Science.gov

Sample records for high-resolution comparative map

  1. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  2. Optimized efficiency of mapping a site contaminated with dioxins by immunoassay compared to gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lo, Ching; Buan, Eric; Li, James; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) has shown promise as a complementary tool to gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). This is especially true due to its low cost, ease of sample preparation and fast sample turnaround time. One problem that was unaddressed by other research is how to increase the efficiency of ELISA to a point that makes it practical for the analysis of large groups of samples that can have a wide range of unknown PCDD/F concentrations; one ELISA test is unable to screen for PCDD/F concentrations that can range anywhere from background levels to upwards of 10,000 picograms toxic equivalents per gram of soil (pgTEQ g(-1)). This paper resolves this problem by introducing a sample algorithm which enables the correct amount of dioxin to enter an ELISA tube from a sample (whose unknown PCDD/F concentration can range between 30 and 10,500 pgTEQ g(-1)) in only two ELISA runs. In doing so, the time and cost benefits of ELISA are preserved. ELISA results for soils and sediment samples processed using the algorithm were then plotted on two site maps alongside their GC-HRMS counterparts. A comparison of both analytical methods showed that areas of high and low PCDD/F concentrations were equally identifiable with either analytical tool; 29 of 32 sample locations on the site maps were placed into the same of three possible screening levels. Therefore, processing ELISA samples through the sample algorithm achieves the necessary level of efficiency while producing virtually equal screening results in comparison to GC-HRMS but at a fraction of the cost. The agreement between GC-HRMS and ELISA was 94% (R (2) = 0.99, n = 53). GC-HRMS and ELISA results were significantly correlated (Wilcoxon signed rank test p < 0.001). PMID:26637217

  3. High Resolution Camera for Mapping Titan Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest moon, has a dense atmosphere and is the only object besides Earth to have stable liquids at its surface. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed the extraordinary breadth of geological processes shaping its surface. Further study requires high resolution imaging of the surface, which is restrained by light absorption by methane and scattering from aerosols. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has demonstrated that Titan's surface can be observed within several windows in the near infrared, allowing us to process several regions in order to create a geological map and to determine the morphology. Specular reflections monitored on the lakes of the North Pole show little scattering at 5 microns, which, combined with the present study of Titan's northern pole area, refutes the paradigm that only radar can achieve high resolution mapping of the surface. The present data allowed us to monitor the evolution of lakes, to identify additional lakes at the Northern Pole, to examine Titan's hypothesis of non-synchronous rotation and to analyze the albedo of the North Pole surface. Future missions to Titan could carry a camera with 5 micron detectors and a carbon fiber radiator for weight reduction.

  4. High-resolution mapping of genotype-phenotype relationships in cridu chat syndrome using array comparative genomic hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Snijders, Antoine; Segraves, Richard; Zhang,Xiuqing; Niebuhr, Anita; Albertson, Donna; Yang, Huanming; Gray, Joe; Niebuhr, Erik; Bolund, Lars; Pinkel, Dan

    2007-07-03

    We have used array comparative genomic hybridization to map DNA copy-number changes in 94 patients with cri du chat syndrome who had been carefully evaluated for the presence of the characteristic cry, speech delay, facial dysmorphology, and level of mental retardation (MR). Most subjects had simple deletions involving 5p (67 terminal and 12 interstitial). Genotype-phenotype correlations localized the region associated with the cry to 1.5 Mb in distal 5p15.31, between bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) containing markers D5S2054 and D5S676; speech delay to 3.2 Mb in 5p15.32-15.33, between BACs containing D5S417 and D5S635; and the region associated with facial dysmorphology to 2.4 Mb in 5p15.2-15.31, between BACs containing D5S208 and D5S2887. These results overlap and refine those reported in previous publications. MR depended approximately on the 5p deletion size and location, but there were many cases in which the retardation was disproportionately severe, given the 5p deletion. All 15 of these cases, approximately two-thirds of the severely retarded patients, were found to have copy-number aberrations in addition to the 5p deletion. Restriction of consideration to patients with only 5p deletions clarified the effect of such deletions and suggested the presence of three regions, MRI-III, with differing effect on retardation. Deletions including MRI, a 1.2-Mb region overlapping the previously defined cri du chat critical region but not including MRII and MRIII, produced a moderate level of retardation. Deletions restricted to MRII, located just proximal to MRI, produced a milder level of retardation, whereas deletions restricted to the still-more proximal MRIII produced no discernible phenotype. However, MR increased as deletions that included MRI extended progressively into MRII and MRIII, and MR became profound when all three regions were deleted.

  5. High-resolution comprehensive radiation hybrid maps of the porcine chromosomes 2p and 9p compared with the human chromosome 11.

    PubMed

    Liu, W-S; Yasue, H; Eyer, K; Hiraiwa, H; Shimogiri, T; Roelofs, B; Landrito, E; Ekstrand, J; Treat, M; Paes, N; Lemos, M; Griffith, A C; Davis, M L; Meyers, S N; Yerle, M; Milan, D; Beever, J E; Schook, L B; Beattie, C W

    2008-01-01

    We are constructing high-resolution, chromosomal 'test' maps for the entire pig genome using a 12,000-rad WG-RH panel (IMNpRH2(12,000-rad))to provide a scaffold for the rapid assembly of the porcine genome sequence. Here we present an initial, comparative map of human chromosome (HSA) 11 with pig chromosomes (SSC) 2p and 9p. Two sets of RH mapping vectors were used to construct the RH framework (FW) maps for SSC2p and SSC9p. One set of 590 markers, including 131 microsatellites (MSs), 364 genes/ESTs, and 95 BAC end sequences (BESs) was typed on the IMNpRH2(12,000-rad) panel. A second set of 271 markers (28 MSs, 138 genes/ESTs, and 105 BESs) was typed on the IMpRH(7,000-rad) panel. The two data sets were merged into a single data-set of 655 markers of which 206 markers were typed on both panels. Two large linkage groups of 72 and 194 markers were assigned to SSC2p, and two linkage groups of 84 and 168 markers to SSC9p at a two-point LOD score of 10. A total of 126 and 114 FW markers were ordered with a likelihood ratio of 1000:1 to the SSC2p and SSC9p RH(12,000-rad) FW maps, respectively, with an accumulated map distance of 4046.5 cR(12,000 )and 1355.2 cR(7,000 )for SSC2p, and 4244.1 cR(12,000) and 1802.5 cR(7,000) for SSC9p. The kb/cR ratio in the IMNpRH2(12,000-rad) FW maps was 15.8 for SSC2p, and 15.4 for SSC9p, while the ratio in the IMpRH(7,000-rad) FW maps was 47.1 and 36.3, respectively, or an approximately 3.0-fold increase in map resolution in the IMNpRH(12,000-rad) panel over the IMpRH(7,000-rad) panel. The integrated IMNpRH(12,000-rad) andIMpRH(7,000-rad) maps as well as the genetic and BAC FPC maps provide an inclusive comparative map between SSC2p, SSC9p and HSA11 to close potential gaps between contigs prior to sequencing, and to identify regions where potential problems may arise in sequence assembly. PMID:18467842

  6. Genome-wide SNP identification for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): applications to QTL mapping of Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance and comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changwei; Niu, Yongchao; Rastas, Pasi; Liu, Yang; Xie, Zhiyuan; Li, Hengde; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yong; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tian, Yongsheng; Sakamoto, Takashi; Chen, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution genetic maps are essential for fine mapping of complex traits, genome assembly, and comparative genomic analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the primary molecular markers used for genetic map construction. In this study, we identified 13,362 SNPs evenly distributed across the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) genome. Of these SNPs, 12,712 high-confidence SNPs were subjected to high-throughput genotyping and assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 3,497.29 cM with an average distance of 0.47 cM between loci, thereby representing the densest genetic map currently reported for Japanese flounder. Nine positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) forming two main clusters for Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance were detected. All QTLs could explain 5.1-8.38% of the total phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions on the genome assembly revealed 12 immune-related genes, among them 4 genes strongly associated with V. anguillarum disease resistance. In addition, 246 genome assembly scaffolds with an average size of 21.79 Mb were anchored onto the LGs; these scaffolds, comprising 522.99 Mb, represented 95.78% of assembled genomic sequences. The mapped assembly scaffolds in Japanese flounder were used for genome synteny analyses against zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Flounder and medaka were found to possess almost one-to-one synteny, whereas flounder and zebrafish exhibited a multi-syntenic correspondence. The newly developed high-resolution genetic map, which will facilitate QTL mapping, scaffold assembly, and genome synteny analysis of Japanese flounder, marks a milestone in the ongoing genome project for this species. PMID:25762582

  7. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  8. High resolution mapping with the FST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunton, J. D.; Jones, I. G.; Brown, D. R.

    Recent modifications to the Fleurs digital receiver enable the additional correlations between the six 13.7 m dishes to be measured. Previously, only those correlations formed between the four east-west 13.7 m dishes and the thirty-two 5.7 m dishes were measured. This enables the production of three type of maps; each with full 20 arc second resolution but with properties which suit differing astronomical applications.

  9. Updating Maps Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Shahzad Janjua, Khurram; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the most dynamic countries of the world. We have witnessed a very rapid urban development's which are altering Kingdom's landscape on daily basis. In recent years a substantial increase in urban populations is observed which results in the formation of large cities. Considering this fast paced growth, it has become necessary to monitor these changes, in consideration with challenges faced by aerial photography projects. It has been observed that data obtained through aerial photography has a lifecycle of 5-years because of delay caused by extreme weather conditions and dust storms which acts as hindrances or barriers during aerial imagery acquisition, which has increased the costs of aerial survey projects. All of these circumstances require that we must consider some alternatives that can provide us easy and better ways of image acquisition in short span of time for achieving reliable accuracy and cost effectiveness. The approach of this study is to conduct an extensive comparison between different resolutions of data sets which include: Orthophoto of (10 cm) GSD, Stereo images of (50 cm) GSD and Stereo images of (1 m) GSD, for map updating. Different approaches have been applied for digitizing buildings, roads, tracks, airport, roof level changes, filling stations, buildings under construction, property boundaries, mosques buildings and parking places.

  10. High resolution, large dynamic range field map estimation

    PubMed Central

    Dagher, Joseph; Reese, Timothy; Bilgin, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We present a theory and a corresponding method to compute high resolution field maps over a large dynamic range. Theory and Methods We derive a closed-form expression for the error in the field map value when computed from two echoes. We formulate an optimization problem to choose three echo times which result in a pair of maximally distinct error distributions. We use standard field mapping sequences at the prescribed echo times. We then design a corresponding estimation algorithm which takes advantage of the optimized echo times to disambiguate the field offset value. Results We validate our method using high resolution images of a phantom at 7T. The resulting field maps demonstrate robust mapping over both a large dynamic range, and in low SNR regions. We also present high resolution offset maps in vivo using both, GRE and MEGE sequences. Even though the proposed echo time spacings are larger than the well known phase aliasing cutoff, the resulting field maps exhibit a large dynamic range without the use of phase unwrapping or spatial regularization techniques. Conclusion We demonstrate a novel 3-echo field map estimation method which overcomes the traditional noise-dynamic range trade-off. PMID:23401245

  11. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  12. High-Resolution Fluorometer for Mapping Microscale Phytoplankton Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Doubell, Mark J.; Seuront, Laurent; Seymour, Justin R.; Patten, Nicole L.; Mitchell, James G.

    2006-01-01

    A new high-resolution, in situ profiling fluorometer maps fluorescence distributions with a spatial resolution of 0.5 to 1.5 mm to a depth of 70 m in the open ocean. We report centimeter-scale patterns for phytoplankton distributions associated with gradients exhibiting 10- to 30-fold changes in fluorescence in contrasting marine ecosystems. PMID:16751572

  13. High-resolution fluorometer for mapping microscale phytoplankton distributions.

    PubMed

    Doubell, Mark J; Seuront, Laurent; Seymour, Justin R; Patten, Nicole L; Mitchell, James G

    2006-06-01

    A new high-resolution, in situ profiling fluorometer maps fluorescence distributions with a spatial resolution of 0.5 to 1.5 mm to a depth of 70 m in the open ocean. We report centimeter-scale patterns for phytoplankton distributions associated with gradients exhibiting 10- to 30-fold changes in fluorescence in contrasting marine ecosystems. PMID:16751572

  14. High-resolution mapping of motor vehicle carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Brian C.; McBride, Zoe C.; Martin, Elliot W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2014-05-01

    A fuel-based inventory for vehicle emissions is presented for carbon dioxide (CO2) and mapped at various spatial resolutions (10 km, 4 km, 1 km, and 500 m) using fuel sales and traffic count data. The mapping is done separately for gasoline-powered vehicles and heavy-duty diesel trucks. Emission estimates from this study are compared with the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) and VULCAN. All three inventories agree at the national level within 5%. EDGAR uses road density as a surrogate to apportion vehicle emissions, which leads to 20-80% overestimates of on-road CO2 emissions in the largest U.S. cities. High-resolution emission maps are presented for Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco-San Jose, Houston, and Dallas-Fort Worth. Sharp emission gradients that exist near major highways are not apparent when emissions are mapped at 10 km resolution. High CO2 emission fluxes over highways become apparent at grid resolutions of 1 km and finer. Temporal variations in vehicle emissions are characterized using extensive day- and time-specific traffic count data and are described over diurnal, day of week, and seasonal time scales. Clear differences are observed when comparing light- and heavy-duty vehicle traffic patterns and comparing urban and rural areas. Decadal emission trends were analyzed from 2000 to 2007 when traffic volumes were increasing and a more recent period (2007-2010) when traffic volumes declined due to recession. We found large nonuniform changes in on-road CO2 emissions over a period of ~5 years, highlighting the importance of timely updates to motor vehicle emission inventories.

  15. Full-sky, High-resolution Maps of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Aaron Michael

    We present full-sky, high-resolution maps of interstellar dust based on data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Planck missions. We describe our custom processing of the entire WISE 12 micron All-Sky imaging data set, and present the resulting 15 arcsecond resolution, full-sky map of diffuse Galactic dust emission, free of compact sources and other contaminating artifacts. Our derived 12 micron dust map offers angular resolution far superior to that of all other existing full-sky, infrared dust emission maps, revealing a wealth of small-scale filamentary structure. We also apply the Finkbeiner et al. (1999) two-component thermal dust emission model to the Planck HFI maps. We derive full-sky 6.1 arcminute resolution maps of dust optical depth and temperature by fitting this two-component model to Planck 217-857 GHz along with DIRBE/IRAS 100 micron data. In doing so, we obtain the first ever full-sky 100-3000 GHz Planck-based thermal dust emission model, as well as a dust temperature correction with ~10 times enhanced angular resolution relative to DIRBE-based temperature maps. Analyzing the joint Planck/DIRBE dust spectrum, we show that two-component models provide a better fit to the 100-3000 GHz emission than do single-MBB models, though by a lesser margin than found by Finkbeiner et al. (1999) based on FIRAS and DIRBE. We find that, in diffuse sky regions, our two-component 100-217 GHz predictions are on average accurate to within 2.2%, while extrapolating the Planck Collaboration (2013) single-MBB model systematically underpredicts emission by 18.8% at 100 GHz, 12.6% at 143 GHz and 7.9% at 217 GHz. We calibrate our two-component optical depth to reddening, and compare with reddening estimates based on stellar spectra. We find the dominant systematic problems in our temperature/reddening maps to be zodiacal light on large angular scales and the cosmic infrared background anisotropy on small angular scales. Future work will focus on combining

  16. Spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Harding, David J.; Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Valett, Susan; Cavanaugh, John; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-02-01

    We discuss past, present and future spaceborne laser instruments for high-resolution mapping of Earth and planetary surfaces. Previous spaceborne-laser-altimeters projected and imaged a single laser spot for surface-height measurements. In contrast, the recent Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) uses a non-scanning multi-beam system for surface topography mapping. The multi-beam instrument facilitates surface slope measurement and reduces the time-to-completion for global high-resolution topographic mapping. We discuss our first-year progress on a three-year swath-mapping laser-altimetry Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). Our IIP is a technology development program supporting the LIdar Surface Topography (LIST) space-flight mission that is a third-tier mission as recommended by the National Research Council (NRC) for NASA's Earth Science programs.

  17. High Resolution Ionospheric Mapping Using Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Chotoo, K.; Roth, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    properties, and (if applicable) geographic location. Three case studies will be presented to highlight the type and quality of ionospheric information that can be retrieved: (1) The high spatial resolution of SAR-derived TEC maps is emphasized in a case study that focuses on high resolution mapping of aurora arcs in central Alaska. Here, TEC enhancements associated with aurora activity are mapped and compared to reference observations from sky cameras and GPS; (2) observations of mid-latitudal traveling ionospheric disturbances are shown to showcase the accuracy of SAR-derived TEC maps. Several SAR-based TEC mapping methods are compared to highlight their respective advantages and disadvantages regarding processing complexity and estimation accuracy; (3) a third example focuses on analyzing post-sunset scintillation phenomena in equatorial regions. SAR is used to assess the frequency of occurrence of scintillation and analyze their associated power spectra. To conclude the paper, the temporal and spatial sampling of the ionosphere provided by the fleet of current and future spaceborne SAR sensors is analyzed to provide an assessment of the global ionospheric mapping capabilities of SAR.

  18. Clickstream Data Yields High-Resolution Maps of Science

    PubMed Central

    Bollen, Johan; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Rodriguez, Marko A.; Balakireva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    Background Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantages of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science. Methodology Over the course of 2007 and 2008, we collected nearly 1 billion user interactions recorded by the scholarly web portals of some of the most significant publishers, aggregators and institutional consortia. The resulting reference data set covers a significant part of world-wide use of scholarly web portals in 2006, and provides a balanced coverage of the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. A journal clickstream model, i.e. a first-order Markov chain, was extracted from the sequences of user interactions in the logs. The clickstream model was validated by comparing it to the Getty Research Institute's Architecture and Art Thesaurus. The resulting model was visualized as a journal network that outlines the relationships between various scientific domains and clarifies the connection of the social sciences and humanities to the natural sciences. Conclusions Maps of science resulting from large-scale clickstream data provide a detailed, contemporary view of scientific activity and correct the underrepresentation of the social sciences and humanities that is commonly found in citation data. PMID:19277205

  19. A High-Resolution Comparative Chromosome Map of Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus Reveals the Involvement of Constitutive Heterochromatin in Breakpoint Regions.

    PubMed

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ana; Louzada, Sandra; Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Compared to humans and other mammals, rodent genomes, specifically Muroidea species, underwent intense chromosome reshuffling in which many complex structural rearrangements occurred. This fact makes them preferential animal models for studying the process of karyotype evolution. Here, we present the first combined chromosome comparative maps between 2 Cricetidae species, Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus, and the index species Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. Comparative chromosome painting was done using mouse and rat paint probes together with in silico analysis from the Ensembl genome browser database. Hereby, evolutionary events (inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements) that occurred in C. cricetus and P. eremicus since the putative ancestral Muroidea genome could be inferred, and evolutionary breakpoint regions could be detected. A colocalization of constitutive heterochromatin and evolutionary breakpoint regions in each genome was observed. Our results suggest the involvement of constitutive heterochromatin in karyotype restructuring of these species, despite the different levels of conservation of the C. cricetus (derivative) and P. eremicus (conserved) genomes. PMID:25999143

  20. Clickstream data yields high-resolution maps of science

    SciTech Connect

    Bollen, Johan; Van De Sompel, Herbert; Hagberg, Aric; Bettencourt, Luis; Chute, Ryan; Rodriguez, Marko A; Balakireva, Lyudmila

    2009-01-01

    Intricate maps of science have been created from citation data to visualize the structure of scientific activity. However, most scientific publications are now accessed online. Scholarly web portals record detailed log data at a scale that exceeds the number of all existing citations combined. Such log data is recorded immediately upon publication and keeps track of the sequences of user requests (clickstreams) that are issued by a variety of users across many different domains. Given these advantagees of log datasets over citation data, we investigate whether they can produce high-resolution, more current maps of science.

  1. Airborne laser scanning for high-resolution mapping of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatho, Bea; Schenk, Toni; Krabill, William; Wilson, Terry; Lyons, William; McKenzie, Garry; Hallam, Cheryl; Manizade, Serdar; Paulsen, Timothy

    In order to evaluate the potential of airborne laser scanning for topographic mapping in Antarctica and to establish calibration/validation sites for NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimeter mission, NASA, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) joined forces to collect high-resolution airborne laser scanning data.In a two-week campaign during the 2001-2002 austral summer, NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) system was used to collect data over several sites in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica (Figure 1a). From the recorded signals, NASA computed laser points and The Ohio State University (OSU) completed the elaborate computation/verification of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in 2003. This article reports about the DEM generation and some exemplary results from scientists using the geomorphologic information from the DEMs during the 2003-2004 field season.

  2. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  3. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  4. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Antoni; Oliver, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS). This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region. PMID:26821379

  5. High-Resolution Underwater Mapping Using Side-Scan Sonar

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to generate high-resolution sea floor maps using a Side-Scan Sonar(SSS). This is achieved by explicitly taking into account the SSS operation as follows. First, the raw sensor data is corrected by means of a physics-based SSS model. Second, the data is projected to the sea-floor. The errors involved in this projection are thoroughfully analysed. Third, a probabilistic SSS model is defined and used to estimate the probability of each sea-floor region to be observed. This probabilistic information is then used to weight the contribution of each SSS measurement to the map. Because of these models, arbitrary map resolutions can be achieved, even beyond the sensor resolution. Finally, a geometric map building method is presented and combined with the probabilistic approach. The resulting map is composed of two layers. The echo intensity layer holds the most likely echo intensities at each point in the sea-floor. The probabilistic layer contains information about how confident can the user or the higher control layers be about the echo intensity layer data. Experimental results have been conducted in a large subsea region. PMID:26821379

  6. Application of laser microdissection ICP-MS for high resolution elemental mapping in mouse brain tissue: a comparative study with laser ablation ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sussulini, Alessandra; Becker, J Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Mapping of elements in biological tissue by laser induced mass spectrometry is a fast growing analytical methodology in life sciences. This method provides a multitude of useful information of metal, nonmetal, metalloid and isotopic distribution at major, minor and trace concentration ranges, usually with a lateral resolution of 12-160 µm. Selected applications in medical research require an improved lateral resolution of laser induced mass spectrometric technique at the low micrometre scale and below. The present work demonstrates the applicability of a recently developed analytical methodology - laser microdissection associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LMD ICP-MS) - to obtain elemental images of different solid biological samples at high lateral resolution. LMD ICP-MS images of mouse brain tissue samples stained with uranium and native are shown, and a direct comparison of LMD and laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS imaging methodologies, in terms of elemental quantification, is performed. PMID:25476347

  7. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits.

    PubMed

    Genot, A J; Baccouche, A; Sieskind, R; Aubert-Kato, N; Bredeche, N; Bartolo, J F; Taly, V; Fujii, T; Rondelez, Y

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator-prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations. PMID:27442281

  8. High-resolution mapping of bifurcations in nonlinear biochemical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, A. J.; Baccouche, A.; Sieskind, R.; Aubert-Kato, N.; Bredeche, N.; Bartolo, J. F.; Taly, V.; Fujii, T.; Rondelez, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Analog molecular circuits can exploit the nonlinear nature of biochemical reaction networks to compute low-precision outputs with fewer resources than digital circuits. This analog computation is similar to that employed by gene-regulation networks. Although digital systems have a tractable link between structure and function, the nonlinear and continuous nature of analog circuits yields an intricate functional landscape, which makes their design counter-intuitive, their characterization laborious and their analysis delicate. Here, using droplet-based microfluidics, we map with high resolution and dimensionality the bifurcation diagrams of two synthetic, out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear programs: a bistable DNA switch and a predator–prey DNA oscillator. The diagrams delineate where function is optimal, dynamics bifurcates and models fail. Inverse problem solving on these large-scale data sets indicates interference from enzymatic coupling. Additionally, data mining exposes the presence of rare, stochastically bursting oscillators near deterministic bifurcations.

  9. Exploring for subtle traps with high-resolution paleogeographic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Bulling, T.B.; Breyer, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution paleogeographic maps depicting the depositional history of the Reklaw 1 interval provide a basis for prospecting for subtle traps in the updip Reklaw trend in south Texas. The Reklaw 1 interval began with sand being carried southwest by longshore currents to form the barrier bar that forms the reservoir in Atkinson field. The hydrocarbons are trapped by the updip pinch-out of barrier-bar sand into lagoonal mud. Stratigraphic traps similar to Atkinson field could be present along depositional strike if the sand in the field were part of a more extensive-bar system. After the barrier bar formed, distributary-mouth bars prograded seaward depositing the bar-finger sands that are the reservoirs in Hysaw and Flax fields. Subtle structural traps could be present where small down-to-the-north faults associated with the Sample fault system cut the bar-finger sands downdip from the established production. Farther down paleoslope, the distributary channels began to bifurcate and the distributary-mouth bar coalesced to form a broad delt-front sheet sand. Burnell, Hondo Creek, and Runge West fields produce from this sheet sand near the unstable shelf margin. A rapid rise in relative sea level terminated deposition of the Reklaw 1 interval. Many of the oil and gas fields remaining to be discovered in the United States are in mature petroleum provinces where much of the remaining oil and gas probably resides in subtle traps. High-resolution paleogeographic maps may be a key to finding these subtle traps.

  10. Mapping Hazardous River Ice from High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C.; Kielland, K.; Prakash, A.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    In interior Alaska, frozen river systems are important transportation corridors, due to the very limited road network. Long-time Alaskan residents report that winter travel conditions on Interior rivers have become more dangerous in recent memory. Field experience suggested that visual clues may provide experienced river travelers with clues of ice conditions. We explored the utility of airborne or satellite imagery as useful tools to map dangerous ice conditions on rivers in interior Alaska. Unsupervised classification of high-resolution satellite imagery was used to identify and map open water and degraded ice conditions on the Tanana River. An accuracy assessment indicated that snow, degraded ice, and open water were mapped with an overall accuracy of 73%, producer's accuracies between (82 and 100%), and user's accuracy ranging from (62 to 86%). Over 95% of the errors were caused by shadowing of trees or topographic features in the snow. The classification system performed well for a variety of satellite images and across different satellite platforms. With further development, these types of satellite remote sensing tools could prove to be very useful across a range of disciplines and industry in northern climates.

  11. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  12. High-resolution genetic mapping of complex traits

    SciTech Connect

    Zruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S. |

    1995-05-01

    Positional cloning requires high-resolution genetic mapping. To plan a positional cloning project, one needs to know how many informative meioses will be required to narrow the search for a disease gene to an acceptably small region. For a simple Mendelian trait studied with linkage analysis, the answer is straightforward. In this paper, we address the situation of a complex trait studied with affected-relative-pair methods. We derive mathematical formulas for the size of an appropriate confidence region, as a function of the relative risk attributable to the gene. Using these results, we provide graphs showing the number of relative pairs required to narrow the gene hunt to an interval of a given size. For example, we show that localizing a gene to a 1 cM requires a median of 200 sib pairs for a locus causing a fivefold increased risk to an offspring and 700 sib pairs for a locus causing a twofold increased risk. We discuss the implications of these results for the positional cloning of genes underlying complex traits. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. High-resolution genetic mapping of complex traits.

    PubMed Central

    Kruglyak, L; Lander, E S

    1995-01-01

    Positional cloning requires high-resolution genetic mapping. To plan a positional cloning project, one needs to know how many informative meioses will be required to narrow the search for a disease gene to an acceptably small region. For a simple Mendelian trait studied with linkage analysis, the answer is straightforward. In this paper, we address the situation of a complex trait studied with affected-relative-pair methods. We derive mathematical formulas for the size of an appropriate confidence region, as a function of the relative risk attributable to the gene. Using these results, we provide graphs showing the number of relative pairs required to narrow the gene hunt to an interval of a given size. For example, we show that localizing a gene to 1 cM requires a median of 200 sib pairs for a locus causing a fivefold increased risk to an offspring and 700 sib pairs for a locus causing a twofold increased risk. We discuss the implications of these results for the positional cloning of genes underlying complex traits. PMID:7726179

  14. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Joosten, Hans; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has currently been recognized in international policy - since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes e.g. for the East African countries Rwanda, Burundi, Uganda and Zambia. Furthermore, we

  15. Towards a Global High Resolution Peatland Map in 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Alexandra; Barthelmes, Karen-Doreen; Dommain, Rene; Margalef, Olga; Joosten, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Some 3% of land area on planet Earth (approx. 4 million km2) is covered by peatlands. About 10% (~ 0.3 % of the land area) are drained and responsible for a disproportional 5 % of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions (Victoria et al., 2012). Additionally, peatland drainage and degradation lead to land subsidence, soil degradation, water pollution, and enhanced susceptibility to fire (Holden et al., 2004; Joosten et al., 2012). The global importance of peatlands for carbon storage and climate change mitigation has only recently been recognized in international policy - only since 2008 organic soils are subject of discussion in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Joosten, 2011). In May 2013 the European Parliament decided that the global post 2020 climate agreement should include the obligation to report emissions and removals from peatland drainage and rewetting. Implementation of such program, however, necessitates the rapid availability of reliable, comprehensive, high resolution, spatially explicit data on the extent and status of peatlands. For many reporting countries this requires an innovation in peatland mapping, i.e. the better and integrative use of novel, but already available methods and technologies. We developed an approach that links various science networks, methodologies and data bases, including those of peatland/landscape ecology for understanding where and how peatlands may occur, those of remote sensing for identifying possible locations, and those of pedology (legacy soil maps) and (palaeo-)ecology for ground truthing. Such integration of old field data, specialized knowledge, and modern RS and GIS technologies enables acquiring a rapid, comprehensive, detailed and rather reliable overview, even on a continental scale. We illustrate this approach with a high resolution overview of peatland distribution, area, status and greenhouse gas fluxes for East Africa (including the Horn of Africa, the African Great Lakes region and

  16. High-resolution structural mapping in Southwest Candor Chasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.; Lewis, K.; McEwen, A. S.; Kirk, R.; HiRISE Team

    2007-12-01

    We report initial results of high-resolution structural mapping of layered deposits in southwest Candor Chasma, near the contact with the surrounding wall rock. Mapping is accomplished on a digital terrain model created from stereo HiRISE imagery, with postings at every one meter. A prominent stratigraphic package, herein referred to as the 'Slickrock Member', is present throughout the study area and consists of a characteristic sequence of massive and friable layers. Mapping of the Slickrock Member reveals both the stratigraphic continuity between faults and folds, as well as the younging direction throughout the study area. Numerous synclines, anticlines and monoclines generally trend NW-SE and have wavelengths of ca. 0.5-0.7 km. Present-day exposures through these folds indicate that at least several hundred meters of layered deposits have been eroded and removed. Normal and thrust faults are identified from the dip direction of the fault plane and sense of bedding offset. These faults generally strike NE-SW to E-W. Fault dip angles are consistent with an effective rock friction of ca. 30 degrees. Thrust faults have lengths that are 1-2 km or more, while normal faults are generally less than 0.5 km in length. Damage zones occur at several fault stopovers and bends, and fault propagation folds are also observed. Thrust fault vergence directions appear non-systematic, consistent with thick-skinned deformation. Fault planes have a ridge-like erosional morphology that rises up to 5 m above the surrounding terrain, consistent with an origin through deformation band processes. Faults crosscut the NW-SE- trending folds and these faults do not appear to be folded, indicating that brittle deformation occurred after formation of the folds. These overlapping styles of deformation, and senses of faulting, reveal multiple changes in the orientations and magnitudes of the principal stresses that drove deformation in this area. Further, large-scale normal faulting associated

  17. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  18. Estimation of high-resolution dust column density maps. Empirical model fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvela, M.; Montillaud, J.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Sub-millimetre dust emission is an important tracer of column density N of dense interstellar clouds. One has to combine surface brightness information at different spatial resolutions, and specific methods are needed to derive N at a resolution higher than the lowest resolution of the observations. Some methods have been discussed in the literature, including a method (in the following, method B) that constructs the N estimate in stages, where the smallest spatial scales being derived only use the shortest wavelength maps. Aims: We propose simple model fitting as a flexible way to estimate high-resolution column density maps. Our goal is to evaluate the accuracy of this procedure and to determine whether it is a viable alternative for making these maps. Methods: The new method consists of model maps of column density (or intensity at a reference wavelength) and colour temperature. The model is fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, comparing model predictions with observations at their native resolution. We analyse simulated surface brightness maps and compare its accuracy with method B and the results that would be obtained using high-resolution observations without noise. Results: The new method is able to produce reliable column density estimates at a resolution significantly higher than the lowest resolution of the input maps. Compared to method B, it is relatively resilient against the effects of noise. The method is computationally more demanding, but is feasible even in the analysis of large Herschel maps. Conclusions: The proposed empirical modelling method E is demonstrated to be a good alternative for calculating high-resolution column density maps, even with considerable super-resolution. Both methods E and B include the potential for further improvements, e.g., in the form of better a priori constraints.

