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Sample records for high-quality long-term-storage secondary

  1. The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kane J. Fisher

    2000-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation.

  2. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  3. Spent filter packaging for long term storage and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Duberville, T.M.; Miller, C.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will discuss filter packaging experience using spent filter transfer casks, a filter shear and the NUKEM macro-encapsulation process. Marco-encapsulation of spent filters in cement has provided sufficient shielding to enable filter containers to be shipped in less expensive IP-2 casks. The lower dose rate and higher density also off-sets disposal rates at Barnwell based on mass. No re-dewatering of encapsulated filter containers is required after a period of long term storage and encapsulation eliminates the possibility of gas generation from filters during storage. Encapsulation can be performed on filters loaded into poly HICs or carbon steel liners. (authors)

  4. Pyrophoricity of uranium in long-term storage environments

    SciTech Connect

    Solbrig, C W; Krsul, J R; Olsen, D N

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion cycle for uranium is postulated which can be used to assess whether a given storage situation might produce fire hazards and/or continual uranium corrosion. A significant reaction rate of uranium and moisture occurs at room temperature which produces uranium oxide and hydrogen. If the hydrogen cannot escape, it will react slowly with uranium to form uranium hydride. The hydride is pyrophoric at room temperature when exposed to air. Either the hydrogen or the hydride can produce a dangerous situation as demonstrated by two different incidents described here. Long-term corrosion will occur even if the normal precautions are taken as is demonstrated by the long-term storage of stainless steel clad uranium fuel plates. The major initiator of these problems is attributed to any moisture condensed on the metal or any brought in by the cover gas. The postulated corrosion cycle is used to suggest ways to circumvent these problems.

  5. Influence of Palea and Lemma Removal on Seed Viability in Long Term Storage of Paspalum spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the greatest challenges in managing a germplasm collection is the loss of seed viability during long term storage. Many factors influence viability in long term storage including seed condition at harvesting (ripeness, vigor), drying seed prior to storage, and storage conditions (temperature...

  6. Blood DNA Yield but Not Integrity or Methylation Is Impacted After Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Alexandre; De Witt, Brian; Ammerlaan, Wim; Betsou, Fay; Lescuyer, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Collection of human whole blood for genomic DNA extraction is part of numerous clinical studies. Since DNA extraction cannot always be performed at the time of sample collection, whole blood samples may be stored for years before being processed. The use of appropriate storage conditions is then critical to obtain DNA in sufficient quantity and of adequate quality in order to obtain reliable results from the subsequent molecular biological analyses. In this study, EDTA whole blood samples were collected from 8 healthy volunteers, and different durations (up to 1 year) and temperatures (room temperature, 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C) of storage were compared. The effect of the addition of a DNA preservative agent was also assessed before and after storage. DNA concentrations measured by UV spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry were used to calculate DNA extraction yields and double-strand DNA ratios. DNA integrity was controlled by agarose gel electrophoresis and long-range polymerase chain reaction. The impact of storage conditions on DNA methylation was also evaluated. Results showed that certain storage conditions have a significant impact on the DNA extraction yield but little or no effect on DNA integrity and methylation. Storage of EDTA blood at -80°C guarantees high-quality DNA with a good yield. Higher DNA extraction yields were obtained with the addition of a DNA preservative agent before thawing EDTA blood stored at -20°C or -80°C. Long-term storage at room temperature in the presence of a DNA preservative agent also appeared to be a reliable procedure. PMID:26812548

  7. A Survey of Current Literature on Sampling, Sample Handling, and Long Term Storage for Environmental Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienthal, E. J.; Becker, D. A.

    This report presents the results of an extensive literature survey undertaken to establish optimum sampling, sample handling and long-term storage techniques for a wide variety of environmental samples to retain sample integrity. The components of interest are trace elements, organics, pesticides, radionuclides and microbiologicals. A bibliography…

  8. LONG-TERM STORAGE EFFECTS ON FIBER QUALITY OF POLYETHYLENE FILM WRAPPED COTTON BALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A one year bale storage test was initiated to determine the effects of two different long-term storage conditions on baled fiber quality. Fiber quality will eventually be evaluated by textile processing the stored cotton through to dyed cloth. Ten bales were stored in an approved warehouse and ten...

  9. Medium- and long-term storage of the Pycnanthemum (Mountain mint) germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US collection of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum Michx.) is held at the USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, OR as seed, potted plants and tissue cultures and a long-term storage collection is preserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

  10. Study of Disinfection By-Products and Long Term Storage of Drinking Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, G.; White, D.; Garland, S.

    2002-12-01

    One of the challenges facing many of Alaska's communities is providing safe and reliable drinking water from sources containing high concentrations of natural organic material (NOM). These highly colored waters, locally referred to as "tundra tea," often result in the formation of disinfectant byproducts during treatment. Since surface water sources in the Arctic are often frozen for 6-9 months per year, communities are often forced to either store raw water for treatment during the winter or treat and store enough drinking water during the summer to last through the winter. Because long-term storage practices are somewhat unique to water treatment in the rural Northern communities, the practice has not been thoroughly studied and there is limited published information on how water quality is affected by extended storage. Anecdotal evidence and data collected by field engineers indicate that significant changes are occurring and that the quality of the treated water can be adversely impacted. The University of Alaska Small Drinking Water System Technical Assistance Center (ATTAC) is conducting fundamental and applied research to help Alaska's small communities provide safe and reliable drinking water. One research focus area is the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in small drinking water systems. Studies to characterize the NOM present in Alaskan surface waters and demonstrations of NOM removal technologies have been have been conducted over the past several years. The study presented here examined the formation of disinfection by-products during long-term storage of water from five small Alaskan water systems. Results from this research suggest that long-term storage has a significant impact on DBP formation. The results suggest that the NOM escaping treatment is likely to react in the storage tank resulting in DBP concentrations that are well above the estimated DBP formation potential.

  11. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  12. Investigation of long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study on evaluation of the long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cells currently being performed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. A number of cells of 6 Ah and 12 Ah capacities which were stored in shorted condition for 8 to 9 years at the GSFC were selected for this study. These cells will undergo electrical acceptance testing the the GSFC, and life cycling at the NASA Battery Test Facility at the Naval Weapons Facility at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana; in addition, some cells from the study will undergo destructive analyses.

  13. [Radioecological biomonitoring of the radioactive waste long-term storage territories].

    PubMed

    Sypin, V D; Pol'skiĭ, O G; Sobolev, A I; Verbov, V V; Zaĭtsev, V V; Osipov, A N

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide release to environment is possible during long-term storage of the low and middle activity radioactive waste on specially equipped territories, which leads to radioactive background increase and to permanent radiation influence to biocenosis. For an ecological situation control in such places it is need to provide a biomonitoring using the method of complex estimation of the morphological changes on whole organism and internal organs levels (presents of tumors, teratogenic effects), the hematological indexes reflected quantifies and qualifies changes in blood, cytogenetic distribution (bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei) and distributions on molecular level (alterations of DNA structure lead to increase in the DPC level). PMID:19637745

  14. Investigation of long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, T. Y.

    1986-09-01

    A study on evaluation of the long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cells currently being performed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. A number of cells of 6 Ah and 12 Ah capacities which were stored in shorted condition for 8 to 9 years at the GSFC were selected for this study. These cells will undergo electrical acceptance testing the the GSFC, and life cycling at the NASA Battery Test Facility at the Naval Weapons Facility at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana; in addition, some cells from the study will undergo destructive analyses.

  15. The long term storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel: safety and policy considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowat, J.; Metcalf, P.

    2007-07-01

    Storage is a necessary step in the overall management of radioactive waste. In recent years, due to the unavailability of disposal facilities, storage facilities intended originally as temporary, have had their lifetimes extended and consideration has been given, in some countries, to the use of long term storage (LTS) as a management option. In 2003, the IAEA published a position paper titled 'The Long Term Storage of Radioactive Waste: Safety and Sustainability'. The position paper, which written for a non-specialist audience, focused on seven key factors for safety and sustainability of LTS, namely: safety, maintenance/institutional control, retrieval, security, costs, community attitudes and retention of information. The Agency is preparing a follow-up report to the position paper that elaborates in a more technical manner upon the issues raised in the position paper and issues important for implementation of LTS. It also provides some discussion of the reasons for implementing a LTS option and contrasts LTS with aspects of other management options. The present paper provides an overview of the draft follow-up report. (authors)

  16. Criticality safety evaluation for long term storage of FFTF fuel in interim storage casks

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, R.F.

    1995-05-11

    It has been postulated that a degradation phenomenon, referred to as ``hot cell rot``, may affect irradiated FFTF mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel during dry interim storage. ``Hot cell rot`` refers to a variety of phenomena that degrade fuel pin cladding during exposure to air and inert gas environments. It is thought to be a form of caustic stress corrosion cracking or environmentally assisted cracking. Here, a criticality safety analysis was performed to address the effect of the ``hot cell rot`` phenomenon on the long term storage of irradiated FFTF fuel in core component containers. The results show that seven FFTF fuel assemblies or six Ident-69 pin containers stored in core component containers within interim storage casks will remain safely subcritical.

  17. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  18. Lessons Learned During the Refurbishment and Testing of an Observatory After Long-Term Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, John; Peabody, Sharon; Stavely, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) 2015, Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15. This paper addresses the lessons learned during the refurbishment and testing of the thermal control system for a spacecraft which was placed into long-term storage. The DSCOVR (Deep Space Climate Observatory) Observatory (formerly known as Triana) was originally scheduled to launch on the Space Shuttle in 2002. With the Triana spacecraft nearly complete, the mission was canceled and the satellite was abruptly put into storage in 2001. In 2008 the observatory was removed from storage to begin refurbishment and testing. Problems arose associated with hardware that was not currently manufactured, coatings degradation, and a significant lack of documentation. Also addressed is the conversion of the thermal and geometric math models for use with updated thermal analysis software tools.

  19. Investigation on polyetheretherketone composite for long term storage of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeesh, G.; Bhowmik, Shantanu; Sivakumar, Venugopal; Varshney, Lalit; Kumar, Virendra; Abraham, Mathew

    2015-12-01

    This investigation highlights the effect of radiation, chemical and thermal environments on mechanical and thermal properties of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites, which could prove to be an alternative material for long term storage of nuclear wastes. The tests are conducted on specimens made from PEEK and PEEK reinforced with carbon short fiber. The specimens are subjected to radiation doses, equivalent to the cumulative dosage for 500 years followed by exposure under highly corrosive and thermal environments. Studies under optical microscopy reveal that the dispersion of carbon short fiber in the PEEK Composites is significantly uniform. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that there are no significant changes in thermal properties of PEEK composite when exposed to aggressive environments. It is further observed that there are no significant changes in mechanical properties of the composite after exposure to radiation and thermo-chemical environment.

  20. Medium- and long-term storage of the Pycnanthemum (mountain mint) germplasm collection.

    PubMed

    Jenderek, Maria M; Holman, Gregory E; DeNoma, Jeanine; Reed, Barbara M

    2013-01-01

    The United States of America collection of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum Michx.) is held at the USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon as seed, potted plants and tissue cultures and a long-term storage collection is preserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado. The clonal collection is comprised of 34 accessions as potted plants that are duplicated with 31 accessions stored as in vitro cultures at 4 degrees C in tissue culture bags for medium-term storage at NCGR and as cryopreserved shoot tips in liquid nitrogen at NCGRP for long-term storage. This study reports on these two models of preservation of mountain mint at the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. In vitro plants required 2 to 7 months for propagation on MS medium without growth regulators before storage at 4 degrees C. Plants remained in storage with good vigour in bags on 1/2x nitrogen MS medium without growth regulators for a mean of 2.08 y. An encapsulation-dehydration protocol was successful for cryopreservation of shoot tips from cold acclimated in vitro plants. Post-cryo viability, indicated by shoot tips with developed leaves and roots, ranged from 60 to 100 % for 27 accessions and 40 to 50 % for the other four. The encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation method proved suitable for long-term preservation of the 31 Pycnanthemum accessions. These alternative storage forms allow for active use of the collection as well as base storage for clonally propagated accessions. PMID:24448768

  1. Can high quality DNA be extracted and utilized from Arachis seeds in long term storage with zero percent germination?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant germplasm collections are useful resources for both researchers and breeders. These collections provide a source of new gene combinations that can be used in breeding and molecular studies to thwart disease, introduce novel traits, and enhance nutritional benefits of a crop. The USDA maintai...

  2. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d. PMID:25989554

  3. Long-term storage of aerobic granules in liquid media: viable but non-culturable status.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Qinlan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Yayi; Li, Jieni

    2014-08-01

    Long-term storage and successful reactivation after storage are essential for practical applications of aerobic granules on wastewater treatment. This study cultivated aerobic granules (SI) in sequencing batch reactors and then stored the granules at 4 °C in five liquid media (DI water (SW), acetone (SA), acetone/isoamyl acetate mix (SAA), saline water (SS), and formaldehyde (SF)) for over 1 year. The first four granules were then successfully reactivated in 24h cultivation. The specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR) of the granules followed SI>SS>SA>SAA>SW>SF; and the corresponding granular strengths (10 min ultrasound) followed SI>SA=SS>SAA>SW>SF. During storage the granular cells secreted excess quantities of cyclic-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and pentaphosphate (ppGpp) as responses to the stringent challenges. We proposed that to force cells in granules (Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Clostridia) entering viable but non-culturable (VBNC) status is the key of success for extended period storage of granules. PMID:24950091

  4. Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Tagirov, B. R.

    2010-08-01

    The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for atomic power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually increases by 35-40 kt. To date, more than 1.6 Mt DU has accumulated in the world. The main DU mass is stored as environ-mentally hazardous uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is highly volatile and soluble in water with the formation of hydrofluoric acid. To ensure safe UF6 storage, it is necessary to convert this compound in chemically stable phases. The industrial reprocessing of UF6 into U3O8 and HF implemented in France is highly expensive. We substantiate the expediency of long-term storage of depleted uranium hexafluoride in underground repositories localized in limestone. On the basis of geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations, we show that interaction in the steel container-UF6-limestone-groundwater system gives rise to the development of a slightly alkaline reductive medium favorable for chemical reaction with formation of uraninite (UO2) and fluorite (CaF2). The proposed engineering solution not only ensures safe DU storage but also makes it possible to produce uraninite, which can be utilized, if necessary, in fast-neutron reactors. In the course of further investigations aimed at safe maintenance of DU, it is necessary to study the kinetics of conversion of UF6 into stable phases, involving laboratory and field experiments.

  5. Long-term storage life of light source modules by temperature cycling accelerated life test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningning, Sun; Manqing, Tan; Ping, Li; Jian, Jiao; Xiaofeng, Guo; Wentao, Guo

    2014-05-01

    Light source modules are the most crucial and fragile devices that affect the life and reliability of the interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). While the light emitting chips were stable in most cases, the module packaging proved to be less satisfactory. In long-term storage or the working environment, the ambient temperature changes constantly and thus the packaging and coupling performance of light source modules are more likely to degrade slowly due to different materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion in the bonding interface. A constant temperature accelerated life test cannot evaluate the impact of temperature variation on the performance of a module package, so the temperature cycling accelerated life test was studied. The main failure mechanism affecting light source modules is package failure due to solder fatigue failure including a fiber coupling shift, loss of cooling efficiency and thermal resistor degradation, so the Norris-Landzberg model was used to model solder fatigue life and determine the activation energy related to solder fatigue failure mechanism. By analyzing the test data, activation energy was determined and then the mean life of light source modules in different storage environments with a continuously changing temperature was simulated, which has provided direct reference data for the storage life prediction of IFOG.

  6. Influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality of whole chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetti, Mahadev B; Deepa, G T; Antony, Roshny T; Khetagoudar, Mahadev C; Uppar, Dodappa S; Navalgatti, Channappa M

    2014-10-01

    Investigations were carried out to study the influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality in red chilli. Chilli fruits were stored in vacuum packed and jute bags at two moisture levels (10 % and 12 %) in room and cold environments under both light and dark conditions for a period of 24 months. During storage period, average room and cool chamber temperatures were 25 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 1 °C, respectively. Changes of moisture (Halogen moisture analyzer), capsaicin (HPLC-UV), oleoresin and total extractable colour (spectrophotometer) were analyzed at 3 months interval up to 12 months and 6 months interval from 12 to 24 months. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) and Duncan's test were applied to the analytical data to evaluate the effect of treatments applied. It was observed that the vacuum packed chillies under cold storage were found to have the least per cent decline in various quality parameters. Chillies with 12 % moisture and stored in vacuum packaged bags recorded better quality parameters over 10 % moisture. PMID:25328233

  7. Long-term storage and safe retrieval of human papillomavirus DNA using FTA elute cards.

    PubMed

    Barth, Heidi; Morel, Adrien; Mougin, Christiane; Averous, Gerlinde; Legrain, Michèle; Fender, Muriel; Risch, Simone; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Velten, Michel; Oudet, Pierre; Baldauf, Jean-Jacques; Stoll-Keller, Françoise

    2016-03-01

    Biobanking or collection and storage of specimens for future research purposes have become an essential tool in many fields of biomedical research and aims to provide a better understanding of disease mechanisms as well as the identification of disease-specific biomarkers that can navigate in complex diseases. In this study, we assessed the use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards as a long-term storage device for cervical specimens with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. HPV detection and genotyping results in liquid-based transport media were compared to HPV results from FTA cards. The overall agreement for the presence of any HPV infection between liquid-based medium and FTA cards stored for 1 year at ambient temperature was 100%. Reproducibility analysis of HPV detection and genotyping from FTA cards demonstrated that FTA cards are a reliable medium to store and preserve viral nucleic acids. Biobanking of cervical cells on FTA cards may provide a key resource for epidemiological and retrospective HPV studies. PMID:26721377

  8. Stability of Cry1Ab protein during long-term storage for standardization of insect bioassays.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang Thu; Jehle, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    The reliable use of purified Cry1Ab protein standards is a prerequisite for ecological studies and resistance monitoring programs of Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic corn. In this study the stability and activity of different Cry1Ab protein batches expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli were determined during two-year storage at different temperature conditions (4 degrees C, -20 degrees C, and -80 degrees C). SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed degradation of the protein stored at 4 degrees C over four months, whereas no difference in the band intensity of the Cry1Ab proteins stored at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C was observed. Bioassays with neonate larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis indicated that the biological activity of Cry1Ab varied from batch to batch, depending on the production process. Cry1Ab protein stored at 4 degrees C for four months showed a significantly decreasing activity measured as median lethal concentration (LC(50)), whereas the protein activity declined less than 11-fold after two years storage at -20 degrees C. When stored at -80 degrees C the toxin activity remained relatively stable for at least 30 months, as indicated by low LC(50) values of 7-10 ng Cry1Ab per cm(2) diet. These experiments demonstrate that appropriate long-term storage conditions of Cry1Ab protein standards are crucial for resistance monitoring programs of Bt corn, and storage at -80 degrees C is recommended. PMID:19833078

  9. Alpine Russet: A potato cultivar having long tuber dormancy making it suitable for processing from long-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpine Russet is a later maturing, oblong-long, lightly russeted potato cultivar, notable for having tuber dormancy comparable to Russet Burbank. Processing quality of Alpine Russet from long-term storage is superior to Russet Burbank, with low percent reducing sugars and uniform fry color due to a...

  10. Physical state of L-histidine after freeze-drying and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, T; Wadsten, T

    1999-08-01

    Liquid samples of L-histidine of varying pH values and mixed with salt, metal ions, polysorbate 80 and sucrose have been analysed by differential scanning calorimetry to evaluate the influence of these additives on the glass transition temperature and crystallisation of L-histidine during freezing and thawing. L-Histidine solutions of varying pH were freeze-dried with and without a thermal cycle and the physical state of the freeze-dried cakes, following long-term storage, were studied by powder X-ray diffraction. Amorphous L-histidine crystallised when it was exposed to moisture, and the identity of the crystalline materials is reported. The crystallisation of L-histidine during freezing and thawing is dependent on the pH of the solution and is shown to be at a minimum at pH 6, which coincides with the pK(a) of the imidazoline function. Sucrose inhibited the crystallisation of L-histidine during thawing, while sodium chloride or polysorbate 80 did not. The addition of metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) up to 10% (w/w) did not depress the glass transition temperature significantly, while the addition of Zn2+ increased it. The physical state of L-histidine after freeze-drying is shown to be dependent on both the pH of the solution and the freezing cycle. The risk of crystallisation of amorphous L-histidine is low if the freeze-dried material is protected from moisture. PMID:10425380

  11. Exploring the Potential for Long-term Storage of Depleted Peridotite in the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. J.; Parman, S.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasingly powerful body of evidence indicating early, episodic extraction of material from the mantle during the Pre-Cambrian [e.g. 1,2]. These melt extraction events would inevitably have led to large- scale formation of depleted lithospheric mantle. Recent data from Helium and Osmium isotopic systems indicate an important role for ancient, depleted components in the mantle source regions of modern oceanic basalts [3,4]. The implication is that discrete fragments of ancient depleted lithosphere are stored in the mantle over long timescales, presumably through the mechanism of subduction. Melt extraction from fertile peridotite in the upper mantle yields a solid residue that ranges from depleted lherzolite to harzburgite or dunite. In the upper mantle the mineralogy of depleted peridotite is dominated by olivine and opx, and in the transition zone olivine undergoes polymorphic transitions and pyroxene converts to majorite. Depleted peridotite then transforms into an assemblage of Mg-perovskite and ferropericlase at about 670 km. For any given isotherm, depleted peridotite is less dense than fertile mantle throughout the upper mantle, and negative buoyancy can only occur in cold slabs. In the lower mantle depleted peridotite is enriched in ferropericlase relative to fertile mantle and recent experimental results indicate that KD (Pv/FP) may be a factor of 3 to 5 greater in fertile compositions than in depleted compositions, causing an increase in the Fe content of ferropericlase in depleted compositions. Whether or not discrete fragments of depleted peridotite can remain negatively buoyant in the deep mantle depends on many factors including temperature, the modal abundance of minerals and their relative compressibilities, and the amount of iron and its spin state in depleted and fertile lithologies. Here we present petrologic, geochemical and mineral physical modeling to investigate the potential for long-term storage of depleted peridotite as a

  12. The TDR: A Repository for Long Term Storage of Geophysical Data and Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Baltzer, T.; Caron, J.

    2006-12-01

    support storage of many large data products, the LEAD implementation of the TDR will provide a variety of data movement options, including gridftp. It will have a web service interface and will be callable programmatically as well as via interactive user requests. Future plans include the use of a mass storage device to provide robust long term storage. This talk will present the current state of the TDR effort.

  13. Long-term storage and transport length scale of fine sediment: Analysis of a mercury release into a river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, J. E.

    2014-08-01

    Excessive suspended sediment concentrations create important water quality problems, but scientists disagree on how to predict its movement through watersheds. Most models assume that fine-grained sediment moves rapidly far downstream, without recognizing the importance of episodic, long-term storage. Here a historic industrial release of mercury is interpreted as a decadal sediment tracer experiment, releasing sediment particles "tagged" with mercury that are deposited on floodplains. As expected, floodplain mercury inventories decrease exponentially downstream, with a characteristic decay length of 10 km (95% confidence interval: 5-25 km) that defines the distance suspended particles typically move downstream before entering storage. Floodplain mercury inventories are not significantly different above and below three colonial age mill dams (present at the time of mercury release but now breached), suggesting that these results reflect ongoing processes. Suspended sediment routing models that neglect long-term storage, and the watershed management plans based on them, may need revision.

  14. Long Term Storage with Surveillance of Canadian Prototype Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Janzen, Rick

    2008-01-15

    Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) was originally formed by the government of Canada in 1952 to perform research in radiation and nuclear areas. In the mid 1950's Canada decided to limit itself to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and AECL embarked on several research and development programs, one of them being the development of nuclear power plants. This led to the development of the CANDU{sup TM} design of heavy water power reactors, of which there are now 29 operating around the world. This presentation discusses the present state of the first two CANDU{sup TM} prototype reactors and a prototype boiling light water reactor and lessons learnt after being in a long-term storage with surveillance state for more than 20 years. AECL facilities undergo decommissioning by either a prompt or a deferred removal approach. Both approaches are initiated after an operating facility has been declared redundant and gone through final operational shutdown. For the deferred approach, initial decommissioning activities are performed to put the facility into a sustainable, safe, shutdown state to minimize the hazards and costs of the ensuing extended storage with surveillance (SWS) or Safestor phase. At the appropriate time, the facility is dismantled and removed, or put into a suitable condition for re-use. AECL has a number of facilities that were built during its history, and some of these are now redundant or will become redundant in the near future. The deferred removal approach is part of AECL's decommissioning strategy for several reasons: 1. Reduction in radiation doses to workers during the final dismantling, 2. No facilities are available yet in Canada for the management of quantity of wastes arising from decommissioning, 3. Financial constraints presented by the number of facilities that will undergo decommissioning, compared to the availability of funds to carry out the work. This has led to the development of a comprehensive decommissioning plan that includes all of AECL

  15. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  16. Development of preservation prediction chart for long term storage of fermented cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-flavors and odors in fermented cucumbers result from the growth of undesirable microorganisms during the secondary fermentation. Under laboratory conditions using a sterile fermented cucumber slurry medium, the spoilage fermentations were reproduced. Using this system the salt and pH conditions ...

  17. Interacting Factors That Influence Long-term Storage of Live Pasteurella tularensis Vaccine and Rift Valley Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Frederick; Walker, Jerry S.; Mahlandt, Bill G.; Carter, Richard C.; Orlando, Michael D.; Weirether, Francis J.; Lincoln, Ralph E.

    1969-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the interaction of various parameters which affect the storage stability and growth potential of liquid cultures of Pasteurella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) and Rift Valley fever virus Van Wyk strain (RVFV). Storage variables studied with LVS included four storage temperatures (4, -20, -65, -175 C), single and multiple freeze-thaw cycles, two freezing and two thawing rates (slow and fast), various inoculum levels (1, 3, 5, and 10%) for the determination of growth potential, and the retention of immunizing potential (mice and guinea pig) after storage. Neither the freezing rate nor the number of freeze-thaw cycles seriously affected the growth of LVS after storage at -175C; however, the slow rate of thaw proved deleterious as were all temperatures of storage except -175 C after 1 year of storage, as shown by both criteria of evaluation. RVFV produced in two combinations of cell lines and media (LM cell line-199 peptone medium and LDR cell line-Eagle's minimum essential medium) was stored at three serum levels (10, 20, 40%), three pH values (6.2., 7.0, 7.8), and three temperatures (-20, -65, -175 C). These studies indicated: (i) virus produced in the LDR cell line and Eagle's medium was more stable than that produced in the LM cell line and 199 peptone medium for either short- or long-term storage; (ii) serum levels did not affect stability; and (iii) low pH resulted in losses during long-term storage under all conditions tested. Thus, cryogenic storage is advantageous for stock culture maintenance of bacteria and viruses and for other similar applications. PMID:5780399

  18. Conditions required for high quality high magnification images in secondary electron-I scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peters, K R

    1982-01-01

    High quality of secondary electron (SE) images, taken at useful magnifications of 100,000 to 200,000, require new signal generation and collection methods and new metal coating procedures. High quality is defined as the condition under which image contrast describes accurately the topographic features of the specimen in a size range that approximates the beam diameter. Such high resolution contrasts are produced by the SE (SE-I) generated by a small electron probe on the specimen surface. Tobacco mosiac virus and ferritin molecules deposited on bulk substrates were introduced as test specimens to check the image quality obtained. The SE-I signal contrast could be imaged when SE (SE-III), produced by backscattered electrons (BSE) at the pole piece of the final lens, were eliminated with an electron absorption device attached to the pole piece. This signal collection procedure will be referred to as "Secondary Electron-I Image" (SE-I image) mode. In addition to the SE-III, BSE generate SE-II in the specimen itself. On specimens deposited on bulk gold or platinum, and coated with the same metals SE-II produced a microroughness contrast that limited particle resolution in the SE-I image mode to approximately 10 nm. Reduction of SE-II and enrichment of the signal in SE-I was achieved by using continuous fine crystalline coatings of tantalum, niobium and chromium. By applying these metals in films of approximately 2.0 nm thickness, the SE-I contrast generation was found to be indepedent of the atomic number of the metal. Edge sharpness was improved when the specimens were coated with low atomic number metals. Under these conditions, the quality of images obtained in SE-I image mode equals that of images obtained in TEM from identically coated specimens and was limited only by the size of the topographic details, beam diameter and beam current. PMID:7184136

  19. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul H; Narlesky, Joshua E; Worl, Laura A; Gillispie, Obie W

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  20. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Stroud, Mary Ann; Smith, Paul Herrick; Wayne, David M.; Mason, Richard E.; Worl, Laura A.

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  1. Evaluation of the Universal Viral Transport system for long-term storage of virus specimens for microbial forensics.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2015-08-01

    Forensic microbial specimens, including bacteria and viruses, are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes. Although it is preferable that the pathogens in these samples are alive and kept in a steady state, the samples may be stored for prolonged periods before analysis. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of storage conditions on the pathogens contained within such samples. To evaluate the capacity to preserve viable virus and the viral genome, influenza virus was added to the transport medium of the Universal Viral Transport system and stored for over 3 months at various temperatures, after which virus titrations and quantitative analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene were performed. Although viable viruses became undetectable 29 days after the medium was stored at room temperature, viruses in the medium stored at 4°C were viable even after 99 days. A quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin gene was maintained for 99 days at both 4°C and room temperature. Therefore, long-term storage at 4°C has little effect on viable virus and viral genes, so the Universal Viral Transport system can be useful for microbial forensics. This study provides important information for the handling of forensic virus specimens. PMID:26165655

  2. Assessment of long-term storage on antimicrobial and cyclooxygenase-inhibitory properties of South African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Amoo, Stephen O; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Moyo, Mack; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    In traditional medicine, plant materials are often stored by traditional healers, plant gatherers and traders before they are eventually consumed or sold. The critical point is whether stored medicinal plants are as active as freshly harvested dried material. We evaluated the effects of long-term storage (12 or 16 years) on the antimicrobial (microplate dilution method) and anti-inflammatory (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition) potencies of 21 extensively used traditional medicinal plants in treating pain and infection-related ailments. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values obtained against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the stored plant materials were generally either lower or roughly the same as in the fresh material. Most of the stored plant material had comparable minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values as the fresh material against S. aureus and P. aeruignosa. Similarly, the majority (71%) of the stored plant material had similar MIC and/or MMC values as fresh material against the fungus Candida albicans. The percentage inhibition of COX-1 by the majority (88%) of the stored material was not significantly different when compared to those freshly collected. Stored material of Clausena anisata, Ekebergia capensis and Trichilia dregeana showed a significantly higher COX-1 inhibition than the fresh material. The therapeutic and conservation implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22933443

  3. Development of a model system for the study of spoilage associated secondary cucumber fermentation during long term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium chloride fermentations represent an alternative to reduce chloride concentrations in the wastewaters generated from commercial cucumber fermentations, currently performed in cover brine solutions containing 6% to 12% sodium chloride. However, preliminary attempts to commercially ferment the ...

  4. Stability of anthocyanins in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries during long-term storage: in relation to glass transition.

    PubMed

    Syamaladevi, Roopesh M; Sablani, Shyam S; Tang, Juming; Powers, Joseph; Swanson, Barry G

    2011-08-01

    Anthocyanins, natural plant pigments in the flavonoid group, are responsible for the red color and some of the nutraceutical benefits of raspberries. This study explores anthocyanin degradation in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries during storage in relation to glass transition temperatures. Frozen raspberries were stored at -80, -35, and -20 °C, while freeze-dried raspberries were stored at selected water activity (a(w)) values ranging from 0.05 to 0.75 at room temperature (23 °C) for more than a year. The characteristic glass transition temperatures (T'(g)) of raspberries with high water content and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of raspberries with small water content were determined using a differential scanning calorimeter. The pH differential method was used to determine the quantity of anthocyanins in frozen and freeze-dried raspberries at selected time intervals. The total anthocyanins in raspberries fluctuated during 378 d of storage at -20 and -35, and -80 °C. Anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries ranged from 27% to 32% and 78% to 89% at a(w) values of 0.05 to 0.07 and 0.11 to 0.43, respectively, after 1 y. Anthocyanins were not detectable in freeze-dried raspberries stored at a(w) values of 0.53 to 0.75 after 270 d. First order and Weibull equations were used to fit the anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries. The 1(st)-order rate constant (k) of anthocyanin degradation ranged from 0.003 to 0.023 days⁻¹ at the selected water activities. Significant anthocyanin degradation occurred in both the glassy and rubbery states of freeze-dried raspberries during long-term storage. However, the rate of anthocyanin degradation in freeze-dried raspberries stored in the glassy state was significantly smaller than the rate of anthocyanin degradation in the rubbery state. PMID:22417493

  5. Isolation of high-quality RNA from Reaumuria soongorica, a desert plant rich in secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohua; Xiao, Honglang; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhao, Xin; Huang, Chenghong; Chen, Cuiyun; Wang, Fang

    2011-06-01

    RNA isolation is a prerequisite for the study of the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in the desert plant Reaumuria soongorica, an extreme xeric semi-shrub. However, R. soongorica that contains high levels of secondary metabolites that co-precipitate with RNA, making RNA isolation difficult. Here the authors propose a new protocol suitable for isolating high-quality RNA from the leaves of R. soongorica. Based on a CTAB method described by Liu et al., the protocol has been improved as follows: the samples were ground with PVPP to effectively inhibit the oxidation of phenolics, contaminating DNA was removed with DNase I, and NaAc was used along with ethanol for precipitation to enhance the RNA yield and shorten the precipitation time. Gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometric analysis indicated that this isolation method provides RNA with no DNA contamination. Moreover, the yield (183.79 ± 40.36 μg/g) and quality were superior to those using the method of Liu et al., which yields RNA with significant DNA contamination at 126.30 ± 29.43 μg/g. Gene amplification showed that the RNA obtained using this protocol is suitable for use in downstream molecular procedures. This method was found to work equally well for isolating RNA from other desert plants. Thus, it is likely to be widely applicable. PMID:21136208

  6. Application of Polymers for the Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, Hugues W.; Walker, Michael W.; Bui, Van Tam

    2004-01-15

    differences in chemical transition temperatures characteristic of radiation damage. All the changes in these properties are characteristic of the cross-linking phenomenon. For the glass-fiber-reinforced polymers, the results of the tests evidenced minor radiation degradation at the fiber/matrix interfaces. Based on these results, any of the investigated polymers could potentially be used for disposal containers due to their abilities to adequately resist radiation. This allowed proceeding one step further into determining a potential design framework for containers for the long-term storage and disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste.

  7. Development of a cryopreservation protocol for long-term storage of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) spermatophores.

    PubMed

    Vuthiphandchai, V; Nimrat, S; Kotcharat, S; Bart, A N

    2007-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of cryoprotectants on sperm viability and develop a freezing protocol for long-term storage of P. monodon spermatophores. Spermatophores suspended for 30 min in calcium-free saline (Ca-F saline) containing the cryoprotectants dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG), 1,2-propylene glycol (PG), formamide, and methanol at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, or 20% were studied using a modified eosin-nigrosin staining technique. The smallest reductions in apparent sperm viability occurred with DMSO; therefore, a freezing protocol was developed using Ca-F saline containing 5% DMSO. Spermatophores were cryopreserved using three protocols; cooling to a final temperature of -30, -80 or -80 degrees C and immediately stored in liquid nitrogen (cooling rates of -2, -4, -6, -8, -10, -12, -14 or -16 degrees C/min). Frozen spermatophores were thawed (2 min) at 30, 60, 70, or 90 degrees C. Successful cryopreservation of spermatophores in liquid nitrogen was achieved by a one-step cooling rate of -2 degrees C/min between 25 and -80 degrees C before storing in liquid nitrogen. Optimal thawing was in a 30 degrees C water bath for 2 min; this yielded live sperm after storage in liquid nitrogen for 210 days. Average sperm viability for fresh (97.8+/-2.9%) and cryopreserved spermatophores held for less than 60 days (87.3+/-4.1%) did not differ (P>0.05); however, that for spermatophores stored in liquid nitrogen between 90 and 210 days were lower (P<0.05) and varied from 27.3+/-3.4 to 53.3+/-4.3%. Thawed spermatophores previously held in liquid nitrogen for less than 62 days fertilized eggs (fertilization and hatching rates of 71.6-72.2% and 63.6-64.1%, respectively) at rates comparable to fresh spermatophores (70.8-78.2% and 66.3-67.8%, respectively). In conclusion, sperm within cryopreserved spermatophores stored in liquid nitrogen retained their viability for up to 210 days. PMID:17900683

  8. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete

  9. Recruiting, Preparing, and Retaining High Quality Secondary Mathematics and Science Teachers for Urban Schools: The Cal Teach Experimental Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Xiaoxia A.; Jang, Heeju; Nunes, Nicci; Stone, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    Recruiting, preparing, and retaining high quality secondary mathematics and science teachers are three of the most critical problems in the nation's urban schools that serve a vast majority of children from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Although the factors contributing to these problems are complex, one area that has caught…

  10. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  11. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    titratable acidity decreased, while, pH increased in all samples in comparison with their initial value. Also, the SSC increased in samples treated with O3 at 20 ppm, CO2 at 70% and dipping. Finally, the sensory evaluation scores gave the decisive data for the selection of the best combination treatments in order to validate their efficiency and that of the film packaging on late season organic table grape "Scarlotta/Sugraninteen". The highest scores for crunchiness, firmness, sweetness and sourness were given to samples pretreated by dipping. In conclusion, the efficiency of both film packaging and MAP inhibited the occurrence of berries decay in all samples including the control. These preliminary results represent the first step to design a treatment approach and develop a postharvest protocol for organic table grapes assigned to long term storage or shipping.

  12. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  13. Vacuum-packed ripened sausages: evolution of oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of lipid fraction during long-term storage and influence on the sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to understand the oxidative and hydrolytic phenomena involving the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed sausages during long-term storage (5 months) and to verify their influence on the sensory characteristics. The data obtained pointed out that the oxidation was more pronounced in the initial stages of storage than in the further period, while the hydrolysis of lipid fraction significantly advanced during the whole storage time, supported by the high moisture level of the product. Both these phenomena resulted to be correlated with the sensory decay of the product. In particular, in the first stage of vacuum storage overall acceptability was found to be negatively correlated (p<0.05) with rancid taste, acid value, and oxidized triacylglycerols. In the further stage the oxidative processes slowed down and affected in a lesser extent the sensory properties, which were more distinctly characterized by the onset of pungent perception attributed to compounds arising from multiple origins such as carbohydrate fermentation. This investigation confirmed the unreliability of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test and the usefulness of high performance size exclusion chromatography analysis of the polar compounds of the lipid fraction to correctly determine the levels of the oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed ripened sausages during long-term storage. PMID:20374767

  14. Utilization of agro-wastes to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus: A biotreatment of three cereals for safe long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Sultana, B; Naseer, R; Nigam, Poonam

    2015-12-01

    The growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxins production were inhibited during storage of three important cereals (wheat, maize and rice) using leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia nilotica). Cereals were inoculated with mould spores and stabilized by neem and kikar leaves-powder. Test samples with moisture levels of 21% were stored at 30°C for a period of 9months. Aflatoxins were quantified at different time intervals in stored cereals. Neem leaves fully inhibited all types of aflatoxins synthesis for 4months in wheat and for 2months in maize while in rice inhibited synthesis of only B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxin for 3months. Kikar leaves fully inhibited aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2 for 3months in wheat, and for 2months in maize. Among two investigated plants, neem leaves were found more effective for preventing the production of all types of aflatoxins in cereals' long-term storage. PMID:26356116

  15. A new polymer-based laccase for decolorization of AO7: long-term storage and mediator reuse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Pan, Bingcai; Wu, Bing; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu

    2014-07-01

    To address the bottlenecks of laccase-based catalysis, i.e., poor long-term stability and potential secondary pollution caused by synthetic mediator, we fabricated a new biocatalyst (N-PS-Lac) through adsorption of laccase onto polystyrene anion exchangers (N-PS) binding quaternary ammonium groups. After 2-year storage, the residual activity of N-PS-Lac remained as high as 101.7%, while that for native laccase was only 14.6%. Also, N-PS-Lac exhibited improved durability against pH variation and thermal treatment at 60°C. Gaussian curve fitting of FT-IR spectra indicated that laccase conformation of N-PS-Lac was rigidified, possibly because of the host geometric restriction and the host-laccase electrostatic attraction. A two-step method, i.e., adsorption of an azo dye AO7 by N-PS and then ectopic degradation by the immobilized laccase, was proposed to reuse the mediator HOBT for seven cyclic runs, where N-PS-Lac kept the constant decolorization efficiency. AO7 solution was detoxified completely after decolorization by the two-step method. PMID:24862000

  16. Preservation of hemostatic and structural properties of rehydrated lyophilized platelets: potential for long-term storage of dried platelets for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Read, M S; Reddick, R L; Bode, A P; Bellinger, D A; Nichols, T C; Taylor, K; Smith, S V; McMahon, D K; Griggs, T R; Brinkhous, K M

    1995-01-17

    Currently, therapeutic platelet concentrates can be stored for only 5 days. We have developed a procedure that permits long-term storage of fixed and lyophilized platelets that retain hemostatic properties after rehydration. These rehydrated lyophilized platelets (RL platelets) restore hemostasis in thrombocytopenic rats and become incorporated in the hemostatic plug of bleeding time wounds of normal dogs as well as von Willebrand disease dogs with partially replenished plasma von Willebrand factor. Ultrastructurally, these platelets are well preserved and are comparable to control normal washed platelets. Flow cytometry analysis shows that RL platelets react with antibodies to the major surface receptors, glycoprotein (GP)Ib and GPIIb/IIIa. These receptors are involved in platelet agglutination, aggregation, and adhesion. In vitro functional tests document the ability of RL platelets to adhere to denuded subendothelium and to spread on a foreign surface. Circulating RL platelets participated in carotid arterial thrombus formation induced in normal canine subjects. The participation of RL platelets in these vital hemostatic properties suggests that with further development they could become a stable platelet product for transfusion. PMID:7831298

  17. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in 'Rocha' pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and phenolics concentration were studied. The higher IBD incidence in high CO2-stored fruits was positively correlated with fermentative metabolites and negatively with ascorbate and H2O2 concentrations, and it was linked to PPO activation. These results indicate that both the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms are involved in the occurrence of IBD in 'Rocha' pear. From the integration of the biochemical and enzymatic data, a schematic model illustrating the effects of high CO2 and low O2 in 'Rocha' pears during long-term storage was constructed. PMID:27118401

  18. Electronic nose and chiral-capillary electrophoresis in evaluation of the quality changes in commercial green tea leaves during a long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Mirasoli, Mara; Gotti, Roberto; Di Fusco, Massimo; Leoni, Alberto; Colliva, Carolina; Roda, Aldo

    2014-11-01

    Electronic nose and capillary electrophoresis were applied in quality control of green tea samples subjected to long-term storage. Twelve representative green teas were considered, available as an "aged" (tea leaves stored during a long-term period of two years) and/or "not aged" (fresh products) samples. Their infusions were analyzed by an electronic nose, equipped with an array of six metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors to obtain olfactive fingerprints of the volatile compounds in the infusions headspace. Upon training and chemometric analysis of acquired data (linear discriminant analysis), the electronic nose was found to be able in correctly classifying unknown samples as "aged" or "not aged". Concomitantly, the infusion samples were analyzed by Cyclodextrin-modified Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (CD-MEKC) for determination of catechins. The analysis of seven most represented catechins and the methylxanthines theobromine and caffeine revealed a general loss of the polyphenols in each of the considered aged samples (up to 45%, w/w). In addition, the applied enantioselective method based on (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HP-βCD) as chiral selector, was exploited for the estimation of (+)-Gallocatechin in the presence of (-)-Gallocatechin; the latter, as the non-native enantiomer, can be associated to the epimerisation of (-)-Epigallocatechin and was assumed as a marker occurring in case of uncorrected storage conditions of tea leaves. Interestingly, it was observed that epimerization did not significantly occur during aging. The application of CD-MEKC and electronic nose allowed for a fast characterization of green teas taking into account that the aroma is a decisive parameter for the acceptance of the product, whereas the catechins content is associated to the biological value. PMID:25127562

  19. Assessing antibody microarrays for space missions: effect of long-term storage, gamma radiation, and temperature shifts on printed and fluorescently labeled antibodies.

    PubMed

    de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A; Parro, Víctor

    2011-10-01

    Antibody microarrays are becoming frequently used tools for analytical purposes. A key factor for optimal performance is the stability of the immobilized (capturing) antibodies as well as those that have been fluorescently labeled to achieve the immunological test (tracers). This is especially critical for long-distance transport, field testing, or planetary exploration. A number of different environmental stresses may affect the antibody integrity, such as dryness, sudden temperature shift cycles, or, as in the case of space science, exposure to large quantities of the highly penetrating gamma radiation. Here, we report on the effect of certain stabilizing solutions for long-term storage of printed antibody microarrays under different conditions. We tested the effect of gamma radiation on printed and freeze- or vacuum-dried fluorescent antibodies at working concentrations (tracer antibodies), as well as the effect of multiple cycles of sudden and prolonged temperature shifts on the stability of fluorescently labeled tracer antibody cocktails. Our results show that (i) antibody microarrays are stable at room temperature when printed on stabilizing spotting solutions for at least 6 months, (ii) lyophilized and vacuum-dried fluorescently labeled tracer antibodies are stable for more than 9 months of sudden temperature shift cycles (-20°C to 25°C and 50°C), and (iii) both printed and freeze- or vacuum-dried fluorescent tracer antibodies are stable after several-fold excess of the dose of gamma radiation expected during a mission to Mars. Although different antibodies may exhibit different susceptibilities, we conclude that, in general, antibodies are suitable for use in planetary exploration purposes if they are properly treated and stored with the use of stabilizing substances. PMID:22007740

  20. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  1. Buffy coat specimens remain viable as a DNA source for highly multiplexed genome-wide genetic tests after long term storage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood specimen collection at an early study visit is often included in observational studies or clinical trials for analysis of secondary outcome biomarkers. A common protocol is to store buffy coat specimens for future DNA isolation and these may remain in frozen storage for many years. It is uncertain if the DNA remains suitable for modern genome wide association (GWA) genotyping. Methods We isolated DNA from 120 Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) clinical trial buffy coats sampling a range of storage times up to 9 years and other factors that could influence DNA yield. We performed TaqMan SNP and GWA genotyping to test whether the DNA retained integrity for high quality genetic analysis. Results We tested two QIAGEN automated protocols for DNA isolation, preferring the Compromised Blood Protocol despite similar yields. We isolated DNA from all 120 specimens (yield range 1.1-312 ug per 8.5 ml ACD tube of whole blood) with only 3/120 samples yielding < 10 ug DNA. Age of participant at blood draw was negatively associated with yield (mean change -2.1 ug/year). DNA quality was very good based on gel electrophoresis QC, TaqMan genotyping of 6 SNPs (genotyping no-call rate 1.1% in 702 genotypes), and excellent quality GWA genotyping data (maximum per sample genotype missing rate 0.64%). Conclusions When collected as a long term clinical trial or biobank specimen for DNA, buffy coats can be stored for up to 9 years in a -80degC frozen state and still produce high yields of DNA suitable for GWA analysis and other genetic testing. Trial Registration The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00000620. PMID:21663644

  2. Origin of Long-Term Storage Stability and Nitric Oxide Release Behavior of CarboSil Polymer Doped with S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine.

