis definitely yields only an upper limit on the energy density of the CIBR. In contrast, DSS94 have claimed a possible first measurement of the CIBR over the entire 1-120 micron wavelength region. The upper limit on the CIBRs and tentative detection of the CIBRd are consistent with normal galaxies contributing most of the energy to the CIBR, and constrain the contribution of some exotic sources. With careful modeling of infrared foreground emissions, these constraints on the CIBR are above the values measurable by the DIRBE experiment on board the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite.

Dwek, Eli; Slavin, Jonathan

1994-01-01

221

Galactic cosmic rays and nucleosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The nucleosynthesis of the light elements Li, Be and B by galactic cosmic rays is presented. Observations of cosmic rays and the nuclear reactions responsible for Li, Be and B nucleosynthesis are described, followed by some words on propagation. At the end, some open questions concerning galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

Kiener, Juergen [CSNSM, CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 104-108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France)

2010-03-01

222

In Search of Cosmic Rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The authors discuss the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), focusing on their high school's participation in the project. Students build and monitor cosmic ray detectors to count and study cosmic rays and to determine whether or not the time of day inf

Streich, Derek; Antonelli, Jamie; Liebl, Michael; Mahoney, Sean

2001-11-01

223

Investigation of primary cosmic rays at the Moon's surface  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of experimentally studying primary cosmic rays at the Moon's surface is considered. A mathematical simulations of showers initiated in the lunar regolith by high-energy particles of primary cosmic rays is performed. It is shown that such particles can in principle be recorded by simultaneously detecting three components of backscattered radiation (secondary neutrons, gamma rays, and radio emission).

Kalmykov, N. N., E-mail: kalm@eas.sinp.msu.ru; Konstantinov, A. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Muhamedshin, R. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Podorozhniy, D. M.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Turundaevskiy, A. N. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Tkachev, L. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Chubenko, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation); Vasilyev, O. A. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)] [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2013-01-15

224

Computations of cosmic ray propagation in the Earth's atmosphere, towards a GLE analysis  

E-print Network

Computations of cosmic ray propagation in the Earth's atmosphere, towards a GLE analysis A Mishev 1 measurements. In this study a simulation of cosmic ray atmospheric cascade is carried out with PLANETOCOSMICS. Introduction The Earth is constantly hit by high energy particles - cosmic ray. The primary cosmic ray (CR

Usoskin, Ilya G.

225

Accelerator Data for Cosmic Ray Physics  

E-print Network

I present selected examples of accelerator data, mainly from hadron colliders, that are relevant for understanding cosmic ray showers. I focus on the forward region, $x_{Feynman} > 0.05$, where high energy data are scarce, since the emphasis in collider physics became high-$p_T$ phenomena.

M. G. Albrow

2010-09-21

226

Modeling galactic cosmic rays at lunar orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-energy particles such as galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) have sufficient kinetic energy to produce undesirable biological effects in astronauts as well as environmental effects on spacecraft electronic systems. In low Earth orbit, such radiation effects are minimized owing to the strong geomagnetic cutoff from Earth's internal magnetic field. However, the risks increase at higher altitudes

Chia-Lin Huang; Harlan Spence; Brian Kress; Simon Shepherd

2008-01-01

227

Catching Cosmic Rays with a DSLR  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that continually strike the Earth's atmosphere and produce cascades of secondary particles, which reach the surface of the Earth, mainly in the form of muons. These particles can be detected with scintillator detectors, Geiger counters, cloud chambers, and also can be recorded with commonly…

Sibbernsen, Kendra

2010-01-01

228

Temporal Variation in Cosmic Ray Muon Flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastic scintillator detectors are often used in homeland security applications that look for high energy photons, such as active interrogation of cargo containers. In these applications, the background due to cosmic ray muons is assumed to be constant. However, there appears to be potentially significant variation in the muon flux over time. The muon flux was measured over a period

Steven Stroberg; Kalya Evans; Bethany Lyles-Goldblum; Erik Swanberg; Eric Norman

2008-01-01

229

Cosmic reionization by primordial cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. After the so-called cosmic recombination, the expanding universe entered into a period of darkness since most of the matter was in a neutral state. About a billion years later, however, the intergalactic space was once again ionized. The process, known as the cosmic reionization, required the operation of mechanisms that are not well understood. Among other ionizing sources, Population III stars, mini-quasars, and X-ray emitting microquasars have been invoked. Aims: We propose that primordial cosmic rays, accelerated at the termination points of the jets of the first microquasars, may have contributed to the reionization of the intergalactic space as well. Methods: We quantify the ionization power of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) in the primordial intergalactic medium. This power is calculated using extensive particle cascade simulations. Results: We establish that, depending on the fraction of electrons to protons accelerated in the microquasar jets, cosmic rays should have contributed to the reionization of the primordial intergalactic medium as much as X-rays from microquasar accretion disks. If the primordial magnetic field was of the order of 10-17 G, as some models suggest, cosmic rays had an important role in ionizing the neutral material far beyond the birth places of the first stars.

Tueros, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.

2014-10-01

230

Galactic Cosmic Rays: From Earth to Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For nearly 100 years we have known that cosmic rays come from outer space, yet proof of their origin, as well as a comprehensive understanding of their acceleration, remains elusive. Direct detection of high energy (up to 10(exp 15)eV), charged nuclei with experiments such as the balloon-born, antarctic Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) have provided insight into these mysteries through measurements of cosmic ray abundances. The abundance of these rare elements with respect to certain intrinsic properties suggests that cosmic rays include a component of massive star ejecta. Supernovae and their remnants (SNe & SNRs), often occurring at the end of a massive star's life or in an environment including massive star material, are one of the most likely candidates for sources accelerating galactic comic ray nuclei up to the requisite high energies. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Detector (Fermi LAT) has improved our understanding of such sources by widening the window of observable energies and thus into potential sources' energetic processes. In combination with multiwavelength observations, we are now better able to constrain particle populations (often hadron-dominated at GeV energies) and environmental conditions, such as the magnetic field strength. The SNR CTB 37A is one such source which could contribute to the observed galactic cosmic rays. By assembling populations of SNRs, we will be able to more definitively define their contribution to the observed galactic cosmic rays, as well as better understand SNRs themselves. Such multimessenger studies will thus illuminate the long-standing cosmic ray mysteries, shedding light on potential sources, acceleration mechanisms, and cosmic ray propagation.

Brandt, Theresa J.

2012-01-01

231

Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic Rays in Thunderstorms Cosmic rays are protons and heavier nuclei that constantly bombard the Earth's atmosphere with energies spanning a vast range from 109 to 1021 eV. At typical altitudes up to 10-20 km they initiate large particle cascades, called extensive air showers, that contain millions to billions of secondary particles depending on their initial energy. These particles include electrons, positrons, hadrons and muons, and are concentrated in a compact particle front that propagates at relativistic speed. In addition, the shower leaves behind a trail of lower energy electrons from ionization of air molecules. Under thunderstorm conditions these electrons contribute to the electrical and ionization processes in the cloud. When the local electric field is strong enough the secondary electrons can create relativistic electron run-away avalanches [1] or even non-relativistic avalanches. Cosmic rays could even trigger lightning inception. Conversely, strong electric fields also influence the development of the air shower [2]. Extensive air showers emit a short (tens of nanoseconds) radio pulse due to deflection of the shower particles in the Earth's magnetic field [3]. Antenna arrays, such as AERA, LOFAR and LOPES detect these pulses in a frequency window of roughly 10-100 MHz. These systems are also sensitive to the radiation from discharges associated to thunderstorms, and provide a means to study the interaction of cosmic ray air showers and the electrical processes in thunderstorms [4]. In this presentation we discuss the involved radiation mechanisms and present analyses of thunderstorm data from air shower arrays [1] A. Gurevich et al., Phys. Lett. A 165, 463 (1992) [2] S. Buitink et al., Astropart. Phys. 33, 1 (2010) [3] H. Falcke et al., Nature 435, 313 (2005) [4] S. Buitink et al., Astron. & Astrophys. 467, 385 (2007)

Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; van den Berg, Ad; Ebert, Ute

2013-04-01

232

Cosmic Rays: "A Thin Rain of Charged Particles."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are balloons and electroscopes, understanding cosmic rays, cosmic ray paths, isotopes and cosmic-ray travel, sources of cosmic rays, and accelerating cosmic rays. Some of the history of the discovery and study of cosmic rays is presented. (CW)

Friedlander, Michael

1990-01-01

233

A Cerenkov-delta E-Cerenkov detector for high energy cosmic ray isotopes and an accelerator study of Ar-40 and Fe-56 fragmentation. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high energy cosmic ray detector--the High Energy Isotope Spectrometer Telescope (HEIST) is described. It is a large area (0.25 m(swp 2) SR) balloon borne isotope spectrometer designed to make high resolution measurements of isotopes in the element range from neon to nickel (10 Z 28) at energies of about 2 GeV/nucleon. HEIST determines the mass of individual nuclei by measuring both the change in the Lorentz factor (delta gamma) that results from traversing the NaI stack, and the energy loss (delta E) in the stack. Since the total energy of an isotope is given by E = (gamma M), the mass M can be determined by M = delta E/delta, gamma. The instrument is designed to achieve a typical mass resolution of 0.2 amu. The isotopic composition of the fragments from the breakup of high energy An-40 and Fe-56 nuclei are measured experimentally. Isotope yields are compared with calculated yields based on semi-empirical cross-section formulae.

Lau, K. H.

1985-01-01

234

INTERACTING COSMIC RAYS WITH MOLECULAR CLOUDS: A BREMSSTRAHLUNG ORIGIN OF DIFFUSE HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE INNER 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign OF THE GALACTIC CENTER  

SciTech Connect

The high-energy activity in the inner few degrees of the Galactic center is traced by diffuse radio, X-ray, and {gamma}-ray emission. The physical relationship between different components of diffuse gas emitting at multiple wavelengths is a focus of this work. We first present radio continuum observations using the Green Bank Telescope and model the nonthermal spectrum in terms of a broken power-law distribution of {approx}GeV electrons emitting synchrotron radiation. We show that the emission detected by Fermi is primarily due to nonthermal bremsstrahlung produced by the population of synchrotron emitting electrons in the GeV energy range interacting with neutral gas. The extrapolation of the electron population measured from radio data to low and high energies can also explain the origin of Fe I 6.4 keV line and diffuse TeV emission, as observed with Suzaku, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and the H.E.S.S. observatories. The inferred physical quantities from modeling multiwavelength emission in the context of bremsstrahlung emission from the inner {approx}300 Multiplication-Sign 120 pc of the Galactic center are constrained to have the cosmic-ray ionization rate {approx}1-10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s{sup -1}, molecular gas heating rate elevating the gas temperature to 75-200 K, fractional ionization of molecular gas 10{sup -6}-10{sup -5}, large-scale magnetic field 10-20 {mu}G, the density of diffuse and dense molecular gas {approx}100 and {approx}10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} over 300 pc and 50 pc path lengths, and the variability of Fe I K{alpha} 6.4 keV line emission on yearly timescales. Important implications of our study are that GeV electrons emitting in radio can explain the GeV {gamma}-rays detected by Fermi and that the cosmic-ray irradiation model, like the model of the X-ray irradiation triggered by past activity of Sgr A*, can also explain the origin of the variable 6.4 keV emission from Galactic center molecular clouds.

Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Royster, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Hewitt, J. W. [Code 662, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 662, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Research Center for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Research Center for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Tatischeff, V. [Center de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Massse, IN2P3/CNRS and Univ. Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France)] [Center de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Massse, IN2P3/CNRS and Univ. Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Cotton, W. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)] [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Uchiyama, H.; Nobukawa, M.; Tsuru, T. G. [Cosmic Ray Group, Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-Cho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Cosmic Ray Group, Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-Cho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, Room 238 CEB, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, Room 238 CEB, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada)

2013-01-01

235

How to Detect Cosmic Rays  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson on cosmic rays, students will explain two examples of a cosmic ray detector. Includes information about student preconceptions and a demonstration that requires a geiger counter and optional access to a small radioactive source that emits energetic helium nuclei (alpha particles), e.g., the mineral the mineral autunite, which contains uranium. This is activity two of four from The Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER).

236

Cosmic Rays and Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey is made of the evidence for and against the hypothesis that cosmic rays affect cloud cover and thereby surface temperature. The analysis is made for the troposphere in the main and it includes correlations of cloud cover with cosmic ray intensity, Forbush decreases, cosmic ray short period increases and eleven year changes; also included are the electrical effects associated with cosmic rays. A complementary study comprises a search for extra cloud cover associated with terrestrial radon emissions, the Chernobyl accident and nuclear bomb tests. It is concluded that the best estimate of the fraction of (low) cloud cover attributable to a 2% change in cosmic ray intensity is about 0.02%. Insofar as the maximum change in average cosmic ray intensity over the last 50 years is about 0.2%, no more than 0.01% of cloud cover change in this period can have been caused by cosmic rays; their contribution to Global Warming is thus considered to be negligible. Not surprisingly, we find that the effect of cosmic rays on stratospheric cloud is bigger, by a factor of at least ten. In both the troposphere and the stratosphere the cosmic ray effects at the Poles are bigger than average.

Erlykin, A. D.; Laken, B. A.; Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

2010-09-01

237

Research Concerning Detection of Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout my academic career at Loyola I have carried out research with the Loyola University Cosmic Event Detection System concerning the possibility of detection of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) based on radio meteor scattering methods. This research was furthered through summer internships and research fellowships at Adler Planetarium Chicago and Stony Brook University in New York. At Adler Planetarium we used a helium balloon carrying a Geiger counter and other equipment to record the cosmic ray flux at various points in the atmosphere. The results clearly show the flux depends on the atmospheric density. At Stony Brook University I studied their advanced system for detecting cosmic rays in similar manner to radio meteor scattering principles. Research there focused on detection algorithms and also on the possibility of utilizing Digital Tv (DTv) signals for further research. Through the research a solid understanding of cosmic rays was formed including topics such as origins and energy scales of cosmic rays, both of which pose unanswered questions. )

Grady, Maxwell; Cunningham, John; Kuhlmann, Steve; Spinka, Hal; Underwood, Dave; Hammergren, Mark

2010-02-01

238

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 883 The Influence of the Global Atmospheric Properties on the  

E-print Network

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 883 The Influence of the Global Atmospheric Properties dedicated to the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) and Neutrinos detection using the Earth's atmosphere) project is aimed to detect from space the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic

Boyer, Edmond

239

Antiprotons in cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent experimental observations and results are discussed. It was found that the approximately 50 antiprotons collected in balloon experiments to date have generated considerable theoretical interest. Clearly, confirmatory experiments and measurements over an extended energy range are required before definite conclusions are drawn. Antiproton measurements have a bearing on astrophysical problems ranging from cosmic ray propagation to issues of cosmological import. The next generation of balloon experiments and the Particle Astrophysics Magnet Facility being discussed for operation on NASA's space station should provide data and insights of highest interest.

Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Streitmatter, R. E.

1987-01-01

240

Cosmic ray albedo gamma rays from the quiet sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We estimate the flux of gamma-rays that result from collisions of high energy galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. An important aspect of our model is the propagation of cosmic rays through the magnetic fields of the inner solar systems. We use diffusion to model propagation down to the bottom of the corona. Below the corona we trace particle orbits through the photospheric fields to determine the location of cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere and evolve the resultant cascades. For our nominal choice of parameters, we predict an integrated flux of gamma rays (at 1 AU) of F(E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) approximately = 5 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm sec. This can be an order of magnitude above the galactic background and should be observable by the Energetic Gamma Ray experiment telescope (EGRET).

Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Gaisser, T. K.

1992-01-01

241

Cosmic Ray Positrons from Cosmic Strings  

E-print Network

We study the spectrum of cosmic ray positrons produced by a scaling distribution of non-superconducting cosmic strings. In this scenario, the positrons are produced from the jets which form from the cosmic string cusp annihilation process. The spectral shape is a robust feature of our scenario, and is in good agreement with the results from the recent PAMELA and ATIC experiments. In particular, the model predicts a sharp upper cutoff in the spectrum, and a flux which rises as the upper cutoff is approached. The energy at which the flux peaks is determined by the initial jet energy. The amplitude of the flux can be adjusted by changing the cosmic string tension and also depends on the cusp annihilation efficiency.

Robert Brandenberger; Yi-Fu Cai; Wei Xue; Xinmin Zhang

2009-01-22

242

The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of 4 pressure vessels (3 experiment tray). The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 2000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Postflight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed. Provisional results from analysis of preflight and postflight calibrations are presented.

Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

1991-01-01

243

The LDEF ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) used 16 side viewing LDEF trays giving a total geometry factor for high energy cosmic rays of 30 sq m sr. The total exposure factor was 170 sq m sr y. The experiment is based on a modular array of 192 solid state nuclear track detector stacks, mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels. The extended duration of the LDEF mission has resulted in a greatly enhanced potential scientific yield from the UHCRE. Initial scanning results indicate that at least 1800 cosmic ray nuclei with Z greater than 65 were collected, including the world's first statistically significant sample of actinides. Post flight work to date and the current status of the experiment are reviewed.

Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smit, A.; Domingo, C.

1992-01-01

244

The HEAO-3 Cosmic Ray Isotope spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Cosmic Ray Isotope instrument launched aboard the HEAO-3 satellite on September 20, 1979. The primary purpose of the experiment is to measure the isotopic composition of cosmic ray nuclei from Be-7 to Fe-58 over the energy range 0.5 to 7 GeV/nucleon. In addition charge spectra will be measured between beryllium and tin over the energy range 0.5 to 25 GeV/nucleon. The charge and isotope abundances measured by the experiment provide essential information needed to further our understanding of the origin and propagation of high energy cosmic rays. The instrument consists of 5 Cerenkov counters, a 4 element neon flash tube hodoscope and a time-of-flight system. The determination of charge and energy for each particle is based on the multiple Cerenkov technique and the mass determination will be based upon a statistical analysis of particle trajectories in the geomagnetic field.

Bouffard, M.; Engelmann, J. J.; Koch, L.; Soutoul, A.; Lund, N.; Peters, B.; Rasmussen, I. L.

1982-01-01

245

Precision measurements of cosmic ray air showers  

E-print Network

Supplemented with suitable buffering techniques, the low-frequency part of the SKA can be used as an ultra-precise detector for cosmic-ray air showers at very high energies. This would enable a wealth of scientific applications: the physics of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic rays could be probed with very high precision mass measurements, hadronic interactions could be studied up to energies well beyond the reach of man-made particle accelerators, air shower tomography could be performed with very high spatial resolution exploiting the large instantaneous bandwidth and very uniform instantaneous $u$-$v$ coverage of SKA1-LOW, and the physics of thunderstorms and possible connections between cosmic rays and lightning initiation could be studied in unprecedented levels of detail. In this article, we describe the potential of SKA as an air shower radio detector from the perspective of existing radio detection efforts and discuss the associated technical requirements.

Huege, T; Buitink, S; Dallier, R; Ekers, R D; Falcke, H; James, C W; Martin, L; Revenu, B; Scholten, O; Schröder, F G

2014-01-01

246

He-3 in galactic cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic-ray He-3/He-4 observations, including a new measurement around 65 MeV per nucleon from ISEE-3, are compared with interstellar propagation and solar modulation calculations in an effort to understand the origin of cosmic-ray He nuclei. A survey of spacecraft and balloon observations of the He-3/He-4 ratio shows improved consistency among measurements in the 50-300 MeV per nucleon energy range when a previously neglected contribution from atmospheric secondary He-3 is taken into account. These low-energy observations imply a mean escape length of 6-8 g/sq cm in the standard leaky box model for cosmic-ray propagation in the Galaxy, a value consistent with that derived from studies of heavier nuclei. No evidence is found for an excess of low-energy He-3 such as that reported at high energies. 42 references.

Mewaldt, R.A.

1986-12-01

247

The high energy cosmic-radiation detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility is one of several space astronomy payloads of the cosmic lighthouse program onboard China's Space Station, which is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. The main scientific objectives of HERD are indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. HERD is composed of a 3-D cubic calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by microstrip silicon trackers (STKs) from five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of about 104 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. The top STK microstrips of seven X-Y layers are sandwiched with tungsten converters to make precise directional measurements of incoming electrons and gamma-rays. In the baseline design, each of the four side SKTs is made of only three layers microstrips. All STKs will also be used for measuring the charge and incoming directions of cosmic rays, as well as identifying back scattered tracks. With this design, HERD can achieve the following performance: energy resolution of 1% for electrons and gamma-rays beyond 100 GeV, 20% for protons from 100 GeV to 1 PeV; electron/proton separation power better than 10-5; effective geometrical factors of >3 m2sr for electron and diffuse gamma-rays, >2 m2sr for cosmic ray nuclei. R and D is under way for reading out the LYSO signals with optical fiber coupled to image intensified CCD and the prototype of one layer of CALO.

Zhang, S. N.; Adriani, O.; Albergo, S.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Bao, T. W.; Battiston, R.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chai, J. Y.; Chang, J.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, Y.; Cui, X. H.; Dai, Z. G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dong, Y. W.; Fan, Y. Z.; Feng, C. Q.; Feng, H.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. H.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; Hu, B. L.; Hu, H. B.; He, H. H.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y. F.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Y. G.; Li, Z.; Liang, E. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. T.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, S. M.; Liu, X.; Lu, J. G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mori, N.; Orsi, S.; Pearce, M.; Pohl, M.; Quan, Z.; Ryde, F.; Shi, H. L.; Spillantini, P.; Su, M.; Sun, J. C.; Sun, X. L.; Tang, Z. C.; Walter, R.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, Z. G.; Wei, D. M.; Wu, B. B.; Wu, J.; Wu, X.; Wu, X. F.; Xia, J. Q.; Xiao, H. L.; Xu, H. H.; Xu, M.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yan, H. R.; Yin, P. F.; Yu, Y. W.; Yuan, Q.; Zha, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhao, Z. G.

2014-07-01

248

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts: Implications of the Recent Observational Results by Milagro  

E-print Network

It has been speculated earlier that Gamma Ray Bursts are sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Recently, the search for high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts by Milagro group has put limits on the isotropic luminosity of these transient sources in very high energy photons. The implications of the results obtained by Milagro to our understanding of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum from these sources have been discussed in the present work.

Nayantara Gupta

2004-06-03

249

Cosmic Strings as Emitters of Extremely High Energy Neutrinos  

E-print Network

We study massive particle radiation from cosmic string kinks, and its observability in extremely high energy neutrinos. In particular, we consider the emission of moduli --- weakly coupled scalar particles predicted in supersymmetric theories --- from the kinks of cosmic string loops. Since kinks move at the speed of light on strings, moduli are emitted with large Lorentz factors, and eventually decay into many pions and neutrinos via hadronic cascades. The produced neutrino flux has energy $E \\gtrsim 10^{11} \\rm{GeV}$, and is affected by oscillations and absorption (resonant and non-resonant). It is observable at upcoming neutrino telescopes such as JEM-EUSO, and the radio telescopes LOFAR and SKA, for a range of values of the string tension, and of the mass and coupling constant of the moduli.

Cecilia Lunardini; Eray Sabancilar

2012-06-13

250

Cosmic ray He3 measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic ray 3He/4H3 observations, including a new measurement at approximately 65 MeV/nucleon from ISEE-3, are compared with interstellar propagation and solar modulation models in an effort to understand the origin of cosmic ray He nuclei.

Mewaldt, R. A.

1985-01-01

251

Cosmic Rays, Clouds, and Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that Earth's climate could be affected by changes in cloudiness caused by variations in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays in the atmosphere. This proposal stems from an observed correlation between cosmic ray intensity and Earth's average cloud cover over the course of one solar cycle. Some scientists question the reliability of the observations, whereas others,

K. S. Carslaw; R. G. Harrison; J. Kirkby

2002-01-01

252

Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The exising models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

Adams, James H., Jr.

2010-01-01

253

Testing Galactic Cosmic Ray Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Environment are used for designing and planning space missions. The existing models will be reviewed. Spectral representations from these models will be compared with measurements of galactic cosmic ray spectra made on balloon flights and satellite flights over a period of more than 50 years.

Adams, James H., Jr.

2009-01-01

254

Superbubbles and Local Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the possibility that distinctive features of the local cosmic ray spectra and composition are influenced by the Solar system being embedded within the cavity of an ancient superbubble. Shifts in the measured cosmic ray composition between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 20) eV as well as the "knee" and "second knee" may be understood in this picture.

Streitmatter, Robert E.; Jones, Frank C.

2005-01-01

255

Theory of cosmic ray variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial anisotropic and isotropic spaces of solar cosmic ray spreading in interplanetary space are compared with the results of direct observations in the region adjacent to the earth's orbit and with the results of explorations of the eleven-year and twenty-seven-day variations of the cosmic rays in more distant regions.

Dorman, L. I.

1975-01-01

256

Are extragalactic gamma ray bursts the source of the highest energy cosmic rays?  

E-print Network

Recent observations with the large air shower arrays of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and recent measurements/estimates of the redshifts of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) seem to rule out extragalactic GRBs as the source of the cosmic rays that are observed near Earth, including those with the highest energies.

Arnon Dar

1999-01-03

257

Ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment (A0178)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) is based on a modular array of 192 side viewing solid state nuclear track detector stacks. These stacks were mounted in sets of four in 48 pressure vessels using 16 peripheral LDEF trays. The geometry factor for high energy cosmic ray nuclei, allowing for Earth shadowing, was 30 sq m sr, giving a total exposure factor of 170 sq m sr y at an orbital inclination of 28.4 degs. Scanning results indicate that about 3000 cosmic ray nuclei in the charge region with Z greater than 65 were collected. This sample is more than ten times the current world data in the field (taken to be the data set from the HEAO-3 mission plus that from the Ariel-6 mission) and is sufficient to provide the world's first statistically significant sample of actinide cosmic rays. Results are presented including a sample of ultra heavy cosmic ray nuclei, analysis of pre-flight and post-flight calibration events and details of track response in the context of detector temperature history. The integrated effect of all temperature and age related latent track variations cause a maximum charge shift of + or - 0.8e for uranium and + or - 0.6e for the platinum-lead group. Astrophysical implications of the UHCRE charge spectrum are discussed.

Thompson, A.; Osullivan, D.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

1992-01-01

258

Cosmic rays and tests of fundamental principles  

E-print Network

It is now widely acknowledged that cosmic rays experiments can test possible new physics directly generated at the Planck scale or at some other fundamental scale. By studying particle properties at energies far beyond the reach of any man-made accelerator, they can yield unique checks of basic principles. A well-known example is provided by possible tests of special relativity at the highest cosmic-ray energies. But other essential ingredients of standard theories can in principle be tested: quantum mechanics, uncertainty principle, energy and momentum conservation, effective space-time dimensions, hamiltonian and lagrangian formalisms, postulates of cosmology, vacuum dynamics and particle propagation, quark and gluon confinement, elementariness of particles... Standard particle physics or string-like patterns may have a composite origin able to manifest itself through specific cosmic-ray signatures. Ultra-high energy cosmic rays, but also cosmic rays at lower energies, are probes of both "conventional" and new Physics. Status, prospects, new ideas, and open questions in the field are discussed. The Post Scriptum shows that several basic features of modern cosmology naturally appear in a SU(2) spinorial description of space-time without any need for matter, relativity or standard gravitation. New possible effects related to the spinorial space-time structure can also be foreseen. Similarly, the existence of spin-1/2 particles can be naturally related to physics beyond Planck scale and to a possible pre-Big Bang era.

Luis Gonzalez-Mestres

2010-11-22

259

Cosmic gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the cosmic gamma-ray burst phenomenon is presented. Both the light curves and the energy spectra of these short transient events display a great diversity. However, rapid rise times and periodicities sometimes observed in the light curves suggest a compact object origin. Similarly, absorption and emission features in the energy spectra argue strongly in favor of this interpretation. Counterparts to gamma-bursters in other energy ranges, such as optical and sort x-ray, have still not been identified, however, leading to a large uncertainty in the distances to bursters. Although gamma-ray burst sources have not yet been observed to repeat, numerous bursts from three objects which may be related to the gamma-bursters, called Soft Gamma Repeaters, have been recorded; there is weak evidence that they may be relatively distant on a galactic scale. Future missions, particularly those emphasizing high energy, time, and/or spatial resolution, as well as a multiwavelength approach, are likely to advance our understanding of this enigmatic phenomenon.

Hurley, K.

1991-01-01

260

High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos Astronomy: The ANTARES Project  

E-print Network

Neutrinos may offer a unique opportunity to explore the far Universe at high energy. The ANTARES collaboration aims at building a large undersea neutrino detector able to observe astrophysical sources (AGNs, X-ray binary systems, ...) and to study particle physics topics (neutrino oscillation, ...). After a description of the research opportunities of such a detector, a status report of the experiment will be made.

S. Basa

1999-04-16

261

Phenomenology of cosmic ray air showers  

E-print Network

The properties of cosmic rays with energies above 1PeV have to be deduced from the spacetime structure and particle content of the air showers which they initiate. In this review, a summary of the phenomenology of these giant air showers is presented. We describe the hadronic interaction models used to extrapolate results from collider data to ultra high energies, an also the main electromagnetic processes that govern the longitudinal shower evolution as well as the lateral spread of particles.

M. T. Dova

2005-05-30

262

High-energy cosmic neutrinos from spine-sheath BL Lac jets  

E-print Network

We recently proposed that structured (spine-sheath) jets associated to BL Lac objects offer a suitable environment for the production of the extragalactic high-energy ($E>100$ TeV) neutrino recently revealed by IceCube. Our previous analysis was limited to low-power BL Lac objects. We extend our preliminary study to the entire BL Lac population. We assume that the power of cosmic rays as well as the radiative luminosity of the sheath depend linearly on the the jet power. In turn, we assume that the latter is well traced by the $\\gamma$-ray luminosity. We exploit the BL Lac $\\gamma$-ray luminosity function and its cosmic evolution as recently inferred from Fermi-LAT data to derive the expected neutrino cumulative intensity from the entire BL Lac population. When considering only the low-power BL Lacs, a large cosmic ray power for each source is required to account for the neutrino flux. Instead, if BL Lacs of all powers produce neutrinos, the power demand decreases, and the required cosmic ray power becomes of...

Tavecchio, F

2014-01-01

263

Supernova Remnants, Cosmic Rays, and GLAST  

SciTech Connect

The shock waves of supernova remnants (SNRs) are the traditional sources of Galactic cosmic rays, at least up to about 3000 TeV (the 'knee' energy in the cosmic-ray spectrum). In the last decade or so, X-ray observations have confirmed in a few SNRs the presence of synchrotron-X-ray-emitting electrons with energies of order 100 TeV. TeV photons from SNRs have been observed with ground-based air Cerenkov telescopes as well, but it is still unclear whether they are due to hadronic processes (inelastic p-p scattering of cosmic-ray protons from thermal gas, with secondary neutral pions decaying to gamma rays), or to leptonic processes (inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons, or bremsstrahlung). The spatial structure of synchrotron X-rays as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory suggests the remarkable possibility that magnetic fields are amplified by orders of magnitude in strong shock waves. The electron spectra inferred from X-rays reach 100 TeV, but at that energy are cutting off steeply, well below the 'knee' energy. Are the cutoff processes due only to radiative losses so that ion spectra might continue unsteepened? Can we confirm the presence of energetic ions in SNRs at all? Are typical SNRs capable of supplying the pool of Galactic cosmic rays? Is strong magnetic-field amplification a property of strong astrophysical shocks in general? These major questions require the next generation of observational tools. I shall outline the theoretical and observational framework of particle acceleration to high energies in SNRs, and shall describe how GLAST will advance this field.

Reynolds, Steve (North Carolina State University) [North Carolina State University

2006-02-13

264

Cosmic rays in the heliosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The different types of cosmic ray particles and their role in the heliosphere are briefly described. The rates of various energetic particles were examined as a function of time and used to derive various differential energy gradients. The Pioneer and Voyager cosmic ray observations throughout the heliosphere are indeed giving a perspective on the three-dimensional character and size of the heliosphere. Most clearly the observations are emphasizing the role that transient variations in the outer heliosphere, and most likely the heliospheric boundary shock, play in the 11 year solar cycle modulation of cosmic rays.

Webber, William R.

1987-01-01

265

Title of dissertation: A SEARCH FOR BURSTS OF VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAYS  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: A SEARCH FOR BURSTS OF VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAYS WITH MILAGRO by cosmic gamma rays of energies E 100 GeV . The effective area of Milagro peaks at energies E 10 Te though the search was optimized primarily for detecting the emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs

California at Santa Cruz, University of

266

Recent high energy gamma-ray results from SAS-2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy due to the results from SAS-2 have focused on two areas. First, the emission from the plane of the Galaxy is the dominant feature in the gamma-ray sky. The galactic latitude and longitude distributions are consistent with the concept that the high-energy radiation originates from cosmic rays interacting with interstellar matter, and the measurements support a galactic origin for cosmic rays. Second, searches of the SAS-2 data for emission from localized sources have shown three strong discrete gamma-ray sources: the Crab nebula and PSR 0531 + 21, the Vela supernova remnant and PSR 0833-45, and a source near galactic coordinates 193 deg longitude, +3 deg latitude, which does not appear to be associated with other known celestial objects. Evidence has also been found for pulsed gamma-ray emission from two other radio pulsars, PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46. A localized source near longitudes 76-80 deg may be associated with the X-ray source Cyg X-3.

Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Ogelman, H. B.; Ozel, M. E.; Tumer, T.; Lamb, R. C.

1977-01-01

267

33RD INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE, RIO DE JANEIRO 2013 THE ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

33RD INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE, RIO DE JANEIRO 2013 THE ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS CONFERENCE" from space. It will characterize Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) by detecting fluorescent by particles and waves coming from space. JEM-EUSO telescope is designed to detect Extreme-Energy Cosmic Rays

Boyer, Edmond

268

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R. Wild  

E-print Network

Cosmic Ray Related Undergraduate Experiments Roger W. Clay, Ziawuddin Kurban \\Lambda and Neville R for a modest cost. We also describe some related experi­ ments. #12; 1 Introduction Primary cosmic rays presumed to be a high energy neutrino component. All these components of the cosmic ray beam are currently

Adelaide, University of

269

Single particle effects, Biostack, and risk evaluation - Studies on the radiation risk from Galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible health risks posed by Galactic cosmic rays, especially the possible heightened cancer risk, are examined. The results of the Biostack studies of the biological effects of high-energy cosmic rays are discussed. The biological mechanisms involved in possible harm due to cosmic rays are considered.

Curtis, Stanley B.

1993-01-01

270

On the origin of Galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review of theoretical aspects of cosmic ray acceleration and transport in the Galaxy. The model of cosmic ray origin in supernova remnants, the interpretation of Voyager data on low energy cosmic rays, the structure of “knee” in cosmic ray spectrum, and the energy limit of Galactic sources are discussed.

Ptuskin, Vladimir

271

The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) Facility onboard China's Future Space Station  

E-print Network

The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility is one of several space astronomy payloads of the cosmic lighthouse program onboard China's Space Station, which is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. The main scientific objectives of HERD are indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. HERD is composed of a 3-D cubic calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by microstrip silicon trackers (STKs) from five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of about 10$^4$ cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. The top STK microstrips of seven X-Y layers are sandwiched with tungsten converters to make precise directional measurements of incoming electrons and gamma-rays. In the baseline design, each of the four side SKTs is made of only three layers microstrips. All STKs will also be used for measuring the cha...

Zhang, S N

2014-01-01

272

Cosmic rays are on the air Studying the properties of radio signals from cosmic-ray  

E-print Network

Cosmic rays are on the air Studying the properties of radio signals from cosmic-ray induced air showers #12;#12;Cosmic rays are on the air Studying the properties of radio signals from cosmic-ray;#12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Discovery of cosmic rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1

van Suijlekom, Walter

273

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 4041 Long-Term Cosmic Ray Intensities: Physical Reconstruc-  

E-print Network

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 4041 Long-Term Cosmic Ray Intensities: Physical Reconstruc of galactic cosmic rays at the Earth's orbit since 1610. The calculated cosmic ray integral intensity of cosmic ray intensity at 1 AU. The reconstruction is based on a combination of the solar magnetic flux

Usoskin, Ilya G.

274

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

E-print Network

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

2007-06-28

275

Models for cosmic ray interactions  

E-print Network

Contemporary models of hadronic interactions are reviewed. Basic phenomenological approaches are compared, with an emphasizes on the predicted air shower characteristics. Special attention is payed to the remaining discrepancies between present hadronic MC generators and cosmic ray data. Finally, future prospects concerning model improvements are discussed, in particular, regarding the possibilities to discriminate between different models on the basis of accelerator or cosmic ray measurements.

S. Ostapchenko

2006-01-27

276

Discovery of Very-High-Energy Gamma-Rays from the Galactic Centre Ridge  

E-print Network

The origin of Galactic cosmic rays (with energies up to 10^15 eV) remains unclear, though it is widely believed that they originate in the shock waves of expanding supernova remnants. Currently the best way to investigate their acceleration and propagation is by observing the gamma-rays produced when cosmic rays interact with interstellar gas. Here we report observations of an extended region of very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma-ray emission correlated spatially with a complex of giant molecular clouds in the central 200 pc of the Milky Way. The hardness of the gamma-ray spectrum and the conditions in those molecular clouds indicate that the cosmic rays giving rise to the gamma-rays are likely to be protons and nuclei rather than electrons. The energy associated with the cosmic rays could have come from a single supernova explosion around 10,000 years ago.

The H. E. S. S. Collaboration; :; F. A. Aharonian

2006-03-01

277

Anomalous cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) first started showing up in observations 40 years ago. Within a few years a paradigm was developed to explain their origin: they begin their life as interstellar neutral atoms that drift into the heliosphere, become singly ionized by chargeexchange with a solar wind ion or by photoionization, are picked up by the expanding solar wind, and accelerated to the observed energies by diffusive shock acceleration at the solar wind termination shock. This paradigm became widely accepted and withstood the tests of further observations until 16 December 2004, when Voyager 1 crossed the termination shock and didn't find their source. In August 2007, Voyager 2 crossed the termination shock and also did not find the source location of ACRs. Clearly, the source location was not at the termination shock where the two Voyagers crossed. Alternative models have been proposed with acceleration elsewhere on the shock or by other acceleration processes in the heliosheath. We discuss the latest observations of ACRs from the Voyager spacecraft and hopefully shed more light on this ongoing puzzle.

Cummings, Alan C.; Stone, Edward C.

2013-02-01

278

Simulations of High Energy Particle Acceleration During Cosmic Structure Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is strong and growing interest in the properties of relativistic particles, or cosmic-rays, in clusters of galaxies. Those CRs may provide not only unique and vital diagnostic information through their emissions, but may influence cluster formation and dynamics as well as thermal ICM emissions if they constitute a dynamically significant component. We report here on initial results of simulations of cosmic structure formation that include for the first time explicit treatment of the acceleration and transport of CR protons and electrons. The calculations were done using an Eulerian TVD hydro + N-body cosmology code with passive magnetic fields and CRs. The CR treatment includes the effects of diffusive shock acceleration, plus adiabatic, radiative and Coulomb losses. Both protons and electrons are injected at shocks from the thermal plasma using an established model, while additional CR electrons and positrons result from decay of charged pions produced during inelastic collisions between CRs and thermal plasma. The simulations suggest that ``structure'' shocks penetrate into clusters much more commonly than generally assumed, and that they are probably effective CR accelerators capable of producing CR pressures representing a significant fraction of the ICM gas pressure. Using the simulated cluster properties we have computed ``synthetic observations'' of their radio, nonthermal X-ray and ? -ray luminosity and brightness distributions as well as the SZ and Faraday rotation modifications of background radiations penetrating them. This work has been supported in the US by the NSF, NASA and the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute and in Korea by KOSEF.

Jones, T. W.; Miniati, F.; Ryu, D.; Kang, H.

2000-12-01

279

Cosmic Rays and Large Extra Dimensions  

E-print Network

We have proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum "knee", the steepening of the cosmic ray spectrum at energy $E \\gsim 10^{15.5}$ eV, is due to "new physics", namely new interactions at TeV cm energies which produce particles undetected by the experimental apparatus. In this letter we examine specifically the possibility that this interaction is low scale gravity. We consider that the graviton propagates, besides the usual four dimensions, into an additional $\\delta$, compactified, large dimensions and we estimate the graviton production in $p p$ collisions in the high energy approximation where graviton emission is factorized. We find that the cross section for graviton production rises as fast as $(\\sqrt{s}/M_f)^{2+\\delta}$, where $M_f$ is the fundamental scale of gravity in $4+\\delta$ dimensions, and that the distribution of radiating a fraction $y$ of the initial particle's energy into gravitational energy (which goes undetected) behaves as $\\delta y^{\\delta -1}$. The missing energy leads to an underestimate of the true energy and generates a break in the {\\sl inferred} cosmic ray spectrum (the "kne"). By fitting the cosmic ray spectrum data we deduce that the favorite values for the parameters of the theory are $M_f \\sim 8$ TeV and $\\delta =4$.

D. Kazanas; A. Nicolaidis

2001-09-26

280

EXTRAGALACTIC VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND  

SciTech Connect

We study the origin of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background using the data from the Fermi telescope. To estimate the background level, we count photons at high Galactic latitudes |b| > 60 Degree-Sign . Subtracting photons associated with known sources and the residual cosmic-ray and Galactic diffuse backgrounds, we estimate the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) flux. We find that the spectrum of EGB in the very high energy band above 30 GeV follows the stacked spectrum of BL Lac objects. Large Area Telescope data reveal the positive (1 + z) {sup k}, 1 < k < 4 cosmological evolution of the BL Lac source population consistent with that of their parent population, Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies. We show that EGB at E > 30 GeV could be completely explained by emission from unresolved BL Lac objects if k {approx_equal} 3.

Neronov, A. [ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics, Chemin d'Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Semikoz, D. V. [APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

2012-09-20

281

Gamma rays from grazing incidence cosmic rays in the earth's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interactions of grazing incidence, ultra high-energy cosmic rays with the earth's atmosphere may provide a new method of studying energetic cosmic rays with gamma-ray satellites. It is found that these cosmic ray interactions may produce gamma-rays on millisecond timescales which may be detectable by satellites. An extremely low gamma-ray background for transient gamma-ray events and a large area of interaction, the earth's surface, make the scheme plausible. The effective cross section of detection of interactions for cosmic rays above 10(exp 20) eV is found to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than Earth-based detection techniques. This method may eventually offer an efficient way of probing this region of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum where events are scarce. In this paper, a conceptual model is presented for the production of short bursts of gamma-rays based on these grazing incidence encounters with the Earth's atmosphere.

Ulmer, Andrew

1994-01-01

282

Detectors for Cosmic Rays on Ground and in Space  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the cosmic rays has been a great mystery since they were discovered by Victor Hess in 1912. AGASA's observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) possibly beyond the GZK (Greisen, Zatsepin and Kuzmin) cutoff stimulated the field in great deal. In addition, Kamiokande's detection of neutrinos from SN1987A and the H.E.S.S.'s detection of TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants demonstrated the viability of neutrino and TeV gamma-ray astronomy for cosmic-ray research. A new generation of currently-operating or soon-to-be-operating detectors for charged particles, gamma-rays and neutrinos from cosmos will get us even closer to understanding the nature and origin of cosmic rays. Detectors for UHECRs, gamma rays and neutrinos are of particular importance in order to study the origins of cosmic rays since these particles are free from the deflection due to magnetic fields. Detectors for antiparticles and gamma rays would be useful to detect cosmic rays originated from the decay of the dark matter in the Universe. I will review these cosmic-ray detectors with particular attention on the differences of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite-borne detectors.

Tajima, Hiroyasu; /SLAC

2007-09-10

283

Cosmic Ray Electron Science with GLAST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmic ray electrons at high energy carry information about their sources, their definition in local magnetic fields and their interactions with the photon fields through which they travel. The spectrum of the particles is affected by inverse Compton losses and synchrotron losses, the rates of which are proportional to the square of the particle's energy making the spectra very steep. However, GLAST will be able to make unique and very high statistics measurements of electrons from approx. 20 to approx. 700 GeV that will allow us to search for anisotropies in anival direction and spectral features associated with some dark matter candidates. Complementary information on electrons of still higher energy will be required to see effects of possible individual cosmic ray sources.

Ormes, J. F.; Moiseev, Alexander

2007-01-01

284

Quantum Black Holes from Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

We investigate the possibility for cosmic ray experiments to discover non-thermal small black holes with masses in the TeV range. Such black holes would result due to the impact between ultra high energy cosmic rays or neutrinos with nuclei from the upper atmosphere and decay instantaneously. They could be produced copiously if the Planck scale is in the few TeV region. As their masses are close to the Planck scale, these holes would typically decay into two particles emitted back-to-back. Depending on the angles between the emitted particles with respect to the center of mass direction of motion, it is possible for the simultaneous showers to be measured by the detectors.

Xavier Calmet; Lauretiu Ioan Caramete; Octavian Micu

2012-04-11

285

Calculations of cosmic-ray helium transport in shielding materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The transport of galactic cosmic-ray helium nuclei and their secondaries through bulk shielding is considered using the straight-ahead approximation to the Boltzmann equation. A data base for nuclear interaction cross sections and secondary particle energy spectra for high-energy light-ion breakup is presented. The importance of the light ions H-2, H-3, and He-3 for cosmic-ray risk estimation is discussed, and the estimates of the fractional contribution to the neutron flux from helium interactions compared with other particle interactions are presented using a 1977 solar minimum cosmic-ray spectrum.

Cucinotta, Francis A.

1993-01-01

286

Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, cosmological constant, and theta vacua.  

PubMed

We propose that the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff and the origin of small cosmological constant can both be explained by vacuum tunneling effects in a theory with degenerate vacua and fermionic doublets. By considering the possibility of tunneling from a particular winding number state, accompanied by violation of some global quantum number of fermions, the small value of the vacuum dark energy and the production of high energy cosmic rays are shown to be related. We predict that the energy of such cosmic rays should be at least 5x10(14) GeV. PMID:12785938

Jaikumar, Prashanth; Mazumdar, Anupam

2003-05-16

287

Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction  

E-print Network

Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

Blandford, Roger; Yuan, Yajie

2014-01-01

288

Terrestrial Effects of High Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

, resulting in ozone depletion. This increases the flux of solar UVB radiation at the surface, which is potentially harmful to living organisms. Increased ionization affects the global electrical circuit, which could enhance the low-altitude cloud formation...

Atri, Dimitra

2011-04-26

289

High Energy Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We treat high-energy neutrino production in GRBs. Detailed calculations of photomeson neutrino production are presented for the collapsar model, where internal nonthermal synchrotron radiation is the primary target photon field, and the supranova model, where external pulsar-wind synchrotron radiation provides important additional target photons. Detection of > 10 TeV neutrinos from GRBs with Doppler factors > 200, inferred from gamma-ray observations, would support the supranova model. Detection of 3x10^{-4} erg/cm^2 offer a realistic prospect for detection of muon neutrinos.

Dermer, C D; Dermer, Charles D.; Atoyan, Armen

2003-01-01

290

High Energy Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

We treat high-energy neutrino production in GRBs. Detailed calculations of photomeson neutrino production are presented for the collapsar model, where internal nonthermal synchrotron radiation is the primary target photon field, and the supranova model, where external pulsar-wind synchrotron radiation provides important additional target photons. Detection of > 10 TeV neutrinos from GRBs with Doppler factors > 200, inferred from gamma-ray observations, would support the supranova model. Detection of 3x10^{-4} erg/cm^2 offer a realistic prospect for detection of muon neutrinos.

Charles D. Dermer; Armen Atoyan

2003-01-02

291

Cosmic Rays from Cygnus X-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today many investigators adhere to the idea that cosmic rays receive all their energy from discrete sources with interstellar space acting only as a diffusive medium. An object that accelerates particles to cosmic-ray velocities will almost inevitably produce gamma rays as well. Hence, gamma rays are therefore an effective probe of the source of cosmic radiation even though they account

P. Kevin MacKeown; Trevor C. Weekes

1985-01-01

292

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

SciTech Connect

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

2008-01-24

293

Cosmic Rays and Sunspot Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students analyze and compare two or more graphs to determine if there is a correlation between sunspot number and the variation of cosmic ray flux. They discover that cosmic rays are very energetic particles, mostly protons and electrons, that enter the solar system from the depths of interstellar space and that although the Earth's magnetic field partially shields us from these particles, so too does the much more extended solar wind with its own magnetic field. This is a three-part lesson in which students will construct line graphs displaying the cosmic ray flux and sunspot numbers for a period of time, and then determine if there is a correlation. In order to compare these two sets of data, students will need to scale the data in order to visualize the results. Teacher and student notes for the graphing calculator are included.

Higley, Susan

294

The microphysics and macrophysics of cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

This review paper commemorates a century of cosmic ray research, with emphasis on the plasma physics aspects. Cosmic rays comprise only ?10{sup ?9} of interstellar particles by number, but collectively their energy density is about equal to that of the thermal particles. They are confined by the Galactic magnetic field and well scattered by small scale magnetic fluctuations, which couple them to the local rest frame of the thermal fluid. Scattering isotropizes the cosmic rays and allows them to exchange momentum and energy with the background medium. I will review a theory for how the fluctuations which scatter the cosmic rays can be generated by the cosmic rays themselves through a microinstability excited by their streaming. A quasilinear treatment of the cosmic ray–wave interaction then leads to a fluid model of cosmic rays with both advection and diffusion by the background medium and momentum and energy deposition by the cosmic rays. This fluid model admits cosmic ray modified shocks, large scale cosmic ray driven instabilities, cosmic ray heating of the thermal gas, and cosmic ray driven galactic winds. If the fluctuations were extrinsic turbulence driven by some other mechanism, the cosmic ray background coupling would be entirely different. Which picture holds depends largely on the nature of turbulence in the background medium.