  19. High resolution digital soil mapping as a future instrument for developing sustainable landuse strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Philipp; Funke, Lisa-Marie; Baumann, Frank; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Climate change, increase in population and intensification of land use pose a great challenge for sustainable handling of soils. Intelligent landuse systems are able to minimize and/or avoid soil erosion and loss of soil fertility. A successful application of such systems requires area-wide soil information with high resolution. Containing three consecutive steps, the project INE-2-H („innovative sustainable landuse") at the University of Tuebingen is about creating high-resolution soil information using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) techniques to develop sustainable landuse strategies. Input data includes soil data from fieldwork (texture and carbon content), the official digital soil and geological map (1:50.000) as well as a wide selection of local, complex and combined terrain parameters. First, soil maps have been created using the DSM approach and Random Forest (RF). Due to high resolution (10x10 m pixels), those maps show a more detailed spatial variability of soil information compared to the official maps used. Root mean square errors (RMSE) of the modelled maps vary from 2.11 % to 6.87 % and the coefficients of determination (R²) go from 0.42 to 0.68. Second, soil erosion potentials have been estimated according to the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Long-term average annual soil loss ranges from 0.56 to 24.23 [t/ha/a]. Third, combining high-resolution erosion potentials with expert-knowledge of local farmers will result in a landuse system adapted to local conditions. This system will include sustainable strategies reducing soil erosion and conserving soil fertility.

  20. Towards high resolution soil property maps for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürz, Christoph; Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Soil hydraulic properties, such as soil texture, soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, or soil depth are important inputs for hydrologic catchment modelling. However, the availability of such data in Austria is often insufficient to fulfill requirements of well-established hydrological models. Either, soil data is available in sufficient spatial resolution but only covers a small extent of the considered area, or the data is comprehensive but rather coarse in its spatial resolution. Furthermore, the level of detail and quality of the data differs between the available data sets. In order to generate a comprehensive soil data set for whole Austria that includes main soil physical properties, as well as soil depth and organic carbon content in a high spatial resolution (10x10 to 100x100m²) several available soil data bases are merged and harmonized. Starting point is a high resolution soil texture map that only covers agricultural areas and is available due to Austrian land appraisal. Soil physical properties for those areas are derived by applying pedotransfer functions (e.g. Saxton and Rawls, 2006) resulting in expectation values and quantiles of the respective property for each soil texture class. For agricultural areas where no texture information is available, the most likely soil texture is assigned applying a Bayesian network approach incorporating information such as elevation, soil slope, soil type, or hydro-geology at different spatial scales. Soil data for forested areas, that cover a large extent of the state territory, are rather sparse in Austria. For such areas a similar approach as for agricultural areas is applied by using a Bayesian network for prediction of the soil texture. Additionally, information to various soil parameters taken from literature is incorporated. For areas that are covered by land use different to agriculture or forestry, such as bare rock surfaces, or wetland areas, solely literature information is used

  1. Mapping riparian and wetland weeds with high resolution satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquatic and wetland weeds are a serious management problem in many freshwater ecosystems of the world. This paper presents an overview on the application of using high resolution QuickBird multi-spectral satellite imagery for detecting weeds in waterways and wetlands in Texas. Unsupervised image a...

  2. High resolution comparative genomic hybridisation in clinical cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, M.; Rose, H.; Lundsteen, C.

    2001-01-01

    High resolution comparative genomic hybridisation (HR-CGH) is a diagnostic tool in our clinical cytogenetics laboratory. The present survey reports the results of 253 clinical cases in which 47 abnormalities were detected. Among 144 dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects with a normal conventional karyotype, 15 (10%) had small deletions or duplications, of which 11 were interstitial. In addition, a case of mosaic trisomy 9 was detected. Among 25 dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects carrying apparently balanced de novo translocations, four had deletions at translocation breakpoints and two had deletions elsewhere in the genome. Seventeen of 19 complex rearrangements were clarified by HR-CGH. A small supernumerary marker chromosome occurring with low frequency and the breakpoint of a mosaic r(18) case could not be clarified. Three of 19 other abnormalities could not be confirmed by HR-CGH. One was a Williams syndrome deletion and two were DiGeorge syndrome deletions, which were apparently below the resolution of HR-CGH. However, we were able to confirm Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome deletions, which are about 3-5 Mb. We conclude that HR-CGH should be used for the evaluation of (1) dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects where normal karyotyping has failed to show abnormalities, (2) dysmorphic and mentally retarded subjects carrying apparently balanced de novo translocations, (3) apparently balanced de novo translocations detected prenatally, and (4) for clarification of complex structural rearrangements.


Keywords: comparative genomic hybridisation; chromosome analysis; chromosome aberrations; dysmorphism PMID:11694545

  3. Force scanning: A rapid, high-resolution approach for spatial mechanical property mapping

    PubMed Central

    Darling, E M

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to co-localize mechanical properties and topographical features through property mapping techniques. The most common approach for testing biological materials at the micro-and nano-scales is force mapping, which involves taking individual force curves at discrete sites across a region of interest. Limitations of force mapping include long testing times and low resolution. While newer AFM methodologies, like modulated scanning and torsional oscillation, circumvent this problem, their adoption for biological materials has been limited. This could be due to their need for specialized software algorithms and/or hardware. The objective of this study is to develop a novel force scanning technique using AFM to rapidly capture high-resolution topographical images of soft biological materials while simultaneously quantifying their mechanical properties. Force scanning is a straight-forward methodology applicable to a wide range of materials and testing environments, requiring no special modification to standard AFMs. Essentially, if a contact mode image can be acquired, then force scanning can be used to produce a spatial modulus map. The current study first validates this technique using agarose gels, comparing results to the standard force mapping approach. Biologically relevant demonstrations are then presented for high-resolution modulus mapping of individual cells, cell-cell interfaces, and articular cartilage tissue. PMID:21411911

  4. THEMIS high-resolution digital terrain: Topographic and thermophysical mapping of Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, G. E.; Titus, T. N.; Soderblom, L. A.; Kirk, R. L.

    2009-07-01

    We discuss a new technique to generate high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) and to quantitatively derive and map slope-corrected thermophysical properties such as albedo, thermal inertia, and surface temperatures. This investigation is a continuation of work started by Kirk et al. (2005), who empirically deconvolved Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visible and thermal infrared data of this area, isolating topographic information that produced an accurate DTM. Surface temperatures change as a function of many variables such as slope, albedo, thermal inertia, time, season, and atmospheric opacity. We constrain each of these variables to construct a DTM and maps of slope-corrected albedo, slope- and albedo-corrected thermal inertia, and surface temperatures across the scene for any time of day or year and at any atmospheric opacity. DTMs greatly facilitate analyses of the Martian surface, and the MOLA global data set is not finely scaled enough (128 pixels per degree, ˜0.5 km per pixel near the equator) to be combined with newer data sets (e.g., High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, Context Camera, and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars at ˜0.25, ˜6, and ˜20 m per pixel, respectively), so new techniques to derive high-resolution DTMs are always being explored. This paper discusses our technique of combining a set of THEMIS visible and thermal infrared observations such that albedo and thermal inertia variations within the scene are eliminated and only topographic variations remain. This enables us to produce a high-resolution DTM via photoclinometry techniques that are largely free of albedo-induced errors. With this DTM, THEMIS observations, and a subsurface thermal diffusion model, we generate slope-corrected maps of albedo, thermal inertia, and surface temperatures. In addition to greater accuracy, these products allow thermophysical properties to be directly compared with topography.

  5. Creating High-Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes Using IM-CRDS and IRMS Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Since the development of isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS), the applications of water isotope analysis have been increasing. Here, we present a new protocol to create high-resolution maps of leaf water isotopes 18O and 2H. We use the Picarro induction module (IM-CRDS) combined with an isotope analyzer (L2130-i) to sample up to 25 locations in one half of each leaf. Each sampling location corresponds to four samples (6 mm outside diameter punched-holes) punched next to each other. In the induction module, an induction coil heats a metal holder containing the leaf sample. The sample will release water vapor that is then sent to the isotope analyzer. The IM-CRDS allows us to significantly reduce the sample size and therefore increase the sample density, compared to the traditional cryogenic extraction method. Using spatial analysis tools, we create high-resolution spatial maps of each isotope as well as d-excess maps. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. The isotopic composition of the extracted water is compared to the average composition calculated from the maps and used for calibration. We present applications of this protocol to the analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution of foliar uptake in Colocasia esculenta under laboratory conditions.

  6. MOURA Martian magnetometer potential for high resolution magnetic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission mapped the magnetic signature all along the Martian globe during its operation between 1996 and 2006. These data shows that Mars does not present an active global magnetic field as the Earth. However, the Martian crust has an overall magnetic signature stronger than the Earth which was inherited from the active magnetic field of the Martian core during its early cooling history. The MGS survey shows plenty of magnetic anomalies located in particular within high lands of its Southern Hemisphere. Several magnetic models have been derived to explain the MGS data considering magnetic dipoles distribution in the Martian crust with moderate to high magnetic intensities and pronounced regional anomalies. However, the origin of major magnetic anomalies remains highly disputed [1]. From the magnetic investigation point of view it would be of major importance to perform near-surface magnetic measurements [2] to compare both surface and in orbit (between 100 and 440 km) data. This would help to comprehend not only the distribution of the magnetic dipoles but also to make progress in the identification of different rock types and understanding of their degree of alteration which could have modified superficial magnetic signatures. In the frame of Finnish-Russian and Spanish MetNet mission, to perform meteorological studies on Martian surface, a miniaturized magnetometer and gradiometer named MOURA was developed with the objective to improve the interpretation of the magnetic anomalies and their origin. In order to test this magnetometer, comparative on Earth magnetic measurements were performed with MOURA and a reference absolute scalar magnetometer (Geometrics 853) in areas with a representative and large variation of magmatic rocks compositions. The final goal is to test the appropriateness of the developed magnetometer for the in situ measurements on Mars. The active continental margin of the Patagonian Andes was used for this case study

  7. A System and Method for Online High-Resolution Mapping of Gastric Slow-Wave Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Simon H.; O’Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) mapping employs multielectrode arrays to achieve spatially detailed analyses of propagating bioelectrical events. A major current limitation is that spatial analyses must currently be performed “off-line” (after experiments), compromising timely recording feedback and restricting experimental interventions. These problems motivated development of a system and method for “online” HR mapping. HR gastric recordings were acquired and streamed to a novel software client. Algorithms were devised to filter data, identify slow-wave events, eliminate corrupt channels, and cluster activation events. A graphical user interface animated data and plotted electrograms and maps. Results were compared against off-line methods. The online system analyzed 256-channel serosal recordings with no unexpected system terminations with a mean delay 18 s. Activation time marking sensitivity was 0.92; positive predictive value was 0.93. Abnormal slow-wave patterns including conduction blocks, ectopic pacemaking, and colliding wave fronts were reliably identified. Compared to traditional analysis methods, online mapping had comparable results with equivalent coverage of 90% of electrodes, average RMS errors of less than 1 s, and CC of activation maps of 0.99. Accurate slow-wave mapping was achieved in near real-time, enabling monitoring of recording quality and experimental interventions targeted to dysrhythmic onset. This work also advances the translation of HR mapping toward real-time clinical application. PMID:24860024

  8. High Resolution Maps of the Moon Surface with AMIE/SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despan, Daniela; Erard, S.; Barucci, A.; Josset, J. L.; Beauvivre, S.; Chevrel, S.; Pinet, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Grieger, B.; Foing, B.; AMIE Team

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE) on board the ESA lunar mission Smart-1 has performed colour imaging of the lunar surface using various filters in the visible and NIR range. This micro-camera provided high resolution images of selected parts of the lunar surface, including the North and South pole areas. Being give that the SMART-1 mission was in a 300km x 300km orbit with perilune over the South pole, the coverage between the North and the South regions is different. The AMIE images were obtained using a tele-objective with 5.3° x 5.3° field of view and a sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixels. The output images have resolution 45m/pixel at 500km, and are encoded with 10 bits/pixel. The data for the North pole were obtained at a much higher altitude than the South pole data. From the 300 Km pericenter altitude, the same field of view corresponds to a spatial resolution about 27 m/pixel. The high resolution imaging of the Moon surface makes possible detailed analysis of the morphological features and physical characteristics of the lunar surface. In order to construct AMIE data maps, systematic analysis and processing is being carried on using the whole data set. Geometrical analysis of AMIE images relies on the SPICE system: image coordinates are computed to get precise projection at the surface, and illumination angles are computed to analyze the photometric sequences. Using this method, high resolution mosaics were constructed then compared to lower resolution Clementine UV-Vis and NIR images. Maps of both North and South pole were obtained as well as other regions of interest. Eventually, this method will be applied in all areas where AMIE has provided high resolution observations of the surface, typically a factor of 3 higher than the Clementine UV-Vis camera. New results will be presented at the conference.

  9. High resolution hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor maps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, C.; Inglis, G.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract presents a method for creating hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor reconstructions at centimeter scale grid resolutions with robotic vehicles. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are two common sensing modalities with complementary strengths that are well suited for data fusion. We have recently developed an automated two stage pipeline to create such maps. The steps can be broken down as navigation refinement and map construction. During navigation refinement a graph-based optimization algorithm is used to align 3D point clouds created with both the multibeam sonar and stereo cameras. The process combats the typical growth in navigation error that has a detrimental affect on map fidelity and typically introduces artifacts at small grid sizes. During this process we are able to automatically register local point clouds created by each sensor to themselves and to each other where they overlap in a survey pattern. The process also estimates the sensor offsets, such as heading, pitch and roll, that describe how each sensor is mounted to the vehicle. The end results of the navigation step is a refined vehicle trajectory that ensures the points clouds from each sensor are consistently aligned, and the individual sensor offsets. In the mapping step, grid cells in the map are selectively populated by choosing data points from each sensor in an automated manner. The selection process is designed to pick points that preserve the best characteristics of each sensor and honor some specific map quality criteria to reduce outliers and ghosting. In general, the algorithm selects dense 3D stereo points in areas of high texture and point density. In areas where the stereo vision is poor, such as in a scene with low contrast or texture, multibeam sonar points are inserted in the map. This process is automated and results in a hybrid map populated with data from both sensors. Additional cross modality checks are made to reject outliers in a robust manner. The final

  10. High-resolution Geophysical Mapping of Submarine Glacial Landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Glacial landforms are generated from the activity of glaciers and display spatial dimensions ranging from below one meter up to tens of kilometers. Glacial landforms are used as diagnostic features of past activity of ice sheets and glaciers; they are specifically important in the field of palaeoglaciology. Mapping of submarine glacial landforms is largely dependent on geophysical survey methods capable of imaging the seafloor and sub-bottom through the water column. Full "global" seafloor mapping coverage, equivalent to what exists for land elevation, is to-date only achieved by the powerful method of deriving bathymetry from altimeters on satellites like GEOSAT and ERS-1. The lateral resolution of satellite derived bathymetry is, however, limited by the footprint of the satellite and the need to average out local wave and wind effects resulting in values of around 15 km. Consequently, mapping submarine glacial landforms requires for the most part higher resolution than is achievable by satellite derived bathymetry. The most widely-used methods for mapping submarine glacial landforms are based on echo-sounding principles. This presentation shows how the evolution of marine geophysical mapping techniques, in particular the advent of side-scan and multibeam bathymetric sonars, has made it possible to study submarine glacial landforms in unprecedented detail. Examples are shown from the Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient, which will be published in late 2015 in the Memoir Series of the Geological Society of London.

  11. Mapping ET at high resolution in an advective semi-arid environment with airborne multispectral imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periodic and accurate estimates of spatially distributed evapotranspiration (ET) are essential for managing water in irrigated regions and in hydrologic modeling. In this study, METRIC (Mapping ET at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration), an energy balance algorithm originally developed for...

  12. High-Resolution Geologic Mapping in East Candor Chasma: 2016 Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, C. H.

    2016-06-01

    This abstract summarizes current results and planned activities from an ongoing initiative to construct a series of high-resolution structural and geologic maps in the east Candor Chasma region of Valles Marineris, Mars.

  13. High-resolution Mapping of Offshore and Onshore Glaciogenic Features in Melville Bay, Northwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, F.; Gyllencreutz, R.; Greenwood, S.; Mayer, L. A.; Jakobsson, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents results from high resolution mapping in the northwestern part of Greenland's continental shelf, offshore from the Greenland Ice Sheet. The study area is located at about 74o30'N and 58 o40'W where high-resolution seafloor imagery were collected from ~200-500 m water depth. These data were analyzed and compared to existing high-resolution satellite imagery of exposed glacial landforms from the nearby coastal areas. Offshore geophysical mapping equipment consisted of a Kongsberg EM2040 multibeam that was bow-mounted on the sailing vessel Explorer of Sweden together with a Seatex MRU5+ motion sensor and GPS antennas. In addition, a GAVIA autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) from University of Iceland with installed Geoswath interfometric sonar and Marine Sonic side-scan was used. The data from these systems permitted the production of both 5-m (for the EM2040) and 2-m (for the Geoswath) resolution bathymetric grids for landform analyzes. Sediment characterization analysis was also undertaken using the co-registered backscatter data. The exposed onshore landforms were studied using data from the high-res QuickBird satellite images with a 2-m pixel resolution. Geomorphic analysis of the data shows that past tectonic and glacial scouring processes have shaped the present-day landscape in both the offshore and onshore study areas. The terrain consists of glacially eroded bedrock covered with very thin surficial sediments resembling a 'cnoc-and-lochan' terrain, although the degree of erosion varies spatially, probably as a result of local variations in the rock properties. Different glacially influenced features are identified and described in the study. These features have been used to understand and infer past ice-sheet processes, particularly ice-flow direction and the extent of ice-cover on the continental shelves from previous extreme glaciation events. The backscatter information from the high-resolution interferometric sonar show fine

  14. High resolution weak lensing mass mapping combining shear and flexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanusse, F.; Starck, J.-L.; Leonard, A.; Pires, S.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We propose a new mass mapping algorithm, specifically designed to recover small-scale information from a combination of gravitational shear and flexion. Including flexion allows us to supplement the shear on small scales in order to increase the sensitivity to substructures and the overall resolution of the convergence map without relying on strong lensing constraints. Methods: To preserve all available small scale information, we avoid any binning of the irregularly sampled input shear and flexion fields and treat the mass mapping problem as a general ill-posed inverse problem, which is regularised using a robust multi-scale wavelet sparsity prior. The resulting algorithm incorporates redshift, reduced shear, and reduced flexion measurements for individual galaxies and is made highly efficient by the use of fast Fourier estimators. Results: We tested our reconstruction method on a set of realistic weak lensing simulations corresponding to typical HST/ACS cluster observations and demonstrate our ability to recover substructures with the inclusion of flexion, which are otherwise lost if only shear information is used. In particular, we can detect substructures on the 15'' scale well outside of the critical region of the clusters. In addition, flexion also helps to constrain the shape of the central regions of the main dark matter halos. Our mass mapping software, called Glimpse2D, is made freely available at http://www.cosmostat.org/software/glimpse

  15. Mapping of Settlements in High Resolution Satellite Imagery using High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriydat, Anil; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Potere, David T

    2007-01-01

    Classifying urban land cover from high-resolution satellite imagery is challenging, and those challenges are compounded when the imagery databases are very large. Accurate land cover data is a crucial component of the population distribution modeling efforts of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) LandScan Program. Currently, LandScan Program imagery analysts manually interpret high-resolution (1-5 meter) imagery to augment existing satellite-derived medium (30m) and coarse (1km) resolution land cover datasets. At LandScan, the high-resolution image archives that require interpretation are on the order of terabytes. The goal of this research is to automate urban land cover mapping utilizing ORNL's high performance computing capabilities. Our algorithm employs gray-level and local edge-pattern co-occurrence matrices to generate texture and edge patterns. Areas of urban land cover correlate with statistical features derived from these texture and edge patterns. We have parallelized our algorithms for implementation on a 64-node system using a single instruction multiple data programming model (SIMD) with Message Passing Interface (MPI) as the communication mode. Our parallel-configured classifier performs 30-40 times faster than stand-alone alternatives. When compared with manually interpreted IKONOS imagery, the classifier achieves a 91% overall accuracy. These early results are promising, pointing towards future large-scale classification of urban areas.

  16. High resolution radiation hybrid maps of bovine chromosomes 19 and 29: comparison with the bovine genome sequence assembly

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Aparna; Schiex, Thomas; McKay, Stephanie; Murdoch, Brenda; Wang, Zhiquan; Womack, James E; Stothard, Paul; Moore, Stephen S

    2007-01-01

    Background High resolution radiation hybrid (RH) maps can facilitate genome sequence assembly by correctly ordering genes and genetic markers along chromosomes. The objective of the present study was to generate high resolution RH maps of bovine chromosomes 19 (BTA19) and 29 (BTA29), and compare them with the current 7.1X bovine genome sequence assembly (bovine build 3.1). We have chosen BTA19 and 29 as candidate chromosomes for mapping, since many Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for the traits of carcass merit and residual feed intake have been identified on these chromosomes. Results We have constructed high resolution maps of BTA19 and BTA29 consisting of 555 and 253 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers respectively using a 12,000 rad whole genome RH panel. With these markers, the RH map of BTA19 and BTA29 extended to 4591.4 cR and 2884.1 cR in length respectively. When aligned with the current bovine build 3.1, the order of markers on the RH map for BTA19 and 29 showed inconsistencies with respect to the genome assembly. Maps of both the chromosomes show that there is a significant internal rearrangement of the markers involving displacement, inversion and flips within the scaffolds with some scaffolds being misplaced in the genome assembly. We also constructed cattle-human comparative maps of these chromosomes which showed an overall agreement with the comparative maps published previously. However, minor discrepancies in the orientation of few homologous synteny blocks were observed. Conclusion The high resolution maps of BTA19 (average 1 locus/139 kb) and BTA29 (average 1 locus/208 kb) presented in this study suggest that by the incorporation of RH mapping information, the current bovine genome sequence assembly can be significantly improved. Furthermore, these maps can serve as a potential resource for fine mapping QTL and identification of causative mutations underlying QTL for economically important traits. PMID:17784962

  17. High Resolution Aircraft Scanner Mapping of Geothermal and Volcanic Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mongillo, M.A.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wood, C.P.; Shibata, Y.

    1995-01-01

    High spectral resolution GEOSCAN Mkll multispectral aircraft scanner imagery has been acquired, at 3-6 m spatial resolutions, over much of the Taupo Volcanic Zone as part of continuing investigations aimed at developing remote sensing techniques for exploring and mapping geothermal and volcanic areas. This study examined the 24-band: visible, near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) imagery acquired over Waiotapu geothermal area (3 m spatial resolution) and White Island volcano (6 m resolution). Results show that color composite images composed of visible and NIR wavelengths that correspond to color infrared (CIR) photographic wavelengths can be useful for distinguishing among bare ground, water and vegetation features and, in certain cases, for mapping various vegetation types. However, combinations which include an MIR band ({approx} 2.2 {micro}m) with either visible and NIR bands, or two NIR bands, are the most powerful for mapping vegetation types, water bodies, and bare and hydrothermally altered ground. Combinations incorporating a daytime TIR band with NIR and MIR bands are also valuable for locating anomalously hot features and distinguishing among different types of surface hydrothermal alteration.

  18. Mapping Urban Ecosystem Services Using High Resolution Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.

    2010-12-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil

  19. Using Formaldehyde to Create High Resolution Temperature Maps of CMZ Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    80% of the dense molecular gas in our Galaxy resides in the central few hundred parsecs, known as the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). From our understanding of star formation, we would expect a comparatively high star formation rate in this region, but the estimates so far indicate that only 5-10% of the star formation in our Galaxy occurs there. There are a number of physical effects that may be causing this, but we particularly wish to investigate the role of the temperature of the gas - which initial estimates put at an average of 50-100 K or about a factor of 5 higher than elsewhere in the disk. Armed with the data taken by the SMA Legacy Survey of the CMZ, we aim to compare parameters two transition lines for the dense gas tracer H2CO which are particularly sensitive to temperature to measure the gas temperature on 0.2 pc scales. Ultimately we provide a high resolution temperature map for a set of clouds in the CMZ dubbed "the three little pigs" to provide an initial comparison with similar work done with ammonia tracers in order to pave the way for a high resolution temperature map of the entire CMZ.

  20. Automated Gastric Slow Wave Cycle Partitioning and Visualization for High-resolution Activation Time Maps

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jonathan C.; O’Grady, Greg; Du, Peng; Egbuji, John U.; Pullan, Andrew J.; Cheng, Leo K.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) multi-electrode mapping has become an important technique for evaluating gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave (SW) behaviors. However, the application and uptake of HR mapping has been constrained by the complex and laborious task of analyzing the large volumes of retrieved data. Recently, a rapid and reliable method for automatically identifying activation times (ATs) of SWs was presented, offering substantial efficiency gains. To extend the automated data-processing pipeline, novel automated methods are needed for partitioning identified ATs into their propagation cycles, and for visualizing the HR spatiotemporal maps. A novel cycle partitioning algorithm (termed REGROUPS) is presented. REGROUPS employs an iterative REgion GROwing procedure and incorporates a Polynomial-surface-estimate Stabilization step, after initiation by an automated seed selection process. Automated activation map visualization was achieved via an isochronal contour mapping algorithm, augmented by a heuristic 2-step scheme. All automated methods were collectively validated in a series of experimental test cases of normal and abnormal SW propagation, including instances of patchy data quality. The automated pipeline performance was highly comparable to manual analysis, and outperformed a previously proposed partitioning approach. These methods will substantially improve the efficiency of GI HR mapping research. PMID:20927594

  1. High-resolution habitat mapping on mud fields: new approach to quantitative mapping of Ocean quahog.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Artem; Gubanova, Yana; Tzetlin, Alexander; Mokievsky, Vadim

    2014-12-01

    During 2009-2012 stocks of the bivalve Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Ocean quahog) in Kandalaksha Bay (the White Sea) has been assessed using a side-scan sonar, grab sampling and underwater photo imaging. Structurally uniform localities were highlighted on the basis of side-scan signal. Each type of a signal reflects combination of sediment type, microtopography and structural characteristics of benthic community. The distribution of A. islandica was the predominant factor in determining community structure. Seabed attributes considered most significant were defined for each type of substrate type. Relations of sonar signal and sediment type were used for landscape mapping based on sonar data. Community characteristics at known localities were reliably interpolated to the area of survey using statistical processing of geophysical data. A method of integrated sonar and sampling data interpretation for high-resolution mapping of A. islandica by biomass groups, benthic faunal groups and associated habitats was developed. PMID:24954748

  2. A new map of the vegetation of central European Russia based on high-resolution satellite data.

    PubMed

    Ershov, D V; Gavrilyuk, E A; Karpukhina, D A; Kovganko, K A

    2015-01-01

    The scientific basis of and approaches to regional thematic mapping of vegetation based on high-resolution satellite data have been elaborated. A vegetation map of central European Russia has been compiled. The map includes 12 thematic classes, six of which pertain to forest ecosystems. The map has been compared to the data of the GFC project (University of Maryland, United States) and the official data of the Rosstat Federal Service of State Statistics (Russia). The new vegetation map is currently used in the information system of the remote monitoring of forest fires in Russia. PMID:26530069

  3. Risk assessment of ventricular arrhythmia using new parameters based on high resolution body surface potential mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fereniec, Malgorzata; Stix, Gunter; Kania, Michal; Mroczka, Tomasz; Janusek, Dariusz; Maniewski, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The effective screening of myocardial infarction (MI) patients threatened by ventricular tachycardia (VT) is an important issue in clinical practice, especially in the process of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy recommendation. This study proposes new parameters describing depolarization and repolarization inhomogeneity in high resolution body surface potential maps (HR BSPM) to identify MI patients threatened by VT. Material/Methods High resolution ECGs were recorded from 64 surface leads. Time-averaged HR BSPMs were used. Several parameters for arrhythmia risk assessment were calculated in 2 groups of MI patients: those with and without documented VT. Additionally, a control group of healthy subjects was studied. To assess the risk of VT, the following parameters were proposed: correlation coefficient between STT and QRST integral maps (STT_QRST_CORR), departure index of absolute value of STT integral map (STT_DI), and departure index of absolute value of T-wave shape index (TSI_DI). These new parameters were compared to known parameters: QRS width, QT interval, QT dispersion, Tpeak-Tend interval, total cosines between QRS complex and T wave, and non-dipolar content of QRST integral maps. Results STT_DI, TSI_DI, STT_QRST_CORR, QRS width, and QT interval parameters were statistically significant (p≤0.05) in arrhythmia risk assessment. The highest sensitivity was found for the STT_DI parameter (0.77) and the highest specificity for TSI_DI (0.79). Conclusions Arrhythmia risk is demonstrated by both abnormal spatial distribution of the repolarization phase and changed relationship between depolarization and repolarization phases, as well as their prolongation. The proposed new parameters might be applied for risk stratification of cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:21358612

  4. A high-resolution radiation hybrid map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are building high-resolution radiation hybrid maps of all 29 bovine autosomes and chromosome X, using a 58,000-marker genotyping assay, and a 12,000-rad whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) panel. To accommodate the large number of markers, and to automate the map building procedure, a software pip...