    PubMed

    Wo, Yaqi; Li, Zi; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Colletta, Alessandro; Wu, Jianfeng; Major, Terry C; Xi, Chuanwu; Bartlett, Robert H; Matzger, Adam J; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-10-14

    The prolonged and localized delivery of nitric oxide (NO), a potent antithrombotic and antimicrobial agent, has many potential biomedical applications. In this work, the origin of the long-term storage stability and sustained NO release mechanism of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine (SNAP)-doped CarboSil 20 80A polymer, a biomedical thermoplastic silicone-polycarbonate-urethane, is explored. Long-term (22 days) localized NO release is achieved by utilizing a cross-linked silicone rubber as topcoats, which can greatly reduce the amount of SNAP, NAP, and NAP disulfide leaching from the SNAP-doped CarboSil films, as measured by LC-MS. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction characterization of SNAP-doped CarboSil films demonstrate that a polymer-crystal composite is formed during the solvent evaporation process when SNAP exceeds its solubility in CarboSil (ca. 3.4-4.0 wt %). Further, when exceeding this solubility threshold, SNAP exists in an orthorhombic crystal form within the bulk of the polymer. The proposed mechanism of sustained NO release in SNAP-doped CarboSil is that the solubilized SNAP in the polymer matrix decomposes and releases NO, primarily in the water-rich regions near the polymer/solution interface, and the dissolved SNAP in the bulk polymeric phase becomes unsaturated, resulting in the dissolution of crystalline SNAP within the bulk of the polymer. This is a very slow process that ultimately leads to NO release at the physiological flux levels for >3 weeks. The increased stability of SNAP within CarboSil is attributed to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the SNAP molecules that crystallize. This crystallization also plays a key role in maintaining RSNO stability within the CarboSil polymer for >8 months at 37 °C (88.5% remains). Further, intravascular catheters fabricated with this new material are demonstrated to significantly decrease the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm (a leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream

  3. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants. PMID:26600686

  4. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  5. A Tissue Retrieval and Postharvest Processing Regimen for Rodent Reproductive Tissues Compatible with Long-Term Storage on the International Space Station and Postflight Biospecimen Sharing Program

    PubMed Central

    Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F.; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at −80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities. PMID:25654107

  6. A tissue retrieval and postharvest processing regimen for rodent reproductive tissues compatible with long-term storage on the international space station and postflight biospecimen sharing program.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at -80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities. PMID:25654107

  7. Long-term storage of authentic postmortem forensic blood samples at -20°C: measured concentrations of benzodiazepines, central stimulants, opioids and certain medicinal drugs before and after storage for 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Andresen, Wenche; Smith-Kielland, Anne; Mørland, Jørg

    2014-01-01

    The long-term stability of benzodiazepines, opioids, central stimulants and medicinal drugs in authentic postmortem blood samples was studied. All together, 73 samples were reanalyzed after storage at -20°C for 16-18 years. At reanalysis samples containing diazepam, nordiazepam and flunitrazepam demonstrated only small changes during long-term storage when mean and median drug concentrations were compared, while clonazepam concentrations tended to decrease. Samples containing amphetamine, morphine, codeine and 'acidic' medicinal drugs as paracetamol and meprobamate also showed small changes over 16-18 years in mean and median drug concentrations at a group level. For many drugs, however, single samples could demonstrate marked concentration changes, both increases and decreases during storage. For 'alkaline' medicinal drugs, concentration losses were observed in most cases. PMID:25015743

  8. The autophagy-related protein LC3 is processed in stallion spermatozoa during short-and long-term storage and the related stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, I M; Martin Muñoz, P; Salido, G M; Peña, F J; Tapia, J A

    2016-07-01

    Use of cooled and frozen semen is becoming increasingly prevalent in the equine industry. However, these procedures cause harmful effects in the sperm cell resulting in reduced cell lifespan and fertility rates. Apoptosis and necrosis-related events are increased during semen cryopreservation. However, a third type of cell death, named autophagy, has not been studied during equine semen storage. Light chain (LC)3 protein is a key component of the autophagy pathway. Under autophagy activation, LC3-I is lipidated and converted to LC3-II. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I is widely used as a marker of autophagy activation. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether LC3 is processed during cooling, freezing and the stressful conditions associated with these technologies. A secondary objective was to determine if LC3 processing can be modulated and if that may improve the quality of cryopreserved semen. LC3 processing was studied by Western blot with a specific antibody that recognized both LC3-I and LC3-II. Viability was assessed by flow cytometry. Modulation of LC3-I to LC3-II was studied with known autophagy activators (STF-62247 and rapamycin) or inhibitors (chloroquine and 3-MA) used in somatic cells. The results showed that conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II increased significantly during cooling at 4°C, freezing/thawing and each of the stressful conditions tested (UV radiation, oxidative stress, osmotic stress and changes in temperature). STF-62247 and rapamycin increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and decreased the viability of equine sperm, whereas chloroquine and 3-MA inhibited LC3 processing and maintained the percentage of viable cells after 2 h of incubation at 37°C. Finally, refrigeration at 4°C for 96 h and freezing at -196°C in the presence of chloroquine and 3-MA resulted in higher percentages of viable cells. In conclusion, results showed that an 'autophagy-like' mechanism may be involved in the regulation of sperm viability during equine semen

  9. Long Term Storage of Mojave Seed Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased occurrence of wildfires throughout the west is an extremely serious challenge for resource managers and researchers. In recent years the invasion of the exotic annual grass, red brome (Bromus rubens), has increased the ignition as well as the rate, spread and frequency of wildfires th...

  10. Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhanbei; Keeley, Ann

    2012-11-15

    Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate the applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR heat induced hsp70 mRNA in water samples spiked with oocysts. Changes in viability of flow cytometry sorted fresh and oocysts having undergone various aging periods (up to 48 months at 4 °C) were evaluated by Ct values obtained from the qPCR before and after disinfection scenarios involving ammonia or hydrogen peroxide. Both qPCR methods achieved stability in dose dependent responses by hydrogen peroxide treatment in distilled water that proved their suitability for the viability evaluations. Oocysts exposed to 3% hydrogen peroxide were inactivated at a rate of 0.26 h(-1) and 0.93 h(-1), as measured by the mRNA assay and the PMA-DNA assay, respectively. In contrast, the PMA-DNA assay was not as sensitive as the mRNA assay in detecting viability alterations followed by exposure to ammonia or after a long-term storage in 4 °C in distilled water since no dose response dependency was achieved. Surface water concentrates containing enhanced suspendable solids determined that changes in viability were frequently detected only by the mRNA method. Failure of, or inconsistency in the detection of oocysts viability with the PMA-DNA method, apparently resulted from solids that might have reduced light penetration through the samples, and thus inhibited the cross-linking step of PMA-DNA assay. PMID:22980572

  11. High-quality imaging in environmental scanning electron microscopy - optimizing the pressure limiting system and the secondary electron detection of a commercially available ESEM.

    PubMed

    Fitzek, H; Schroettner, H; Wagner, J; Hofer, F; Rattenberger, J

    2016-04-01

    In environmental scanning electron microscopy applications in the kPa regime are of increasing interest for the investigation of wet and biological samples, because neither sample preparation nor extensive cooling are necessary. Unfortunately, the applications are limited by poor image quality. In this work the image quality at high pressures of a FEI Quanta 600 (field emission gun) and a FEI Quanta 200 (thermionic gun) is greatly improved by optimizing the pressure limiting system and the secondary electron (SE) detection system. The scattering of the primary electron beam strongly increases with pressure and thus the image quality vanishes. The key to high-image quality at high pressures is to reduce scattering as far as possible while maintaining ideal operation conditions for the SE-detector. The amount of scattering is reduced by reducing both the additional stagnation gas thickness (aSGT) and the environmental distance (ED). A new aperture holder is presented that significantly reduces the aSGT while maintaining the same field-of-view (FOV) as the original design. With this aperture holder it is also possible to make the aSGT even smaller at the expense of a smaller FOV. A new blade-shaped SE-detector is presented yielding better image quality than usual flat SE-detectors. The electrode of the new SE detector is positioned on the sample table, which allows the SE-detector to operate at ideal conditions regardless of pressure and ED. PMID:26540292

  12. The long-term storage of cryo-preserved materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, K.

    Were traces of oestrogen present in veal ten years ago, or has it been used for only a short time very recently? There is no scientist who can answer this question, even with the most advanced analytical techniques. This is because unchanged reference specimens from ten years ago are not available. The Cryo-Bank-Krefeld was set up in West Germany at the beginning of 1980, offering facilities for the storage of all types of substances for posterity by preservation with liquid nitrogen.

  13. Stability of Schmallenberg virus during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus that infects ruminants, caused a large epidemic in European livestock since its emergence in 2011. For the in vitro characterization of this hitherto unknown virus as well as for antibody detection tests like indirect immunofluorescence and neutralization test infectious virus is necessary. To determine the most suitable storage temperature, culture-grown SBV was kept at 37°C, 28°C, 4°C, -20°C and -70°C for up to one year. A storage at 37°C led to a complete loss of infectivity within days and at 28°C within a few weeks. When stored at 4°C the infectious titer decreased dependent on the starting quantity, whereas the viral titer was almost constant for a month at -20°C and remained constant for the study period when stored at -70°C. Consequently, SBV should be kept at -70°C, if retention of infectivity is required. PMID:27169152

  14. Long-term storage of nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1987-01-01

    Representative samples of nickel hydrogen cells for the INTELSAT program were used to evaluate the effects of prolonged storage under passive conditions such as open circuit discharged at 0 C, room temperature, and -20 C, and under quasidynamic conditions such as top-off charge and trickle charge. Cell capacity declines when cells are stored open-circuit discharged at room temperature, and a second plateau occurs in the discharge curve. Capacity loss was 47 percent for a cell with hydrogen precharge and 24.5 percent for one with no hydrogen precharge. Capacity recovery was observed following top-off charge storage of cells which had exhibited faded capacity as a result of passive storage at room temperature. Cells stored either at -20 C or on trickle charge maintained their capacity. At 0 C storage, the capacity of all three cells under tests was greater than 55 Ah (which exceeds the required minimum of 44 Ah) after 7 months.

  15. Cryopreservation of pecan pollen for long-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] breeding and conservation programs benefit from having reliable pollen preservation protocols. Air-dried pollen harvested in 2007 and 2008 from the USDA-ARS Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program in Somerville, TX was sent to the USDA-ARS National Center f...

  16. High-quality breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, R Edward

    2014-05-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demands the competing factors of high spatial resolution, good temporal resolution, high signal-to-noise ratios, and complete bilateral breast coverage. Achieving these competing factors requires modern MRI equipment with high magnetic field strength and homogeneity, high maximum gradient strength with short rise times, dedicated multichannel bilateral breast coils with prone patient positioning, and 3D (volume) gradient-echo MRI pulse sequences with short TR, short TE, high spatial resolution, and reasonably short acquisition times. This article discusses the equipment and pulse sequences needed to achieve high-quality breast MRI and summarizes requirements of the ACR Breast MRI Accreditation Program. PMID:24792656

  17. Excellence through High-Quality Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard W.; Klingstedt, Joe Lars

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a strategy employing challenge, functionalism, high-order learning, and originality to achieve high-quality individualization in course work. Asserts that individualized instruction better prepares students to solve problems, make decisions, and produce original ideas. (MM)

  18. Characteristics of High-Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jason E.; Gulek, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of high-quality teachers who used a structured mathematics program for teaching, namely the Math Achievement Program (MAP[superscript 2]D), which demonstrated significant gains on student achievement as measured by California's Standards Test (CST) in mathematics. Specifically, the…

  19. Students' Perceptions of High Quality Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes a study that sought to identify the attributes of high-quality science teachers at the junior high school level from the point of view of recent ex-students. Students described their best science teachers as presenting interesting and well-integrated hands-on activities, using a range of strategies to make lessons fun and interesting for…

  20. Teacher Resilience in High-Poverty Schools: How Do High-Quality Teachers Become Resilient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kate Mansi

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand how high-quality teachers who began their career through Teach For America (TFA) became resilient while teaching in challenging, high-poverty schools. A secondary purpose of this study was to ascertain how, if at all, the teaching experiences of TFA teachers who stayed in the profession differed…

  1. Setting standards for high-quality placements.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead, Susan; Farran, Sean; Bateman, Ian

    As part of a project undertaken by a local education and training board, a wide range of stakeholders across South London were asked what makes a high-quality practice placement for student nurses, and how that quality could be effectively measured. This article outlines the drafting and testing of a set of quality standards in a mix of provider settings. Although further refinement is required, the standards enabled placement sites to question themselves about their own education and training processes, strengthened their partnership with the training and education board and facilitated the assurance that student nurses receive safe, effective and compassionate preparation when they are on placement. PMID:26434190

  2. Long term storage test of titanium material with liquid fluorine propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denson, J. R.; English, W. D.; Roth, J.; Toy, A.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of 6AL-4V Ti with propellant grade GF2 and LF2 at 77 K for up to 3 years was investigated. Titanium double coupons, annealed or heat treated, with 16 or 64 RMS finishes, were immersed in F2 in individual Pyrex capsules and stored under LN2 for 29 and 39 months. Pre and post immersion tests were performed on the propellant and coupons. Chemical analysis of the propellant did not reveal any significant changes due to titanium corrosion. Gravimetric, visual, microscopic, and metallurgical examination with pitting analysis did not reveal gross corrosion of the titanium although pitting appears to be greater after 39 months exposure. The increase in pit size and number raises the possibility of unpredictable crack propagation instability. Fracture toughness tests are necessary to define this possibility.

  3. Cryopreservation of Raspberry Cultivars: Testing Techniques for Long-Term Storage of Kazakhstan's Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic resources of vegetatively propagated plants are usually maintained in field genebanks. In vitro methods play an important role as backup collections for these irreplaceable plants. Medium-term backups can be held as in vitro cultures in cold storage for several years, but also remain at ...

  4. The effect of long-term storage on the quality of sterilized processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Buňková, Leona; Pospiech, Matej; Vítová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect three different storage temperatures (6, 23 and 40 °C) on the sterilized processed cheese quality during 24-month storage. Sterilized processed cheese (SPC) is a product with extended shelf life (up to 2 years). The samples of SPC were subjected to basic chemical analyses, i.e. pH-values, dry matter, fat, crude protein and ammonia content, and microbiological analyses, i.e. total number of microorganisms, number of coliforms, colony forming units of yeasts and/or moulds and spore-forming microorganisms. Furthermore, amino acid content (ion-exchange chromatography), protein profile (SDS-PAGE) and fat globules size (image analysis of microscopic technique) were monitored and sensory analysis (scale test and pair comparative test) was implemented, too. Increasing storage temperature and length evoked decrease of total amino acid content and protein nutrition value, increase of ammonia amount, protein changes, enlargement of fat globule size and deterioration of sensory properties of SPC. All the changes grew expressive with increasing storage temperature and time. PMID:26243918

  5. Analysis of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB in postmortem matrices after long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Isenschmid, Daniel S; Hepler, Bradford R; Kanluen, Sawait

    2005-01-01

    Postmortem heart blood, peripheral blood, vitreous humor, urine, and bile specimens from 26 autopsy cases were analyzed for the presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-methyl gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (4-Me-GHB) after long-term freezer storage. Cases were selected for which exogenous GHB, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), gamma valerolactone (GVL), or 1,4-butanediol use was not suspected. One documented positive GHB case subjected to the same storage conditions was also evaluated for comparison. Specimens did not contain any preservatives or additives except heart blood, which contained sodium fluoride (2% w/v). The results of the analysis for GHB in vitreous humor (n = 26) demonstrated, with one exception, concentrations below the limit of detection for the method (5 mg/L). In the exception case, the value was determined to be 7 mg/L. Documented cases of GHB positive fatalities showed vitreous humor concentrations (n = 6) that exceeded this range by a factor of 12 or more. There was no apparent relationship between storage times and GHB concentrations. The data developed in this study demonstrate a postmortem endogenous range for GHB in vitreous humor that is less than or equal to 7 mg/L. Studies of the stored GHB-positive case demonstrated no significant change in concentration over the time period studied. None of the specimens analyzed in this study contained detectable amounts of 4-Me-GHB. This would support the contention that when 4-Me-GHB is detected, it is most likely due to the exogenous consumption of GVL. PMID:15808012

  6. A study of a container for long term storage of high level waste using finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Ladkany, S.G. ); Kniss, B.R. )

    1992-01-01

    Designs of selected components for a container are evaluated based on conservative loads and assumptions. The items selected for evaluation are a pintle and possible container topheads. An existing pintle for use in another application is evaluated under a more severe axial load. The results show that the pintle is adequate with the existing design to a safety factor of at least three. Improvements are suggested which raises this safety factor to approximately six. Several flat tophead designs are evaluated for stress under an annular load. The parameter selected for evaluation is the thickness of the circular plate. Results from a 1.5 inch thick plate are below a safety factor of three. Results with a 2 inch plate are improved, but marginal. Analysis results indicate that a thicker pintle or a stiffer plate will improve the design. Several curved tophead shapes are analyzed under an annular load. The ASME flanged and dished shape displays more desirable properties than others. A critical parameter is identified and changed to provide acceptable stress levels.

  7. Characterization of Compaction and Dryout Properties of KE Basin Sludge During Long-Term Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Poloski, Adam P.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2005-02-28

    The long-term behavior of Hanford Site K Basin sludge with respect to loss of supernatant water and solids compaction is important in designing sludge storage and handling systems. This report describes the results of laboratory tests performed to understand and predict K Basin sludge drying and compaction rates under extended (28-month) {approx}34 C hot cell storage. Tests were conducted with six K Basin sludge materials, a control sample of simulated K Basin sludge, and a control sample containing only K Basin supernatant liquid. All samples were held in graduated cylinders fitted with threaded plastic caps. Quantitative data were gathered on how the mass and volume of K Basin sludge, and its associated supernatant liquid, changed with respect to storage time. The tests showed that the K Basin sludge samples lost water unpredictably, depending on cap seal tightness, with projected dryout times for a 1-cm cover water depth ranging from 5 to 216 months. Though the ambient radiation field ({approx}5 Rad/hour) likely contributed to cap seal degradation, water evaporation rates were found to be independent of the contained material (water vs. sludge; radioactive vs. non-radioactive sludge). Although water was lost at variable rates from sludge samples during storage in the hot cell (and, presumably, in long-term containerized storage), the sludge itself had no intrinsic propensity to enhance or diminish the rate of water evaporation compared with that exhibited by water stored in the same environment. Most of the compaction of the six KE Basin sludges and the simulated sludge occurred in the first week. Subsequent compaction to 28-months time provided little additional increase in settled sludge density. Agitating the settled sludge likewise had little to no effect on the density. However, one tested sludge contained unreacted uranium metal that began to generate corrosion product hydrogen gas after 78 days of settling and strongly altered the apparent sludge density. T he lengthy induction time shows again that uranium metal-bearing sludge may lie quiescent for long periods, even at comparatively warm temperatures, before initiating gas generation. When the testing was completed, the sludge samples were removed from the graduated cylinders. Most sludge re-suspended readily but a canister sludge sample that had previously been allowed to dry out during storage self-cemented into a hard-cake monolith and could not be re-suspended. Settled sludge density and the concentrations of 154Eu, 241Am, and the plutonium isotopes were found to follow the dry basis uranium concentration in the sludge solids. These findings amplify observations made in prior characterization studies that showed that sludge density and radiolytic, fissile material, and TRU (primarily 241Am and 238,239,240Pu) concentrations are proportional to uranium concentration. The sludge pH, found to decrease from {approx}8 to {approx}5 with a dry basis uranium concentration increase from {approx}2.5 to 82 wt% , provides data useful in designing sludge storage and process equipment.

  8. A Survey of Best Practices for Long-Term Storage and Service of Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J. L.; Gurman, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Heliophysics Data Management Policy calls for discipline-specific "final archives," which will be responsible for the long-term archiving and service of Heliophysics mission data. Long-term archival functions, such as periodic revalidation of the data and migration to newer storage media when appropriate, have never been part of the Solar Data Analysis Center core capabilities. In addition, we recognize that the largest space solar physics data set, the SDO AIA and HMI data at the Stanford Joint Science and Operations Center (JSOC), will also need preservation and long-term access, as will the potentially much larger data archive of DKIST observations. We have carried out a study of data archiving best practices in other disciplines and organizations, including NASA's Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and private industry, and report on the lessons learned and possible cost models. We seek input from the broader solar physics community on the relative value of various levels of preservation effort.

  9. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  10. GAS-GENERATION EXPERIMENTS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE OF TRU WASTES AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Felicione, F.S.; Carney, K.P.; Dwight, C.C.; Cummings, D.G.; Foulkrod, L.E.

    2003-02-27

    An experimental investigation was conducted for gas generation in contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes subjected for several years to conditions similar to those expected to occur at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) should the repository eventually become inundated with brine. Various types of actual CH-TRU wastes were placed into 12 corrosion-resistant vessels. The vessels were loosely filled with the wastes, which were submerged in synthetic brine having the same chemical composition as that in the WIPP vicinity. The vessels were also inoculated with microbes found in the Salado Formation at WIPP. The vessels were sealed, purged, and the approximately 750-ml headspace was pressurized with nitrogen gas to approximately 146 atmospheres to create anoxic conditions at the lithostatic pressure expected in the repository were it inundated. The temperature was maintained at the expected 30 C. The test program objective was to measure the quantities and species of gases generate d by metal corrosion, radiolysis, and microbial activity. These data will assist in the specification of the rates at which gases are produced under inundated repository conditions for use in the WIPP Performance Assessment computer models. These experiments were very carefully designed, constructed, instrumented, and performed. Approximately 6-1/2 years of continuous, undisturbed testing were accumulated. Several of the vessels showed significantly elevated levels of generated gases, virtually all of which was hydrogen. One vessel measured over 4.2% hydrogen, by volume. Two other vessels generated well over 1% hydrogen, and another was at nearly 1%. Only small quantities of other gases, principally carbon dioxide, were detected. Gas generation was found to depend strongly on the waste composition. The maximum hydrogen generation occurred in tests containing carbon steel. Average corrosion penetration rates in carbon-steel of up to 2.3 microns per year were deduced. Conversion of carbon to carbon dioxide was calculated to be up to 4.7 {micro}g-mol/yr/g-carbon.

  11. The effects of long-term storage on the solderability of immersion silver coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Buttry, R. Wayne; Lopez, Edwin Paul; Martin, Joseph; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Lucero, Samuel J.; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

    2006-04-01

    The solderability of an immersion Ag finish was evaluated after the exposure of test specimens to a Battelle Class II environment, which accelerates the storage conditions of light industrial surroundings. The solderability metric was the contact angle, (?C), as determined by the meniscometer/wetting balance technique. Auger surface and depth profile analyses were utilized to identify changes in the coating chemistry. The solderability test results indicate that there was no appreciable loss in solderability when the immersion Ag coated coupons were packaged in vapor phase corrosion (VPC) inhibitor bags and/or inhibitor bags with VPC inhibitor paper and aged for 8 hours, 1 week or 2 weeks in the Battelle Class II environment. An increase in surface carbon concentration after aging did not appear to significantly affect solderability.

  12. Improvement of cryopreservation technique for long-term storage of shoot tips of Ipomoea batatas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatis) are an important food crop in sub-tropical and tropical regions. Being a vegetatively propagated crop, its genetic resources are predominantly preserved as field plantings and/or as tissue cultures. Cryopreservation is the most economic and reliable preservati...

  13. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  14. DRYING PROPERTIES OF PEARL MILLET GRAIN FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R.Br.) can be grown in difficult production environments characterized by sandy dryland soils with low fertility. Prior to storage in bins it is frequently necessary to dry the grain to levels that restrict the growth of molds and insects. Growers in the southe...

  15. Feasibility of high pressure freezing with freeze substitution after long-term storage in chemical fixatives.

    PubMed

    Venter, Chantelle; Van Der Merwe, Christiaan Frederick; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Bester, Megan Jean; Taute, Helena

    2013-09-01

    Fixation of biological samples is an important process especially related to histological and ultrastructural studies. Chemical fixation was the primary method of fixing tissue for transmission electron microscopy for many years, as it provides adequate preservation of the morphology of cells and organelles. High pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS) is a newer alternative method that rapidly freezes non-cryoprotected samples that are then slowly heated in the FS medium, allowing penetration of the tissue to insure adequate fixation. This study addresses several issues related to tissue preservation for electron microscopy. Using mice liver tissue as model the difference between samples fixed chemically or with HPF immediately after excision, or stored before chemical or HPF fixation were tested with specific focus on the nuclear membrane. Findings are that immediate HPF is the method of choice compared to chemical fixation. Of the chemical fixatives, immediate fixation with 2.5% glutaraldehyde (GA)/formaldehyde (FA) is the best in preserving membrane morphology, 2.5% GA can be used as alternative for stored and then chemically processed samples, with 10% formalin being suitable as a storage medium only if followed by HPF fixation. Overall, storage leads to lower ultrastructural preservation, but HPF with FS can minimize these artifacts relative to other processing protocols. PMID:23818457

  16. Dakota Diamond: An exceptionally high yielding, cold chipping potato cultivar with long-term storage potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dakota Diamond (ND5822C-7) is a medium to late maturing cultivar with uniformly sized tubers and very high yield potential. It resulted from the cross of ND4103-2 and “Dakota Pearl”. Dakota Diamond is comprised of approximately 23.3% wild potato species germplasm. It combines the characteristics ...

  17. The Effect of Temperature on the Long Term Storage of Codling Moth Granulovirus Formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), ‘Cyd-X’ and ‘Virosoft’. All assays were performed with individual neonate larvae in 2 ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 'l of...

  18. Modelling of RBMK-1500 SNF storage casks activation during very long term storage.

    PubMed

    Narkunas, Ernestas; Smaizys, Arturas; Poskas, Povilas; Ragaisis, Valdas

    2016-09-01

    Existing interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility (SNFSF) at Ignalina nuclear power plant in Lithuania is fully loaded with CASTOR(®)RBMK-1500 and CONSTOR(®)RBMK-1500 storage casks. The planned lifetime of these casks is 50 years and the first loaded cask was moved to the SNFSF in 1999. The start of operation of disposal facility in Lithuania is foreseen later than the planned interim storage ends. So, the possibilities to extend the storage period over 50 years should be considered. Therefore, the casks decommissioning issues should be taken into account, as due to prolonged neutron irradiation casks materials could became activated. This paper presents modelling results of storage casks neutron activation during 300 year storage period. Modelling results show, that after 50 years of storage, side-wall and bottom of CASTOR(®)RBMK-1500 cask are activated above clearance criteria. However, for 100-300 year storage period all of the casks components could be free released. PMID:27344524

  19. Oxidative and nutrient stability of a standard rodent spaceflight diet during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gwo-Shing; Tou, Janet C; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra A; Hill, Esther L; Liittschwager, Kurt W; Girten, Beverly E; Pena-Yewkukhiw, Eugenia

    2012-09-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's standard spaceflight diet for rodents is the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar (NuRFB). The shelf life of the NuRFB needs to be determined in order to avoid malnutrition of rodents and confounding of research results resulting from nutritional deficiency. The authors compared the oxidative and nutrient stability of NuRFBs stored at either ambient temperature (26 °C) or at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) for use in long-term rodent feeding experiments. After 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (mo) of storage, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and amounts of specific vitamins and amino acids in NuRFBs were analyzed. No oxidative rancidity developed in NuRFBs stored at 4 °C for up to 12 mo, but NuRFBs stored at 26 °C for 6 mo developed oxidative rancidity and had reduced amounts of γ-linolenic acid (18:3n-6). Despite loss of vitamin E, vitamin A and thiamin after storage at 26 °C for 12 mo, vitamin levels in NuRFBs remained at or above the levels recommended for optimal rodent health. The amino acid profile of NuRFBs was unaffected by storage at 4 °C or 26 °C for 12 mo. The results suggest that NuRFBs stored at 4 °C for up to 12 mo and NuRFBs stored at 26 °C for up to 6 mo provide suitable nutrition for rodents in long-term experiments. PMID:22914028

  20. Changes in microbial populations of WPC34 and WPC80 whey protein during long term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of whey protein (WPC34 and WPC80) as a food ingredient and as a base for making biodegradable products is increasing. The need to alleviate world hunger in arid and semi-arid regions demands that we investigate the behavior of native bacteria in these products, especially during long term st...

  1. Potential long-term storage of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the ability to store mass-reared natural enemies during periods or seasons of low demand is a critical need of the biocontrol industry. We tested the hypothesis that cryoprotectant or carbohydrate molecules can enhance long-term cold storage of a predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis At...

  2. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  3. Effects of long term storage on aerospace nickel cadmium cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Thomas Y.

    1987-09-01

    Evaluation of the long term effects on aerospace nickel cadmium cells is described. A number of 6Ah and 12Ah capacity cells which were stored in shorted condition for 9 to 11 years at the Goddard Space Flight Center were selected for the study. Of the three tests which were initiated (initial and final destruction analyses of the test cells, electrical characterization tests, and life cycling tests) only the electrical characterization tests are completed; the other tests are scheduled to be completed by February 1987. The preliminary electrial performance data from the life cycling test and chemical composition data from the destructive testing indicate no anomalous behavior.

  4. The effect of long term storage on bacterial soft rot resistance in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial soft rot is a serious disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), causing rapid tuber tissue maceration and, consequently, marketable yield loss. Soft rot bacteria, especially Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pbc), are favored by moist conditions, which are prevalent in large p...

  5. CONCRETE CONTAINERS FOR LONG TERM STORAGE AND FINAL DISPOSAL OF TRU WASTE AND LONG LIVED ILW

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, H.; Asano, H.; Tunaboylu, K.; Mayer, G.; Klubertanz, G.; Kobayashi, S.; Komuro, T.; Wagner, E.

    2003-02-27

    Transuranic (TRU) waste packaging development has been conducted since 1998 by the Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Centre (RWMC) to support the TRU waste disposal concept in Japan. In this paper, the overview of development status of the reinforced concrete package is introduced. This package has been developed in order to satisfy the Japanese TRU waste disposal concept based on current technology and to provide a low cost package. Since 1998, the basic design work (safety evaluation, manufacturing and handling procedure, economic evaluation, elemental tests etc.) have been carried out. As a result, the basic specification of the package was decided. This report presents the concept as well as the results of basic design, focused on safety analysis and handling procedure of the package. Two types of the packages exist: - Package-A: for non-heat generating TRU waste from reprocessing in 200 l drums and - Package-B: for heat generating TRU-waste from reprocessing.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The overall conclusion is that the fuel can be stored in L Basin, meeting general safety functions for fuel storage, for an additional 50 years and possibly beyond contingent upon continuation of existing fuel management activities and several augmented program activities. It is concluded that the technical bases and well-founded technologies have been established to store spent nuclear fuel in the L Basin. Methodologies to evaluate the fuel condition and characteristics, and systems to prepare fuel, isolate damaged fuel, and maintain water quality storage conditions have been established. Basin structural analyses have been performed against present NPH criteria. The aluminum fuel storage experience to date, supported by the understanding of the effects of environmental variables on materials performance, demonstrates that storage systems that minimize degradation and provide full retrievability of the fuel up to and greater than 50 additional years will require maintaining the present management programs, and with the recommended augmented/additional activities in this report.

  7. Long-term storage of salivary cortisol samples at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Cintron, Nitza M.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Collection of saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol during space flights provides a simple technique for studying changes in adrenal function due microgravity. In the present work, several methods for preserving saliva cortisol at room temperature were investigated using radioimmunoassays for determining cortisol in saliva samples collected on a saliva-collection device called Salivettes. It was found that a pretreatment of Salivettes with citric acid resulted in preserving more than 85 percent of the salivary cortisol for as long as six weeks. The results correlated well with those for a sample stored in a freezer on an untreated Salivette.

  8. Keeping Nanoparticles Fully Functional: Long-Term Storage and Alteration of Magnetite

    PubMed Central

    Widdrat, Marc; Kumari, Monika; Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály; Hirt, Ann M; Faivre, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite is an iron oxide found in rocks. Its magnetic properties are used for paleoclimatic reconstructions. It can also be synthesized in the laboratory to exploit its magnetic properties for bio- and nanotechnological applications. However, although the magnetic properties depend on particle size in a well-understood manner, they also depend on the structure of the oxide, because magnetite oxidizes to maghemite under environmental conditions. The dynamics of this process have not been well described. Here, a study of the alteration of magnetite particles of different sizes as a function of their storage conditions is presented. Smaller nanoparticles are shown to oxidize more rapidly than larger ones, and that the lower the storage temperature, the lower the measured oxidation. In addition, the magnetic properties of the altered particles are not decreased dramatically, thus suggesting that this alteration will not impact the use of such nanoparticles as medical carriers. PMID:26366334

  9. The effect of long-term storage orbit on a bipropellant pressure regulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prickett, R. P.; Purohit, G. P.; Timko, M.

    1993-06-01

    The INTELSAT 603 satellite was stranded in a low earth orbit for 797 days, awaiting Space Shuttle rescue. During this time, the pressure regulation panel of the bipropellant propulsion subsystem was engaged. Early evidence of primary regulator leakage was observed, eventually followed by leakage through the backup regulator. Flight pressure telemetry and accompanying analyses of the extent of the leakage are presented. Also discussed is a special regulator test used to partially characterize the leaky regulator. The malfunction of the oxidizer and fuel side pneumatic check valves followed Space Shuttle deployment, evidenced by failure of the propellant tanks to maintain regulated pressure during liquid apogee thruster firing. The details of that anomaly, and possible causes, are presented.

  10. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, Elena; Chernysh, Aleksandr; Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC.

  11. Preservation of nutrients during long-term storage of source-separated yellowwater.

    PubMed

    Paruch, Adam M

    2012-01-01

    Source separation of human urine (yellowwater) enhances the sustainability of wastewater management and efficiency of nutrient recovery and recycling. Storage of source-separated yellowwater is recommended prior to agronomic reuse. At this point, it is of immense interest to determine the effect of storage time on quality of yellowwater. Therefore, this study focused on examining changes in some chemical properties of raw, undiluted, freshly collected, source-separated yellowwater stored for a period of 1 year under different temperature regimes: cold (4 °C), mild (10 °C) and warm (22 °C). Chemical parameters (biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), N-tot, N-NO(2), N-NO(3), N-NH(4), P-tot, K, S, and pH), with the main focus on fertiliser nutrient compounds intended for agricultural utilisation, were tested. The outcomes revealed that both nitrification and denitrification processes took place in the stored yellowwater, and an increase in the pH level of up to pH greater than 9 was observed. The study found that the main macronutrients can be well preserved in yellowwater, as there were no substantial changes in the contents of these elements over a 1 year storage period at the three temperatures tested. PMID:22766870

  12. Long Term Storage of Dry versus Frozen RNA for Next Generation Molecular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Seelenfreund, Eric; Robinson, William A.; Amato, Carol M.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Kim, Jihye; Robinson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The standard method for the storage and preservation of RNA has been at ultra-low temperatures. However, reliance on liquid nitrogen and freezers for storage of RNA has multiple downsides. Recently new techniques have been developed for storing RNA at room temperature utilizing desiccation and are reported to be an effective alternative for preserving RNA integrity. In this study we compared frozen RNA samples stored for up to one year to those which had been desiccated using RNAstable (Biomatrica, Inc., San Diego, CA) and stored at room temperature. RNA samples were placed in aliquots and stored after desiccation or frozen (at −80°C), and were analyzed for RNA Integrity Number (RIN), and by qPCR, and RNA sequencing. Our study shows that RNAstable is able to preserve desiccated RNA samples at room temperature for up to one year, and that RNA preserved by desiccation is comparable to cryopreserved RNA for downstream analyses including real-time-PCR and RNA sequencing. PMID:25380187

  13. Stabilization and solidification of elemental mercury for safe disposal and/or long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tai Gyu; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Chul Hun; Song, Kyung Su

    2011-10-01

    A simple and highly effective stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology of elemental mercury using only sulfur with paraffin is introduced. First, elemental mercury is mixed with an excess of sulfur powder and heated to 60 degrees C for 30 min until elemental mercury is converted into mercuric sulfide (HgS black, metacinnabar) (Step 1). Then, metacinnabar with additional sulfur is poured into liquid paraffin (Step 2). Finally, the mixture is melted at 140 degrees C and settles to the bottom of the vessel where it cools and solidifies under the layer of liquid paraffin (Step 3). The proposed S/S method with sodium sulfide nonahydrate (Na2S x 9H2O) as an additive is also tested for comparison. The average toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test values are 6.72 microg/L (no additive) and 3.18 microg/L (with additive). Theses concentrations are well below the Universal Treatment Standard (25 microg/L). Effective diffusion coefficient evaluated from accelerated leach test and average headspace concentration of Hg vapor after 18 hr are 3.62 x 10(-15) cm2/sec, 0.55 mg/m3 (no additive) and 5.86 x 10(-13) cm2/sec, 0.25 mg/m3 (with additive). PMID:22070038

  14. Long-term storage of functional, isolated nerve endings by slow freezing and rapid thawing.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, P

    1988-06-01

    Nerve endings (synaptosomes) were isolated from homogenized rat brain corpora striata following centrifugation on discontinuous sucrose gradients. The synaptosomes (in 0.8 M sucrose) were (i) slowly frozen by placing the tube containing the suspension in a freezer at -10 degrees C for 1 h followed by (ii) swirling in a mixture of acetone and dry ice for 15 min and (iii) were stored in liquid nitrogen for up to 6 weeks. Freshly isolated synaptosomes and synaptosomes from the same preparation that were frozen for 2, 4, or 6 weeks and rapidly thawed in a water bath at 37 degrees C were re-equilibrated with a physiological salt solution and assayed for their ability to accumulate Ca and to release transmitter (dopamine) upon depolarization in high K medium. K-dependent Ca uptake gradually declined to approximately 1/3 the value observed with freshly isolated synaptosomes after 6 weeks of storage. K-stimulated dopamine release (only from intact synaptosomes) was normal over the entire period of storage. It is concluded that synaptosomes retain their physiological properties when stored frozen for a few weeks and that cold storage may be a useful technique for experiments requiring lengthy or repeated assays or accumulation of material. PMID:3405007

  15. The effects of freezing on long-term storage of canine erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Aktaran Bala, D; Özcan, M

    2016-01-01

    Human medicine studies have so far demonstrated that erythrocytes may be preserved and stored at low temperatures for decades retaining their metabolic and biochemical properties. However, detailed studies regarding this problem are not yet available in veterinary medicine. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to investigate time-dependent effects of long-term frozen storage of canine red blood cells. Twelve healthy adult dogs meeting the criteria for blood transfusion were used in the study. Whole blood samples (450 ± 45 ml) collected from each dog were centrifuged by a cryogenic microcentrifuge and packed RBC suspensions were obtained. The samples were prewashed three times in 0.9% NaCl solution and were allocated into three groups to be evaluated at three different time points (day 0 and month 4 and 6). The samples to be frozen were subjected to glycerolization and then stored at -80°C for 4 and 6-month periods. At the end of this period the packed RBC samples were thawed, centrifuged and then washed in a consecutive series of dextrose solutions. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), Adenosin triphosphate (ATP), supernatant hemoglobin (SupHb), sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) levels, residual glycerol concentrations and hemograms were evaluated and compared. Sterility tests were performed on all samples for bacterial contamination. A statistically significant decrease was noted in potassium levels, which was the natural outcome of deglycerolization process. No significant change was observed in terms of other parameters due based on different time points. In conclusion, long-term frozen storage had no negative effect on the quality parameters of canine erythrocytes. PMID:27487516

  16. Long term storage of dilute acid pretreated corn stover feedstock and ethanol fermentability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Bao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study reported a new solution of lignocellulose feedstock storage based on the distributed pretreatment concept. The dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (DDAP) was conducted on corn stover feedstock, instead of ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment. Then the dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover was stored for three months during summer season with high temperature and humidity. No negative aspects were found on the physical property, composition, hydrolysis yield and ethanol fermentability of the long term stored pretreated corn stover, plus the additional merits including no chemicals recovery operation, anti-microbial contaminant environment from stronger acid and inhibitor contents, as well as the mild and slow hydrolysis in the storage. The new pretreatment method expanded the distributed pretreatment concept of feedstock storage with potential for practical application. PMID:26639616

  17. Long-term storage of low-invertase Katahdin at different temperature set points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful storage of processing potatoes balances the risk of crop loss caused by pathogen-dependent spoilage with the need to maintain the low tuber reducing sugar contents that are required to produce light-colored fried products. Potato varieties with very low expression of the vacuolar acid inv...

  18. Effects of long term storage on aerospace nickel cadmium cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas Y.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the long term effects on aerospace nickel cadmium cells is described. A number of 6Ah and 12Ah capacity cells which were stored in shorted condition for 9 to 11 years at the Goddard Space Flight Center were selected for the study. Of the three tests which were initiated (initial and final destruction analyses of the test cells, electrical characterization tests, and life cycling tests) only the electrical characterization tests are completed; the other tests are scheduled to be completed by February 1987. The preliminary electrial performance data from the life cycling test and chemical composition data from the destructive testing indicate no anomalous behavior.

  19. Comparison of cryopreservation techniques for long-term storage of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.).

    PubMed

    Schoenweiss, Katja; Meier-Dinkel, Andreas; Grotha, Rüdiger

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a cryopreservation protocol for ash and to highlight the importance of testing different clones and plant material of different ontogenetic states. In vitro-grown ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved following optimization of the PVS2-vitrification protocol. Pretreatment conditions were optimized and three cryopreservation techniques (encapsulation/dehydration, PVS2-vitrification and encapsulation-vitrification) were tested one after another. PVS2-vitrification proved to be the most suitable technique. In vitro-grown shoot tips of ash were successfully cryopreserved with a mean regrowth of 73% for juvenile clones and 67% for selected mature trees. The optimum preculture conditions and the initial protocol were: 10 days cold hardening, preculture for 2 days on medium with 0.8 M glycerol, incubation in 2 M glycerol solution for 20 min at 22 degrees C followed by PVS2 for 25 min at 0 degrees C on ice and direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Warming was carried out in 43 degree C water for 1 min followed by 22 degree C water for 10 sec. The encapsulation/dehydration method was not successful for shoot tips of F. excelsior because the shoots were sensitive to osmotic dehydration. The encapsulation/vitrification method resulted in a mean regrowth of only 16%. PVS2 vitrification can now be used to store important ash germplasm of either juvenile or mature trees. PMID:16082446

  20. Viability staining and animal infectivity of Cryptosporidium andersoni oocysts after long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Kvác, Martin; Kvetonová, Dana; Salát, Jirí; Ditrich, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Preservation of biological properties of oocysts during the storage is critical for experimental work. Stomach species of cryptosporidia are less resistant against external influences, and their infectivity decreases rapidly in comparison with intestinal cryptosporidia. Cryptosporidium andersoni oocysts lost their infectivity for gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) after 7 months storage in deionised water (DW) or in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution (PDS). Evaluation of oocyst viability by flow cytometry indicates higher percentage of viable oocysts stored in PDS than in DW, particularly after 6 months of storage. However, direct counting using fluorescent microscope revealed that these results are false and are influenced by the change of staining properties during the storage in PDS. Moreover, the examination of oocyst integrity by flow cytometry revealed that oocysts preserved in PDS kept their wall integrity longer than those stored in DW, and this fact should be taken into consideration during quantification of oocyst survival. PMID:17024363

  1. Cryogenic Propellant Long-Term Storage With Zero Boil-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, Ali; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C.; Plachta, D. W.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Significant boil-off losses from cryogenic propellant storage systems in long-duration space mission applications result in additional propellant and larger tanks. The potential propellant mass loss reductions with the Zero Boil-off (ZBO) concept are substantial; therefore, further exploration through technology programs has been initiated within NASA. A large-scale demonstration of the ZBO concept has been devised utilizing the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) along with a cryo-cooler unit. The ZBO concept consists of an active cryo-cooling system integrated with traditional passive thermal insulation. The cryo-cooler is interfaced with the MHTB and spraybar recirculation/mixer system in a manner that enables thermal energy removal at a rate that equals the total tank heat leak. The liquid hydrogen (LH2) is withdrawn from the tank, passed through a heat exchanger, and then the chilled liquid is sprayed back into the tank through a spraybar. The test series will be performed over a 20-30 day period. Tests will be conducted at multiple fill levels to demonstrate concept viability and to provide benchmark data to be used in analytical model development. In this paper the test set-up and test procedures are presented.

  2. LONG-TERM STORAGE EFFECTS ON FIBER AND TEXTILE QUALITY OF POLYETHYLENE WRAPPED COTTON BALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  3. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N.; Szuchmacher Blum, Amy; Soto, Carissa M.; Whitley, Jessica L.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Chatterji, Anju; Lin, Tianwei; Johnson, John E.; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Ratna, Banahalli R.

    2008-03-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  4. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  5. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    DOEpatents

    Lanzara, Alessandra; Schmid, Andreas K.; Yu, Xiaozhu; Hwang, Choonkyu; Kohl, Annemarie; Jozwiak, Chris M.