Zweibel, Ellen G. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Departments of Astronomy and Physics and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2013-05-15

295

Fun Times with Cosmic Rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Who would have thought cosmic rays could be so hip? Although discovered 90 years ago on death-defying manned balloon flights hip even by twenty-first-century extremesport standards cosmic rays quickly lost popularity as way-cool telescopes were finding way-too-cool phenomena across the electromagnetic spectrum. Yet cosmic rays are back in vogue, boasting their own set of superlatives. Scientists are tracking them down with new resolve from the Arctic to Antarctica and even on the high western plains of Argentina. Theorists, too, now see cosmic rays as harbingers of funky physics. Cosmic rays are atomic and subatomic particles - the fastest moving bits of matter in the universe and the only sample of matter we have from outside the solar system (with the exception of interstellar dust grains). Lower-energy cosmic rays come from the Sun. Mid-energy particles come from stellar explosions - either spewed directly from the star like shrapnel, or perhaps accelerated to nearly the speed of light by shock waves. The highest-energy cosmic rays, whose unequivocal existence remains one of astronomy's greatest mysteries, clock in at a staggering 10(exp 19) to 10(exp 22) electron volts. This is the energy carried in a baseball pitch; seeing as how there are as many atomic particles in a baseball as there are baseballs in the Moon, that s one powerful toss. No simple stellar explosion could produce them. At a recent conference in Albuquerque, scientists presented the first observational evidence of a possible origin for the highest-energy variety. A team led by Elihu Boldt at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center found that five of these very rare cosmic rays (there are only a few dozen confirmed events) come from the direction of four 'retired' quasar host galaxies just above the arm of the Big Dipper, all visible with backyard telescopes: NGC 3610, NGC 3613, NGC 4589, and NGC 5322. These galaxies are billions of years past their glory days as the brightest beacons in the universe. Yet they still harbor central, supermassive black holes, which could generate energetic particles if they are spinning.

Wanjek, Christopher

2003-01-01

296

Scintillator Cosmic Ray Super Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scintillator Cosmic Ray Super Telescope (SciCRST) is a new experiment to detect solar neutrons, and also it is expected to work as a muon and cosmic ray detector. The SciCRST consist of 14,848 plastic scintillator bars, and it will be installed at the top of Sierra Negra volcano, Mexico, 4580 m.a.s.l. We use a prototype, called as miniSciBar, to test the hardware and software of the final experiment. In this paper, we present the status and details of the experiment, and results of the prototype.

González, L. X.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; López, D.; Mitsuka, G.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Yasue, S.; Kosai, M.; Tsurusashi, M.; Nakamo, Y.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Tsuchiya, H.; Watanabe, K.; Koi, T.; Fragoso, E.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.

2013-04-01

297

Neutrinos Associated with Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Construction of the first kilometer-scale neutrino observatory has been completed; IceCube has been fully commissioned and has been taking data since May 2011. Its present performance exceeds expectations in both the neutrino collection area (by a factor 2 ~ 3 depending on energy) and angular resolution. It continues to improve with ongoing refinements in calibration, software tools and our understanding of the optics of the natural ice. IceCube was designed more than a decade ago with the goal of observing the sources of both Galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays with good statistical significance after 5 years. Because the origin of cosmic rays is still unresolved, the exercise is inevitably performed on models. We here revisit three illustrative examples chosen because they are predictive, although with relatively large errors associated with the astrophysics of the sources: Galactic supernova remnants, gamma-ray bursts and GZK neutrinos produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the microwave background. We conclude that the IceCube design, as well as the prospect for observing neutrinos from cosmic-ray sources, have survived the test of time.

Halzen, Francis

2012-02-01

298

Evaluation of Galactic Cosmic Ray Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models of the galactic cosmic ray spectra have been tested by comparing their predictions to an evaluated database containing more than 380 measured cosmic ray spectra extending from 1960 to the present.

Adams, James H., Jr.; Heiblim, Samuel; Malott, Christopher

2009-01-01

299

Effect of re-acceleration on cosmic ray components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reacceleration of cosmic rays in interstellar space has been studied in detail in order to examine the behavior of the ratios of secondary to primary nuclei in cosmic radiation. It is found that modest acceleration in a confinement region, where particles escape more freely at high energies, provides a better fit to the observed data. The effect of reacceleration on the spectral shape of proton and helium components of cosmic rays has been studied. The examination of two different models has shown that reacceleration provides a poor fit to the observed proton data.

Stephens, S. A.; Golden, R. L.

1989-01-01

300

Significance of medium energy gamma ray astronomy in the study of cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medium energy (about 10 to 30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides information on the product of the galactic electron cosmic ray intensity and the galactic matter to which the electrons are dynamically coupled by the magnetic field. Because high energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides analogous information for the nucleonic cosmic rays and the relevant matter, a comparison between high energy and medium energy gamma ray intensities provides a direct ratio of the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons throughout the galaxy. A calculation of gamma ray production by electron bremsstrahlung shows that: bremsstrahlung energy loss is probably not negligible over the lifetime of the electrons in the galaxy; and the approximate bremsstrahlung calculation often used previously overestimates the gamma ray intensity by about a factor of two. As a specific example, expected medium energy gamma ray intensities are calculated for the speral arm model.

Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Cheung, C. Y.

1975-01-01

301

Detectors for Cosmic Rays on Ground and in Space  

E-print Network

The origin of the cosmic rays has been a great mystery since they were discovered by Victor Hess in 1912. AGASA's observation of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECR) possibly beyond the GZK (Greisen, Zatsepin and Kuzmin) cutoff stimulated the field in great deal. In addition, Kamiokande's detection of neutrinos from SN1987A and the H.E.S.S.'s detection of TeV gamma-rays from supernova remnants demonstrated the viability of neutrino and TeV gamma-ray astronomy for cosmic-ray research. A new generation of currently-operating or soon-to-be-operating detectors for charged particles, gamma-rays and neutrinos from cosmos will get us even closer to understanding the nature and origin of cosmic rays. Detectors for UHECRs, gamma rays and neutrinos are of particular importance in order to study the origins of cosmic rays since these particles are free from the deflection due to magnetic fields. Detectors for antiparticles and gamma rays would be useful to detect cosmic rays originated from the decay of the dark matter...

Tajima, Hiroyasu

2007-01-01

302

Frontiers of Cosmic Ray Science 205 Long-Term Variations of Cosmic Rays and Terrestrial  

E-print Network

Frontiers of Cosmic Ray Science 205 Long-Term Variations of Cosmic Rays and Terrestrial Environmentth International Cosmic Ray Conference (August 2003, Tsukuba, Japan): SH 3.4 "Long-term variations," SH 3.5 "Long-term variation of cosmic rays studied by cosmogenic nuclides," SH 3.6 "Terrestrial

Usoskin, Ilya G.

303

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 3473 REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD)  

E-print Network

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 3473 REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD) Valery Kozlov, Moscow region, Russia. Abstract In this paper we present a first distributed REal-time COsmic Ray methods. The database contains not only original cosmic ray data but also auxiliary data necessary

Usoskin, Ilya G.

304

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Numerical Model of Cosmic Ray Induced Ionization in the Atmosphere  

E-print Network

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Numerical Model of Cosmic Ray Induced Ionization.usoskin@oulu.fi Abstract: We present a full numerical model to calculate cosmic ray induced ionization in the at- mosphere practical applications are discussed. Introduction Energetic galactic cosmic rays (CR) form an im- portant

Usoskin, Ilya G.

305

An Absence of Neutrinos Associated with Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-print Network

Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been proposed as a leading candidate for acceleration of ultra high-energy cosmic rays, which would be accompanied by emission of TeV neutrinos produced in proton-photon interactions during acceleration in the GRB fireball. Two analyses using data from two years of the IceCube detector produced no evidence for this neutrino emission, placing strong constraints on models of neutrino and cosmic-ray production in these sources.

Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Besson, D Bertrand D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carson, M; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Degner, T; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegĺrd, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, B; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hül?, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, M W E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Stüer, M; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

2012-01-01

306

The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

2008-01-01

307

Cosmic-Ray Neutron Demography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium spatial and energy distribution is calculated for neutrons made in the earth's atmosphere by cosmic rays. The neutron current leaking into space is found, and the density of neutron decays in the vicinity of the earth is computed for a future determination of importance as a source for the Van Allen belts. The spectrum and the leakage current

W. N. Hess; E. H. Canfield; R. E. Lingenfelter

1961-01-01

308

Cosmic-ray driven winds  

E-print Network

The theory of Galactic Winds, driven by the cosmic-ray pressure gradient, is reviewed both on the magnetohydrodynamic and on the kinetic level. In this picture the magnetic field of the Galaxy above the dense gas disk is assumed to have a flux tube geometry, the flux tubes rising locally perpendicular out of the disk to become radially directed at large distances, with the cosmic-ray sources located deep within the Galactic disk. At least above the gas disk, the magnetic fluctuations which resonantly scatter the cosmic rays are selfconsistently excited as Alf{`e}n waves by the escaping cosmic rays. The fluctuation amplitudes remain finite through nonlinear wave dissipation. The spatially increasing speed of the resulting outflow results in a diffusion-convection boundary whose position depends on particle momentum. It replaces the escape boundary of static diffusion models. New effects like overall Galactic mass and angular momentum loss as well as gas heating beyond the disk appear. Also particle re-accelera...

Völk, Heinrich J

2014-01-01

309

Measurements of Cosmic Ray Antiprotons with  

E-print Network

Measurements of Cosmic Ray Antiprotons with PAMELA JUAN WU ]-1 Deflection [(GV/c) -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 Thesis Measurements of Cosmic Ray Antiprotons with PAMELA Juan Wu Particle and Astroparticle Physics;Cover illustration: The energy release of cosmic rays in the PAMELA tracker sys- tem. Akademisk

Haviland, David

310

Galactic cosmic rays M.-B. Kallenrode  

E-print Network

Galactic cosmic rays M.-B. Kallenrode University of L¨uneburg, 21332 L¨uneburg, Germany Camera.: ??? First author: Kallenrode 1 Galactic cosmic rays M.-B. Kallenrode University of L¨uneburg, 21332 L¨uneburg, Germany This presentation gives a brief review of galactic cosmic rays. It starts with observations made

Steinhoff, Heinz-JĂźrgen

311

Modulation and diffusion theory of cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers given on the modulation of galactic cosmic rays by the solar wind at the 14th International Cosmic Ray Conference are reviewed. Some of the topics treated in this review are Pioneer and Helios radial gradient measurement, heliolatitude effects in modulation models, diffusion (scattering) theory - including pitch angle diffusion diagrams - solar flare particle transport theory and cosmic ray fluctuations at neutron monitor energies.

Forman, M. A.

1975-01-01

312

Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed here is research in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics at the Space Radiation Laboratory (SRL) of the California Institute of Technology. The primary activities discussed involve the development of new instrumentation and techniques for future space flight. In many cases these instrumentation developments were tested in balloon flight instruments designed to conduct new investigations in cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics. The results of these investigations are briefly summarized. Specific topics include a quantitative investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei, a study of cosmic ray positron and electron spectra in interplanetary and interstellar space, the solar modulation of cosmic rays, an investigation of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of cosmic ray isotopic abundances, and a balloon measurement of the isotopic composition of galactic cosmic ray boron, carbon, and nitrogen.

Stone, Edward C.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Prince, Thomas A.

1992-01-01

313

Diffuse High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission in the Outer Galaxy: The Cepheus Flare and the Perseus Arm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations with the EGRET gamma-ray telescope on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory have been used to study the high-energy gamma rays produced in cosmic ray interactions in interstellar gas on the Galactic longitude range l = 100-130deg . This range contains the Cepheus flare and the related Polaris flare of molecular gas, both within ~ 250 pc of the Sun,

S. W. Digel; I. A. Grenier; A. Heithausen; S. D. Hunter; P. Thaddeus

1994-01-01

314

33RD INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE, RIO DE JANEIRO 2013 THE ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS CONFERENCE  

E-print Network

33RD INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE, RIO DE JANEIRO 2013 THE ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS CONFERENCE simulation. Keywords: Ultra high-energy cosmic rays, air fluorescence technique, JEM-EUSO collaboration 1 a good estimation of the energy of the primary cos- mic ray particle. The electromagnetic energy

Boyer, Edmond

315

Search for AntiparticleSearch for Antiparticle in Cosmic Raysin Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

Search for AntiparticleSearch for Antiparticle in Cosmic Raysin Cosmic Rays with BESSwith BESS ¡University of Denver J. Ormes, N. Thakur #12;CosmicCosmic--Ray Antiproton ChronologyRay Antiproton ChronologySearch for Primordial Antiparticles in CosmicAntiparticles in Cosmic RaysRays Primary origins relatively enhanced at

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

316

Cosmic x ray physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

1992-01-01

317

Cosmic-Ray Signatures of Dark Matter Decay  

E-print Network

In light of recent observations of an anomalous excess of high-energy positrons and electrons by the PAMELA and Fermi LAT experiments, we investigate exotic cosmic-ray signatures in scenarios with unstable dark matter that decays with an extremely long lifetime. We identify decay modes capable of explaining the observed anomalies and mention constraints arising from measurements of antiprotons and gamma rays. We also discuss complementary tests by measurements of anisotropies in diffuse gamma rays which should be accessible to Fermi.

David Tran

2009-11-12

318

Inelasticity in Proton-Air Collisions from Cosmic Ray Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total inelasticity in proton-air collisions has been estimated from cosmic ray extensive air shower data using the Bellandi et al formula at an energy equal to Tevatron collider experiment. The result obtained in the present approach is compared with the prediction of different theoretical models of high energy interactions developed on the basis of accelerator results.

Bhadra, A.

319

Cosmic Rays and Gamma Ray Bursts From Microblazars  

E-print Network

Highly relativistic jets from merger and accretion induced collapse of compact stellar objects, which may produce the cosmological gamma ray bursts (GRBs), are also very efficient and powerful cosmic ray accelerators. The expected luminosity, energy spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays from Galactic GRBs, most of which do not point in our direction, can explain the observed properties of Galactic cosmic rays.

Arnon Dar

1998-09-13

320

Gamma-ray Astronomy and Cosmic-ray Origin Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assumption that cosmic rays originate from metagalactic sources is investigated. Gamma ray astronomy and its application to studying nuclear components of cosmic rays far from the earth, estimating energy density of cosmic rays, and determining magnetic field strength is also examined.

Ginzburg, V. L.

1973-01-01

321

Heliospheric Physics and Cosmic Rays Lecture notes  

E-print Network

since it was similar for day and night time. The term "cosmic radiation" became common761656S . Heliospheric Physics and Cosmic Rays . Lecture notes Fall term 2003 Prepared by Kalevi This is the second time that a course under the title "Heliospheric Physics and Cosmic Rays" is lectured

Usoskin, Ilya G.

322

Cosmic Ray research in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic Ray research on Mt. Aragats began in 1934 with the measurements of East-West anisotropy by the group from Leningrad Physics-Technical Institute and Norair Kocharian from Yerevan State University. Stimulated by the results of their experiments in 1942 Artem and Abraham Alikhanyan brothers organized a scientific expedition to Aragats. Since that time physicists were studying Cosmic Ray fluxes on Mt. Aragats with various particle detectors: mass spectrometers, calorimeters, transition radiation detectors, and huge particle detector arrays detecting protons and nuclei accelerated in most violent explosions in Galaxy. Latest activities at Mt. Aragats include Space Weather research with networks of particle detectors located in Armenia and abroad, and detectors of Space Education center in Yerevan.

Chilingarian, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Zazyan, M.