  5. A high-resolution cattle CNV map by population-scale genome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are common genomic structural variations that have been linked to human diseases and phenotypic traits. Prior studies in cattle have produced low-resolution CNV maps. We constructed a draft, high-resolution map of cattle CNVs based on whole genome sequencing data from 7...

  6. HetMappsS: Heterozygous mapping strategy for high resolution Genotyping-by-Sequencing Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced representation genotyping approaches, such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), provide opportunities to generate high-resolution genetic maps at a low per-sample cost. However, missing data and non-uniform sequence coverage can complicate map creation in highly heterozygous species. To facili...

  7. High-resolution fracture aperture mapping using optical profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Pasha; Elkhoury, Jean E.; Detwiler, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Fractures play an important role in the Earth's crust, often controlling both mechanical and transport processes. Developing a mechanistic understanding of these processes requires quantifying the roughness of fracture surfaces and the contacts and void spaces between fracture surfaces at high spatial resolution (10s of microns) over a broad range of scales (centimeters to meters). Here we present a scalable method for measuring fracture surfaces and reconstructing fracture aperture fields using an optical profilometer. We evaluate the method by measuring two fractured limestone cores; one is a tensile fracture with strong cross correlation between the surfaces and the other is a saw-cut, sand-blasted fracture with negligible cross correlation between the surfaces. Results of repeated measurements of these two fractures suggest that well-correlated surfaces, where the correlation between the surfaces can aid reconstruction, can be reproduced with local uncertainties with median standard deviation of 8 μm . Poorly correlated surfaces, where reconstruction relies solely upon the precision of the placement of the halves of the core on the profilometer stage, can be reproduced with local uncertainties with median standard deviation of 20 μm . Additionally, we quantified the accuracy of the technique by comparing calculated aperture profiles of a fractured concrete core to thin sections cut from the core after impregnating it with epoxy. The median deviation between the two measurements, which includes errors due to residual misalignment of the profiles, was 29 μm supporting the accuracy of the method. Our results emphasize the potential for using noncontact surface measurement techniques to accurately and precisely reconstruct fracture apertures over a wide range of length scales.

  8. High-resolution spatial mapping of shear properties in cartilage.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Mark R; Bergou, Attila J; Fouchard, Jonathan; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Cohen, Itai

    2010-03-01

    Structural properties of articular cartilage such as proteoglycan content, collagen content and collagen alignment are known to vary over length scales as small as a few microns (Bullough and Goodfellow, 1968; Bi et al., 2006). Characterizing the resulting variation in mechanical properties is critical for understanding how the inhomogeneous architecture of this tissue gives rise to its function. Previous studies have measured the depth-dependent shear modulus of articular cartilage using methods such as particle image velocimetry (PIV) that rely on cells and cell nuclei as fiducial markers to track tissue deformation (Buckley et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2008a). However, such techniques are limited by the density of trackable markers, which may be too low to take full advantage of optical microscopy. This limitation leads to noise in the acquired data, which is often exacerbated when the data is manipulated. In this study, we report on two techniques for increasing the accuracy of tissue deformation measurements. In the first technique, deformations were tracked in a grid that was photobleached on each tissue sample (Bruehlmann et al., 2004). In the second, a numerical technique was implemented that allowed for accurate differentiation of optical displacement measurements by minimizing the propagated experimental error while ensuring that truncation error associated with local averaging of the data remained small. To test their efficacy, we employed these techniques to compare the depth-dependent shear moduli of neonatal bovine and adult human articular cartilage. Using a photobleached grid and numerical optimization to gather and analyze data led to results consistent with those reported previously (Buckley et al., 2008; Wong et al., 2008a), but with increased spatial resolution and characteristic coefficients of variation that were reduced up to a factor of 3. This increased resolution allowed us to determine that the shear modulus of neonatal bovine and adult

  9. Fine resolution topographic mapping of the Jovian moons: a Ka-band high resolution topographic mapping interferometric synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, Soren N.; Carsey, Frank D.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2003-01-01

    The topographic data set obtained by MOLA has provided an unprecedented level of information about Mars' geologic features. The proposed flight of JIMO provides an opportunity to accomplish a similar mapping of and comparable scientific discovery for the Jovian moons through us of an interferometric imaging radar analogous to the Shuttle radar that recently generated a new topographic map of Earth. A Ka-band single pass across-track synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometer can provide very high resolution surface elevation maps. The concept would use two antennas mounted at the ends of a deployable boom (similar to the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapper) extended orthogonal to the direction of flight. Assuming an orbit altitude of approximately 100 km and a ground velocity of approximately 1.5 km/sec, horizontal resolutions at the 10 meter level and vertical resolutions at the sub-meter level are possible.

  10. Fine Resolution Topographic Mapping of the Jovian Moons: A Ka-Band High Resolution Topographic Mapping Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, S. N.; Carsey, F. D.; Turtle, E. P.

    2003-01-01

    The topographic data set obtained by MOLA has provided an unprecedented level of information about Mars' geologic features. The proposed flight of JIMO provides an opportunity to accomplish a similar mapping of and comparable scientific discovery for the Jovian moons through use of an interferometric imaging radar analogous to the Shuttle radar that recently generated a new topographic map of Earth. A Ka-band single pass across-track synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometer can provide very high resolution surface elevation maps. The concept would use two antennas mounted at the ends of a deployable boom (similar to the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapper) extended orthogonal to the direction of flight. Assuming an orbit altitude of approximately 100km and a ground velocity of approximately 1.5 km/sec, horizontal resolutions at the 10 meter level and vertical resolutions at the sub-meter level are possible.

  11. Using high-resolution quantitative mapping of R1 as an index of cortical myelination.

    PubMed

    Lutti, Antoine; Dick, Frederic; Sereno, Martin I; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2014-06-01

    A fundamental tenet of neuroscience is that cortical functional differentiation is related to the cross-areal differences in cyto-, receptor-, and myeloarchitectonics that are observed in ex-vivo preparations. An ongoing challenge is to create noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques that offer sufficient resolution, tissue contrast, accuracy and precision to allow for characterization of cortical architecture over an entire living human brain. One exciting development is the advent of fast, high-resolution quantitative mapping of basic MR parameters that reflect cortical myeloarchitecture. Here, we outline some of the theoretical and technical advances underlying this technique, particularly in terms of measuring and correcting for transmit and receive radio frequency field inhomogeneities. We also discuss new directions in analytic techniques, including higher resolution reconstructions of the cortical surface. We then discuss two recent applications of this technique. The first compares individual and group myelin maps to functional retinotopic maps in the same individuals, demonstrating a close relationship between functionally and myeloarchitectonically defined areal boundaries (as well as revealing an interesting disparity in a highly studied visual area). The second combines tonotopic and myeloarchitectonic mapping to localize primary auditory areas in individual healthy adults, using a similar strategy as combined electrophysiological and post-mortem myeloarchitectonic studies in non-human primates. PMID:23756203

  12. Mangrove species mapping in Kuala Sepetang Mangrove Forest, Perak using high resolution airborne data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beh, B. C.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2015-10-01

    Mangrove vegetation is widely employed and studied as it is a unique ecosystem which is able to provide plenty of goods and applications to our country. In this paper, high resolution airborne image data obtained the flight mission on Kuala Sepetang Mangrove Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia will be used for mangrove species mapping. Supervised classification using the retrieved surface reflectance will be performed to classify the airborne data using Geomatica 2013 software package. The ground truth data will be used to validate the classification accuracy. High correlation of R2=0.873 was achieved in this study indicate that high resolution airborne data is reliable and suitable used for mangrove species mapping.

  13. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  14. Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar.

    PubMed

    Swatantran, Anu; Tang, Hao; Barrett, Terence; DeCola, Phil; Dubayah, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Single photon lidar (SPL) is an innovative technology for rapid forest structure and terrain characterization over large areas. Here, we evaluate data from an SPL instrument - the High Resolution Quantum Lidar System (HRQLS) that was used to map the entirety of Garrett County in Maryland, USA (1700 km(2)). We develop novel approaches to filter solar noise to enable the derivation of forest canopy structure and ground elevation from SPL point clouds. SPL attributes are compared with field measurements and an existing leaf-off, low-point density discrete return lidar dataset as a means of validation. We find that canopy and ground characteristics from SPL are similar to discrete return lidar despite differences in wavelength and acquisition periods but the higher point density of the SPL data provides more structural detail. Our experience suggests that automated noise removal may be challenging, particularly over high albedo surfaces and rigorous instrument calibration is required to reduce ground measurement biases to accepted mapping standards. Nonetheless, its efficiency of data collection, and its ability to produce fine-scale, three-dimensional structure over large areas quickly strongly suggests that SPL should be considered as an efficient and potentially cost-effective alternative to existing lidar systems for large area mapping. PMID:27329078

  15. Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar

    PubMed Central

    Swatantran, Anu; Tang, Hao; Barrett, Terence; DeCola, Phil; Dubayah, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Single photon lidar (SPL) is an innovative technology for rapid forest structure and terrain characterization over large areas. Here, we evaluate data from an SPL instrument - the High Resolution Quantum Lidar System (HRQLS) that was used to map the entirety of Garrett County in Maryland, USA (1700 km2). We develop novel approaches to filter solar noise to enable the derivation of forest canopy structure and ground elevation from SPL point clouds. SPL attributes are compared with field measurements and an existing leaf-off, low-point density discrete return lidar dataset as a means of validation. We find that canopy and ground characteristics from SPL are similar to discrete return lidar despite differences in wavelength and acquisition periods but the higher point density of the SPL data provides more structural detail. Our experience suggests that automated noise removal may be challenging, particularly over high albedo surfaces and rigorous instrument calibration is required to reduce ground measurement biases to accepted mapping standards. Nonetheless, its efficiency of data collection, and its ability to produce fine-scale, three-dimensional structure over large areas quickly strongly suggests that SPL should be considered as an efficient and potentially cost-effective alternative to existing lidar systems for large area mapping. PMID:27329078

  16. Rapid, High-Resolution Forest Structure and Terrain Mapping over Large Areas using Single Photon Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swatantran, Anu; Tang, Hao; Barrett, Terence; Decola, Phil; Dubayah, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Single photon lidar (SPL) is an innovative technology for rapid forest structure and terrain characterization over large areas. Here, we evaluate data from an SPL instrument - the High Resolution Quantum Lidar System (HRQLS) that was used to map the entirety of Garrett County in Maryland, USA (1700 km2). We develop novel approaches to filter solar noise to enable the derivation of forest canopy structure and ground elevation from SPL point clouds. SPL attributes are compared with field measurements and an existing leaf-off, low-point density discrete return lidar dataset as a means of validation. We find that canopy and ground characteristics from SPL are similar to discrete return lidar despite differences in wavelength and acquisition periods but the higher point density of the SPL data provides more structural detail. Our experience suggests that automated noise removal may be challenging, particularly over high albedo surfaces and rigorous instrument calibration is required to reduce ground measurement biases to accepted mapping standards. Nonetheless, its efficiency of data collection, and its ability to produce fine-scale, three-dimensional structure over large areas quickly strongly suggests that SPL should be considered as an efficient and potentially cost-effective alternative to existing lidar systems for large area mapping.

  17. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  18. Grapevine powdery mildew resistance and susceptibility loci identified on a high-resolution SNP map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved efficacy and durability of powdery mildew resistance requires knowledge of the genetics of resistance and susceptibility and high resolution maps to facilitate combining of multiple resistance genes with desirable traits. In the current study, we studied the inheritance of resistance and s...

  19. ET mapping with high-resolution airborne remote sensing data in an advective semiarid environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of spatially distributed vegetation evapotranspiration (ET) are essential for managing water in irrigated regions and for hydrologic modeling. The METRIC**TM (Mapping ET at high Resolutions with Internal Calibration) energy balance algorithm was applied to derive ET from six very ...

  20. A comparison of modeling schemes for mapping daily evapotranspiration at high resolution using remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, T.; Cuenca, R. H.; Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Semmens, K. A.; Kustas, W. P.; Alfieri, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the hydrologic cycle that transfers large quantities of water vapor away from Earth's surface into the atmosphere. In addition to having water management applications in agriculture, including monitoring water rights compliance and irrigation scheduling, it is also important to be able to accurately measure water used by other landscapes for soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) models. This can only be done with large scale estimations which are most efficiently achieved with remote sensing. This research compares daily ET retrieved from two remote sensing modeling schemes: a) Reconstructed METRIC: Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration; and b) ALEXI/DisALEXI: Atmosphere-Land EXchange Inverse /Disaggregated ALEXI, over two predominately forested landscapes. ET flux estimates are retrieved from ALEXI/DisALEXI using GOES (daily, 4km), MODIS (daily, 1km) and Landsat 8 (16 days, 30m) and from Reconstructed METRIC using Landsat 8. We develop daily Landsat scale ET maps for the summer months of 2013. The flux-tower footprint is calculated at each site to match the remotely sensed retrieval with that of the flux tower such that modeled output can be evaluated against ground based observations, taken from the AmeriFlux network. In addition, surface and evaporative fluxes retrieved from the two models are inter-compared over the different land cover types in the scenes. Differences in input and data processing requirements for each of the two methods will be also described

  1. Generation of High Resolution and High Precision Orthorectified Road Imagery from Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, M.; Tachibana, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a novel technique to generate a high resolution and high precision Orthorectified Road Imagery (ORI) by using spatial information acquired from a Mobile Mapping System (MMS) is introduced. The MMS was equipped with multiple sensors such as GPS, IMU, odometer, 2-6 digital cameras and 2-4 laser scanners. In this study, a Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) based approach, similar to general aerial photogrammetry, was adopted to build a terrain model in order to generate ORI with high resolution and high geometric precision. Compared to aerial photogrammetry, there are several issues that are needed to be addressed. ORI is generated by merging multiple time sequence images of a short section. Hence, the influence of occlusion due to stationary objects, such as telephone poles, trees, footbridges, or moving objects, such as vehicles, pedestrians are very significant. Moreover, influences of light falloff at the edges of cameras, tone adjustment among images captured from different cameras or a round trip data acquisition of the same path, and time lag between image exposure and laser point acquisition also need to be addressed properly. The proposed method was applied to generate ORI with 1 cm resolution, from the actual MMS data sets. The ORI generated by the proposed technique was more clear, occlusion free and with higher resolution compared to the conventional orthorectified coloured point cloud imagery. Moreover, the visual interpretation of road features from the ORI was much easier. In addition, the experimental results also validated the effectiveness of proposed radiometric corrections. In occluded regions, the ORI was compensated by using other images captured from different angles. The validity of the image masking process, in the occluded regions, was also ascertained.

  2. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  3. Aircraft Detection in High-Resolution SAR Images Based on a Gradient Textural Saliency Map

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yihua; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yansheng; Tian, Jinwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new automatic and adaptive aircraft target detection algorithm in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of airport. The proposed method is based on gradient textural saliency map under the contextual cues of apron area. Firstly, the candidate regions with the possible existence of airport are detected from the apron area. Secondly, directional local gradient distribution detector is used to obtain a gradient textural saliency map in the favor of the candidate regions. In addition, the final targets will be detected by segmenting the saliency map using CFAR-type algorithm. The real high-resolution airborne SAR image data is used to verify the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that this algorithm can detect aircraft targets quickly and accurately, and decrease the false alarm rate. PMID:26378543

  4. Assessing Usefulness of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) for Re-Survey of Cadastral Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. S.; Sharma, J. R.; Rajashekar, S. S.; Rao, D. S. P.; Arepalli, A.; Arora, V.; Kuldeep; Singh, R. P.; Kanaparthi, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Government of India has initiated "National Land Records Modernization Programme (NLRMP)" with emphasis to modernize management of land records, minimize scope of land/property disputes, enhance transparency in the land records maintenance system, and facilitate moving eventually towards guaranteed conclusive titles to immovable properties in the country. One of the major components of the programme is survey/re-survey and updating of all survey and settlement records including creation of original cadastral records wherever necessary. The use of ETS/GPS, Aerial or High Resolution Satellite Images (HRSI) and hybrid method of images are suggested for re-survey in the guidelines. The emerging new satellite technologies enabling earth observation at a spatial resolution of 1.0m or 0.5m or even 0.41m have brought revolutionary changes in the field of cadastral survey. The highresolution satellite imagery (HRSI) is showing its usefulness for cadastral surveys in terms of clear identification of parcel boundaries and other cultural features due to which traditional cadastre and land registration systems have been undergoing major changes worldwide. In the present research study, cadastral maps are derived from ETS/GPS, HRSI of 1.0m and 0.5m and used for comparison. The differences in areas, perimeter and position of parcels derived from HRSI are compared vis-a-vis ETS/GPS boundaries. An assessment has been made on the usefulness of HRSI for re-survey of cadastral maps vis-a-vis conventional ground survey.

  5. High-Resolution Debris Flow Volume Mapping with Unmanned Aerial Systems (uas) and Photogrammetric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. S.; Fromm, R.; Lechner, V.

    2016-06-01

    Debris flows cause an average € 30 million damages and 1-2 fatalities every year in Austria. Detailed documentation of their extent and magnitude is essential for understanding, preventing and mitigating these natural hazard events. The recent development of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has provided a new possibility for on-demand high-resolution monitoring and mapping. Here, we present a study, where the spatial extent and volume of a large debris flow event were mapped with different UAS, fitted with commercial off-the-shelf sensors. Orthophotos and digital terrain models (DTM) were calculated using structure-from-motion photogrammetry software. Terrain height differences caused by the debris flow in the catchment and valley floor were derived by subtracting the pre-event airborne laser scanning (ALS) DTM from a post-event UAS-DTM. The analysis of the volumetric sediment budget showed, that approximately 265,000 m³ material was mobilised in the catchment, of which 45,000 m³ settled there; of the material, which reached the valley floor, 120,000 m³ was deposited, while another 10,000 m³ was eroded from there. The UAS-results were validated against ALS data and imagery from a traditional manned-aircraft photogrammetry campaign. In conclusion, the UAS-data can reach an accuracy and precision comparable to manned aircraft data, but with the added benefits of higher flexibility, easier repeatability, less operational constraints and higher spatial resolution.

  6. Topological Data Analysis Generates High-Resolution, Genome-wide Maps of Human Recombination.

    PubMed

    Camara, Pablo G; Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Emmett, Kevin J; Levine, Arnold J; Rabadan, Raul

    2016-07-01

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental evolutionary process driving diversity in eukaryotes. In mammals, recombination is known to occur preferentially at specific genomic regions. Using topological data analysis (TDA), a branch of applied topology that extracts global features from large data sets, we developed an efficient method for mapping recombination at fine scales. When compared to standard linkage-based methods, TDA can deal with a larger number of SNPs and genomes without incurring prohibitive computational costs. We applied TDA to 1,000 Genomes Project data and constructed high-resolution whole-genome recombination maps of seven human populations. Our analysis shows that recombination is generally under-represented within transcription start sites. However, the binding sites of specific transcription factors are enriched for sites of recombination. These include transcription factors that regulate the expression of meiosis- and gametogenesis-specific genes, cell cycle progression, and differentiation blockage. Additionally, our analysis identifies an enrichment for sites of recombination at repeat-derived loci matched by piwi-interacting RNAs. PMID:27345159

  7. Ecosystem services of boreal forests - Carbon budget mapping at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Akujärvi, Anu; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Liski, Jari

    2016-10-01

    The carbon (C) cycle of forests produces ecosystem services (ES) such as climate regulation and timber production. Mapping these ES using simple land cover -based proxies might add remarkable inaccuracy to the estimates. A framework to map the current status of the C budget of boreal forested landscapes was developed. The C stocks of biomass and soil and the annual change in these stocks were quantified in a 20 × 20 m resolution at the regional level on mineral soils in southern Finland. The fine-scale variation of the estimates was analyzed geo-statistically. The reliability of the estimates was evaluated by comparing them to measurements from the national multi-source forest inventory. The C stocks of forests increased slightly from the south coast to inland whereas the changes in these stocks were more uniform. The spatial patches of C stocks were larger than those of C stock changes. The patch size of the C stocks reflected the spatial variation in the environmental conditions, and that of the C stock changes the typical area of forest management compartments. The simulated estimates agreed well with the measurements indicating a good mapping framework performance. The mapping framework is the basis for evaluating the effects of forest management alternatives on C budget at high resolution across large spatial scales. It will be coupled with the assessment of other ES and biodiversity to study their relationships. The framework integrated a wide suite of simulation models and extensive inventory data. It provided reliable estimates of the human influence on C cycle in forested landscapes. PMID:27420172

  8. Agricultural land-use mapping using very high resolution satellite images in Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador Garcia, Mauricio; Arbelo, Manuel; Evora Brondo, Juan Antonio; Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; Alonso-Benito, Alfonso

    Crop maps are a basic tool for rural planning and a way to asses the impact of politics and infrastructures in the rural environment. Thus, they must be accurate and updated. Because of the small size of the land fields in Canary Islands, until now the crop maps have been made by means of an intense and expensive field work. The tiny crop terraces do not allow the use of traditional medium-size resolution satellite images. The launch of several satellites with sub-meter spatial resolutions in the last years provides an opportunity to update land use maps in these fragmented areas. SATELMAC is a project financed by the PCT-MAC 2007-2013 (FEDER funds). One of the main objectives of this project is to develop a methodology that allows the use of very high resolution satellite images to automate as much as possible the updating of agricultural land use maps. The study was carried out in 3 different areas of the two main islands of the Canarian Archipelago, Tenerife and Gran Canaria. The total area is about 550 km2 , which includes both urban and rural areas. Multitemporal images from Geo-Eye 1 were acquired during a whole agricultural season to extract information about annual and perennial crops. The work includes a detailed geographic correction of the images and dealing with many adverse factors like cloud shadows, variability of atmospheric conditions and the heterogeneity of the land uses within the study area. Different classification methods, including traditional pixel-based methods and object-oriented approach, were compared in order to obtain the best accuracy. An intensive field work was carried out to obtain the ground truth, which is the base for the classification procedures and the validation of the results. The final results will be integrated into a cadastral vector layer.

  9. Soil Erosion map of Europe based on high resolution input datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagos, Panos; Borrelli, Pasquale; Meusburger, Katrin; Ballabio, Cristiano; Alewell, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Modelling soil erosion in European Union is of major importance for agro-environmental policies. Soil erosion estimates are important inputs for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the implementation of the Soil Thematic Strategy. Using the findings of a recent pan-European data collection through the EIONET network, it was concluded that most Member States are applying the empirical Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for the modelling soil erosion at National level. This model was chosen for the pan-European soil erosion risk assessment and it is based on 6 input factors. Compared to past approaches, each of the factors is modelled using the latest pan-European datasets, expertise and data from Member states and high resolution remote sensing data. The soil erodibility (K-factor) is modelled using the recently published LUCAS topsoil database with 20,000 point measurements and incorporating the surface stone cover which can reduce K-factor by 15%. The rainfall erosivity dataset (R-factor) has been implemented using high temporal resolution rainfall data from more than 1,500 precipitation stations well distributed in Europe. The cover-management (C-factor) incorporates crop statistics and management practices such as cover crops, tillage practices and plant residuals. The slope length and steepness (combined LS-factor) is based on the first ever 25m Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Europe. Finally, the support practices (P-factor) is modelled for first time at this scale taking into account the 270,000 LUCAS earth observations and the Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition (GAEC) that farmers have to follow in Europe. The high resolution input layers produce the final soil erosion risk map at 100m resolution and allow policy makers to run future land use, management and climate change scenarios.

  10. Automated high resolution mapping of coffee in Rwanda using an expert Bayesian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukashema, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Vrieling, A.

    2014-12-01

    African highland agro-ecosystems are dominated by small-scale agricultural fields that often contain a mix of annual and perennial crops. This makes such systems difficult to map by remote sensing. We developed an expert Bayesian network model to extract the small-scale coffee fields of Rwanda from very high resolution data. The model was subsequently applied to aerial orthophotos covering more than 99% of Rwanda and on one QuickBird image for the remaining part. The method consists of a stepwise adjustment of pixel probabilities, which incorporates expert knowledge on size of coffee trees and fields, and on their location. The initial naive Bayesian network, which is a spectral-based classification, yielded a coffee map with an overall accuracy of around 50%. This confirms that standard spectral variables alone cannot accurately identify coffee fields from high resolution images. The combination of spectral and ancillary data (DEM and a forest map) allowed mapping of coffee fields and associated uncertainties with an overall accuracy of 87%. Aggregated to district units, the mapped coffee areas demonstrated a high correlation with the coffee areas reported in the detailed national coffee census of 2009 (R2 = 0.92). Unlike the census data our map provides high spatial resolution of coffee area patterns of Rwanda. The proposed method has potential for mapping other perennial small scale cropping systems in the East African Highlands and elsewhere.

  11. High-resolution Ceres High Altitude Mapping Orbit atlas derived from Dawn Framing Camera images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Th.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera (FC) acquired over 2400 clear filter images of Ceres with a resolution of about 140 m/pixel during the six cycles in the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase between August 18 and October 21, 2015. We ortho-rectified the images from the first cycle and produced a global, high-resolution, controlled photomosaic of Ceres. This global mosaic is the basis for a high-resolution Ceres atlas that consists of 15 tiles mapped at a scale of 1:750,000. The nomenclature used in this atlas was proposed by the Dawn team and was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The full atlas is available to the public through the Dawn Geographical Information System (GIS) web page

  12. Advanced Ecosystem Mapping Techniques for Large Arctic Study Domains Using Calibrated High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macander, M. J.; Frost, G. V., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Regional-scale mapping of vegetation and other ecosystem properties has traditionally relied on medium-resolution remote sensing such as Landsat (30 m) and MODIS (250 m). Yet, the burgeoning availability of high-resolution (<=2 m) imagery and ongoing advances in computing power and analysis tools raises the prospect of performing ecosystem mapping at fine spatial scales over large study domains. Here we demonstrate cutting-edge mapping approaches over a ~35,000 km² study area on Alaska's North Slope using calibrated and atmospherically-corrected mosaics of high-resolution WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 imagery: (1) an a priori spectral approach incorporating the Satellite Imagery Automatic Mapper (SIAM) algorithms; (2) image segmentation techniques; and (3) texture metrics. The SIAM spectral approach classifies radiometrically-calibrated imagery to general vegetation density categories and non-vegetated classes. The SIAM classes were developed globally and their applicability in arctic tundra environments has not been previously evaluated. Image segmentation, or object-based image analysis, automatically partitions high-resolution imagery into homogeneous image regions that can then be analyzed based on spectral, textural, and contextual information. We applied eCognition software to delineate waterbodies and vegetation classes, in combination with other techniques. Texture metrics were evaluated to determine the feasibility of using high-resolution imagery to algorithmically characterize periglacial surface forms (e.g., ice-wedge polygons), which are an important physical characteristic of permafrost-dominated regions but which cannot be distinguished by medium-resolution remote sensing. These advanced mapping techniques provide products which can provide essential information supporting a broad range of ecosystem science and land-use planning applications in northern Alaska and elsewhere in the circumpolar Arctic.

  13. High-resolution mapping of mass loss from highly evolved carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, R.

    1986-01-01

    The molecular component of the mass outflow at high resolution was mapped with the Owens Valley Millimeter-Wave Interferometer in two well-known objects, CRL 2688 and CIT 6. Interferometric observations of a pair of carbon stars which are evolving toward the planetary nebula stage have revealed evidence of episodic, nonspherically symmetric mass loss, and may lead to a fuller understanding of shielding properties of the dust grains involved in these flows.

  14. Pleiotropic Effect of a High Resolution Mapped Blood Pressure QTL on Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi; Waghulde, Harshal; Mell, Blair; Smedlund, Kathryn; Vazquez, Guillermo; Joe, Bina

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on a translationally significant, genome-wide-association-study (GWAS) locus for cardiovascular disease (QT-interval) on human chromosome 17. We have previously validated and high resolution mapped the homologous genomic segment of this human locus to <42.5 kb on rat chromosome 10. This <42.5 kb segment in rats regulates both QT-interval and blood pressure and contains a single protein-coding gene, rififylin (Rffl). The expression of Rffl in the hearts and kidneys is differential between Dahl S and S.LEW congenic rats, which are the strains used for mapping this locus. Our previous study points to altered rate of endocytic recycling as the underlying mechanism, through which Rffl operates to control both QT-interval and blood pressure. Interestingly, Rffl also contributes to tumorigenesis by repressing caspases and tumor suppressor genes. Moreover, the expression of Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 (Mbd2) in the hearts and kidneys is also higher in the S.LEW congenic strain than the background (control) Dahl S strain. Mbd2 can repress methylated tumor suppressor genes. These data suggest that the S.LEW congenic strain could be more susceptible to tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, the S and S.LEW strains were compared for susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumors. The number of colon tumors was significantly higher in the S.LEW congenic strain compared with the S rat. Transcriptomic analysis confirmed that the chemical carcinogenesis pathway was significantly up-regulated in the congenic strain. These studies provide evidence for a GWAS-validated genomic segment on rat chromosome 10 as being important for the regulation of cardiovascular function and tumorigenesis. PMID:27073989

  15. DSN microwave antenna holography. Part 2: Data processing and display of high-resolution effective maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, D. J.; Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Mumford, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a recently completed computer graphic package for the process and display of holographically recorded data into effective aperture maps are presented. The term effective maps (labelled provisional on the holograms) signifies that the maps include contributions of surface mechanical errors as well as other electromagnetic factors (phase error due to feed/subreflector misalignment, linear phase error contribution due to pointing errors, subreflector flange diffraction effects, and strut diffraction shadows). While these maps do not show the true mechanical surface errors, they nevertheless show the equivalent errors, which are effective in determining overall antenna performance. Final steps to remove electromagnetic pointing and misalignment factors are now in progress. The processing and display of high-resolution effective maps of a 64m antenna (DSS 63) are presented.