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  6. Synthesis of High-Quality Forsterite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Minato; Himura, Kenji; Tsunooka, Tsutomu; Kagomiya, Isao; Ohsato, Hitoshi

    2007-10-01

    To establish a process that produces high-quality forsterite stably, calcining and sintering conditions were investigated chiefly and two kinds of silica with different forms, and grain sizes were used as starting raw materials. On the basis of the quality factor (\\mathit{Qf}) for forsterite, the sintered samples prepared using powders calcined for 10-24 h, were found to be more stable than those in the case of 2-4 h, and in the case of 24 h of calcination, the samples showed a single phase of forsterite with fine grains. Silica with an amorphous form and a small grain size of 0.25 μm brought a higher \\mathit{Qf} value and a wider permissible temperature range of sintering than silica with a crystalline form and a coarse grain size of 0.82 μm. Concerning the sintering temperature, the sample sintered above 1400 °C showed a high \\mathit{Qf} value. The \\mathit{Qf} value of the sample calcined at 1175 °C for 24 h and sintered at 1450 °C for 2 h using fine-grain amorphous silica of 0.25 μm size, was improved to 219,200 GHz.

  7. An economical route to high quality lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, J.P.; Hahn, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.; Min, W.

    1996-12-01

    The current rends in the automotive and industrial markets toward more efficient engines, longer drain intervals, and lower emissions all contribute to placing increasingly stringent performance requirements on lubricants. The demand for higher quality synthetic and non-conventional basestocks is expected to grow at a much faster rate than that of conventional lube basestocks to meet these higher performance standards. Yukong Limited has developed a novel technology (the Yukong UCO Lube Process) for the economic production of high quality, high-viscosity-index lube basestocks from a fuels hydrocracker unconverted oil stream. A pilot plant based on this process has been producing oils for testing purposes since May 1994. A commercial facility designed to produce 3,500 BPD of VHVI lube basestocks cane on-stream at Yukong`s Ulsan refinery in October 1995. The Badger Technology Center of Raytheon Engineers and Constructors assisted Yukong during the development of the technology and prepared the basic process design package for the commercial facility. This paper presents process aspects of the technology and comparative data on investment and operating costs. Yukong lube basestock product properties and performance data are compared to basestocks produced by conventional means and by lube hydrocracking.

  8. Are high-quality mates always attractive?

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female’s own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  9. The Economics of Education: Public Benefits of High-Quality Preschool Education for Low-Income Children. Building Communities for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Jerrold; MacGregor, Theo

    Noting that high-quality preschool increases the ability of low-income children to profit from elementary and secondary education, thereby increasing their high school graduation rate and generating economic and other returns for taxpayers, this report articulates and analyzes the economic benefits of providing a high-quality preschool education…

  10. Evaluation of hybrid treatments to produce high quality reuse water.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Silva, G S; Vaz, E A C; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M

    2011-01-01

    Four tertiary hybrid treatments to produce high quality reused water, fulfilling Brazilian drinking water regulations, from a slaughterhouse's secondary treated effluent were evaluated. The pilot plant with a capacity of 500 L h(-1) was set up and consisted of these stages: pre-filtration system (cartridge filter 50 micron, activated carbon filter, cartridge filter 10 micron), oxidation (H2O2) or second filtration (ceramic filter, UF) followed by UV radiation (90 L h(-1)). The best combination was T4: pre-filtration followed by H2O2 addition and UV radiation (AOP H2O2/UV). Disinfection kinetics by T4 followed pseudo first-order kinetics: k(T4) = 0.00943 s(-1) or 0.00101 cm2 mJ(-1). Three different zones (A, B, C) were observed in the UV254 degradation kinetics (pseudo-first order kinetics): k' decreased over time (k'(A) > k'(B) > k'(C)). PMID:21902048

  11. Toward automatic recognition of high quality clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Automatic methods for recognizing topically relevant documents supported by high quality research can assist clinicians in practicing evidence-based medicine. We approach the challenge of identifying articles with high quality clinical evidence as a binary classification problem. Combining predictions from supervised machine learning methods and using deep semantic features, we achieve 73.5% precision and 67% recall. PMID:18998881

  12. High-Quality Curriculum: A Lesson in Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    The Curriculum Studies Network focuses on promoting and creating high-quality curriculum to meet the needs of academically advanced learners. Staff at Curriculum Studies Network are proud of the collaboration they promote among educators, but in order for high-quality curriculum to continue to be the standard in the field, they realize the…

  13. High-quality work, job satisfaction, and occupational injuries.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Kelloway, E Kevin; Iverson, Roderick D

    2003-04-01

    The authors investigated whether and how 1 element of a high-performance work system, namely high-quality jobs (composed of extensive training, variety, and autonomy), affects occupational injuries. On the basis of data from the Australian WIRS95 database (N = 16,466; Department of Workplace Relations and Small Business, 1997), high-quality jobs exerted a direct effect on injuries and an indirect effect through the mediating influence of job satisfaction. Conceptual, methodological, and practical issues are discussed. PMID:12731711

  14. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices. PMID:27507624

  15. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices. PMID:27507624

  16. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-08-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices.

  17. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-15

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  18. The Equitable Distribution of High-Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2010-01-01

    A new report by the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality (TQ Center) highlights efforts across the nation to address a key point in the No Child Left Behind law and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)--the equitable distribution of high-quality teachers across all schools. Research consistently has pointed to effective…

  19. High Quality Preschool Programs: What Would Vygotsky Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodrova, Elena; Leong, Deborah J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper considers the definition of high quality preschool from a Vygotskian perspective. Similarities and differences in the issues faced in Russia and those in the United States are discussed as background. Three major ideas are considered from the work of Vygotsky and of his students/colleagues, Daniel Elkonin and Alexander Zaporozhets. The…

  20. Attracting and Retaining High-Quality Professionals in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    To attract and retain high-quality teachers, the education system must address science teachers' sense of professional isolation, administrators' lack of receptivity to thoughtful teachers' ideas, egalitarian salary compensation schemes, and lack of professional recognition. An outstanding chemistry teacher-turned-pharmaceutical saleswoman is…

  1. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  2. Novel, high-quality surface plasmon resonance microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Thariani, Rahber; Yager, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance microscope capable of high-quality speckle-free imaging has been designed that uses a laser as a source. An inexpensive acoustic transducer is used to reduce speckle and other image artifacts arising from the use of illumination from an inexpensive laser pointer. The microscope is described and operation of the system demonstrated.

  3. Improved electrode gives high-quality biological recordings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Lippitt, M. W.

    1964-01-01

    To obtain high quality waveforms from a subject engaged in physical activity, an improved electrode assembly has been devised. This consists of a cup containing an electrically conductive paste and a silver electrode. The paste maintains contact between the skin and the plate.

  4. Child Care: Use of Standards To Ensure High Quality Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Prepared to assist Congress in its deliberations of various child care proposals, this report identifies key child care center standards that are critical in helping to ensure high quality child care. The article also examines the extent to which states incorporate these standards into their own standards, and discusses other important issues that…

  5. High-quality Health Information Provision for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong-Sheng; Ma, Jing-Jian; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High-quality information provision can allow stroke patients to effectively participate in healthcare decision-making, better manage the stroke, and make a good recovery. In this study, we reviewed information needs of stroke patients, methods for providing information to patients, and considerations needed by the information providers. Data Sources: The literature concerning or including information provision for patients with stroke in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all the relevant articles on information provision for stroke patients in English, with no limitation of study design. Results: Stroke is a major public health concern worldwide. High-quality and effective health information provision plays an essential role in helping patients to actively take part in decision-making and healthcare, and empowering them to effectively self-manage their long-standing chronic conditions. Different methods for providing information to patients have their relative merits and suitability, and as a result, the effective strategies taken by health professionals may include providing high-quality information, meeting patients’ individual needs, using suitable methods in providing information, and maintaining active involvement of patients. Conclusions: It is suggested that to enable stroke patients to access high-quality health information, greater efforts need to be made to ensure patients to receive accurate and current evidence-based information which meets their individual needs. Health professionals should use suitable information delivery methods, and actively involve stroke patients in information provision. PMID:27569241

  6. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  7. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023

  8. Assessment of omega-fatty-acid-supplemented human platelets for potential improvement in long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurti, Chitra; Stewart, Michael W; Cutting, Mary A; Rothwell, Stephen W

    2002-01-15

    Uptake of omega (omega)-3 fatty acids can influence membrane stability and cell mobility. We investigated the effects of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids on the hemostatic efficacy of human platelets using an in vivo rabbit bleeding model. In vitro assays such as platelet aggregation, vWF bead-mediated ATP release and platelet adhesion to beads (measured by the residual platelet count [RPC] [free platelet count after reacting with the beads]/[baseline platelet count]x 100=%RPC; a high %RPC indicates reduced platelet function) were conducted on platelets treated with 1% fish oil (omega-3); 2% fish oil emulsion or 1% soy oil (omega-6). Oil treatment of platelets reduced the vWF bead-induced ATP release insignificantly. Addition of omega-3 agents reduced physical reactivity (%RPC) with the vWF beads by a factor of 1.2 (oil) and 1.9 (emulsion). The omega-6 oil enhanced reactivity by a factor of 1.7. After washing to remove excess reagent, platelet resuspension was most efficient with the omega-3 emulsion. Platelet function was higher with the omega-3-treated platelets (%RPC=52.3%, omega-3 oil; 63.3%, omega-3 emulsion vs. 85%, omega-6 oil; 82% untreated platelets). Ethyl-palmitate-treated thrombocytopenic rabbits were infused with human platelets. Survival times of the treated platelets, as monitored by flow cytometry (6.2-8.2 h) were comparable to untreated platelets (8.6 h). In the rabbit kidney injury model, blood loss after infusion of the treated platelets was similar to that of saline-infused rabbits (75.3+/-3.4 g). However, platelets washed prior to infusion reduced blood loss to a value comparable to that of fresh platelets (48.3+/-5 g). Furthermore, the presence of the infused platelets at the injury site was clearly visualized using FITC-tagged anti CD42a antibody. Thus, the omega-3-based agents protect the platelets from damage during the washing procedure as demonstrated in vitro by improved platelet resuspension, low %RPC, high stimulus-responsive ATP secretion and a reduction in blood loss in vivo. PMID:11958804

  9. Evolution of the structural and superconducting properties of FeSe crystals upon long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorina, J. I.; Kaljuzhnaia, G. A.; Golubkov, M. V.; Rodin, V. V.; Romanova, T. A.; Sentjurina, N. N.; Chernook, S. G.

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the evolution of the structural and superconducting properties of FeSe crystals stored in air for several years has been performed. It is established that the structure and phase composition of the samples remained invariable, while the superconducting parameters significantly degraded. These changes may be due to the stress relaxation or redistribution of defects in the samples.

  10. Bivalent response to long-term storage in liquid-preserved boar semen: a flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2012-07-01

    The fertility of liquid-preserved boar semen declines during storage at 17°C, insemination trials even indicating early losses in fertilizing ability within the first 24-48 h of storage. Standard semen parameters barely reflect these changes in semen quality, and new approaches for assessment of functional changes in stored spermatozoa are needed. Capacitation, the essential prefertilization step for spermatozoa in the female genital tract, is specifically induced in vitro by bicarbonate. Therefore, we have investigated changes in responsiveness of boar spermatozoa to bicarbonate during storage. Ejaculates of 14 boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution, cooled to 17°C and stored for 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h before investigation. At each time, basic semen quality was characterized by sperm motility and viability. Subsequently, washed subsamples were incubated in variants of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and assessed for kinetic changes of viability (plasma membrane integrity) and intracellular calcium concentration using flow cytometry in combination with propidium iodide and Fluo-3. By this means, it was possible to determine specific effects of bicarbonate and calcium on sperm subpopulations over incubation time. During storage, standard semen parameters remained on a high level. However, flow cytometric analysis of sperm responses to capacitating and control media revealed two opposing effects of storage. There was a loss of response to bicarbonate in part of the live sperm population but an increasing degree of instability in the rest. Assessment of response to capacitating media by flow cytometry appears a markedly more sensitive way of monitoring sperm functionality during storage than the standard semen parameters of motility and viability. PMID:22573481

  11. Geoscience data: Defining policies and workflow tools for long-term storage of continuously and temporarily collected data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, P.; Kirchner, I.; Peters-Kottig, W.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.; Rusch, B.; Ulbricht, D.; Wattenbach, M.

    2012-04-01

    The intention of the project EWIG (Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences) is to support geoscientists in transferring their data in a standardized way for storage in digital long-term archives. In the pilot phase test data are provided by two participating research institutions, both producing large amounts of data. One of them - Institut für Meteorologie, Freie Universität Berlin - provides continuously meteorological data, these data are measured every minute at several stations throughout Berlin. The other - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam - conducts geophysical field experiments and thus produces data temporarily. The digital long-term archive test system is provided by an infrastructure facility - Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin. Both use cases require definite ways for the digital preservation workflows. Policies for the workflow independent from the working area will be defined. At the beginning of the project the actual state of the art in science data preservation policies has to be identified, gaps should be detected and analyzed, so that missing workflow components can be designed. Contact to other institutions, having already policies for their data lifecycle, is necessary to get an overview of existing operating procedures and data management software tools. Assuring the usability of the archived data is necessary during all stages of the project. All information essential for interpreting the data has to be available in a simple way. Usability tests of the archive will be performed together with domain scientists as well as students (bachelor, master, graduate). Questions about the quality of data access, documentation, metadata, etc. should be answered. User feedback and the knowledge of the consortium will be used to compose a university lecture or seminar series on digital data curation, so that future generations of scientists become familiar with the handling of their data without any difficulty. Data curation should be self-evident for scientifically working people. Developing policies, documentations and a lecture concept is intended to advance the re-use of archived research data by the scientific community.

  12. The effect of long term storage on tobacco smoke particulate matter in in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Crooks, I; Dillon, D M; Scott, J K; Ballantyne, M; Meredith, C

    2013-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) collected from mainstream tobacco smoke is a test article commonly used for in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity testing of combustible tobacco products. However, little published data exists concerning the stability of PM. We completed a 2 year study to quantify the effect of PM storage at -80 °C, on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of PM generated from 3R4F and M4A reference cigarettes. The Ames test, Micronucleus assay (MNvit), Mouse Lymphoma assay (MLA) and the Neutral Red Uptake assay (NRU) were used. The majority of M4A and 3R4F PMs were genotoxic and cytotoxic at the timepoints tested. Some minor but statistically significant differences were observed for stored versus freshly prepared PM, but the magnitude of changes were within the variability observed for repeat testing. PMID:23220485

  13. Culture system and long-term storage of culture media in the in vitro production of bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Varga, Santiago; Diez, Carmen; Fernández, Lina; Alvarez, Jenny; Katchicualula, Adelino; Hidalgo, Carlos Olegario; Tamargo, Carolina; Carbajo, Maite

    2011-03-01

    The optimum culture system for in vitro matured and fertilised oocytes still remains to be clarified. Culture media (CM) for mammalian embryos are routinely prepared fresh for use and preserved under refrigeration during one or two weeks. The purposes of this work were (1) to compare the efficiency of a synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) with two different bovine serum albumin (BSA) concentrations (3 and 8 g/L) for the in vitro production of bovine blastocysts, (2) to test the effect of timing on adding fetal calf serum (FCS) to the SOF, and (3) to evaluate the effects on bovine embryo development of freezing and lyophilisation as procedures for preserving the SOF. Supplementation of SOF with 3 g/L BSA increased Day-7 blastocyst expansion rates (18.3 ± 1.6 vs. 14.4 ± 0.7; P < 0.05), although no differences in hatching rates were found. Addition of FCS to SOFaa (SOF with amino acids) medium supplemented with sodium citrate (SOFaaci) at 48 and at 72 h post-insemination (PI) allowed obtaining higher Day-6 embryo development rates than when FCS was added at 18 or 96 h PI (Day-6 morulae + blastocyst rate: 30.0 ± 1.1, 40.8 ± 1.1, 43.9 ± 2.3 and 39.3 ± 0.5 for FCS addition at 18, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively). Hatching rates were significantly improved when serum was added at 72 h PI. Finally, both refrigeration and lyophilisation appeared as useful cryopreservation procedures for SOFaaci, although a significant loss of its ability to support embryo development, compared to the control fresh culture medium, was observed. PMID:21354948

  14. Long term storage of bee semen – A six month assessment of cryopreserved semen quality using motility as an index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee (Apis mellifera Linn.) spermatozoa is known for its ability to remain viable for at the least two years within the spermatheca as attested to by the queens’ continued laying of fertile eggs without remating over two to three (Woyke 1960; Winston 1987). However, the semen collected from the dron...

  15. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Gareth; Thorn, Robin; Reynolds, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications. PMID:23263673

  16. [Studies on the antigenic stability of hepatic triglyceride lipase in human postheparin plasma during long-term storage].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Makoto; Iwanaga, Taketoshi; Ohkaru, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Atsuko; Ikeda, Yasuyuki

    2003-07-01

    The present study describes how to process human postheparin plasma (PHP) containing hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) that is utilized as a standard material of HTGL for the quantification of HTGL mass in human plasma. The optimal storage conditions for PHP were established by monitoring the stability of HTGL molecules in PHP as an antigen, which was stored in the liquid, frozen, or lyophilized state, using purified human PHP-HTGL as the standard material and a commercial HTGL ELISA MARUPI kit, which is a direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The HTGL ELISA MARUPI kit, for which the validity was confirmed by precision and dilution tests, showed that the immunoreactive mass of HTGL in lyophilized PHP remained stable for at least 12 months at a storage temperature of 4 degrees C or lower. These results indicate that lyophilized PHP stored at a temperature of less than 4 degrees C can be utilized as the standard material for the quantification of HTGL in human plasma using the HTGL ELISA MARUPI kit. PMID:12875241

  17. Changes in the heavy metal and nutrient contents of dried feather mosses during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Karhu, Jouni; Seppänen, Reijo; Kubin, Eero

    2014-07-01

    This study measured heavy metal and nutrient concentrations of two feather mosses during the periods of dry storage. Samples (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi) were collected in the nationwide moss surveys carried out on the permanent sample plots of the 8th Finnish National Forest Inventory in 1985-86, 1990, 1995 and 2000. A small amount of each moss sample was analyzed soon after collection, and the remainder was dried and stored at the Paljakka environmental specimen bank (ESB). The 108 stored samples from 27 plots were reanalyzed in 2008. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, K, Mg, P) were determined and compared for each survey year. Overall, Fe, Pb and Cr concentrations decreased, and Cu concentrations increased significantly during storage. The greatest decrease was observed in samples from plots where their initial concentrations were the highest. Changes in the concentrations of Cd, Ni and Zn were less pronounced. The loss of heavy metals is likely due to drying when cell membranes rupture and some of the surface material is lost. K, P and, to some extent, Mg concentrations increased during storage, whereas Ca did not change significantly. Nutrient increase is probably due to their movement from older to younger growths during the initial phase of drying. Ca is mostly bound to cell walls and is not easily released. Results emphasize the importance of establishing the intended use of a stored moss prior to sampling, in order to select and optimize an appropriate storage technique. PMID:24652377

  18. Coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens: long-term storage in aqueous potassium dichromate solution preserves DNA.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B; Thebo, P; Marshall, R N; Marshall, J A

    2010-05-01

    Preservation of the exogenous oöcyst stage of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa N.D. Levine, 1970) as type-specimens of newly described species has long been problematical. Conventional fixatives have proved unsatisfactory, and compromises such as embedding oöcysts in resin or photographing them are not entirely appropriate for various reasons. As an alternative, chilled potassium dichromate solution (normally used in the laboratory to prevent putrefaction of temporary preparations of live oöcysts) has been tested as a long-term preservative of sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria brunetti P.P. Levine, 1942, E. maxima Tyzzer, 1929, E. mitis Tyzzer, 1929, E. necatrix Johnson, 1930, E. praecox Johnson, 1930 and E. tenella (Railliet & Lucet, 1891) (suborder Eimeriorina Léger, 1911; family Eimeriidae Minchin, 1903). Oöcysts from faeces of chickens Gallus gallus (Linnaeus) were placed in 2.5% w/v aqueous potassium dichromate solution (PDS) and stored in the dark at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. After 23 years in storage, oöcysts of each species were administered orally to chickens and failed to initiate infections, indicating that the oöcysts were dead. Nevertheless, after about 24 years, DNA was still recoverable from the oöcysts, and the original species identifications made by classic parasitological methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assays. Furthermore, after almost 25 years, microscopical examination revealed that the walls and internal structures remained well preserved in 83-98% of the oöcysts of the six species investigated. Hence, PDS is potentially suitable for the long-term preservation of sporulated coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens for taxonomic purposes. The samples used in this study are now in the care of the Natural History Museum, London, UK. It is recommended that they be monitored in like manner, by suitably qualified scientists, at intervals of about 5 years to assess their state of preservation and the recoverability of DNA. Enough material is available to monitor it until it is at least 100 years old. PMID:20401580

  19. Investigation on the long-term storage and fate of arsenic obtained as a treatment residual: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Sarkar, Sudipta; Sengupta, Arup K; Gupta, Anirban

    2014-04-30

    In several places in India, activated alumina is used for effective removal of arsenic from contaminated ground water used for drinking purposes. Once exhausted, activated alumina is regenerated and reused for number of cycles. Regeneration of activated alumina generates treatment residuals containing arsenic, disposal of which needs care so as to avoid further pollution of the neighbouring environment. In the present study, a suitable stabilization and disposal method for the treatment residuals inside a well aerated coarse sand filter bed has been developed. Standard leaching tests carried out with the stabilized treatment residual indicated that the leaching of arsenic from the stabilized treatment residual was minimum, and was within the regulatory limit. Water quality data of all the wells located within 100 m from the sand filter were monitored for nearly four years and no adverse impact of disposal of arsenic-laden treatment residuals in the sand filter was observed. PMID:24641993

  20. Structure of aging Al-Li-Cu-Zr-Sc-Ag alloy after severe plastic deformation and long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaigorodova, L. I.; Rasposienko, D. Yu.; Pushin, V. G.; Pilyugin, V. P.; Smirnov, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    Structural and phase transformations in commercial aging aluminum-lithium Al-1.2 Li-3.2 Cu-0.09 Zr-0.11 Sc-0.4 Ag-0.3 Mg alloy have been studied after severe plastic deformation by high-pressure torsion (at a pressure of 4 GPa with 1, 5, and 10 revolutions of the anvil) and natural aging (roomtemperature storage) for 1 week and 2 years. It has been found that, in this case, the process of static recrystallization is achieved in the alloy, the degree of which increases with an increasing degree of deformation and time of storage.

  1. Comparative study of the influence of EDTA and sodium heparin on long term storage of cattle DNA.

    PubMed

    Kotikalapudi, Rosaiah; Patel, Rajesh K

    2015-01-01

    Blood collection in heparin tubes for cytogenetic, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) tubes for molecular genetics applications respectively, are routine practices everywhere. If blood samples are required for cytogenetics as well as DNA work, two samples from each animal are usually collected, which leads to wastage of time and money. The present study tried to explore the possibilities of collecting a single blood sample in a heparinised tube for use in both applications. Two blood samples were collected from the same animals; one in a heparin tube and the other in an EDTA tube. DNA was extracted and stored at the same temperature and for the same durations. Comparative studies revealed that the DNA samples extracted from blood using these two different coagulants give more or less the same quality of results especially for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based applications in cattle. The purpose of the present study was to establish the possibility of using heparin blood for chromosomal studies as well as for molecular biology. Such a practice will obviously save time and money in collecting samples in duplicate. PMID:25870849

  2. RESPIROMETRY DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON SUGARBEET ROOT MAGGOT LARVAE IN LONG-TERM STORAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature 3rd-instar sugarbeet root maggots, starting as diapausing larvae have a remarkable ability to survive more than 5 years in laboratory storage at 5-7 degrees Celsius. To test the hypothesis that this long term survival in storage is facilitated by larvae continuing in the state of diapause, co...

  3. Comparison of Long-Term Storage in Chemical Fixatives on Morphology and Anatomy of Super-Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Hole, P. S.; Gillespie, L.; Levbinskikh, M.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super-Dwarf) are grown in the microgravity of space and harvested for morphological and anatomical comparison with those exposed to gravity on earth. Such plants are subjected to relatively long periods of storage in chemical fixatives. Examination, evaluation and verification that the integrity of the vascular system is maintained for extended periods of storage in fixatives are required. McDowell and Trump's [4% Formaldehyde -- 1 % Glutaraldehyde (4F: 1 G)] or Variant I [(Russian Fixative): Formalin: Acetic Acid: Alcohol] fixatives, adjusted to pH 7.2, were placed in Aclam(TM), FilmORap(TM), or FilmOSun(TM) plastic bags on April 4, 1994. Wheat seedlings were harvested on days 9, 28, and 68 and preserved in these fixatives. Subsamples of leaves and/or seeds were taken from these stocks after various times in storage, dehydrated, and embedded in Spurr's, LR White's or Unicryl resin. Semithin (1 mm) and thin (50-70 nm) sections were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. In a few sections, we have observed a slight plasmolysis of the cytostol in leaf tissue fixed with the Variant I, but overall there seem to be no major artifacts in the anatomical structure. The plasmalemma and other organelles appeared normal in the McDowell and Trump fixative. Use of differential chromophores suggests that LR White or Unicryl resins may give greater flexibility for enzyme localizations at both the light and electron microscopical levels.

  4. Long-term storage effect on chemical composition, nutritional value and quality of Greek onion landrace "Vatikiotiko".

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, S A; Ntatsi, G; Fernandes, Â; Barros, L; Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Antoniadis, V

    2016-06-15

    The effect of storage at two temperatures (5±1 and 25±1 °C and 60-70±5% RH for both temperatures) on marketability and quality features of dry bulbs of local landrace "Vatikiotiko", "Sivan F1", "Red Cross F1" and "Creamgold" was examined. During storage measurements for fresh and dry weight of bulbs, tunic and flesh color, bulb firmness, nutritional value and mineral composition were taken at regular intervals. Storage concluded when either bulbs lost marketable quality or sprouting occurred. "Vatikiotiko" onion can be stored for at least 7months at 25±1 °C, whereas at 5±1 °C storage could be prolonged without significant marketability and quality loss. The fact that "Vatikiotiko" landrace can be considered a "storage" onion has to be capitalized in order to increase total production and yield, since storage could cover the market needs that arise throughout the year. PMID:26868562

  5. Sensory descriptive quantitative analysis of unpasteurized and pasteurized juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) during long-term storage

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Zillo, Rafaela Rebessi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Prospero, Evanilda Teresinha Perissinotto; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pasteurization followed by storage under different conditions on the sensory attributes of frozen juçara pulp using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Pasteurization of packed frozen pulp was performed by its immersion in stainless steel tank containing water (80°C) for 5 min, followed by storage under refrigerated and frozen conditions. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples (6°C) on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Sensory attributes were separated as follows: appearance (foamy, heterogeneous, purple, brown, oily, and creamy), aroma (sweet and fermented), taste (astringent, bitter, and sweet), and texture (oily and consistent), and compared to a reference material. In general, unpasteurized frozen pulp showed the highest score for foamy appearance, and pasteurized samples showed highest scores to creamy appearance. Pasteurized samples remained stable regarding brown color development while unpasteurized counterparts presented increase. Color is an important attribute related to the product identity. All attributes related to taste and texture remained constant during storage for all samples. Pasteurization followed by storage under frozen conditions has shown to be the best conservation method as samples submitted to such process received the best sensory evaluation, described as foamy, slightly heterogeneous, slightly bitter, and slightly astringent. PMID:25473489

  6. Survival, growth and pathogenicity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis with different methods of long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Elliott, M L

    2005-01-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis was preserved with 12 different storage methods. Five strains, each with unique morphological and pathological characteristics, were used for comparison of the methods. The storage treatments included potato-dextrose agar slants, with or without mineral oil, stored at either 4 C, 28 C or ambient temperature; colonized agar plugs placed in glycerol solution at either -75 C or -20 C; colonized agar plugs placed in sterile deionized water at either 4 C or ambient temperature; and mycelial growth on intact or precut pieces of filter paper, desiccated and stored at ambient temperature. Survival was evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 120 mo. The three best treatments for survival were PDA slants, with or without mineral oil, and colonized agar plugs stored in water, all at ambient temperature. All five fungal strains were recovered from all four replicates at each sampling date for agar plugs stored in water at ambient temperature. The worst treatments were agar slants and agar plugs in water stored at 4 C and agar plugs stored in glycerol at -20 C. Morphological characteristics were not affected by storage treatments. In general, there were minimal or no effects on growth and pathogenicity for all strains for all storage treatments with survival. Colonized agar plugs stored in water at ambient temperature provides an economical storage method (materials and labor) that does not need an electrical power for long-term maintenance. PMID:16457359

  7. Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

  8. Scheduling viability tests for seeds in long-term storage based on a Bayesian Multi-Level Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genebank managers conduct viability tests on stored seeds so they can replace lots that have viability near a critical threshold, such as 50 or 85% germination. Currently, these tests are typically scheduled at uniform intervals; testing every 5 years is common. A manager needs to balance the cost...

  9. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of the spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 type reactors are calculated during storage time up to 300,000 y. Decay heat power of radioactive waste (radwaste) determines parameters of the heat removal system for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment. PMID:16381764

  10. Long-term storage of compound solutions for high-throughput screening by using a novel 1536-well microplate.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Martin Joseph; Scheel, Guenther

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the features and the performance of a new and significantly improved 1536-well microplate design. The design allows for simple, automation-friendly, and cost-effective storage of compound solutions for high-throughput screening. The plate design is based on Society for Biomolecular Sciences standards for microplates and can be molded from polystyrene or cycloolefin copolymer, thus making the plate suitable for use with acoustic dispensing as well as other conventional liquid dispensing in the nanoliter range. For a 9:1 DMSO/water mix as solvent, the novel plate design has shown to perform over 4 months with only minor losses in solvent. Thus, this novel plate design creates the basis for further reductions in compound storage volumes and allows for an increase in the storage times for microliter volumes for up to a year or more. The high protection against solvent evaporation is also visible for aqueous solutions, thus allowing for reduced edge effects during screening campaigns. PMID:19487771

  11. Assessing Antibody Microarray for Space Missions: Effect of Long-term Storage, Gamma radiation and High Energy proton radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Diego-Castilla, G.; Parro, V.

    2012-09-01

    Fluorescent antibody microarray has been proposed for Molecular biomarker detector in planetary exploration [1]. A number of different environmental stresses may affect the antibody performance, such as temperatures variations, highly penetrating radiation and high energy particles. Here we have tested the effect of gamma radiation, proton radiation and longterm storage on the microarray immunoassay and fluorocromes. Although different antibodies might have different susceptibilities we conclude that there was not significant reduction in the functionality of antibodies printed on the microarray and the fluorescent tracers antibodies, even in a extreme case of receiving a radiation dose 3000-fold than a biochip would receive in a trip mission to Mars. In summary, antibodies are suitable for use in planetary exploration purposes.

  12. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, Michal; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-12-01

    The strain Pleurotus ostreatus Florida f6, its 45 basidiospore-derived isolates (both monokaryons and dikaryons prepared in our laboratory), Trametes versicolor strain CCBAS 614 and 22 other T. versicolor isolates obtained from the sporocarps collected in distant localities were successfully preserved for 12 y using perlite and straw cryopreservation protocols. All tested isolates survived a 12-year storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and their laccase production and Poly B411 decolorization capacity was preserved. Also mycelium extension rate and the types of colony appearance of individual isolates remained unchanged. Different cryopreservation techniques were also tested for the short time (24 h) and the long time (6 m) storage of the culture liquid with extracellular laccase produced by T. versicolor strain CCBAS 614. The results showed that 10 % glycerol was the most suitable cryopreservant. The absence of the cryopreservant did not cause high loss of laccase activity in the samples; the presence of DMSO (5 or 10 %) in LN-stored samples caused mostly a decrease of laccase activity. For the preservation of laccase activity in the liquid culture the storage in the freezer at -80 °C is more convenient than the storage in liquid nitrogen. PMID:26615755

  13. Long-term storage of polyethylene film wrapped cotton bales and effects on fiber and textile quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  14. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Scalari, G. Maissen, C.; Faist, J.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  15. Going to Scale with High-Quality Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christina, Rachel; Nicholson-Goodman, JoVictoria

    2005-01-01

    This report is an initial effort to describe efforts of a number of states that are seeking to create statewide systems of high-quality pre-kindergarten services, as well as some of the progress they have made in doing so. Focusing on the efforts of a sample of eight U.S. states, it examines the policy choices that states have made when…

  16. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  17. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, Myron; Ruckman, Mark; Strongin, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  18. Magnetic properties of high quality superconducting laser ablated thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Mehdaoui, A.; Acquaviva, S.; Leggieri, G.; Luches, A.; Del Vecchio, A.; Tapfer, L.

    1998-05-01

    We present experimental results obtained forRBa2Cu3O7 - x(R = Y,Er) expitaxial thin films obtained through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and grown on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and SrTiO3(STO) substrates. The films have been deposited by using low deposition rates (f = 4 Hz) and with control of the film surface temperature rather than that of the sample holder leading to a high quality of the epitaxy.

  19. Effective multidisciplinary working: the key to high-quality care.

    PubMed

    Ndoro, Samuel

    This article explores multidisciplinary team working, inter-disciplinary, trans-disciplinary and effective collaborative practice in order to provide high-quality patient care. It discusses different views on collaboration, some of the issues around cross-discipline and multi-agency working and concerns around promoting 'high-quality' care. It also discusses the importance of evidence-based practice in multidisciplinary teams. Issues around good-quality care, clinical governance and the audit cycle in MDTs are addressed. The article highlights the importance of the 6Cs (care, compassion, competence, communication, courage and commitment) in MDTs if quality care is to be achieved. The article also explores advantages and limitations of multidisciplinary team working, trans-disciplinary working and inter-professional working in developing and delivering high-quality patient-centred care. Further research is needed on how clinical audits can help to improve how MDTs function in order improve the quality of service provided to clients. PMID:25072333

  20. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. PMID:24486940

  1. [High-quality hospital discharge summaries - general practitioners expectations].

    PubMed

    Bally, Klaus; Lingenhel, Sabine; Tschudi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hospital discharge summaries ensure treatment continuity after hospital discharge. In Switzerland discharge letters are a celebrated custom and a tool for training young colleagues. The primary purpose is to guarantee high-quality care of patients treated by hospital staff and general practitioners. From the perspective of the patient's general practitioner discharge summaries should convey current and accurate medically important patient data to the physician responsible for follow-up care. In the era of highly developed electronic data transfer and introduction of diagnose related groups (DRGs), it will be necessary to transmit hospital discharge information selectively to different target groups. Nevertheless data protection and medical secret must be complied with. PMID:22198930

  2. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit.

    PubMed

    Pedicelli, Alessandro; Rollo, Massimo; Piano, Mariangela; Re, Thomas J; Cipriani, Maria C; Colosimo, Cesare; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging. PMID:19230069

  3. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika

    2014-02-01

    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  4. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  5. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  6. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  7. MBE grown high quality GaN films and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Aktas, O.; Salvador, A.; Botchkarev, A.; Sverdlov, B.; Mohammad, S. N.; Morkoç, H.

    1997-02-01

    GaN films with much improved structural, transport, and optical properties have been prepared by molecular beam epitaxy using NH 3 as a nitrogen source. Films with a wide range of resistivity, including highly resistive ones, were grown with a chosen growth rate of 1.2 μm/h. The electron mobility in modulation doped structures is about 450 and 850 cm 2/Vs at 300 and 77 K, respectively, with an areal carrier concentration of about 10 13 cm -2. Low temperature luminescence shows A- and B-free-excitons as well as the excited state of the A- and B-excitons, the first known observation, attesting to the quality of the samples. These transition energies are consistent with the best MOCVD samples and represent a sizable reduction of the pandemic zincblende phase in MBE grown films. The high quality of films was demonstrated by the realization of high performance MODFETs and Schottky diodes.

  8. Sequential interactive evolution for finding high-quality topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avigad, Gideon; Salomon, Shaul; Knopf, George

    2015-10-01

    Finding a diverse set of high-quality (HQ) topologies for a single-objective optimization problem using an evolutionary computation algorithm can be difficult without a reliable measure that adequately describes the dissimilarity between competing topologies. In this article, a new approach for enhancing diversity among HQ topologies for engineering design applications is proposed. The technique initially selects one HQ solution and then searches for alternative HQ solutions by performing an optimization of the original objective and its dissimilarity with respect to the previously found solution. The proposed multi-objective optimization approach interactively amalgamates user articulated preferences with an evolutionary search so as sequentially to produce a set of diverse HQ solutions to a single-objective problem. For enhancing diversity, a new measure is suggested and an approach to reducing its computational time is studied and implemented. To illustrate the technique, a series of studies involving different topologies represented as bitmaps is presented.

  9. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  10. High quality GPU rendering with displaced pixel shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Choi, Jae

    2006-03-01

    Direct volume rendering via consumer PC hardware has become an efficient tool for volume visualization. In particular, the volumetric ray casting, the most frequently used volume rendering technique, can be implemented by the shading language integrated with graphical processing units (GPU). However, to produce high-quality images offered by GPU-based volume rendering, a higher sampling rate is usually required. In this paper, we present an algorithm to generate high quality images with a small number of slices by utilizing displaced pixel shading technique. Instead of sampling points along a ray with the regular interval, the actual surface location is calculated by the linear interpolation between the outer and inner points, and this location is used as the displaced pixel for the iso-surface illumination. Multi-pass and early Z-culling techniques are applied to improve the rendering speed. The first pass simply locates and stores the exact surface depth of each ray using a few pixel instructions; then, the second pass uses instructions to shade the surface at the previous position. A new 3D edge detector from our previous research is integrated to provide more realistic rendering results compared with the widely used gradient normal estimator. To implement our algorithm, we have made a program named DirectView based on DirectX 9.0c and Microsoft High Level Shading Language (HLSL) for volume rendering. We tested two data sets and discovered that our algorithm can generate smoother and more accurate shading images with a small number of intermediate slices.

  11. Surgery at High-Quality Hospitals a Money-Saver for Medicare

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160864.html Surgery at High-Quality Hospitals a Money-Saver for Medicare Savings is ... HealthDay News) -- Having major surgery at a high-quality hospital costs Medicare less than the same procedure ...

  12. Which Combination of High Quality Infant-Toddler and Preschool Care Best Promotes School Readiness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weilin; Farkas, George; Duncan, Greg J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah L.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Dang, Tran T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to test the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (H1): Everything else the same, high quality infant-toddler care will increase children's cognitive scores immediately (i.e. at 24 months of age). However, without subsequent high quality preschool, children with high quality infant-toddler care will not have higher cognitive and…

  13. Plasmonic CROWs for Tunable Dispersion and High Quality Cavity Modes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John J.; Lafone, Lucas; Hamm, Joachim M.; Hess, Ortwin; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2015-01-01

    Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) have the potential to revolutionise integrated optics, to slow-light and enhance linear and non-linear optical phenomena. Here we exploit the broad resonances and subwavelength nature of localized surface plasmons in a compact CROW design where plasmonic nanoparticles are side coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The plasmonic CROW features a low loss central mode with a highly tunable dispersion, that avoids coupling to the plasmonic nanoparticles close to the band-edge. We show that this low loss character is preserved in finite plasmonic CROWs giving rise to Fabry-Perot type resonances that have high quality factors of many thousands, limited only by the CROW length. Furthermore we demonstrate that the proposed CROW design is surprisingly robust to disorder. By varying the geometric parameters one can not only reduce the losses into dissipative or radiative channels but also control the outcoupling of energy to the waveguide. The ability to minimise loss in plasmonic CROWs while maintaining dispersion provides an effective cavity design for chip-integrated laser devices and applications in linear and non-linear nano-photonics. PMID:26631579

  14. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters. PMID:27075935

  15. High quality ferromagnetic 0 and π Josephson tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weides, M.; Kemmler, M.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Kohlstedt, H.; Buzdin, A.

    2006-09-01

    The authors fabricated high quality Nb /Al2O3/Ni0.6Cu0.4/Nb superconductor-insulatorferromagnet-superconductor Josephson tunnel junctions. Depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic Ni0.6Cu0.4 layer and on the ambient temperature, the junctions were in the 0 or π ground state. All junctions have homogeneous interfaces showing almost perfect Fraunhofer patterns. The Al2O3 tunnel barrier allows one to achieve rather low damping, which is desired for many experiments especially in the quantum domain. The McCumber parameter βc increases exponentially with decreasing temperature and reaches βc≈700 at T =2.11K. The critical current density in the π state was up to 5A/cm2 at T =2.11K, resulting in a Josephson penetration depth λJ as low as 160μm. Experimentally determined junction parameters are well described by theory taking into account spin-flip scattering in the Ni0.6Cu0.4 layer and different transparencies of the interfaces.

  16. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters. PMID:27075935

  17. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, G.; Haering, E. A.; Price, M.

    2011-12-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  18. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  19. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schädler, Kevin G; Dubin, François; Koppens, Frank H L; Bachtold, Adrian

    2016-08-10

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 10(4) at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 10(4) at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  20. Solvent-free enzymatic production of high quality cetyl esters.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Arnaldos, Mar; Máximo-Martín, María Fuensanta; Montiel-Morte, María Claudia; Ortega-Requena, Salvadora; Gómez-Gómez, Elisa; Bastida-Rodríguez, Josefa

    2016-04-01

    A solvent-free biocatalytic process for the synthesis of high quality cetyl laurate, myristate, palmitate and stearate has been optimized. This enzymatic procedure follows the fundamental principles of the Green Chemistry and lead to sustainable products, which can be labeled as natural and conform to the principal requirements for its use in high value-added goods. The four esters selected are the main components of spermaceti, a mixture of waxes very appreciated in cosmetic and pharmacy because of its physical properties and emolliency, which was formerly extracted from the head of the sperm whales. In this paper, the influence of the amount of biocatalyst, the commercially available Novozym(®) 435, and the temperature were studied in an open-air batch reactor before carrying out the synthesis in a high performance vacuum reactor with dry nitrogen input to shift the equilibrium towards product formation. Under optimal conditions, conversion was higher than 98.5 %. The characterization of the enzymatic cetyl esters puts in evidence that these are ultra-pure compounds, which have similar properties to the ones obtained through the conventional industrial processes with the extra benefit of being environmentally friendly. PMID:26801670

  1. Tunable high quality factor in two multimode plasmonic stubs waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiquan; Li, Hongjian; Zhan, Shiping; Li, Boxun; He, Zhihui; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei

    2016-04-01

    We numerically investigate the optical characteristics of a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) waveguide side-coupled with two identical multimode stub resonators. Double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) peaks with narrow full width at half maximum (FWHM) and high quality factor (Q-factor) can be observed in this structure. The Q-factors of PIT peaks in two stub resonators system are larger than those in single stub resonator system. A multimode coupled-radiation oscillator theory (MC-ROT), which is derived from ROT, is proposed to analyze the spectral response in the multimode system for the first time. The analytical results are confirmed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results. We can also find that the Q-factors of the two PIT peaks have an opposite evolution tendency with the change of the stubs parameters and the maximum can reach to 427. These results may provide some applications for ultrasensitive sensors, switches and efficient filters.

  2. High-quality remote interactive imaging in the operating theatre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimstead, Ian J.; Avis, Nick J.; Evans, Peter L.; Bocca, Alan

    2009-02-01

    We present a high-quality display system that enables the remote access within an operating theatre of high-end medical imaging and surgical planning software. Currently, surgeons often use printouts from such software for reference during surgery; our system enables surgeons to access and review patient data in a sterile environment, viewing real-time renderings of MRI & CT data as required. Once calibrated, our system displays shades of grey in Operating Room lighting conditions (removing any gamma correction artefacts). Our system does not require any expensive display hardware, is unobtrusive to the remote workstation and works with any application without requiring additional software licenses. To extend the native 256 levels of grey supported by a standard LCD monitor, we have used the concept of "PseudoGrey" where slightly off-white shades of grey are used to extend the intensity range from 256 to 1,785 shades of grey. Remote access is facilitated by a customized version of UltraVNC, which corrects remote shades of grey for display in the Operating Room. The system is successfully deployed at Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK, and is in daily use during Maxillofacial surgery. More formal user trials and quantitative assessments are being planned for the future.

  3. Rapid and Efficient Isolation of High-Quality Small RNAs from Recalcitrant Plant Species Rich in Polyphenols and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jinji; Guo, Jianrong; Fan, Zaifeng

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are important regulators of plant development and gene expression. The acquisition of high-quality small RNAs is the first step in the study of its expression and function analysis, yet the extraction method of small RNAs in recalcitrant plant tissues with various secondary metabolites is not well established, especially for tropical and subtropical plant species rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols. Here, we developed a simple and efficient method for high quality small RNAs extraction from recalcitrant plant species. Prior to RNA isolation, a precursory step with a CTAB-PVPP buffer system could efficiently remove compounds and secondary metabolites interfering with RNAs from homogenized lysates. Then, total RNAs were extracted by Trizol reagents followed by a differential precipitation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) RNAs using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. Finally, small RNAs could be easily recovered from supernatant by ethanol precipitation without extra elimination steps. The isolated small RNAs from papaya showed high quality through a clear background on gel and a distinct northern blotting signal with miR159a probe, compared with other published protocols. Additionally, the small RNAs extracted from papaya were successfully used for validation of both predicted miRNAs and the putative conserved tasiARFs. Furthermore, the extraction method described here was also tested with several other subtropical and tropical plant tissues. The purity of the isolated small RNAs was sufficient for such applications as end-point stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blotting analysis, respectively. The simple and feasible extraction method reported here is expected to have excellent potential for isolation of small RNAs from recalcitrant plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides. PMID:24787387

  4. Detection of High Quality Rainfall Data to Improve Flood Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, T. C.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    European flood management systems require reliable rainfall statistics, e.g. the Intensity-duration-Frequency curves for shorter and shorter durations and for a larger and larger range of return periods. Preliminary studies showed that the number of floods depends on the quality of available data, e.g. the time resolution quality. These facts suggest that a particular attention should be paid to the rainfall data quality in order to adequately investigate flood risk aiming to achieve flood resilience. The potential consequences of changes in measuring and recording techniques have been somewhat discussed in the literature with respect to a possible introduction of artificial inhomogeneities in time series. In this direction, we developed a first version of a SERQUAL procedure to automatically detect the effective time resolution of highly mixed data. We show that most of the rainfall time series have a lower recording frequency than that is assumed. This question is particularly important for operational hydrology, because an error on the effective recording high frequency introduces biases in the corresponding statistics. It is therefore essential to quantify the quality of the rainfall time series before their use. Due to the fact that the multiple scales and possible scaling behaviour of hydrological data are particularly important for many applications, including flood resilience research, this paper first investigates the sensitivity of the scaling estimates and methods to the deficit of short duration rainfall data, and consequently propose a few simple criteria for a reliable evaluation of the data quality. The SERQUAL procedure enable us to extract high quality sub-series from longer time series that will be much more reliable to calibrate and/or validate short duration quantiles and hydrological models.