2009-11-01

323

Cosmic Rays from Nova Herculis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE appearance of a new star in the constellation of Hercules is of considerable interest not only for the astronomer but also for the physicist. W. Baade and F. Zwicky1 recently advanced tentatively the hypothesis that cosmic rays are produced in the outburst of super-novć. The few communications2 on Nova Herculis do not show-so far as they are accessible to

Victor F. Hess; Rudolf Steinmaurer

1935-01-01

324

PREFACE: Cosmic Ray Anisotropy Workshop 2013 (CRA2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the search for the origin of cosmic rays in our galaxy, various observations are combined as pieces of a complex puzzle to account for the variability of the galactic sources and their local environments, as well as of the properties of the interstellar medium in which cosmic particles propagate. In this puzzle, multi-wavelength observations aim to pinpoint the properties of cosmic-ray sources, based on electromagnetic and neutrino emissions associated with hadronic acceleration processes. The detailed study of the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays on Earth, on the other hand, aims to probe the combined and interwoven effects of injection, by acceleration processes, and propagation in the interstellar medium. The observation of arrival directions of cosmic rays on Earth, in addition, potentially provides valuable information on the distribution of the closest and more recent active galactic sources as well as on the properties of the local interstellar magnetic field. The quasi-isotropic distribution of galactic cosmic rays tells the global story of their journey from their sources. The turbulent magnetized galactic medium sufficiently scrambles the arrival directions of cosmic rays on Earth so that their main injection direction is concealed. On the other hand, the observations of a small but significant energy-dependent anisotropy are starting to provide clues on how cosmic rays propagate throughout the local interstellar medium. Anisotropy observations have been used to study diffusion properties of GeV cosmic rays inside the termination shock of the heliosphere and their dependencies on solar cycles. At TeV energy, cosmic rays are sensitive to larger-scale magnetic structures, such as the turbulent boundary between the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium or its elongated tail. At higher energy, it is expected that the interstellar magnetic field within the particle mean free path has major contributions to their arrival directions on Earth. In this workshop, we addressed the potential use of high-energy cosmic-ray anisotropy observations as a probe into the properties of particle transport in astrophysical magnetized plasmas, such as the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium. Along with experts from the fields of astronomy, astrophysics, plasma physics, heliospheric physics and interstellar medium, we discussed how each field can contribute to the understanding of cosmic-ray propagation in our local interstellar magnetic field. This will represent another piece in the search for cosmic-ray sources in the galaxy.

2014-08-01

325

Lithium-6 and Gamma Rays: Complementary Constraints on Cosmic-Ray History  

E-print Network

The rare isotope 6Li is made only by cosmic rays, dominantly in alpha+alpha fusion reactions with ISM helium. Consequently, this nuclide provides a unique diagnostic of the history of cosmic rays in our Galaxy. The same hadronic cosmic-ray interactions also produce high-energy gamma rays (mostly via neutral pion production). Thus, hadronic gamma-rays and 6Li are intimately linked. Specifically, 6Li directly encodes the local cosmic-ray fluence over cosmic time, while extragalactic hadronic gamma rays encode an average cosmic-ray fluence over lines of sight out to the horizon. We examine this link and show how 6Li and gamma-rays can be used together to place important model-independent limits on the cosmic-ray history of our Galaxy and the universe. We first constrain gamma-ray production from ordinary Galactic cosmic rays, using the local 6Li abundance. We find that the solar 6Li abundance demands an accompanying extragalactic pionic gamma-ray intensity which exceeds that of the entire observed EGRB by a factor of 2-6. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are discussed. We then constrain Li production using recent determinations of extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB). We note that cosmic rays created during cosmic structure formation would lead to pre-Galactic Li production, which would act as a "contaminant" to the primordial 7Li content of metal-poor halo stars. We find the uncertainties in the observed EGRB are so large that we cannot exclude a pre-Galactic Li which is comparable to primordial 7Li. Our limits and their more model-dependent extensions will improve significantly with additional observations of 6Li in halo stars, and with improved measurements of the EGRB spectrum by GLAST. (Abriged abstract)

Brian D. Fields; Tijana Prodanovic

2004-07-15

326

Astrophysical Origins of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

In the first part of this review we discuss the basic observational features at the end of the cosmic ray energy spectrum. We also present there the main characteristics of each of the experiments involved in the detection of these particles. We then briefly discuss the status of the chemical composition and the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays. After that, we examine the energy losses during propagation, introducing the Greisen-Zaptsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff, and discuss the level of confidence with which each experiment have detected particles beyond the GZK energy limit. In the second part of the review, we discuss astrophysical environments able to accelerate particles up to such high energies, including active galactic nuclei, large scale galactic wind termination shocks, relativistic jets and hot-spots of Fanaroff-Riley radiogalaxies, pulsars, magnetars, quasar remnants, starbursts, colliding galaxies, and gamma ray burst fireballs. In the third part of the review we provide a brief summary of scenarios which try to explain the super-GZK events with the help of new physics beyond the standard model. In the last section, we give an overview on neutrino telescopes and existing limits on the energy spectrum and discuss some of the prospects for a new (multi-particle) astronomy. Finally, we outline how extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be used to probe new physics beyond the electroweak scale.

Diego F. Torres; Luis A. Anchordoqui

2004-02-16

327

Origin and propagation of galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of systematic trends in elemental abundances is important for unfolding the nuclear and/or atomic effects that should govern the shaping of source abundances and in constraining the parameters of cosmic ray acceleration models. In principle, much can be learned about the large-scale distributions of cosmic rays in the galaxy from all-sky gamma ray surveys such as COS-B and SAS-2. Because of the uncertainties in the matter distribution which come from the inability to measure the abundance of molecular hydrogen, the results are somewhat controversial. The leaky-box model accounts for a surprising amount of the data on heavy nuclei. However, a growing body of data indicates that the simple picture may have to be abandoned in favor of more complex models which contain additional parameters. Future experiments on the Spacelab and space station will hopefully be made of the spectra of individual nuclei at high energy. Antiprotons must be studied in the background free environment above the atmosphere with much higher reliability and presion to obtain spectral information.

Cesarsky, Catherine J.; Ormes, Jonathan F.

1987-01-01

328

Gamma rays, cosmic rays and galactic structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Working primarily from the recent SAS-2 observations of galactic gamma rays, the relation of these observations to the large scale distribution of cosmic rays and interstellar gas in the galaxy is reviewed and reexamined. Starting with a discussion of production rates, the case for pion decay being the predominant production mechanism in the galactic disk above 100 MeV is reestablished and it is also pointed out that Compton gamma rays can be a significant source. To facilitate discussion, the concepts of four distinct galactic regions are defined, viz. the nebulodisk, ectodisk, radiodisk and exodisk. Bremsstrahlung and pion decay gamma rays are associated with the first two (primarily the first) regions, and Compton gamma rays and synchrotron radiation are associated with the latter two regions. On a large scale, the cosmic rays, interstellar gas (primarily H2 clouds in the inner galaxy) and gamma ray emissivity all peak in a region between 5 and 6 kpc from the galactic center. This correlation is related to correlation with other population I phenomena and is discussed in terms of the density wave concept of galactic structure. The singular nature of the HI distribution appears to follow the supernova remnant and pulsar distributions in the galaxy.

Stecker, F. W.

1976-01-01

329

Cosmic Ray "Knee": A Herald of New Physics?  

E-print Network

We propose that the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum at energies E ~ 10^{15.5} eV is due to "new physics", namely to a channel in the high energy (~ TeV in the CM) proton interactions hitherto unaccounted for in estimating the energies of the air shower cosmic rays. The new interaction transfers part of the primary particle's energy to modes which do not trigger the experimental arragement (neutrinos, lightest supersymmetric particle, gravitons) thus underestimating its true energy. We show that this underestimate leads naturally to the observed break (the "knee") in the inferred cosmic ray spectrum. The suggestion we advance fits nicely to current theoretical extensions of the Standard Model (supersymmetry, technicolor, low scale gravity) where new physics at the TeV scale manifests with the distinct signature of missing energy. We present a simple model where the new physics proceeds via gluon fusion and assuming a single power law for the galactic (E ~ 10^{18.5} eV) cosmic ray spectrum, we produce a good fit to the data in the 10^{14}-10^{18.5} eV range. Our proposal should be testable in laboratory experiments (LHC) in the near future and, should it be proven correct, it would signal besides the presence of new physics in high energy interactions, a drastically different interpretation of the sources and acceleration of cosmic rays.

D. Kazanas; A. Nicolaidis

2001-03-09

330

On the e$^+$e$^-$ excesses and the knee of the cosmic ray spectra -- hints of cosmic rays acceleration at young supernova remnants  

E-print Network

Supernova remnants have long been regarded as sources of the Galactic cosmic rays up to petaelectronvolts, but convincing evidence is still lacking. In this work we explore the common origin of the subtle features of the cosmic ray spectra, such as the knee of cosmic ray spectra and the excesses of electron/positron fluxes recently observed by ATIC, H.E.S.S., Fermi-LAT and PAMELA. Numerical calculation shows that those features of cosmic ray spectra can be well reproduced in a scenario with e$^+$e$^-$ pair production by interactions between high energy cosmic rays and background photons in an environment similar to the young supernova remnant. The success of such a coherent explanation serves in turn as an evidence that at least a portion of cosmic rays might be accelerated at young supernova remnants.

Hong-Bo Hu; Qiang Yuan; Bo Wang; Chao Fan; Jian-Li Zhang; Xiao-Jun Bi

2009-01-12

331

Energetic Neutrons, Protons, and Gamma Rays during the 1990 May 24 Solar Cosmic-Ray Event  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar cosmic-ray event on 1990 May 24 can be divided into three phases: a first impulsive production of gamma -rays and greater than 200 MeV neutrons; a second slower phase during which there were high-energy protons at the Sun for ~20 minutes producing pions and high-energy neutrons; and a third phase when the protons observed by the IMP 8

H. Debrunner; J. A. Lockwood; C. Barat; R. Buetikofer; J. P. Dezalay; E. Flueckiger; A. Kuznetsov; J. M. Ryan; R. Sunyaev; O. V. Terekhov; G. Trottet; N. Vilmer

1997-01-01

332

An absence of neutrinos associated with cosmic-ray acceleration in ?-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very energetic astrophysical events are required to accelerate cosmic rays to above 1018electronvolts. GRBs (?-ray bursts) have been proposed as possible candidate sources. In the GRB `fireball' model, cosmic-ray acceleration should be accompanied by neutrinos produced in the decay of charged pions created in interactions between the high-energy cosmic-ray protons and ?-rays. Previous searches for such neutrinos found none, but the constraints were weak because the sensitivity was at best approximately equal to the predicted flux. Here we report an upper limit on the flux of energetic neutrinos associated with GRBs that is at least a factor of 3.7 below the predictions. This implies either that GRBs are not the only sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 1018electronvolts or that the efficiency of neutrino production is much lower than has been predicted.

Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carson, M.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Degner, T.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegĺrd, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, B.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hül?, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, M. W. E.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Stüer, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

2012-04-01

333

An Optimization of the FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

1 An Optimization of the FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays Zbigniew emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays are designed for a detailed signals from air showers are caused by the coherent emission due to geomagnetic radiation and charge

334

Isotopic composition of primary cosmic rays H-Fe for ISEE-C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high energy cosmic ray instrument built for the International Sun-Earth Explorer is described. Some aspects of that system are critically renewed so that the experience gained in the design, construction and operation of this experiment can serve as a guide in designing future cosmic ray particle identification systems.

Heckman, H. H.

1984-01-01

335

Detection of cosmic ray tracks using scintillating fibers and position sensitive multi-anode photomultipliers  

SciTech Connect

This experiment demonstrates detection of cosmic ray tracks by using Scintillating fiber planes and multi-anode photomultipliers (MA-PMTs). In a laboratory like this, cosmic rays provide a natural source of high-energy charged particles which can be detected with high efficiency and with nanosecond time resolution.

Atac, M.; Streets, J.; Wilcer, N.

1998-02-01

336

Acceleration of ULtra High Energy Cosmic Rays: Cosmic Zevatrons?  

E-print Network

In this lecture I outline some of the underlying physics issues associated with accelerators plausibly capable of explaining the UHECRs up to ZeV energies. I concentrate on the concentrate on mechanisms and their constraints, but provide a brief background on on observations and the constraints they supply, as well.

T. W. Jones

2002-10-21

337

Cosmogenic gamma rays and the composition of cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the prospects of detecting the sources of ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) nuclei via their emission of cosmogenic {gamma} rays in the GeV to TeV energy range. These {gamma} rays result from electromagnetic cascades initiated by high energy photons, electrons, and positrons that are emitted by CRs during their propagation in the cosmic radiation background and are independent of the simultaneous emission of {gamma} rays in the vicinity of the source. The corresponding production power by UHE CR nuclei (with mass number A and charge Z) is dominated by pion photo production ({proportional_to}A) and Bethe-Heitler pair production ({proportional_to}Z{sup 2}). We show that the cosmogenic {gamma}-ray signal from a single steady UHE CR source is typically more robust with respect to variations of the source composition and injection spectrum than the accompanying signal of cosmogenic neutrinos. We study the diffuse emission from the sum of extragalactic CR sources as well as the point-source emission of the closest sources.

Ahlers, Markus [C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Salvado, Jordi [Departament d'Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, 647 Diagonal, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2011-10-15

338

A Simple Cosmic Ray Muon Detector At High Cutoff Rigidity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small cosmic ray detector (area of 0.5 m2),using plastic scintillator, was constructed and being in operation in Riyadh (Rc=13 GeV) since September 2013. The objective of this detector is to study high energy cosmic ray muons on different time scales and investigate their correlations with environmental parameters. In this study, the technical aspects, the construction works of the system, and some of the calibration procedures will be briefly given. Preliminarily results obtained by the detector will be summarized. This includes the observations of three Forbush decreases occurred during the study period.

Maghrabi, Abdullrahman; Alghamdi, Abdulrahman S.; Almoteri, MR. M.; Rakan Alotaibi, MR.; Garawi, M. S. Al

339

Study of cosmic ray semidiurnal variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of long-term registration of cosmic rays with the muon spectrograph at Yakutsk (62°01'N, 129°43'E) and multidirectional muon telescope at Nagoya (35°10'N, 136°58'E) the cosmic ray semidiurnal variation seasonal change and the change of cosmic ray semiduirnal variation with the solar activity level has been found. The modeling of the seasonal change has been made.

Krymsky, G. F.; Krivoshapkin, P. A.; Gerasimova, S. K.; Gololobov, P. Yu

2013-02-01

340

Cloud chamber visualization of primary cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

From 1948 until 1963, cloud chambers were carried to the top of the atmosphere by balloons. From these flights, which were begun by Edward P. Ney at the University of Minnesota, came the following results: discovery of heavy cosmic ray nuclei, development of scintillation and cherenkov detectors, discovery of cosmic ray electrons, and studies of solar proton events. The history of that era is illustrated here by cloud chamber photographs of primary cosmic rays.

Earl, James A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park MD (United States)

2013-02-07

341

Cosmic Rays 8.1 Composition and energy distribution  

E-print Network

Chapter 8 Cosmic Rays 8.1 Composition and energy distribution Cosmic rays can be broadly defined, and exotics (WIMPS, axions,...) striking the earth. The primary cosmic rays are those entering the upper atmosphere, the cosmic rays of the interstellar medium. Secondary cosmic rays are those produced

Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

342

A hysteresis effect in cosmic ray modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rigidity dependence is investigated in the modulation of cosmic ray protons and alphas at intermediate (2-13 Gv) rigidities during the declines and recoveries of the cosmic ray flux near cosmic ray minimum. The results include the finding that sudden changes in the modulation of the primary cosmic rays are initiated by large solar particle outflow and begin as type I Forbush decreases. Typically, the modulation spectrum becomes flatter at intermediate rigidity below 13 Gv and steeper at rigidities above 13 Gv during early recovery.

Verschell, H. J.; Mendell, R. B.; Korff, S. A.

1974-01-01

343

The isotopic composition of cosmic-ray beryllium and its implication for the cosmic ray's age  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a new measurement of the cosmic-ray isotopic composition of beryllium in the low-energy range from 35 to 113 MeV per nucleon. This measurement was made using the High Energy Telescope of the CRS experiment on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft during the time period from 1977 to 1991. In this overall time period of 14 years the average solar modulation level was about 500 MV. The cosmic-ray beryllium isotopes were completely separated with an average mass resolution sigma of 0.185 amu. The isotope fractions of Be-7, Be-9, and Be-10 obtained are 52.4 +/- 2.9%, 43.3 +/- 3.7%, and 4.3 +/- 1.5%, respectively. The measured cosmic-ray abundances of Be-7 and Be-9 are found to be in agreement with calculations based on standard Leaky-Box model for the interstellar propagation of cosmic-ray nuclei using the recent cross sections of the New Mexico-Saclay collaboration. From our observed ratio Be-10/Be = 4.3 +/- 1.5% we deduce an average interstellar density of about 0.28 (+0.14, -0.11) atoms/cu cm, and acosmic-ray lifetime for escape of 27 (+19, -9) x 10(exp 6) years. The surviving fraction of Be-10 is found to be 0.19 +/- 0.07. Modifications to the conclusions of the Leaky-Box model when a diffusion + convection halo model for propagation is used are also considered.

Lukasiak, A.; Ferrando, P.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Webber, W. R.