  16. Testing the Validity of Single-Particle Maps at Low and High Resolution.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, P B

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle electron cryomicroscopy may be used to determine the structure of biological assemblies by aligning and averaging low-contrast projection images recorded in the electron microscope. Recent progress in both experimental and computational methods has led to higher resolution three-dimensional maps, including for more challenging low molecular weight proteins, and this has highlighted the problems of model bias and over-fitting during iterative refinement that can potentially lead to incorrect map features at low or high resolution. This chapter discusses the principles and practice of specific validation tests that demonstrate the consistency of a 3D map with projection images. In addition, the chapter describes tests that detect over-fitting during refinement and lead to more robust assessment of both global and local map resolution. Application of several of these tests together demonstrates the reliability of single-particle maps that underpins their correct biological interpretation. PMID:27572729

  17. Use of Quick bird Very High Resolution data for mapping linear erosion features in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desprats, J. F.; Raclot, D.; Cerdan, O.; Garcin, M.; Le Bissonnais, Y.

    2009-04-01

    High resolution remote sensing data (SPOT) are usually used to define information required for Environmental modelling such as land use. Quick Bird images were there acquired in order to evaluate the possibilities to extract linear erosion features usually observed on field like rills or gullies. This field work is often difficult and punctual in time and space. The objective of this study was therefore to test erosion features extraction, either directly using a commercial software (ENVI) or a software developed by the French Space Agency (ORFEO tool box), or by visual interpretation. The study area is located in the Lebna catchment in Tunisia, which is one of the three test sites of the MESOEROS21 project that aims to study the impact of climate change on soil erosion at different scales, from the whole Mediterranean basin to the small catchment (some km²). All of the lineaments present on the image were mapped and labelled according to a defined typology (roads, tracks, stabilized gullies by vegetation, active gullies, major rills, rills …). These extractions were compared with a set of field observations including length and shape of linear features caused by erosion. The final step is the validation of runoff and erosion modelling of the catchment using field data, erosion parameters interpreted and automatically extracted from Quick Bird.

  18. High resolution critical habitat mapping and classification of tidal freshwater wetlands in the ACE Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Melissa Anne

    In collaboration with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve (ACE Basin NERR), the tidal freshwater ecosystems along the South Edisto River in the ACE Basin are being accurately mapped and classified using a LIDAR-Remote Sensing Fusion technique that integrates LAS LIDAR data into texture images and then merges the elevation textures and multispectral imagery for very high resolution mapping. This project discusses the development and refinement of an ArcGIS Toolbox capable of automating protocols and procedures for marsh delineation and microhabitat identification. The result is a high resolution habitat and land use map used for the identification of threatened habitat. Tidal freshwater wetlands are also a critical habitat for colonial wading birds and an accurate assessment of community diversity and acreage of this habitat type in the ACE Basin will support SCDNR's conservation and protection efforts. The maps developed by this study will be used to better monitor the freshwater/saltwater interface and establish a baseline for an ACE NERR monitoring program to track the rates and extent of alterations due to projected environmental stressors. Preliminary ground-truthing in the field will provide information about the accuracy of the mapping tool.

  19. Arrhythmogenic Substrate of the Pulmonary Veins Assessed by High-Resolution Optical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rishi; Verheule, Sander; Scott, Luis; Navarrete, Antonio; Katari, Vikram; Wilson, Emily; Vaz, Dev; Olgin, Jeffrey E.

    2007-01-01

    Background It has recently been recognized that atrial fibrillation can originate from focal sources in the pulmonary veins (PVs). However, the mechanisms of focal atrial fibrillation have not been well characterized. We assessed the electrophysiological characteristics of the PVs using high-resolution optical mapping. Methods and Results Coronary-perfused, isolated whole-atrial preparations from 33 normal dogs were studied. Programmed electrical stimulation was performed, and a 4-cm2 area of the PV underwent optical mapping of transmembrane voltage to obtain 256 simultaneous action potentials. Marked conduction slowing was seen at the proximal PV, compared with the rest of the vein, on both the epicardial (31.3±4.47 versus 90.2±20.7 cm/s, P=0.001) and endocardial (45.8±6.90 versus 67.6±10.4 cm/s, P=0.012) aspects. Pronounced repolarization heterogeneity was also noted, with action potential duration at 80% repolarization being longest at the PV endocardium. Nonsustained reentrant beats were induced with single extrastimuli, and the complete reentrant loop was visualized (cycle length, 155±30.3 ms); reentrant activity could be sustained with isoproterenol. Sustained focal discharge (cycle length, 330 to 1100 ms) was seen from the endocardial surface in the presence of isoproterenol; each focus was localized near the venous ostium. Conclusions The normal PV seems to have the necessary substrate to support reentry as well as focal activity. Although reentry occurred more distally in the vein, focal activity seemed to occur more proximally. PMID:12665495

  20. High Resolution Mapping of Reference ET for the State of Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, R. W.; Park, G.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate estimation of Consumptive Use (CU) and Consumptive Irrigation Requirement (CIR) are essential components for water resources planning and management. The Wyoming State Engineer’s Office currently determines monthly reference evapotranspiration (ET) with an Excel Spreadsheet ET model using average monthly data from a nearby weather station (usually an airport weather station) for the irrigated area of interest. The monthly reference ET is then interpolated into daily reference ET using either linear or cubic functions. The purpose of this project is to enhance the current Excel model with a GIS-based ET calculator. Our approach will use daily weather data to calculate reference ET and actual ET, and then aggregate them into monthly and seasonal ET. Among the many reference ET equations available, the ASCE Standardized Reference Evapotranspiration Equation (ASCE-ET) and the Hargreaves-Samani equations were selected to calculate daily reference ET. Data needed for the equations (minimum and maximum temperatures, wind speed, and dew point temperature) was gathered at various resolutions from several sources, such as weather stations in Wyoming and from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). High resolution (1km x 1km) gridded reference ET maps were produced from interpolated weather data for the three major river basins in southern Wyoming (North Platte River, Green River, and Bear River basins). Monthly and seasonal reference ET values will be determined using daily reference ET. Gridded reference ET values from the two methods will be compared with the reference ET using data from a single weather station. These reference ET maps will then be used to develop a GIS-based ET calculator.

  1. RAVEN - High-resolution Mapping of Venus within a Discovery Mission Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Herrick, R. R.; Rogers, F.; Waterman, S.

    2009-12-01

    It has been more than 15 years since the Magellan mission mapped Venus with S-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images at ~100-m resolution. Advances in radar technology are such that current Earth-orbiting SAR instruments are capable of providing images at meter-scale resolution. RAVEN (RAdar at VENus) is a mission concept that utilizes the instrument developed for the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM) to map Venus in an economical, highly capable, and reliable way. RCM relies on a C-band SAR that can be tuned to generate images at a wide variety of resolutions and swath widths, ranging from ScanSAR mode (broad swaths at 30-m resolution) to strip-map mode (resolutions as fine as 3 m), as well as a spotlight mode that can image patches at 1-m resolution. In particular, the high-resolution modes allow the landing sites of previous missions to be pinpointed and characterized. Repeat-pass interferometric SAR (InSAR) and stereo radargrammetry provide options for constraining topography to better than 100-m horizontal and 10-m vertical resolution. InSAR also provides the potential for detecting surface deformation at centimeter precision. Performing InSAR requires precise knowledge and control of the orbital geometry, and for this reason a 600-km circular polar orbit is favored. This configuration causes the equatorial nadir point to move ~9 km per orbit. Considering both ascending and descending passes, the spacecraft will pass over every point on the planet in half a Venus day (~4 Earth months). The ability to transmit data back to Earth via the Deep Space Network is the primary limiting factor on the volume of data that can be collected. Our current estimates indicate that within an imaging cycle of one Venus day we can image 20-30 percent of the planet at 20-30-m resolution and several percent at 3-5 m resolution. These figures compare favorably to the coverage provided by recent imaging systems orbiting Mars. Our strategy calls for the first cycle of coverage

  2. National scale high-resolution mapping of coastal wave overtopping risk in England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Rebecca; Hird, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The coastal flooding associated with the 2013-2014 UK winter storms caused widespread property damage and one fatality along the coastlines of south-west England and Wales. High spring tides and large waves combined to unexpectedly overtop coastal flood defences. The increasing risk of waves overtopping sea defences coupled with the rise in property development along the coast highlights the need for new and innovative tools for understanding coastal flood risk. Until now, broad-scale coastal hazard maps have overlooked coastal wave overtopping inundation, thereby underestimating flood risk. Recognising this gap has led to the development of the first nation-wide wave overtopping flood map for England and Wales, which we present here. Aimed primarily at the re/insurance sector, JBA has established a methodology for rapidly modelling large-scale wave overtopping flooding. An inception study investigated a range of modelling approaches for national scale modelling and the most suitable design computed general peak wave overtopping rates representative of four separate return period events. Hydrographs were calculated to reflect the changes in the overtopping rate as a result of changes to the water levels throughout the tidal cycle. Overtopping volumes were then computed from the overtopping rates and defence polylines digitised in ArcGIS. Finally, topographically controlled inundation was simulated across a high-resolution digital terrain model using a 2D hydrodynamic flood model. Results from the selected methodology compared well against test areas modelled in detail using additional data on bathymetry, beach profiles, and defence geometry. Sensibility checks were performed using extreme sea level value data to ensure that the model outputs were consistent with the sea level heights expected during a storm event of a particular return period. Moreover, model results corroborated well with media reports on flood extents experienced by communities during the 2013

  3. High-resolution YAC-cosmid-STS map of human chromosome 13.

    PubMed

    Cayanis, E; Russo, J J; Kalachikov, S; Ye, X; Park, S H; Sunjevaric, I; Bonaldo, M F; Lawton, L; Venkatraj, V S; Schon, E; Soares, M B; Rothstein, R; Warburton, D; Edelman, I S; Zhang, P; Efstratiadis, A; Fischer, S G

    1998-01-01

    We have assembled a high-resolution physical map of human chromosome 13 DNA (approximately 114 Mb) from hybridization, PCR, and FISH mapping data using a specifically designed set of computer programs. Although the mapping of 13p is limited, 13q (approximately 98 Mb) is covered by an almost continuous contig of 736 YACs aligned to 597 contigs of cosmids. Of a total of 10,789 cosmids initially selected from a chromosome 13-specific cosmid library (16,896 colonies) using inter-Alu PCR probes from the YACs and probes for markers mapped to chromosome 13, 511 were assembled in contigs that were established from cross-hybridization relationships between the cosmids. The 13q YAC-cosmid map was annotated with 655 sequence tagged sites (STSs) with an average spacing of 1 STS per 150 kb. This set of STSs, each identified by a D number and cytogenetic location, includes database markers (198), expressed sequence tags (93), and STSs generated by sequencing of the ends of cosmid inserts (364). Additional annotation has been provided by positioning 197 cosmids mapped by FISH on 13q. The final (comprehensive) map, a list of STS primers, and raw data used in map assembly are available at our Web site (genome1.ccc.columbia.edu/ approximately genome/) and can serve as a resource to facilitate accurate localization of additional markers, provide substrates for sequencing, and assist in the discovery of chromosome 13 genes associated with hereditary diseases. PMID:9465293

  4. Very High Resolution Mapping of Tree Cover Using Scalable Deep Learning Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ganguly, sangram; basu, saikat; nemani, ramakrishna; mukhopadhyay, supratik; michaelis, andrew; votava, petr; saatchi, sassan

    2016-04-01

    Several studies to date have provided an extensive knowledge base for estimating forest aboveground biomass (AGB) and recent advances in space-based modeling of the 3-D canopy structure, combined with canopy reflectance measured by passive optical sensors and radar backscatter, are providing improved satellite-derived AGB density mapping for large scale carbon monitoring applications. A key limitation in forest AGB estimation from remote sensing, however, is the large uncertainty in forest cover estimates from the coarse-to-medium resolution satellite-derived land cover maps (present resolution is limited to 30-m of the USGS NLCD Program). As part of our NASA Carbon Monitoring System Phase II activities, we have demonstrated that uncertainties in forest cover estimates at the Landsat scale result in high uncertainties in AGB estimation, predominantly in heterogeneous forest and urban landscapes. We have successfully tested an approach using scalable deep learning architectures (Feature-enhanced Deep Belief Networks and Semantic Segmentation using Convolutional Neural Networks) and High-Performance Computing with NAIP air-borne imagery data for mapping tree cover at 1-m over California and Maryland. Our first high resolution satellite training label dataset from the NAIP data can be found here at http://csc.lsu.edu/~saikat/deepsat/ . In a comparison with high resolution LiDAR data available over selected regions in the two states, we found our results to be promising both in terms of accuracy as well as our ability to scale nationally. In this project, we propose to estimate very high resolution forest cover for the continental US at spatial resolution of 1-m in support of reducing uncertainties in the AGB estimation. The proposed work will substantially contribute to filling the gaps in ongoing carbon monitoring research and help quantifying the errors and uncertainties in related carbon products.

  5. GERLUMPH DATA RELEASE 1: HIGH-RESOLUTION COSMOLOGICAL MICROLENSING MAGNIFICATION MAPS AND eResearch TOOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Croton, D.; Bate, N. F.

    2014-03-01

    As synoptic all-sky surveys begin to discover new multiply lensed quasars, the flow of data will enable statistical cosmological microlensing studies of sufficient size to constrain quasar accretion disk and supermassive black hole properties. In preparation for this new era, we are undertaking the GPU-Enabled, High Resolution cosmological MicroLensing parameter survey (GERLUMPH). We present here the GERLUMPH Data Release 1, which consists of 12,342 high resolution cosmological microlensing magnification maps and provides the first uniform coverage of the convergence, shear, and smooth matter fraction parameter space. We use these maps to perform a comprehensive numerical investigation of the mass-sheet degeneracy, finding excellent agreement with its predictions. We study the effect of smooth matter on microlensing induced magnification fluctuations. In particular, in the minima and saddle-point regions, fluctuations are enhanced only along the critical line, while in the maxima region they are always enhanced for high smooth matter fractions (≈0.9). We describe our approach to data management, including the use of an SQL database with a Web interface for data access and online analysis, obviating the need for individuals to download large volumes of data. In combination with existing observational databases and online applications, the GERLUMPH archive represents a fundamental component of a new microlensing eResearch cloud. Our maps and tools are publicly available at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au/.

  6. High-resolution mapping of a 130-kb core region of the MYCN amplicon in neuroblastomas

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, J.L.; Brodeur, G.M.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on a high-resolution restriction map containing the MYCN locus. the exon-intron structure and tissue distribution of the laminin {gamma}2 chain (LAMC2) gene, which is mutated in some cases of junctional epidermolysis bullosa. The article also discusses the transcription and splicing of this gene, which result in alternative uses of the last two exons of the gene. The different tissue distributions of the transcripts indicate different functions for the gene in vivo. 36 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. A Comprehensive, High-Resolution Genomic Transcript Map of Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Rampoldi, Luca; Simionati, Barbara; Zimbello, Rosanna; Barbon, Alessandro; d’Alessi, Fabio; Tiso, Natascia; Pallavicini, Alberto; Toppo, Stefano; Cannata, Nicola; Valle, Giorgio; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Danieli, Gian Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We present the Human Muscle Gene Map (HMGM), the first comprehensive and updated high-resolution expression map of human skeletal muscle. The 1078 entries of the map were obtained by merging data retrieved from UniGene with the RH mapping information on 46 novel muscle transcripts, which showed no similarity to any known sequence. In the map, distances are expressed in megabase pairs. About one-quarter of the map entries represents putative novel genes. Genes known to be specifically expressed in muscle account for <4% of the total. The genomic distribution of the map entries confirmed the previous finding that muscle genes are selectively concentrated in chromosomes 17, 19, and X. Five chromosomal regions are suspected to have a significant excess of muscle genes. Present data support the hypothesis that the biochemical and functional properties of differentiated muscle cells may result from the transcription of a very limited number of muscle-specific genes along with the activity of a large number of genes, shared with other tissues, but showing different levels of expression in muscle. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the EMBL data library under accession nos. F23198–F23242.] PMID:9724327

  8. All-optical control of cardiac excitation: combined high-resolution optogenetic actuation and optical mapping.

    PubMed

    Entcheva, Emilia; Bub, Gil

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac tissue is an excitable system that can support complex spatiotemporal dynamics, including instabilities (arrhythmias) with lethal consequences. While over the last two decades optical mapping of excitation (voltage and calcium dynamics) has facilitated the detailed characterization of such arrhythmia events, until recently, no precise tools existed to actively interrogate cardiac dynamics in space and time. In this work, we discuss the combined use of new methods for space- and time-resolved optogenetic actuation and simultaneous fast, high resolution optical imaging of cardiac excitation waves. First, the mechanisms, limitations and unique features of optically induced responses in cardiomyocytes are outlined. These include the ability to bidirectionally control the membrane potential using depolarizing and hyperpolarizing opsins; the ability to induce prolonged sustained voltage changes; and the ability to control refractoriness and the shape of the cardiac action potential. At the syncytial tissue level, we discuss optogenetically enabled experimentation on cell-cell coupling, alteration of conduction properties and termination of propagating waves by light. Specific attention is given to space- and time-resolved application of optical stimulation using dynamic light patterns to perturb ongoing activation and to probe electrophysiological properties at desired tissue locations. The combined use of optical methods to perturb and to observe the system can offer new tools for precise feedback control of cardiac electrical activity, not available previously with pharmacological and electrical stimulation. These new experimental tools for all-optical electrophysiology allow for a level of precise manipulation and quantification of cardiac dynamics comparable in robustness to the computational setting, and can provide new insights into pacemaking, arrhythmogenesis and suppression or cardioversion. PMID:26857427

  9. High Resolution Genetic Mapping by Genome Sequencing Reveals Genome Duplication and Tetraploid Genetic Structure of the Diploid Miscanthus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Jensen, Elaine; Alexandrov, Nickolai; Troukhan, Maxim; Zhang, Liping; Thomas-Jones, Sian; Farrar, Kerrie; Clifton-Brown, John; Donnison, Iain; Swaller, Timothy; Flavell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7), presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus. PMID:22439001

  10. High resolution genetic mapping by genome sequencing reveals genome duplication and tetraploid genetic structure of the diploid Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Jensen, Elaine; Alexandrov, Nickolai; Troukhan, Maxim; Zhang, Liping; Thomas-Jones, Sian; Farrar, Kerrie; Clifton-Brown, John; Donnison, Iain; Swaller, Timothy; Flavell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We have created a high-resolution linkage map of Miscanthus sinensis, using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), identifying all 19 linkage groups for the first time. The result is technically significant since Miscanthus has a very large and highly heterozygous genome, but has no or limited genomics information to date. The composite linkage map containing markers from both parental linkage maps is composed of 3,745 SNP markers spanning 2,396 cM on 19 linkage groups with a 0.64 cM average resolution. Comparative genomics analyses of the M. sinensis composite linkage map to the genomes of sorghum, maize, rice, and Brachypodium distachyon indicate that sorghum has the closest syntenic relationship to Miscanthus compared to other species. The comparative results revealed that each pair of the 19 M. sinensis linkages aligned to one sorghum chromosome, except for LG8, which mapped to two sorghum chromosomes (4 and 7), presumably due to a chromosome fusion event after genome duplication. The data also revealed several other chromosome rearrangements relative to sorghum, including two telomere-centromere inversions of the sorghum syntenic chromosome 7 in LG8 of M. sinensis and two paracentric inversions of sorghum syntenic chromosome 4 in LG7 and LG8 of M. sinensis. The results clearly demonstrate, for the first time, that the diploid M. sinensis is tetraploid origin consisting of two sub-genomes. This complete and high resolution composite linkage map will not only serve as a useful resource for novel QTL discoveries, but also enable informed deployment of the wealth of existing genomics resources of other species to the improvement of Miscanthus as a high biomass energy crop. In addition, it has utility as a reference for genome sequence assembly for the forthcoming whole genome sequencing of the Miscanthus genus. PMID:22439001

  11. A novel technique for visualizing high-resolution 3D terrain maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammann, John

    2007-02-01

    A new technique is presented for visualizing high-resolution terrain elevation data. It produces realistic images at small scales on the order of the data resolution and works particularly well when natural objects are present. Better visualization at small scales opens up new applications, like site surveillance for security and Google Earth-type local search and exploration tasks that are now done with 2-D maps. The large 3-D maps are a natural for high-resolution stereo display. The traditional technique drapes a continuous surface over the regularly spaced elevation values. This technique works well when displaying large areas or in cities with large buildings, but falls apart at small scales or for natural objects like trees. The new technique visualizes the terrain as a set of disjoint square patches. It is combined with an algorithm that identifies smooth areas within the scene. Where the terrain is smooth, such as in grassy areas, roads, parking lots and rooftops, it warps the patches to create a smooth surface. For trees or shrubs or other areas where objects are under-sampled, however, the patches are left disjoint. This has the disadvantage of leaving gaps in the data, but the human mind is very adept at filling in this missing information. It has the strong advantage of making natural terrain look realistic, trees and bushes look stylized but still look natural and are easy to interpret. Also, it does not add artifacts to the map, like filling in blank vertical walls where there are alcoves and other structure and extending bridges and overpasses down to the ground. The new technique is illustrated using very large 1-m resolution 3-D maps from the Rapid Terrain Visualization (RTV) program, and comparisons are made with traditional visualizations using these maps.

  12. High-Resolution 3D Bathymetric Mapping for Small Streams Using Low-Altitude Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, J. T.; Duffin, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geomorphic monitoring of river restoration projects is a critical component of measuring their success. In smaller streams, with depths less than 2 meters, one of the more difficult variables to map at high-resolution is bathymetry. In larger rivers, bathymetry can be measured with instruments like multi-beam sonar, bathymetric airborne LiDAR, or acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). However, these systems are often limited by their minimum operating depths, which makes them ineffective in shallow water. Remote sensing offers several potential solutions for collecting bathymetry, spectral depth mapping and photogrammetric measurement (e.g. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) multi-view photogrammetry). In this case study, we use SfM to produce both high-resolution above water topography and below water bathymetry for two reaches of a stream restoration project on the Middle Fork of the John Day River in eastern Oregon and one reach on the White River in Vermont. We collected low-allitude multispectral (RGB+NIR) aerial photography at all of the sites at altitudes of 30 to 50 meters. The SfM survey was georeferenced with RTK-GPS ground control points and the bathymetry was refraction-corrected using additional RTK-GPS sample points. The resulting raster data products have horizontal resolutions of ~4-8 centimeters for the topography and ~8-15 cm for the bathymetry. This methodology, like many fluvial remote sensing methods, will only work under ideal conditions (e.g. clear water), but it provides an additional tool for collecting high-resolution bathymetric datasets for geomorphic monitoring efforts.

  13. High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Bartholomé, Jérôme; Mandrou, Eric; Mabiala, André; Jenkins, Jerry; Nabihoudine, Ibouniyamine; Klopp, Christophe; Schmutz, Jeremy; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-01

    Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome. PMID:25385325

  14. High-resolution crossover maps for each bivalent of Zea mays using recombination nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lorinda K; Doyle, Gregory G; Brigham, Brian; Carter, Jenna; Hooker, Kristina D; Lai, Ann; Rice, Mindy; Stack, Stephen M

    2003-01-01

    Recombination nodules (RNs) are closely correlated with crossing over, and, because they are observed by electron microscopy of synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in extended pachytene chromosomes, RNs provide the highest-resolution cytological marker currently available for defining the frequency and distribution of crossovers along the length of chromosomes. Using the maize inbred line KYS, we prepared an SC karyotype in which each SC was identified by relative length and arm ratio and related to the proper linkage group using inversion heterozygotes. We mapped 4267 RNs on 2080 identified SCs to produce high-resolution maps of RN frequency and distribution on each bivalent. RN frequencies are closely correlated with both chiasma frequencies and SC length. The total length of the RN recombination map is about twofold shorter than that of most maize linkage maps, but there is good correspondence between the relative lengths of the different maps when individual bivalents are considered. Each bivalent has a unique distribution of crossing over, but all bivalents share a high frequency of distal RNs and a severe reduction of RNs at and near kinetochores. The frequency of RNs at knobs is either similar to or higher than the average frequency of RNs along the SCs. These RN maps represent an independent measure of crossing over along maize bivalents. PMID:14573493

  15. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  16. Transfer of Technology for Cadastral Mapping in Tajikistan Using High Resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, R.

    2012-07-01

    European Commission funded project entitled: "Support to the mapping and certification capacity of the Agency of Land Management, Geodesy and Cartography" in Tajikistan was run by FINNMAP FM-International and Human Dynamics from Nov. 2006 to June 2011. The Agency of Land Management, Geodesy and Cartography is the state agency responsible for development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of state policies on land tenure and land management, including the on-going land reform and registration of land use rights. The specific objective was to support and strengthen the professional capacity of the "Fazo" Institute in the field of satellite geodesy, digital photogrammetry, advanced digital satellite image processing of high resolution satellite data and digital cartography. Lectures and on-the-job trainings for the personnel of "Fazo" and Agency in satellite geodesy, digital photogrammetry, cartography and the use of high resolution satellite data for cadastral mapping have been organized. Standards and Quality control system for all data and products have been elaborated and implemented in the production line. Technical expertise and trainings in geodesy, photogrammetry and satellite image processing to the World Bank project "Land Registration and Cadastre System for Sustainable Agriculture" has also been completed in Tajikistan. The new map projection was chosen and the new unclassified geodetic network has been established for all of the country in which all agricultural parcel boundaries are being mapped. IKONOS, QuickBird and WorldView1 panchromatic data have been used for orthophoto generation. Average accuracy of space triangulation of non-standard (long up to 90km) satellite images of QuickBird Pan and IKONOS Pan on ICPs: RMSEx = 0.5m and RMSEy = 0.5m have been achieved. Accuracy of digital orthophoto map is RMSExy = 1.0m. More then two and half thousands of digital orthophoto map sheets in the scale of 1:5000 with pixel size 0.5m have been produced

  17. Exploring for subtle traps with high-resolution paleogeographic maps: Reklaw 1 interval (Eocene), south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulling, T.P.; Breyer, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution paleogeographic maps depicting the depositional history of the Reklaw 1 interval provide a basis for prospecting for subtle traps in the updip Reklaw trend in south Texas. The Reklaw 1 interval began with sand being carried southwestward by longshore currents to form the barrier bar that became Atkinson field. The hydrocarbons were trapped by the updip pinch-out of barrier-bar sand into lagoonal mud. Stratigraphic traps similar to Atkinson field could be present along depositional strike if the sand in the field were part of an extensive barrier-bar system. After the barrier bar formed, distributary mouth bars prograded seaward, depositing the bar-finger sands that became the Hysaw and Flax fields. Subtle structural traps could be present today where small up-to-the-coast faults associated with the sample fault system cut the bar-finger sands downdip from established production. Farther down paleoslope, the distributary channels began to bifurcate and the distributary mouth bars coalesced to form a broad delta-front sheet sand. Burnell, Hondo Creek, and Runge West fields produce from this sheet sand at the unstable shelf margin. A rapid rise in relative sea level terminated the Reklaw 1 interval. Many of the oil and gas fields still to be discovered in the US are in mature petroleum provinces where much of the remaining oil and gas probably resides in subtle traps. High-resolution paleogeographic maps are the key to finding these subtle traps. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Internet-enabled high-resolution brain mapping and virtual microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mikula, Shawn; Trotts, Issac; Stone, James M; Jones, Edward G

    2007-03-01

    Virtual microscopy involves the conversion of histological sections mounted on glass microscope slides to high-resolution digital images. Virtual microscopy offers several advantages over traditional microscopy, including remote viewing and data sharing, annotation, and various forms of data mining. We describe a method utilizing virtual microscopy for generation of internet-enabled, high-resolution brain maps and atlases. Virtual microscopy-based digital brain atlases have resolutions approaching 100,000 dpi, which exceeds by three or more orders of magnitude resolutions obtainable in conventional print atlases, MRI, and flat-bed scanning. Virtual microscopy-based digital brain atlases are superior to conventional print atlases in five respects: (1) resolution, (2) annotation, (3) interaction, (4) data integration, and (5) data mining. Implementation of virtual microscopy-based digital brain atlases is located at BrainMaps.org, which is based on more than 10 million megapixels (35 terabytes) of scanned images of serial sections of primate and non-primate brains with a resolution of 0.46 microm/pixel (55,000 dpi). The method can be replicated by labs seeking to increase accessibility and sharing of neuroanatomical data. Online tools offer the possibility of visualizing and exploring completely digitized sections of brains at a sub-neuronal level and can facilitate large-scale connectional tracing, histochemical, and stereological analyses. PMID:17229579

  19. Lunar Topographic Mapping Using a New High Resolution Mode for the GSSR Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hensley, Scott; Gurrola, Eric; Slade, Martin; Quirk, Kevin; Srinivasan, Meera; Lee, Clement; Yun, Sang-Ho; Jao, Joseph; Wilson, Barbara; De Jong, Eric; Marechal, Nick; Weintraub, Lawrence; Dickinson, Richard; Bloom, Ronald; Karamyan, Grant; Lilje, Anneliese; Harcke, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Mapping the Moon's topography using Earth based radar interferometric measurements by the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) has been done several times since the mid 1990s. In 2008 we reported at this conference the generation of lunar topographic maps having approximately 4 m height accuracy at a horizontal posting of 40 m. Since then GSSR radar has been improved to allow 40 MHz bandwidth imaging and consequently obtained images and interferograms with a resolution of about 4 m in range by 5 m in azimuth. The long synthetic aperture times of approximately 90 minutes in duration necessitated a migration from range/Doppler image formation techniques to spotlight mode processing and autofocusing methods. The improved resolution imagery should permit the generation of topographic maps with a factor of two better spatial resolution with about same height accuracy. Coupled the with the recent availability of new lidar topography maps of the lunar surface made by orbiting satellites of Japan and the United States the geodetic control of the radar generated maps products can be improved dramatically. This paper will discuss the hardware and software improvements made to the GSSR and present some of the new high resolution products.