  5. Analysis of high quality monatomic chromium films used in biological high resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, R P

    1994-01-01

    During the recent employment of field emission (FE) in-lens scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), refractory metal deposition technology has co-evolved to provide enhanced contrast of 1-10 nm hydrocarbon based biological structures imaged at high magnifications (> 200,000 times). Pioneer development employing the Penning sputter system in a high vacuum chamber proved that imaging of chromium (Cr) coated biological specimens contained enriched secondary electron (SE)-(I) contrasts. Single nanometer size fibrillar and particulate ectodomains within the context of complex biological membranes were accurately imaged without significant enlargement using the high resolution SE-I mode (HRSEM). This paper reports the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) testing of ultrathin (0.5-2.0 nm) Cr films deposited by planar magnetron sputter coating (PMSC). Essential parameters necessary to reproduce quality sputtered films of refractory metals used in HRSEM studies were described for the vacuum system and target operation conditions (current, voltage, and target distance). HRSEM imaging of biological specimens is presented to assess contrast attained from ultrathin fine grain Cr films deposited by PMSC. High magnification images were recorded to illustrate high quality contrasts attainable by HRSEM at low (1-5 kV) and high (10-30 kV) voltages. Dispersed molecules on formvar coated grids were sputter coated with a 1 nm thick Cr film before employing scanning transmission (STEM)/SEM modes of the FESEM to establish non-decorative image accuracy in the transmitted electron mode. PMID:7701300

  6. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  7. Modular plant recovers high quality fuel from slurry pond

    SciTech Connect

    Batanian, D.C.; Terry, R.L.; Watters, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    fine coal recovery plant can recover an average of 100 tons per hour of high quality coal suitable for use as feedstock to the pellet plants operated at this site.

  8. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  9. Developing high-quality mouse monoclonal antibodies for neuroscience research - approaches, perspectives and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gong, Belvin; Murray, Karl D; Trimmer, James S

    2016-09-25

    High-quality antibodies (Abs) are critical to neuroscience research, as they remain the primary affinity proteomics reagent used to label and capture endogenously expressed protein targets in the nervous system. As in other fields, neuroscientists are frequently confronted with inaccurate and irreproducible Ab-based results and/or reporting. The UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility was created with the mission of addressing the unmet need for high-quality Abs in neuroscience research by applying a unique approach to generate and validate mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) optimized for use against mammalian brain (i.e., NeuroMabs). Here we describe our methodology of multi-step mAb screening focused on identifying mAbs exhibiting efficacy and specificity in labeling mammalian brain samples. We provide examples from NeuroMab screens, and from the subsequent specialized validation of those selected as NeuroMabs. We highlight the particular challenges and considerations of determining specificity for brain immunolabeling. We also describe why our emphasis on extensive validation of large numbers of candidates by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry against brain samples is essential for identifying those that exhibit efficacy and specificity in those applications to become NeuroMabs. We describe the special attention given to candidates with less common non-IgG1 IgG subclasses that can facilitate simultaneous multiplex labeling with subclass-specific secondary antibodies. We detail our recent use of recombinant cloning of NeuroMabs as a method to archive all NeuroMabs, to unambiguously define NeuroMabs at the DNA sequence level, and to re-engineer IgG1 NeuroMabs to less common IgG subclasses to facilitate their use in multiplex labeling. Finally, we provide suggestions to facilitate Ab development and use, as to design, execution and interpretation of Ab-based neuroscience experiments. Reproducibility in neuroscience research will improve with enhanced Ab validation

  10. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. ...

  11. Secondary parkinsonism

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinsonism - secondary; Atypical Parkinson disease ... to be less responsive to medical therapy than Parkinson disease. ... Unlike Parkinson disease, some types of secondary parkinsonism may stabilize or even improve if the underlying cause is treated. Brain ...

  12. Select Novice Elementary Teachers' Perceived Knowledge and Implementation of High-Quality Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine select novice teachers' perceived knowledge of high-quality reading instruction, explore the extent that select novice teachers implemented high-quality reading instruction into their own classrooms, and to investigate any factors that explain the similarities and differences between…

  13. The Cost of High-Quality Pre-School Education in New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Schwartz, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This report calculates the full cost of providing well-planned, high quality pre-school for children in New Jersey, as required under "Abbott vs. Burke" (153 NJ 480 1998). The evidence on how high-quality pre-school improves the academic performance of children is compelling. After a rapid expansion over the last decade, many children in the…

  14. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  15. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry

    2013-04-01

    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK (http://data.gov.uk/linked-data) and US (http://www.data.gov/page/semantic-web). The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under data.gov.au. In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  16. A High Quality Draft Consensus Sequence of the Genome of a Heterozygous Grapevine Variety

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Dustin A.; Cestaro, Alessandro; Pruss, Dmitry; Pindo, Massimo; FitzGerald, Lisa M.; Vezzulli, Silvia; Reid, Julia; Malacarne, Giulia; Iliev, Diana; Coppola, Giuseppina; Wardell, Bryan; Micheletti, Diego; Macalma, Teresita; Facci, Marco; Mitchell, Jeff T.; Perazzolli, Michele; Eldredge, Glenn; Gatto, Pamela; Oyzerski, Rozan; Moretto, Marco; Gutin, Natalia; Stefanini, Marco; Chen, Yang; Segala, Cinzia; Davenport, Christine; Demattè, Lorenzo; Mraz, Amy; Battilana, Juri; Stormo, Keith; Costa, Fabrizio; Tao, Quanzhou; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Harkins, Tim; Lackey, Angie; Perbost, Clotilde; Taillon, Bruce; Stella, Alessandra; Solovyev, Victor; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Sterck, Lieven; Vandepoele, Klaas; Grando, Stella M.; Toppo, Stefano; Moser, Claudio; Lanchbury, Jerry; Bogden, Robert; Skolnick, Mark; Sgaramella, Vittorio; Bhatnagar, Satish K.; Fontana, Paolo; Gutin, Alexander; Van de Peer, Yves; Salamini, Francesco; Viola, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented. Principal Findings We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs). The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before). Conclusions Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS), together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps). SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape. PMID:18094749

  17. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  18. [Secondary diabetes].

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Secondary diabetes is diabetes that results as a consequence of another medication, endocrine disease or hereditary disease. Secondary diabetes is very broad and diverted category among diabetes. Clinically, pancreatic diabetes is one of the most popular secondary diabetes, which provides insulin deficiency following pancreatic diseases, such as pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Among endocrine diseases, Cushing's syndrome and acromegaly are typical endocrine disorders causing secondary diabetes. They mainly induce insulin resistance in early stage, however, insulin deficiency is also observed in advanced stage. Steroid is the most popular drug-induced secondary diabetes. Importantly, not only oral administered steroid but also cutaneous and inhalation steroid could induce hyperglycemia. Major hereditary diabetes are MODY and mitochondrial diabetes. Concerning secondary diabetes, careful medical examination is required. PMID:26666145

  19. Do High Quality Children's Centers Share Characteristics of Effective Schools? A Description of Four High Quality Children's Centers. Evaluation Report No. 438.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bob

    A study was conducted to determine whether five factors characteristic of effective elementary schools were also characteristic of four high quality children's centers in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Investigation also attempted to ascertain how the factors were operationalized at these centers. Specifically, the five factors were (1)…

  20. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... December 13, 2005 (70 FR 73556). This interim rule also invites interested parties to comment on making... and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers AGENCY:...

  1. The use of ion beam cleaning to obtain high quality cold welds with minimal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Moore, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    A variation of cold welding is described which utilizes an ion beam to clean mating surfaces prior to joining in a vacuum environment. High quality solid state welds were produced with minimal deformation.

  2. Improvement of the processing of the wastes of nonferrous metals into high-quality secondary raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, E. N.; Sergeev, S. V.; Chumanov, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    A method for refining the wastes of nonferrous metals by milling with a controlled vibrational motion of a cutting tool is described. This method increases the yield of chip elements of nonferrous metals of a given size and shape by a factor of 2-3.

  3. What Makes a High-Quality Preschool? Similarities and Differences between Chinese Immigrant and European American Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Even though scholars have attempted to identify features determining high-quality preschools, little is known about parents' views about high-quality preschools. Particularly important is the understanding of immigrant parents' views about high-quality preschools in relation to their cultural and socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. The present study…

  4. The effect of melatonin on the quality of extended boar semen after long-term storage at 17 °C.

    PubMed

    Martín-Hidalgo, D; Barón, F J; Bragado, M J; Carmona, P; Robina, A; García-Marín, L J; Gil, M C

    2011-05-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is an efficient antioxidant that protects cells and tissues and initiates a host of receptor-mediated effects. In order to enhance the life span of refrigerated boar semen, our aim was to evaluate the effects of addition of 1 μM MLT to commercially produced pig semen (33 seminal doses from 14 boars) that had been preserved at 17 °C for 7 days. Samples without MLT served as controls. On Days 1, 4 and 7, we evaluated motility parameters and the percentage of total motile and progressively motile spermatozoa by a computer-aided sperm analysis system. Viability (SYBR-14/PI), acrosomal status (FITC-PNA/PI), membrane fluidity (M-540/YoPro-1) and mitochondrial membrane potential status (JC-1) were evaluated by flow cytometry. MLT treatment significantly enhanced the percentage of static spermatozoa after 7 days of storage and significantly reduced the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa on Day 7. The velocity characteristics (VCL, VSL and VAP) were significantly higher for MLT-treated samples on Day 1 and were their lowest on Day 7. With regard to flow cytometry results, the percentage of viable spermatozoa with an intact acrosome was higher in MLT samples throughout the entire storage period. In addition, there was a significantly higher proportion of live spermatozoa on Day 7 in the samples that had not been treated with MLT. The proportion of spermatozoa showing a high mitochondrial membrane potential remained at similar levels (P > 0.05) throughout the trial. Although the findings of the present study revealed that 1 μM MLT increased the proportion of live sperm with an intact acrosome, this treatment did not enhance the spermatic quality of refrigerated boar semen. PMID:21320723

  5. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  6. Exploitation of FTA cartridges for the sampling, long-term storage, and DNA-based analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Marek, Martin; Zouhar, Miloslav; Douda, Ondřej; Maňasová, Marie; Ryšánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The use of DNA-based analyses in molecular plant nematology research has dramatically increased over recent decades. Therefore, the development and adaptation of simple, robust, and cost-effective DNA purification procedures are required to address these contemporary challenges. The solid-phase-based approach developed by Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) has been shown to be a powerful technology for the preparation of DNA from different biological materials, including blood, saliva, plant tissues, and various human and plant microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that this FTA-based technology is a valuable, low-cost, and time-saving approach for the sampling, long-term archiving, and molecular analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes. Despite the complex structure and anatomical organization of the multicellular bodies of nematodes, we report the successful and reliable DNA-based analysis of nematode high-copy and low-copy genes using the FTA technology. This was achieved by applying nematodes to the FTA cards either in the form of a suspension of individuals, as intact or pestle-crushed nematodes, or by the direct mechanical printing of nematode-infested plant tissues. We further demonstrate that the FTA method is also suitable for the so-called "one-nematode-assay", in which the target DNA is typically analyzed from a single individual nematode. More surprisingly, a time-course experiment showed that nematode DNA can be detected specifically in the FTA-captured samples many years after initial sampling occurs. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrate the applicability and the robustness of this FTA-based approach for molecular research and diagnostics concerning phytonematodes; this research includes economically important species such as the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), the sugar beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii), and the Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla). PMID:24093923

  7. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salafranca, Jesús; Clemente, Isabel; Isella, Francesca; Nerín, Cristina; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2015-06-01

    The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60-80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011. PMID:26002333

  8. Long Term Storage of Ascosphaera aggregata and A. apis Pathogens of the Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata) and the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival of Ascosphaera aggregata and A. apis over the course of a year were tested using different storage treatments. For spores, the methods tested were freeze drying and ultra-low temperature storage, and for hyphae, freeze drying, agar slants covered with water, and two methods of ultra-low tem...

  9. Changes in the Bioactive Compounds Content of Soybean as a Function of Grain Moisture Content and Temperature during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Valmor; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Paraginski, Ricardo Tadeu; Monks, Jander Luis Fernandes; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    Soybean is a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, isoflavones, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The amount of bioactive compounds in freshly harvested soybeans and their derived products has been determined; however, when they are used in the food industry, soybeans are generally stored prior to being processed. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean moisture content (12%, 15%, and 18%) and storage temperature (11, 18, 25, and 32 °C) on the free phenolic, total flavonoid, vanillic acid, total carotenoid, and δ- and γ-tocopherol content of soybeans stored for 12 mo. Moreover, the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities of phenolic extracts were determined. There was an increase in free phenolics and total flavonoids in the stored grains compared with the grains on the 1st d of storage. Vanillic acid showed a decrease in soybeans stored at 15% and 18% moisture content and 25 or 32 °C, which indicated some degradation into other metabolites. Total carotenoid content decreased as a function of storage temperature and showed some temperature-dependent degradation. The δ- and γ-tocopherol content also tended to decrease in grains stored at 15% or 18% moisture content or 25 or 32 °C, regardless of the moisture content studied. PMID:26816290

  10. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-d’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy), stored for a year (room temperature) and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF) were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *); 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma); 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue). The water activities (Aw) were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0), 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9) and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6). The total phenolics (TP) were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA) of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts) or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts) but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts), and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts). No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples) or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples. PMID:23109830

  11. Long-term storage and impedance-based water toxicity testing capabilities of fluidic biochips seeded with RTgill-W1 cells.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Linda M; Widder, Mark W; Lee, Lucy E J; van der Schalie, William H

    2012-08-01

    Rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) are used in a cell-based biosensor that can respond within one hour to toxic chemicals that have the potential to contaminate drinking water supplies. RTgill-W1 cells seeded on enclosed fluidic biochips and monitored using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology responded to 18 out of the 18 toxic chemicals tested within one hour of exposure. Nine of these chemical responses were within established concentration ranges specified by the U.S. Army for comparison of toxicity sensors for field application. The RTgill-W1 cells remain viable on the biochips at ambient carbon dioxide levels at 6°C for 78weeks without media changes. RTgill-W1 biochips stored in this manner were challenged with 9.4μM sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), a benchmark toxicant, and impedance responses were significant (p<0.001) for all storage times tested. This poikilothermic cell line has toxicant sensitivity comparable to a mammalian cell line (bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells (BLMVECs)) that was tested on fluidic biochips with the same chemicals. In order to remain viable, the BLMVEC biochips required media replenishments 3 times per week while being maintained at 37°C. The ability of RTgill-W1 biochips to maintain monolayer integrity without media replenishments for 78weeks, combined with their chemical sensitivity and rapid response time, make them excellent candidates for use in low cost, maintenance-free field-portable biosensors. PMID:22469871

  12. A fast and reliable procedure for spore collection from anaerobic fungi: Application for RNA uptake and long-term storage of isolates.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Shelby; Elledge, Nicole C; Hanafy, Radwa A; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Youssef, Noha

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) represent a basal fungal lineage (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) that resides in the rumen and alimentary tracts of herbivores. The AGF reproduce asexually, with a life cycle that involves flagellated zoospores released from zoosporangia followed by encystment, germination and the subsequent development of rhizomycelia. A fast and reliable approach for AGF spore collection is critical not only for developmental biology studies, but also for molecular biological (e.g. AMT-transformation and RNAi) approaches. Here, we developed and optimized a simple and reliable procedure for the collection of viable, competent, and developmentally synchronized AGF spores under strict anaerobic conditions. The approach involves growing AGF on agar medium in serum bottles under anaerobic conditions, and flooding the observed aerial growth to promote spore release from sporangia into the flooding suspension. The released spores are gently collected using a wide bore sterile needle. Process optimization resulted in the recovery of up to 7×10(9) spores per serum bottle. Further, the released spores exhibited synchronized development from flagellated spores to encysted spores and finally to germinating spores within 90min from the onset of flooding. At the germinating spore stage, the obtained spores were competent, and readily uptook small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides. Finally, using multiple monocentric and polycentric AGF isolates, we demonstrate that AGF grown on agar surface could retain viability for up to 16weeks at 39°C, and hence this solid surface growth procedure represents a simple, cryopreservative- and freezing temperature-free approach for AGF storage. PMID:27288952

  13. Tenacity of human norovirus and the surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovirus during long-term storage on common nonporous food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mormann, Sascha; Heißenberg, Cathrin; Pfannebecker, Jens; Becker, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of human norovirus (hNV) to food via contaminated surfaces is highly probable during food production, processing, and preparation. In this study, the tenacity of hNV and its cultivable surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) on two common nonporous surface materials at two storage temperatures was directly compared. Virus titer reduction on artificially inoculated stainless steel and plastic carriers was monitored for 70 days at room temperature and at 7°C. Viruses were recovered at various time points by elution. Genomes from intact capsids (hNV, FCV, and MNV) were quantified with real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR, and infectivity (FCV and MNV) was assessed with plaque assay. RNase treatment before RNA extraction was used to eliminate exposed RNA and to assess capsid integrity. No significant differences in titer reduction were found between materials (stainless steel or plastic) with the plaque assay or the real-time quantitative RT-PCR. At room temperature, infectious FCV and MNV were detected for 7 days. Titers of intact hNV, FCV, and MNV capsids dropped gradually and were still detectable after 70 days with a loss of 3 to 4 log units. At 7°C, the viruses were considerably more stable than they were at room temperature. Although only MNV infectivity was unchanged after 70 days, the numbers of intact capsids (hNV, FCV, and MNV) were stable with less than a 1-log reduction. The results indicate that hNV persists on food contact surfaces and seems to remain infective for weeks. MNV appears to be more stable than FCV at 7°C, and thus is the most suitable surrogate for hNV under dry conditions. Although a perfect quantitative correlation between intact capsids and infective particles was not obtained, real-time quantitative RT-PCR provided qualitative data about hNV inactivation characteristics. The results of this comparative study might support future efforts in assessment of foodborne virus risk and food safety. PMID:25581201

  14. Effects of dynamic controlled atmosphere by respiratory quotient on some quality parameters and volatile profile of 'Royal Gala' apple after long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Both, Vanderlei; Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Brackmann, Auri; de Oliveira Anese, Rogerio; de Freitas Ferreira, Daniele; Wagner, Roger

    2017-01-15

    The effects of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) storage based on chlorophyll fluorescence (DCA-CF) and respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) on the quality and volatile profile of 'Royal Gala' apple were evaluated. DCA storage reduces ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) oxidase activity, ethylene production and respiration rate of apples stored for 9months at 1.0°C plus 7days at 20°C, resulting in higher flesh firmness, titratable acidity and lesser physiological disorders, and provided a higher proportion of healthy fruit. Storage in a regular controlled atmosphere gave higher levels of key volatiles (butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate and hexyl acetate), as compared to fruit stored under DCA-CF, but fruit stored under DCA-RQ 1.5 and RQ 2.0 also showed higher amounts of key volatile compounds, with increment in ethanol and ethyl acetate, but far below the odour threshold. Storage in DCA-CF reduces fruit ester production, especially 2-methylbutyl acetate, which is the most important component of 'Royal Gala' apple flavour. PMID:27542502

  15. Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Lav Tandon

    2000-05-01

    The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

  16. Developing search strategies for detecting high quality reviews in a hypertext test collection.

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, M. P.; Hersh, W. R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify search strategies for retrieving high quality review studies about etiology, prognosis, therapy, and diagnosis from World Wide Web (WWW) medical documents. DESIGN: Observational study of the performance of search strategies based on terms found in high quality review articles in a collection of hypertext medical documents from the WWW. MEASUREMENTS: The sensitivity and specificity of search strategies for review articles in general and with a specific focus were determined by comparison to a manual review of a collection of hypertext medical documents. RESULTS: A total of 1058 hypertext medical documents from seven governmental and academic WWW sites were included in the study collection. About 16% of the documents in the collection met the criteria for high quality review documents. Search strategies for review documents were identified that had 87% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Compared to simple strategies combining the term "review" and the article focus, more complex strategies based on terms found in high quality studies were more sensitive in identifying review articles of a given focus. These more complex strategies had a sensitivity of 83% for diagnosis, 85% for therapy, 79% for prognosis, and 88% for etiology, while the simple strategies had a sensitivity of 88%, 74%, 38%, and 46%, respectively. In addition, the more complex strategies were more specific for high quality review articles on diagnosis and therapy. CONCLUSION: Search strategies can be identified that enhance retrieval of review documents and review documents of specific focus from a collection of WWW hypertext medical documents. PMID:9929302

  17. A high-throughput, high-quality plant genomic DNA extraction protocol.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, J; Cong, X H; Duan, Y B; Li, L; Wei, P C; Lu, X Z; Yang, J B

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of high-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of gDNA determines the reliability of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In this paper, we reported a high-quality gDNA extraction protocol optimized for real-time PCR in a variety of plant species. Performed in a 96-well block, our protocol provides high throughput. Without the need for phenol-chloroform and liquid nitrogen or dry ice, our protocol is safer and more cost-efficient than traditional DNA extraction methods. The method takes 10 mg leaf tissue to yield 5-10 µg high-quality gDNA. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate gDNA purity. The extracted DNA was qualified in a restriction enzyme digestion assay and conventional PCR. The real-time PCR amplification was sufficiently sensitive to detect gDNA at very low concentrations (3 pg/µL). The standard curve of gDNA dilutions from our phenol-chloroform-free protocol showed better linearity (R(2) = 0.9967) than the phenol-chloroform protocol (R(2) = 0.9876). The results indicate that the gDNA was of high quality and fit for real-time PCR. This safe, high-throughput plant gDNA extraction protocol could be used to isolate high-quality gDNA for real-time PCR and other downstream molecular applications. PMID:24222228

  18. Large-scale high quality glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser enhanced wet etching.

    PubMed

    Tong, Siyu; Bian, Hao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Deng, Zefang; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2014-11-17

    Large-scale high quality microlens arrays (MLAs) play an important role in enhancing the imaging quality of CCD and CMOS as well as the light extraction efficiency of LEDs and OLEDs. To meet the requirement in MLAs' wide application areas, a rapid fabrication method to fabricate large-scale MLAs with high quality, high fill factor and high uniformity is needed, especially on the glass substrate. In this paper, we present a simple and cost-efficient approach to the development of both concave and convex large-scale microlens arrays (MLAs) by using femtosecond laser wet etching method and replication technique. A large-scale high quality square-shaped microlens array with 512 × 512 units was fabricated.The unit size is 20 × 20 μm² on the whole scale of 1 × 1 cm². Its perfect uniformity and optical performance are demonstrated. PMID:25402166

  19. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Ohta, Kazunori; Furubayashi, Naoki; Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako; Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2013-11-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained. PMID:24121350

  20. A low-power and high-quality implementation of the discrete cosine transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyne, B.; Götze, J.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a computationally efficient and high-quality preserving DCT architecture is presented. It is obtained by optimizing the Loeffler DCT based on the Cordic algorithm. The computational complexity is reduced from 11 multiply and 29 add operations (Loeffler DCT) to 38 add and 16 shift operations (which is similar to the complexity of the binDCT). The experimental results show that the proposed DCT algorithm not only reduces the computational complexity significantly, but also retains the good transformation quality of the Loeffler DCT. Therefore, the proposed Cordic based Loeffler DCT is especially suited for low-power and high-quality CODECs in battery-based systems.

  1. Evaluation of efficient high quality depth upsampling methods for 3DTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosters, L. P. J.; Varekamp, C.; de Haan, G.

    2013-03-01

    High quality 3D content generation requires high quality depth maps. In practice, depth maps generated by stereo-matching, depth sensingcameras, or decoders, have a low resolution and suffer from unreliable estimates and noise. Therefore depth post-processing is necessary. In this paper we benchmark state-of-the-art filter based depth upsampling methods on depth accuracy and interpolation quality by conducting a parameter space search to find the optimum set of parameters for various upscale factors and noise levels. Additionally, we analyze each method's computational complexity with the big O notation and we measure the runtime of the GPU implementation that we built for each method.

  2. Secondary Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of their name, "secondary" products are essential for plant survival. They are required for basic cell functions as well as communicating the plant's presence to the surrounding environment and defense against pests as defined in the broad sense (i.e., diseases, nematodes, insects and plan...

  3. Requirements of High-Quality Kindergarten Programs According to Jordanian Parents: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore what Jordanian parents of children attending "traditional" kindergartens recognize as high-quality education programs. The sample consisted of 509 families ("N"?=?509) of kindergarten-age children. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire: curriculum domains, teacher…

  4. Child Care and Mothers' Mental Health: Is High-Quality Care Associated with Fewer Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…

  5. Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments: Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assessment and Accountability Comprehensive Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brief is an introduction to a "Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments" (Framework). It presents the intended purpose, uses, and organization of the Framework, as well as key background information and assumptions. The Framework was conceived as a critical tool in states' efforts to ensure that their…

  6. Creating High-Quality Preschool: Ideas for Supporting Early Learning Programs. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Recognizing that a quality preschool program is key to children's high achievement, this videotape presents a U.S. Department of Education teleconference on creating high quality preschool programs and federal funding available for such programs. Panelists from the Department include the director of the Early Childhood Institute in the Office of…

  7. Tapping the Potential: Retaining and Developing High-Quality New Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    There is growing consensus that the single most important factor in determining student performance is the quality of the teacher. Therefore, if the national goal of providing an equitable education to children across this nation is to be met, it is critical that efforts be concentrated on developing and retaining high-quality teachers in every…

  8. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  9. A Project to Enhance Superintendents' Knowledge and Application of Characteristics of High Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pummill, Bret L.; Edson, Jerry C.; Loftin, Michelle M.; Robinson, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on superintendents' knowledge of the characteristics of high quality teachers. Current research findings offer evidence teacher quality is an important school variable related to student achievement. School district leaders are faced with the problem of identifying the characteristics…

  10. Challenges Faced by Maine School Districts in Providing High Quality Public Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to: (1) identify challenges faced by Maine school districts in providing high quality public education; (2) describe the magnitude of the challenges; and (3) identify areas where school districts were experiencing some success in meeting these challenges. The School Districts Challenge Survey was distributed online to…

  11. Quality evaluation of extra high quality images based on key assessment word

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Masashi; Hayashi, Hidehiko; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Miyahara, Makoto M.

    2001-06-01

    An all encompassing goal of our research is to develop an extra high quality imaging system which is able to convey a high level artistic impression faithfully. We have defined a high order sensation as such a high level artistic impression, and it is supposed that the high order sensation is expressed by the combination of the psychological factor which can be described by plural assessment words. In order to pursue the quality factors that are important for the reproduction of the high order sensation, we have focused on the image quality evaluation of the extra high quality images using the assessment words considering the high order sensation. In this paper, we have obtained the hierarchical structure between the collected assessment words and the principles of European painting based on the conveyance model of the high order sensation, and we have determined a key assessment word 'plasticity' which is able to evaluate the reproduction of the high order sensation more accurately. The results of the subjective assessment experiments using the prototype of the developed extra high quality imaging system have shown that the obtained key assessment word 'plasticity' is the most appropriate assessment word to evaluate the image quality of the extra high quality images quasi-quantitatively.

  12. Alternative motif toward high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods via subtle sulfur element doping.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Xinyi; Sui, Yongming; Xiao, Guanjun; Wei, Yingjin; Zou, Bo

    2016-04-28

    The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine-manganese solutions at room temperature. The existence of manganese polysulfide clusters with polymeric sulfur structures makes the system more reactive, inducing fast wurtzite-phase nucleation. This can overcome the natural kinetic barrier of wurtzite MnSe and lead to subsequent growth of targeted NCs. On the other hand, no sulfur doping would produce MnSe NCs in a thermodynamically favorable rock-salt phase. As expected, different doping contents and sulfur sources also resulted in the formation of high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods. This success establishes that a facile strategy can be anticipated to synthesize high-quality metal chalcogenide NCs with a metastable phase, especially wurtzite nanorods, for potential applications from spintronics to solar cells. PMID:27064941

  13. High-Quality College and Career Ready Assessments. re:VISION

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Assessments matter in education. Testing is nothing new; tests have been around as long as school itself. However, over the last 15 years, state assessments have grown to be an increasingly central, and often controversial, part of schooling. As states raise their standards, it is more important than ever to ask: What is a high-quality assessment?…

  14. Creating and Sustaining High-Quality Charter School Governing Boards. A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines the laws, policies, and programs that states are using to create and sustain high-quality charter school governing boards. In particular, the guide focuses on the two aspects of governing boards that interviews with state administrators revealed are most critical for a board's success: board composition…

  15. Baishideng’s century goal: Editing and publishing high-quality articles

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lian-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Baishideng’s goal over the next few years is to edit and publish high-quality articles through the open-access model, to maximize the benefits to members of the editorial board, authors and readers, as well as achieving social and economic benefits. PMID:19701962

  16. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…

  17. Forming a Team to Ensure High-Quality Measurement in Education Studies. REL 2014-052

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Boller, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides tips for forming a team of staff and consultants with the needed expertise to make key measurement decisions that will ensure high-quality data for answering the study's research questions. The brief outlines the main responsibilities of measurement team members. It also describes typical measurement tasks and discusses…

  18. University Teachers' Conceptions of Good Teaching in the Units of High-Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2007-01-01

    This article explores teachers in the units of high quality education in Finland. It focuses on three questions. First, What are conceptions of good teaching of teachers teaching in the quality units? Second, What do they consider important in their teaching? And third, What is the relation between teachers' conceptions and the criteria used in…

  19. Does Access to High Quality Early Education Vary by State Policy Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Maia C.; Morris, Pamela A.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that attending high quality, formal early childhood education (ECE) is associated with stronger cognitive and social-emotional skills, especially for low-income children. Yet at current funding levels, federally-funded programs like Head Start cannot serve all eligible children. Thus, state-level policies governing the…

  20. MULTISENSOR DATA FUSION FOR HIGH QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING IN MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper focuses on application of multisensor data fusion for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation. A practical, general data fusion scheme is established on the basis of feature extraction and merging of data from multiple sensors. This scheme integrates ...

  1. Advancing High-Quality Preschool Inclusion: A Discussion and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Smith, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved regarding the research and laws supporting preschool inclusion, access to inclusive preschool environments remains intangible for many children with disabilities in the United States. The purpose of this article is to discuss current challenges and solutions to high-quality preschool inclusion. We…

  2. Representations of a High-Quality System of Undergraduate Education in English Higher Education Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a high-quality system of undergraduate education is represented in recent policy documents from a range of actors interested in higher education. Drawing on Basil Bernstein's ideas, the authors conceptualise the policy documents as reflecting a struggle over competing views of quality that are expressed…

  3. Ready to Start: Ensuring High-Quality Prekindergarten in SREB States. Challenge to Lead Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Marilyn G.; Lord, Joan M.

    2007-01-01

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states are trailblazers in providing access to high-quality, state-funded pre-kindergarten for 4-year-olds: last year, the majority of all 4-year-olds attending pre-kindergarten in the nation were enrolled in SREB states. The SREB region also leads the nation in setting high standards of quality for…

  4. The Role of Central Level Staff in Supporting High Quality Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Matthew Tanner

    2013-01-01

    The central office manages and directs a school system. In the wake of district and school reforms, the impact of the central office on schools and quality instruction has not been fully dissected. This study explores the role of the central office in the support of high quality instruction. Further, it analyzes the perceptions of those central…

  5. Guiding Principles for Providing High-Quality Education in Juvenile Justice Secure Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings presents unique challenges for the administrators, teachers, and staff who are responsible for the education, rehabilitation, and welfare of youths committed to their care. The United States departments of Education (ED) and Justice (DOJ) recognize that while these…

  6. Vendors Future: Northern Light--Delivering High-Quality Content to a Large Internet Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Web-based information service, Northern Light, which demonstrates a new paradigm for serving large populations of users and delivering high-quality content on topics both general and narrow. Discusses performance of the search engine, search syntax, Northern Light's special collection, and pricing. (AEF)

  7. Access to a High Quality Education for English Language Learners. Information Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Equity Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research on teaching and learning indicates that all students should be provided with programs, services, and teachers that engage them in rigorous academic work and promote deep disciplinary knowledge and higher order thinking skills (Walqui, 2006; Sanders & Rivers, 1996). Despite research findings on the importance of high quality teachers and…

  8. Publishing in High Quality Journals: Perspectives from Overworked and Unpaid Reviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Hacker, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose for this article is to provide suggestions on how to get your high quality research published from the perspectives of reviewers. First, good writing is good thinking, and you are much more likely to succeed when you combine good writing with sound research. We then offer an eight-step method of reviewing that may help the author…

  9. What Constitutes High-Quality Discussion in Science? Research from the Perspectives on Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph; Hand, Michael; Amos, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on Science (POS) is a unique research-based post-16 course that addresses the history, philosophy and ethical aspects of science. Our central research question was to what extent is POS successful in promoting high-quality discussion in class and what factors influence this. Through questionnaires, interviews and observations of…

  10. Performance analysis of high quality parallel preconditioners applied to 3D finite element structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A.

    1994-12-31

    The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.

  11. Essential Elements of High Performing, High Quality Part C Systems. NECTAC Notes No. 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Anne; Hurth, Joicey; Kasprzak, Christina

    2010-01-01

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) was asked to identify essential elements for supporting high performance and provision of high quality early intervention Part C services as determined by the Annual Performance Review (APR) required under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). To respond, NECTAC…

  12. Does Web-Based Role-Play Establish a High Quality Learning Environment? Design versus Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludewig, Alexandra; Ludewig-Rohwer, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Online role-plays have been celebrated for providing an environment which allows for high quality learning. Innovative approaches have been embraced in foreign language studies, especially in countries where a great distance to the target country needs to be overcome, not only to expose students to the target language but also to provide them with…

  13. The role of the nurse in high-quality patient care: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J M; While, A E; Roberts, J D

    1992-10-01

    A review of the literature reveals a range of the nurse's subroles within the service of nursing. Competence in psychomotor, cognitive and affective skills is required for performance within each of these subroles to achieve the delivery of high-quality nursing care. PMID:1430623

  14. CONTUR: A FORTRAN ALGORITHM FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL HIGH-QUALITY CONTOURING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contouring algorithm described allows one to produce high-quality two-dimensional contour diagrams from values of a dependent variable located on a uniform grid system (i.e., spacing of nodal points in x and y directions is constant). Computer subroutines (supplied) were deve...

  15. The Contributions of Institutional Agents to High Quality Out-of-Class Experiences for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuh, George D.; And Others

    A qualitative study was conducted of the contributions that institutional leaders make to fostering conditions that encourage high-quality out-of-class experiences for college students. A nine-member research team conducted the study. A process of nominations, recommendations and review yielded the selection of 14 institutions for the study. Site…

  16. Provision of High-Quality Orientation and Mobility Services to Older Persons with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.-M.

    1991-01-01

    The provision of high quality orientation and mobility (O&M) services to older persons with visual impairments requires consideration of problems in attitudes, client characteristics, financial resources, inservice training, and the availability of age-appropriate assessment instruments. This paper discusses research on O&M interventions and…

  17. A new system for synthesis of high quality nonpolar GaN thin films.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Shih, Shao-Ju; Fu, Zhengyi

    2010-02-28

    High quality nonpolar m-plane GaN films were successfully grown on LiGaO(2) (100) substrates for the first time. This m-plane GaN/LiGaO(2) (100) system opens a new approach for realizing highly-efficient nitride devices. PMID:20449251

  18. High quality graphitized graphene as an anode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Jiao, LianSheng; Wu, Tongshun; Li, HongYan; Li, Fenghua; Niu, Li

    2015-11-14

    High quality graphitized graphene has been successfully synthesized by solid-exfoliation of graphite and a subsequent wet chemical process. The as-obtained graphene exhibits charge-discharge behaviour quite different from that of reduced graphene oxide and shows enhanced cycling and rate performance compared with commercial mesocarbon microbeads (MCMBs) for lithium ion batteries. PMID:26383086

  19. Access, Participation, and Supports: The Defining Features of High-Quality Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge about early childhood inclusion, summarizing research and the DEC/NAEYC joint position statement on inclusion. The article also describes effective or promising educational practices that promote access, participation, and supports--the defining features of high-quality inclusion. Future efforts to improve…

  20. 76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ...The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA), Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) is amending the regulations issued under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to make permanent a waiver due to expire on July 31, 2012, for high quality specialty grain exported in containers from the mandatory inspection and weighing requirements of the USGSA. GIPSA......

  1. Comparative Genomes in Switchgrass Using 61,585 High-Quality EST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cDNA libraries from callus, crown, and seedling tissues of switchgrass cv. Kanlow were end-sequenced to generate a total of 61,585 high quality reads from 36,565 separate clones. These were clustered and then assembled into consensus sequences and aligned with the sorghum genome when possible...

  2. Analysis of 4,664 high-quality sequence-finished poplar full-length

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, S.; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    poplar leaves attacked by forest tent caterpillars. This study has generated a high-quality FLcDNA resource for poplar and the third largest FLcDNA collection published to date for any plant species. We successfully used the FLcDNA sequences to reassess gene prediction in the poplar genome sequence, perform comparative sequence annotation, and identify differentially expressed transcripts associated with defense against insects. The FLcDNA sequences will be essential to the ongoing curation and annotation of the poplar genome, in particular for targeting gaps in the current genome assembly and further improvement of gene predictions. The physical FLcDNA clones will serve as useful reagents for functional genomics research in areas such as analysis of gene functions in defense against insects and perennial growth. Sequences from this study have been deposited in NCBI GenBank under the accession numbers EF144175 to EF148838.

  3. Secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is -2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  4. Secondary osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is –2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  5. A Delphi Study of Online Course Development by Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartagena, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Creation of high quality online courses, required for successful learning outcomes, can be a challenge to non-traditional online course designers, such as secondary school teachers. Increasing interest in online classes prompted secondary school teachers to design their course. A poorly designed online course can cause students to lose interest…

  6. High-quality chalcogenide glass waveguide fabrication by hot melt smoothing and micro-trench filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yanfen; Qi, Renduo; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-05-01

    We propose a fabrication method for chalcogenide glass (ChG) waveguides based on hot melt smoothing and micro-trench filling. ChGs has low melting points and good flowability. Experiments show that this method can realize high quality As2S7 glass waveguides with reverse ridge structures. The attenuations of the fundamental quasi-TE mode and quasi-TM mode are 0.1 and 0.9 dB/cm, respectively. This method avoids fabrication processes, such as photolithography, lift-off, and dry or wet etching that are directly applied to the ChG films. It provides a simple way to fabricate high quality ChG waveguides, which have great potential for applications in integrated nonlinear optical devices.

  7. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu. PMID:21106134

  8. Recent trends and observations in the design of high-quality screening collections.

    PubMed

    Renner, Steffen; Popov, Maxim; Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Roth, Hans-Joerg; Breitenstein, Werner; Marzinzik, Andreas; Lewis, Ian; Krastel, Philipp; Nigsch, Florian; Jenkins, Jeremy; Jacoby, Edgar

    2011-04-01

    The design of a high-quality screening collection is of utmost importance for the early drug-discovery process and provides, in combination with high-quality assay systems, the foundation of future discoveries. Herein, we review recent trends and observations to successfully expand the access to bioactive chemical space, including the feedback from hit assessment interviews of high-throughput screening campaigns; recent successes with chemogenomics target family approaches, the identification of new relevant target/domain families, diversity-oriented synthesis and new emerging compound classes, and non-classical approaches, such as fragment-based screening and DNA-encoded chemical libraries. The role of in silico library design approaches are emphasized. PMID:21554080

  9. Alternative motif toward high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods via subtle sulfur element doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Xinyi; Sui, Yongming; Xiao, Guanjun; Wei, Yingjin; Zou, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine-manganese solutions at room temperature. The existence of manganese polysulfide clusters with polymeric sulfur structures makes the system more reactive, inducing fast wurtzite-phase nucleation. This can overcome the natural kinetic barrier of wurtzite MnSe and lead to subsequent growth of targeted NCs. On the other hand, no sulfur doping would produce MnSe NCs in a thermodynamically favorable rock-salt phase. As expected, different doping contents and sulfur sources also resulted in the formation of high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods. This success establishes that a facile strategy can be anticipated to synthesize high-quality metal chalcogenide NCs with a metastable phase, especially wurtzite nanorods, for potential applications from spintronics to solar cells.The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine

  10. A Novel Approach to High-Quality Postmortem Tissue Procurement: The GTEx Project

    PubMed Central

    Carithers, Latarsha J.; Ardlie, Kristin; Barcus, Mary; Branton, Philip A.; Britton, Angela; Buia, Stephen A.; Compton, Carolyn C.; DeLuca, David S.; Peter-Demchok, Joanne; Gelfand, Ellen T.; Guan, Ping; Korzeniewski, Greg E.; Lockhart, Nicole C.; Rabiner, Chana A.; Rao, Abhi K.; Robinson, Karna L.; Roche, Nancy V.; Sawyer, Sherilyn J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shive, Charles E.; Smith, Anna M.; Sobin, Leslie H.; Undale, Anita H.; Valentino, Kimberly M.; Vaught, Jim; Young, Taylor R.

    2015-01-01

    The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, sponsored by the NIH Common Fund, was established to study the correlation between human genetic variation and tissue-specific gene expression in non-diseased individuals. A significant challenge was the collection of high-quality biospecimens for extensive genomic analyses. Here we describe how a successful infrastructure for biospecimen procurement was developed and implemented by multiple research partners to support the prospective collection, annotation, and distribution of blood, tissues, and cell lines for the GTEx project. Other research projects can follow this model and form beneficial partnerships with rapid autopsy and organ procurement organizations to collect high quality biospecimens and associated clinical data for genomic studies. Biospecimens, clinical and genomic data, and Standard Operating Procedures guiding biospecimen collection for the GTEx project are available to the research community. PMID:26484571

  11. High-Quality Real-Time Video Inpaintingwith PixMix.

    PubMed

    Herling, Jan; Broll, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    While image inpainting has recently become widely available in image manipulation tools, existing approaches to video inpainting typically do not even achieve interactive frame rates yet as they are highly computationally expensive. Further, they either apply severe restrictions on the movement of the camera or do not provide a high-quality coherent video stream. In this paper we will present our approach to high-quality real-time capable image and video inpainting. Our PixMix approach even allows for the manipulation of live video streams, providing the basis for real Diminished Reality (DR) applications. We will show how our approach generates coherent video streams dealing with quite heterogeneous background environments and non-trivial camera movements, even applying constraints in real-time. PMID:26357304

  12. Production of high-quality ZnO films by the two-step annealing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J. D.; Gu, S. L.; Zhu, S. M.; Qin, F.; Liu, S. M.; Liu, W.; Zhou, X.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, R.; Shi, Y.; Zheng, Y. D.

    2004-11-01

    In this study, a two-step annealing method is advanced to produce high-quality ZnO films with excellent structural, electrical, and optical properties. The effects of oxygen and nitrogen annealing on the properties of undoped ZnO films are reversible to each other and are attributed to the creation and annihilation of extrinsic trap states of antisite oxygen OZn and oxygen vacancies VO, which result from the chemisorption and desorption of oxygen, respectively. Moreover, annealing in nitrogen causes slight nitrogen incorporation, subsequently increasing the resistivity and inducing compressive stress in the film. The key to this two-step method is to keep the chemisorption and desorption of oxygen in equilibrium. Due to the similarity of annealing ambient with the growth condition, this process can be transplanted and employed in the in situ preparation of high-quality ZnO epilayers.

  13. Hydrogen-induced effects on the CVD growth of high-quality graphene structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianfeng; Ning, Jing; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Hao, Long; Liang, Minghui; Jin, Meihua; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-09-21

    In this work, the hydrogen-induced effects on the CVD growth of high-quality graphene have been systematically studied by regulating the growth parameters mainly related to hydrogen. Experimental results demonstrate that under a high hydrogen flow rate, the competitive etching effect during the growth process is more prominent and even shows macroscopic selectivity. Based on these understandings, the hexagonal graphene domains with diverse edge modalities are controllably synthesized on a large scale by elaborately managing the competitive etching effect of hydrogen that existed during the formation of graphene. This study not only contributes to the understanding of the mechanism of CVD growth, especially the effects of hydrogen used in the system, but also provides a facile method to synthesize high-quality graphene structures with trimmed edge morphologies. PMID:23715011

  14. Advanced high quality aerosol data: novel results from the EUSAAR in situ measurement network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, P.; Philippin, S.; Putaud, J.-P.; Wiedensohler, A.; de Leeuw, G.; Fjaeraa, A. M.; Platt, U.; Baltensperger, U.; Fiebig, M.

    2009-04-01

    The EU-funded project EUSAAR (EUropean Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research) aims at integrating measurements of atmospheric aerosol properties from a distributed network of 20 high-quality European ground-based stations. The objective is to ensure harmonization, validation and data diffusion of current measurements of particle optical, physical and chemical properties which are critical parameters for quantifying the key processes and the impact of aerosols on climate and air quality. We will present and discuss the results and highlights of the activities and achievements during the first 3 years of the project during which EUSAAR has contributed to improving the comparability of measurements for data users and to adopting best practices in aerosol monitoring procedures, and has started providing high quality aerosol data much needed in the atmospheric research community from the most advanced monitoring stations currently operational in Europe.

  15. Comparison of image compression techniques for high quality based on properties of visual perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algazi, V. Ralph; Reed, Todd R.

    1991-12-01

    The growing interest and importance of high quality imaging has several roots: Imaging and graphics, or more broadly multimedia, as the predominant means of man-machine interaction on computers, and the rapid maturing of advanced television technology. Because of their economic importance, proposed advanced television standards are being discussed and evaluated for rapid adoption. These advanced standards are based on well known image compression techniques, used for very low bit rate video communications as well. In this paper, we examine the expected improvement in image quality that advanced television and imaging techniques should bring about. We then examine and discuss the data compression techniques which are commonly used, to determine if they are capable of providing the achievable gain in quality, and to assess some of their limitations. We also discuss briefly the potential of these techniques for very high quality imaging and display applications, which extend beyond the range of existing and proposed television standards.