1994-01-01

344

10, 10971125, 2013 The COsmic-ray Soil  

E-print Network

HESSD 10, 1097­1125, 2013 The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) J. Shuttleworth et. The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) for use in data assimilation J. Shuttleworth1,2 , R­1125, 2013 The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) J. Shuttleworth et al. Title Page Abstract

Zreda, Marek

345

Cosmic Rays: The Second Knee and Beyond  

E-print Network

We conduct a review of experimental results on Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's) including measurements of the features of the spectrum, the composition of the primary particle flux and the search for anisotropy in event arrival direction. We find that while there is a general consensus on the features in the spectrum -- the Second Knee, the Ankle, and (to a lesser extent) the GZK Cutoff -- there is little consensus on the composition of the primaries that accompany these features. This lack of consensus on the composition makes interpretation of the agreed upon features problematic. There is also little direct evidence about potential sources of UHECRs, as early reports of arrival direction anisotropies have not been confirmed in independent measurements.

Douglas R Bergman; John W. Belz

2007-04-27

346

On the interaction of high-energy cosmic leptons with neutralino dark matter  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of neutralino cold dark matter with cosmic-ray electrons is considered in terms of the supersymmetric Standard Model. The production of heavy supersymmetric particles in collisions and their decay are shown to give rise to leptons and neutrinos with certain energies and to relativistic neutralinos. The possibility of detecting dark matter through its interaction with cosmic rays is discussed.

Flanchik, A. B., E-mail: alex.svs.fl@gmail.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Radio Astronomy Institute (Ukraine)

2011-12-15

347

Cosmic ray diffusion: Report of the Workshop in Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop in cosmic ray diffusion theory was held at Goddard Space Flight Center on May 16-17, 1974. Topics discussed and summarized are: (1) cosmic ray measurements as related to diffusion theory; (2) quasi-linear theory, nonlinear theory, and computer simulation of cosmic ray pitch-angle diffusion; and (3) magnetic field fluctuation measurements as related to diffusion theory.

Birmingham, T. J.; Jones, F. C.

1975-01-01

348

Gamma rays from clusters and groups of galaxies: Cosmic rays versus dark matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clusters of galaxies have not yet been detected at gamma-ray frequencies; however, the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly known as GLAST, could provide the first detections in the near future. Clusters are expected to emit gamma rays as a result of (1) a population of high-energy cosmic rays fueled by accretion, merger shocks, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae,

Tesla E. Jeltema; John Kehayias; Stefano Profumo

2009-01-01

349

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Cosmic-ray helium intensities over the solar cycle from ACE  

E-print Network

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Cosmic-ray helium intensities over the solar cycle from@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov Abstract: Observations of cosmic-ray helium energy spectra provide important constraints on cosmic ray for understanding how solar modulation affects galactic cosmic ray intensities and for separating the con

Moskalenko, Igor V.

350

Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. Conference Papers: Invited Rapporteur, Highlight, Miscellaneous, Volume 9  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Invited talks, rapporteur talks, and highlight talks are included. Topics of the invited and highlight talks include astrophysical jets, gamma-ray line astronomy, cosmic rays and gamma rays in astrophysics, the early universe, elementary particle physics, solar flares and acceleration of energetic particles, cosmogenic nuclei, extragalactic astronomy, composition of solar flare particles, very high energy gamma ray sources, gamma-ray bursts, shock acceleration in the solar wind, cosmic rays in deep underground detectors, spectrum of cosmic rays at 10 to the 19th power eV, and nucleus-nucleus interactions.

Jones, F. C. (compiler)

1986-01-01

351

Cosmic rays and terrestrial life: A brief review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“The investigation into the possible effects of cosmic rays on living organisms will also offer great interest.” - Victor F. Hess, Nobel Lecture, December 12, 1936 High-energy radiation bursts are commonplace in our Universe. From nearby solar flares to distant gamma ray bursts, a variety of physical processes accelerate charged particles to a wide range of energies, which subsequently reach the Earth. Such particles contribute to a number of physical processes occurring in the Earth system. A large fraction of the energy of charged particles gets deposited in the atmosphere, ionizing it, causing changes in its chemistry and affecting the global electric circuit. Remaining secondary particles contribute to the background dose of cosmic rays on the surface and parts of the subsurface region. Life has evolved over the past ?3 billion years in presence of this background radiation, which itself has varied considerably during the period [1-3]. As demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment, lightning plays a very important role in the formation of complex organic molecules, which are the building blocks of more complex structures forming life. There is growing evidence of increase in the lightning rate with increasing flux of charged particles. Is there a connection between enhanced rate of cosmic rays and the origin of life? Cosmic ray secondaries are also known to damage DNA and cause mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. It is now possible to compute radiation doses from secondary particles, in particular muons and neutrons. Have the variations in cosmic ray flux affected the evolution of life on earth? We describe the mechanisms of cosmic rays affecting terrestrial life and review the potential implications of the variation of high-energy astrophysical radiation on the history of life on earth.

Atri, Dimitra; Melott, Adrian L.

2014-01-01

352

Lunar monitoring outpost of cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic purpose of the planned NEUTRONIUM-100 experiment considers expansion of the direct measurements of cosmic rays spectra and anisotropy to the energy range of ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. These measurements will make it possible to solve the problem of the “knee” of the spectrum and to make choice between the existing models of the cosmic rays origin and propagation. The proposed innovative method of energy measurements is based on the simultaneous detection of different components of back scattered radiation generated by showers produced by the primary particle in the regolyth (neutrons, gamma rays and radio waves). A multi-module system disposed on the Moon's surface is proposed for particles registration. Each module consists of a radio antenna, contiguous to the regolyth, scintillation detectors with gadolinium admixture and silicon charge detectors. Scintillation detectors record electrons and gamma-rays of back scattered radiation and delayed neutrons. The area of the experimental facility will be at least ~100 m2, suitable for upgrading. Average density of the detecting equipment is evaluated as 10-20 g/m2. Taking into account the weight of the equipment delivered from the Earth will be about 10 tons it is possible to compose an eqperimental facility with geometric factor of 150-300 m2sr. The Moon provides unique conditions for this experiment due to presence of the absorbing material and absence of atmosphere. The experiment will allow expansion of the measurements up to ~1017 eV with element-by-element resolution of the nuclear component. Currently direct measurements reach energy range of up to ~1015 eV, and Auger shower method does not provide information about the primary particle's charge. It is expected that ~15 particles with energy >1017 eV will be detected by the proposed experimental equipment per year. It will provide an opportunity to solve the problems of the current high-energy astrophysics.

Panasyuk, Mikhail; Kalmykov, Nikolai; Turundaevskiy, Andrey; Chubenko, Alexander; Podorozhny, Dmitry; Mukhamedshin, Rauf; Sveshnikova, Lubov; Tkachev, Leonid; Konstantinov, Andrey

353

IceCube and the Discovery of High-Energy Cosmic Neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IceCube project has transformed one cubic kilometer of natural Antarctic ice into a neutrino detector. The instrument detects 100,000 neutrinos per year in the GeV to PeV energy range. Among those, we have recently isolated a flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. I will discuss the instrument, the analysis of the data, and the significance of the discovery of cosmic neutrinos.

Halzen, Francis

2014-08-01

354

Cosmic Rays and the Search for a Lorentz Invariance Violation  

E-print Network

This is an introductory review about the on-going search for a signal of Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) in cosmic rays. We first summarise basic aspects of cosmic rays, focusing on rays of ultra high energy (UHECRs). We discuss the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) energy cutoff for cosmic protons, which is predicted due to photopion production in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). This is a process of modest energy in the proton rest frame. It can be investigated to a high precision in the laboratory, if Lorentz transformations apply even at factors $\\gamma \\sim O(10^{11})$. For heavier nuclei the energy attenuation is even faster due to photo-disintegration, again if this process is Lorentz invariant. Hence the viability of Lorentz symmetry up to tremendous gamma-factors - far beyond accelerator tests - is a central issue. Next we comment on conceptual aspects of Lorentz Invariance and the possibility of its spontaneous breaking. This could lead to slightly particle dependent ``Maximal Attainable Velocities''. We discuss their effect in decays, Cerenkov radiation, the GZK cutoff and neutrino oscillation in cosmic rays. We also review the search for LIV in cosmic gamma-rays. For multi TeV gamma-rays we possibly encounter another puzzle related to the transparency of the CMB, similar to the GZK cutoff. The photons emitted in a Gamma Ray Burst occur at lower energies, but their very long path provides access to information not far from the Planck scale. No LIV has been observed so far. However, even extremely tiny LIV effects could change the predictions for cosmic ray physics drastically. An Appendix is devoted to the recent hypothesis by the Pierre Auger Collaboration, which identifies nearby Active Galactic Nuclei - or objects next to them - as probable UHECR sources.

Wolfgang Bietenholz

2008-06-23

355

Low Cloud Properties Influenced by Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of solar variability on climate is currently uncertain. Recent observations have indicated a possible mechanism via the influence of solar modulated cosmic rays on global cloud cover. Surprisingly the influence of solar variability is strongest in low clouds \\\\(<=3 km\\\\), which points to a microphysical mechanism involving aerosol formation that is enhanced by ionization due to cosmic rays.

Nigel D. Marsh; Henrik Svensmark

2000-01-01

356

Satellite Anomalies from Galactic Cosmic Rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalies in communication satellite operation have been caused by the unexpected triggering of digital circuits. Interactions with galactic cosmic rays were investigated as a mechanism for a number of these events. The mechanism assumed was the charging of the base-emitter capacitance of sensitive transistors to the turn-on voltage. The calculation of the cosmic ray event rate required the determination of

D. Binder; E. C. Smith; A. B. Holman

1975-01-01

357

Influence of Cosmic Rays on Earth's Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last solar cycle Earth's cloud cover underwent a modulation more closely in phase with the galactic cosmic ray flux than with other solar activity parameters. Further it is found that Earth's temperature follows more closely decade variations in galactic cosmic ray flux and solar cycle length, than other solar activity parameters. The main conclusion is that the average

Henrik Svensmark

1998-01-01

358

REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a first distributed REal-time COsmic Ray Database (RECORD). The aim of the project is to develop a unified database with data from different neutron monitors collected together, in unified format and to provide a user with several commonly used data access methods. The database contains not only original cosmic ray data but also auxiliary data

I. Usoskin; Valery Kozlov; Sergei Starodubtsev; Alexey Turpanov; Victor Yanke

2003-01-01

359

Research in cosmic and gamma ray astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research activities in cosmic rays, gamma rays, and astrophysical plasmas are covered. The activities are divided into sections and described, followed by a bibliography. The astrophysical aspects of cosmic rays, gamma rays, and of the radiation and electromagnetic field environment of the Earth and other planets are investigated. These investigations are performed by means of energetic particle and photon detector systems flown on spacecraft and balloons.

Stone, E. C.; Davis, L., Jr.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Prince, T. A.

1989-01-01

360

Anisotropy and Corotation of Galactic Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The intensity of Galactic cosmic rays is nearly isotropic because of the influence of magnetic fields in the Milky Way. Here, we present two-dimensional high-precision anisotropy measurement for energies from a few to several hundred teraelectronvolts (TeV), using the large data sample of the Tibet Air Shower Arrays. Besides revealing finer details of the known anisotropies, a new component of Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy in sidereal time is uncovered around the Cygnus region direction. For cosmic-ray energies up to a few hundred TeV, all components of anisotropies fade away, showing a corotation of Galactic cosmic rays with the local Galactic magnetic environment. These results have broad implications for a comprehensive understanding of cosmic rays, supernovae, magnetic fields, and heliospheric and Galactic dynamic environments.

Tibet AS-gamma Collaboration; M. Amenomori

2006-10-23

361

Anisotropy and Corotation of Galactic Cosmic Rays  

E-print Network

The intensity of Galactic cosmic rays is nearly isotropic because of the influence of magnetic fields in the Milky Way. Here, we present two-dimensional high-precision anisotropy measurement for energies from a few to several hundred teraelectronvolts (TeV), using the large data sample of the Tibet Air Shower Arrays. Besides revealing finer details of the known anisotropies, a new component of Galactic cosmic ray anisotropy in sidereal time is uncovered around the Cygnus region direction. For cosmic-ray energies up to a few hundred TeV, all components of anisotropies fade away, showing a corotation of Galactic cosmic rays with the local Galactic magnetic environment. These results have broad implications for a comprehensive understanding of cosmic rays, supernovae, magnetic fields, and heliospheric and Galactic dynamic environments.

Amenomori, M; Bi, X J; Chen, D; Cui, S W; Danzengluobu; Ding, L K; Ding, X H; Feng Cun Feng; Zhaoyang Feng; Feng, Z Y; Gao, X Y; Geng, Q X; Guo, H W; He, H H; He, M; Hibino, K; Hotta, N; Haibing, H; Hu, H B; Huang, J; Huang, Q; Jia, H Y; Kajino, F; Kasahara, K; Katayose, Y; Kato, C; Kawata, K; Labaciren; Le, G M; Li, A F; Li, J Y; Lou, Y Q; Lü, H; Lu, S L; Meng, X R; Mizutani, K; Mu, J; Munakata, K; Nagai, A; Nanjo, H; Nishizawa, M; Ohnishi, M; Ohta, I; Onuma, H; Ouchi, T; Ozawa, S; Ren, J R; Saitô, T; Saito, T Y; Sakata, M; Sako, T K; Sasaki, T; Shibata, M; Shiomi, A; Shirai, T; Sugimoto, H; Takita, M; Tan, Y H; Tateyama, N; Torii, S; Tsuchiya, H; Udo, S; Wang, B; Wang, H; Wang, X; Wang, Y G; Wu, H R; Xue Liang; Yamamoto, Y; Yan, C T; Yang, X C; Yasue, S; Ye, Z H; Yu, G C; Yuan, A F; Yuda, T; Zhang, H M; Zhang, J L; Zhang, N J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X X

2006-01-01

362

Cosmic-ray neutron simulations and measurements in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study used simulations of galactic cosmic ray in the atmosphere to investigate the neutron background environment in Taiwan, emphasising its altitude dependence and spectrum variation near interfaces. The calculated results were analysed and compared with two measurements. The first measurement was a mobile neutron survey from sea level up to 3275 m in altitude conducted using a car-mounted high-sensitivity neutron detector. The second was a previous measured result focusing on the changes in neutron spectra near air/ground and air/water interfaces. The attenuation length of cosmic-ray neutrons in the lower atmosphere was estimated to be 163 g cm(-2) in Taiwan. Cosmic-ray neutron spectra vary with altitude and especially near interfaces. The determined spectra near the air/ground and air/water interfaces agree well with measurements for neutrons below 10 MeV. However, the high-energy portion of spectra was observed to be much higher than our previous estimation. Because high-energy neutrons contribute substantially to a dose evaluation, revising the annual sea-level effective dose from cosmic-ray neutrons at ground level in Taiwan to 35 ?Sv, which corresponds to a neutron flux of 5.30 × 10(-3) n cm(-2) s(-1), was suggested. PMID:24573968

Chen, Wei-Lin; Jiang, Shiang-Huei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

2014-10-01

363

High-energy proton, helium, and gamma-ray observations on OSO-III  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report on preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the first 700 orbits of data obtained in the University of Rochester particle telescope, carried in the wheel section of OSO-III, is presented. The telescope is sensitive to high-energy ?-rays (threshold 50 MeV) and the nuclear component of the cosmic radiation. An upper limit of 3.2 × 10-4 ?\\/cm2secster. is

M. F. Kaplon; D. Valentine

1969-01-01

364

Multifrequency behaviour of high energy cosmic sources. A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we want to discuss the status of the high energy astrophysics taking into account the new very interesting results coming from space- and ground-based multifrequency experiments and their theoretical interpretation, as mostly discussed in the review paper by Giovannellli (2011). Several old open points have been solved, but in the same time new hints for the scientific community born. All the arguments presented in this review will be objects of deeper discussions during this workshop, and then most of them will appear in details in these proceedings. We will briefly discuss also the prospects of the multifrequency astrophysics which is now in its golden age without any pretension of completness.

Giovannelli, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.

365

SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope Facility  

SciTech Connect

SLAC does not have a test beam for the HEP detector development at present. We have therefore created a cosmic ray telescope (CRT) facility, which is presently being used to test the FDIRC prototype. We have used it in the past to debug this prototype with the original SLAC electronics before going to the ESA test beam. Presently, it is used to test a new waveform digitizing electronics developed by the University of Hawaii, and we are also planning to incorporate the new Orsay TDC/ADC electronics. As a next step, we plan to put in a full size DIRC bar box with a new focusing optics, and test it together with a final SuberB electronics. The CRT is located in building 121 at SLAC. We anticipate more users to join in the future. This purpose of this note is to provide an introductory manual for newcomers.