  20. The need for sustained and integrated high-resolution mapping of dynamic coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Lillycrop, Jeff W.; Howd, Peter A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the United States' coastal zone response to both human activities and natural processes is dynamic. Coastal resource and population protection requires understanding, in detail, the processes needed for change as well as the physical setting. Sustained coastal area mapping allows change to be documented and baseline conditions to be established, as well as future behavior to be predicted in conjunction with physical process models. Hyperspectral imagers and airborne lidars, as well as other recent mapping technology advances, allow rapid national scale land use information and high-resolution elevation data collection. Coastal hazard risk evaluation has critical dependence on these rich data sets. A fundamental storm surge model parameter in predicting flooding location, for example, is coastal elevation data, and a foundation in identifying the most vulnerable populations and resources is land use maps. A wealth of information for physical change process study, coastal resource and community management and protection, and coastal area hazard vulnerability determination, is available in a comprehensive national coastal mapping plan designed to take advantage of recent mapping technology progress and data distribution, management, and collection.

  1. Geostatistical evaluation of satellite radar altimetry for high-resolution mapping of Lambert Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzfeld, Ute C.; Lingle, Craig S.; Lee, Li-Her

    1993-01-01

    The potential of satellite radar altimetry for high-resolution mapping of Antarctic ice streams is evaluated, using retracked and slope-corrected data from the Lambert Glacier and Amery Ice Shelf area, East Antarctica, acquired by Geosat during the Exact Repeat Mission (ERM), 1986-89. The map area includes lower Lambert Glacier north of 72.18 deg S, the southern Amery Ice Shelf, and the grounded inland ice sheet on both sides. The Geosat ERM altimetry is found to provide substantially more complete coverage than the 1978 Seasat altimetry, due to improved tracking. Variogram methods are used to estimate the noise levels in the data as a function of position throughout the map area. The spatial structure in the data is quantified by constructing experimental variograms using altimetry from the area of the grounding zone of Lambert Glacier, which is the area chiefly of interest in this topographically complex region. Kriging is employed to invert the along-track height measurements onto a fine-scale 3 km grid. The unsmoothed along-track Geosat ERM altimetry yields spatially continuous maps showing the main topographic features of lower Lambert Glacier, upper Amery Ice Shelf and the adjacent inland ice sheet. The probable position of the grounding line of Lambert Glacier is identified from a break in slope at the grounded ice/floating ice transition. The approximate standard error of the kriged map is inferred from the data noise levels.

  2. High-resolution mapping of the 1998 lava flows at Axial Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, B.; Clague, D. A.; Embley, R. W.; Caress, D. W.; Paduan, J. B.; Sasnett, P.

    2011-12-01

    Axial Seamount (an active hotspot volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge) last erupted in 1998 and produced two lava flows (a "northern" and a "southern" flow) along the upper south rift zone separated by a distance of 4 km. Geologic mapping of the 1998 lava flows has been carried out with a combination of visual observations from multiple submersible dives since 1998, and with high-resolution bathymetry, most recently collected with the MBARI mapping AUV (the D. Allan B.) since 2007. The new mapping results revise and update the previous preliminary flow outlines, areas, and volumes. The high-resolution bathymetry (1-m grid cell size) allows eruptive fissures fine-scale morphologic features to be resolved with new and remarkable clarity. The morphology of both lava flows can be interpreted as a consequence of a specific sequence of events during their emplacement. The northern sheet flow is long (4.6 km) and narrow (500 m), and erupted in the SE part of Axial caldera, where it temporarily ponded and inflated on relatively flat terrain before draining out southward toward steeper slopes. The inflation and drain-out of this sheet flow by ~ 3.5 m over 2.5 hours was previously documented by a monitoring instrument that was caught in the lava flow. Our geologic mapping shows that the morphology of the northern sheet flow varies along its length primarily due to gradients in the underlying slope and processes active during flow emplacement. The original morphology of the sheet flow where it ponded is lobate, with pillows near the margins, whereas the central axis of drain-out and collapse is floored with lineated, ropy, and jumbled lava morphologies. The southern lava flow, in contrast, is mostly pillow lava where it cascaded down the steep slope on the east flank of the south rift zone, but also has a major area of collapse where lava ponded temporarily near the rift axis. These results show that submarine lava flows have more subsurface hydraulic connectivity than has

  3. Using High-Resolution Airborne LiDAR-Data for Landslide Mapping in the Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, N.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the increasing frequency of natural disasters like floods and landslides, the active remote sensing technique LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), has become a topic of great interest to the Federal State Government of Styria, Federal Republic of Austria. In a perennial project from 2008 to 2012 high-resolution 3D Airborne LiDAR Data of the Province of Styria, an area about 16.000km2 in south-eastern Austria were collected. These data were processed to create Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and Digital Surface Models (DSM) at 1m resolution with a vertical accuracy of 15 [cm] and a positional accuracy of 40 [cm]. High resolution DTMs can be used in different geo-related applications like geomorphological mapping or natural hazard mapping. DTMs show because of its high accuracy various natural and anthropogenic terrain features such as erosion scarps, alluvial fans, landslides, old creeks, topographic edges and karstforms, as well as walking paths and roads and in addition to that LiDAR data allows the detection and outlining of these different geomorphological and anthropogenic features with the help of ArcGIS 10 geoprocessing and analysing techniques, mathematical, statistical and image processing methods and the open source scripting language Python. As a result complex workflows and new geoprocessing tools can be implemented in an ArcGIS 10 workspace and are provided as easy to use toolbox contents. The landslide phenomena take in centre stage of the research work of the author. Thereby the main focus is targeted on sliding movements out of soils and bedrock. Factors like gravity take effect on slope stability directly and cause complex mass movements with a downslope directed, gliding movement of bed- and/or loose-rock as well as soil material. In this paper the author presents the result of her master thesis, an automatic ArcGIS 10 landslide mapping tool using high-resolution LiDAR data in the rock masses of the Eastern Alps (Province of Styria, Austria

  4. Fast Mean-Shift Based Classification of Very High Resolution Images: Application to Forest Cover Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukir, S.; Jones, S.; Reinke, K.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a new unsupervised classification method which aims to effectively and efficiently map remote sensing data. The Mean-Shift (MS) algorithm, a non parametric density-based clustering technique, is at the core of our method. This powerful clustering algorithm has been successfully used for both the classification and the segmentation of gray scale and color images during the last decade. However, very little work has been reported regarding the performance of this technique on remotely sensed images. The main disadvantage of the MS algorithm lies on its high computational costs. Indeed, it is based on an optimization procedure to determine the modes of the pixels density. To investigate the MS algorithm in the difficult context of very high resolution remote sensing imagery, we use a fast version of this algorithm which has been recently proposed, namely the Path-Assigned Mean Shift (PAMS). This algorithm is up to 5 times faster than other fast MS algorithms while inducing a low loss in quality compared to the original MS version. To compensate for this loss, we propose to use the K modes (cluster centroids) obtained after convergence of the PAMS algorithm as an initialization of a K-means clustering algorithm. The latter converges very quickly to a refined solution to the underlying clustering problem. Furthermore, it does not suffer the main drawback of the classic K-means algorithm (the number of clusters K needs to be specified) as K is automatically determined via the MS mode-seeking procedure. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this two-stage clustering method in performing automatic classification of aerial forest images. Both individual bands and band combination trails are presented. When compared to the classical PAMS algorithm, our technique is better in terms of classification quality. The improvement in classification is significant both visually and statistically. The whole classification process is performed in a few seconds on

  5. Mapping brittle fracture zones in three dimensions: high resolution traveltime seismic tomography in a granitic pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, D.; Carbonell, R.; Tryggvason, A.; Escuder, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2002-04-01

    Fractured and altered zones within a granitic pluton are mapped in three dimensions by means of high resolution seismic traveltime tomography. The input traveltimes were picked from offset and azimuth variable vertical seismic profiles (OVSP) acquired in three boreholes and from seismic shot gathers of four CDP high resolution seismic reflection profiles recorded on the surface. For the OVSP data a hydrophone streamer placed in the boreholes recorded the acoustic energy generated (a signal with a frequency content between 15 to 150 Hz) by a Vibroseis truck at source points distributed every 30 m in a rectangular grid of 620 m by 150 m. The combination of borehole and surface seismic data resulted in an increase in the ray density of the shallow subsurface. The tomographic algorithm uses a variable model grid, with a finer grid spacing close to the surface were ray density is highest and the velocity variations are strongest. Therefore the resulting velocity models feature more detail at shallow levels. A simple and smooth starting velocity model was derived from P -wave velocity logs. Careful surface geological mapping, and borehole geophysical data, P - and S -wave velocity logs and Poisson's ratio depth functions, provided key constraints for a physically reasonable 3-D interpretation of the tomograms. The low velocity anomalies constrained by the tomographic images were interpreted as unconsolidated rock, fractures and altered zones which correlate with structures mapped at the surface or velocity anomalies identified in the logs. Subsequent resolution analysis revealed that the derived velocity model is well constrained to depths of 60 m.

  6. Endoscopic fluorescence mapping of the left atrium: A novel experimental approach for high resolution endocardial mapping in the intact heart

    PubMed Central

    Kalifa, Jérôme; Klos, Matthew; Zlochiver, Sharon; Mironov, Sergey; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Ulahannan, Netha; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Jalife, José; Berenfeld, Omer

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite availability of several mapping technologies to investigate the electrophysiological mechanisms of atrial fibrillation (AF), an experimental tool enabling high resolution mapping of electrical impulse on the endocardial surface of the left atrium is still lacking. Objective To present a new optical mapping approach implementing a steerable cardio-endoscope in isolated hearts. Methods The system consists of a direct or side-view endoscope coupled to a 532 nm excitation Laser for illumination, and to a CCD camera for imaging of potentiometric dye fluorescence (DI-4-ANEPPS, 80×80 pixels, 200–800 frames/sec). The cardio-endoscope was aimed successively at diverse posterior left atrial (PLA) locations to obtain high resolution movies of electrical wave propagation, as well as detailed endocardial anatomical features, in the presence and the absence of atrial stretch. Results We present several examples of high resolution endoscopic PLA recordings of wave propagation patterns during both sinus rhythm and AF with signal-to-noise ratio similar to conventional optical mapping systems. We demonstrate the endoscope’s ability to visualize highly organized AF sources (rotors) at specific locations on the PLA and PLA-pulmonary vein junctions, and present video images of waves emanating from such sources as they propagate into pectinate muscles in the LA appendage. In particular, we demonstrate this approach to be ideally suited for studying the effects of atrial stretch on AF dynamics. Conclusions In isolated hearts, cardio-endoscopic optical mapping of electrical activity should enable comprehensive evaluation of atrial fibrillatory activity in the PLA, of the role of the local anatomy on AF dynamics and of the efficacy of pharmacological and ablative interventions. PMID:17599678

  7. Whole-Genome Mapping as a Novel High-Resolution Typing Tool for Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Euser, Sjoerd M.; Landman, Fabian; Bruin, Jacob P.; IJzerman, Ed P.; den Boer, Jeroen W.; Schouls, Leo M.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella is the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease (LD) and is responsible for several large outbreaks in the world. More than 90% of LD cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila, and studies on the origin and transmission routes of this pathogen rely on adequate molecular characterization of isolates. Current typing of L. pneumophila mainly depends on sequence-based typing (SBT). However, studies have shown that in some outbreak situations, SBT does not have sufficient discriminatory power to distinguish between related and nonrelated L. pneumophila isolates. In this study, we used a novel high-resolution typing technique, called whole-genome mapping (WGM), to differentiate between epidemiologically related and nonrelated L. pneumophila isolates. Assessment of the method by various validation experiments showed highly reproducible results, and WGM was able to confirm two well-documented Dutch L. pneumophila outbreaks. Comparison of whole-genome maps of the two outbreaks together with WGMs of epidemiologically nonrelated L. pneumophila isolates showed major differences between the maps, and WGM yielded a higher discriminatory power than SBT. In conclusion, WGM can be a valuable alternative to perform outbreak investigations of L. pneumophila in real time since the turnaround time from culture to comparison of the L. pneumophila maps is less than 24 h. PMID:26202110

  8. High-Resolution Mapping of Complex Traits with a Four-Parent Advanced Intercross Yeast Population

    PubMed Central

    Cubillos, Francisco A.; Parts, Leopold; Salinas, Francisco; Bergström, Anders; Scovacricchi, Eugenio; Zia, Amin; Illingworth, Christopher J. R.; Mustonen, Ville; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Warringer, Jonas; Louis, Edward J.; Durbin, Richard; Liti, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    A large fraction of human complex trait heritability is due to a high number of variants with small marginal effects and their interactions with genotype and environment. Such alleles are more easily studied in model organisms, where environment, genetic makeup, and allele frequencies can be controlled. Here, we examine the effect of natural genetic variation on heritable traits in a very large pool of baker’s yeast from a multiparent 12th generation intercross. We selected four representative founder strains to produce the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project (SGRP)-4X mapping population and sequenced 192 segregants to generate an accurate genetic map. Using these individuals, we mapped 25 loci linked to growth traits under heat stress, arsenite, and paraquat, the majority of which were best explained by a diverging phenotype caused by a single allele in one condition. By sequencing pooled DNA from millions of segregants grown under heat stress, we further identified 34 and 39 regions selected in haploid and diploid pools, respectively, with most of the selection against a single allele. While the most parsimonious model for the majority of loci mapped using either approach was the effect of an allele private to one founder, we could validate examples of pleiotropic effects and complex allelic series at a locus. SGRP-4X is a deeply characterized resource that provides a framework for powerful and high-resolution genetic analysis of yeast phenotypes and serves as a test bed for testing avenues to attack human complex traits. PMID:24037264

  9. High-resolution mapping of vehicle emissions in China in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Huo, H.; Zhang, Q.; Yao, Z. L.; Wang, X. T.; Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; He, K. B.

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first in a series of papers that aim to develop high-resolution emission databases for different anthropogenic sources in China. Here we focus on on-road transportation. Because of the increasing impact of on-road transportation on regional air quality, developing an accurate and high-resolution vehicle emission inventory is important for both the research community and air quality management. This work proposes a new inventory methodology to improve the spatial and temporal accuracy and resolution of vehicle emissions in China. We calculate, for the first time, the monthly vehicle emissions for 2008 in 2364 counties (an administrative unit one level lower than city) by developing a set of approaches to estimate vehicle stock and monthly emission factors at county-level, and technology distribution at provincial level. We then introduce allocation weights for the vehicle kilometers traveled to assign the county-level emissions onto 0.05° × 0.05° grids based on the China Digital Road-network Map (CDRM). The new methodology overcomes the common shortcomings of previous inventory methods, including neglecting the geographical differences between key parameters and using surrogates that are weakly related to vehicle activities to allocate vehicle emissions. The new method has great advantages over previous methods in depicting the spatial distribution characteristics of vehicle activities and emissions. This work provides a better understanding of the spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  10. Hydropower potential mapping in mountain basins by high-resolution hydrological and GIS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claps, P.; Gallo, E.; Ganora, D.; Laio, F.; Masoero, A.

    2013-12-01

    Even in regions with mature hydropower development, needs for stable renewable power sources suggest to revise plans of exploitation of water resources, in compliance to the framework of international and national environmental regulations. This goal requires high-resolution hydrological analysis, that allows to : i) comply with the effects of existing hydropower plants or of other types of water withdrawals; ii) to assist the planner to figure out potential of new plants with still high marginal efficiency; iii) to assist the regulator in the process of comparing projects based on different solutions and different underlying hydrologic estimation methods. Flow duration curves (FDC) are the tool usually adopted to represent water availability and variability for hydropower purposes. They are usually determined in ungauged basins by means of regional statistical analysis. For this study, a 'spatially smooth' regional estimation method (SSEM) has been developed for FDC estimation, with some evolutions from a previous version: i) the method keeps the estimates of mean annual runoff congruent in the confluences by considering only raster-summable explanatory variables; ii) the presence of existing reservoirs and hydropower plants is taken into account by restoring the ';natural' statistics of the curve. The SSEM reconstructs the the FDC in ungauged basins using its L-moments from regressions on geomorphoclimatic descriptors. Relations are obtained on more than 100 gauged basins located in Northwestern Italy. To support the assessment of residual hydropower potential on two specific mountain watersheds the model has been applied extensively (Hi-Res) by mapping the estimated mean flow for each pixel of a DEM-derived river network raster model. 25000 sections were then identified over the network extracted from a 50m-resolution DTM. Spatial algorithms and data management were developed using Free&OpenSource Software (FOSS) (GRASS GIS and PostgreSQL/PostGIS), with the

  11. High resolution geomorphic map of a submerged marginal plateau, northern Lord Howe Rise, east Australian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichol, Scott L.; Heap, Andrew D.; Daniell, James

    2011-04-01

    High resolution multibeam bathymetry is used to map and interpret seabed geomorphology for part of the northern Lord Howe Rise plateau in the Tasman Sea. A mapping system of geomorphic units and elements is used, extending the previous hierarchy of geomorphic provinces and features used for the Australian margin. The mapped area covers ˜25,500 km 2 and incorporates broad ridges, valleys and plateaus. Superimposed on these features are clusters of volcanic peaks, smaller ridges, holes, scarps and aprons. An additional characteristic of the seabed in this area is an extensive network of polygonal furrows that covers the plateau and the lower slopes of larger ridges. These furrows are formed in stiff, unconsolidated carbonate ooze that forms a near-continuous sediment cover across the area. Peaks are the only geomorphic feature not fully draped in pelagic ooze. The distribution of geomorphic units suggests strong controls from underlying geological structures. In water depths of 1400 to 1600 m some peaks occur in clusters on ridges that sit above acoustic basement highs and volcanic intrusions. Elsewhere, broad plateaus and valleys slope to the southwest following the regional dip of the Lord Howe Rise plateau. In contrast, localised geomorphic elements such as moats and holes have likely explanation in terms of spatial variations in sedimentation rates in relation to bathymetric highs. Polygonal furrows are attributed to dewatering processes. The geomorphology of the seabed mapped in this study incorporates examples of forms that have not been previously mapped in such detail on the Australian margin. These are unlikely to be unique to the mapped area of the Lord Howe Rise and can be expected to occur elsewhere on the Rise and presumably on other parts of the Australian margin with a similar geological history.

  12. High-resolution statistical mapping reveals gene territories in live yeast.

    PubMed

    Berger, Axel B; Cabal, Ghislain G; Fabre, Emmanuelle; Duong, Tarn; Buc, Henri; Nehrbass, Ulf; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Gadal, Olivier; Zimmer, Christophe

    2008-12-01

    The nonrandom positioning of genes inside eukaryotic cell nuclei is implicated in central nuclear functions. However, the spatial organization of the genome remains largely uncharted, owing to limited resolution of optical microscopy, paucity of nuclear landmarks and moderate cell sampling. We developed a computational imaging approach that creates high-resolution probabilistic maps of subnuclear domains occupied by individual loci in budding yeast through automated analysis of thousands of living cells. After validation, we applied the technique to genes involved in galactose metabolism and ribosome biogenesis. We found that genomic loci are confined to 'gene territories' much smaller than the nucleus, which can be remodeled during transcriptional activation, and that the nucleolus is an important landmark for gene positioning. The technique can be used to visualize and quantify territory positions relative to each other and to nuclear landmarks, and should advance studies of nuclear architecture and function. PMID:18978785

  13. BrainMaps.org - Interactive High-Resolution Digital Brain Atlases and Virtual Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mikula, Shawn; Stone, James M; Jones, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    BrainMaps.org is an interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on over 20 million megapixels of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying and retrieving data about brain structure and function over the internet. Complete brain datasets for various species, including Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Tyto alba, are accessible online. The methods and tools we describe are useful for both research and teaching, and can be replicated by labs seeking to increase accessibility and sharing of neuroanatomical data. These tools offer the possibility of visualizing and exploring completely digitized sections of brains at a sub-neuronal level, and can facilitate large-scale connectional tracing, histochemical and stereological analyses. PMID:19129928

  14. Towards a minimally invasive sampling tool for high resolution tissue analytical mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardi, R.

    2015-09-01

    Multiple spatial mapping techniques of biological tissues have been proposed over the years, but all present limitations either in terms of resolution, analytical capacity or invasiveness. Ren et al (2015 Nanotechnology 26 284001) propose in their most recent work the use of a picosecond infrared laser (PIRL) under conditions of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE) to extract small amounts of cellular and molecular components, conserving their viability, structure and activity. The PIRL DIVE technique would then work as a nanobiopsy with minimal damage to the surrounding tissues, which could potentially be applied for high resolution local structural characterization of tissues in health and disease with the spatial limit determined by the laser focus.

  15. Exploiting crowdsourced observations: High-resolution mapping of real-time urban air quality throughout Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vallejo, Islen; van den Bossche, Joris; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2016-04-01

    With the technology of air quality sensors improving rapidly in recent years and with an increasing number of initiatives for collecting air quality information being established worldwide, there is a rapidly increasing amount of information on air quality. Such datasets can provide unprecedented spatial detail and thus exhibit a significant potential for allowing to create observation-based high-resolution maps of air quality in the urban environment. However, most datasets of observations made within a citizen science or crowdsourcing framework tend to have highly variable characteristics in terms of quantity, accuracy, measured parameters, and representativeness, and many more. It is therefore currently unknown how to best exploit this information for mapping purposes. In order to address this challenge we present a novel approach for combining crowdsourced observations of urban air quality with model information, allowing us to produce near-real-time, high-resolution maps of air quality in the urban environment. The approach is based on data fusion techniques, which allow for combining observations with model data in a mathematically objective way and therefore provide a means of adding value to both the observations and the model. The observations are improved by filling spatio-temporal gaps in the data and the model is improved by constraining it with observations. The model further provides detailed spatial patterns in areas where no observations are available. As such, data fusion of observations from high-density low-cost sensor networks together with air quality models can contribute to significantly improving urban-scale air quality mapping. The system has been implemented to run in an automated fashion in near real-time (once every hour) for several cities in Europe. Evaluation of the methodology is being carried out using the leave-one-out cross validation technique and simulated datasets. We present case studies demonstrating the methodology for

  16. High-resolution aeromagnetic mapping of volcanic terrain, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Carol A.; Morgan, Lisa A.

    2002-06-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired over Yellowstone National Park (YNP) show contrasting patterns reflecting differences in rock composition, types and degree of alteration, and crustal structures that mirror the variable geology of the Yellowstone Plateau. The older, Eocene, Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup, a series of mostly altered, andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks partially exposed in mountains on the eastern margin of YNP, produces high-amplitude, positive magnetic anomalies, strongly contrasting with the less magnetic, younger, latest Cenozoic, Yellowstone Plateau Group, primarily a series of fresh and variably altered rhyolitic rocks covering most of YNP. The Yellowstone caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau; part of its boundary can be identified on the aeromagnetic map as a series of discontinuous, negative magnetic anomalies that reflect faults or zones along which extensive hydrothermal alteration is localized. The large-volume rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits of the 0.63-Ma Lava Creek Tuff and the 2.1-Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, which are prominent lithologies peripheral to the Yellowstone caldera, produce insignificant magnetic signatures. A zone of moderate amplitude positive anomalies coincides with the mapped extent of several post-caldera rhyolitic lavas. Linear magnetic anomalies reflect the rectilinear fault systems characteristic of resurgent domes in the center of the caldera. Peripheral to the caldera, the high-resolution aeromagnetic map clearly delineates flow unit boundaries of pre- and post-caldera basalt flows, which occur stratigraphically below the post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and are not exposed extensively at the surface. All of the hot spring and geyser basins, such as Norris, Upper and Lower Geyser Basins, West Thumb, and Gibbon, are associated with negative magnetic anomalies, reflecting hydrothermal alteration that has destroyed the magnetic susceptibility of minerals in the volcanic rocks. Within

  17. High-resolution aeromagnetic mapping of volcanic terrain, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Morgan, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic data acquired over Yellowstone National Park (YNP) show contrasting patterns reflecting differences in rock composition, types and degree of alteration, and crustal structures that mirror the variable geology of the Yellowstone Plateau. The older, Eocene, Absaroka Volcanic Supergroup, a series of mostly altered, andesitic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks partially exposed in mountains on the eastern margin of YNP, produces high-amplitude, positive magnetic anomalies, strongly contrasting with the less magnetic, younger, latest Cenozoic, Yellowstone Plateau Group, primarily a series of fresh and variably altered rhyolitic rocks covering most of YNP. The Yellowstone caldera is the centerpiece of the Yellowstone Plateau; part of its boundary can be identified on the aeromagnetic map as a series of discontinuous, negative magnetic anomalies that reflect faults or zones along which extensive hydrothermal alteration is localized. The large-volume rhyolitic ignimbrite deposits of the 0.63-Ma Lava Creek Tuff and the 2.1-Ma Huckleberry Ridge Tuff, which are prominent lithologies peripheral to the Yellowstone caldera, produce insignificant magnetic signatures. A zone of moderate amplitude positive anomalies coincides with the mapped extent of several post-caldera rhyolitic lavas. Linear magnetic anomalies reflect the rectilinear fault systems characteristic of resurgent domes in the center of the caldera. Peripheral to the caldera, the high-resolution aeromagnetic map clearly delineates flow unit boundaries of pre- and post-caldera basalt flows, which occur stratigraphically below the post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and are not exposed extensively at the surface. All of the hot spring and geyser basins, such as Norris, Upper and Lower Geyser Basins, West Thumb, and Gibbon, are associated with negative magnetic anomalies, reflecting hydrothermal alteration that has destroyed the magnetic susceptibility of minerals in the volcanic rocks. Within

  18. High-Resolution Thermal Inertia Mapping from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellon, M.T.; Jakosky, B.M.; Kieffer, H.H.; Christensen, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    High-resolution thermal inertia mapping results are presented, derived from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of the surface temperature of Mars obtained during the early portion of the MGS mapping mission. Thermal inertia is the key property controlling the diurnal surface temperature variations, and is dependent on the physical character of the top few centimeters of the surface. It represents a complex combination of particle size, rock abundance, exposures of bedrock, and degree of induration. In this work we describe the derivation of thermal inertia from TES data, present global scale analysis, and place these results into context with earlier work. A global map of nighttime thermal-bolometer-based thermal inertia is presented at 14?? per pixel resolution, with approximately 63% coverage between 50??S and 70??N latitude. Global analysis shows a similar pattern of high and low thermal inertia as seen in previous Viking low-resolution mapping. Significantly more detail is present in the high-resolution TES thermal inertia. This detail represents horizontal small-scale variability in the nature of the surface. Correlation with albedo indicates the presence of a previously undiscovered surface unit of moderate-to-high thermal inertia and intermediate albedo. This new unit has a modal peak thermal inertia of 180-250 J m-2 K-1 s-12 and a narrow range of albedo near 0.24. The unit, covering a significant fraction of the surface, typically surrounds the low thermal inertia regions and may comprise a deposit of indurated fine material. Local 3-km-resolution maps are also presented as examples of eolian, fluvial, and volcanic geology. Some impact crater rims and intracrater dunes show higher thermal inertias than the surrounding terrain; thermal inertia of aeolian deposits such as intracrater dunes may be related to average particle size. Outflow channels and valleys consistently show higher thermal inertias than the

  19. High Resolution North and South Polar Maps of the Moon with AMIE/SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despan, Daniela; Erard, Stephane; Beauvivre, Stephane; Chevrel, Serge; Pinet, Patrick; Almeida, Miguel; Grieger, Bjoern; Cerroni, Priscilla; Barucci, M. A.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Koschny, Detlef; Foing, Bernard H.

    The northern and southern polar areas maps of the Moon are obtained by processing and mosaiking of the AMIE, SMART-1 images. The Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE) on board the ESA lunar mission Smart-1 has performed colour imaging of the lunar surface using various filters in the visible and NIR. The low pericenter, polar orbit, allowed to obtain high resolution images in various locations at the surface. From the 300 km pericenter altitude, the field of view (5,3° x5,3° ) corresponds to a spatial resolution about 30 m. The 1024x1024 images are shared by the various filters, allowing to derive mosaics of the surface in up to 3 colors depending on pointing mode. Spot-pointing observations and multiple observations from different orbits have provided photometric sequences that allow to study the surface properties in restricted areas. Geometrical analysis of the AMIE images relies on the SPICE system: image coordinates are computed to get precise projection at the surface, and illumination angles are computed to analyze the photometric sequences. Images from various orbits are first identified for each selected region of interest. These images are then selected according to signal to noise ratio, spatial coverage, and spatial resolution. The best images obtained with the neutral filter are calibrated, and mosaicked using the coordinates of the image frames corners. In the polar areas, images are selected so as to provide the best possible viewing of surface topography, depending on solar illumination angle, while preserving images continuity in shadowed areas. The maps of other regions of interest are yielded: Marius Hills, the Gruitheisen Domes, Rumker Hills, Aristarchus Plateau. Eventually, this method will be applied in all regions where AMIE has provided high resolution observations of the surface, typically a factor of 3 higher than the Clementine UV-vis camera. These regions are essentially located at latitude ranging from 80 to 40° S, specially

  20. Quantitative analysis of anthropogenic relief features: automated mapping of charcoal kiln sites from high-resolution ALS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Takla, Melanie; Nicolay, Alexander; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution digital elevation data from airborne laser scanning (ALS) allow for identification and mapping of so far unknown small-scale relief features that are hidden by forest cover. Especially as a result of historic land use, small anthropogenic landforms can occur, e.g., remains of charcoal kilns on sites that were used for charcoal production or ridge and furrow systems in former farmland areas. Mapping such relief features and analyzing their spatial distribution patterns can help to understand past land-use systems and their effects on landscapes. To efficiently detect and quantify small-scale relief features from high-resolution DEMs for larger areas, (semi-) automated mapping routines are required. In order to describe the number and spatial distribution of historic charcoal kiln sites in the area around Cottbus, Germany, we developed a GIS-based routine for the detection and mapping of kiln remnants from ALS elevation models with a resolution of 1 or 2 meters. The method is based on a template matching algorithm, using a combination of morphometric parameters, and is implemented within ArcGIS. The mapping results could be validated against a comprehensive database of kiln sites and diameters recorded from archaeological excavations in the forefield of the opencast mine Jänschwalde and from manual digitization of kiln remnants from Shaded Relief maps for the Jänschwalder Heide and the Tauersche Forst, north of Cottbus. A considerably high number of charcoal kiln sites could be detected in ALS data, and the diameters of the identified charcoal kilns are remarkable large in the area. For the Jänschwalder Heide, more than 5000 kiln sites in an area of 32 km2 were detected by manual digitization, with 1355 kiln sites that are wider than 12 m. These relatively large kiln sites could be mapped with detection rates that are close to those of manual digitization using the automated mapping routine. Detection quality was improved by the combination of

  1. Calculating High Resolution CWSI Maps for Entire Growing Season of a Cultivated Barley Field with UAV-Collected Surface Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Jensen, R.; Nieto Solana, H.; Friborg, T.; Thomsen, A.