  16. Gain high-quality colloidal quantum dots directly from natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Tian; Liu, Hui; Dong, Chao; Zheng, Wen-Jing; Han, Li-Li; Li, Lan; Qiao, Shi-Zhang; Yang, Jing; Du, Xi-Wen

    2015-03-01

    Green and simple synthesis of high-quality colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is of great importance and highly anticipated yet not fully implemented. Herein, we achieve the direct conversion of natural minerals to highly uniform, crystalline lead sulfide CQDs based on laser irradiation in liquid. The trivial fragmentation of mineral particles by an intense nanosecond laser was found to create a localized high degree of monomer supersaturation in oleic acid, initiating the LaMer growth of uniform CQDs. The photoconductive device made of these CQDs exhibits a competitive temporal response of photocurrent with those highly sensitive photodetectors based on PbS CQDs reported in the literature. Our synthesis strategy paves the way for the most environmentally friendly and convenient mass production of high-quality uniform CQDs. PMID:25689447

  17. Fast pick up technique for high quality heterostructures of bilayer graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Zomer, P. J. Guimarães, M. H. D.; Brant, J. C.; Tombros, N.; Wees, B. J. van

    2014-07-07

    We present a fast method to fabricate high quality heterostructure devices by picking up crystals of arbitrary sizes. Bilayer graphene is encapsulated with hexagonal boron nitride to demonstrate this approach, showing good electronic quality with mobilities ranging from 17 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at room temperature to 49 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 4.2 K, and entering the quantum Hall regime below 0.5 T. This method provides a strong and useful tool for the fabrication of future high quality layered crystal devices.

  18. Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Manikantan, M R; Sharma, Rajiv; Yadav, D N; Gupta, R K

    2015-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the effect of pearling duration, soaking time, steaming duration and drying temperature on the quality of sesame seeds and mechanically extracted partially defatted sesame cake. On the basis of quality attributes i.e. high protein, low crude fibre, low residual oil and low oxalic acid, the optimum process parameters were selected. The combination of 20 min of pearling duration, 15 min of soaking, 15 min of steaming at 100 kPa pressure and drying at 50 °C yielded high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour as compared to untreated defatted sesame flour. The developed high quality partially defatted protein rich sesame flour may be used in various food applications as a vital ingredient to increase the nutritional significance of the prepared foodstuffs. PMID:25745256

  19. Large high quality crystals of the Topological Kondo Insulator, SmB6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Geetha; Ciomaga Hatnean, Monica; Paul, D. Mck.; Lees, M. R.

    2014-03-01

    SmB6 has been predicted to be a Topological Kondo Insulator, the first strongly correlated heavy fermion material to exhibit topological surface states. High quality crystals are necessary to investigate the topological properties of this material. Single crystal growth of the rare earth hexaboride, SmB6, has been carried out by the floating zone technique using a high power xenon arc lamp image furnace. Large, high quality single-crystals are obtained by this technique. The crystals produced by the floating zone technique are free of contamination from flux materials and have been characterised by resistivity and magnetisation measurements. These crystals are ideally suited for the investigation of both the surface and bulk properties of SmB6.

  20. Large, high quality single-crystals of the new Topological Kondo Insulator, SmB6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Lees, M. R.; Paul, D. M. K.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-10-01

    SmB6 has recently been predicted to be a Topological Kondo Insulator, the first strongly correlated heavy fermion material to exhibit topological surface states. High quality crystals are necessary to investigate the topological properties of this material. Single crystal growth of the rare earth hexaboride, SmB6, has been carried out by the floating zone technique using a high power xenon arc lamp image furnace. Large, high quality single-crystals are obtained by this technique. The crystals produced by the floating zone technique are free of contamination from flux materials and have been characterised by resistivity and magnetisation measurements. These crystals are ideally suited for the investigation of both the surface and bulk properties of SmB6.

  1. A novel MOCVD reactor for growth of high-quality GaN-related LED layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaolin; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Zhi; Yan, Han; Gan, Zhiyin; Fang, Haisheng

    2015-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN), a direct bandgap semiconductor widely used in bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs), is mostly grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. A good reactor design is critical for the production of high-quality GaN thin films. In this paper, we presented a novel buffered distributed spray (BDS) MOCVD reactor with vertical gas sprayers and horizontal gas inlets. Experiments based on a 36×2″ BDS reactor were conducted to examine influence of the process parameters, such as the operating pressure and the gas flow rate, on the growth efficiency and on the layer thickness uniformity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) are further conducted to evaluate quality of the epitaxial layers and to check performance of the reactor. Results show that the proposed novel reactor is of high performance in growing high-quality thin films, including InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells (MQWs) structures.

  2. Fast, scalable generation of high-quality protein multiple sequence alignments using Clustal Omega

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, Fabian; Wilm, Andreas; Dineen, David; Gibson, Toby J; Karplus, Kevin; Li, Weizhong; Lopez, Rodrigo; McWilliam, Hamish; Remmert, Michael; Söding, Johannes; Thompson, Julie D; Higgins, Desmond G

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignments are fundamental to many sequence analysis methods. Most alignments are computed using the progressive alignment heuristic. These methods are starting to become a bottleneck in some analysis pipelines when faced with data sets of the size of many thousands of sequences. Some methods allow computation of larger data sets while sacrificing quality, and others produce high-quality alignments, but scale badly with the number of sequences. In this paper, we describe a new program called Clustal Omega, which can align virtually any number of protein sequences quickly and that delivers accurate alignments. The accuracy of the package on smaller test cases is similar to that of the high-quality aligners. On larger data sets, Clustal Omega outperforms other packages in terms of execution time and quality. Clustal Omega also has powerful features for adding sequences to and exploiting information in existing alignments, making use of the vast amount of precomputed information in public databases like Pfam. PMID:21988835

  3. A simple method for producing high-quality porecasts of carbonate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, D.; Sellwood, B. W.

    1991-04-01

    The study of porecasts is an important technique for evaluating the distribution, and quantity, of porosity in carbonate rocks. This paper sets out a method by which high-quality porecasts may be produced, quickly and easily. The procedure consists of impregnation firstly under vacuum, then under pressure with low viscosity (6 × 10 -3 Pa s) epoxy resin. Examination under SEM reveals penetration of intragranular porosity at a submicron scale without disruption of the rock fabric.

  4. Fully automated high-quality NMR structure determination of small 2H-enriched proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuefeng; Schneider, William M.; Shen, Yang; Raman, Srivatsan; Inouye, Masayori; Baker, David; Roth, Monica J.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of high-quality small protein structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods generally requires acquisition and analysis of an extensive set of structural constraints. The process generally demands extensive backbone and sidechain resonance assignments, and weeks or even months of data collection and interpretation. Here we demonstrate rapid and high-quality protein NMR structure generation using CS-Rosetta with a perdeuterated protein sample made at a significantly reduced cost using new bacterial culture condensation methods. Our strategy provides the basis for a high-throughput approach for routine, rapid, high-quality structure determination of small proteins. As an example, we demonstrate the determination of a high-quality 3D structure of a small 8 kDa protein, E. coli cold shock protein A (CspA), using <4 days of data collection and fully automated data analysis methods together with CS-Rosetta. The resulting CspA structure is highly converged and in excellent agreement with the published crystal structure, with a backbone RMSD value of 0.5 Å, an all atom RMSD value of 1.2 Å to the crystal structure for well-defined regions, and RMSD value of 1.1 Å to crystal structure for core, non-solvent exposed sidechain atoms. Cross validation of the structure with 15N- and 13C-edited NOESY data obtained with a perdeuterated 15N, 13C-enriched 13CH3 methyl protonated CspA sample confirms that essentially all of these independently-interpreted NOE-based constraints are already satisfied in each of the 10 CS-Rosetta structures. By these criteria, the CS-Rosetta structure generated by fully automated analysis of data for a perdeuterated sample provides an accurate structure of CspA. This represents a general approach for rapid, automated structure determination of small proteins by NMR. PMID:20734145

  5. Fabrication of precision high quality facets on molecular beam epitaxy material

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Holly E.; Goward, William D.; Dijaili, Sol P.

    2001-01-01

    Fabricating mirrored vertical surfaces on semiconductor layered material grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Low energy chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) is employed to prepare mirrored vertical surfaces on MBE-grown III-V materials under unusually low concentrations of oxygen in evacuated etching atmospheres of chlorine and xenon ion beams. UV-stabilized smooth-surfaced photoresist materials contribute to highly vertical, high quality mirrored surfaces during the etching.

  6. Ultrasmooth metallic foils for growth of high quality graphene by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Pavel; Mach, Jindřich; Bischoff, Dominik; Lišková, Zuzana; Dvořák, Petr; Vaňatka, Marek; Simonet, Pauline; Varlet, Anastasia; Hemzal, Dušan; Petrenec, Martin; Kalina, Lukáš; Bartošík, Miroslav; Ensslin, Klaus; Varga, Peter; Čechal, Jan; Šikola, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of graphene by chemical vapor deposition is a promising route for manufacturing large-scale high-quality graphene for electronic applications. The quality of the employed substrates plays a crucial role, since the surface roughness and defects alter the graphene growth and cause difficulties in the subsequent graphene transfer. Here, we report on ultrasmooth high-purity copper foils prepared by sputter deposition of Cu thin film on a SiO2/Si template, and the subsequent peeling off of the metallic layer from the template. The surface displays a low level of oxidation and contamination, and the roughness of the foil surface is generally defined by the template, and was below 0.6 nm even on a large scale. The roughness and grain size increase occurred during both the annealing of the foils, and catalytic growth of graphene from methane (≈1000 °C), but on the large scale still remained far below the roughness typical for commercial foils. The micro-Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements proved the high quality of graphene grown on such foils, and the room temperature mobility of the graphene grown on the template stripped foil was three times higher compared to that of one grown on the commercial copper foil. The presented high-quality copper foils are expected to provide large-area substrates for the production of graphene suitable for electronic applications.

  7. Ultrasmooth metallic foils for growth of high quality graphene by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Pavel; Mach, Jindřich; Bischoff, Dominik; Lišková, Zuzana; Dvořák, Petr; Vaňatka, Marek; Simonet, Pauline; Varlet, Anastasia; Hemzal, Dušan; Petrenec, Martin; Kalina, Lukáš; Bartošík, Miroslav; Ensslin, Klaus; Varga, Peter; Čechal, Jan; Šikola, Tomáš

    2014-05-01

    Synthesis of graphene by chemical vapor deposition is a promising route for manufacturing large-scale high-quality graphene for electronic applications. The quality of the employed substrates plays a crucial role, since the surface roughness and defects alter the graphene growth and cause difficulties in the subsequent graphene transfer. Here, we report on ultrasmooth high-purity copper foils prepared by sputter deposition of Cu thin film on a SiO2/Si template, and the subsequent peeling off of the metallic layer from the template. The surface displays a low level of oxidation and contamination, and the roughness of the foil surface is generally defined by the template, and was below 0.6 nm even on a large scale. The roughness and grain size increase occurred during both the annealing of the foils, and catalytic growth of graphene from methane (≈1000 °C), but on the large scale still remained far below the roughness typical for commercial foils. The micro-Raman spectroscopy and transport measurements proved the high quality of graphene grown on such foils, and the room temperature mobility of the graphene grown on the template stripped foil was three times higher compared to that of one grown on the commercial copper foil. The presented high-quality copper foils are expected to provide large-area substrates for the production of graphene suitable for electronic applications. PMID:24739598

  8. High-quality construction of analysis-suitable trivariate NURBS solids by reparameterization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Mourrain, Bernard; Galligo, André; Rabczuk, Timon

    2014-11-01

    High-quality volumetric parameterization of computational domain plays an important role in three-dimensional isogeometric analysis. Reparameterization technique can improve the distribution of isoparametric curves/surfaces without changing the geometry. In this paper, using the reparameterization method, we investigate the high-quality construction of analysis-suitable NURBS volumetric parameterization. Firstly, we introduce the concept of volumetric reparameterization, and propose an optimal Möbius transformation to improve the quality of the isoparametric structure based on a new uniformity metric. Secondly, from given boundary NURBS surfaces, we present a two-stage scheme to construct the analysis-suitable volumetric parameterization: in the first step, uniformity-improved reparameterization is performed on the boundary surfaces to achieve high-quality isoparametric structure without changing the shape; in the second step, from a new variational harmonic metric and the reparameterized boundary surfaces, we construct the optimal inner control points and weights to achieve an analysis-suitable NURBS solid. Several examples with complicated geometry are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of proposed methods.

  9. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Luis J.; Kim, David Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine. PMID:24171108

  10. Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuan; Wang, Libin; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Guo, Jingkun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal carbides (TMCs) are a large family of materials with many intriguing properties and applications, and high-quality 2D TMCs are essential for investigating new physics and properties in the 2D limit. However, the 2D TMCs obtained so far are chemically functionalized, defective nanosheets having maximum lateral dimensions of ~10 μm. Here we report the fabrication of large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin α-Mo2C crystals by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The crystals are a few nanometres thick, over 100 μm in size, and very stable under ambient conditions. They show 2D characteristics of superconducting transitions that are consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behaviour and show strong anisotropy with magnetic field orientation; moreover, the superconductivity is also strongly dependent on the crystal thickness. Our versatile CVD process allows the fabrication of other high-quality 2D TMC crystals, such as ultrathin WC and TaC crystals, which further expand the large family of 2D materials.

  11. Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Wang, Libin; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Guo, Jingkun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal carbides (TMCs) are a large family of materials with many intriguing properties and applications, and high-quality 2D TMCs are essential for investigating new physics and properties in the 2D limit. However, the 2D TMCs obtained so far are chemically functionalized, defective nanosheets having maximum lateral dimensions of ∼10 μm. Here we report the fabrication of large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin α-Mo2C crystals by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The crystals are a few nanometres thick, over 100 μm in size, and very stable under ambient conditions. They show 2D characteristics of superconducting transitions that are consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behaviour and show strong anisotropy with magnetic field orientation; moreover, the superconductivity is also strongly dependent on the crystal thickness. Our versatile CVD process allows the fabrication of other high-quality 2D TMC crystals, such as ultrathin WC and TaC crystals, which further expand the large family of 2D materials. PMID:26280223

  12. 75 FR 59209 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses from...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... phrase ``suitable for high-quality print graphics;'' and (3) whether to add three HTSUS numbers which may...-quality print graphics'' language should not be deleted from the scope; and (3) the three HTSUS numbers at... Indonesia, 74 FR 61174 (November 23, 2009); and Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality...

  13. From Research to Practice: Which Research Strategy Contributes More to Clinical Excellence? Comparing High-Volume versus High-Quality Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchetchik, Anat; Grinstein, Amir; Manes, Eran; Shapira, Daniel; Durst, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    The question when and to what extent academic research can benefit society is of great interest to policy-makers and the academic community. Physicians in university hospitals represent a highly relevant test-group for studying the link between research and practice because they engage in biomedical academic research while also providing medical care of measurable quality. Physicians’ research contribution to medical practice can be driven by either high-volume or high-quality research productivity, as often pursuing one productivity strategy excludes the other. To empirically examine the differential contribution to medical practice of the two strategies, we collected secondary data on departments across three specializations (Cardiology, Oncology and Orthopedics) in 50 U.S.-based university hospitals served by 4,330 physicians. Data on volume and quality of biomedical research at each department was correlated with publicly available ratings of departments’ quality of care, demonstrating that high-quality research has significantly greater contribution to quality of care than high-volume research. PMID:26107296

  14. High quality draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42 isolated from a sea squirt in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Bjerga, Gro Elin Kjæreng; Hjerde, Erik; De Santi, Concetta; Williamson, Adele Kim; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Willassen, Nils Peder

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the 8 Mb high quality draft genome of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42, together with specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence. The genome encodes 7,727 putative open reading frames, of which 6,400 could be assigned with COG categories. Also, 62 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA operons were identified. The genome harbors several gene clusters involved in the production of secondary metabolites. Functional screening of the isolate was positive for several enzymatic activities, and some candidate genes coding for those activities are listed in this report. We find that this isolate shows biotechnological potential and is an interesting target for bioprospecting. PMID:25197453

  15. High quality draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42 isolated from a sea squirt in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Bjerga, Gro Elin Kjæreng; Hjerde, Erik; De Santi, Concetta; Williamson, Adele Kim; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Willassen, Nils Peder; Altermark, Bjørn

    2014-06-15

    Here we report the 8 Mb high quality draft genome of Streptomyces sp. strain AW19M42, together with specific properties of the organism and the generation, annotation and analysis of its genome sequence. The genome encodes 7,727 putative open reading frames, of which 6,400 could be assigned with COG categories. Also, 62 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA operons were identified. The genome harbors several gene clusters involved in the production of secondary metabolites. Functional screening of the isolate was positive for several enzymatic activities, and some candidate genes coding for those activities are listed in this report. We find that this isolate shows biotechnological potential and is an interesting target for bioprospecting. PMID:25197453

  16. High quality copy number and genotype data from FFPE samples using Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuker; Carlton, Victoria E.H.; Karlin-Neumann, George; Sapolsky, Ronald; Zhang, Li; Moorhead, Martin; Wang, Zhigang C.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Warren, Robert; Walther, Axel; Bondy, Melissa; Sahin, Aysegul; Krahe, Ralf; Tuna, Musaffe; Thompson, Patricia A.; Spellman, Paul T.; Gray, Joe W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Faham, Malek

    2009-02-24

    A major challenge facing DNA copy number (CN) studies of tumors is that most banked samples with extensive clinical follow-up information are Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE). DNA from FFPE samples generally underperforms or suffers high failure rates compared to fresh frozen samples because of DNA degradation and cross-linking during FFPE fixation and processing. As FFPE protocols may vary widely between labs and samples may be stored for decades at room temperature, an ideal FFPE CN technology should work on diverse sample sets. Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) technology has been applied successfully to obtain high quality CN and genotype data from cell line and frozen tumor DNA. Since the MIP probes require only a small ({approx}40 bp) target binding site, we reasoned they may be well suited to assess degraded FFPE DNA. We assessed CN with a MIP panel of 50,000 markers in 93 FFPE tumor samples from 7 diverse collections. For 38 FFPE samples from three collections we were also able to asses CN in matched fresh frozen tumor tissue. Using an input of 37 ng genomic DNA, we generated high quality CN data with MIP technology in 88% of FFPE samples from seven diverse collections. When matched fresh frozen tissue was available, the performance of FFPE DNA was comparable to that of DNA obtained from matched frozen tumor (genotype concordance averaged 99.9%), with only a modest loss in performance in FFPE. MIP technology can be used to generate high quality CN and genotype data in FFPE as well as fresh frozen samples.

  17. Joining forces: Collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management

    PubMed Central

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  18. Low activation energy, high-quality oxidation of Si and Ge using neutral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Akira; Endo, Kazuhiko; Masahara, Meishoku; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Samukawa, Seiji

    2011-05-01

    In this letter, we investigated the mechanism that forms thin silicon and germanium oxide films with a high-quality interface using a low-temperature neutral beam oxidation (NBO) process. Because NBO has high reactivity due to bombardment by energetic oxygen-neutral beams even at low substrate temperatures, we found that an extremely low activation energy for the atomic layer oxidation reaction could be achieved during the process itself. As a result, there was little suboxide at the interface between the oxide films and the semiconductor, and device characteristics with a high performance were observed.

  19. Role of effective teamwork and communication in delivering safe, high-quality care.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Michael W; Frankel, Allan S

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare is delivered in an extraordinary complex environment. Despite highly skilled, dedicated clinicians, there are currently unacceptably high levels of communication failures and adverse events. Effective teamwork, in conjunction with reliable processes of care, is essential for the consistent delivery of high-quality care. Practical concepts and tools are provided that address the team behaviors of structured communication, effective assertion/critical language, psychological safety, situational awareness, and effective leadership. Examples of the mounting clinical evidence of improved patient outcomes and reduced harm resulting from effective teamwork training are cited. PMID:22069205

  20. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-01

    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  1. A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Sher, Chin-Wei; Lin, Chin-Hao; Lin, Huang-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Che-Hsuan; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Li, Jie-Ru; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Tu, Hsien-Hao; Fu, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2016-01-14

    This study demonstrates a novel package design to store colloidal quantum dots in liquid format and integrate them with a standard LED. The high efficiency and high quality color performance at a neutral white correlated color temperature is demonstrated. The experimental results indicate that the liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode (LQD WLED) is highly efficient and reliable. The luminous efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) of the LQD WLED can reach 271 lm Wop(-1) and 95, respectively. Moreover, a glass box is employed to prevent humidity and oxygen erosion. With this encapsulation design, our quantum dot box can survive over 1000 hours of storage time. PMID:26666455

  2. Providing high-quality research training for veterinary pathologists in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kipar, A; Aleksandersen, M; Benazzi, C; Hodge, T; Sukura, A; Wyers, M

    2007-03-01

    Despite their key role in a wide range of fields relating to animal and public health, there is currently a lack of veterinary pathologists in Europe. In 1999, to help address the problem, the European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP) and the European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP) established a joint Education Committee. In this Special Article, Professor Anja Kipar and colleagues, all members of the committee, describe the ECVP/ESVP Summer Schools in Veterinary Pathology programme, which aims to provide high-quality research training for veterinary pathologists from all over Europe and beyond. PMID:17337604

  3. Joining forces: collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  4. Isolation of high quality graphene from Ru by solution phase intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koren, E.; Sutter, E.; Bliznakov, S.; Ivars-Barcelo, F.; Sutter, P.

    2013-09-01

    We introduce a method for isolating graphene grown on epitaxial Ru(0001)/α-Al2O3. The strong graphene/Ru(0001) coupling is weakened by electrochemically driven intercalation of hydrogen underpotentially deposited in aqueous KOH solution, which allows the penetration of water molecules at the graphene/Ru(0001) interface. Following these electrochemically driven processes, the graphene can be isolated by electrochemical hydrogen evolution and transferred to arbitrary supports. Raman and transport measurements demonstrate the high quality of the transferred graphene. Our results show that intercalation, typically carried out in vacuum, can be extended to solution environments for graphene processing under ambient conditions.

  5. Scalable fabrication of high-quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond membrane windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piracha, Afaq Habib; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Stacey, Alastair; McGuinness, Liam P.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (~4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond membrane windows (SCDMW), each up to 1 × 1 mm in dimension and as thin as ~300 nm, supported by a diamond frame as thick as ~150 μm. The fabrication method is robust, reproducible, scalable and cost effective. Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition is used for in situ creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers into the thin SCDMW. We have also developed SCD drum head mechanical resonator composed of our fully clamped and freely suspended membranes.High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (~4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond

  6. ChIP-Seq: Technical Considerations for Obtaining High Quality Data

    PubMed Central

    Kidder, Benjamin L.; Hu, Gangqing; Zhao, Keji

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing analysis (ChIP-Seq) is a powerful method to investigate genome-wide distributions of chromatin-binding proteins and histone modifications in any genome with a known sequence. Application of this technique to a variety of developmental and differentiation systems has provided global views of cis regulatory elements, transcription factor function, and epigenetic processes involved in the control of gene transcription. Here, we describe several technical aspects of the ChIP-Seq assay to reduce bias and background noise, and to consistently generate high quality data. PMID:21934668

  7. Extraction of high-quality RNA from pancreatic tissues for gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Augereau, Cécile; Lemaigre, Frédéric P; Jacquemin, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Extracting RNA from pancreatic tissue is notoriously challenging because of the organ's high RNase content. Standard methods using TriPure or TRIzol classically yield RNA of sufficient quality for routine gene expression analysis but not for microarray or deep sequencing analysis. Here we developed a simple method to extract high-quality RNA from mouse pancreas. Our method uses an RNase inhibitor and combines different protocols using guanidium thiocyanate-phenol extraction. It enables reproducible isolation of RNA with an RNA integrity number around 9. PMID:26896683

  8. Uncertain prognosis for high-quality diagnostics: clinical challenges, economic barriers and needed reforms.

    PubMed

    Trusheim, Mark R; Austin, M J Finley; Rausch, Carsten; Berndt, Ernst R

    2013-02-01

    Quality healthcare, as measured by outcomes and costs, needs high-quality diagnostics whose use governs the evidence-based flow of patients from screening to treatment to outcomes monitoring. The current patent, regulatory and reimbursement environment may be inadequate to spur their development, thereby placing in jeopardy the goals of healthcare reform and the aspirations of personalized medicine. Policy actions to ensure consistent quality standards and to increase development incentives through research support, reimbursement reform, increased intellectual property protection and market-making activities may be required to obtain the well-characterized, clinically proven diagnostics that US healthcare requires. PMID:23394394

  9. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P. Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-24

    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  10. Identifying the Molecular Structures of Intermediates for Optimizing the Fabrication of High-Quality Perovskite Films.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Jing, Xiaojing; Yan, Juanzhu; Hu, Chengyi; Chen, Ruihao; Yin, Jun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-08-10

    During the past two years, the introduction of DMSO has revolutionized the fabrication of high-quality pervoskite MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) films for solar cell applications. In the developed DMSO process, the formation of (MA)2Pb3I8·2DMSO (shorted as Pb3I8) has well recognized as a critical factor to prepare high-quality pervoskite films and thus accomplish excellent performances in perovskite solar cells. However, Pb3I8 is an I-deficient intermediate and must further react with methylammonium iodide (MAI) to be fully converted into MAPbI3. By capturing and solving the molecular structures of several intermediates involved in the fabrication of perovskite films, we report in this work that the importance of DMSO is NOT due to the formation of Pb3I8. The use of different PbI2-DMSO ratios leads to two different structures of PbI2-DMSO precursors (PbI2·DMSO and PbI2·2DMSO), thus dramatically influencing the quality of fabricated perovskite films. However, such an influence can be minimized when the PbI2-DMSO precursor films are thermally treated to create mesoporous PbI2 films before reacting with MAI. Such a development makes the fabrication of high-quality pervoskite films highly reproducible without the need to precisely control the PbI2:DMSO ratio. Moreover, the formation of ionic compound (MA)4PbI6 is observed when excess MAI is used in the preparation of perovskite film. This I-rich phase heavily induces the hysteresis in PSCs, but is readily removed by isopropanol treatment. On the basis of all these findings, we develop a new effective protocol to fabricate high-performance PSCs. In the new protocol, high-quality perovskite films are prepared by simply treating the mesoporous PbI2 films (made from PbI2-DMSO precursors) with an isopropanol solution of MAI, followed by isopropanol washing. The best efficiency of fabricated MAPbI3 PSCs is up to 19.0%. As compared to the previously reported DMSO method, the devices fabricated by the method reported in this work

  11. A high quality liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Chin-Wei; Lin, Chin-Hao; Lin, Huang-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Huang, Che-Hsuan; Chen, Kuo-Ju; Li, Jie-Ru; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Tu, Hsien-Hao; Fu, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrates a novel package design to store colloidal quantum dots in liquid format and integrate them with a standard LED. The high efficiency and high quality color performance at a neutral white correlated color temperature is demonstrated. The experimental results indicate that the liquid-type quantum dot white light-emitting diode (LQD WLED) is highly efficient and reliable. The luminous efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) of the LQD WLED can reach 271 lm Wop-1 and 95, respectively. Moreover, a glass box is employed to prevent humidity and oxygen erosion. With this encapsulation design, our quantum dot box can survive over 1000 hours of storage time.

  12. High quality GaN-based LED epitaxial layers grown in a homemade MOCVD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haibo, Yin; Xiaoliang, Wang; Junxue, Ran; Guoxin, Hu; Lu, Zhang; Hongling, Xiao; Jing, Li; Jinmin, Li

    2011-03-01

    A homemade 7 × 2 inch MOCVD system is presented. With this system, high quality GaN epitaxial layers, InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells and blue LED structural epitaxial layers have been successfully grown. The non-uniformity of undoped GaN epitaxial layers is as low as 2.86%. Using the LED structural epitaxial layers, blue LED chips with area of 350 × 350 μm2 were fabricated. Under 20 mA injection current, the optical output power of the blue LED is 8.62 mW.

  13. A supramolecular strategy based on molecular dipole moments for high-quality covalent organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Salonen, Laura M; Medina, Dana D; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Goesten, Maarten G; Mafra, Luís; Guldris, Noelia; Rotter, Julian M; Stroppa, Daniel G; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos

    2016-06-28

    A supramolecular strategy based on strong molecular dipole moments is presented to gain access to covalent organic framework structures with high crystallinity and porosity. Antiparallel alignment of the molecules within the pore walls is proposed to lead to reinforced columnar stacking, thus affording a high-quality material. As a proof of principle, a novel pyrene dione building block was prepared and reacted with hexahydroxytriphenylene to form a boronic ester-linked covalent organic framework. We anticipate the strategy presented herein to be valuable for producing highly defined COF structures. PMID:27257634

  14. High-quality male field crickets invest heavily in sexual display but die young.

    PubMed

    Hunt, John; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D; Smith, Michael J; Bentsen, Caroline L; Bussière, Luc F

    2004-12-23

    Only high-quality males can bear the costs of an extreme sexual display. As a consequence, such males are not only more attractive, but they often live longer than average. Recent theory predicts, however, that high-quality males should sometimes invest so heavily in sexual displays that they die sooner than lower quality males. We manipulated the phenotypic quality of field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus, by altering the protein content of their diet. Here we show that nymphs and adult females reared on a high-protein diet lived longer than those on a low-protein diet. In contrast, adult males reared on a high-protein diet died sooner than those on low-protein diets because they invested more energy in calling during early adulthood. Our findings uphold the theoretical prediction that the relationship between longevity and sexual advertisement may be dynamic (that is, either positive or negative), depending on local conditions such as resource availability. Moreover, they caution the use of longevity as a proxy for fitness in sexual selection studies, and suggest avenues for future research on the relationship between sexual attractiveness and ageing. PMID:15616562

  15. High-quality slab-based intermixing method for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Joon; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Juneseuk; Kim, Kyoung Won; Shin, Yeong-Gil

    2016-01-01

    The visualization of multiple 3D objects has been increasingly required for recent applications in medical fields. Due to the heterogeneity in data representation or data configuration, it is difficult to efficiently render multiple medical objects in high quality. In this paper, we present a novel intermixing scheme for fusion rendering of multiple medical objects while preserving the real-time performance. First, we present an in-slab visibility interpolation method for the representation of subdivided slabs. Second, we introduce virtual zSlab, which extends an infinitely thin boundary (such as polygonal objects) into a slab with a finite thickness. Finally, based on virtual zSlab and in-slab visibility interpolation, we propose a slab-based visibility intermixing method with the newly proposed rendering pipeline. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method delivers more effective multiple-object renderings in terms of rendering quality, compared to conventional approaches. And proposed intermixing scheme provides high-quality intermixing results for the visualization of intersecting and overlapping surfaces by resolving aliasing and z-fighting problems. Moreover, two case studies are presented that apply the proposed method to the real clinical applications. These case studies manifest that the proposed method has the outstanding advantages of the rendering independency and reusability. PMID:26403436

  16. An improved multi-exposure approach for high quality holographic femtosecond laser patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Jiawen E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong

    2014-12-01

    High efficiency two photon polymerization through single exposure via spatial light modulator (SLM) has been used to decrease the fabrication time and rapidly realize various micro/nanostructures, but the surface quality remains a big problem due to the speckle noise of optical intensity distribution at the defocused plane. Here, a multi-exposure approach which used tens of computer generate holograms successively loaded on SLM is presented to significantly improve the optical uniformity without losing efficiency. By applying multi-exposure, we found that the uniformity at the defocused plane was increased from ∼0.02 to ∼0.6 according to our simulation. The fabricated two series of letters “HELLO” and “USTC” under single-and multi-exposure in our experiment also verified that the surface quality was greatly improved. Moreover, by this method, several kinds of beam splitters with high quality, e.g., 2 × 2, 5 × 5 Daman, and complex nonseperate 5 × 5, gratings were fabricated with both of high quality and short time (<1 min, 95% time-saving). This multi-exposure SLM-two-photon polymerization method showed the promising prospect in rapidly fabricating and integrating various binary optical devices and their systems.

  17. High-quality RNA extraction from copepods for Next Generation Sequencing: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Asai, Sneha; Ianora, Adrianna; Lauritano, Chiara; Lindeque, Penelope K; Carotenuto, Ylenia

    2015-12-01

    Despite the ecological importance of copepods, few Next Generation Sequencing studies (NGS) have been performed on small crustaceans, and a standard method for RNA extraction is lacking. In this study, we compared three commonly-used methods: TRIzol®, Aurum Total RNA Mini Kit and Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit, in combination with preservation reagents TRIzol® or RNAlater®, to obtain high-quality and quantity of RNA from copepods for NGS. Total RNA was extracted from the copepods Calanus helgolandicus, Centropages typicus and Temora stylifera and its quantity and quality were evaluated using NanoDrop, agarose gel electrophoresis and Agilent Bioanalyzer. Our results demonstrate that preservation of copepods in RNAlater® and extraction with Qiagen RNeasy Micro Kit were the optimal isolation method for high-quality and quantity of RNA for NGS studies of C. helgolandicus. Intriguingly, C. helgolandicus 28S rRNA is formed by two subunits that separate after heat-denaturation and migrate along with 18S rRNA. This unique property of protostome RNA has never been reported in copepods. Overall, our comparative study on RNA extraction protocols will help increase gene expression studies on copepods using high-throughput applications, such as RNA-Seq and microarrays. PMID:25546577

  18. FlexSAR, a high-quality, flexible, cost-effective, prototype SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Mark; Knight, Chad; Haslem, Brent

    2015-05-01

    The FlexSAR radar system was designed to be a high quality, low-cost, flexible prototype instrument. Many radar researchers and practitioners desire the ability to efficiently prototype novel configurations. However, the cost and time required to modify existing radar systems is a challenging hurdle that can be prohibitive. The FlexSAR system couples an RF design that leverages connectorized components with digital commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) cards. This design allows for a scalable system that supports software defined radio (SDR) capabilities. This paper focuses on the RF and digital system design, discussing the advantages and disadvantages. The FlexSAR system design objective was to support diverse configurations with minimal non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs. Multiple diverse applications are examined, demonstrating the flexible system nature. The configurations discussed utilize different system parameters (e.g., number of phase-centers, transmit configurations, etc.). The resultant products are examined, illustrating that high-quality data products are still attained.

  19. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins. PMID:27536526

  20. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  1. Isolation of High-Quality Total RNA from Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Li, Shubin; Lin, Sizu

    2015-01-01

    RNA isolation with RNA in a high quantity is a basic analytical method in plant genetics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. To understand the genetic and molecular biology of Chinese fir, sufficient high-quality total RNA must be obtained for cDNA library construction and other downstream molecular applications. However, extracting RNA from Chinese fir is difficult and often requires the modification of existing protocols. Chinese fir tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds and are one of the most difficult plant tissues for RNA isolation. Therefore, we developed a simple method for extracting high-quality RNA from Chinese fir tissues. RNA isolations were performed within two hours, RNA quality was measured for yield and purity. Total RNA obtained from this procedure was successfully used for cDNA library construction, RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing. It was proven that extracted RNA was intact and suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR, and other downstream molecular applications. Thus, this protocol represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost method. PMID:26083257

  2. High-Quality, Ultraconformal Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoplasmonic and Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Riley, Conor T; Smalley, Joseph S T; Post, Kirk W; Basov, Dimitri N; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Wang, Deli; Liu, Zhaowei; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2016-02-17

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a tunable low-loss plasmonic material capable of supporting dopant concentrations high enough to operate at telecommunication wavelengths. Due to its ultrahigh conformality and compatibility with semiconductor processing, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful tool for many plasmonic applications. However, despite many attempts, high-quality AZO with a plasma frequency below 1550 nm has not yet been realized by ALD. Here a simple procedure is devised to tune the optical constants of AZO and enable plasmonic activity at 1550 nm with low loss. The highly conformal nature of ALD is also exploited to coat silicon nanopillars to create localized surface plasmon resonances that are tunable by adjusting the aluminum concentration, thermal conditions, and the use of a ZnO buffer layer. The high-quality AZO is then used to make a layered AZO/ZnO structure that displays negative refraction in the telecommunication wavelength region due to hyperbolic dispersion. Finally, a novel synthetic scheme is demonstrated to create AZO embedded nanowires in ZnO, which also exhibits hyperbolic dispersion. PMID:26715115

  3. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54–89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p < .001) while computer interest and efficacy significantly increased (p = .001 and p < .001, respectively) from pre- to post-training, suggesting statistically significant improvements in computer attitudes between pre- and post-training. The findings have implications for public libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities. PMID:20161649

  4. [Rapid method to extract high-quality RNA from activated sludge].

    PubMed

    Jin, Min; Zhao, Zu-Guo; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Zhao-Li; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Chao; Wang, Xin-Wei; Dong, Yan; Li, Jun-Wen

    2010-01-01

    An effective and fast RNA isolation method of activated sludge was established and five different methods were compared based on RNA yield, purity, integrity, RT-PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and subsequent terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. That is, the precipitated activated sludge was washed with TENP and PBS buffer, followed by using lysozyme and TRIzol to direct lysis of microbial cells, chloroform to remove protein and most of the DNA from bacterial lysate, isopropanol to precipitate nucleic acid and DNase I to hydrolyze residual DNA. To further purify RNA, RNA purifying column was utilized. The results demonstrated that the extraction method, with the aid of TRIzol and RNA purification kit, can effectively extract high-quality RNA. It not only means low degradability and high quantity, purity and diversity, but also the genes of 16S rRNA and amoA can be amplified by RT-PCR. Compared with other methods, it showed great advantage of low cost and high efficiency and can be applied to RNA extraction of activated sludge in a large number. Furthermore, T-RFLP results indicated that the community composition as well as the abundance of individual members was affected by the kind of RNA extraction methods. This work established a rapid and effective method to extract high-quality RNA from activated sludge and would show great potential for monitoring microbial changes and studying metabolism and community array of activated sludge. PMID:20329549

  5. One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

    2012-10-01

    A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

  6. Why India should become a global leader in high-quality, affordable TB diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The scale up of DOTS in India is one of the greatest public health accomplishments, and yet undiagnosed and poorly managed TB continues to fuel the epidemic such that India continues to have the highest number of TB cases in the world. Recognizing these challenges, the Government of India has set an ambitious goal of providing universal access to quality diagnosis and treatment for all TB patients in the country. Innovative tools and delivery systems in both the public and private sectors are essential for reaching this goal. Fortunately, India has the potential to solve its TB problem with "home-grown" solutions. Just as Indian pharmaceutical companies revolutionized access to high-quality, affordable AIDS drugs through generic production, Indian diagnostic companies could also become the world's hub for high-quality generic diagnostics. In the long term, India has the potential to lead the world in developing innovative TB diagnostics. For this to happen, Indian industry must move from the import and imitation approach to genuine innovation in both product development as well as delivery. This must be supported by permissive policies and enhanced funding by the Indian government and the private sector. Strict regulation of diagnostics, increased attention to quality assurance in laboratories, and greater engagement of the private health care providers are also needed to effectively deliver innovative products and approaches. PMID:22771602

  7. An improved multi-exposure approach for high quality holographic femtosecond laser patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Jiawen; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong

    2014-12-01

    High efficiency two photon polymerization through single exposure via spatial light modulator (SLM) has been used to decrease the fabrication time and rapidly realize various micro/nanostructures, but the surface quality remains a big problem due to the speckle noise of optical intensity distribution at the defocused plane. Here, a multi-exposure approach which used tens of computer generate holograms successively loaded on SLM is presented to significantly improve the optical uniformity without losing efficiency. By applying multi-exposure, we found that the uniformity at the defocused plane was increased from ˜0.02 to ˜0.6 according to our simulation. The fabricated two series of letters "HELLO" and "USTC" under single-and multi-exposure in our experiment also verified that the surface quality was greatly improved. Moreover, by this method, several kinds of beam splitters with high quality, e.g., 2 × 2, 5 × 5 Daman, and complex nonseperate 5 × 5, gratings were fabricated with both of high quality and short time (<1 min, 95% time-saving). This multi-exposure SLM-two-photon polymerization method showed the promising prospect in rapidly fabricating and integrating various binary optical devices and their systems.

  8. Growth and Optical Properties of High-Quality Monolayer WS2 on Graphite.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yu; Sasaki, Shogo; Mori, Shohei; Hibino, Hiroki; Liu, Zheng; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Suenaga, Kazu; Maniwa, Yutaka; Miyata, Yasumitsu

    2015-04-28

    Atomic-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted appreciable interest due to their tunable band gap, spin-valley physics, and potential device applications. However, the quality of TMDC samples available still poses serious problems, such as inhomogeneous lattice strain, charge doping, and structural defects. Here, we report on the growth of high-quality, monolayer WS2 onto exfoliated graphite by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer-grown WS2 single crystals present a uniform, single excitonic photoluminescence peak with a Lorentzian profile and a very small full-width at half-maximum of 21 meV at room temperature and 8 meV at 79 K. Furthermore, in these samples, no additional peaks are observed for charged and/or bound excitons, even at low temperature. These optical responses are completely different from the results of previously reported TMDCs obtained by mechanical exfoliation and CVD. Our findings indicate that the combination of high-temperature CVD with a cleaved graphite surface is an ideal condition for the growth of high-quality TMDCs, and such samples will be essential for revealing intrinsic physical properties and for future applications. PMID:25809222

  9. High-quality ZnO growth, doping, and polarization effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Tang; Shulin, Gu; Jiandong, Ye; Shunming, Zhu; Rong, Zhang; Youdou, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    The authors have reported their recent progress in the research field of ZnO materials as well as the corresponding global advance. Recent results regarding (1) the development of high-quality epitaxy techniques, (2) the defect physics and the Te/N co-doping mechanism for p-type conduction, and (3) the design, realization, and properties of the ZnMgO/ZnO hetero-structures have been shown and discussed. A complete technology of the growth of high-quality ZnO epi-films and nano-crystals has been developed. The co-doping of N plus an iso-valent element to oxygen has been found to be the most hopeful path to overcome the notorious p-type hurdle. High mobility electrons have been observed in low-dimensional structures utilizing the polarization of ZnMgO and ZnO. Very different properties as well as new physics of the electrons in 2DEG and 3DES have been found as compared to the electrons in the bulk. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025020, 61274058, 61322403, 61504057, 61574075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK2011437, BK20130013, BK20150585), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  10. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1 s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (∼10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800 °C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  11. Scalable fabrication of high-quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond membrane windows.

    PubMed

    Piracha, Afaq Habib; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond W M; Stacey, Alastair; McGuinness, Liam P; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-28

    High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (∼4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond membrane windows (SCDMW), each up to 1 × 1 mm in dimension and as thin as ∼300 nm, supported by a diamond frame as thick as ∼150 μm. The fabrication method is robust, reproducible, scalable and cost effective. Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition is used for in situ creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers into the thin SCDMW. We have also developed SCD drum head mechanical resonator composed of our fully clamped and freely suspended membranes. PMID:26956525

  12. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  13. Miniaturisation and high quality factor of spiral meander spurline resonator for microwave oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Kim, Nam-Young

    2013-04-01

    The spiral meander spurline structure is an optimal solution for a reduced resonator size and a high Quality factor (Q-factor) compared to other conventional spurline structures. The spiral meander spurline resonator shows not only 38% reduced dimensional effect, but also 16% improved Q-factor compared with conventional meander spurline resonator. Moreover, in order to get more high quality factor, we analysed spurline slot width variation and designed the symmetric dual spiral meander structure, which has a 46.87% improved Q-factor compare with a single spiral meander. The symmetric dual spiral meander structure resonator performance results are shown in a return loss of -0.76 dB, an insertion loss of -46.32 dB, and a quality factor of 235 at 6.4 GHz C-band application. In addition, according to the design and performance of the resonator, we can derive from this performance a low phase noise oscillator. The oscillators using symmetric dual spiral meander structure resonator shows good phase noise performances of -104.43 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier frequencies of 6.38 GHz at output powers of 12.2 dBm, respectively.

  14. Fast high-quality volume ray-casting with virtual samplings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeonghun; Yun, Jihye; Seo, Jinwook; Shim, Byonghyo; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kim, Bohyoung

    2010-01-01

    Volume ray-casting with a higher order reconstruction filter and/or a higher sampling rate has been adopted in direct volume rendering frameworks to provide a smooth reconstruction of the volume scalar and/or to reduce artifacts when the combined frequency of the volume and transfer function is high. While it enables high-quality volume rendering, it cannot support interactive rendering due to its high computational cost. In this paper, we propose a fast high-quality volume ray-casting algorithm which effectively increases the sampling rate. While a ray traverses the volume, intensity values are uniformly reconstructed using a high-order convolution filter. Additional samplings, referred to as virtual samplings, are carried out within a ray segment from a cubic spline curve interpolating those uniformly reconstructed intensities. These virtual samplings are performed by evaluating the polynomial function of the cubic spline curve via simple arithmetic operations. The min max blocks are refined accordingly for accurate empty space skipping in the proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm, also exploiting fast cubic texture filtering supported by programmable GPUs, offers renderings as good as a conventional ray-casting algorithm using high-order reconstruction filtering at the same sampling rate, while delivering 2.5x to 3.3x rendering speed-up. PMID:20975194

  15. Growth and optical characteristics of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Suk In; Tchoe, Youngbin; Baek, Hyeonjun; Hyun, Jerome K.; Yi, Gyu-Chul E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr; Heo, Jaehyuk; Jo, Janghyun; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Nam-Jung E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality, smooth, and flat ZnO thin films on graphene layers and their photoluminescence (PL) characteristics. For the growth of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers, ZnO nanowalls were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on oxygen-plasma treated graphene layers as an intermediate layer. PL measurements were conducted at low temperatures to examine strong near-band-edge emission peaks. The full-width-at-half-maximum value of the dominant PL emission peak was as narrow as 4 meV at T = 11 K, comparable to that of the best-quality films reported previously. Furthermore, the stimulated emission of ZnO thin films on the graphene layers was observed at the low excitation energy of 180 kW/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Their structural and optical characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and PL spectroscopy.