Va'vra, J.

2010-02-15

366

Medium scale clustering of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray arrival directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-point autocorrelation function of ultra-high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) arrival directions has a broad maximum around 25 degrees, combining the data with energies above 4× 1019 eV (in the HiRes energy scale) of the HiRes stereo, AGASA, Yakutsk and SUGAR experiments. This signal is not or only marginally present analyzing events of a single experiment, but becomes significant when

M. Kachelriess; D. V. Semikoz

2008-01-01

367

Simulation of Cosmic Ray neutrinos Interactions in Water  

E-print Network

The program CORSIKA, usually used to simulate extensive cosmic ray air showers, has been adapted to a water medium in order to study the acoustic detection of ultra high energy neutrinos. Showers in water from incident protons and from neutrinos have been generated and their properties are described. The results obtained from CORSIKA are compared to those from other available simulation programs such as Geant4.

T. Sloan

2006-09-21

368

Primary gamma rays. [resulting from cosmic ray interaction with interstellar matter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within this galaxy, cosmic rays reveal their presence in interstellar space and probably in source regions by their interactions with interstellar matter which lead to gamma rays with a very characteristic energy spectrum. From the study of the intensity of the high energy gamma radiation as a function of galactic longitude, it is already clear that cosmic rays are almost certainly not uniformly distributed in the galaxy and are not concentrated in the center of the galaxy. The galactic cosmic rays appear to be tied to galactic structural features, presumably by the galactic magnetic fields which are in turn held by the matter in the arm segments and the clouds. On the extragalactic scale, it is now possible to say that cosmic rays are not universal at the density seen near the earth. The diffuse celestial gamma ray spectrum that is observed presents the interesting possibility of cosmological studies and possible evidence for a residual universal cosmic ray density, which is much lower than the present galactic cosmic ray density.

Fichtel, C. E.

1974-01-01

369

Cosmic ray composition investigations using ICE/ISEE-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of data from the high energy cosmic experiment on ISEE-3 and associated modeling and interpretation activities are discussed. The ISEE-3 payload included two instruments capable of measuring the composition of heavy cosmic rays. The designs of these two instruments incorporated innovations which made it possible, for the first time, to measure isotopic as well as the chemical composition for a wide range of elements. As the result of the demonstrations by these two instruments of the capability to resolve individual cosmic ray isotopes, a new generation of detectors was developed using very similar designs, but having improved reliability and increased sensitive area. The composition measurements which were obtained from the ISEE-3 experiment are summarized.

Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

1992-01-01

370

Simulation of the cosmic ray tau neutrino telescope (CRTNT) experiment  

E-print Network

A tau lepton can be produced in a charged current interaction by cosmic ray tau neutrino with material inside a mountain. If it escapes from the mountain, it will decay and initiate a shower in the air, which can be detected by an air shower fluorescence/Cherenkov light detector. Designed according to such a principle, the Cosmic Ray Tau Neutrino Telescope (CRTNT) experiment, located at the foothill of Mt. Balikun in Xinjiang, China, will search for very high-energy cosmic tau neutrinos from energetic astrophysical sources by detecting those showers. This paper describes a Monte Carlo simulation for a detection of tau neutrino events by the CRTNT experiment. Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray events are also simulated to estimate the potential contamination. With the CRTNT experiment composed of four detector stations, each covering 64 by 14 degrees field of view, the expected event rates are 28.6, 21.9 and 4.7 per year assuming AGN neutrino flux according to Semikoz et. al. 2004, MPR AGN jet model and SDSS AGN core model, respectively. Null detection of such tau event by the CRTNT experiment in one year could set 90% C.L. upper limit at 19.9 (eV^-1 cm^-2 s^-1 sr^-1) for E^-2 neutrino spectrum.

J. L. Liu; S. S. Zhang; Z. Cao; H. H. He; M. A. Huang; T. C. Liu; G. Xiao; M. Zha; B. K. Zhang; Y. X. Bai; Y. Zhang

2009-05-12

371

Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray fluxes and cosmogenic neutrinos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the possible origin of the two neutrino shower events reported by the IceCube Collaboration at the Neutrino 2012 conference in Kyoto, Japan. The suspicion early on was that these two events are due to cosmogenic neutrinos and possibly by electron antineutrinos generating the Glashow resonance. The difference of the energy of the W- in the resonance and the energy estimates of the detected cascade events makes this assumption unlikely. The conclusion then may be that these high energy neutrinos are produced at sources of high energy cosmic rays such as Active Galactic Nuclei.

Stanev, Todor

2013-04-01

372

PeV neutrinos from intergalactic interactions of cosmic rays emitted by active galactic nuclei.  

PubMed

The observed very high energy spectra of distant blazars are well described by secondary gamma rays produced in line-of-sight interactions of cosmic rays with background photons. In the absence of the cosmic-ray contribution, one would not expect to observe very hard spectra from distant sources, but the cosmic ray interactions generate very high energy gamma rays relatively close to the observer, and they are not attenuated significantly. The same interactions of cosmic rays are expected to produce a flux of neutrinos with energies peaked around 1 PeV. We show that the diffuse isotropic neutrino background from many distant sources can be consistent with the neutrino events recently detected by the IceCube experiment. We also find that the flux from any individual nearby source is insufficient to account for these events. The narrow spectrum around 1 PeV implies that some active galactic nuclei can accelerate protons to EeV energies. PMID:23931348

Kalashev, Oleg E; Kusenko, Alexander; Essey, Warren

2013-07-26

373

Gamma rays from clusters and groups of galaxies: Cosmic rays versus dark matter  

SciTech Connect

Clusters of galaxies have not yet been detected at gamma-ray frequencies; however, the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly known as GLAST, could provide the first detections in the near future. Clusters are expected to emit gamma rays as a result of (1) a population of high-energy cosmic rays fueled by accretion, merger shocks, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae, and (2) particle dark-matter annihilation. In this paper, we ask the question of whether the Fermi telescope will be able to discriminate between the two emission processes. We present data-driven predictions for the gamma-ray emission from cosmic rays and dark matter for a large x-ray-flux-limited sample of galaxy clusters and groups. We point out that the gamma-ray signals from cosmic rays and dark matter can be comparable. In particular, we find that poor clusters and groups are the systems predicted to have the highest dark-matter to cosmic-ray emission ratio at gamma-ray energies. Based on detailed Fermi simulations, we study observational handles that might enable us to distinguish the two emission mechanisms, including the gamma-ray spectra, the spatial distribution of the signal, and the associated multiwavelength emissions. We also propose optimal hardness ratios, which will help us to understand the nature of the gamma-ray emission. Our study indicates that gamma rays from dark-matter annihilation with a high particle mass can be distinguished from a cosmic-ray spectrum even for fairly faint sources. Discriminating a cosmic-ray spectrum from a light dark-matter particle will be, instead, much more difficult, and will require long observations and/or a bright source. While the gamma-ray emission from our simulated clusters is extended, determining the spatial distribution with Fermi will be a challenging task requiring an optimal control of the backgrounds.

Jeltema, Tesla E. [UCO/Lick Observatories, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Kehayias, John [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

2009-07-15

374

High-Energy Neutrino Astronomy University Bonn  

E-print Network

from very distance sources due to + e- + e+ with cosmic background radiation. J. Learned & K Yunlin Liu HE June 21, 2013 3 / 35 #12;New Opportunities Figure : Cosmic rays spectrum. A messenger of cosmic rays Cosmic rays: very high-energy particles, mainly originating outside the Solar System. Origin

Buse, Karsten

375

The future of high energy gamma ray astronomy and its potential astrophysical implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future satellites should carry instruments having over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far as well as improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance knowledge of: the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects; the structure of our galaxy; the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays; the high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies; and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe. The relevant aspects of extragalactic gamma ray phenomena are emphasized along with the instruments planned. The high energy gamma ray results of forthcoming programs such as GAMMA-1 and the Gamma Ray Observatory should justify even more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the space station currently being considered by NASA.

Fichtel, C. E.

1982-01-01

376

Measurement of C-12, O-16, and Fe-56 charge changing cross sections in helium at high energy, comparison with cross sections in hydrogen, and application to cosmic-ray propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present measurements of the spallation cross sections of carbon, oxygen, and iron in helium and hydrogen, at beam energies from 540 to 1600 MeV/nucleon, performed by exposing liquid helium, CH2, and C targets. Charge changing cross sections are reported for fragments down to Ne for Fe + alpha and Fe + p reactions, and down to B for O + alpha, O + p, C + alpha, and C + p reactions. Alpha- to p-induced cross section ratios (sigma(sub alpha)/sigma(sub p)) are determined at the same energy per nucleon. From these measurements an empirical formula for the (sigma(sub alpha)/sigma(sub p)) ratios is derived and is found in good agreement with available isotopic cross sections data from radioactivity and radiochemical techniques. These results are applied to the propagation of heavy charged cosmic rays in an interstellar medium with a helium to hydrogen abundance ratio of 0.10. It is shown that the Sc-Mn/Fe ratio prediction is decreased relative to the B/C ratio when compared to propagation calculations in a pure hydrogen interstellar medium.

Ferrando, P.; Webber, W. R.; Goret, P.; Kish, J. C.; Schrier, D. A.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.

1988-01-01

377

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Stochastic simulation of cosmic ray modulation: Effect of a wavy HCS  

E-print Network

30TH INTERNATIONAL COSMIC RAY CONFERENCE Stochastic simulation of cosmic ray modulation: Effect of the heliospheric transport of galactic cosmic rays. Using an analytical solution for the flat sheet, we apply ray spectrum and the dominant streaming patterns of cosmic rays in the heliosphere for different solar

Usoskin, Ilya G.

378

Cosmic Rays Variations and Human Physiological State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was obtained in our previous investigations that geomagnetic activity as an indirect indicator of solar activity correlates with some human physiological and psycho-physiological parameters. A lot of studies indicate that other parameters of space weather like cosmic rays Forbush decreases affect myocardial infarction, brain stroke, car accidents, etc. The purpose of that work was to study the effect of cosmic rays variations on human physiological status. It was established that the decrease in cosmic rays intensity was related to an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints in healthy volunteers.

Dimitrova, S.

2009-12-01

379

Cosmic-ray positrons: are there primary sources?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galactic cosmic rays consist of primary and secondary particles. Primary cosmic rays are thought to be energized by first order Fermi acceleration processes at supernova shock fronts within our Galaxy. The cosmic rays that eventually reach the Earth from this source are mainly protons and atomic nuclei, but also include electrons. Secondary cosmic rays are created in collisions of primary

Stéphane Coutu; Steven W. Barwick; James J. Beatty; Amit Bhattacharyya; Chuck R. Bower; Christopher J. Chaput; Georgia A. de Nolfo; Michael A. DuVernois; Allan Labrador; Shawn P. McKee; Dietrich Müller; James A. Musser; Scott L. Nutter; Eric Schneider; Simon P. Swordy; Gregory Tarlé; Andrew D. Tomasch; Eric Torbet

1999-01-01

380

The Cosmic Ray Measurements Above 1 TeV  

E-print Network

The Cosmic Ray Measurements Above 1 TeV Shigeru Yoshida Institute for Cosmic Ray Research of cosmic rays with energies above 1 TeV (10 12 eV). Most of the measurements are consistent with our baseline picture of origins of the cosmic rays that the higher energy extragalactic component is starting

Yoshida, Shigeru

381

Nonlinear theory of cosmic-ray acceleration in shock waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock acceleration of cosmic ray particles in the energy range below 10 to the 15th eV is reviewed, including the backreaction of the cosmic rays on the ambient medium. It is argued that particle acceleration is a two-way process and that in fact diffusive acceleration is best considered as the by-product of the dynamic interaction between the thermal plasma, the scattering fields, and the energetic particle population. Therefore the emphasis is on these nonlinear effects. They are mainly discussed in the framework of a 'hydrodynamic' approximation for the high energy component. Synthetic spectra from evolving supernova remnants as well as the high nonlinear efficiency of cosmic ray shocks make diffusive acceleration a plausible theoretical mechanism for the origin of the galactic cosmic rays below 10 to the 14th-10 to the 15th eV, although there are difficulties in achieving these highest energies. Empirical tests should involve detailed studies of electromagnetic emission by the sources, typically supernova remnants, from radio up to X-ray wavelengths.

Voelk, H. J.

382

The highest-energy cosmic rays  

E-print Network

This paper begins with a pedagogical discussion of the propagation of cosmic rays and the showers produced when a cosmic ray primary hits the upper atmosphere. The paper focusses cosmic rays, with energy > 10^19 eV. Emphasis is placed on the shower properties that are relevant to the detection of cosmic rays by surface arrays and fluorescence telescopes. The two major experiments, AGASA and HiRes are described in some detail. Then the experimental results are reviewed. It is no surprise that more data will be needed. But it is also true that improved analysis and further data from HiRes can make significant improvements in the experimental situation.

James W. Cronin

2004-02-20

383

Gamma Ray Bursts from Ordinary Cosmic Strings  

E-print Network

We give an upper estimate for the number of gamma ray bursts from ordinary (non-superconducting) cosmic strings expected to be observed at terrestrial detectors. Assuming that cusp annihilation is the mechanism responsible for the bursts we consider strings arising at a GUT phase transition and compare our estimate with the recent BATSE results. Further we give a lower limit for the effective area of future detectors designed to detect the cosmic string induced flux of gamma ray bursts.

R. H. Brandenberger; A. T. Sornborger; M. Trodden

1993-02-12

384

IMF Prediction with Cosmic Rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays impacting Earth have passed through and interacted with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) surrounding Earth, and in some sense they carry information on the three-dimensional structure of that field. This work uses neutron monitor data in an effort to extract that information and use it to predict the future behavior of the IMF, especially the north-south component (Bz) which is so crucial in determining geomagnetic activity. We consider 161 events from a published list of interplanetary coronal mass ejections and compare hourly averages of the predicted field with the actual field measured later. We find that the percentage of events with 'good' predictions of Bz (in the sense of having a positive correlation between the prediction and the subsequent measurement) varies from about 85% for predictions 1 hour into the future to about 60% for predictions 4 hours into the future. We present several ideas for how the method might be improved in future implementations. Supported by NASA grant NNX08AQ01G and NSF grant ANT-0739620.

Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Kuwabara, T.; Pei, C.

2013-12-01

385

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 3851 A 2D stochastic simulation of galactic cosmic rays transport  

E-print Network

28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 3851 A 2D stochastic simulation of galactic cosmic rays, Russia. Abstract We present a new code to numerically simulate the transport of galactic cosmic rays Galactic cosmic rays suffer from modulation in the heliosphere. Basic modulation mechanisms are diffusion

Usoskin, Ilya G.

386

Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of M 31 with VERITAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VERITAS, an array of 12 m imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in southern Arizona, is one of the world's most sensitive detectors of astrophysical very-high-energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) gamma rays. We present the current status of the VERITAS observations of M 31 (Andromeda Galaxy) including an upper limit on the VHE flux and a comparison with theoretical predictions. The dominant mechanism for the formation of diffuse gamma rays is expected to be through the inelastic collision of high-energy cosmic rays with the interstellar medium (ISM). M 31 provides an opportunity to probe this mechanism due to its proximity and spatial extent, with the VERITAS point-spread function sufficient to resolve the ISM dense star-forming ring and the galaxy core with its multiple supernova remnants.

Bird, R.

2014-07-01

387

Reminiscences of cosmic ray research in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic ray research in Mexico dates from the early 1930s with the work of the pioneering physicist, Manuel Sandoval Vallarta and his students from Mexico. Several experiments of international significance were carried out during that period in Mexico: they dealt with the geomagnetic latitude effect, the north-south and west-east asymmetry of cosmic ray intensity, and the sign of the charge of cosmic rays. The international cosmic ray community has met twice in Mexico for the International Cosmic Ray Conferences (ICRC): the fourth was held in Guanajuato in 1955, and the 30th took place in Mérida, in 2007. In addition, an international meeting on the Pierre Auger Collaboration was held in Morelia in 1999, and the International Workshop on Observing UHE Cosmic Rays took place in Metepec in 2000. A wide range of research topics has been developed, from low-energy Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) to the UHE. Instrumentation has evolved since the early 1950s, from a Simpson type neutron monitor installed in Mexico City (2300 m asl) to a solar neutron telescope and an EAS Cherenkov array, (within the framework of the Auger International Collaboration), both at present operating on Mt. Sierra La Negra in the state of Puebla (4580 m asl). Research collaboration has been undertaken with many countries; in particular, the long-term collaboration with Russian scientists has been very fruitful.