    2015-12-01

    With agriculture as the largest consumer of freshwater and an overall increasing pressure on water resources, developing more efficient irrigation systems is important. Combining the crop water stress index (CWSI) with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enables detection of which specific areas within a cultivated field that requires irrigation to ensure healthy growing plants. In this study remotely sensed, high resolution surface temperatures are collected with a thermal camera onboard an UAV. Temperatures are used to calculate spatially distributed, high resolution CWSI maps over a barley field during growing seasons 2014 and 2015. In early stages of the barley growing season, surface temperatures are an ensemble of both soil and canopy temperatures. Canopy temperatures are extracted using leaf area index and the two source energy balance modelling scheme. This approach enables CWSI calculations for homogeneous and evenly distributed crops (such as barley) during early as well as late stages of a growing season. CWSI maps are calculated using both an empirical and an analytical approach and are compared and validated against modelled canopy conductance and transpiration rates.

  2. High-resolution mapping of meiotic crossovers and noncrossovers in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mancera, Eugenio; Bourgon, Richard; Brozzi, Alessandro; Huber, Wolfgang; Steinmetz, Lars M.

    2009-01-01

    Meiotic recombination plays a central role in the evolution of sexually reproducing organisms. The two recombination outcomes, crossover (CO) and noncrossover (NCO), increase genetic diversity, but have the potential to homogenize alleles by gene conversion. While CO rates are known to vary considerably across the genome, NCOs and gene conversions have only been identified in a handful of loci. To examine recombination genome-wide and at high spatial resolution, we generated maps of COs, CO-associated gene conversion and NCO gene conversion using dense genetic marker data collected from all four products of 56 yeast meioses. Our maps reveal differences in the distributions of COs and NCOs, showing more regions where either COs or NCOs are favoured than expected by chance. Furthermore, we detect evidence for interference between COs and NCOs, a phenomenon previously only known to occur between COs. Up to 1% of the genome of each meiotic product is subject to gene conversion in a single meiosis, with detectable bias towards GC nucleotides. The maps represent the first high-resolution, genome-wide characterization of the multiple outcomes of recombination in any organism. In addition, because NCO hot spots create holes of reduced linkage within haplotype blocks, our results stress the need to incorporate NCOs into genetic linkage analysis. PMID:18615017

  3. High-resolution geologic mapping of the inner continental shelf: Boston Harbor and approaches, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Seth D.; Butman, Bradford; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Danforth, William W.; Crocker, James M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the surficial geologic framework data and information for the sea floor of Boston Harbor and Approaches, Massachusetts (fig. 1.1). This mapping was conducted as part of a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary objective of this project was to provide sea floor geologic information and maps of Boston Harbor to aid resource management, scientific research, industry and the public. A secondary objective was to test the feasibility of using NOAA hydrographic survey data, normally collected to update navigation charts, to create maps of the sea floor suitable for geologic and habitat interpretations. Defining sea-floor geology is the first steps toward managing ocean resources and assessing environmental changes due to natural or human activity. The geophysical data for these maps were collected as part of hydrographic surveys carried out by NOAA in 2000 and 2001 (fig. 1.2). Bottom photographs, video, and samples of the sediments were collected in September 2004 to help in the interpretation of the geophysical data. Included in this report are high-resolution maps of the sea floor, at a scale of 1:25,000; the data used to create these maps in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) format; a GIS project; and a gallery of photographs of the sea floor. Companion maps of sea floor to the north Boston Harbor and Approaches are presented by Barnhardt and others (2006) and to the east by Butman and others (2003a,b,c). See Butman and others (2004) for a map of Massachusetts Bay at a scale of 1:125,000. The sections of this report are listed in the navigation bar along the left-hand margin of this page. Section 1 (this section) introduces the report. Section 2 presents the large-format map sheets. Section 3 describes data collection, processing, and analysis. Section 4 summarizes the geologic history of

  4. Heterozygous mapping strategy (HetMapps)for high resolution genotyping-by-sequencing markers: a case study in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) provides opportunities to generate high-resolution genetic maps at a low per-sample genotyping cost, but missing data and under-calling of heterozygotes complicate the creation of GBS linkage maps for highly heterozygous species. To overcome these issues, we developed ...

  5. Estimation of Stand Height and Forest Volume Using High Resolution Stereo Photography and Forest Type Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditional field methods for measuring tree heights are often too costly and time consuming. An alternative remote sensing approach is to measure tree heights from digital stereo photographs which is more practical for forest managers and less expensive than LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar. This work proposes an estimation of stand height and forest volume(m3/ha) using normalized digital surface model (nDSM) from high resolution stereo photography (25cm resolution) and forest type map. The study area was located in Mt. Maehwa model forest in Hong Chun-Gun, South Korea. The forest type map has four attributes such as major species, age class, DBH class and crown density class by stand. Overlapping aerial photos were taken in September 2013 and digital surface model (DSM) was created by photogrammetric methods(aerial triangulation, digital image matching). Then, digital terrain model (DTM) was created by filtering DSM and subtracted DTM from DSM pixel by pixel, resulting in nDSM which represents object heights (buildings, trees, etc.). Two independent variables from nDSM were used to estimate forest stand volume: crown density (%) and stand height (m). First, crown density was calculated using canopy segmentation method considering live crown ratio. Next, stand height was produced by averaging individual tree heights in a stand using Esri's ArcGIS and the USDA Forest Service's FUSION software. Finally, stand volume was estimated and mapped using aerial photo stand volume equations by species which have two independent variables, crown density and stand height. South Korea has a historical imagery archive which can show forest change in 40 years of successful forest rehabilitation. For a future study, forest volume change map (1970s-present) will be produced using this stand volume estimation method and a historical imagery archive.

  6. High-resolution entrainment mapping of gastric pacing: a new analytical tool.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Lammers, Wim J E P; Egbuji, John U; Mithraratne, Pulasthi; Chen, Jiande D Z; Cheng, Leo K; Windsor, John A; Pullan, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    Gastric pacing has been investigated as a potential treatment for gastroparesis. New pacing protocols are required to improve symptom and motility outcomes; however, research progress has been constrained by a limited understanding of the effects of electrical stimulation on slow-wave activity. This study introduces high-resolution (HR) "entrainment mapping" for the analysis of gastric pacing and presents four demonstrations. Gastric pacing was initiated in a porcine model (typical amplitude 4 mA, pulse width 400 ms, period 17 s). Entrainment mapping was performed using flexible multielectrode arrays (mapped in HR, revealing an ectopic slow-wave focus and uncoupled propagations. In the fourth demonstration, differences were observed between paced and native slow-wave amplitudes (0.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.14 mV; P < 0.001), velocities (6.2 +/- 2.8 vs. 11.5 +/- 4.7 mm/s; P < 0.001), and activated areas (20.6 +/- 1.9 vs. 32.8 +/- 2.6 cm(2); P < 0.001). Entrainment mapping enables an accurate quantification of the effects of gastric pacing on slow-wave activity, offering an improved method to assess whether pacing protocols are likely to achieve physiologically and clinically useful outcomes. PMID:19926815

  7. Mapping evapotranspiration with high resolution aircraft imagery over vineyards using one and two source modeling schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, T.; Kustas, W. P.; Anderson, M. C.; Alfieri, J. G.; Gao, F.; McKee, L.; Prueger, J. H.; Geli, H. M. E.; Neale, C. M. U.; Sanchez, L.; Mar Alsina, M.; Wang, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal and multispectral remote sensing data from low-altitude aircraft can provide high spatial resolution necessary for sub-field (≤ 10 m) and plant canopy (≤ 1m) scale evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring. In this study, high resolution aircraft sub-meter scale thermal infrared and multispectral shortwave data are used to map ET over vineyards in central California with the Two Source Energy Balance (TSEB) model and with a simple model called DATTUTDUT (Deriving Atmosphere Turbulent Transport Useful To Dummies Using Temperature) which uses contextual information within the image to scale between radiometric land surface temperature (TR) values representing hydrologic limits of potential ET and a non-evaporative surface. Imagery from five days throughout the growing season is used for mapping ET at the sub-field scale. The performance of the two models is evaluated using tower-based energy flux measurements of sensible (H) and latent heat (LE) or ET. The comparison indicates that TSEB was able to derive reasonable ET estimates under varying conditions, likely due to the physically based treatment of the energy and the surface temperature partitioning between the soil/cover crop inter-row and vine canopy elements. On the other hand, DATTUTDUT performance was somewhat degraded presumably because the simple scaling scheme does not consider differences in the two sources (vine and inter-row) of heat and temperature contributions or the effect of surface roughness on the efficiency of heat exchange. Maps of the evaporative fraction (EF = LE/(H + LE)) from the two models had similar spatial patterns but different magnitudes in some areas within the fields on certain days. Large EF discrepancies between the models were found on two of the five days (DOY 162 and 219) when there were significant differences with the tower-based ET measurements, particularly using the DATTUTDUT model. These differences in EF between the models translate to significant variations in

  8. Applying modified high resolution airborne LiDAR DTM for floodplain mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, M.; Jochem, A.; Franke, M.; Schöberl, F.; Stötter, J.; Werthmann, M.

    2009-04-01

    Today, airborne LiDAR derived digital terrain models (DTM) are used in the research context and various scientific disciplines. In hydrology such high resolution DTMs are used for computing flood simulations, calculating roughness maps, floodplain mapping, etc. The presented approach outlines the strength of a LiDAR derived DTM (1m) in comparison to a photogrammetric derived DTM (10m). By implementing an interpolated river bed model, which is derived by using terrestrial measured river cross sections and hence modifying the high resolution DTM for hydraulic task floodplain mapping and modeling routines, could be improved. The river bed interpolation routine includes an automatic bridge detection algorithm to delete bridge pillars in the relevant river cross sections. Furthermore, the position of riverbanks, which are a contributing factor in the field of hydraulic modeling and influence the results of the hydraulic simulations, can be detected. Once the DTM is modified, river cross profiles can be extracted directly on each position along the river axis and can be used as input for hydraulic models. In this study the software HEC-RAS is used to calculate different floodplain areas on the basis of the HQ30, HQ100 and HQ200 flood scenarios, which are calibrated on key data of the flood in August 2005. The comparison of the floodplain area in the city of Innsbruck (Tyrol, Austria), modeled on the basis of a modified LiDAR derived DTM, with those from the HORA study (Hochwasserrisikozonierung Austria), shows remarkable differences. These differences result from (i) the different hydraulic modeling methods and (ii) the used DTMs, which HORA does not consider flood protection measures. The results show that the resolution of the used DTM is the determining factor for modeling adequate floodplain areas whereas the applied hydraulic model has secondary effects. The grade of accuracy attained by this approach is reflected by the numbers ,of flooding affected buildings (e

  9. High resolution mapping of dust sources in Central Asia using MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobakht, Mohamad; Shahgedanova, Maria; White, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Dust impacts the energy balance of the Earth via absorption and scattering of radiation in the atmosphere and through the mechanism by which aerosols modify the optical properties of clouds and land surfaces. It is now established that the deposition of mineral dust significantly affects high-altitude environments, including both snow pack and glacier ice. Central Asia is a region where large deserts are located in close proximity to the mountains whose extensive glaciers and snow pack provide runoff supporting agriculture in the densely populated foothills. More than 75% of the territory in Central Asia is desert lowland varying from sandy to stony, salt, and clay deserts. Significant amounts of wind-blown desert dust, originating from these deserts, are deposited on glaciers of Tian Shan Mountains in Central Asia. Satellite remote sensing using optical imagery has provided us with a powerful tool for identification and characterization of dust emission sources. In this study we investigated the spatial distribution and seasonal pattern of dust emissions in surrounding lowlands of the Tian Shan Mountains using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. Seasonality of dust emission is studied by analyzing MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth, acquired over a period of 12 years from January 2003 to December 2014. We analyzed the spatial distribution and frequency of occurrence of dust optical depth to identify the main dust sources in this region. In order to produce a detailed map of dust emission sources, we also employed a dust enhancement algorithm to obtain high resolution (1km) dust enhancement products from MODIS imageries. The high resolution of MODIS dust enhancement products enabled us to identify several small, eroding point sources within the dust source areas. Different seasonal patterns of dust emissions were observed in northern, western and southern deserts around the Tian Shan Mountains and their relation to climatological

  10. High-Resolution Temperature Mapping of Mesospheric Gravity Waves and Breaking Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael J.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Zhao, Yucheng; Yuan, Tao; Pendleon, William R.; Fritts, David; Esplin, Roy; McLain, David; Stober, Gunter

    2016-04-01

    This presentation highlights new research capabilities and recent results using a novel infra-red imaging system operating at high-latitudes at the ALOMAR Arctic Observatory, Norway (69°N), and at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica (90°S). The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a high-performance digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ~1.55 μm) to create high-quality intensity and temperature maps of a broad spectrum of gravity waves at the ~87 km level (with periods ranging from several minutes to many hours). The temperature data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (~0.5 km) and temporal (typically 30 sec) resolution over a large 120° field of view enabling detailed studies of gravity wave propagation and breaking events in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region, even in the presence of strong aurora and moonlight. New results include high-resolution wintertime studies of continuous (24-hr) gravity wave activity and spectral evolution, and first evidence of gravity wave "self-acceleration" in the MLT region using coordinated lidar and radar measurements. These results are complemented by very high resolution (~4 sec) gravity wave observations using a third AMTM developed for airborne measurements on the National Science Foundation (NSF) Gulfstream V aircraft as part of the DEEPWAVE program. This mission was successfully conducted from New Zealand during the Austral winter, June-July 2014, and obtained spectacular new data on mesospheric mountain waves, including large amplitude breaking events associated with variable orographic forcing over the Southern Alps.

  11. High resolution mapping of interstitial long arm deletions of chromosome 16: relationship to phenotype.

    PubMed

    Callen, D F; Eyre, H; Lane, S; Shen, Y; Hansmann, I; Spinner, N; Zackai, E; McDonald-McGinn, D; Schuffenhauer, S; Wauters, J

    1993-10-01

    The breakpoints of seven interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 16 and two ring chromosomes of this chromosome were mapped by in situ hybridisation or by analysis of mouse/human somatic cell hybrids containing the deleted chromosome 16. Use of a high resolution cytogenetic based physical map of chromosome 16 enabled breakpoints to be assigned to an average resolution of at least 1.6 Mb. In general, interstitial deletions involving q12 or q22.1 have broadly similar phenotypes though there are differences in specific abnormalities. Deletions involving regions more distal, from 16q22.1 to 16q24.1, were associated with relatively mild dysmorphism. One region of the long arm, q24.2 to q24.3, was not involved in any deletion, either in this study or in any previous report. Presumably, monosomy for this region is lethal. In contrast, patients with deletions of 16q21 have a normal phenotype. These results are consistent with the proposed distribution of genes, frequent in telomeric Giesma light band regions but infrequent in G positive bands. PMID:8230159

  12. High-resolution mapping of glacial landforms in the North Alpine Foreland, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, Bernhard C.; Hinsch, Ralph; Wagreich, Michael

    2010-10-01

    In this study results from traditional field mapping were merged with precise elevation information from airborne LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) surveys. Morphological and sedimentological data provide new results from the Austrian (eastern) part of the Salzach piedmont glacier during times of and shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The variations in meltwater discharge had a major impact on the development of glacial landforms. In areas with high meltwater supply erosional or debris reworking processes play a major role, represented by drainage channels, drumlins and kettled, low relief hummocky moraine with low slope angles. Low discharge areas are associated with distinct depositional forms such as high relief end moraines (up to 30 m) and hummocky moraine (averaging 20 m) with high slope angles. Isolated conical kames may reach heights up to 45 m. Fluvial activity is supposed to rise towards the end of the glacial cycle causing high melting rates and comprehensive debris reworking. The formation of terminal lakes and associated widespread, inorganic lake clays are the last deposits within the study area before the Salzach Glacier completely receded to its main valley. The survey of glacial landforms through the combination of field mapping and high-resolution DEM derived from airborne LiDAR missions gives precise information on transport and deposition during the last glacial cycle of the eastern Salzach Glacier piedmont lobe.

  13. Acoustic force mapping in a hybrid acoustic-optical micromanipulation device supporting high resolution optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Thalhammer, Gregor; McDougall, Craig; MacDonald, Michael Peter; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2016-04-12

    Many applications in the life-sciences demand non-contact manipulation tools for forceful but nevertheless delicate handling of various types of sample. Moreover, the system should support high-resolution optical imaging. Here we present a hybrid acoustic/optical manipulation system which utilizes a transparent transducer, making it compatible with high-NA imaging in a microfluidic environment. The powerful acoustic trapping within a layered resonator, which is suitable for highly parallel particle handling, is complemented by the flexibility and selectivity of holographic optical tweezers, with the specimens being under high quality optical monitoring at all times. The dual acoustic/optical nature of the system lends itself to optically measure the exact acoustic force map, by means of direct force measurements on an optically trapped particle. For applications with (ultra-)high demand on the precision of the force measurements, the position of the objective used for the high-NA imaging may have significant influence on the acoustic force map in the probe chamber. We have characterized this influence experimentally and the findings were confirmed by model simulations. We show that it is possible to design the chamber and to choose the operating point in such a way as to avoid perturbations due to the objective lens. Moreover, we found that measuring the electrical impedance of the transducer provides an easy indicator for the acoustic resonances. PMID:27025398

  14. High-Resolution Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Risk Mapping in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe: Implications for Regaining Control.

    PubMed

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Mamini, Edmore; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Munyati, Shungu; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Shields, Timothy; Mullany, Luke C; Mutambu, Susan; Mason, Peter R; Curriero, Frank C; Moss, William J

    2016-07-01

    In Zimbabwe, more than half of malaria cases are concentrated in Manicaland Province, where seasonal malaria epidemics occur despite intensified control strategies. The objectives of this study were to develop a prediction model based on environmental risk factors and obtain seasonal malaria risk maps for Mutasa District, one of the worst affected districts in Manicaland Province. From October 2012 to September 2015, 483 households were surveyed, and 104 individuals residing within 69 households had positive rapid diagnostic test results. Logistic regression was used to model the probability of household positivity as a function of the environmental covariates extracted from high-resolution remote sensing data sources. Model predictions and prediction standard errors were generated for the rainy and dry seasons. The resulting maps predicted elevated risk during the rainy season, particularly in low-lying areas bordering Mozambique. In contrast, the risk of malaria was low across the study area during the dry season with foci of malaria risk scattered along the northern and western peripheries of the study area. These findings underscore the need for strong cross-border malaria control initiatives to complement country-specific interventions. PMID:27114294

  15. Ultra-high resolution, polarization sensitive transversal optical coherence tomography for structural analysis and strain mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesauer, Karin; Pircher, Michael; Goetzinger, Erich; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Engelke, Rainer; Ahrens, Gisela; Pfeiffer, Karl; Ostrzinski, Ute; Gruetzner, Gabi; Oster, Reinhold; Stifter, David

    2006-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a contactless and non-invasive technique nearly exclusively applied for bio-medical imaging of tissues. Besides the internal structure, additionally strains within the sample can be mapped when OCT is performed in a polarization sensitive (PS) way. In this work, we demonstrate the benefits of PS-OCT imaging for non-biological applications. We have developed the OCT technique beyond the state-of-the-art: based on transversal ultra-high resolution (UHR-)OCT, where an axial resolution below 2 μm within materials is obtained using a femtosecond laser as light source, we have modified the setup for polarization sensitive measurements (transversal UHR-PS-OCT). We perform structural analysis and strain mapping for different types of samples: for a highly strained elastomer specimen we demonstrate the necessity of UHR-imaging. Furthermore, we investigate epoxy waveguide structures, photoresist moulds for the fabrication of micro-electromechanical parts (MEMS), and the glass-fibre composite outer shell of helicopter rotor blades where cracks are present. For these examples, transversal scanning UHR-PS-OCT is shown to provide important information about the structural properties and the strain distribution within the samples.

  16. High-resolution linkage map for two honeybee chromosomes: the hotspot quest.

    PubMed

    Mougel, Florence; Poursat, Marie-Anne; Beaume, Nicolas; Vautrin, Dominique; Solignac, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental process ensuring proper disjunction of homologous chromosomes and allele shuffling in successive generations. In many species, this cellular mechanism occurs heterogeneously along chromosomes and mostly concentrates in tiny fragments called recombination hotspots. Specific DNA motifs have been shown to initiate recombination in these hotspots in mammals, fission yeast and drosophila. The aim of this study was to check whether recombination also occurs in a heterogeneous fashion in the highly recombinogenic honeybee genome and whether this heterogeneity can be connected with specific DNA motifs. We completed a previous picture drawn from a routine genetic map built with an average resolution of 93 kb. We focused on the two smallest honeybee chromosomes to increase the resolution and even zoomed at very high resolution (3.6 kb) on a fragment of 300 kb. Recombination rates measured in these fragments were placed in relation with occurrence of 30 previously described motifs through a Poisson regression model. A selection procedure suitable for correlated variables was applied to keep significant motifs. These fine and ultra-fine mappings show that recombination rate is significantly heterogeneous although poorly contrasted between high and low recombination rate, contrarily to most model species. We show that recombination rate is probably associated with the DNA methylation state. Moreover, three motifs (CGCA, GCCGC and CCAAT) are good candidates of signals promoting recombination. Their influence is however moderate, doubling at most the recombination rate. This discovery extends the way to recombination dissection in insects. PMID:24162559

  17. Comparison of Methods to Map and Measure River Terraces using High-Resolution Airborne LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, A. J.; Snyder, N. P.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial terraces are important recorders of land-use, climate, and tectonic history that form in both erosional and depositional landscapes and consist of a flat surface bounded by valley walls and a steep-sloping scarp adjacent to the river channel. Combining these defining characteristics with high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys, several methods have been developed to identify and map terraces. The goals of this research are to compare some of these existing techniques and develop an objective approach to map terraces over entire watersheds using lidar DEMs. Additionally, we aim to quantify the thickness and volume of fill terrace deposits. Our preliminary application is to the Sheepscot River watershed, Maine, where strath and fill terraces are present and record Pleistocene deglaciation, Holocene eustatic forcing, and Anthropocene land-use change. We identify terraces along the longitudinal profile using an algorithm developed by Finnegan and Balco (2013), that computes the elevation frequency distribution at regularly spaced cross-sections normal to the channel. Next, we delineate terrace spatial extent using three separate methodologies: (1) image processing using Matlab, (2) feature classification algorithms developed by Wood (1996), and (3) image interpretation using manually placed points on known terraces to construct interpolated surfaces (Walter and Merritts, 2008). Lastly, we determine the thickness and volume of fill terrace sediments by subtracting an interpolated, adjacent water surface elevation from the defined terrace points. We compare our LiDAR-based results with field mapping, stratigraphic columns of terrace landforms, and ground penetrating radar over terrace surfaces. These findings suggest powerful new ways to rapidly analyze landscape history over large regions using high-resolution lidar DEMs, with less reliance on detailed and costly field data collection.

  18. Machine Learning Approaches for High-resolution Urban Land Cover Classification: A Comparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Chandola, Varun; Cheriyadat, Anil M; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Graesser, Jordan B

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation of several machine learning approaches makes it difficult to identify a suitable classification technique for analyzing high-resolution remote sensing images. In this study, ten classification techniques were compared from five broad machine learning categories. Surprisingly, the performance of simple statistical classification schemes like maximum likelihood and Logistic regression over complex and recent techniques is very close. Given that these two classifiers require little input from the user, they should still be considered for most classification tasks. Multiple classifier systems is a good choice if the resources permit.

  19. High-resolution Pleiades DEMs and improved mapping methods for the E-Corinth marine terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gelder, Giovanni; Fernández-Blanco, David; Delorme, Arthur; Jara-Muñoz, Julius; Melnick, Daniel; Lacassin, Robin; Armijo, Rolando

    2016-04-01

    The newest generation of satellite imagery provides exciting new possibilities for highly detailed mapping, with ground resolution of sub-metric pixels and absolute accuracy within a few meters. This opens new venues for the analysis of geologic and geomorphic landscape features, especially since photogrammetric methods allow the extraction of detailed topographic information from these satellite images. We used tri-stereo imagery from the Pleiades platform of the CNES in combination with Euclidium software for image orientation, and Micmac software for dense matching, to develop state-of-the-art, 2m-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for eight areas in Greece. Here, we present our mapping results for an area in the eastern Gulf of Corinth, which contains one of the most extensive and well-preserved flights of marine terraces world-wide. The spatial extent of the terraces has been determined by an iterative combination of an automated surface classification model for terrain slope and roughness, and qualitative assessment of satellite imagery, DEM hillshade maps, slope maps, as well as detailed topographic analyses of profiles and contours. We determined marine terrace shoreline angles by means of swath profiles that run perpendicularly to the paleo-seacliffs, using the graphical interface TerraceM. Our analysis provided us with a minimum and maximum estimate of the paleoshoreline location on ~750 swath profiles, by using the present-day cliff slope as an approximation for its paleo-cliff counterpart. After correlating the marine terraces laterally we obtained 16 different terrace-levels, recording Quaternary sea-level highstands of both major interglacial and several interstadial periods. Our high-resolution Pleiades-DEMs and improved method for paleoshoreline determination allowed us to produce a marine terrace map of unprecedented detail, containing more terrace sub-levels than hitherto. Our mapping demonstrates that we are no longer limited by the

  20. The interaction of high-resolution electrophoresis and computational analysis in genome mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, A.V.; Branscomb, E.W.; de Jong, P.J.; Mohrenweiser, H.; Olsen, A.; Slezak, T.

    1990-07-26

    The construction of physical maps and the determination of the DNA sequence of chromosome-size segments of the human genome is a complex, multidisciplinary undertaking. The approach we have taken to construct a physical map and sequence of human chromosome 19 typifies these interactions. We exploit the power of both acrylamide and agarose gel electrophoresis to provide a simple and versatile method for DNA fingerprinting and the creation of contigs or sets of overlapping genomic clones. Cosmid libraries are constructed from Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YAC) clones or from flow-sorted chromosomes. Cosmid DNA isolated from the screened library array is cut with a combination of five restriction enzymes and the fragment ends labeled with one of four different fluorochromes. Our approach to contig construction uses a robotic system to label restriction fragments from cosmids with fluorochromes, use of an automated DNA sequencer to capture fragment mobility data in a high resolution multiplex mode processes the mobility data to determine fragment length and provide a statistical measure of overlap among cosmids; and display the contigs and underlying cosmids for operator interaction and access to a database. Data analyses and interactions are conducted over a network of SUN workstations using a set of software tools that we developed and coupled to a commercially available database. Applying these methods, we have analyzed 5154 cosmid clones and assembled 515 contigs for chromosome 19. Some of these contigs have been identified with known genes and many have been mapped to the chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Existing contigs are being extended by a combination of walking and fingerprinting. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  1. High resolution wetland mapping in West Siberian taiga zone for methane emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentieva, I. E.; Glagolev, M. V.; Lapshina, E. D.; Sabrekov, A. F.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    High latitude wetlands are important for understanding climate change risks because these environments sink carbon and emit methane. Fine scale heterogeneity of wetland landscapes pose challenges for producing the greenhouse gas flux inventories based on point observations. To reduce uncertainties at the regional scale, we mapped wetlands and water bodies in the taiga zone of West Siberia on a scene-by-scene basis using a supervised classification of Landsat imagery. The training dataset was based on high-resolution images and field data that were collected at 28 test areas. Classification scheme was aimed at methane inventory applications and included 7 wetland ecosystem types composing 9 wetland complexes in different proportions. Accuracy assessment based on 1082 validation polygons of 10 × 10 pixels indicated an overall map accuracy of 79 %. The total area of the wetlands and water bodies was estimated to be 52.4 Mha or 4-12 % of the global wetland area. Ridge-hollow complexes prevail in WS's taiga, occupying 33 % of the domain, followed by forested bogs or "ryams" (23 %), ridge-hollow-lake complexes (16 %), open fens (8 %), palsa complexes (7 %), open bogs (5 %), patterned fens (4 %), and swamps (4 %). Various oligotrophic environments are dominant among the wetland ecosystems, while fens cover only 14 % of the area. Because of the significant update in the wetland ecosystem coverage, a considerable revaluation of the total CH4 emissions from the entire region is expected. A new Landsat-based map of WS's taiga wetlands provides a benchmark for validation of coarse-resolution global land cover products and wetland datasets in high latitudes.

  2. High-Resolution Regional Biomass Map of Siberia from Glas, Palsar L-Band Radar and Landsat Vcf Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, G.; Ranson, K.; Montesano, P.; Zhang, Z.; Kharuk, V.

    2015-12-01

    N to 75oN, and 80oE to 145oE. The spatial patterns of the new biomass map is much better than the previous maps due to spatially specific mapping in high resolution. The uncertainties of field/GLAS and GLAS/imagery models were investigated using bootstrap procedure, and the final biomass map was compared with previous maps.

  3. Vegetation mapping from high-resolution satellite images in the heterogeneous arid environments of Socotra Island (Yemen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, Luca; Attorre, Fabio; Altobelli, Alfredo; Adeeb, Ahmed; De Sanctis, Michele; Taleb, Nadim M.; Scholte, Paul T.; Vitale, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Socotra Island (Yemen), a global biodiversity hotspot, is characterized by high geomorphological and biological diversity. In this study, we present a high-resolution vegetation map of the island based on combining vegetation analysis and classification with remote sensing. Two different image classification approaches were tested to assess the most accurate one in mapping the vegetation mosaic of Socotra. Spectral signatures of the vegetation classes were obtained through a Gaussian mixture distribution model, and a sequential maximum a posteriori (SMAP) classification was applied to account for the heterogeneity and the complex spatial pattern of the arid vegetation. This approach was compared to the traditional maximum likelihood (ML) classification. Satellite data were represented by a RapidEye image with 5 m pixel resolution and five spectral bands. Classified vegetation relevés were used to obtain the training and evaluation sets for the main plant communities. Postclassification sorting was performed to adjust the classification through various rule-based operations. Twenty-eight classes were mapped, and SMAP, with an accuracy of 87%, proved to be more effective than ML (accuracy: 66%). The resulting map will represent an important instrument for the elaboration of conservation strategies and the sustainable use of natural resources in the island.