  16. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  17. 75 FR 39220 - Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...: On May 24, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28789) a notice inviting applications... Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools FY 2010 competition to July 14, 2010 and the deadline...

  18. Large two-atom two-photon vacuum Rabi oscillations in a high-quality cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.K.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2004-10-01

    We predict a large cooperative effect involving two-atom two-photon vacuum Rabi oscillations in a high-quality cavity. The two-photon emission occurs as a result of simultaneous deexcitation of both atoms with two-photon resonance condition {omega}{sub 1}+{omega}{sub 2}{approx_equal}{omega}{sub a}+{omega}{sub b}, where {omega}{sub 1},{omega}{sub 2} are the atomic transition frequencies and {omega}{sub a},{omega}{sub b} are the frequencies of the emitted photons. The actual resonance condition depends on the vacuum Rabi couplings. The effect can be realized either with identical atoms in a bimodal cavity or with nonidentical atoms in a single-mode cavity.

  19. High-Quality Cross-Sectioning Method: Examples of Applications in Optimizing Solar Cell Contact Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Sahoo, S.; Mehta, V.; Guhabiswas, D.; Spiller, S.; Moutinho, H.

    2011-01-01

    A damage-free polishing method is developed to prepare a high-quality cross-section of a large length of a solar cell. A 1-inch-long sample is diced from the solar cell and embedded in wax using a specially designed chuck. The sample edge is sequentially polished by progressively reducing the grit sizes. The final polishing is done by Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). This polishing procedure produces a highly flat edge, with excellent interfaces between metal contacts and the Si cell. The planarity of the wafer edge makes it possible to perform a variety of analyses of various regions and the interfaces of the cell, using optical microscopy, EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and conductive AFM (C-AFM). Here, we will discuss some details of the chuck and the polishing procedure, and present some applications for optimizing the contact firing process. This method has an added advantage of delineating the back surface field for optical observation.

  20. A protocol for generating a high-quality genome-scale metabolic reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Ines; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2011-01-01

    Network reconstructions are a common denominator in systems biology. Bottom-up metabolic network reconstructions have developed over the past 10 years. These reconstructions represent structured knowledge-bases that abstract pertinent information on the biochemical transformations taking place within specific target organisms. The conversion of a reconstruction into a mathematical format facilitates myriad computational biological studies including evaluation of network content, hypothesis testing and generation, analysis of phenotypic characteristics, and metabolic engineering. To date, genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for more than 30 organisms have been published and this number is expected to increase rapidly. However, these reconstructions differ in quality and coverage that may minimize their predictive potential and use as knowledge-bases. Here, we present a comprehensive protocol describing each step necessary to build a high-quality genome-scale metabolic reconstruction as well as common trials and tribulations. Therefore, this protocol provides a helpful manual for all stages of the reconstruction process. PMID:20057383

  1. [Plant the raw material--source of the high-quality food fibers].

    PubMed

    Bezhanidze, I Z; Alasaniia, N Sh; Kharazi, N A; Kontselidze, L A; Bezhanidze, N V

    2009-06-01

    A technology has been developed for obtaining food pectin from the waste products (citrus fruits and apples) remaining after juice extraction by the ecologically clean and reagent-free method - electrodialysis. Reagent-free, eco-pure electrodialysis method made it possible to solve two key problems: ecological - withdrawal problems and economic - without the consumption of reagents high-quality pectin from the worthless raw material is obtained. It's 30% cheaper than imported. Studies suggest that to achieve detoxification of the body, it is necessary to consume soluble fiber (soluble pectin), ie take lemons and/or oranges, as well as all studied apple varieties in the state of technical maturity and storage for 6 months. It is advised for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract to consume fruits at the state of their technical maturity. Moreover, it should be noted that the positive effect in this case will be achieved through consumption of raw fruits. PMID:19578218

  2. Stable High-Quality Electron Bunch Generation via Counter-Crossing Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Kotaki, H.; Daito, I.; Kando, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Homma, T.; Pirozhkov, A.; Koga, J. K.; Nakajima, K.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a highly reproducible acceleration of a high-quality electron bunch injected into the laser wake field accelerator with the help of a counter-crossing laser pulse. In our experiments, the wake field is generated by a sub-relativistic laser pulse; the second laser pulse collides with the first pulse at 135 deg. realizing optical injection of electron bunch into the wake field. Since the second pulse is counter-crossing, it can not damage the laser system. The observed electron bunch has the energy of 14 MeV with a 11% (1.5 MeV) spread, the total charge of 22 pC, a normalized emittance not greater than 0.8{pi} mm mrad, and a reproducibility at least 50%.

  3. Easy fabrication of high quality nickel mold for deep polymer microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ten It; Limantoro, Julian; Phang Fong, Kin; Tan, Christina Yuan Ling; Quan, Chenggen; Sun, Ling Ling; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Mass fabrication of disposable microfluidic chips with hot embossing is a key technology for microfluidic chip based biosensors. In this work, we develop a new method of fabricating high quality and highly durable nickel molds for hot embossing polymer chips. The process involves the addition of a thick, patterned layer of negative photoresist AZ-125nxT to a 4″ silicon wafer, followed by nickel electroplating and delamination of the nickel mold. Our investigations found that compared to a pillar mask, a hole mask can minimize the diffraction effect in photolithography of a thick photoresist, reduce the adhesion of the AZ-125nxT to the photomask in photolithography, and facilitate clean development of the photoresist patterns. By optimizing the hot embossing and chip bonding parameters, microfluidic chips with deep channels are achieved.

  4. Sensor performance improvements for high-quality low-cost imaging systems in ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaian, Andrei; D'Aguanno, Marco; Griggio, Paola

    2011-03-01

    CMOS sensors used in high-quality imaging systems of human eye require subtraction of the fixed pattern noise (FPN) to increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we evaluated the efficiency of the FPN subtraction as a function of temperature (in the range from +70°C to -50°C) and integration time (from 12.5 to 287.5 ms) for a low-cost commercial CMOS sensor. We also compared the quality of the photos taken at different sensor temperatures on a phantom and on voluntary subjects. The experimental set-up includes a modified fundus camera for retinal examination (Centervue SpA, Italy) equipped with a 5Mpixel CMOS sensor and a temperature regulation system. The problem of water condensation on the sensor surface at low temperatures was overcome by using an original sensor sealing method.

  5. Evaluation of Quantum Scattering Time in Ultra-High Quality GaAs Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Qi; Mondal, Sumit; Gardner, Geoffrey C.; Watson, John D.; Manfra, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    We present a critical analysis of the extraction of quantum scattering time from Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in ultra-high quality GaAs quantum wells. In the regime of temperature and magnetic field study here (T ~0.3K, B <=0.3T) we find the canonical method for determination of quantum scattering time yields unreliable results (cf.). We elaborate a formalism that allows extraction of the quantum scattering time in a regime in which the normalized modulation of the density of states Δg /g0 is greater than unity. This approach describes well low-field data for samples that display very large excitation gaps for fragile fractional quantum Hall states at large magnetic field.

  6. The PyPES library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sibaev, Marat; Crittenden, Deborah L

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present a Python-based library of high quality semi-global potential energy surfaces for 50 polyatomic molecules with up to six atoms. We anticipate that these surfaces will find widespread application in the testing of new potential energy surface construction algorithms and nuclear ro-vibrational structure theories. To this end, we provide the ability to generate the energy derivatives required for Taylor series expansions to sixth order about any point on the potential energy surface in a range of common coordinate systems, including curvilinear internal, Cartesian, and normal mode coordinates. The PyPES package, along with FORTRAN, C, MATLAB and Mathematica wrappers, is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pypes-lib. PMID:26407838

  7. Genomics In Premature Infants: A Non-Invasive Strategy To Obtain High-Quality DNA

    PubMed Central

    Said, Mariam; Cappiello, Clint; Devaney, Joseph M.; Podini, Daniele; Beres, Alana L.; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Rais-Bahrami, Khodayar; Luban, Naomi C.; Sandler, Anthony D.; Tatari-Calderone, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    We used a cost-effective, non-invasive method to obtain high-quality DNA from buccal epithelial-cells (BEC) of premature infants for genomic analysis. DNAs from BEC were obtained from premature infants with gestational age ≤ 36 weeks. Short terminal repeats (STRs) were performed simultaneously on DNA obtained from the buccal swabs and blood from the same patient. The STR profiles demonstrated that the samples originated from the same individual and exclude any contamination by external DNAs. Whole exome sequencing was performed on DNAs obtained from BEC on premature infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis, and successfully provided a total number of reads and variants corroborating with those obtained from healthy blood donors. We provide a proof of concept that BEC is a reliable and preferable source of DNA for high-throughput sequencing in premature infants. PMID:24598548

  8. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from latex-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Michiels, An; Van den Ende, Wim; Tucker, Mark; Van Riet, Liesbet; Van Laere, André

    2003-04-01

    The isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including long PCR, endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. Many protocols are available for the extraction of DNA from plant material. However, for latex-containing Asteraceae (Cichorioideae) species, standard protocols and commercially available kits do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. A cetyltrimethylammonium bromide protocol has been optimized for isolation of genomic DNA from latex-containing plants. Key steps in the modified protocol are the use of etiolated leaf tissue for extraction and an overnight 25 degrees C isopropanol precipitation step. The purified DNA has excellent spectral qualities, is efficiently digested by restriction endonucleases, and is suitable for long-fragment PCR amplification. PMID:12672415

  9. RF-sputter-deposited magnesium oxide films as high-quality adjustable tunnel barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Villegier, J.C.; Radparvar, M.; Yu, L.S.; Faris, S.M.

    1989-03-01

    High quality RF-sputtered MgO films are used as tunnel barriers to fabricate small area, niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions. A magnesium oxide barrier deposited as a single layer, or as a multilayer film, results in devices with similar characteristics. Annealing trilayers at temperatures in excess of 250/sup 0/C for several hours decrease junction current density and improve device quality presumably by increasing barrier heights through reducing resonant tunneling states. A self-aligned process utilizing only two mask levels is used to produce junctions as small as 0.5 ..mu..m/sup 2/ with excellent critical current uniformity. These junctions exhibit energy gaps of 5.1 mV and low subgap currents at current densities in excess of 1000 A/cm/sup 2/ which make them suitable for a variety of applications such as SIS mixers and logic circuits.

  10. Realization of high quality production schedules: Structuring quality factors via iteration of user specification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamazaki, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an architecture for realizing high quality production schedules. Although quality is one of the most important aspects of production scheduling, it is difficult, even for a user, to specify precisely. However, it is also true that the decision as to whether a scheduler is good or bad can only be made by the user. This paper proposes the following: (1) the quality of a schedule can be represented in the form of quality factors, i.e. constraints and objectives of the domain, and their structure; (2) quality factors and their structure can be used for decision making at local decision points during the scheduling process; and (3) that they can be defined via iteration of user specification processes.

  11. Wavelet analysis and high quality JPEG2000 compression using Daubechies wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Azra; Afsheen, Uzma; Umer Baig, Saad

    2011-10-01

    Wavelet analysis and its application has found much attention in recent times. It is vastly applied in many applications such as involving transient signal analysis, image processing, signal processing and data compression. It has gained popularity because of its multiresolution, subband coding and feature extraction features. The paper describes efficient application of wavelet analysis for image compression, exploring Daubechies wavelet as the basis function. Wavelets have scaling properties. They are localized in time and frequency. Wavelets separate the image into different scales on the basis of frequency content. The resulting compressed image can then be easily stored or transmitted saving crucial communication bandwidth. Wavelet analysis because of its high quality compression is one of the feature blocks in the new JPEG2000 image compression standard. The paper proposes Daubechies wavelet analysis, quantization and Huffman encoding scheme which results in high compression and good quality reconstruction.

  12. Vibration Analysis of Original Shape Quartz Resonator for High Quality Factor Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oigawa, Hiroshi; Sakano, Yuuya; Ji, Jing; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Ueda, Toshitsugu

    2012-06-01

    AT-cut quartz resonators are widely used as timing devices in computers, mobile information, and communication tools, etc. Recently, quartz resonators have been applied to highly sensitive devices. To improve frequency stability, AT-cut quartz resonators must have an excellent temperature characteristic and high quality (Q) factor. Energy trapping and spurious mode coupling strongly affect the performance of resonators, and both parameters are determined by the shape of the resonator. As for achieving a higher Q, the most effective technique is to process the quartz cross-sectional shape into a plano-convex or bi-convex shape. However, it is difficult to manufacture a convex shape on the surface of a quartz wafer. For this reason, we propose an equivalent plano-convex shape, which was realized by arranging fine protrusions on the surface of quartz. In addition, the optimization of the original resonator shape has been discussed.

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality thin films of the insulating ferromagnet EuS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qi I.; Zhao, Jinfeng; Risbud, Subhash H.; Zhang, Li; Dolev, Merav; Fried, Alexander D.; Marshall, Ann F.; Kapitulnik, Aharon

    2014-02-24

    High-quality thin films of the ferromagnetic insulator europium(II) sulfide (EuS) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) and Si (100) substrates. A single orientation was obtained with the [100] planes parallel to the substrates, with atomic-scale smoothness indicates a near-ideal surface topography. The films exhibit uniform ferromagnetism below 15.9 K, with a substantial component of the magnetization perpendicular to the plane of the films. Optimization of the growth condition also yielded truly insulating films with immeasurably large resistance. This combination of magnetic and electric properties opens the gate for future devices that require a true ferromagnetic insulator.

  14. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization.

    PubMed

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I; Abdelhady, Ahmed L; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F; Bakr, Osman M

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA = CH3NH3(+), X = Br(-) or I(-)) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization. PMID:26145157

  15. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach

    PubMed Central

    MONTANO, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26860787

  16. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmans, Richard; Nural, Akchurin

    2013-09-01

    This document constitutes the final report on the project Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. The project was carried out by a consortium of US and Italian physicists, led by Dr. Richard Wigmans (Texas tech University). This consortium built several particle detectors and tested these at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The idea arose to use scintillating crystals as dual-readout calorimeters. Such crystals were of course already known to provide excellent energy resolution for the detection of particles developing electromagnetic (em) showers. The efforts to separate the signals from scintillating crystals into scintillation and Cerenkov components led to four different methods by which this could be accomplished. These methods are based on a) the directionality, b) spectral differences, c) the time structure, and d) the polarization of the signals.

  17. A review of the strategies for obtaining high-quality crystals utilizing nanotechnologies and microgravity.

    PubMed

    Pechkova, Eugenia; Bragazzi, Nicola; Bozdaganyan, Marine; Belmonte, Luca; Nicolini, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization is a highly demanding and time-consuming task that causes a real bottle-neck in basic research. Great effort has been made to understand the factors and parameters that influence this process and to finely tune them to facilitate crystal growth. Different crystallization techniques have been proposed over the past decades, such as the classical vapor hanging drop method, its variant the sitting drop method, dialysis, cryo-temperature, gel, batch, and the innovative microgravity (space) techniques like free interface diffusion (FID) and counter-ion diffusion (CID). Here, we present a review of the strategies utilizing Langmuir-Blodgett (LB)-based nanotechnologies, and microgravity techniques for obtaining optimal high-quality crystals, as proven by molecular dynamics (MD) and bioinformatics approaches, namely using a clustering algorithm and protein alignment. PMID:25403962

  18. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]nRS[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures.

  19. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.

    PubMed

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. PMID:24148259

  20. High-quality crystallization of lysozyme by magneto-Archimedes levitation in a superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Syou; Oda, Yutaka; Ataka, Mitsuo

    2004-02-01

    By using gadolinium chloride as a crystallizing agent, and by applying a magnetic field of 3.8 T, we could crystallize lysozyme in a floating and containerless state. Optically, these crystals had little injury on the surface. Such flawless crystals were obtained only when they crystallized at the air-solution interface. White X-ray topography also showed that the crystals grown in a floating state contained less strain. As to why the crystals floated, we considered that magneto-Archimedes levitation occurred: lysozyme crystals are diamagnetic and the solution containing the Gd ions is paramagnetic. Owing to the difference in the magnetic property, the upward magnetic buoyancy force acting on the crystals could be enhanced, leading to levitation even in a usual superconducting magnet. This method may be used to manufacture high-quality protein crystals.

  1. Laboratory computing--process and information management supporting high-quality, cost-effective healthcare.

    PubMed

    Buffone, G J; Moreau, D R

    1995-09-01

    One currently observes many healthcare institutions rushing to reengineer and install information systems with the expectation of achieving enhanced efficiency, competitiveness, and, it is hoped, higher patient satisfaction resulting from timely, high-quality care. Unfortunately, information system concepts, design, and implementation have not yet addressed the complexity of representing and managing clinical processes. As a result, much of the synergy one might expect to derive from understanding and designing clinical processes to gain efficiency and quality while maintaining humanness is not readily achievable by implementing traditional information systems. In this presentation, with laboratory services as an example, we describe a conceptually different information systems model, which we believe would aid care-givers in their efforts to deliver compassionate, quality care while addressing the highly competitive nature of market-driven healthcare. PMID:7656450

  2. High quality factor nanophotonic resonators in bulk rare-earth doped crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Rochman, Jake; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-11

    Numerous bulk crystalline materials exhibit attractive nonlinear and luminescent properties for classical and quantum optical applications. A chip-scale platform for high quality factor optical nanocavities in these materials will enable new optoelectronic devices and quantum light-matter interfaces. In this article, photonic crystal nanobeam resonators fabricated using focused ion beam milling in bulk insulators, such as rare-earth doped yttrium orthosilicate and yttrium vanadate, are demonstrated. Operation in the visible, near infrared, and telecom wavelengths with quality factors up to 27,000 and optical mode volumes close to one cubic wavelength is measured. These devices enable new nanolasers, on-chip quantum optical memories, single photon sources, and non-linear devices at low photon numbers based on rare-earth ions. The techniques are also applicable to other luminescent centers and crystal. PMID:26832284

  3. Total quality management: A management philosophy for providing high quality construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Paul D.

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is not a new concept. Only recently (within the past ten years or so) have American companies started to realize the potential of TQM as a means of ensuring high quality products and services. With this realization has come implementation in manufacturing and service companies. A commercial construction company, like any other business, must provide a top quality finished product to its customer if it intends to stay in business. TQM is one way to work to that end. This report explores the quality problems facing my fictitious construction company, which I believe are fairly typical among the commercial construction industry, existing management methods, and the TQM method to ensure top quality production. It will be shown why I believe TQM or a variation thereof is the best method for controlling the quality of products and service during the construction process. Under the philosophy of TQM, we build quality into the finished product.

  4. Near-equilibrium growth of thick, high quality beta-SiC by sublimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B.; Fekade, Konjit; Spencer, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    A close spaced near-equilibrium growth technique was used to produce thick, high quality epitaxial layers of beta-silicon carbide. The process utilized a sublimation method to grow morphologically smooth layers. The beta silicon carbide growth layers varied from about 200 to 750 microns in thickness. Chemical vapor deposition grown, 2-10 microns, beta silicon carbide films were used as seeds at 1860 and 1910 C growth temperatures. The respective average growth rates were 20 and 30 microns per hour. The layers are p-type with a 3.1 x 10 exp 17/cu cm carrier concentration. Electrical measurements indicate considerable improvement in the breakdown voltage of Schottky barriers on growth samples. Breakdown values ranged from 25 to 60 V. These measurements represent the highest values reported for 3C-SiC.

  5. Optical properties of high quality Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckert, F.; Hamilton, D. I.; Yakushev, M. V.; Beattie, N. S.; Zoppi, G.; Moynihan, M.; Forbes, I.; Karotki, A. V.; Mudryi, A. V.; Grossberg, M.; Krustok, J.; Martin, R. W.

    2011-08-01

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films, fabricated on bare or molybdenum coated glass substrates by magnetron sputtering and selenisation, were studied by a range of techniques. Photoluminescence spectra reveal an excitonic peak and two phonon replicas of a donor-acceptor pair (DAP) recombination. Its acceptor and donor ionisation energies are 27 and 7 meV, respectively. This demonstrates that high-quality Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films can be fabricated. An experimental value for the longitudinal optical phonon energy of 28 meV was estimated. The band gap energy of 1.01 eV at room temperature was determined using optical absorption spectra.

  6. A high quality factor photonic crystal channel-drop filter with a linear gradient microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Fan, Qing-bin; Lu, Ye; Luo, De-jun; Kong, Yi-bu; Zhang, Dong-chuang

    2015-05-01

    We design a channel-drop filter (CDF) with a linear gradient microcavity in a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC). The model of three-port CDF with reflector is used to achieve high quality factor (Q-factor) and 100% channel-drop efficiency. The research indicates that adjusting the distance between reference plane and reflector can simultaneously influence the Q-factor due to coupling to a bus waveguide and the phase retardation occurring in the round trip between a microcavity and a reflector. The calculation results of 2D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method show that the designed filter can achieve the drop efficiency of 96.7% and ultra-high Q-factor with an ultra-small modal volume.

  7. PMG: online generation of high-quality molecular pictures and storyboarded animations.

    PubMed

    Autin, Ludovic; Tufféry, Pierre

    2007-07-01

    The Protein Movie Generator (PMG) is an online service able to generate high-quality pictures and animations for which one can then define simple storyboards. The PMG can therefore efficiently illustrate concepts such as molecular motion or formation/dissociation of complexes. Emphasis is put on the simplicity of animation generation. Rendering is achieved using Dino coupled to POV-Ray. In order to produce highly informative images, the PMG includes capabilities of using different molecular representations at the same time to highlight particular molecular features. Moreover, sophisticated rendering concepts including scene definition, as well as modeling light and materials are available. The PMG accepts Protein Data Bank (PDB) files as input, which may include series of models or molecular dynamics trajectories and produces images or movies under various formats. PMG can be accessed at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/PMG.html. PMID:17478496

  8. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]n(RS)[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures. PMID:26153533

  9. High quality thin films of thermoelectric misfit cobalt oxides prepared by a chemical solution method

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Murias, Beatriz; Manuel Vila-Fungueiriño, José; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Misfit cobaltates ([Bi/Ba/Sr/Ca/CoO]nRS[CoO2]q) constitute the most promising family of thermoelectric oxides for high temperature energy harvesting. However, their complex structure and chemical composition makes extremely challenging their deposition by high-vacuum physical techniques. Therefore, many of them have not been prepared as thin films until now. Here we report the synthesis of high-quality epitaxial thin films of the most representative members of this family of compounds by a water-based chemical solution deposition method. The films show an exceptional crystalline quality, with an electrical conductivity and thermopower comparable to single crystals. These properties are linked to the epitaxial matching of the rock-salt layers of the structure to the substrate, producing clean interfaces free of amorphous phases. This is an important step forward for the integration of these materials with complementary n-type thermoelectric oxides in multilayer nanostructures. PMID:26153533

  10. High yield seedless synthesis of high-quality gold nanocrystals with various shapes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihui; Xi, Chunxiao; Feng, Cong; Xia, Haibing; Wang, Dayang; Tao, Xutang

    2014-03-11

    In this Article, high-quality gold nanocrystals (Au NCs) with various shapes including concave cubic, trisoctahedral, cubic, rod-like, and quasi-spherical have been successfully produced in high yield via adding a trace amount of NaBH4 solution into growth solutions mainly composed of HAuCl4, ascorbic acid, and surfactants. The sizes and shapes of as-prepared Au NCs can be tuned by the compositions of the growth solutions and the amount of NaBH4 added. The electrocatalytic performance of differently shaped Au NCs for methanol oxidation was studied; as-prepared trisoctahedral or concave cubic Au NCs are more highly active electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation due to the presence of high-index facets on their surface. PMID:24555832

  11. Redistribution of carbon atoms in Pt substrate for high quality monolayer graphene synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yinying, Li; Xiaoming, Wu; Huaqiang, Wu; He, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The two-dimensional material graphene shows its extraordinary potential in many application fields. As the most effective method to synthesize large-area monolayer graphene, chemical vapor deposition has been well developed; however, it still faces the challenge of a high occurrence of multilayer graphene, which causes the small effective area of monolayer graphene. This phenomenon limits its applications in which only a big size of monolayer graphene is needed. In this paper, by introducing a redistribution stage after the decomposition of carbon source gas to redistribute the carbon atoms dissolved in Pt foils, the number of multilayer flakes on the monolayer graphene decreases. The mean area of monolayer graphene can be extended to about 16 000 μm2, which is eight times larger than that of the graphene grown without the redistribution stage. A Raman spectrograph is used to demonstrate the high quality of the monolayer graphene grown by the improved process.

  12. High-quality vertical light emitting diodes fabrication by mechanical lift-off technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Po-Min; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2011-10-01

    We report the fabrication of mechanical lift-off high quality thin GaN with Hexagonal Inversed Pyramid (HIP) structures for vertical light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The HIP structures were formed at the GaN/sapphire substrate interface under high temperature during KOH wet etching process. The average threading dislocation density (TDD) was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and found the reduction from 2×109 to 1×108 cm-2. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compressive stress of GaN epilayer was effectively relieved in the thin-GaN LED with HIP structures. Finally, the mechanical lift-off process is claimed to be successful by using the HIP structures as a sacrificial layer during wafer bonding process.

  13. High-quality electron beam from laser wake-field acceleration in laser produced plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyasi Rao, Bobbili; Moorti, Anand; Rathore, Ranjana; Ali Chakera, Juzer; Anant Naik, Prasad; Dass Gupta, Parshotam

    2013-06-10

    Generation of highly collimated ({theta}{sub div}{approx}10 mrad), quasi-monoenergetic electron beam with peak energy 12 MeV and charge {approx}50 pC has been experimentally demonstrated from self-guided laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) in a plasma plume produced by laser ablation of solid nylon (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sub n} target. A 7 TW, 45 fs Ti:sapphire laser system was used for LWFA, and the plasma plume forming pulse was derived from the Nd:YAG pump laser of the same system. The results show that a reproducible, high quality electron beam could be produced from this scheme which is simple, low cost and has the capability for high repetition rate operation.

  14. High-quality protein knowledge resource: SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Claire; Martin, Maria Jesus; Gattiker, Alexandre; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos; Apweiler, Rolf

    2002-09-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and a high level of integration with other databases. Together with its automatically annotated supplement TrEMBL, it provides a comprehensive and high-quality view of the current state of knowledge about proteins. Ongoing developments include the further improvement of functional and automatic annotation in the databases including evidence attribution with particular emphasis on the human, archaeal and bacterial proteomes and the provision of additional resources such as the International Protein Index (IPI) and XML format of SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL to the user community. PMID:12230036

  15. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera. PMID:26032590

  16. Experimental demonstration of high quality MeV ultrafast electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Renkai; Tang, Chuanxiang; Du, Yingchao; Huang, Wenhui; Du, Qiang; Shi, Jiaru; Yan, Lixin; Wang, Xijie

    2009-08-01

    The simulation optimization and an experimental demonstration of improved performances of mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction (MeV UED) are reported in this paper. Using ultrashort high quality electron pulses from an S-band photocathode rf gun and a polycrystalline aluminum foil as the sample, we experimentally demonstrated an improved spatial resolution of MeV UED, in which the Debye-Scherrer rings of the (111) and (200) planes were clearly resolved. This result showed that MeV UED is capable to achieve an atomic level spatial resolution and a approximately 100 fs temporal resolution simultaneously, and will be a unique tool for ultrafast structural dynamics studies. PMID:19725647

  17. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  18. Isolation of high quality protein samples from punches of formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue blocks.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Becker, K F; Kuphal, S; Hein, R; Hofstädter, F; Bosserhoff, A K

    2008-04-01

    In general, it is believed that the extraction of proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples is not feasible. However, recently a new technique was developed, presenting the extraction of non-degraded, full length proteins from formalin fixed tissues, usable for western blotting and protein arrays. In the study presented here, we applied this technique to punch biopsies of formalin fixed tissues embedded in paraffin to reduce heterogeneity of the tissue represented in sections, and to ensure analysing mainly defined cellular material. Successful extraction was achieved even from very small samples (0.7 mm(3)). Additionally, we were able to detect highly glycosylated proteins and protein modification, such as phosphorylation. Interestingly, with this technique it is feasible to extract high quality proteins from 14 year old samples. In summary, the new technique makes a great pool of material now usable for molecular analysis with high throughput tools. PMID:18228195

  19. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach.

    PubMed

    Montano, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26860787

  20. High-quality photoacoustic imaging by using of concentration-adjustable glycerin as an acoustic couplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sihua; Gu, Huaimin

    2007-01-01

    The influences of mismatch of ultrasonic propagation velocities on photoacoustic imaging are studied. The concentration-adjustable glycerin is used as an ultrasonic couplant to match the ultrasonic velocities in different media in order to eliminate the acoustic refraction, reduce the acoustic reflection, and rectify the acoustic path difference. Two biological phantoms are tested by using water and glycerin as ultrasonic couplant, respectively. The spatial resolution of reconstructed image by experimental evaluation also is estimated to be 0.12mm. The experimental results demonstrate that the high-quality photoacoustic imaging can be obtained by matching the ultrasonic propagation velocities in different media. The contrast of reconstructed image is significantly improved and the image artifacts are obviously reduced after matching ultrasonic velocity. It has potential to promote photoacoustic imaging as a clinical diagnosis technique.

  1. Large-area high-quality graphene on Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, I; Dabrowski, P; Ciepielewski, P; Kolkovsky, V; Klusek, Z; Baranowski, J M; Strupinski, W

    2016-06-01

    Various experimental data revealing large-area high-quality graphene films grown by the CVD method on Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates are presented. SEM images have shown that the structure of nano-facets is formed on the entire surface of Ge(001), which is covered by a graphene layer over the whole macroscopic sample surface of 1 cm(2). The hill-and-valley structures are positioned 90° to each other and run along the <100> direction. The hill height in relation to the valley measured by STM is about 10 nm. Raman measurements have shown that a uniform graphene monolayer covers the nano-facet structures on the Ge(001) surface. Raman spectroscopy has also proved that the grown graphene monolayer is characterized by small strain variations and minimal charge fluctuations. Atomically resolved STM images on the hills of the nanostructures on the Ge(001) surface have confirmed the presence of a graphene monolayer. In addition, the STS/CITS maps show that high-quality graphene has been obtained on such terraces. The subsequent coalescence of graphene domains has led to a relatively well-oriented large-area layer. This is confirmed by LEED measurements, which have indicated that two orientations are preferable in the grown large-area graphene monolayer. The presence of large-area coverage by graphene has been also confirmed by low temperature Hall measurements of a macroscopic sample, showing an n-type concentration of 9.3 × 10(12) cm(-2) and a mobility of 2500 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). These important characteristic features of graphene indicate a high homogeneity of the layer grown on the large area Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates. PMID:27189131

  2. Preoperative treatment planning with intraoperative optimization can achieve consistent high-quality implants in prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Swanson, David A.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Frank, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in brachytherapy treatment planning systems have allowed the opportunity for brachytherapy to be planned intraoperatively as well as preoperatively. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been the subject of extensive debate, and some contend that the intraoperative approach is vital to the delivery of optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-quality permanent prostate implants can be achieved consistently using a preoperative planning approach that allows for, but does not necessitate, intraoperative optimization. To achieve this purpose, we reviewed the records of 100 men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who had been prospectively treated with brachytherapy monotherapy between 2006 and 2009 at our institution. All patients were treated with iodine-125 stranded seeds; the planned target dose was 145 Gy. Only 8 patients required adjustments to the plan on the basis of intraoperative findings. Consistency and quality were assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between the planned and implanted amounts of radioactivity and by examining the mean values of the dosimetric parameters obtained on preoperative and 30 days postoperative treatment planning. The amount of radioactivity implanted was essentially identical to that planned (mean planned radioactivity, 41.27 U vs. mean delivered radioactivity, 41.36 U; R{sup 2} = 0.99). The mean planned and day 30 prostate V100 values were 99.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The mean planned and day 30 prostate D90 values were 186.3 and 185.1 Gy, respectively. Consistent, high-quality prostate brachytherapy treatment plans can be achieved using a preoperative planning approach, mostly without the need for intraoperative optimization. Good quality assurance measures during simulation, treatment planning, implantation, and postimplant evaluation are paramount for achieving a high level of quality and consistency.

  3. Prodigious Effects of Concentration Intensification on Nanoparticle Synthesis: A High-Quality, Scalable Approach.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Curtis B; Nevers, Douglas R; Hanrath, Tobias; Robinson, Richard D

    2015-12-23

    Realizing the promise of nanoparticle-based technologies demands more efficient, robust synthesis methods (i.e., process intensification) that consistently produce large quantities of high-quality nanoparticles (NPs). We explored NP synthesis via the heat-up method in a regime of previously unexplored high concentrations near the solubility limit of the precursors. We discovered that in this highly concentrated and viscous regime the NP synthesis parameters are less sensitive to experimental variability and thereby provide a robust, scalable, and size-focusing NP synthesis. Specifically, we synthesize high-quality metal sulfide NPs (<7% relative standard deviation for Cu2-xS and CdS), and demonstrate a 10-1000-fold increase in Cu2-xS NP production (>200 g) relative to the current field of large-scale (0.1-5 g yields) and laboratory-scale (<0.1 g) efforts. Compared to conventional synthesis methods (hot injection with dilute precursor concentration) characterized by rapid growth and low yield, our highly concentrated NP system supplies remarkably controlled growth rates and a 10-fold increase in NP volumetric production capacity (86 g/L). The controlled growth, high yield, and robust nature of highly concentrated solutions can facilitate large-scale nanomanufacturing of NPs by relaxing the synthesis requirements to achieve monodisperse products. Mechanistically, our investigation of the thermal and rheological properties and growth rates reveals that this high concentration regime has reduced mass diffusion (a 5-fold increase in solution viscosity), is stable to thermal perturbations (∼64% increase in heat capacity), and is resistant to Ostwald ripening. PMID:26592380

  4. Obtaining high-quality Love wave phase-velocity models from USArray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, A. E.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.

    2012-12-01

    High-quality Love and Rayleigh wave models are desirable for the constraints they provide on Earth structure, particularly radially anisotropic structure. Many Rayleigh wave models have been constructed, but Love wave models are more limited in number. Working with Love waves involves additional challenges that make it difficult to acquire and interpret high-quality measurements. Compared with Rayleigh waves, these include higher noise levels on the horizontal components, stronger sensitivity to the heterogeneous crustal structure, and greater interference from higher modes. This typically results in smaller data sets and larger uncertainties in single-station phase measurements for Love waves. We have constructed a data set of two-station phase measurements, based on differencing single-station phase measurements following Ekström et al. (1997). We inverted the two-station measurements to obtain phase-velocity maps for both Love and Rayleigh waves at discrete periods from 25-100 s. Comparing equivalent estimates of the uncertainty for two-station measurements and single-station measurements, we find a marked reduction in uncertainty for two-station Rayleigh wave measurements, but a smaller improvement for Love waves. Here, we investigate some of the causes of the higher uncertainty in the Love wave models, using both the two-station method and a mini-array method of estimating the local phase velocity. We compare observed data from the USArray Transportable Array and synthetic data from numerical modeling. The synthetic data is calculated using both SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, a finite-element method that should reproduce many wavefield effects, and normal mode summation, which allows us to isolate fundamental-mode signals. With these tools, we identify approaches that are likely to produce the highest-quality measurements and models.

  5. Observation and Characterization of Biexciton States in high-quality Monolayer WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Matsuda, Kazunari; Shinohara, Hisanori; Kitaura, Ryo

    Group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted a great deal of attention due to the optical properties dominated by excitonic effects, where emissions in PL arise from excitons and trions are seen even in room temperature (RT). In recent studies on PL emissions from WS2, one of TMDCs has shown that even biexcitons can be observed at 4 K with high-power excitation of 50,000 W/cm2. In this work, we report the observation of biexciton states at temperature higher than 80 K with excitation power lower than 25 W/cm2, by using a high-quality monolayer WS2 grown directly onto the hBN. PL spectra of the WS2/hBN measured at RT show a very sharp excitonic PL emission with a FWHM of 21.5 meV, and at 82.7 K the PL spectra show three additional peaks at the lower energy site. The excitation power dependence and the lifetime measurement of PL peak at 2.00 eV clearly show that this PL peak can be attributed to biexcitons, which has been observed with a low excitation power down to 24 W/cm2. We think that the minimal amount of trapping sites in high-quality WS2/hBN used is a key factor in the observation of biexcitons at over 80 K and a low excitation power. This work was supported by Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (No. 25107002) from MEXT, Japan and Leading Graduate School Program, Nagoya University.

  6. Experience from the 1st Year running a Massive High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Joao; Baron, Thomas; Bompastor, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    In the last few years, we have witnessed an explosion of visual collaboration initiatives in the industry. Several advances in video services and also in their underlying infrastructure are currently improving the way people collaborate globally. These advances are creating new usage paradigms: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To keep apace with this technology progression, the CERN IT Department launched a service based on the Vidyo product. This new service architecture introduces Adaptive Video Layering, which dynamically optimizes the video for each endpoint by leveraging the H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC)-based compression technology. It combines intelligent AV routing techniques with the flexibility of H.264 SVC video compression, in order to achieve resilient video collaboration over the Internet, 3G and WiFi. We present an overview of the results that have been achieved after this major change. In particular, the first year of operation of the CERN Vidyo service will be described in terms of performance and scale: The service became part of the daily activity of the LHC collaborations, reaching a monthly usage of more than 3200 meetings with a peak of 750 simultaneous connections. We also present some key features such as the integration with CERN Indico. LHC users can now join a Vidyo meeting either from their personal computer or a CERN videoconference room simply from an Indico event page, with the ease of a single click. The roadmap for future improvements, service extensions and core infrastructure tendencies such as cloud based services and virtualization of system components will also be discussed. Vidyo's strengths allowed us to build a universal service (it is accessible from PCs, but also videoconference rooms, traditional phones, tablets and smartphones), developed with 3 key ideas in mind: ease of use, full integration and high quality.

  7. Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: The Critical Role of Quality Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Tracy; Ganz, Patricia A.; Sledge, George W.; Levit, Laura; Hayman, James A.; Eberlein, Timothy J.; Feeley, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    In 1999, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published Ensuring Quality Cancer Care, an influential report that described an ideal cancer care system and issued ten recommendations to address pervasive gaps in the understanding and delivery of quality cancer care. Despite generating much fervor, the report’s recommendations—including two recommendations related to quality measurement—remain largely unfulfilled. Amidst continuing concerns regarding increasing costs and questionable quality of care, the IOM charged a new committee with revisiting the 1999 report and with reassessing national cancer care, with a focus on the aging US population. The committee identified high-quality patient-clinician relationships and interactions as central drivers of quality and attributed existing quality gaps, in part, to the nation’s inability to measure and improve cancer care delivery in a systematic way. In 2013, the committee published its findings in Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis, which included two recommendations that emphasize coordinated, patient-centered quality measurement and information technology enhancements: Develop a national quality reporting program for cancer care as part of a learning health care system; and,Develop an ethically sound learning health care information technology system for cancer that enables real-time analysis of data from cancer patients in a variety of care settings. These recommendations underscore the need for independent national oversight, public-private collaboration, and substantial funding to create robust, patient-centered quality measurement and learning enterprises to improve the quality, accessibility, and affordability of cancer care in America. PMID:24839592

  8. Large-area high-quality graphene on Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, I.; Dabrowski, P.; Ciepielewski, P.; Kolkovsky, V.; Klusek, Z.; Baranowski, J. M.; Strupinski, W.

    2016-05-01

    Various experimental data revealing large-area high-quality graphene films grown by the CVD method on Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates are presented. SEM images have shown that the structure of nano-facets is formed on the entire surface of Ge(001), which is covered by a graphene layer over the whole macroscopic sample surface of 1 cm2. The hill-and-valley structures are positioned 90° to each other and run along the <100> direction. The hill height in relation to the valley measured by STM is about 10 nm. Raman measurements have shown that a uniform graphene monolayer covers the nano-facet structures on the Ge(001) surface. Raman spectroscopy has also proved that the grown graphene monolayer is characterized by small strain variations and minimal charge fluctuations. Atomically resolved STM images on the hills of the nanostructures on the Ge(001) surface have confirmed the presence of a graphene monolayer. In addition, the STS/CITS maps show that high-quality graphene has been obtained on such terraces. The subsequent coalescence of graphene domains has led to a relatively well-oriented large-area layer. This is confirmed by LEED measurements, which have indicated that two orientations are preferable in the grown large-area graphene monolayer. The presence of large-area coverage by graphene has been also confirmed by low temperature Hall measurements of a macroscopic sample, showing an n-type concentration of 9.3 × 1012 cm-2 and a mobility of 2500 cm2 V-1 s-1. These important characteristic features of graphene indicate a high homogeneity of the layer grown on the large area Ge(001)/Si(001) substrates.

  9. A multi-amplification aptasensor for highly sensitive detection of thrombin based on high-quality hollow CoPt nanoparticles decorated graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Yali; Bai, Lijuan; Liao, Yuhong

    2011-12-15

    In this work, we have successfully demonstrated a facile strategy to incorporate high-quality hollow CoPt bimetal alloy nanoparticles (HCoPt) onto reduced graphene oxide sheet (HCoPt-RGs). An advanced sandwich-type electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin was proposed by using the HCoPt-RGs conjugates as secondary label. The formed conjugates provided large surface area for loading plentiful redox probe thionine (Thi), horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and secondary aptamer (Apt II) with good stability and friendly biocompatibility, indicating their superior properties in electroactive mediator enrichment and biomolecule immobilization. Furthermore, activated by glutaraldehyde (GA), the chitosan-hollow CoPt alloy nanoparticle (CS-HCoPt) film can greatly facilitate the capture of primary aptamer (Apt I) and dramatically reduce the nonspecific binding. Excellent sensitivity was obtained by detecting the conspicuously enhanced electrochemical signal of Thi, which was amplified by HCoPt alloy nanoparticles and HRP toward the catalytic reduction of H(2)O(2). The aptasensor displayed excellent performance for thrombin with a wide linearity in the range from 1.0×10(-12) to 5.0×10(-8) M and a relatively low detection limit of 3.4×10(-13) M. Moreover, the resulted aptasensor also exhibited good specificity, acceptable reproducibility and stability, indicating that the present strategy could pave a promising way for the wide application of graphene in clinical research. PMID:21944185

  10. Designing and Implementing a Comparative Effectiveness Study of Two Strategies for Delivering High Quality CHD Prevention: Methods and Participant Characteristics for the Heart to Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Stacey L.; Draeger, Lindy B.; Pignone, Michael P.; Sloane, Philip D.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Gizlice, Ziya; Vu, Maihan B.; Gitterman, Daniel P.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Donahue, Katrina E.; Evenson, Kelly; Ammerman, Alice S.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle and medications are effective for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction, few studies have examined the comparative effectiveness of various strategies for delivering high quality CHD risk reduction. In this paper, we report on the design and baseline characteristics of participants for just such a trial. Methods We conducted a randomized trial of the same lifestyle and medication intervention delivered in two alternate formats: counselor-delivered or web-based. The trial was conducted at 5 diverse practices in a family medicine research network and included men and women age 35–79 who were at high risk of CHD events based on 10-year predicted Framingham risk of ≥10% or a known history of cardiovascular disease. After individual-level randomization, participants in both arms received a decision aid plus four intensive intervention visits and 3 maintenance visits over 12 months. The primary outcome was change in 10-year predicted CHD risk among patients without prior cardiovascular disease. Secondary outcomes, measured among all participants, included changes in CHD risk factors, cost-effectiveness, and acceptability at 4 and 12-month follow-up. Results We randomized 489 eligible patients: 389 without and 100 with a known history of cardiovascular disease. Mean age was 62.3. 75% were white, 25% African American. 45% had a college education. 88% had health insurance. Mean 10-year predicted CHD risk was 16.9%. Conclusion We have successfully recruited a diverse sample of practices and patients that will provide a rich sample in which to test the comparative effectiveness of two strategies to implement high quality CHD prevention. PMID:23916919

  11. Emotional Climate and High Quality Learning Experiences in Science Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellocchi, Alberto; Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; King, Donna; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2014-01-01

    The role of emotion during learning encounters in science teacher education is under-researched and under-theorized. In this case study, we explore the emotional climates (ECs), that is, the collective states of emotional arousal, of a preservice secondary science education class to illuminate practice for producing and reproducing high quality…

  12. Creating High Quality DEMs of Large Scale Fluvial Environments Using Structure-from-Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javernick, L. A.; Brasington, J.; Caruso, B. S.; Hicks, M.; Davies, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    During the past decade, advances in survey and sensor technology have generated new opportunities to investigate the structure and dynamics of fluvial systems. Key geomatic technologies include the Global Positioning System (GPS), digital photogrammetry, LiDAR, and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The application of such has resulted in a profound increase in the dimensionality of topographic surveys - from cross-sections to distributed 3d point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs). Each of these technologies have been used successfully to derive high quality DEMs of fluvial environments; however, they often require specialized and expensive equipment, such as a TLS or large format camera, bespoke platforms such as survey aircraft, and consequently make data acquisition prohibitively expensive or highly labour intensive, thus restricting the extent and frequency of surveys. Recently, advances in computer vision and image analysis have led to development of a novel photogrammetric approach that is fully automated and suitable for use with simple compact (non-metric) cameras. In this paper, we evaluate a new photogrammetric method, Structure-from-Motion (SfM), and demonstrate how this can be used to generate DEMs of comparable quality to airborne LiDAR, using consumer grade cameras at low costs. Using the SfM software PhotoScan (version 0.8.5), high quality DEMs were produced for a 1.6 km reach and a 3.3 km reach of the braided Ahuriri River, New Zealand. Photographs used for DEM creation were acquired from a helicopter flying at 600 m and 800 m above ground level using a consumer grade 10.1mega-pixel, non-metric digital camera, resulting in object space resolution imagery of 0.12 m and 0.16 m respectively. Point clouds for the two study reaches were generated using 147 and 224 photographs respectively, and were extracted automatically in an arbitrary coordinate system; RTK-GPS located ground control points (GCPs) were used to define a 3d non

  13. Fast synthesis of high-quality reduced graphene oxide at room temperature under light exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some, Surajit; Kim, Sungjin; Samanta, Khokan; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Park, Younghun; Lee, Sae Mi; Lee, Keunsik; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2014-09-01

    An approach of presenting new reducing reagents, sodium-benzophenone (Na-B) or Na-B in the presence of the hydrazine (Na-B-H) system under light exposure could produce rGOs with/without N-doping at room temperature in both the solution phase and on a solid substrate. Benzophenone activated those solutions acting as a photosensitizer under light. It was assumed that the newly generated radical anions with electrons from Na-B under light can reduce GO to rGO sheets (rGONa-B1). In addition, the Na-B-H system can allow a higher degree of reduction with the doping of nitrogen atoms by the introduction of hydrazine to produce radical anions and electrons with a sodium hydrazide complex, which helps decrease the sheet resistance of the as-made rGONa-B-H2. The excellent properties (very low oxygen content (C/O ~16.2), and low sheet resistance (~130 Ω square-1)) of the rGOs were confirmed by XPS, XRD, IR, Raman spectroscopy, TGA, wettability, and sheet resistance measurements. High-quality rGO films on flexible substrates could be prepared by directly immersing the GO films in these solutions for several minutes.An approach of presenting new reducing reagents, sodium-benzophenone (Na-B) or Na-B in the presence of the hydrazine (Na-B-H) system under light exposure could produce rGOs with/without N-doping at room temperature in both the solution phase and on a solid substrate. Benzophenone activated those solutions acting as a photosensitizer under light. It was assumed that the newly generated radical anions with electrons from Na-B under light can reduce GO to rGO sheets (rGONa-B1). In addition, the Na-B-H system can allow a higher degree of reduction with the doping of nitrogen atoms by the introduction of hydrazine to produce radical anions and electrons with a sodium hydrazide complex, which helps decrease the sheet resistance of the as-made rGONa-B-H2. The excellent properties (very low oxygen content (C/O ~16.2), and low sheet resistance (~130 Ω square-1)) of the r

  14. Controlled synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes and their applications in transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervishi, Enkeleda

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional electrical, mechanical and electronic properties which make them attractive for numerous applications. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition (cCVD) is one of the most promising methods for large-scale production of high-quality CNTs at a relatively low cost. Synthesis conditions such as catalyst composition, reaction temperature, hydrocarbon type and flow rate, have an enormous influence on the morphological properties of nanotubes. This research presents a thorough study of the parametric conditions affecting the growth properties of single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes. High quality single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized on different catalytic systems, using the inductive radio frequency cCVD method. The catalyst compositions, as well as, the reaction temperatures were varied and methane or acetylene was separately utilized as the hydrocarbon source. Noticeable differences when it comes to the size controllability of the catalyst active nano-particles and the nanotube morphology were observed at these different reaction conditions. High efficiency multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized from the pyrolytic decomposition of acetylene over Fe-Co/CaCO3. The catalyst stoichiometry was found to strongly influence the carbon deposition rate and the nanotube crystallinity characteristics. A comprehensive comparison was made between two different type of heating methods (resistive heating with external oven and inductive heating) with regards to gas utilization, the formation of amorphous carbon, nanotube morphology and growth efficiency. The structural and morphological properties of CNTs and of catalytic systems were analyzed by microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman, and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. MWCNTs synthesized by radio frequency cCVD have smaller outside diameters, larger inner diameters, fewer numbers of graphitic walls, less amorphous

  15. Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. PMID:25349068

  16. Swelling of nuclear graphite and high quality carbon fiber composite under very high irradiation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, L. L.; Burchell, T. D.; Katoh, Y.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the dimensional change of newly proposed nuclear graphite material following high-temperature irradiation, and to compare the measured swelling with the historic nuclear graphite, H-451. Over the irradiation temperature range studied (˜850-1475 °C) and neutron dose range (2-10 × 10 25 n/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV)) the Graftech PCEA and SGL NBG-10 candidate nuclear graphite had similar densification to that of Great Lakes Carbon nuclear graphite H-451. In this temperature and dose range all materials remained in the densification stage. Additionally, the effect of high-temperature irradiation on the dimensional stability of high-quality carbon fiber composites was investigated. A high thermal conductivity three-dimensional carbon fiber composite, FMI-222, and a very high thermal conductivity one-dimensional carbon fiber composite MKC-1PH, were studied. Results indicate that a greater than anticipated dimensional change occurred for these composites. Moreover, the dimensional stability of the 3D composite appears to be a strong function of the sample size chosen, thus raising the question of the appropriate size sample to use to determine irradiation-induced dimensional change for these materials.