Pérez-Peraza, Jorge

2009-11-01

388

Contributions to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of cosmic radiation, its measurements and their patterns are presented. Measurement techniques and variations in solar cosmic ray patterns and calculations of elemental abundances are reviewed.

1985-01-01

389

The attenuation length of the high energy nucleonic component of the cosmic radiation near sea level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  From the analysis of neutron data obtained at two widely separated stations, it is shown that during 1957 the attenuation\\u000a length of the high energy nucleonic component of the cosmic radiation near sea level was (138.1ą0.8) g cm?2 at high geomagnetic latitudes. Analysis of data from a number of stations shows that the amplitudes of Forbush type decreases\\u000a increase by

K. G. McCracken; D. H. Johns

1959-01-01

390

Determination and study of the cosmic-ray composition above 100 TeV  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new technique using ground-based measurements to determine the cosmic-ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15} eV (the knee in the cosmic-ray spectrum). Cosmic rays are high-energy nuclei that continuously bombard the earth. Though cosmic rays were first detected in the 1870s it wasn`t until 1915 that their cosmic origin was established. At present, the authors still do not know the source of cosmic rays. At energies above 50 TeV (1 TeV = 1 trillion electron-volts) they do not know the composition of the cosmic rays. At about 5 PeV (1PeV = 10{sup 15} eV) the cosmic ray spectrum steepens. Knowledge of the composition above and below this point can help determine the origin of cosmic rays.

Sinnis, G.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M. [and others

1998-11-01

391

Cosmic ray neutron induced upsets as a major contributor to the soft error rate of current and future generation DRAMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system soft error rate (SSER) of 4M\\/16M DRAMs has been shown to be dependent on the cosmic ray neutron flux. A simple model and accelerated soft error rate (ASER) measurements made with an intense, high energy neutron beam support this result. The model predicts that cosmic ray neutron induced soft errors will become important at the 64M DRAM generation

W. R. McKee; H. P. McAdams; E. B. Smith; J. W. McPherson; J. W. Janzen; J. C. Ondrusek; A. E. Hyslop; D. E. Russell; R. A. Coy; D. W. Bergman; N. Q. Nguyen; T. J. Aton; L. W. Block; V. C. Huynh

1996-01-01

392

Long Term Time Variability of Cosmic Rays and Possible Relevance to the Development of Life on Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is made of the manner in which the cosmic ray intensity at Earth has varied over its existence and its possible relevance to both the origin and the evolution of life. Much of the analysis relates to the `high energy' cosmic rays ( E > 1014 eV; =0.1 PeV) and their variability due to the changing proximity of

A. D. Erlykin; A. W. Wolfendale

2010-01-01

393

Cosmic Rays -Richard Mewaldt http://www.srl.caltech.edu/personnel/dick/cos_encyc.html 1 of 3 09/22/2006 08:22 AM  

E-print Network

also include high energy electrons, positrons, and other subatomic particles. The term "cosmic rays, and led to the discovery of subatomic particles that included the positron and muon. Although California Institute of Technology Cosmic rays are high energy charged particles, originating in outer space

Shepherd, Simon

394

Diffuse Galactic gamma rays from shock-accelerated cosmic rays.  

PubMed

A shock-accelerated particle flux is proportional to p(-s), where p is the particle momentum, follows from simple theoretical considerations of cosmic-ray acceleration at nonrelativistic shocks followed by rigidity-dependent escape into the Galactic halo. A flux of shock-accelerated cosmic-ray protons with s?2.8 provides an adequate fit to the Fermi Large Area Telescope ?-ray emission spectra of high-latitude and molecular cloud gas when uncertainties in nuclear production models are considered. A break in the spectrum of cosmic-ray protons claimed by Neronov, Semikoz, and Taylor [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 051105 (2012)] when fitting the ?-ray spectra of high-latitude molecular clouds is a consequence of using a cosmic-ray proton flux described by a power law in kinetic energy. PMID:23002818

Dermer, Charles D

2012-08-31

395

Treatment of foods with high-energy X rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The treatment of foods with ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, accelerated electrons, and X rays can produce beneficial effects, such as inhibiting the sprouting in potatoes, onions, and garlic, controlling insects in fruits, vegetables, and grains, inhibiting the growth of fungi, pasteurizing fresh meat, poultry, and seafood, and sterilizing spices and food additives. After many years of research, these processes have been approved by regulatory authorities in many countries and commercial applications have been increasing. High-energy X rays are especially useful for treating large packages of food. The most attractive features are product penetration, absorbed dose uniformity, high utilization efficiency and short processing time. The ability to energize the X-ray source only when needed enhances the safety and convenience of this technique. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron accelerators, which can be used as X-ray generators, makes it feasible to process large quantities of food economically. Several industrial accelerator facilities already have X-ray conversion equipment and several more will soon be built with product conveying systems designed to take advantage of the unique characteristics of high-energy X rays. These concepts will be reviewed briefly in this paper.

Cleland, M. R.; Meissner, J.; Herer, A. S.; Beers, E. W.

2001-07-01

396

Positron fraction in cosmic rays and models of cosmic-ray propagation  

SciTech Connect

The positron fraction observed by PAMELA and other experiments up to {approx}100 GeV is analyzed in terms of models of cosmic-ray propagation. It is shown that generically we expect the positron fraction to reach {approx}0.6 at energies of several TeV, and its energy dependence bears an intimate but subtle connection with that of the boron to carbon ratio in cosmic rays. The observed positron fraction can be fit in a model that assumes a significant fraction of the boron below {approx}10 GeV is generated through spallation of cosmic-ray nuclei in a cocoonlike region surrounding the sources, and the positrons of energy higher than a few GeV are almost exclusively generated through cosmic-ray interactions in the general interstellar medium. Such a model is consistent with the bounds on cosmic-ray anisotropies and other observations.

Cowsik, R.; Burch, B. [Physics Department and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

2010-07-15

397

Galactic modulation of extragalactic cosmic rays: Possible origin of the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum  

E-print Network

The existence of the spectral break around $\\sim 3 \\times 10^{15}$ eV in the cosmic ray spectrum (referred to as the `knee') is one of the biggest questions in cosmic ray astrophysics. At the same time, the origin of cosmic rays above the knee energies (between 10$^{15}$ and 10$^{18}$ eV) is also still unsettled. In this paper, we investigate how the hypothetical extragalactic CRs after modulated by the galactic wind contribute to the knee in the CR spectrum. We numerically calculate the modulated energy spectrum of the hypothetical cosmic rays coming into the galaxy from just outside of the ``galactic sphere'' where the galactic wind terminates. We show that the observed knee structure is reproduced well by a superposition of the modulated component and the galactic cosmic rays originating in supernova remnants.

Hiroshi Muraishi; Shohei Yanagita; Tatsuo Yoshida

2005-02-07

398

Spectra of cosmic rays at TeV energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmic rays were discovered 100 years ago with an experiment on a manned balloon that ascended to only ~ 5 km. Current helium-filled balloons for scientific research fly at altitudes around 40 km, carrying state-of-the-art particle detectors to measure TeV cosmic ray elemental spectra over a wide energy range. A challenge of balloon-borne and space-based experiments for high-energy measurements is that the detectors must be large enough to collect adequate statistics, yet stay within the weight limit for available space flight. Innovative approaches now promise high quality measurements over an energy range that was not previously possible. Measurement techniques, recent results and their implications are reviewed. The outlook for existing and future experiments is also discussed.

Seo, Eun-Suk

2013-02-01

399

THE INTERACTION OF COSMIC RAYS WITH DIFFUSE CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

We study the change in cosmic-ray pressure, the change in cosmic-ray density, and the level of cosmic-ray-induced heating via Alfven-wave damping when cosmic rays move from a hot ionized plasma to a cool cloud embedded in that plasma. The general analysis method outlined here can apply to diffuse clouds in either the ionized interstellar medium or in galactic winds. We introduce a general-purpose model of cosmic-ray diffusion building upon the hydrodynamic approximation for cosmic rays (from McKenzie and Voelk and Breitschwerdt and collaborators). Our improved method self-consistently derives the cosmic-ray flux and diffusivity under the assumption that the streaming instability is the dominant mechanism for setting the cosmic-ray flux and diffusion. We find that, as expected, cosmic rays do not couple to gas within cool clouds (cosmic rays exert no forces inside of cool clouds), that the cosmic-ray density does not increase within clouds (it may decrease slightly in general, and decrease by an order of magnitude in some cases), and that cosmic-ray heating (via Alfven-wave damping and not collisional effects as for {approx}10 MeV cosmic rays) is only important under the conditions of relatively strong (10 {mu}G) magnetic fields or high cosmic-ray pressure ({approx}10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -3}).

Everett, John E.; Zweibel, Ellen G., E-mail: everett@physics.wisc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2011-10-01

400

Cosmic-Ray Observations with HAWC30  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a TeV gamma-ray and cosmic-ray detector currently under construction at an altitude of 4100 meters on the slope of Volc'an Sierra Negra near Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an extensive air-shower array comprising 300 optically-isolated water Cherenkov detectors. Each detector contains 200,000 liters of filtered water and four upward-facing photomultiplier tubes. Since September 2012, 30 water Cherenkov detectors have been instrumented and operated in data acquisition. With 10 percent of the detector complete and six months of operation, the event statistics are already sufficient to perform detailed studies of cosmic rays observed at the site. We will report on cosmic-ray observations with HAWC30, in particular the detection and study of the shadow of the moon. From these observations, we infer the pointing accuracy of the detector and our angular resolution of the detector reconstruction.

Fiorino, Daniel

2013-04-01

401

Cosmic ray confinement in fossil cluster bubbles  

E-print Network

Most cool core clusters of galaxies possess active galactic nuclei (AGN) in their centers. These AGN inflate buoyant bubbles containing non-thermal radio emitting particles. If such bubbles efficiently confine cosmic rays (CR) then this could explain ``radio ghosts'' seen far from cluster centers. We simulate the diffusion of cosmic rays from buoyant bubbles inflated by AGN. Our simulations include the effects of the anisotropic particle diffusion introduced by magnetic fields. Our models are consistent with the X-ray morphology of AGN bubbles, with disruption being suppressed by the magnetic draping effect. We conclude that for such magnetic field topologies, a substantial fraction of cosmic rays can be confined inside the bubbles on buoyant rise timescales even when the parallel diffusivity coefficient is very large. For isotropic diffusion at a comparable level, cosmic rays would leak out of the bubbles too rapidly to be consistent with radio observations. Thus, the long confinement times associated with the magnetic suppression of CR diffusion can explain the presence of radio ghosts. We show that the partial escape of cosmic rays is mostly confined to the wake of the rising bubbles, and speculate that this effect could: (1) account for the excitation of the H$\\alpha$ filaments trailing behind the bubbles in the Perseus cluster, (2) inject entropy into the metal enriched material being lifted by the bubbles and, thus, help to displace it permanently from the cluster center and (3) produce observable $\\gamma$-rays via the interaction of the diffusing cosmic rays with the thermal intracluster medium (ICM).

M. Ruszkowski; T. A. Ensslin; M. Bruggen; M. C. Begelman; E. Churazov

2007-05-22

402

Muon Production in Relativistic Cosmic-Ray Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic-rays with energies up to 3x1020 eV have been observed. The nuclear composition of these cosmic rays is unknown but if the incident nuclei are protons then the corresponding center of mass energy is sqrt snn = 700 TeV. High energy muons can be used to probe the composition of these incident nuclei. The energy spectra of high-energy (> 1 TeV) cosmic ray induced muons have been measured with deep underground or under-ice detectors. These muons come from pion and kaon decays and from charm production in the atmosphere. Terrestrial experiments are most sensitive to far-forward muons so the production rates aresensitive to high-x partons in the incident nucleus and low-x partons in the nitrogen/oxygen targets. Muon measurements can complement the central-particle data collected at colliders.This paper will review muon production data and discuss some non-perturbative (soft) models that have been used to interpret the data. I will show measurements of TeV muon transverse momentum (pT) spectra in cosmic-ray air showers fromMACRO, and describe how the IceCube neutrino observatory and the proposed Km3Net detector will extend these measurements to a higher pT region where perturbative QCD should apply. With a 1 km2 surface area, the full IceCube detector should observe hundreds of muons/year with pT in the pQCD regime.

Klein, Spencer

2009-07-27

403

Cosmic Ray Nuclei (CRN) detector investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Ray Nuclei (CRN) detector was designed to measure elemental composition and energy spectra of cosmic radiation nuclei ranging from lithium to iron. CRN was flown as part of Spacelab 2 in 1985, and consisted of three basic components: a gas Cerenkov counter, a transition radiation detector, and plastic scintillators. The results of the experiment indicate that the relative abundance of elements in this range, traveling at near relativistic velocities, is similar to those reported at lower energy.

Meyer, Peter; Muller, Dietrich; Lheureux, Jacques; Swordy, Simon

1991-01-01

404

Cosmic Ray Interactions in Shielding Materials  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a detailed study of materials used to shield against the hadronic particles from cosmic ray showers at Earth’s surface. This work was motivated by the need for a shield that minimizes activation of the enriched germanium during transport for the MAJORANA collaboration. The materials suitable for cosmic-ray shield design are materials such as lead and iron that will stop the primary protons, and materials like polyethylene, borated polyethylene, concrete and water that will stop the induced neutrons. The interaction of the different cosmic-ray components at ground level (protons, neutrons, muons) with their wide energy range (from kilo-electron volts to giga-electron volts) is a complex calculation. Monte Carlo calculations have proven to be a suitable tool for the simulation of nucleon transport, including hadron interactions and radioactive isotope production. The industry standard Monte Carlo simulation tool, Geant4, was used for this study. The result of this study is the assertion that activation at Earth’s surface is a result of the neutronic and protonic components of the cosmic-ray shower. The best material to shield against these cosmic-ray components is iron, which has the best combination of primary shielding and minimal secondary neutron production.

Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ankney, Austin S.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Troy, Meredith D.

2011-09-08

405

Monopole annihilation and highest energy cosmic rays  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10[sup 20] eV have been detected. The origin of these highest energy cosmic rays remains unknown. Established astrophysical acceleration mechanisms encounter severe difficulties in accelerating particles to these energies. Alternative scenarios where these particles are created by the decay of cosmic topological defects have been suggested in the literature. In this paper we study the possibility of producing the highest energy cosmic rays through a process that involves the formation of metastable magnetic monopole-antimonopole bound states and their subsequent collapse. The annihilation of the heavy monopole-antimonopole pairs constituting the monopolonia can produce energetic nucleons, [gamma] rays, and neutrinos whose expected flux we estimate and discuss in relation to experimental data so far available. The monopoles we consider are the ones that could be produced in the early Universe during a phase transition at the grand unification energy scale. We find that observable cosmic ray fluxes can be produced with monopole abundances compatible with present bounds.

Bhattacharjee, P. (Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge CB3 0EH (United Kingdom) Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)); Sigl, G. (Department of Astronomy Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States) NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States))

1995-04-15

406

The High Energy Budget Allocations in Shocks and Gamma Ray Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The statistical distribution of energies among particles responsible for long gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is analyzed in light of recent results of the Fermi Observatory. The all-sky flux, F ?, recorded by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is shown, despite its larger energy range, to be not significantly larger than that reported by the Burst and Transient Explorer, suggesting a relatively small flux in the 3-30 MeV energy range. The present-day energy input rate in ?-rays recorded by the GBM from long GRBs is found, assuming star formation rates in the literature, to be \\dot{W}(0)=0.5 F_{?} H/c = 5 × 10^{42} erg Mpc^{-3} yr^{-1}}. The Large Area Telescope fluence, when observed, is about 5%-10% per decade of the total, in good agreement with the predictions of saturated, nonlinear shock acceleration. The high-energy component of long GRBs, as measured by Fermi, is found to contain only ~10-2.5 of the energy needed to produce ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 4 EeV, assuming the latter to be extragalactic, when various numerical factors are carefully included, if the cosmic-ray source spectrum has a spectral index of -2. The observed ?-ray fraction of the required UHECR energy is even smaller if the source spectrum is softer than E -2. The AMANDA II limits rule out such a GRB origin for UHECRs if much more than 10-2 of the cosmic-ray energy goes into neutrinos that are within, and simultaneous with, the ?-ray beam. It is suggested that "orphan" neutrinos out of the ?-ray beam might be identifiable via orphan afterglow or other wide angle signatures of GRBs in lieu of coincidence with prompt ?-rays, and it is recommended that feasible single neutrino trigger criteria be established to search for such coincidences.

Eichler, David; Guetta, Dafne; Pohl, Martin

2010-10-01

407

CALET Mission for the Observation of Cosmic Rays on the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have proposed CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope) mission to make observations of high energy cosmic