  4. High resolution methylome map of rat indicates role of intragenic DNA methylation in identification of coding region.

    PubMed

    Sati, Satish; Tanwar, Vinay Singh; Kumar, K Anand; Patowary, Ashok; Jain, Vaibhav; Ghosh, Sourav; Ahmad, Shadab; Singh, Meghna; Reddy, S Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Raghunath, Manchala; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Chakraborty, Kausik; Scaria, Vinod; Sengupta, Shantanu

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is crucial for gene regulation and maintenance of genomic stability. Rat has been a key model system in understanding mammalian systemic physiology, however detailed rat methylome remains uncharacterized till date. Here, we present the first high resolution methylome of rat liver generated using Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) approach. We observed that within the DNA/RNA repeat elements, simple repeats harbor the highest degree of methylation. Promoter hypomethylation and exon hypermethylation were common features in both RefSeq genes and expressed genes (as evaluated by proteomic approach). We also found that although CpG islands were generally hypomethylated, about 6% of them were methylated and a large proportion (37%) of methylated islands fell within the exons. Notably, we obeserved significant differences in methylation of terminal exons (UTRs); methylation being more pronounced in coding/partially coding exons compared to the non-coding exons. Further, events like alternate exon splicing (cassette exon) and intron retentions were marked by DNA methylation and these regions are retained in the final transcript. Thus, we suggest that DNA methylation could play a crucial role in marking coding regions thereby regulating alternative splicing. Apart from generating the first high resolution methylome map of rat liver tissue, the present study provides several critical insights into methylome organization and extends our understanding of interplay between epigenome, gene expression and genome stability. PMID:22355382

  5. Predictive mapping of soil properties at high resolution by component wise gradient boosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, Madlene; Papritz, Andreas; Fraefel, Marielle; Baltensweiler, Andri; Keller, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Accurate spatial information on soils is crucial for sustainable usage of the resource soil. Spatial planning, agriculture, forestry or natural hazards management need high resolution maps of potentials of soils for particular functions (e. g. water storage, nutrient supply). Soil functions are derived from basic soil properties like soil organic carbon or soil texture. For many regions precise maps of basic soil properties are missing. Hence, as a prerequisite for digital soil function mapping, maps of soil properties must be created with the desired resolution. A wide range of statistical approaches (linear and additive models, external drift kriging, Random Forest) were used for this in the past. When numerous environmental covariates (e. g. hyper-spectral remote sensing data) are available the selection of the model with best predictive power is challenging. Besides the issue of covariate selection, one should allow for non-linear effects of covariates on soil properties. To handle these difficulties we used a gradient boosting approach that included besides categorical covariates linear and smooth non-linear terms of continuous covariates as base learners. Residual auto-correlation and non-stationary relationships were modeled by smooth spatial surfaces. Gradient boosting of this flavor selects relevant covariates in a slow learning procedure and inherently models non-linear dependencies on covariates during the fitting process. The restriction to linear and smoothing spline base learners retains the interpretability of the fitted predictive models. The number of boosting iterations is the main tuning parameter and was determined by tenfold cross validation. To explore the feasibility of the gradient boosting approach we mapped pH of forest topsoils in Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, at high (50 m) spatial resolution. Legacy pH measurements were available from 1200 sites in the in the forests of Canton of Zurich. Gradient boosting selected a sparse model with

  6. High-resolution mapping of elemental abundances of the lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöhler, Christian; Berezhnoy, Alexey; Evans, Richard

    comparably large deviations from the three-endmember plane in Al-Fe-Mg space of 1 wt percent and more. These anomalous basalts have low ages of 1.7-2.8 Ga [7]. They are characterised by secondary absorption features near 1100 nm and high 2000/1500 spectral ratios, indicating a high olivine content. Anomalous material in lunar craters is generally interpreted as being excavated during crater formation from the lower lunar crust or upper mantle (cf. e.g. [8]). For the highland crater Tycho, our method reveals mafic units in the northern crater wall and in the central peaks and Mg-rich rock in the southwestern crater wall and distributed throughout the crater floor. This material is interpreted in [9] as anorthositic gabbro with a low Fe content and a mafic mineral assemblage dominated by high-Ca pyroxene. Our petrographic map of Copernicus shows the central peaks as small regions composed of the mare basalt endmember (interpreted as gabbroic material) with admixed troctolite (western peak) and mainly troctolite (eastern peak), respectively [8]. For the central peaks of the crater Bullialdus, our technique clearly reveals the Mg-rich rock component, which is interpreted as norite in [10]. We present very high resolution petrographic maps derived from newly released Selene multi-spectral data of the central peaks of Copernicus and Bullialdus. For the pyroclastic deposits (LPDs) on the floor of Alphonsus, our technique indicates high Mg/Al ratios between 1.4 (eastern LPDs) and 2.5 (western LPD) [11]. The secondary absorption near 1100 nm and the high 2000/1500 ratio suggest the presence of a major olivine component. As a general result, we show that our regression-based elemental abundance estimation method allows the detection of the main lunar terrain classes and rock types on small spatial scales based on multispectral imagery in the visible and near-infrared domain. [1] Lucey et al. (2000), JGR 105(E8), 20297-20306. [2] Wühler et al. (2009), EPSC 2009, 263. [3] Evans et al

  7. High resolution aeromagnetic anomaly map of Mount Etna volcano, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Nicolosi, I.; Carluccio, R.; Chiappini, S.; De Ritis, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Messina, A.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-05-01

    A high resolution aeromagnetic survey of Mount Etna Volcano was carried out by the Airborne Geophysics Science Team of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), aimed at producing the most detailed magnetic anomaly map existing so far for this area. Two datasets of the total intensity of the Earth's Magnetic Field were collected at different altitudes to take into account the huge topographic variations of Etna volcano, that reaches elevations above 3300 m asl. One level was flown at the altitude of 2200 m whereas a second one over the central part, at about 3500 m of altitude. Since the region is characterized by a large presence of strongly magnetized volcanic products, the survey was carried out acquiring profile lines only, in order to optimize the resources. From the residual magnetic anomaly analysis we inferred two main trending lineaments (- 35°N and 0°N) that are related to regional tectonic stress field and we interpret the main magnetic anomaly as the effect of thickness variation of magnetized volcanic products due to the complex pre-volcanic basement morphology of Etna.

  8. Using advanced intercross lines for high-resolution mapping of HDL cholesterol quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosong; Le Roy, Isabelle; Nicodeme, Edwige; Li, Renhua; Wagner, Richard; Petros, Christina; Churchill, Gary A; Harris, Stephen; Darvasi, Ariel; Kirilovsky, Jorge; Roubertoux, Pierre L; Paigen, Beverly

    2003-07-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with high resolution facilitates identification and positional cloning of the underlying genes. The novel approach of advanced intercross lines (AILs) generates many more recombination events and thus can potentially narrow QTLs significantly more than do conventional backcrosses and F2 intercrosses. In this study, we carried out QTL analyses in (C57BL/6J x NZB/BlNJ) x C57BL/6J backcross progeny fed either chow or an atherogenic diet to detect QTLs that regulate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)concentrations, and in (C57BL/6J x NZB/BlNJ) F11 AIL progeny to confirm and narrow those QTLs. QTLs for HDL concentrations were found on chromosomes 1, 5, and 16. AIL not only narrowed the QTLs significantly more than did a conventional backcross but also resolved a chromosome 5 QTL identified in the backcross into two QTLs, the peaks of both being outside the backcross QTL region. We tested 27 candidate genes and found significant mRNA expression differences for 12 (Nr1i3, Apoa2, Sap, Tgfb2, Fgfbp1, Prom, Ppargc1, Tcf1, Ncor2, Srb1, App, and Ifnar). Some of these underlay the same QTL, indicating that expression differences are common and not sufficient to identify QTL genes. All the major HDL QTLs in our study had homologous counterparts in humans, implying that their underlying genes regulate HDL in humans. PMID:12805272

  9. Using Advanced Intercross Lines for High-Resolution Mapping of HDL Cholesterol Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaosong; Le Roy, Isabelle; Nicodeme, Edwige; Li, Renhua; Wagner, Richard; Petros, Christina; Churchill, Gary A.; Harris, Stephen; Darvasi, Ariel; Kirilovsky, Jorge; Roubertoux, Pierre L.; Paige, Beverly

    2003-01-01

    Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs)with high resolution facilitates identification and positional cloning of the underlying genes. The novel approach of advanced intercross lines (AILs) generates many more recombination events and thus can potentially narrow QTLs significantly more than do conventional backcrosses and F2 intercrosses. In this study, we carried out QTL analyses in (C57BL/6J × NZB/BlNJ)× C57BL/6J backcross progeny fed either chow or an atherogenic diet to detect QTLs that regulate high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)concentrations, and in (C57BL/6J × NZB/BlNJ)F11 AIL progeny to confirm and narrow those QTLs. QTLs for HDL concentrations were found on chromosomes 1, 5, and 16. AIL not only narrowed the QTLs significantly more than did a conventional backcross but also resolved a chromosome 5 QTL identified in the backcross into two QTLs, the peaks of both being outside the backcross QTL region. We tested 27 candidate genes and found significant mRNA expression differences for 12 (Nr1i3, Apoa2, Sap, Tgfb2, Fgfbp1, Prom, Ppargc1, Tcf1, Ncor2, Srb1, App, and Ifnar). Some of these underlay the same QTL, indicating that expression differences are common and not sufficient to identify QTL genes. All the major HDL QTLs in our study had homologous counterparts in humans, implying that their underlying genes regulate HDL in humans. PMID:12805272

  10. A high-resolution map of nucleosome positioning on a fission yeast centromere.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun S; Liu, Xingkun; Liu, X Shirley; He, Xiangwei

    2008-07-01

    A key element for defining the centromere identity is the incorporation of a specific histone H3, CENPA, known as Cnp1p in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Previous studies have suggested that functional S. pombe centromeres lack regularly positioned nucleosomes and may involve chromatin remodeling as a key step of kinetochore assembly. We used tiling microarrays to show that nucleosomes are, in fact, positioned in regular intervals in the core of centromere 2, providing the first high-resolution map of regional centromere chromatin. Nucleosome locations are not disrupted by mutations in kinetochore protein genes cnp1, mis18, mis12, nuf2, mal2; overexpression of cnp1; or the deletion of ams2, which encodes a GATA-like factor participating in CENPA incorporation. Bioinformatics analysis of the centromere sequence indicates certain enriched motifs in linker regions between nucleosomes and reveals a sequence bias in nucleosome positioning. In addition, sequence analysis of nucleosome-free regions identifies novel binding sites of Ams2p. We conclude that centromeric nucleosome positions are stable and may be derived from the underlying DNA sequence. PMID:18411404

  11. High-resolution mapping of open chromatin in the rice genome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Wu, Yufeng; Schnable, James C.; Zeng, Zixian; Freeling, Michael; Crawford, Gregory E.; Jiang, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression is controlled by the complex interaction of transcription factors binding to promoters and other regulatory DNA elements. One common characteristic of the genomic regions associated with regulatory proteins is a pronounced sensitivity to DNase I digestion. We generated genome-wide high-resolution maps of DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites from both seedling and callus tissues of rice (Oryza sativa). Approximately 25% of the DH sites from both tissues were found in putative promoters, indicating that the vast majority of the gene regulatory elements in rice are not located in promoter regions. We found 58% more DH sites in the callus than in the seedling. For DH sites detected in both the seedling and callus, 31% displayed significantly different levels of DNase I sensitivity within the two tissues. Genes that are differentially expressed in the seedling and callus were frequently associated with DH sites in both tissues. The DNA sequences contained within the DH sites were hypomethylated, consistent with what is known about active gene regulatory elements. Interestingly, tissue-specific DH sites located in the promoters showed a higher level of DNA methylation than the average DNA methylation level of all the DH sites located in the promoters. A distinct elevation of H3K27me3 was associated with intergenic DH sites. These results suggest that epigenetic modifications play a role in the dynamic changes of the numbers and DNase I sensitivity of DH sites during development. PMID:22110044

  12. ATLAS: an airborne active linescan system for high-resolution topographic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willetts, David V.; Kightley, Peter J.; Mole, S. G.; Pearson, Guy N.; Pearson, P.; Coffey, Adrian S.; Stokes, Tim J.; Tapster, Paul R.; Westwood, M.

    2004-12-01

    High resolution ground mapping is of interest for survey and management of long linear features such as roads, railways and pipelines, and for georeferencing of areas such as flood plains for hydrological purposes. ATLAS (Airborne Topographic Laser System) is an active linescan system operating at the eyesafe wavelength of 1.5μm. Built for airborne survey, it is currently certified for use on a Twin Squirrel helicopter for operation from low levels to heights above 500 feet allowing commercial survey in built up areas. The system operates at a pulse repetition frequency of 56kHz with a line completed in 15ms, giving 36 points/m2 at the surface at the design flight speed. At each point the range to the ground is measured together with the scan angle of the system. This data is combined with a system attitude measurement from an integrated inertial navigation system and with system position derived from differential GPS data aboard the platform. A recording system captures the data with a synchronised time-stamp to enable post-processed reconstruction of a cloud of data points that will give a three-dimensional representation of the terrain, allowing the points to be located with respect to absolute Earth referenced coordinates to a precision of 5cm in three axes. This paper summarises the design, harmonisation, evaluation and performance of the system, and shows examples of survey data.

  13. Subsurface Feature Mapping of Mars using a High Resolution Ground Penetrating Radar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. S.; Persaud, D. M.; Preudhomme, M. A.; Jurg, M.; Smith, M. K.; Buckley, H.; Tarnas, J.; Chalumeau, C.; Lombard-Poirot, N.; Mann, B.

    2015-12-01

    As the closest Earth-like, potentially life-sustaining planet in the solar system, Mars' future of human exploration is more a question of timing than possibility. The Martian surface remains hostile, but its subsurface geology holds promise for present or ancient astrobiology and future habitation, specifically lava tube (pyroduct) systems, whose presence has been confirmed by HiRISE imagery.The location and characterization of these systems could provide a basis for understanding the evolution of the red planet and long-term shelters for future manned missions on Mars. To detect and analyze the subsurface geology of terrestrial bodies from orbit, a novel compact (smallsat-scale) and cost-effective approach called the High-resolution Orbiter for Mapping gEology by Radar (HOMER) has been proposed. Adapting interferometry techniques with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to a ground penetrating radar system, a small satellite constellation is able to achieve a theoretical resolution of 50m from low-Mars orbit (LMO). Alongside this initial prototype design of HOMER, proposed data processing methodology and software and a Mars mission design are presented. This project was developed as part of the 2015 NASA Ames Academy for Space Exploration.

  14. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W; Grahn, Robert A; Zimin, Aleksey V; David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O'Brien, Stephen J; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Warren, Wesley C; Murphy, William J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location. PMID:27172201

  15. A High-Resolution SNP Array-Based Linkage Map Anchors a New Domestic Cat Draft Genome Assembly and Provides Detailed Patterns of Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Grahn, Robert A.; Zimin, Aleksey V.; David, Victor A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Middleton, Rondo; Hannah, Steven; Hendrickson, Sher; Makunin, Alex; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Minx, Pat; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Warren, Wesley C.; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution genetic and physical maps are invaluable tools for building accurate genome assemblies, and interpreting results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Previous genetic and physical maps anchored good quality draft assemblies of the domestic cat genome, enabling the discovery of numerous genes underlying hereditary disease and phenotypes of interest to the biomedical science and breeding communities. However, these maps lacked sufficient marker density to order thousands of shorter scaffolds in earlier assemblies, which instead relied heavily on comparative mapping with related species. A high-resolution map would aid in validating and ordering chromosome scaffolds from existing and new genome assemblies. Here, we describe a high-resolution genetic linkage map of the domestic cat genome based on genotyping 453 domestic cats from several multi-generational pedigrees on the Illumina 63K SNP array. The final maps include 58,055 SNP markers placed relative to 6637 markers with unique positions, distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. Our final sex-averaged maps span a total autosomal length of 4464 cM, the longest described linkage map for any mammal, confirming length estimates from a previous microsatellite-based map. The linkage map was used to order and orient the scaffolds from a substantially more contiguous domestic cat genome assembly (Felis catus v8.0), which incorporated ∼20 × coverage of Illumina fragment reads. The new genome assembly shows substantial improvements in contiguity, with a nearly fourfold increase in N50 scaffold size to 18 Mb. We use this map to report probable structural errors in previous maps and assemblies, and to describe features of the recombination landscape, including a massive (∼50 Mb) recombination desert (of virtually zero recombination) on the X chromosome that parallels a similar desert on the porcine X chromosome in both size and physical location. PMID:27172201

  16. Hazard Mapping of Structurally Controlled Landslide in Southern Leyte, Philippines Using High Resolution Digital Elevation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzon, Paul Kenneth; Rochelle Montalbo, Kristina; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    The 2006 Guinsaugon landslide in St. Bernard, Southern Leyte is the largest known mass movement of soil in the Philippines. It consisted of a 15 million m3 rockslide-debris avalanche from an approximately 700 m high escarpment produced by continuous movement of the Philippine fault at approximately 2.5 cm/year. The landslide was preceded by continuous heavy rainfall totaling 571.2 mm from February 8 to 12, 2006. The catastrophic landslide killed more than 1,000 people and displaced 19,000 residents over its 6,400 km path. To investigate the present-day morphology of the scar and potential failure that may occur, an analysis of a high-resolution digital elevation model (10 m resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar images in 2013) was conducted, leading to the generation of a structurally controlled landslide hazard map of the area. Discontinuity sets that could contribute to any failure mechanism were identified using Coltop 3D software which uses a unique lower Schmidt-Lambert color scheme for any given dip and dip direction. Thus, finding main morpho-structural orientations became easier. Matterocking, a software designed for structural analysis, was used to generate possible planes that could slide due to the identified discontinuity sets. Conefall was then utilized to compute the extent to which the rock mass will run out. The results showed potential instabilities in the scarp area of the 2006 Guinsaguon landslide and in adjacent slopes because of the presence of steep discontinuities that range from 45-60°. Apart from the 2006 Guinsaugon potential landslides, conefall simulation generated farther rock mass extent in adjacent slopes. In conclusion, there is a high probability of landslides in the municipality of St. Bernard Leyte, where the 2006 Guinsaugon Landslide occurred. Concerned agencies may use maps produced from this study for disaster preparedness and to facilitate long-term recovery planning for hazardous areas.

  17. Photon-counting lidars for contiguous high resolution topographic mapping of planets and moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, John J.

    2007-08-01

    Planetary scientists have long expressed interest in obtaining globally contiguous, high resolution (few meter horizontal, decimeter vertical) 3D topographic maps of planets and moons. For example, the goal of NASA's LIST mission, scheduled for launch in the 2016-2020 time frame, is a globally contiguous, 5 meter resolution, topographic map of the Earth. Unfortunately, achieving such a capability through a simple scaling of the laser power and/or telescope aperture from prior art NASA laser altimeters (e.g. MOLA, GLAS, and MLA) is not practical. This is especially true of laser altimeters destined for orbit about distant planets or moons where instrument mass and prime power usage is severely constrained. Photon counting receivers permit each range measurement to be made with a single received photon, even in daylight, and the surface sampling rate of an orbiting altimeter can be increased by three to four orders of magnitude by emitting the available laser photons in a high frequency train of low energy pulses instead of a low frequency train of high energy pulses typical of past spaceborne lidars. The feasibility of the photon-counting approach in the presence of a strong solar background was first successfully demonstrated from a high altitude aircraft under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program in 2001. Sigma Space Corporation has subsequently developed a second generation of scanning 3D imaging and polarimetric lidars for use in small aircraft and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). Future space applications include: (1) decimeter vertical resolution topographic mapping of extraterrestrial terrain from orbiters, balloons, or other aerial vehicles for determining safe landing sites; (2) monitoring the terrain in real time and increasingly higher resolution during spacecraft descent; or (3) for truly contiguous few meter resolution imaging of planetary terrain on a global scale from orbit. Targets of particular interest to NASA are the Earth, Moon, Mars, the Jovian

  18. High-resolution mapping of combustion processes and implications for CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Tao, S.; Ciais, P.; Shen, H. Z.; Huang, Y.; Chen, H.; Shen, G. F.; Wang, B.; Li, W.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Lu, Y.; Zhu, D.; Chen, Y. C.; Liu, X. P.; Wang, W. T.; Wang, X. L.; Liu, W. X.; Li, B. G.; Piao, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion and CO2 emission provides valuable information for modeling pollutant transport, developing mitigation policy, and for inverse modeling of CO2 fluxes. Previous global emission maps included only few fuel types, and emissions were estimated on a grid by distributing national fuel data on an equal per capita basis, using population density maps. This process distorts the geographical distribution of emissions within countries. In this study, a sub-national disaggregation method (SDM) of fuel data is applied to establish a global 0.1° × 0.1° geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL) and corresponding CO2 emissions (PKU-CO2) based upon 64 fuel sub-types for the year 2007. Uncertainties of the emission maps are evaluated using a Monte Carlo method. It is estimated that CO2 emission from combustion sources including fossil fuel, biomass, and solid wastes in 2007 was 11.2 Pg C yr-1 (9.1 Pg C yr-1 and 13.3 Pg C yr-1 as 5th and 95th percentiles). Of this, emission from fossil fuel combustion is 7.83 Pg C yr-1, which is very close to the estimate of the International Energy Agency (7.87 Pg C yr-1). By replacing national data disaggregation with sub-national data in this study, the average 95th minus 5th percentile ranges of CO2 emission for all grid points can be reduced from 417 to 68.2 Mg km-2 yr-1. The spread is reduced because the uneven distribution of per capita fuel consumptions within countries is better taken into account by using sub-national fuel consumption data directly. Significant difference in per capita CO2 emissions between urban and rural areas was found in developing countries (2.08 vs. 0.598 Mg C/(cap. × yr)), but not in developed countries (3.55 vs. 3.41 Mg C/(cap. × yr)). This implies that rapid urbanization of developing countries is very likely to drive up their emissions in the future.

  19. Will it Blend? Visualization and Accuracy Evaluation of High-Resolution Fuzzy Vegetation Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlinszky, A.; Kania, A.

    2016-06-01

    Instead of assigning every map pixel to a single class, fuzzy classification includes information on the class assigned to each pixel but also the certainty of this class and the alternative possible classes based on fuzzy set theory. The advantages of fuzzy classification for vegetation mapping are well recognized, but the accuracy and uncertainty of fuzzy maps cannot be directly quantified with indices developed for hard-boundary categorizations. The rich information in such a map is impossible to convey with a single map product or accuracy figure. Here we introduce a suite of evaluation indices and visualization products for fuzzy maps generated with ensemble classifiers. We also propose a way of evaluating classwise prediction certainty with "dominance profiles" visualizing the number of pixels in bins according to the probability of the dominant class, also showing the probability of all the other classes. Together, these data products allow a quantitative understanding of the rich information in a fuzzy raster map both for individual classes and in terms of variability in space, and also establish the connection between spatially explicit class certainty and traditional accuracy metrics. These map products are directly comparable to widely used hard boundary evaluation procedures, support active learning-based iterative classification and can be applied for operational use.

  20. Pan-Tropical Forest Mapping by Exploiting Textures of Multi-Temporal High Resolution SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, R.; Eckardt, R.; Richter, N.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-12-01

    radar images were processed using an operational processing chain that includes radiometric transformation, noise reduction, and georeferencing of the SAR data. In places with pronounced topography both satellites were used as single pass interferometer to derive a digital surface model in order to perform an orthorectification followed by a topographic normalization of the SAR backscatter values. As prescribed by the FAO, the final segment-based classification algorithm was fed by multi-temporal backscatter information, a set of textural features, and information on the degree of coherence between the multi-temporal acquisitions. Validation with available high resolution optical imagery suggests that the produced forest maps possess an overall accuracy of 75 percent or higher.

  1. Mapping Urban Tree Canopy Coverage and Structure using Data Fusion of High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmes, A.; Rogan, J.; Williams, C. A.; Martin, D. G.; Ratick, S.; Nowak, D.

    2015-12-01

    Urban tree canopy (UTC) coverage is a critical component of sustainable urban areas. Trees provide a number of important ecosystem services, including air pollution mitigation, water runoff control, and aesthetic and cultural values. Critically, urban trees also act to mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) effect by shading impervious surfaces and via evaporative cooling. The cooling effect of urban trees can be seen locally, with individual trees reducing home HVAC costs, and at a citywide scale, reducing the extent and magnitude of an urban areas UHI. In order to accurately model the ecosystem services of a given urban forest, it is essential to map in detail the condition and composition of these trees at a fine scale, capturing individual tree crowns and their vertical structure. This paper presents methods for delineating UTC and measuring canopy structure at fine spatial resolution (<1m). These metrics are essential for modeling the HVAC benefits from UTC for individual homes, and for assessing the ecosystem services for entire urban areas. Such maps have previously been made using a variety of methods, typically relying on high resolution aerial or satellite imagery. This paper seeks to contribute to this growing body of methods, relying on a data fusion method to combine the information contained in high resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery and aerial lidar data using an object-based image classification approach. The study area, Worcester, MA, has recently undergone a large-scale tree removal and reforestation program, following a pest eradication effort. Therefore, the urban canopy in this location provides a wide mix of tree age class and functional type, ideal for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Early results show that the object-based classifier is indeed capable of identifying individual tree crowns, while continued research will focus on extracting crown structural characteristics using lidar-derived metrics. Ultimately

  2. Comparative analysis of high-resolution chromosome techniques for leukemic bone marrows

    SciTech Connect

    Yunis, J.J.

    1982-09-01

    High-resolution direct and synchronization culture techniques for chromosome analysis of leukemic bone marrow cells can now be utilized. In this article, three different techniques are quantitatively compared for their consistency in successful cytogenetic analysis, reliability in the detection of clones with chromosomal abnormalities, and usefulness for the precise delineation of break points involved in structural chromosomal rearrangements. Bone marrow samples from 15 consecutive patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) were studied using an improved direct technique, amethopterin cell synchronization with thymidine release, and amethopterin cell synchronization with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) release. The results obtained with the amethopterin cell synchronization technique and thymidine release suggest that it should be the method of choice in the detection of chromosome defects in bone marrow of patients with ANLL.

  3. High-resolution AUV mapping and lava flow ages at Axial Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.; Martin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping along mid-ocean ridges, as on land, requires identification of flow boundaries and sequence, and ages of some flows to understand eruption history. Multibeam sonars on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV) now generate 1-m resolution maps that resolve lava pillars, internal flow structures and boundaries, and lava flow emplacement sequences using crosscutting relations and abundance of fissures. MBARI has now mapped the summit caldera floor and rims and the upper south rift zone on Axial Seamount on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. With the advent of the high-resolution bathymetry and the ability to observe flow contacts to determine superposition using ROVs and submersibles, the missing component has been determining absolute ages of the flows. We used the MBARI ROV Doc Ricketts to collect short push cores (<30 cm) of the thin sediment nestled between pillow lava lobes and sieve and then hand-pick planktic foraminifera from the base of the cores to date by AMS 14C. Ages of planktic foraminifera are marine-calibrated in years before present, and provide minimum ages for the underlying flows, as there is probably some basal sediment that is not recovered. 14C ages have been determined for 10 cores near the summit of Axial Seamount and for 6 from the lowermost south rift. Ages of nearby samples commonly yield statistically identical ages, and 2 cores near the center of the caldera had multiple layers dated. These ages systematically increase with depth, indicating that redistribution of sediment by bottom currents does not significantly affect the stratigraphy. We will expand these collections in summer 2011. The coring is accompanied by collection of flow samples for chemistry and video observations to confirm contact locations and flow superposition inferred from the mapping data. Six ages from the lowermost part of the south rift of Axial Seamount include samples on a cone with deep summit crater that is ~16,580 aBP and on 5 flows between 950 and 1510 aBP. Two

  4. aMAP is a validated pipeline for registration and segmentation of high-resolution mouse brain data.

    PubMed

    Niedworok, Christian J; Brown, Alexander P Y; Jorge Cardoso, M; Osten, Pavel; Ourselin, Sebastien; Modat, Marc; Margrie, Troy W

    2016-01-01

    The validation of automated image registration and segmentation is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping of brain connectivity and function in three-dimensional (3D) data sets. While validation standards are necessarily high and routinely met in the clinical arena, they have to date been lacking for high-resolution microscopy data sets obtained from the rodent brain. Here we present a tool for optimized automated mouse atlas propagation (aMAP) based on clinical registration software (NiftyReg) for anatomical segmentation of high-resolution 3D fluorescence images of the adult mouse brain. We empirically evaluate aMAP as a method for registration and subsequent segmentation by validating it against the performance of expert human raters. This study therefore establishes a benchmark standard for mapping the molecular function and cellular connectivity of the rodent brain. PMID:27384127

  5. aMAP is a validated pipeline for registration and segmentation of high-resolution mouse brain data

    PubMed Central

    Niedworok, Christian J.; Brown, Alexander P. Y.; Jorge Cardoso, M.; Osten, Pavel; Ourselin, Sebastien; Modat, Marc; Margrie, Troy W.

    2016-01-01

    The validation of automated image registration and segmentation is crucial for accurate and reliable mapping of brain connectivity and function in three-dimensional (3D) data sets. While validation standards are necessarily high and routinely met in the clinical arena, they have to date been lacking for high-resolution microscopy data sets obtained from the rodent brain. Here we present a tool for optimized automated mouse atlas propagation (aMAP) based on clinical registration software (NiftyReg) for anatomical segmentation of high-resolution 3D fluorescence images of the adult mouse brain. We empirically evaluate aMAP as a method for registration and subsequent segmentation by validating it against the performance of expert human raters. This study therefore establishes a benchmark standard for mapping the molecular function and cellular connectivity of the rodent brain. PMID:27384127

  6. Marker development, saturation mapping, and high-resolution mapping of the Septoria nodorum blotch susceptibility gene Snn3-B1 in wheat.