  17. High Rate Deposition of High Quality ZnO:Al by Filtered Cathodic Arc

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Lim, S.H.N.; Milliron, D.J.; Anders, Andre

    2010-11-18

    High quality ZnO:Al (AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by direct current filtered cathodic arc deposition. Substrate temperature was varied from room temperature to 425oC, and samples were grown with and without the assistance of low power oxygen plasma (75W). For each growth condition, at least 3 samples were grown to give a statistical look at the effect of the growth environment on the film properties and to explore the reproducibility of the technique. Growth rate was in the 100-400 nm/min range but was apparently random and could not be easily traced to the growth conditions explored. For optimized growth conditions, 300-600 nm AZO films had resistivities of 3-6 x 10-4 ?Omega cm, carrier concentrations in the range of 2-4 x 1020 cm3, Hall mobility as high as 55 cm2/Vs, and optical transmittance greater than 90percent. These films are also highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate and a surface roughness of 2-4 nm.

  18. Life Cycle Analysis of High Quality Recycled Aggregate Produced byHeating and Rubbing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Hirokazu; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Tateyashiki, Hisashi

    Most of demolished concrete is recycled as road subbase, but its generation is expected to increase rapidly and exceed the demand of road subbase in a near future. To promote the recycling of concrete, the technology to produce high quality recycled aggregate by the heating and rubbing method has been developed. In this method, demolished concrete is heated up to about 300°C in a heater to make cement paste brittle with its dehydration. The heated concrete is then rubbed in two mills to recover the recycled aggregate, while the paste is removed from the surface of aggregate and collected as cement fine powder. In this method, much energy is consumed to heat and rub concrete; however, the cement fine powder is utilized for a soil stabilizer and cement raw materials, so that the environmental load is reduced in cement manufacturing. The life cycle analysis of the recycled aggregate is carried out to evaluate this technology. As a result, the life cycle CO2 is a negative value because the deduction of CO2 emission in cement manufacturing by the powder is much large. This technology is proved to be very effective to reduce CO2.

  19. FlexSAR, a high quality, flexible, cost effective, prototype SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Mark; Knight, Chad; Haslem, Brent

    2016-05-01

    The FlexSAR radar system was designed to be a high quality, low-cost, flexible research prototype instrument. Radar researchers and practitioners often desire the ability to prototype new or advanced configurations, yet the ability to enhance or upgrade existing radar systems can be cost prohibitive. FlexSAR answers the need for a flexible radar system that can be extended easily, with minimal cost and time expenditures. The design approach focuses on reducing the resources required for developing and validating new advanced radar modalities. Such an approach fosters innovation and provides risk reduction since actual radar data can be collected in the appropriate mode, processed, and analyzed early in the development process. This allows for an accurate, detailed understanding of the corresponding trade space. This paper is a follow-on to last years paper and discusses the advancements that have been made to the FlexSAR system. The overall system architecture is discussed and presented along with several examples illustrating the system utility.

  20. Graphene-assisted growth of high-quality AlN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qing; Chen, Zhaolong; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Tongbo; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Guodong; Li, Jinmin

    2016-08-01

    High-quality AlN films were directly grown on graphene/sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The graphene layers were directly grown on sapphire by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD), a low-cost catalyst-free method. We analyzed the influence of the graphene layer on the nucleation of AlN at the initial stage of growth and found that sparse AlN grains on graphene grew and formed a continuous film via lateral coalescence. Graphene-assisted AlN films are smooth and continuous, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for (0002) and (10\\bar{1}2) reflections are 360 and 622.2 arcsec, which are lower than that of the film directly grown on sapphire. The high-resolution TEM images near the AlN/sapphire interface for graphene-assisted AlN films clearly show the presence of graphene, which kept its original morphology after the 1200 °C growth of AlN.

  1. Facile, High Quality Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes from Small Amounts of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vuyisich, Momchilo; Arefin, Ayesha; Davenport, Karen; Feng, Shihai; Gleasner, Cheryl; McMurry, Kim; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Price, Jennifer; Scholz, Matthew; Chain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing bacterial genomes has traditionally required large amounts of genomic DNA (~1 μg). There have been few studies to determine the effects of the input DNA amount or library preparation method on the quality of sequencing data. Several new commercially available library preparation methods enable shotgun sequencing from as little as 1 ng of input DNA. In this study, we evaluated the NEBNext Ultra library preparation reagents for sequencing bacterial genomes. We have evaluated the utility of NEBNext Ultra for resequencing and de novo assembly of four bacterial genomes and compared its performance with the TruSeq library preparation kit. The NEBNext Ultra reagents enable high quality resequencing and de novo assembly of a variety of bacterial genomes when using 100 ng of input genomic DNA. For the two most challenging genomes (Burkholderia spp.), which have the highest GC content and are the longest, we also show that the quality of both resequencing and de novo assembly is not decreased when only 10 ng of input genomic DNA is used. PMID:25478564

  2. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint animations in less than a day that are suitable for teaching in high school through college/university. After developing the animation it can be easily converted to any appropriate movie file format using Camtasia Studio for Internet or classroom presentations. Thus anyone who can use PowerPoint has the potential to make animations. Students who viewed the approximately 3-min PowerPoint/Camtasia Studio animation “Calcium and the Dual Signalling Pathway” over 15 min scored significantly higher marks on a subsequent quiz than those who had viewed still graphics with text for an equivalent time. In addition, results from student evaluations provided some data validating the use of such animations in cell biology teaching with some interesting caveats. Information is also provided on how such animations can be modified or updated easily or shared with others who can modify them to fit their own needs. PMID:17012217

  3. Recovery of high-quality RNA from laser capture microdissected human and rodent pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Alexandra E.; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Kirakossian, David; Park, Johanna; Gurlo, Tatyana; Butler, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a powerful method to isolate specific populations of cells for subsequent analysis such as gene expression profiling, for example, microarrays or ribonucleic (RNA)-Seq. This technique has been applied to frozen as well as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens with variable outcomes regarding quality and quantity of extracted RNA. The goal of the study was to develop the methods to isolate high-quality RNA from islets of Langerhans and pancreatic duct glands (PDG) isolated by LCM. We report an optimized protocol for frozen sections to minimize RNA degradation and maximize recovery of expected transcripts from the samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by adding RNase inhibitors at multiple steps during the experiment. This technique reproducibly delivered intact RNA (RIN values 6–7). Using quantitative RT-PCR, the expected profiles of insulin, glucagon, mucin6 (Muc6), and cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA in PDGs and pancreatic islets were detected. The described experimental protocol for frozen pancreas tissue might also be useful for other tissues with moderate to high levels of intrinsic ribonuclease (RNase) activity. PMID:27231405

  4. Synthesis of high-quality diesel with furfural and 2-methylfuran from hemicellulose.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyi; Li, Ning; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Changzhi; Wang, Aiqin; Wang, Xiaodong; Cong, Yu; Zhang, Tao

    2012-10-01

    Hydroxyalkylation-alkylation (HAA) coupled with hydrodeoxygenation is a promising route for the synthesis of renewable high-quality diesel or jet fuel. In this work, a series of solid-acid catalysts were firstly used for HAA between lignocellulose-derived furan and carbonyl compounds. Among the investigated catalysts, Nafion-212 resin demonstrated the highest activity and stability. Owing to the high activity of the reactants and the advantage in industrial integration, the HAA of 2-methylfuran (2-MF) and furfural can be considered as a prospective route in future applications. Catalyst loading, reaction temperature, and time had evident effects on the HAA of 2-MF and furfural over Nafion-212 resin. Finally, the HAA product of 2-MF and furfural was hydrogenated over a Pd/C catalyst and hydrodeoxygenated over Pt-loaded solid-acid catalysts. Pt/zirconium phosphate (Pt/ZrP) was found to be the best catalyst for hydrodeoxygenation. Over the 4 % Pt/ZrP catalyst, a 94 % carbon yield of diesel and 75 % carbon yield of C15 hydrocarbons (with 6-butylundecane as the major component) was achieved. PMID:22907772

  5. High-quality Italian rice cultivars: chemical indices of ageing and aroma quality.

    PubMed

    Griglione, Alessandra; Liberto, Erica; Cordero, Chiara; Bressanello, Davide; Cagliero, Cecilia; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo; Sgorbini, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The volatile fractions of six Italian high-quality rice cultivars were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS to define fingerprinting and identify chemical markers and/or indices of ageing and aroma quality. In particular, four non-aromatic (Carnaroli, Carnise, Cerere and Antares) and two aromatic (Apollo and Venere) rices, harvested in 2010 and 2011, were monitored over 12months. Twenty-five aroma components were considered and, despite considerable inter-annual variability, some of them showed similar trends over time, including 2-(E)-octenal as a marker of ageing for all cultivars, and heptanal, octanal and 2-ethyl hexanol as cultivar-specific indicators. The area ratios 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline/1-octen-3-ol, for Venere, and 3-methyl-1-butanol/2-methyl-1-butanol, for Apollo, were also found to act as ageing indices. Additional information on release of key-aroma compounds was also obtained from quantitation and its dependence on grain shape and chemical composition. Heptanal/1-octen-3-ol and heptanal/octanal ratios were also defined as characterising the aroma quality indices of the six Italian rice cultivars investigated. PMID:25442558

  6. Fabrication and metrology of high-quality synchrotron mirrors in the sub-arcsec regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derst, Gerhard; Handschuh, Haiko; Schmidt, Michael; Werner, K.

    1997-10-01

    This contribution focuses on the fabrication and metrology of various synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors and grating substrates at Carl Zeiss. Due to the increased demand in high quality and high heat load SR optics new materials have entered the optical shop since the last few years. Currently the variety of materials ranges from ZerodurTM (a glass ceramic with a thermal expansion of approximately equals 0) through metals as Ni on Al to Silicon (Si) or even Silicon Carbide (SiC). Si is of special interest due to its thermal properties (expansion and conductivity) in high heat load application combined with its extremely low micro roughness of about 0.1 nm RMS and therefore low scattering contribution. Depending on the mirror geometry sub-arcsec quality with respect to the slope errors is achieved for all materials. The current length limit of the mirrors is about 1.5 m. In the paper accent is put on the metrology in the sub-arcsec regime (down to 0.1'). Special adapted software and evaluation strategies together with correct handling of the interface substrate/stylus of the metrology device are necessary to cope with the 0.1' mirror class. A review of recent fabrication results is given.

  7. High Yield Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of High Quality Large-Area AB Stacked Bilayer Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lixin; Zhou, Hailong; Cheng, Rui; Yu, Woo Jong; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu; Shaw, Jonathan; Zhong, Xing; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-01-01

    Bernal stacked (AB stacked) bilayer graphene is of significant interest for functional electronic and photonic devices due to the feasibility to continuously tune its band gap with a vertical electrical field. Mechanical exfoliation can be used to produce AB stacked bilayer graphene flakes but typically with the sizes limited to a few micrometers. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been recently explored for the synthesis of bilayer graphene but usually with limited coverage and a mixture of AB and randomly stacked structures. Herein we report a rational approach to produce large-area high quality AB stacked bilayer graphene. We show that the self-limiting effect of graphene growth on Cu foil can be broken by using a high H2/CH4 ratio in a low pressure CVD process to enable the continued growth of bilayer graphene. A high temperature and low pressure nucleation step is found to be critical for the formation of bilayer graphene nuclei with high AB stacking ratio. A rational design of a two-step CVD process is developed for the growth of bilayer graphene with high AB stacking ratio (up to 90 %) and high coverage (up to 99 %). The electrical transport studies demonstrated that devices made of the as-grown bilayer graphene exhibit typical characteristics of AB stacked bilayer graphene with the highest carrier mobility exceeding 4,000 cm2/V·s at room temperature, comparable to that of the exfoliated bilayer graphene. PMID:22906199

  8. [Factors to be considered in the production and introduction of high-quality protein foods].

    PubMed

    Chávez, J F

    1980-03-01

    A wide variety of factors can influence the development, production and introduction of high-quality protein foods in a given country. Such factors can be grouped in three main areas: I. Factors depending upon the country itself. II. Factors related with the identity of the food and III. Factors inherent to the consumer. The role of the food industry and of the government are discussed in area I, and such aspects as improvement of staples, availability of raw materials, health programs and energy crisis are briefly commented. Area II covers product identity in relation to used ingredients. Nutritional quality and requirements as well as the danger of increasing the price of the product after being in the market are briefly discussed. The consumer's attitude, preferences and personal reactions towards the presentation of the food are covered in area III. Also marketing approach, promotion, labels and possible influence of the name are discussed. The launching of "incaparina" in Venezuela in 1964 and the reasons for its failure are commented from the different points of view covered in the above sections. PMID:7447587

  9. An easy “SteamDrop” method for high quality plant chromosome preparation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The chromosome preparation is a crucial step for obtaining satisfactory results in molecular cytogenetic researches. The preparation of plant chromosomes for molecular cytogenetic purposes remains a challenge for some species. In contrast to human chromosome preparation, the processes occurring during plant chromosome preparation and causing chromosome spreading are still poorly understood. Results We studied the dynamics of plant chromosome spreading after dropping cell suspension on slides. We showed that steam stimulates cytoplasm hydrolysis and rapid chromosome spreading and that chromosomes stretch during this chromosome spreading. Based on these observations, we developed a novel method, named “SteamDrop”, for the preparation of well-spread mitotic and pachytene chromosomes and successfully used it for 28 plant species with large and small chromosomes. We applied cell suspensions in ethanol instead of the commonly used ethanol/acetic acid fixative. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes prepared via “SteamDrop” were used in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments with repetitive and unique DNA probes. Long storage of cell suspensions in ethanol did not impair the quality of chromosome preparations. Conclusion The SteamDrop procedure provides a robust and routine method for high quality plant chromosome preparations. The method can be applied for metaphase as well as pachytene chromosome preparation in wide range of species. The chromosomes prepared by SteamDrop are well suitable for repetitive and unique DNA visualization. PMID:24602284

  10. Approach for growth of high-quality and large protein crystals

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirose, Mika; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Murai, Ryota; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Three crystallization methods for growing large high-quality protein crystals, i.e. crystallization in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel, top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) and a large-scale hanging-drop method, have previously been presented. In this study the effectiveness of crystallization in the presence of a semi-solid agarose gel has been further evaluated by crystallizing additional proteins in the presence of 2.0% (w/v) agarose gel, resulting in complete gelification with high mechanical strength. In TSSG the seed crystals are hung by a seed holder protruding from the top of the growth vessel to prevent polycrystallization. In the large-scale hanging-drop method, a cut pipette tip was used to maintain large-scale droplets consisting of protein–precipitant solution. Here a novel crystallization method that combines TSSG and the large-scale hanging-drop method is reported. A large and single crystal of lysozyme was obtained by this method. PMID:21169683

  11. Fabrication of high quality optical coherence tomography (OCT) calibration artefacts using femtosecond inscription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Graham C. B.; Rasakanthan, Janarthanan; Woolliams, Peter D.; Sugden, Kate

    2012-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive three-dimensional imaging system that is capable of producing high resolution in-vivo images. OCT is approved for use in clinical trials in Japan, USA and Europe. For OCT to be used effectively in a clinical diagnosis, a method of standardisation is required to assess the performance across different systems. This standardisation can be implemented using highly accurate and reproducible artefacts for calibration at both installation and throughout the lifetime of a system. Femtosecond lasers can write highly reproducible and highly localised micro-structured calibration artefacts within a transparent media. We report on the fabrication of high quality OCT calibration artefacts in fused silica using a femtosecond laser. The calibration artefacts were written in fused silica due to its high purity and ability to withstand high energy femtosecond pulses. An Amplitude Systemes s-Pulse Yb:YAG femtosecond laser with an operating wavelength of 1026 nm was used to inscribe three dimensional patterns within the highly optically transmissive substrate. Four unique artefacts have been designed to measure a wide variety of parameters, including the points spread function (PSF), modulation transfer function (MTF), sensitivity, distortion and resolution - key parameters which define the performance of the OCT. The calibration artefacts have been characterised using an optical microscope and tested on a swept source OCT. The results demonstrate that the femtosecond laser inscribed artefacts have the potential of quantitatively and qualitatively validating the performance of any OCT system.

  12. The impact of pay-for-performance on therapists’ intentions to deliver high quality treatment

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Bryan R.; Godley, Susan H.; Bair, Christin M. L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the extent to which assignment to a pay-for-performance (P4P) experimental condition impacted therapists’ intentions to deliver high quality treatment and the extent to which therapists’ intentions could be explained by the theory of planned behavior. Data were collected from 95 therapists who agreed to participate in a P4P experiment related to their implementation of an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for adolescents with substance use problems. Relative to those in the control condition, therapists in the P4P condition reported significantly greater intentions to achieve monthly competence (B = 1.41, p < .001) and deliver a targeted threshold level of treatment to clients (B = 1.31, p < .001). Additionally, therapists’ intentions could be partially explained by the theory of planned behavior. Meta-analyses have found intentions to be one of the best predictors of behavior, thus these findings provide initial support for using P4P approaches as a method of increasing the quality of substance use treatment. PMID:21315539

  13. Magnetotransport Properties in High-Quality Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Superconducting Mo2C Crystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libin; Xu, Chuan; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Ma, Xiuliang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai; Kang, Ning

    2016-04-26

    Ultrathin transition metal carbides are a class of developing two-dimensional (2D) materials with superconductivity and show great potentials for electrical energy storage and other applications. Here, we report low-temperature magnetotransport measurements on high-quality ultrathin 2D superconducting α-Mo2C crystals synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition method. The magnetoresistance curves exhibit reproducible oscillations at low magnetic fields for temperature far below the superconducting transition temperature of the crystals. We interpret the oscillatory magnetoresistance as a consequence of screening currents circling around the boundary of triangle-shaped terraces found on the surface of ultrathin Mo2C crystals. As the sample thickness decreases, the Mo2C crystals exhibit negative magnetoresistance deep in the superconducting transition regime, which reveals strong phase fluctuations of the superconducting order parameters associated with the superconductor-insulator transition. Our results demonstrate that the ultrathin superconducting Mo2C crystals provide an interesting system for studying rich transport phenomena in a 2D crystalline superconductor with enhanced quantum fluctuations. PMID:27065100

  14. Efficient isolation of high quality nucleic acids from different tissues of Taxus baccata L.

    PubMed

    Abbasi Kejani, Abolghasem; Hosseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali; Khayyam Nekouei, Sayed Mojtaba; Mofid, Mohammad Reza

    2010-02-01

    Improved and efficient methods were developed for isolating high quality DNA and RNA from different sources of Iranian Yew (Taxus baccata L.). The methods were based on CTAB extraction buffer added with high levels of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and beta-mercaptoethanol to properly remove polysaccharides and prevent oxidation of phenolics. The pellets obtained by ethanol precipitation were washed only with Chloroform: isoamyl alcohol (24:1). So, we could successfully eliminate the dangerous phenol/chloroform extraction steps from the isolation procedure. Both spectrophotometric (A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios) and agarose electrophoresis analysis of isolated nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) indicated good results. DNA with the average yield of 100-300 microg/g leaf and stem tissue and total RNA with an average yield of 20-30 microg/g cell culture and 80-100 microg/g leaf and stem tissue of Iranian yew could be obtained. Successful amplification of pam and pds by PCR and RT-PCR, showed the integrity of isolated DNA and RNA, respectively. PMID:19578976

  15. High quality and large-scale manually operated monolayer graphene pasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuke; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Zhenghao; Wang, Yue; Ke, Fen; Meng, Jie; Guo, Yanjun; Ma, Ping; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene is a well-known material with various potential applications. Here we report the manufacture of high-quality and large-scale monolayer graphene pasters via polyvinyl butyral (PVB). These pasters have good self-supporting properties and overcome the drawback of weak mechanical strength of PMMA. Manual manipulations to monolayer graphene become realizable via graphene pasters. Graphene pasters can be quickly diverted onto any substrate with sufficient contact and greatly minimize the challenges in graphene transfer, measurements, and other applications. The improved transfer process via graphene pasters protects the integrity of monolayer graphene and introduces few cracks or tears into graphene. Large-scale monolayer graphene films diverted onto SiO2/Si by using graphene pasters maintain low resistivity and low Dirac point, while also exhibiting a higher magnetoresistance than traditional results. High magnetoresistance up to 600% and signs of saturation at high magnetic fields can be seen. Obvious negative magnetoresistance at low magnetic fields due to weak localization also can be observed. Graphene pasters can be used in many different domains and will promote future studies and applications of graphene.

  16. New co-spray way to synthesize high quality ZnS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouznit, Y.; Beggah, Y.; Boukerika, A.; Lahreche, A.; Ynineb, F.

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we report for the first time the synthesis of ZnS films using co-spray method, in which the reactants were mixed in the vapor state contrary to that seen in previous spray configurations. In order to obtain the optimum conditions for growing high quality ZnS thin films related to this approach, a series of samples with different Zn:S atomic ratios were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that both solid state and phase formation were strongly dependent on Zn:S atomic ratio. In the absence of sulfur element, pure ZnO phase showing hexagonal wurtzite structure with (0 0 2) preferential orientation was obtained. When one eighth of sulfur was implicated, the (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZnO was broadened and displaced toward lower angles. Once one quarter of sulfur was involved, no discernible diffraction peaks could be seen. Films deposited using solutions with Zn:S ratio of 1:1/2, 1:1 and 1:2 have pure ZnS phase showing hexagonal wurtzite structure with a strong preferential orientation. Near stoichiometric ZnS films were achieved with Zn:S atomic ratio close to 1:1. All films have high transmittance of about 80% in the visible region.

  17. High-quality electron beams from a helical inverse free-electron laser accelerator.

    PubMed

    Duris, J; Musumeci, P; Babzien, M; Fedurin, M; Kusche, K; Li, R K; Moody, J; Pogorelsky, I; Polyanskiy, M; Rosenzweig, J B; Sakai, Y; Swinson, C; Threlkeld, E; Williams, O; Yakimenko, V

    2014-01-01

    Compact, table-top sized accelerators are key to improving access to high-quality beams for use in industry, medicine and academic research. Among laser-based accelerating schemes, the inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) enjoys unique advantages. By using an undulator magnetic field in combination with a laser, GeV m(-1) gradients may be sustained over metre-scale distances using laser intensities several orders of magnitude less than those used in laser wake-field accelerators. Here we show for the first time the capture and high-gradient acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams from a helical IFEL. Using a modest intensity (~10(13) W cm(-2)) laser pulse and strongly tapered 0.5 m long undulator, we demonstrate >100 MV m(-1) accelerating gradient, >50 MeV energy gain and excellent output beam quality. Our results pave the way towards compact, tunable GeV IFEL accelerators for applications such as driving soft X-ray free-electron lasers and producing γ-rays by inverse Compton scattering. PMID:25222026

  18. High-quality three-dimensional reconstruction and noise reduction of multifocal images from oversized samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Procházková, Jana; Ficker, Tomáš

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction is an indispensable tool in areas such as biology, chemistry, medicine, material sciences, etc. The sample can be reconstructed using confocal or nonconfocal mode of a microscope. The limitation of the confocal approach is the sample size. Currently used devices work mostly with sample surface area up to 1 cm2. We suggest a three-step method that creates 3-D reconstruction from multifocal images in nonconfocal mode that is qualitatively comparable to the confocal results. Our method, thus, takes advantage of both microscope modes-high-quality results without sample size limitation. The preprocessing step eliminates the additive noise with Linderberg-Lévi theorem. The main focus criterion is based on adjusted Fourier transform. In the final step, we eliminate the defective clusters using the adaptive pixel neighborhood algorithm. We proved the effectiveness of our noise reduction and 3-D reconstruction method by the statistical comparisons; the correlation coefficients average 0.987 for all types of Fourier transforms.

  19. Gas-assisted electron-beam-induced nanopatterning of high-quality titanium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazanova, A. V.; Costanzi, B. N.; Aristov, A. I.; Rikers, Y. G. M.; Mulders, J. J. L.; Kabashin, A. V.; Dahlberg, E. Dan; Belova, L. M.

    2016-03-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of titanium oxide nanopatterns is described. The precursor is titanium tetra-isopropoxide, delivered to the deposition point through a needle and mixed with oxygen at the same point via a flow through a separate needle. The depositions are free of residual carbon and have an EDX determined stoichiometry of TiO2.2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal an amorphous structure of the fabricated titanium oxide. Ellipsometric characterization of the deposited material reveals a refractive index of 2.2-2.4 RIU in the spectral range of 500-1700 nm and a very low extinction coefficient (lower than 10-6 in the range of 400-1700 nm), which is consistent with high quality titanium oxide. The electrical resistivity of the titanium oxide patterned with this new process is in the range of 10-40 GΩ cm and the measured breakdown field is in the range of 10-70 V μm-1. The fabricated nanopatterns are important for a variety of applications, including field-effect transistors, memory devices, MEMS, waveguide structures, bio- and chemical sensors.

  20. High-quality EuO thin films the easy way via topotactic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Mairoser, Thomas; Mundy, Julia A.; Melville, Alexander; Hodash, Daniel; Cueva, Paul; Held, Rainer; Glavic, Artur; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Schmehl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxy is widely employed to create highly oriented crystalline films. A less appreciated, but nonetheless powerful means of creating such films is via topotactic transformation, in which a chemical reaction transforms a single crystal of one phase into a single crystal of a different phase, which inherits its orientation from the original crystal. Topotactic reactions may be applied to epitactic films to substitute, add or remove ions to yield epitactic films of different phases. Here we exploit a topotactic reduction reaction to provide a non-ultra-high vacuum (UHV) means of growing highly oriented single crystalline thin films of the easily over-oxidized half-metallic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) with a perfection rivalling that of the best films of the same material grown by molecular-beam epitaxy or UHV pulsed-laser deposition. As the technique only requires high-vacuum deposition equipment, it has the potential to drastically improve the accessibility of high-quality single crystalline films of EuO as well as other difficult-to-synthesize compounds. PMID:26177710

  1. Deoxy-liquefaction of three different species of macroalgae to high-quality liquid oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guoming; Chen, Ming; Li, Jiedong; Yang, Yaoyao; Zhu, Qiuyan; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Haichao

    2014-10-01

    Three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica and Gelidium amansii) were converted into liquid oils via deoxy-liquefaction. The elemental analysis, FTIR and GC-MS results showed that the three liquid oils were all mainly composed of aromatics, phenols, alkanes and alkenes, other oxygen-containing compounds, and some nitrogen-containing compounds though there were some differences in terms of their types or contents due to the different constituents in the macroalgae feedstocks. The oxygen content was only 5.15-7.30% and the H/C molar ratio was up to 1.57-1.73. Accordingly, the HHV of the three oils were 42.50, 41.76 and 40.00 MJ/kg, respectively. The results suggested that U. lactuca, L. japonica and G. amansii have potential as biomass feedstock for fuel and chemicals and that deoxy-liquefaction technique may be an effective way to convert macroalgae into high-quality liquid oil. PMID:25038506

  2. Engineered Coalescence by Annealing 3D Ge Microstructures into High-Quality Suspended Layers on Si.

    PubMed

    Salvalaglio, Marco; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Isa, Fabio; Scaccabarozzi, Andrea; Isella, Giovanni; Backofen, Rainer; Voigt, Axel; Montalenti, Francesco; Capellini, Giovanni; Schroeder, Thomas; von Känel, Hans; Miglio, Leo

    2015-09-01

    The move from dimensional to functional scaling in microelectronics has led to renewed interest toward integration of Ge on Si. In this work, simulation-driven experiments leading to high-quality suspended Ge films on Si pillars are reported. Starting from an array of micrometric Ge crystals, the film is obtained by exploiting their temperature-driven coalescence across nanometric gaps. The merging process is simulated by means of a suitable surface-diffusion model within a phase-field approach. The successful comparison between experimental and simulated data demonstrates that the morphological evolution is driven purely by the lowering of surface-curvature gradients. This allows for fine control over the final morphology to be attained. At fixed annealing time and temperature, perfectly merged films are obtained from Ge crystals grown at low temperature (450 °C), whereas some void regions still persist for crystals grown at higher temperature (500 °C) due to their different initial morphology. The latter condition, however, looks very promising for possible applications. Indeed, scanning tunneling electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analyses show that, at least during the first stages of merging, the developing film is free from threading dislocations. The present findings, thus, introduce a promising path to integrate Ge layers on Si with a low dislocation density. PMID:26252761

  3. High-quality laser cutting of ceramics through adapted process techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Gonschior, Martin

    1994-02-01

    Laser cutting of ceramics is a promising alternative to conventional machining methods. In this paper, processing results using several lasers and beam guidance optics to cut different oxide and non-oxide ceramics are presented. Adapted process parameters in pulsed mode operation provide high quality cut surfaces at acceptable feed rates. Especially Nd:YAG lasers can be used for cutting extremely brittle ceramics. The use of fiber optics for beam guidance, however, is limited to certain ceramics with high fracture toughness, due to a loss in beam quality. In laser cutting of ceramics, thermally-induced crack damage is one of the main problems preventing a wider use of this method in industry. Several methods were investigated in order to reduce crack formation. Adapted pulse parameters, calculated by a theoretical model, and also a newly-developed process control system lead to a remarkable reduction of crack damage. Crack-free cutting can be obtained by preheating the workpiece above a temperature of 1.100 degree(s)C. Based on these investigations, requirements on laser systems for ceramics cutting are worked out.

  4. High-Quality Ultra-Compact Grid Layout of Grouped Networks.

    PubMed

    Yoghourdjian, Vahan; Dwyer, Tim; Gange, Graeme; Kieffer, Steve; Klein, Karsten; Marriott, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Prior research into network layout has focused on fast heuristic techniques for layout of large networks, or complex multi-stage pipelines for higher quality layout of small graphs. Improvements to these pipeline techniques, especially for orthogonal-style layout, are difficult and practical results have been slight in recent years. Yet, as discussed in this paper, there remain significant issues in the quality of the layouts produced by these techniques, even for quite small networks. This is especially true when layout with additional grouping constraints is required. The first contribution of this paper is to investigate an ultra-compact, grid-like network layout aesthetic that is motivated by the grid arrangements that are used almost universally by designers in typographical layout. Since the time when these heuristic and pipeline-based graph-layout methods were conceived, generic technologies (MIP, CP and SAT) for solving combinatorial and mixed-integer optimization problems have improved massively. The second contribution of this paper is to reassess whether these techniques can be used for high-quality layout of small graphs. While they are fast enough for graphs of up to 50 nodes we found these methods do not scale up. Our third contribution is a large-neighborhood search meta-heuristic approach that is scalable to larger networks. PMID:26390477

  5. High quality syngas production from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk with char-supported metallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to obtain the maximum possible gas yield and the high quality syngas production from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk with rice husk char and rice husk char-supported metallic (Ni, Fe and Cu) catalysts. The rice husk char-supported metallic catalysts had developed pore structure and catalytic activity for gas productions and tar conversion. The temperature-rising characteristic, product yields, properties of gas products and tar conversion mechanisms were investigated. It was found that three rice husk char-supported metallic catalysts improved the microwave absorption capability and increased heating rate and final temperature. Rice husk char-supported Ni catalyst presented most effective effects on gas production, e.g. the gas yield is 53.9%, and the volume concentration of desired syngas is 69.96%. Rice husk char-supported Ni and Fe catalysts played pivotal roles in tar conversion that less heavy compounds can be detected along with the reduction of organic compound number. PMID:25974618

  6. Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiming; Fu, Yongping; Meng, Fei; Wu, Xiaoxi; Gong, Zizhou; Ding, Qi; Gustafsson, Martin V; Trinh, M Tuan; Jin, Song; Zhu, X-Y

    2015-06-01

    The remarkable performance of lead halide perovskites in solar cells can be attributed to the long carrier lifetimes and low non-radiative recombination rates, the same physical properties that are ideal for semiconductor lasers. Here, we show room-temperature and wavelength-tunable lasing from single-crystal lead halide perovskite nanowires with very low lasing thresholds (220 nJ cm(-2)) and high quality factors (Q ∼ 3,600). The lasing threshold corresponds to a charge carrier density as low as 1.5 × 10(16) cm(-3). Kinetic analysis based on time-resolved fluorescence reveals little charge carrier trapping in these single-crystal nanowires and gives estimated lasing quantum yields approaching 100%. Such lasing performance, coupled with the facile solution growth of single-crystal nanowires and the broad stoichiometry-dependent tunability of emission colour, makes lead halide perovskites ideal materials for the development of nanophotonics, in parallel with the rapid development in photovoltaics from the same materials. PMID:25849532

  7. Enhanced UK teletext: Experimental equipment for high-quality picture coding and other enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. L.

    1983-07-01

    The construction of a pair of microcomputer-based units which will serve as a research tool in engineering teletext enhancements, one unit a transmitter and the other a receiver in a closed-circuit teletext transmission is described. The microcomputer system and frame store design is basically similar to that currently used by Logica in the Flair electronic graphics equipment. Considerable effort was devoted to the development of software handling. The units are equipped with a CP/M operating system, which is already widely known. This greatly simplifies the management of files and includes compiling routines and a software debugging tool. Software is being prepared in PASCAL. Routines were developed to receive, generate, edit and transmit teletext in its present form. Early attention was given to demonstrating that picture teletext is feasible through a crudely-coded slow-scan television system. An acceptable sampling structure for these pictures and optimizing the coding of data to fit in with a hierarchy of coding embracing other aspects of enhanced teletext, for example, geometric drawing, electronic painting and telesoftware are addressed. A high quality character font was incorporated to improve the display of text.

  8. Characterization of high-quality Bi2Se3 films grown using a selenium cracker source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginley, Theresa; Law, Stephanie

    Topological insulators, including Bi2Se3, are becoming increasingly prevalent in research due to their unique electronic properties--these materials exhibit an insulating bulk but conducting surfaces with electron spin-momentum locking. Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) it is possible to grow high-quality thin films of Bi2Se3. Yet these films have not lived up to their potential, in part due to significant bulk conductivity arising from material defects like selenium vacancies. Current MBE growth methods for Bi2Se3 use standard selenium sources that evaporate large selenium molecules which must then be cracked into smaller molecules to be incorporated into the film. This process is inefficient and requires very high fluxes of selenium for good quality growths. However, using a selenium cracking source results in the evaporation of monomers and dimers, facilitating incorporation into the film. We will present electrical, structural, and optical measurements demonstrating that the use of a cracker source allows films to be grown using much lower selenium:bismuth flux ratios with good mobility and low carrier density. T. G. and S. L. gratefully acknowledge funding from the University of Delaware Research Foundation Grant 15A00862.

  9. Are high-quality mates always attractive?: State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans.

    PubMed

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W

    2010-05-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources he can provide), and hence show directional preferences for indicators of male quality. This implies that attractiveness and quality should be highly correlated. However, females frequently differ in what they find attractive. New theoretical and empirical insights provide mounting evidence that a female's own quality biases her judgement of male attractiveness, such that male quality and attractiveness do not always coincide. A recent experiment in songbirds demonstrated for the first time that manipulation of female condition can lead to divergent female preferences, with low-quality females actively preferring low-quality males over high-quality males. This result is in line with theory on state-dependent mate choice and is reminiscent of assortative mating preferences in humans. Here we discuss the implications of this work for the study of mate preferences. PMID:20714411

  10. CESAME: Providing High Quality Professional Development in Science and Mathematics for K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Paul

    2002-04-01

    It is appropriate that after almost half a century of Science and Mathematics education reform we take a look back and a peek forward to understand the present state of this wonderfully complex system. Each of the components of this system including teaching, professional development, assessment, content and the district K-12 curriculum all need to work together if we hope to provide quality science, mathematics and technology education for ALL students. How do the state and national standards drive the system? How do state policies on student testing and teacher licensure come into play? How do we improve the preparation, retention and job satisfaction of our K-12 teachers? What initiatives have made or are making a difference? What else needs to be done? What can the physics community do to support local efforts? This job is too big for any single organization or individual but we each can contribute to the effort. Our Center at Northeastern University, with support from the National Science Foundation, has a sharply defined focus: to get high quality, research-based instructional materials into the hands of K-12 classroom teachers and provide the support they need to use the materials effectively in their classrooms.

  11. Bulk growth of high quality nonlinear optical crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, C.; Bhat, K.; Wang, W. S.; Tan, A.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    2001-05-01

    Bulk single crystals of L-arginine tetrafluoroborate (L-AFB) a new semiorganic nonlinear optical material has been successfully grown from solution by the temperature lowering method. Solubility of L-AFB was measured in various solvents such as ethanol, methanol, acetone and water. L-AFB was found to have extremely low solubility in acetone, ethanol and methanol. Therefore, it was not feasible to grow L-AFB single crystals using these solvents. However, high quality crystals of L-AFB were successfully grown from aqueous solution by the temperature lowering method, even though the mother liqueur became viscous. Large single crystals of L-AFB were grown with dimensions 78×50×35 mm3 in eight weeks. Growth rate and effects of seed orientation on morphologies of L-AFB crystals were studied. L-AFB crystals belong to a class of organic-inorganic complexes in which the high optical nonlinearity of a pure organic compound is combined with the favorable mechanical and thermally stable properties of an inorganic compound. Bulk single crystals of L-AFB are potential materials for applications in blue-green wavelength region.

  12. Kinetic control of catalytic CVD for high-quality graphene at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Weatherup, Robert S; Dlubak, Bruno; Hofmann, Stephan

    2012-11-27

    Low-temperature (∼600 °C), scalable chemical vapor deposition of high-quality, uniform monolayer graphene is demonstrated with a mapped Raman 2D/G ratio of >3.2, D/G ratio ≤0.08, and carrier mobilities of ≥3000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on SiO(2) support. A kinetic growth model for graphene CVD based on flux balances is established, which is well supported by a systematic study of Ni-based polycrystalline catalysts. A finite carbon solubility of the catalyst is thereby a key advantage, as it allows the catalyst bulk to act as a mediating carbon sink while optimized graphene growth occurs by only locally saturating the catalyst surface with carbon. This also enables a route to the controlled formation of Bernal stacked bi- and few-layered graphene. The model is relevant to all catalyst materials and can readily serve as a general process rationale for optimized graphene CVD. PMID:23025628

  13. High-quality EuO thin films the easy way via topotactic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Mairoser, Thomas; Mundy, Julia A.; Melville, Alexander; Hodash, Daniel; Cueva, Paul; Held, Rainer; Glavic, Artur; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Schmehl, Andreas

    2015-07-16

    Epitaxy is widely employed to create highly oriented crystalline films. A less appreciated, but nonetheless powerful means of creating such films is via topotactic transformation, in which a chemical reaction transforms a single crystal of one phase into a single crystal of a different phase, which inherits its orientation from the original crystal. Topotactic reactions may be applied to epitactic films to substitute, add or remove ions to yield epitactic films of different phases. Here we exploit a topotactic reduction reaction to provide a non-ultra-high vacuum (UHV) means of growing highly oriented single crystalline thin films of the easily over-oxidized half-metallic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) with a perfection rivalling that of the best films of the same material grown by molecular-beam epitaxy or UHV pulsed-laser deposition. Lastly, as the technique only requires high-vacuum deposition equipment, it has the potential to drastically improve the accessibility of high-quality single crystalline films of EuO as well as other difficult-to-synthesize compounds.

  14. High-quality EuO thin films the easy way via topotactic transformation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mairoser, Thomas; Mundy, Julia A.; Melville, Alexander; Hodash, Daniel; Cueva, Paul; Held, Rainer; Glavic, Artur; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Schlom, Darrell G.; et al

    2015-07-16

    Epitaxy is widely employed to create highly oriented crystalline films. A less appreciated, but nonetheless powerful means of creating such films is via topotactic transformation, in which a chemical reaction transforms a single crystal of one phase into a single crystal of a different phase, which inherits its orientation from the original crystal. Topotactic reactions may be applied to epitactic films to substitute, add or remove ions to yield epitactic films of different phases. Here we exploit a topotactic reduction reaction to provide a non-ultra-high vacuum (UHV) means of growing highly oriented single crystalline thin films of the easily over-oxidizedmore » half-metallic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) with a perfection rivalling that of the best films of the same material grown by molecular-beam epitaxy or UHV pulsed-laser deposition. Lastly, as the technique only requires high-vacuum deposition equipment, it has the potential to drastically improve the accessibility of high-quality single crystalline films of EuO as well as other difficult-to-synthesize compounds.« less

  15. Gas-assisted electron-beam-induced nanopatterning of high-quality titanium oxide.

    PubMed

    Riazanova, A V; Costanzi, B N; Aristov, A I; Rikers, Y G M; Mulders, J J L; Kabashin, A V; Dahlberg, E Dan; Belova, L M

    2016-03-18

    Electron-beam-induced deposition of titanium oxide nanopatterns is described. The precursor is titanium tetra-isopropoxide, delivered to the deposition point through a needle and mixed with oxygen at the same point via a flow through a separate needle. The depositions are free of residual carbon and have an EDX determined stoichiometry of TiO2.2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal an amorphous structure of the fabricated titanium oxide. Ellipsometric characterization of the deposited material reveals a refractive index of 2.2-2.4 RIU in the spectral range of 500-1700 nm and a very low extinction coefficient (lower than 10(-6) in the range of 400-1700 nm), which is consistent with high quality titanium oxide. The electrical resistivity of the titanium oxide patterned with this new process is in the range of 10-40 GΩ cm and the measured breakdown field is in the range of 10-70 V μm(-1). The fabricated nanopatterns are important for a variety of applications, including field-effect transistors, memory devices, MEMS, waveguide structures, bio- and chemical sensors. PMID:26878568

  16. High-quality quantum-dot-based full-color display technology by pulsed spray method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Chu; Tsai, Kai-An; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Hsin-Han; Chien, Shih-Hsuan; Cheng, Bo-Siao; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Shih, Min-Hsiung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2013-03-01

    We fabricated the colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes (QDLEDs) with the HfO2/SiO2-distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure using a pulsed spray coating method. Moreover, pixelated RGB arrays, 2-in. wafer-scale white light emission, and an integrated small footprint white light device were demonstrated. The experimental results showed that the intensity of red, blue, and green (RGB) emissions exhibited considerable enhancement because of the high reflectivity in the UV region by the DBR structure, which subsequently increased the use in the UV optical pumping of RGB QDs. In this experiment, a pulsed spray coating method was crucial in providing uniform RGB layers, and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film was used as the interface layer between each RGB color to avoid crosscontamination and self-assembly of QDs. Furthermore, the chromaticity coordinates of QDLEDs with the DBR structure remained constant under various pumping powers in the large area sample, whereas a larger shift toward high color temperatures was observed in the integrated device. The resulting color gamut of the proposed QDLEDs covered an area 1.2 times larger than that of the NTSC standard, which is favorable for the next generation of high-quality display technology.

  17. High-quality virtual view synthesis in 3DTV and FTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lu; Tehrani, Mehrdad Panahpour; Fujii, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2011-12-01

    Autostereoscopic 3DTV is becoming an exciting media that enable us to view a 3D scene from more than one viewpoint. Meanwhile, considered as the ultimate autostereoscopic 3DTV, Free-viewpoint TV (FTV) can provide arbitrary views by freely synthesizing and changing viewpoints. Essentially, either 3DTV or FTV is based on virtual view synthesis using captured views along with corresponding depth information. In this paper, we study how virtual views can be reliably generated from multiple captured videos for 3D display. One key challenge is that the required depth information may contain depth errors, leading to uncomfortable artifacts in the synthesized view. We review the recent progress in virtual view synthesis methods where depth reliability is considered to handle synthesis artifacts and improve the quality of the virtual view. Not only for intermediate virtual view, have we also presented high-quality close-up view synthesis methods for wider navigation in 3DTV and FTV. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Synthesis of High-Quality α-MnSe Nanostructures with Superior Lithium Storage Properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Hongyang; Liu, Zhengqing; Zhang, Xinyu; Du, Yaping

    2016-03-21

    High-quality α-MnSe nanocubes were successfully prepared for the first time by an effective hot injection synthesis strategy. This approach was simple but robust and had been applied to the controllable synthesis of different sizes and diverse morphologies of α-MnSe nanostructures. The crystal phases, compositions, and microstructures of these nanostructures had been systematically characterized with a series of techniques. As a proof-of-concept application, the as-prepared α-MnSe nanocubes were used as an anode material for a lithium ion battery, which exhibited superior rate ability and ultralong cycle stability in half-cell and full-cell tests. Importantly, the phase transition from α-MnSe to β-MnSe during the electrochemical process was proved by ex situ X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The excellent electrochemical performance of α-MnSe endowed its potential as an anode material candidate for high performance lithium storage. PMID:26962880

  19. Systematic downgrading for investigating ``naturalness'' in synthesized singing using STRAIGHT: A high quality VOCODER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Hideki

    2002-05-01

    Conceptual simplicity of the classical channel VOCODER provides a powerful means for systematic investigations on perceptual effects of speech related physical parameters when combined with modern computational power and signal processing theories. A modern version of channel VOCODER, STRAIGHT [Kawahara et al., Speech Commun. 27, 187-207 (1999)], which is also an extension to pitch-synchronous analysis and synthesis, generates naturally sounding resynthesized speech from the analyzed smooth time-frequency surface and source parameters such as F0. This high-quality resynthesis enables close investigations on naturalness deterioration as a function of feature modifications in the decomposed parameter domain; for example, detailed shape of a F0 trajectory, underlying parameters to determine F0 trajectory dynamics, group delay alignment of excitation pulses and aperiodicity/periodicity ratio of the excitation source and so on. One of potential advantages of this strategy is based on the fact that our perceptual function is highly nonlinear. The other source of advantage is virtually an independent parameter set which allows precise control of parameter deviations from the original analysis results. An overview of recent findings and modification demonstrations will be presented. [Work supported by CREST grant of Japanese Science and Technology Corporation.

  20. High quality factor mg-scale silicon mechanical resonators for 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, F. A.; Meng, P.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.; Blair, D. G.; Liu, K.-Y.; Chao, S.; Martyniuk, M.; Roch-Jeune, I.; Flaminio, R.; Michel, C.

    2013-07-01

    Milligram-scale resonators have been shown to be suitable for the creation of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers, based on a phenomena first predicted for advanced gravitational-wave detectors. To achieve practical optoacoustic parametric devices, high quality factor resonators are required. We present millimetre-scale silicon resonators designed to exhibit a torsional vibration mode with a frequency in the 105-106 Hz range, for observation of 3-mode optoacoustic interactions in a compact table-top system. Our design incorporates an isolation stage and minimizes the acoustic loss from optical coating. We observe a quality factor of 7.5 × 105 for a mode frequency of 401.5 kHz, at room temperature and pressure of 10-3 Pa. We confirmed the mode shape by mapping the amplitude response across the resonator and comparing to finite element modelling. This study contributes to the development of 3-mode optoacoustic parametric amplifiers for use in novel high-sensitivity signal transducers and quantum measurement experiments.

  1. High quality, hybrid-MBE growth of SrVO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, Jarrett; Eaton, Craig; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2013-03-01

    Vanadium-based transition metal oxides are an intriguing class of materials to study due to the metal-to-insulator (MIT) transitions that arise in many of the binary oxides (i.e. VO2, V2O3, V2O5) . The perovskite SrVO3 is metallic in bulk; however, it is possible to induce an MIT by modulating the bandwidth through strain or dimensional confinement. A mandatory requirement for controlling the electronic phase transition properties in material systems with strong correlation is the growth of high quality, stoichiometric thin films. This is demonstrated here with the growth of SrVO3 on LSAT (001) substrates using a hybrid-MBE technique, where the Sr is evaporated from an effusion cell and the V is provided through the metal-organic precursor vanadium oxo-tri-isopropoxide (VTIP). The structural properties of films with varying VTIP:Sr ratios are characterized by RHEED, XRD, AFM and TEM. These measurements demonstrate that SrVO3 can be grown with excellent structural quality, atomically flat surfaces and rocking curves of the same width as the substrate, accomplishing a necessary first step in controlling the MIT in SrVO3. This research is primarily supported by ONR Grant N00014-11-1-0665

  2. High-quality bulk hybrid perovskite single crystals within minutes by inverse temperature crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Murali, Banavoth; Alarousu, Erkki; Burlakov, Victor M.; Peng, Wei; Dursun, Ibrahim; Wang, Lingfei; He, Yao; Maculan, Giacomo; Goriely, Alain; Wu, Tom; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman M.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of methylammonium lead trihalide perovskites (MAPbX3; MA=CH3NH3+, X=Br− or I−) have shown remarkably low trap density and charge transport properties; however, growth of such high-quality semiconductors is a time-consuming process. Here we present a rapid crystal growth process to obtain MAPbX3 single crystals, an order of magnitude faster than previous reports. The process is based on our observation of the substantial decrease of MAPbX3 solubility, in certain solvents, at elevated temperatures. The crystals can be both size- and shape-controlled by manipulating the different crystallization parameters. Despite the rapidity of the method, the grown crystals exhibit transport properties and trap densities comparable to the highest quality MAPbX3 reported to date. The phenomenon of inverse or retrograde solubility and its correlated inverse temperature crystallization strategy present a major step forward for advancing the field on perovskite crystallization. PMID:26145157

  3. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  4. Animated cell biology: a quick and easy method for making effective, high-quality teaching animations.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Danton H

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint animations in less than a day that are suitable for teaching in high school through college/university. After developing the animation it can be easily converted to any appropriate movie file format using Camtasia Studio for Internet or classroom presentations. Thus anyone who can use PowerPoint has the potential to make animations. Students who viewed the approximately 3-min PowerPoint/Camtasia Studio animation "Calcium and the Dual Signalling Pathway" over 15 min scored significantly higher marks on a subsequent quiz than those who had viewed still graphics with text for an equivalent time. In addition, results from student evaluations provided some data validating the use of such animations in cell biology teaching with some interesting caveats. Information is also provided on how such animations can be modified or updated easily or shared with others who can modify them to fit their own needs. PMID:17012217

  5. Colloidal co-assembly route to large-area high-quality photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Burgess, Ian B.; Davis, Stan; Sandhage, Kenneth; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2011-03-01

    Whereas considerable interest exists in self-assembly of well-ordered, porous "inverse opal" structures for optical, electronic, and (bio)chemical applications, uncontrolled defect formation has limited the scale-up and practicality of such approaches. Here we demonstrate a new method for assembling highly ordered, crack-free inverse opal films over a centimeter scale. Multilayered composite colloidal crystal films have been generated via evaporative deposition of polymeric colloidal spheres suspended within a hydrolyzed silicate sol-gel precursor solution. The co-assembly of a sacrificial colloidal template with a matrix material avoids the need for liquid infiltration into the preassembled colloidal crystal and minimizes the associated cracking and inhomogeneities of the resulting inverse opal films. We demonstrate that this co-assembly approach allows the fabrication of hierarchical structures not achievable by conventional methods, such as multilayered films and deposition onto patterned or curved surfaces, and can be transformed into various materials that retain the morphology and order of the original films. We show that colloidal co-assembly represents a simple, low-cost, scalable method for generating high-quality, chemically tailorable inverse opal films for optical applications.

  6. High-quality infrared imaging with graphene photodetectors at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nan; Hu, Weida; Jiang, Tao; Gong, Fan; Luo, Wenjin; Qiu, Weicheng; Wang, Peng; Liu, Lu; Wu, Shiwei; Liao, Lei; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2016-09-21

    Graphene, a two-dimensional material, is expected to enable broad-spectrum and high-speed photodetection because of its gapless band structure, ultrafast carrier dynamics and high mobility. We demonstrate a multispectral active infrared imaging by using a graphene photodetector based on hybrid response mechanisms at room temperature. The high-quality images with optical resolutions of 418 nm, 657 nm and 877 nm and close-to-theoretical-limit Michelson contrasts of 0.997, 0.994, and 0.996 have been acquired for 565 nm, 1550 nm, and 1815 nm light imaging measurements by using an unbiased graphene photodetector, respectively. Importantly, by carefully analyzing the results of Raman mapping and numerical simulations for the response process, the formation of hybrid photocurrents in graphene detectors is attributed to the synergistic action of photovoltaic and photo-thermoelectric effects. The initial application to infrared imaging will help promote the development of high performance graphene-based infrared multispectral detectors. PMID:27548266

  7. Optical enhancement of the open-circuit voltage in high quality GaAs solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.; García, I.; Friedman, D. J.; Duda, A.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2013-03-01

    The self-absorption of radiated photons increases the minority carrier concentration in semiconductor optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. This so-called photon recycling leads to an increase in the external luminescent efficiency, the fraction of internally radiated photons that are able to escape through the front surface. An increased external luminescent efficiency in turn correlates with an increased open-circuit voltage and ultimately conversion efficiency. We develop a detailed ray-optical model that calculates Voc for real, non-idealized solar cells, accounting for isotropic luminescence, parasitic losses, multiple photon reflections within the cell and wavelength-dependent indices of refraction for the layers in the cell. We have fabricated high quality GaAs solar cells, systematically varying the optical properties including the back reflectance, and have demonstrated Voc = 1.101 ± 0.002 V and conversion efficiencies of (27.8 ± 0.8)% under the global solar spectrum. The trends shown by the model are in good agreement with the data.

  8. Thermally activated hysteresis in high quality graphene/h-BN devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadore, A. R.; Mania, E.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Lacerda, R. G.; Campos, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    We report on gate hysteresis of resistance in high quality graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) devices. We observe a thermally activated hysteretic behavior in resistance as a function of the applied gate voltage at temperatures above 375 K. In order to investigate the origin of the hysteretic phenomenon, we compare graphene/h-BN heterostructure devices with SiO2/Si back gate electrodes to devices with graphite back gate electrodes. The gate hysteretic behavior of the resistance is present only in devices with an h-BN/SiO2 interface and is dependent on the orientation of the applied gate electric field and sweep rate. We describe a phenomenological model which captures all of our findings based on charges trapped at the h-BN/SiO2 interface. Such hysteretic behavior in graphene resistance must be considered in high temperature applications for graphene devices and may open new routes for applications in digital electronics and memory devices.

  9. Characteristics of high quality sorbent for fluidized bed combustion and problems of maintaining uniform reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bain, R.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Fluidized bed combustion of coal is considered one of the more promising clean coal technologies for the future. While much research has gone into the design and operation of FBC units, there is little concern for what characterizes a high quality sorbent and the source of such a sorbent. Carbonate rocks, limestone and dolomite, have been tested extensively as sorbents and primarily two rock characteristics appear to significantly control reactivity: composition and texture. Calcium carbonate is more reactive than magnesium carbonate where all other rock characteristics are the same. In considering texture, highest reactivity is measured for carbonate rocks which consist of homogeneous, euhedral crystals ranging in size from .05 to .2 mm and which possess uniform intercrystalline porosity. The most reactive material possesses both high calcium content, uniform microcrystalline texture and intercrystalline porosity, however, such material is not very abundant in nature and is not locally available to midcontinent facilities. Sucrosic dolomite, which possesses uniform microcrystalline texture and intercrystalline porosity has high rank reactivity. While this rock is quite common, it occurs as beds, generally less than twenty feet thick, interlayered with less reactive dolomite types. Therefore, without selective quarrying methods, production of sorbent with uniformly high reactivity will be impossible.

  10. High-quality gene assembly directly from unpurified mixtures of microarray-synthesized oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Borovkov, Alex Y.; Loskutov, Andrey V.; Robida, Mark D.; Day, Kristen M.; Cano, Jose A.; Le Olson, Tien; Patel, Hetal; Brown, Kevin; Hunter, Preston D.; Sykes, Kathryn F.

    2010-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for synthetic genes more robust, scalable and inexpensive gene assembly technologies must be developed. Here, we present a protocol for high-quality gene assembly directly from low-cost marginal-quality microarray-synthesized oligonucleotides. Significantly, we eliminated the time- and money-consuming oligonucleotide purification steps through the use of hybridization-based selection embedded in the assembly process. The protocol was tested on mixtures of up to 2000 oligonucleotides eluted directly from microarrays obtained from three different chip manufacturers. These mixtures containing <5% perfect oligos, and were used directly for assembly of 27 test genes of different sizes. Gene quality was assessed by sequencing, and their activity was tested in coupled in vitro transcription/translation reactions. Genes assembled from the microarray-eluted material using the new protocol matched the quality of the genes assembled from >95% pure column-synthesized oligonucleotides by the standard protocol. Both averaged only 2.7 errors/kb, and genes assembled from microarray-eluted material without clonal selection produced only 30% less protein than sequence-confirmed clones. This report represents the first demonstration of cost-efficient gene assembly from microarray-synthesized oligonucleotides. The overall cost of assembly by this method approaches 5¢ per base, making gene synthesis more affordable than traditional cloning. PMID:20693531

  11. High-quality genome (re)assembly using chromosomal contact data

    PubMed Central

    Marie-Nelly, Hervé; Marbouty, Martial; Cournac, Axel; Flot, Jean-François; Liti, Gianni; Parodi, Dante Poggi; Syan, Sylvie; Guillén, Nancy; Margeot, Antoine; Zimmer, Christophe; Koszul, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Closing gaps in draft genome assemblies can be costly and time-consuming, and published genomes are therefore often left ‘unfinished.’ Here we show that genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (3C) data can be used to overcome these limitations, and present a computational approach rooted in polymer physics that determines the most likely genome structure using chromosomal contact data. This algorithm—named GRAAL—generates high-quality assemblies of genomes in which repeated and duplicated regions are accurately represented and offers a direct probabilistic interpretation of the computed structures. We first validated GRAAL on the reference genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other yeast isolates, where GRAAL recovered both known and unknown complex chromosomal structural variations. We then applied GRAAL to the finishing of the assembly of Trichoderma reesei and obtained a number of contigs congruent with the know karyotype of this species. Finally, we showed that GRAAL can accurately reconstruct human chromosomes from either fragments generated in silico or contigs obtained from de novo assembly. In all these applications, GRAAL compared favourably to recently published programmes implementing related approaches. PMID:25517223

  12. High quality factor nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators limited by thermoelastic damping

    SciTech Connect

    Najar, Hadi; Chan, Mei-Lin; Yang, Hsueh-An; Lin, Liwei; Cahill, David G.; Horsley, David A.

    2014-04-14

    We demonstrate high quality factor thin-film nanocrystalline diamond micromechanical resonators with quality factors limited by thermoelastic damping. Cantilevers, single-anchored and double-anchored double-ended tuning forks, were fabricated from 2.5 μm thick in-situ boron doped nanocrystalline diamond films deposited using hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thermal conductivity measured by time-domain thermoreflectance resulted in 24 ± 3 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} for heat transport through the thickness of the diamond film. The resonant frequencies of the fabricated resonators were 46 kHz–8 MHz and showed a maximum measured Q ≈ 86 000 at f{sub n} = 46.849 kHz. The measured Q-factors are shown to be in good agreement with the limit imposed by thermoelastic dissipation calculated using the measured thermal conductivity. The mechanical properties extracted from resonant frequency measurements indicate a Young's elastic modulus of ≈788 GPa, close to that of microcrystalline diamond.

  13. High-quality full-length immunoglobulin profiling with unique molecular barcoding.

    PubMed

    Turchaninova, M A; Davydov, A; Britanova, O V; Shugay, M; Bikos, V; Egorov, E S; Kirgizova, V I; Merzlyak, E M; Staroverov, D B; Bolotin, D A; Mamedov, I Z; Izraelson, M; Logacheva, M D; Kladova, O; Plevova, K; Pospisilova, S; Chudakov, D M

    2016-09-01

    High-throughput sequencing analysis of hypermutating immunoglobulin (IG) repertoires remains a challenging task. Here we present a robust protocol for the full-length profiling of human and mouse IG repertoires. This protocol uses unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) introduced in the course of cDNA synthesis to control bottlenecks and to eliminate PCR and sequencing errors. Using asymmetric 400+100-nt paired-end Illumina sequencing and UMI-based assembly with the new version of the MIGEC software, the protocol allows up to 750-nt lengths to be sequenced in an almost error-free manner. This sequencing approach should also be applicable to various tasks beyond immune repertoire studies. In IG profiling, the achieved length of high-quality sequence covers the variable region of even the longest chains, along with the fragment of a constant region carrying information on the antibody isotype. The whole protocol, including preparation of cells and libraries, sequencing and data analysis, takes 5 to 6 d. PMID:27490633

  14. High-quality-factor planar optical cavities with laterally stopped, slowed, or reversed light.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Steven J; Khorasaninejad, Mohammadreza; Capasso, Federico

    2016-08-01

    In a planar optical cavity, the resonance frequencies increase as a function of in-plane wavevector according to a standard textbook formula. This has well-known consequences in many different areas of optics, from the shifts of etalon peaks at non-normal angles, to the properties of transverse modes in laser diodes, to the effective mass of microcavity photons, and so on. However, this standard formula is valid only when the reflection phase of each cavity mirror is approximately independent of angle. There is a certain type of mirror-a subwavelength dielectric grating near a guided mode resonance-with not only a strongly angle-dependent reflection phase, but also very high reflectance and low losses. Simulations show that by using such mirrors, high-quality-factor planar cavities can be designed that break all these textbook rules, leading to resonant modes that are slow, stopped or even backward-propagating in the in-plane direction. In particular, we demonstrate experimentally high-Q planar cavities whose resonance frequency is independent of in-plane wavevector-i.e., the resonant modes have zero in-plane group velocity, for one polarization but both in-plane directions. We discuss potential applications in various fields including lasers, quantum optics, and exciton-polariton condensation. PMID:27505803

  15. TECHNICAL BRIEF: Optimized pipeline for isolation of high-quality RNA from corneal cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Chris; Fink, Trine; Vorum, Henrik; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Attempts to determine the transcriptional profile of discrete subsets of limbal epithelial cells in situ using laser capture microdissection (LCM) face two major challenges. First, the transcriptional profile of cells within a tissue may rapidly change as the tissue is excised and exposed to cold ischemia. Second, there is a risk of degradation of the RNA as the cellular compartment is separated from the remaining tissue. An optimized protocol for LCM of corneal epithelium is presented to address these issues. Methods: Experiments using porcine eye globes were carried out to determine both optimal procedures and settings for tissue harvest, transport, storage, histology, LCM, and RNA isolation. The optimized protocol was validated using human corneal epithelium. Results: To facilitate preservation of the gene expression profile, we have developed a mechanical tool for dissection of cornea that, in combination with flash freezing, enables tissue to be stored within 5 min of enucleation of the eye. Furthermore, we describe how RNA from limbal crypt cells may be obtained using a procedure involving cryosectioning, histological staining, and LCM. Conclusion: In this paper, we describe an optimized method for isolating high-quality RNA from cellular subpopulations confined to the limbal crypts of the cornea. The procedure yields RNA in amounts and quality suitable for downstream gene expression analyses, such as microarrays or next generation sequencing. PMID:24940035

  16. MyTeachingPartner-Secondary. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report [Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    MyTeachingPartner-Secondary (MTP-S) is a professional development program that aims to increase student learning and development through improved teacher-student interactions. Through the program, middle and high school teachers access a video library featuring examples of high-quality interactions and receive individualized, web-based coaching…

  17. Paving a Pathway for Latinas to Access College or a Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz Herrera, Sandra Luz

    2010-01-01

    The extensive research on Latinas in education has historically focused on the many challenges and barriers that impede them from accessing a high-quality education that will ultimately open the doors to a college education or post-secondary options and opportunities. Barriers that have been attributed to impeding Latinas from succeeding are…

  18. Out on a Limb: The Efficacy of Teacher Induction in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Robert; Watlington, Eliah; Felsher, Rivka

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of a qualitative meta-analysis study of the research and literature on the efficacy of teacher induction on the retention of high-quality secondary school teachers and challenges current assumptions about the efficacy of induction despite the proliferation of induction programs nationwide. A theoretical model for…

  19. Can superior natural amenities create high-quality employment opportunities? The case of nonconsumptive river recreation in central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKean, J.R.; Johnson, D.M.; Johnson, R.L.; Taylor, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Central Idaho has superior environmental amenities, as evidenced by exceptionally high-value tourism, such as guided whitewater rafting. The focus of our study concerns the attainment of high-quality jobs in a high-quality natural environment. We estimate cumulative wage rate effects unique to nonconsumptive river recreation in central Idaho for comparison with other sectors. The cumulative effects are based on a detailed survey of recreation spending and a modified synthesized input-output model. Cumulative wage rate effects support using the abundance of environmental amenities to expand and attract high-wage, environmentally sensitive firms, as opposed to expanded tourism to improve employment quality. Copyright ?? 2005 Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. A method of forming a high-quality electron beam for free electron masers

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonov, S.V.; Bratman, V.L.; Manuilov, V.N.

    1995-12-31

    A large number of electron microwave devices require initially rectilinear high-quality electron beams for effective operation. In FEMS such beams are pumped up to sufficiently high operating-oscillation velocity and small initial particle oscillations (cyclotron oscillations if the beam is focused by an axial magnetic field) can lead to a rather large transverse velocity spread and, correspondingly, axial velocity spread. Thus, an acute problem for these devices (essentially more important than for Cherenkov-type devices) is the formation of a beam in which electrons initially move along the axis with minimum oscillations. A new method to form such a beam by a two-electrode axially-symmetrical gun of simple configuration immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field is discussed in this paper. This method allows to improve the quality of an electron beam passing through a narrow anode outlet. It is well-known that the anode aperture acts as an electrostatic lens and disperses the electron beam. In the presence of an axial magnetic field this unwanted dispersing action can be compensated simultaneously for all electrons of the paraxial electron beam by means of a magnetic field generated by a small additional coil placed down-stream from the anode aperture. If the coil length is equal to half the electron Larmor step, then the action of the border cod fields comes to two kicks which, being correctly phased, compensate the spurious rotary electron velocities. Computer simulations using the EPOSR-code intended for the calculation of electron guns both for the temperature- and space-charge-limited regimes prove the effectiveness of this method. In particular, for a version of field-emission gun the correcting coil reduces about five times the maximum transverse velocity in the beam. Positive effect from applying this method was proved at a realization of a high-efficiency CARM-oscillator.

  1. Worldwide floods are changing: Evidence from global high-quality annual maximum streamflow records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Hong; Westra, Seth; Leonard, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, floods have led to significant human and economic impacts (in 2014 alone the global cost of floods has been estimated to be US 37.4 billion), and reported flood losses have increased significantly from just US7 billion per year in the 1980s. Recent empirical evidence of significant increasing trends in heavy rainfall has raised the concern of potential changes in flooding magnitude and frequency as a result of large-scale climatic changes. However, other driving forces, including changes in channel capacity and catchment characteristics, also play a large role in rainfall-runoff processes so trends in heavy precipitation cannot be taken as a proxy for trends in flooding. In order to test whether global floods are changing or not, this study analyses a records global discharge time series from 1966 to 2005. Trends in worldwide flood magnitude were analysed using annual maxima daily streamflow obtained from Global Runoff Data Centre database, which holds records of 9,213 stations across the globe, with an average time series length of 42 years per station. High quality records during the reference period (1966 - 2005) with no more than 2 year of missing data were selected as the input of this study (1209 stations in all). To remove streamflow records impacted by large dams, the HydroSHEDS watershed boundaries and Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) databases are used to identify stations with existing dams in theirs upstream drainage basins. The Mann-Kendall test at the 5% significant level is applied on selected time series to identify stations showing significant positive and negative trends. The percentage of significantly increasing or decreasing stations are investigated in different climatic regions and catchment sizes, and compared against a bootstrap-based field significant test to represent the null hypothesis. The results indicate strong evidence against the null hypothesis of no change in flood magnitude at global and regional scales.

  2. Reducing the cycle time of cementing processes for high quality doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, C.; Hahne, F.; Langehanenberg, P.; Heinisch, J.

    2015-09-01

    For the manufacturing of high performance optical systems, centered alignment of the optical surfaces within the assembly is becoming increasingly important. In this contribution, we will present a system for the automated alignment of optical surfaces for the high-throughput manufacturing of cemented doublets (and triplets) with optimized imaging performance. First of all, different concepts for the alignment of doublets etc. are discussed. Standard methods for cementing evaluate mechanical features, such as the outer barrel of one element as reference axis. Using this procedure the optical performance of the assembly that can be achieved is limited by imperfections in the collinearity of the element's barrel axis and its optical axis. Instead, using the optical axis of the bottom element as target axis opens up perspectives for the production of multiplets with perfect symmetric imaging performance. For this concept, all three center of curvature positions of the optical surfaces are measured. Then, the top surface is aligned to the bottom element's optical axis using high-precision actuators. In order to increase the throughput of this procedure, the system is equipped with a novel measurement head that acquires autocollimation images of all three surfaces of a doublet at the same time. Thus, the positions of all surfaces are measured simultaneously during just a single rotation, avoiding both additional rotations and focus movements. Using this approach, cycle times can significantly be reduced from an average of 1 min to less than 10 seconds (w/o curing time). The system is reconfigurable in order to support a wide range of sample designs and enables cementing of high quality optics with centering errors below 2 μm.

  3. Optimization of sub-cells orientation for assembly of a high-quality transmission sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wei-Jei; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Yu, Zong-Ru; Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2015-10-01

    The transmission sphere (TS) provides a high-quality reference wavefront which is common path with a test wavefront to generate interference fringes in a Fizeau interferometer. The optical path difference (OPD) of the reference wavefront should be controlled within peak-to-valley (PV) 5 λ (λ=0.6328 um), because too large OPD makes interference fringes distorted. Therefore, the tolerance analysis of the reference wavefront is very critical. Because the surface irregularity of lens can change the phase of a wavefront, surface deformation after mounting highly impacts on the wavefront error. For large optics, such as φ 6-inch in this study, surface deformation dominates the quality of the reference wavefront. For minimizing surface deformation after mounting, semi-kinematic mounting technology is used in sub-cells design to avoid over-constraint forces and unpredictable deformation. Then, the deformation due to gravity force of each surface can be constrained around PV 0.3 λ with Zernike trefoil in vertical setup TS; however, the superposition of the distorted wavefront may deteriorate the optical performance. A method of optimizing orientation of each lens around optical axis is presented in this paper. Sub-cells are designed to be rotational around optical axis respectively. The wavefront error of the reference beam of the worst case is improved significantly after optimization. Consequently, the method can effectively reduce the difficulty of lenses fabrication and mounting, and then the specification of the surface irregularity can be lower for cost saving. Based on the optimization in our study, a good reference wavefront can be acquired without any tight tolerance or complicated assembly.

  4. The National COSEE Network's decade of assisting scientists to achieve high-quality Broader Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotaling, L. A.; Yoder, J. A.; Scowcroft, G.

    2012-12-01

    Many ocean scientists struggle with defining Broader Impact (BI) activities that will satisfy reviewers or fit within budget and time constraints, and many scientists are uncertain as to how to find assistance in crafting sound BI plans. In 2002, the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network began engaging and connecting scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. COSEE's success in engaging scientists in BI activities is due to the Network's ability to find and create opportunities for education and outreach, assist scientists in designing programs that feature their research, and support scientists with courses, workshops and tools, which assist them in becoming better communicators of their research to non-scientific audiences. Among its most significant accomplishments to date is the development of a network of ocean scientists that is connected to education and outreach professionals, formal K-12 educators and students, informal science professionals, learning sciences experts, and graduate and undergraduate students. In addition to networking, COSEE Centers have developed and implemented the Ocean Literacy Principles and Fundamental Concepts and the Ocean Literacy Scope and Sequence for grades K-12. COSEE has also helped engage scientists with public audiences, facilitating the use of real-time ocean observing systems (OOS) data in formal and informal education settings, creating new distance learning and online resources for ocean sciences education, and promoting high quality ocean sciences education and outreach in universities and formal/informal venues. The purpose of this presentation is to review several tools that the COSEE Network has developed to assist ocean scientists with BI activities and to describe the Network's efforts to prepare young scientists to communicate their research to non-expert audiences.

  5. Coaxial multishell nanowires with high-quality electronic interfaces and tunable optical cavities for ultrathin photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kempa, Thomas J; Cahoon, James F; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Day, Robert W; Bell, David C; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M

    2012-01-31

    Silicon nanowires (NWs) could enable low-cost and efficient photovoltaics, though their performance has been limited by nonideal electrical characteristics and an inability to tune absorption properties. We overcome these limitations through controlled synthesis of a series of polymorphic core/multishell NWs with highly crystalline, hexagonally-faceted shells, and well-defined coaxial (p/n) and p/intrinsic/n (p/i/n) diode junctions. Designed 200-300 nm diameter p/i/n NW diodes exhibit ultralow leakage currents of approximately 1 fA, and open-circuit voltages and fill-factors up to 0.5 V and 73%, respectively, under one-sun illumination. Single-NW wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements reveal size-tunable optical resonances, external quantum efficiencies greater than unity, and current densities double those for silicon films of comparable thickness. In addition, finite-difference-time-domain simulations for the measured NW structures agree quantitatively with the photocurrent measurements, and demonstrate that the optical resonances are due to Fabry-Perot and whispering-gallery cavity modes supported in the high-quality faceted nanostructures. Synthetically optimized NW devices achieve current densities of 17 mA/cm(2) and power-conversion efficiencies of 6%. Horizontal integration of multiple NWs demonstrates linear scaling of the absolute photocurrent with number of NWs, as well as retention of the high open-circuit voltages and short-circuit current densities measured for single NW devices. Notably, assembly of 2 NW elements into vertical stacks yields short-circuit current densities of 25 mA/cm(2) with a backside reflector, and simulations further show that such stacking represents an attractive approach for further enhancing performance with projected efficiencies of > 15% for 1.2 μm thick 5 NW stacks. PMID:22307592

  6. From Tls to Hbim. High Quality Semantically-Aware 3d Modeling of Complex Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrini, R.; Malinverni, E. S.; Clini, P.; Nespeca, R.; Orlietti, E.

    2015-02-01

    In order to improve the framework for 3D modeling, a great challenge is to obtain the suitability of Building Information Model (BIM) platform for historical architecture. A specific challenge in HBIM is to guarantee appropriateness of geometrical accuracy. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of a whole HBIM approach for complex architectural shapes, starting from TLS point clouds. A novelty of our method is to work in a 3D environment throughout the process and to develop semantics during the construction phase. This last feature of HBIM was analyzed in the present work verifying the studied ontologies, enabling the data enrichment of the model with non-geometrical information, such as historical notes, decay or deformation evidence, decorative elements etc. The case study is the Church of Santa Maria at Portonovo, an abbey from the Romanesque period. Irregular or complex historical architecture, such as Romanesque, needs the construction of shared libraries starting from the survey of its already existing elements. This is another key aspect in delivering Building Information Modeling standards. In particular, we focus on the quality assessment of the obtained model, using an open-source sw and the point cloud as reference. The proposed work shows how it is possible to develop a high quality 3D model semantic-aware, capable of connecting geometrical-historical survey with descriptive thematic databases. In this way, a centralized HBIM will serve as comprehensive dataset of information about all disciplines, particularly for restoration and conservation. Moreover, the geometric accuracy will ensure also reliable visualization outputs.

  7. Automated generation of high-quality training data for appearance-based object models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Voelker, Arno; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Methods for automated person detection and person tracking are essential core components in modern security and surveillance systems. Most state-of-the-art person detectors follow a statistical approach, where prototypical appearances of persons are learned from training samples with known class labels. Selecting appropriate learning samples has a significant impact on the quality of the generated person detectors. For example, training a classifier on a rigid body model using training samples with strong pose variations is in general not effective, irrespective of the classifiers capabilities. Generation of high-quality training data is, apart from performance issues, a very time consuming process, comprising a significant amount of manual work. Furthermore, due to inevitable limitations of freely available training data, corresponding classifiers are not always transferable to a given sensor and are only applicable in a well-defined narrow variety of scenes and camera setups. Semi-supervised learning methods are a commonly used alternative to supervised training, in general requiring only few labeled samples. However, as a drawback semi-supervised methods always include a generative component, which is known to be difficult to learn. Therefore, automated processes for generating training data sets for supervised methods are needed. Such approaches could either help to better adjust classifiers to respective hardware, or serve as a complement to existing data sets. Towards this end, this paper provides some insights into the quality requirements of automatically generated training data for supervised learning methods. Assuming a static camera, labels are generated based on motion detection by background subtraction with respect to weak constraints on the enclosing bounding box of the motion blobs. Since this labeling method consists of standard components, we illustrate the effectiveness by adapting a person detector to cameras of a sensor network. While varying

  8. Achieving high quality long-term care for elderly people: consumers' wishes and providers' responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Morse, R; Jenkinson, D

    1995-01-01

    The organisation of long-term care for older people has major implications for all hospital and community health services. However, even health professionals have a poor understanding of the structure and purpose of long-term care and national professional bodies are still not giving enough attention to the issues involved. In the wider context, care of disabled older people has received little public debate in the UK despite the ethical, social, and financial issues involved and despite the recent major organisational changes in the health service. The past ten years have seen a huge expansion in private residential and nursing homes with a concomitant fall in NHS long-stay beds. Currently, approximately 500,000 elderly people in the UK are living in some form of long-stay care facility, and many other elderly people with multiple disabilities are being supported at home and should also be included under the umbrella of long-term care. Ensuring appropriate, equitable, and high-quality care is a responsibility not only for health and social services but also for society as a whole. This conference, organised jointly by the Royal College of Physicians, the British Geriatrics Society, and Age Concern England, with support from the Department of Health, was a much-needed and welcomed initiative. Over 200 delegates attended, consisting of doctors (geriatricians, psychiatrists, general practitioners), nurses (public and private sector), social services representatives, Department of Health representatives, managers of nursing homes, and members of charities such as Age Concern and the Relatives Association. PMID:7658422

  9. Growing High-Quality InAs Quantum Dots for Infrared Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Uhl, David

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of growing high-quality InAs quantum dots embedded in lattice-matched InGaAs quantum wells on InP substrates has been developed. InAs/InGaAs/InP quantum dot semiconductor lasers fabricated by this method are capable of operating at room temperature at wavelengths greater than or equal to 1.8 mm. Previously, InAs quantum dot lasers based on InP substrates have been reported only at low temperature of 77 K at a wavelength of 1.9 micrometers. In the present method, as in the prior method, one utilizes metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy to grow the aforementioned semiconductor structures. The development of the present method was prompted in part by the observation that when InAs quantum dots are deposited on an InGaAs layer, some of the InAs in the InGaAs layer becomes segregated from the layer and contributes to the formation of the InAs quantum dots. As a result, the quantum dots become highly nonuniform; some even exceed a critical thickness, beyond which they relax. In the present method, one covers the InGaAs layer with a thin layer of GaAs before depositing the InAs quantum dots. The purpose and effect of this thin GaAs layer is to suppress the segregation of InAs from the InGaAs layer, thereby enabling the InAs quantum dots to become nearly uniform (see figure). Devices fabricated by this method have shown near-room-temperature performance.

  10. Coaxial multishell nanowires with high-quality electronic interfaces and tunable optical cavities for ultrathin photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Kempa, Thomas J.; Cahoon, James F.; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Day, Robert W.; Bell, David C.; Park, Hong-Gyu; Lieber, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (NWs) could enable low-cost and efficient photovoltaics, though their performance has been limited by nonideal electrical characteristics and an inability to tune absorption properties. We overcome these limitations through controlled synthesis of a series of polymorphic core/multishell NWs with highly crystalline, hexagonally-faceted shells, and well-defined coaxial (p/n) and p/intrinsic/n (p/i/n) diode junctions. Designed 200–300 nm diameter p/i/n NW diodes exhibit ultralow leakage currents of approximately 1 fA, and open-circuit voltages and fill-factors up to 0.5 V and 73%, respectively, under one-sun illumination. Single-NW wavelength-dependent photocurrent measurements reveal size-tunable optical resonances, external quantum efficiencies greater than unity, and current densities double those for silicon films of comparable thickness. In addition, finite-difference-time-domain simulations for the measured NW structures agree quantitatively with the photocurrent measurements, and demonstrate that the optical resonances are due to Fabry-Perot and whispering-gallery cavity modes supported in the high-quality faceted nanostructures. Synthetically optimized NW devices achieve current densities of 17 mA/cm2 and power-conversion efficiencies of 6%. Horizontal integration of multiple NWs demonstrates linear scaling of the absolute photocurrent with number of NWs, as well as retention of the high open-circuit voltages and short-circuit current densities measured for single NW devices. Notably, assembly of 2 NW elements into vertical stacks yields short-circuit current densities of 25 mA/cm2 with a backside reflector, and simulations further show that such stacking represents an attractive approach for further enhancing performance with projected efficiencies of > 15% for 1.2 μm thick 5 NW stacks. PMID:22307592

  11. Dubai 3d Textuerd Mesh Using High Quality Resolution Vertical/oblique Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayeb Madani, Adib; Ziad Ahmad, Abdullateef; Christoph, Lueken; Hammadi, Zamzam; Manal Abdullah Sabeal, Manal Abdullah x.

    2016-06-01

    Providing high quality 3D data with reasonable quality and cost were always essential, affording the core data and foundation for developing an information-based decision-making tool of urban environments with the capability of providing decision makers, stakeholders, professionals, and public users with 3D views and 3D analysis tools of spatial information that enables real-world views. Helps and assist in improving users' orientation and also increase their efficiency in performing their tasks related to city planning, Inspection, infrastructures, roads, and cadastre management. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Vexcel UltraCam Osprey camera images is examined to provide a 3D model of building façades using an efficient image-based modeling workflow adopted by commercial software's. The main steps of this work include: Specification, point cloud generation, and 3D modeling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM) is applied on the images to generate point cloud. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using and refined to obtain an accurate model of buildings. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough LoD2 details of the building based on visual assessment. The objective of this paper is neither comparing nor promoting a specific technique over the other and does not mean to promote a sensor-based system over another systems or mechanism presented in existing or previous paper. The idea is to share experience.

  12. High Quality Prime Farmland extraction pattern based on object-oriented image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-xue; Li, Man-chun; Chen, Zhen-jie; Li, Fei-xue; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Bo; Tan, Lu

    2008-10-01

    High Quality Prime Farmland (HQPF) is high, stable yields based on land consolidation of prime farmland, and has its important impact upon China's food security. To make clear the status-in-quo of the HQPF is important to its construction and management. However, it is difficult to get the spatial distribution information of the constructed HQPF enough rapidly in mountainous area using ground investigation, as well as hard to satisfy the requirements of large-scale promotion. A HQPF extraction framework based on object-oriented image analysis is discussed and applied to aerial imageries of Tonglu County. The approach can be divided into 3 steps: image segmentation, feature analysis & feature selection and extraction rules generation. In the image segmentation procedure, canny operator is used in edge detection, an edge growth algorithm is used to link discontinuous edge, and region labelling is carried out to generate image object. In the feature analysis & selection procedure, object-oriented feature analysis and feature selection methods are also discussed to construct a feature subset with fine divisibility for HQPF extraction. In the extraction rules generation procedure, the C4.5 algorithm is used to establish and trim the decision tree, then HQPF decision rules are generated from the decision tree. Compared with supervised classification (MLC classifier, ERDAS 8.7) and another object-oriented image analysis method (FNEA, e-Cognition4.0), the accuracy assessment shows that the extraction results by the object-oriented extraction patters have a high level of category consistency, size consistency and shape consistency.

  13. Techniques for the Isolation of High-Quality RNA from Cells Encapsulated in Chitosan Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Claire; Young, Stuart; Russo, Valerio; Amsden, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    Extracting high-quality RNA from hydrogels containing polysaccharide components is challenging, as traditional RNA isolation techniques designed for cells and tissues can have limited yields and purity due to physiochemical interactions between the nucleic acids and the biomaterials. In this study, a comparative analysis of several different RNA isolation methods was performed on human adipose-derived stem cells photo-encapsulated within methacrylated glycol chitosan hydrogels. The results demonstrated that RNA isolation methods with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer followed by purification with an RNeasy® mini kit resulted in low yields of RNA, except when the samples were preminced directly within the buffer. In addition, genomic DNA contamination during reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was observed in the hydrogels processed with the CTAB-based methods. Isolation methods using TRIzol® in combination with one of a Qiaex® gel extraction kit, an RNeasy® mini kit, or an extended solvent purification method extracted RNA suitable for gene amplification, with no evidence of genomic contamination. The latter two methods yielded the best results in terms of yield and amplification efficiency. Predigestion of the scaffolds with lysozyme was investigated as a possible means of enhancing RNA extraction from the polysaccharide gels, with no improvements observed in terms of the purity, yield, or amplification efficiency. Overall, this work highlights the application of a TRIzol®+extended solvent purification method for optimizing RNA extraction that can be applied to obtain reliable and accurate gene expression data in studies investigating cells seeded in chitosan-based scaffolds. PMID:23448167

  14. Establishing High-Quality Prostate Brachytherapy Using a Phantom Simulator Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thaker, Nikhil G.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Swanson, David A.; Albert, Jeffrey M.; Bruno, Teresa L.; Prestidge, Bradley R.; Crook, Juanita M.; Cox, Brett W.; Potters, Louis; Moran, Brian J.; Keyes, Mira; Kuban, Deborah A.; Frank, Steven J.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To design and implement a unique training program that uses a phantom-based simulator to teach the process of prostate brachytherapy (PB) quality assurance and improve the quality of education. Methods and Materials: Trainees in our simulator program were practicing radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents, and fellows of the American Brachytherapy Society. The program emphasized 6 core areas of quality assurance: patient selection, simulation, treatment planning, implant technique, treatment evaluation, and outcome assessment. Using the Iodine 125 ({sup 125}I) preoperative treatment planning technique, trainees implanted their ultrasound phantoms with dummy seeds (ie, seeds with no activity). Pre- and postimplant dosimetric parameters were compared and correlated using regression analysis. Results: Thirty-one trainees successfully completed the simulator program during the period under study. The mean phantom prostate size, number of seeds used, and total activity were generally consistent between trainees. All trainees met the V100 >95% objective both before and after implantation. Regardless of the initial volume of the prostate phantom, trainees' ability to cover the target volume with at least 100% of the dose (V100) was not compromised (R=0.99 pre- and postimplant). However, the V150 had lower concordance (R=0.37) and may better reflect heterogeneity control of the implant process. Conclusions: Analysis of implants from this phantom-based simulator shows a high degree of consistency between trainees and uniformly high-quality implants with respect to parameters used in clinical practice. This training program provides a valuable educational opportunity that improves the quality of PB training and likely accelerates the learning curve inherent in PB. Prostate phantom implantation can be a valuable first step in the acquisition of the required skills to safely perform PB.

  15. NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, Susan K., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The new Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards should be part of every school district's repertoire of standards to ensure that the learning needs of advanced students are being met. "NAGC Pre-K-Grade 12 Gifted Education Programming Standards: A Guide to Planning and Implementing High-Quality Services" details six standards that…

  16. Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation: Using Classroom Contexts to Assess High-Quality PCK Rather than Pseudoargumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Katherine L.; González-Howard, María; Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent emphasis on science practices, little work has focused on teachers' knowledge of these key learning goals. The development of high quality assessments for teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of science practices, such as argumentation, is important to better assess the needs of teachers and to develop supportive…

  17. High-Quality Traineeships: Identifying What Works. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Erica; Comyn, Paul; Kemmis, Roslin Brennan; Smith, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the common features of high-quality traineeships using case studies from the cleaning, child care, construction, retail, finance and insurance, and meat processing areas. The research identifies a range of policy measures that could improve both the practice and image of traineeships. A good practice guide has also been…

  18. Enhancing Recognition of High Quality, Functional IEP Goals: A Training Activity for Early Childhood Special Education Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Anne; Gillaspy, Kathi; Peters, Mary Louise; Hurth, Joicey

    2014-01-01

    This training activity was created to support participants' understanding of the criteria needed to develop and write high quality, participation-based Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals. The term "functional" is often used to describe what goals ought to be, yet many Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) staff (e.g.,…

  19. The Effects of Using the Essential Skills Inventory on Teacher Perception of High-Quality Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the efficacy of using the Essential Skill Inventories (ESI) to increase high-quality instruction in the early learning years. Kindergarten and first- and second-grade teachers, who were identified as using the ESI with fidelity, assessed their own teaching skills and behaviors, reflecting on these before and after use of the…

  20. High-Quality 21st Century Community Learning Centers: Academic Achievement among Frequent Participants and Non-Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstead, Jenell; King, Mindy Hightower

    2011-01-01

    This study examined academic differences between students who attended 21st Century Community Learning Center (CCLC) programs frequently (60 or more days) and matched nonattendees during the 2008-2009 school year. Schools included in the study represented only those centers found to be implementing high-quality programming, as measured by a…