    PubMed

    Shi, Gongjun; Zhang, Zengcui; Friesen, Timothy L; Bansal, Urmil; Cloutier, Sylvie; Wicker, Thomas; Rasmussen, Jack B; Faris, Justin D

    2016-02-01

    Septoria nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by Parastagonospora nodorum, is a severe foliar and glume disease on durum and common wheat. Pathogen-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) are the major determinants for SNB on leaves. One such NE is SnTox3, which evokes programmed cell death and leads to disease when recognized by the wheat Snn3-B1 gene. Here, we developed saturated genetic linkage maps of the Snn3-B1 region using two F2 populations derived from the SnTox3-sensitive line Sumai 3 crossed with different SnTox3-insensitive lines. Markers were identified and/or developed from various resources including previously mapped simple sequence repeats, bin-mapped expressed sequence tags, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and whole genome survey sequences. Subsequent high-resolution mapping of the Snn3-B1 locus in 5600 gametes delineated the gene to a 1.5 cM interval. Analysis of micro-colinearity of the Snn3-B1 region indicated that it was highly disrupted compared to rice and Brachypodium distachyon. The screening of a collection of durum and common wheat cultivars with tightly linked markers indicated they are not diagnostic for the presence of Snn3-B1, but can be useful for marker-assisted selection if the SnTox3 reactions of lines are first determined. Finally, we developed an ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutant population of Sumai 3 where the screening of 408 M2 families led to the identification of 17 SnTox3-insensitive mutants. These mutants along with the markers and high-resolution map developed in this research provide a strong foundation for the map-based cloning of Snn3-B1, which will broaden our understanding of the wheat-P. nodorum system and plant-necrotrophic pathogen interactions in general. PMID:26187026

  7. High-resolution mapping of biomass burning emissions in tropical regions across three continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yusheng; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Saito, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning emissions from open vegetation fires (forest fires, savanna fires, agricultural waste burning), human waste and biofuel combustion contain large amounts of trace gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and aerosols (BC and OC), which significantly impact ecosystem productivity, global atmospheric chemistry, and climate . With the help of recently released satellite products, biomass density based on satellite and ground-based observation data, and spatial variable combustion factors, this study developed a new high-resolution emissions inventory for biomass burning in tropical regions across three continents in 2010. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols from open vegetation burning are estimated from burned areas, fuel loads, combustion factors, and emission factors. Burned areas were derived from MODIS MCD64A1 burned area product, fuel loads were mapped from biomass density data sets for herbaceous and tree-covered land based on satellite and ground-based observation data. To account for spatial heterogeneity in combustion factors, global fractional tree cover (MOD44B) and vegetation cover maps (MCD12Q1) were introduced to estimate the combustion factors in different regions by using their relationship with tree cover under less than 40%, between 40-60% and above 60% conditions. For emission factors, the average values for each fuel type from field measurements are used. In addition to biomass burning from open vegetation fires, the emissions from human waste (residential and dump) burning and biofuel burning in 2010 were also estimated for 76 countries in tropical regions across the three continents and then allocated into each pixel with 1 km grid based on the population density (Gridded Population of the World v3). Our total estimates for the tropical regions across the three continents in 2010 were 17744.5 Tg CO2, 730.3 Tg CO, 32.0 Tg CH4, 31.6 Tg NOx, 119.2 Tg NMOC, 6.3 Tg SO2, 9.8 NH3 Tg, 81.8 Tg PM2.5, 48.0 Tg OC, and 5.7 Tg BC, respectively. Open

  8. High Resolution Map of Water Supply and Demand for North East United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate estimates of water supply and demand are crucial elements in water resources management and modeling. As part of our NSF-funded EaSM effort to build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) as a framework to improve our understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy and economic systems through the 21st century, we are producing a high resolution map (3' x 3' lat/long) of estimated water supply and use for the north east region of United States. Focusing on water demand, results from this study enables us to quantify how demand sources affect the hydrology and thermal-chemical water pollution across the region. In an attempt to generate this 3-minute resolution map in which each grid cell has a specific estimated monthly domestic, agriculture, thermoelectric and industrial water use. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009) is being coupled to high resolution land cover and land use, irrigation, power plant and population data sets. In addition to water demands, we tried to improve estimates of water supply from the WBM model by improving the way it controls discharge from reservoirs. Reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on altering the natural stream flow, thermal characteristics, and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. Depending on dam characteristics, watershed characteristics and the purpose of building a dam, each reservoir has a specific optimum operating rule. It means that literally 84,000 dams in the National Inventory of Dams potentially follow 84,000 different sets of rules for storing and releasing water which must somehow be accounted for in our modeling exercise. In reality, there is no comprehensive observational dataset depicting these operating rules. Thus, we will simulate these rules. Our perspective is not to find the optimum operating rule per se but to find

  9. High-Resolution, Semi-Automatic Fault Mapping Using Umanned Aerial Vehicles and Computer Vision: Mapping from an Armchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklethwaite, S.; Vasuki, Y.; Turner, D.; Kovesi, P.; Holden, E.; Lucieer, A.

    2012-12-01

    Our ability to characterise fractures depends upon the accuracy and precision of field techniques, as well as the quantity of data that can be collected. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs; otherwise known as "drones") and photogrammetry, provide exciting new opportunities for the accurate mapping of fracture networks, over large surface areas. We use a highly stable, 8 rotor, UAV platform (Oktokopter) with a digital SLR camera and the Structure-from-Motion computer vision technique, to generate point clouds, wireframes, digital elevation models and orthorectified photo mosaics. Furthermore, new image analysis methods such as phase congruency are applied to the data to semiautomatically map fault networks. A case study is provided of intersecting fault networks and associated damage, from Piccaninny Point in Tasmania, Australia. Outcrops >1 km in length can be surveyed in a single 5-10 minute flight, with pixel resolution ~1 cm. Centimetre scale precision can be achieved when selected ground control points are measured using a total station. These techniques have the potential to provide rapid, ultra-high resolution mapping of fracture networks, from many different lithologies; enabling us to more accurately assess the "fit" of observed data relative to model predictions, over a wide range of boundary conditions.igh resolution DEM of faulted outcrop (Piccaninny Point, Tasmania) generated using the Oktokopter UAV (inset) and photogrammetric techniques.

  10. A new Concept for High Resolution Benthic Mapping and Data Aquisition: MANSIO-VIATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flögel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental conditions within sensitive seafloor ecosystems such as cold-seep provinces or cold-water coral reef communities vary temporally and spatially over a wide range of scales. Some of these are regularly monitored via short periods of intense shipborne activity or low resolution, fixed location studies by benthic lander systems. Long term measurements of larger areas and volumes are ususally coupled to costly infrastructure investments such as cabled observatories. In space exploration, a combination of fixed and mobile systems working together are commonly used, e.g. lander systems coupled to rovers, to tackle observational needs that are very similar to deep-sea data aquisition. The analogies between space and deep-sea research motivated the German Helmholtz Association to setup the joint research program ROBEX (Robotic Exploration under extreme conditions). The program objectives are to identify, develop and verify technological synergies between the robotic exploration of e.g. the moon and the deep-sea. Within ROBEX, the mobility of robots is a vital element for research missions due to valuable scientifice return potential from different sites as opposed to static landers. Within this context, we developed a new mobile crawler system (VIATOR, latin for traveller) and a fixed lander component for energy and data transfer (MANSIO, latin for housing/shelter). This innovative MANSIO-VIATOR system has been developed during the past 2.5 years. The caterpillar driven component is developed to conduct high resolution opitcal mapping and repeated monitoring of physical and biogeochemical parameters along transects. The system operates fully autonomously including navigational components such as camera and laser scanners, as well as marker based near-field navigation used in space technology. This new concept of data aquisition by a submarine crawler in combination with a fixed lander further opens up marine exploration possibilities.

  11. High resolution mapping of oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at polycrystalline platinum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hui; Meadows, Katherine E; Cuharuc, Anatolii; Lai, Stanley C S; Unwin, Patrick R

    2014-09-14

    The scanning droplet-based technique, scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), is demonstrated as a powerful approach for visualizing surface structure effects on the rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at polycrystalline platinum electrodes. Elucidating the effect of electrode structure on the ORR is of major interest in connection to electrocatalysis for energy-related applications. The attributes of the approach herein stem from: (i) the ease with which the polycrystalline substrate electrode can be prepared; (ii) the wide range of surface character open to study; (iii) the possibility of mapping reactivity within a particular facet (or grain), in a pseudo-single-crystal approach, and acquiring a high volume of data as a consequence; (iv) the ready ability to measure the activity at grain boundaries; and (v) an experimental arrangement (SECCM) that mimics the three-phase boundary in low temperature fuel cells. The kinetics of the ORR was analyzed and a finite element method model was developed to explore the effect of the three-phase boundary, in particular to examine pH variations in the droplet and the differential transport rates of the reactants and products. We have found a significant variation of activity across the platinum substrate, inherently linked to the crystallographic orientation, but do not detect any enhanced activity at grain boundaries. Grains with (111) and (100) contributions exhibit considerably higher activity than those with (110) and (100) contributions. These results, which can be explained by reference to previous single-crystal measurements, enhance our understanding of ORR structure-activity relationships on complex high-index platinum surfaces, and further demonstrate the power of high resolution flux imaging techniques to visualize and understand complex electrocatalyst materials. PMID:25072300

  12. Fine-scale mapping of vector habitats using very high resolution satellite imagery: a liver fluke case-study.

    PubMed

    De Roeck, Els; Van Coillie, Frieke; De Wulf, Robert; Soenen, Karen; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Hantson, Wouter; Ducheyne, Els; Hendrickx, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The visualization of vector occurrence in space and time is an important aspect of studying vector-borne diseases. Detailed maps of possible vector habitats provide valuable information for the prediction of infection risk zones but are currently lacking for most parts of the world. Nonetheless, monitoring vector habitats from the finest scales up to farm level is of key importance to refine currently existing broad-scale infection risk models. Using Fasciola hepatica, a parasite liver fluke, as a case in point, this study illustrates the potential of very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite imagery to efficiently and semi-automatically detect detailed vector habitats. A WorldView2 satellite image capable of <5m resolution was acquired in the spring of 2013 for the area around Bruges, Belgium, a region where dairy farms suffer from liver fluke infections transmitted by freshwater snails. The vector thrives in small water bodies (SWBs), such as ponds, ditches and other humid areas consisting of open water, aquatic vegetation and/or inundated grass. These water bodies can be as small as a few m2 and are most often not present on existing land cover maps because of their small size. We present a classification procedure based on object-based image analysis (OBIA) that proved valuable to detect SWBs at a fine scale in an operational and semi-automated way. The classification results were compared to field and other reference data such as existing broad-scale maps and expert knowledge. Overall, the SWB detection accuracy reached up to 87%. The resulting fine-scale SWB map can be used as input for spatial distribution modelling of the liver fluke snail vector to enable development of improved infection risk mapping and management advice adapted to specific, local farm situations. PMID:25599638

  13. High Speed High Resolution Current Comparator and its Application to Analog to Digital Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Ranjana; Pandey, Neeta; Bhattacharyya, Asok; Bhatia, Veepsa

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a high speed high resolution current comparator which includes the current differencing stage and employs non linear feedback in the gain stage. The usefulness of the proposed comparator is demonstrated by implementing a 3-bit current mode flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) simulations have been carried out to verify theoretical proposition and performance parameters of both comparator and ADC are obtained using TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology parameters. The current comparator shows a resolution of ±5 nA and a delay of 0.86 ns for current difference of ±1 µA. The impact of process variation on proposed comparator propagation delay has been studied through Monte Carlo simulation and it is found that percentage change in propagation delay in best case is 1.3 % only and in worst case is 9 % only. The ADC exhibits an offset, gain error, differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) of 0.102 µA, 0.99, -0.34 LSB and 0.0267 LSB, respectively. The impact of process variation on ADC has also been studied at different process corners.

  14. High Speed High Resolution Current Comparator and its Application to Analog to Digital Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, Ranjana; Pandey, Neeta; Bhattacharyya, Asok; Bhatia, Veepsa

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces a high speed high resolution current comparator which includes the current differencing stage and employs non linear feedback in the gain stage. The usefulness of the proposed comparator is demonstrated by implementing a 3-bit current mode flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) simulations have been carried out to verify theoretical proposition and performance parameters of both comparator and ADC are obtained using TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology parameters. The current comparator shows a resolution of ±5 nA and a delay of 0.86 ns for current difference of ±1 µA. The impact of process variation on proposed comparator propagation delay has been studied through Monte Carlo simulation and it is found that percentage change in propagation delay in best case is 1.3 % only and in worst case is 9 % only. The ADC exhibits an offset, gain error, differential nonlinearity (DNL) and integral nonlinearity (INL) of 0.102 µA, 0.99, -0.34 LSB and 0.0267 LSB, respectively. The impact of process variation on ADC has also been studied at different process corners.

  15. Mapping temporal changes in connectivity using high-resolution aerial data and object based image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselink, Rens; Anders, Niels; Keesstra, Saskia; Seeger, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Within the field of geomorphology mapping has always been an important tool to interpret spatial and temporal distributions of phenomena and processes at the surface. In the field of connectivity however, although throughout the past decade many articles have been published, there are only very few that go into the mapping of connectivity. This study aimed at developing a new, automated method for mapping connectivity within agricultural catchments. The method, which is a combination of Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) and traditional geomorphological field mapping, was applied to two agricultural catchments in Navarre, Spain, both with an area of approximately 2 sq.km. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to take aerial photographs with a resolution of 6 cm, of which a DEM with a 12 cm resolution was created using structure-from-motion photogrammetry. Connectivity was mapped within the study areas using OBIA using a top down method, meaning that connectivity was mapped at different scale levels, starting at the largest scale. Firstly sub-catchments were automatically delineated, after which several characteristics and features that affect connectivity within the sub-catchments were classified, e.g. landuse, landslides, rills, gullies, riparian vegetation, changes in slope, ploughing direction etc. In two consecutive years (2013-2014) photographs were taken and connectivity of both catchments of both years will be compared. Future work will include a quantification of the mapped connectivity (highly connected years vs. low connected years), causes and consequences of these differences in connectivity, comparison to existing connectivity indices and comparison of mapped connectivity in sub-catchments and measured discharge.

  16. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic map, BAC end sequences and ESTs, but comparative genome analysis and maps of quantitative trait loci (QTL) are still limited. Results We have constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH) panel for the Nile tilapia and genotyped 1358 markers consisting of 850 genes, 82 markers corresponding to BAC end sequences, 154 microsatellites and 272 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). From these, 1296 markers could be associated in 81 RH groups, while 62 were not linked. The total size of the RH map is 34,084 cR3500 and 937,310 kb. It covers 88% of the entire genome with an estimated inter-marker distance of 742 Kb. Mapping of microsatellites enabled integration to the genetic map. We have merged LG8 and LG24 into a single linkage group, and confirmed that LG16-LG21 are also merged. The orientation and association of RH groups to each chromosome and LG was confirmed by chromosomal in situ hybridizations (FISH) of 55 BACs. Fifty RH groups were localized on the 22 chromosomes while 31 remained small orphan groups. Synteny relationships were determined between Nile tilapia, stickleback, medaka and pufferfish. Conclusion The RH map and associated FISH map provide a valuable gene-ordered resource for gene mapping and QTL studies. All genetic linkage groups with their corresponding RH groups now have a corresponding chromosome which can be identified in the karyotype. Placement of conserved segments indicated that multiple inter-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred between Nile tilapia

  17. Modeling Foliar Uptake in Colocasia Esculenta Using High Resolution Maps of Leaf Water Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkler, C. J.; Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of carbon dioxide by vegetation is a major sink of CO2 and a factor that will determine future climate. Some studies predict a decrease in CO2 uptake from vegetation because of a general drying of the Amazon Basin. Because of the tight linkage between water availability and plant carbon uptake, a comprehensive model of plant water use at the individual scale is necessary to build a complete carbon budget at the global scale. Foliar uptake of non-meteoric water is a common process used by plants to alleviate water stress. However the occurrence of this process in tropical ecosystems, as well as its interaction with other physiological parameters, is not well understood. We present a model of leaf water balance that includes foliar uptake. The isotopic composition of the different sources as well as the leaf water are also included. The model is tested against a series of experiments on Colocasia esculenta, under two different water availability conditions: drought and artificial dew. The artificial dew is spiked with stable isotopes of water (δ18O = 8.56 permil, δ2H = 709.7 permil) that allow us to trace the partition of dew uptake within a leaf. We create high-resolution maps of the distribution of isotopes in one half of each leaf using a Picarro IM-CRDS. The maps show a clear enrichment due to foliar uptake for the artificial dew treatment. The water in the second half of the leaf is extracted by cryogenic extraction and analyzed using both IRIS and IRMS for quality control of the IM-CRDS data. Soil water is collected for isotope analysis and water content measurement. Finally, stomatal conductance data collected every two days shows no significant decrease due to either treatment over the course of the experiment. We conclude that foliar uptake of dew water is an important water acquisition mechanism for C. esculenta, even under high soil water content conditions, and we propose guidelines for further improvement of models of leaf-scale water

  18. High-Resolution Mapping of Myeloarchitecture In Vivo: Localization of Auditory Areas in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Federico; Moerel, Michelle; Xu, Junqian; van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Yacoub, Essa; Formisano, Elia

    2015-10-01

    The precise delineation of auditory areas in vivo remains problematic. Histological analysis of postmortem tissue indicates that the relation of areal borders to macroanatomical landmarks is variable across subjects. Furthermore, functional parcellation schemes based on measures of, for example, frequency preference (tonotopy) remain controversial. Here, we propose a 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging method that enables the anatomical delineation of auditory cortical areas in vivo and in individual brains, through the high-resolution visualization (0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6 mm(3)) of intracortical anatomical contrast related to myelin. The approach combines the acquisition and analysis of images with multiple MR contrasts (T1, T2*, and proton density). Compared with previous methods, the proposed solution is feasible at high fields and time efficient, which allows collecting myelin-related and functional images within the same measurement session. Our results show that a data-driven analysis of cortical depth-dependent profiles of anatomical contrast allows identifying a most densely myelinated cortical region on the medial Heschl's gyrus. Analyses of functional responses show that this region includes neuronal populations with typical primary functional properties (single tonotopic gradient and narrow frequency tuning), thus indicating that it may correspond to the human homolog of monkey A1. PMID:24994817

  19. High resolution synoptic salinity mapping to identify groundwater--surface water discharges in lowland rivers.

    PubMed

    Pai, Henry; Villamizar, Sandra R; Harmon, Thomas C

    2015-04-21

    Quantifying distributed lateral groundwater contributions to surface water (GW-SW discharges) is a key aspect of tracking nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) within a watershed. In this study, we characterized distributed GW-SW discharges and associated salt loading using elevated GW specific conductance (SC) as a tracer along a 38 km reach of the Lower Merced River in Central California. High resolution longitudinal surveys for multiple flows (1.3-150 m(3) s(-1)) revealed river SC gradients that mainly decreased with increasing flow, suggesting a dilution effect and/or reduced GW-SW discharges due to hydraulic gradient reductions. However, exceptions occurred (gradients increasing with increasing flow), pointing to complex spatiotemporal influences on GW-SW dynamics. The surveys revealed detailed variability in salinity gradients, from which we estimated distributed GW-SW discharge and salt loading using a simple mixing model. Modeled cumulative GW discharges for two surveys unaffected by ungauged SW discharges were comparable in magnitude to differential gauging-based discharge estimates and prior GW-SW studies along the same river reach. Ungauged lateral inlets and sparse GW data limited the study, and argue for enhancing monitoring efforts. Our approach provides a rapid and economical method for characterizing NPSP for gaining rivers in the context of integrated watershed modeling and management. PMID:25837571

  20. Using high-resolution digital aerial imagery to map land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.

  1. High Resolution Mapping of the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archinal, B. A.; Gaddis, L. R.; Hare, T. M.; Rosiek, M.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Lee, E.; Weller, L.; Kirk, R. L.; Edmundson, K.; Becker, T.; Jolliff, B. L.; Tran, T.; Robinson, M.; LROC Science Team

    2010-12-01

    We are making geodetically controlled high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs) and image orthomosaics of the Constellation (Cx) Program region of interest (ROI) in the lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin interior (“SAB”) (center at 200.06° E, 60.00° S). This work is part of the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Program (LMMP), a NASA-funded effort to create useful cartographic products from past and current lunar datasets and to serve them on a web portal. The SAB is one of 50 ROIs chosen by Cx as potential sites for future robotic or human landings or analogs thereof. Source data for our products includes publically released ~50 cm/pixel Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera images and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) spot elevation measurements and preliminary global 16 posts/° DTM. Products generated so far include: a) a preliminary stereo DTM covering ~25% of the center 20 km square area of the ROI, with post spacing (resolution) of 1.5 m and ~86x10^6 posts; b) a preliminary mosaic of 90% of the 40 km square ROI, with a resolution of 2 m, orthorectified with LOLA data or, where possible, the stereo DTM; c) preliminary DTMs generated via the use of photoclinometry (“shape from shading”), covering small areas with post spacing of 50 cm; and d) slope and roughness maps derived from a and c. All products are in the lunar mean Earth/polar axis coordinate system and the preliminary global reference frame of the current LOLA DTM. The absolute accuracy of these products is limited by the horizontal and vertical accuracy of the LOLA DTM, to which they are tied (DTMs and mosaics) or on which they are projected (mosaics). The expected vertical precision of the stereo DTM is ~20 cm. The products will soon be publically available via the LMMP portal and also via the USGS planetary GIS site, http://webgis.wr.usgs.gov/. Final versions tied to the LOLA nominal mission global DTM will be available in 2011 October. Preliminary analyses of these

  2. High-resolution seafloor mapping surveys over the San Gregorio-Palo Colorado Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Lundsten, E.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2011-12-01

    The San Gregorio-Palo Colorado Fault (SGPCF) is mapped as traversing the outer end of Monterey Bay and crossing Monterey Canyon near its intersection with Carmel Canyon. The location of the fault is based on offsets in seismic reflection profiles, lineations in the bathymetry, and locations of epicenters associated with small earthquakes. However, much of the offshore area where the trace of the SGPCF is postulated to be located is sediment bare, making it difficult to determine if there has been recent movement along this segment of the fault. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry (vertical precision of 0.15 m and horizontal resolution of 1.0 m) and 1-4.5 kHz chirp seismic reflection profiles have recently been collected in up to 1.6 km water depths on the northern flank of Monterey Canyon where the SGPCF is thought to cut across the canyon wall. The objective of these surveys was to look for indications of recent deformation associated with the SGPCF where accumulations of sediments could provide evidence of seafloor displacement along this segment of the fault since these sediments have been deposited. The surveys were conducted using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) during two 17.5-hour-long dives. An inertial navigation system combined with a Doppler velocity sonar allowed the AUV to fly pre-programmed grids at 3 knots while maintaining an altitude of 50 m above the seafloor. These surveys are in addition to other recently published AUV surveys of the floor of Monterey Canyon extending out to 2.2 km water depths and including the zone where the SGPCF is mapped to cross the canyon floor. The lack of clear evidence of fault deformation along the SGPCF trace on the canyon floor is easily attributable to frequent sediment transport events within the canyon's channel, which would presumably overwrite sediment deformation associated with the SGPCF. The surveys presented here extend above the active canyon floor and cover the northern flank of Monterey Canyon

  3. High resolution mapping of hyporheic fluxes using streambed temperatures: Recommendations and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Dylan J.; Lautz, Laura K.

    2015-05-01

    Analytical solutions to the 1D heat transport equation can be used to derive point measurements of flux between surface water and groundwater from streambed temperature time series. Recent studies have used empirical relationships between measured flux and point-in-time observations of streambed temperatures to produce detailed plan view maps of flux from instantaneous temperature maps. Here, the accuracy of such flux maps, derived using streambed temperatures as a quantitative proxy, was assessed from synthetic streambed temperature data generated by numerical flow and transport simulations. The use of numerical simulations is advantageous because maps of flux from the temperature proxy method can be compared to known flux maps to quantify error. Empirical flux-temperature relationships are most accurate if developed from data collected when stream temperatures are at a maximum. The true relationship between flux and streambed temperature will generally be non-linear and well approximated as a cubic function, although linear relationships may be applied when data density is low. Intermediate fluxes (±1.0 m/day) returned by the temperature proxy method have errors typically less than ±0.1 m/day. Errors in estimated flux increase for strong upwelling (>1.0 m/day) or downwelling (<-1.0 m/day), although the direction of flux is still accurate.

  4. High-resolution mapping of dust via extinction in the M31 bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Li, Zhiyuan; Wang, Q. D.; Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Saha, Abhijit; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Groves, Brent A.

    2016-06-01

    We map the dust distribution in the central 180 arcsec (˜680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 Å) to near-infrared (1.5 μm). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. We fit a pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distributions to construct a high-dynamic-range extinction map with unparalleled angular resolution (˜0.5 arcsec, i.e. ˜2 pc) and sensitivity (the extinction uncertainty, δAV ˜ 0.05). In particular, the data allow to directly fit the fractions of starlight obscured by individual dusty clumps, and hence their radial distances in the bulge. Most of these clumps seem to be located in a thin plane, which is tilted with respect to the M31 disc and appears face-on. We convert the extinction map into a dust mass surface density map and compare it with that derived from the dust emission as observed by Herschel. The dust masses in these two maps are consistent with each other, except in the low-extinction regions, where the mass inferred from the extinction tends to be underestimated. Further, we use simulations to show that our method can be used to measure the masses of dusty clumps in Virgo cluster early-type galaxies to an accuracy within a factor of ˜2.

  5. Mapping Sub-Antarctic Cushion Plants Using Random Forests to Combine Very High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Terrain Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Bricher, Phillippa K.; Lucieer, Arko; Shaw, Justine; Terauds, Aleks; Bergstrom, Dana M.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in the distribution and density of plant species often requires accurate and high-resolution baseline maps of those species. Detecting such change at the landscape scale is often problematic, particularly in remote areas. We examine a new technique to improve accuracy and objectivity in mapping vegetation, combining species distribution modelling and satellite image classification on a remote sub-Antarctic island. In this study, we combine spectral data from very high resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery and terrain variables from a high resolution digital elevation model to improve mapping accuracy, in both pixel- and object-based classifications. Random forest classification was used to explore the effectiveness of these approaches on mapping the distribution of the critically endangered cushion plant Azorellamacquariensis Orchard (Apiaceae) on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Both pixel- and object-based classifications of the distribution of Azorella achieved very high overall validation accuracies (91.6–96.3%, κ = 0.849–0.924). Both two-class and three-class classifications were able to accurately and consistently identify the areas where Azorella was absent, indicating that these maps provide a suitable baseline for monitoring expected change in the distribution of the cushion plants. Detecting such change is critical given the threats this species is currently facing under altering environmental conditions. The method presented here has applications to monitoring a range of species, particularly in remote and isolated environments. PMID:23940805

  6. Mapping sub-antarctic cushion plants using random forests to combine very high resolution satellite imagery and terrain modelling.

    PubMed

    Bricher, Phillippa K; Lucieer, Arko; Shaw, Justine; Terauds, Aleks; Bergstrom, Dana M

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in the distribution and density of plant species often requires accurate and high-resolution baseline maps of those species. Detecting such change at the landscape scale is often problematic, particularly in remote areas. We examine a new technique to improve accuracy and objectivity in mapping vegetation, combining species distribution modelling and satellite image classification on a remote sub-Antarctic island. In this study, we combine spectral data from very high resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery and terrain variables from a high resolution digital elevation model to improve mapping accuracy, in both pixel- and object-based classifications. Random forest classification was used to explore the effectiveness of these approaches on mapping the distribution of the critically endangered cushion plant Azorella macquariensis Orchard (Apiaceae) on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Both pixel- and object-based classifications of the distribution of Azorella achieved very high overall validation accuracies (91.6-96.3%, κ = 0.849-0.924). Both two-class and three-class classifications were able to accurately and consistently identify the areas where Azorella was absent, indicating that these maps provide a suitable baseline for monitoring expected change in the distribution of the cushion plants. Detecting such change is critical given the threats this species is currently facing under altering environmental conditions. The method presented here has applications to monitoring a range of species, particularly in remote and isolated environments. PMID:23940805

  7. High-resolution Mapping of In Vivo Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Activity Using Flexible Printed Circuit Board Electrodes: Methodology and Validation

    PubMed Central

    DU, PENG; O'GRADY, G.; EGBUJI, J. U.; LAMMERS, W. J.; BUDGETT, D.; NIELSEN, P.; WINDSOR, J. A.; PULLAN, A. J.; CHENG, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution, multi-electrode mapping is providing valuable new insights into the origin, propagation, and abnormalities of gastrointestinal (GI) slow wave activity. Construction of high-resolution mapping arrays has previously been a costly and time-consuming endeavor, and existing arrays are not well suited for human research as they cannot be reliably and repeatedly sterilized. The design and fabrication of a new flexible printed circuit board (PCB) multi-electrode array that is suitable for GI mapping is presented, together with its in vivo validation in a porcine model. A modified methodology for characterizing slow waves and forming spatiotemporal activation maps showing slow waves propagation is also demonstrated. The validation study found that flexible PCB electrode arrays are able to reliably record gastric slow wave activity with signal quality near that achieved by traditional epoxy resin-embedded silver electrode arrays. Flexible PCB electrode arrays provide a clinically viable alternative to previously published devices for the high-resolution mapping of GI slow wave activity. PCBs may be mass-produced at low cost, and are easily sterilized and potentially disposable, making them ideally suited to intra-operative human use. PMID:19224368

  8. Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid water: novel instrumentation, high resolution, and the"map" approach

    SciTech Connect

    Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Bär, M.; Weigand, M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Zubavichus, Y.; Zharnikov, M.; Grunze, M.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.

    2008-06-17

    Techniques to study the electronic structure of liquids are rare. Most recently, resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been shown to be an extremely versatile spectroscopy to study both occupied and unoccupied electronic states for liquids in thermodynamic equilibrium. However, XES requires high-brilliance soft x-ray synchrotron radiation and poses significant technical challenges to maintain a liquid sample in an ultra-high vacuum environment. Our group has therefore developed and constructed a novel experimental setup for the study of liquids, with the long-term goal of investigating the electronic structure of biological systems in aqueous environments. We have developed a flow-through liquid cell in which the liquid is separated from vacuum by a thin Si3N4 or SiC window and which allows a precise control of temperature. This approach has significant advantages compared to static liquids cells used in the past. Furthermore, we have designed a dedicated high-transmission, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer. The high transmission makes it possible to measure complete resonant XES"maps" in less than an hour, giving unprecedented detailed insight into the electronic structure of the investigated sample. Using this new equipment we have investigated the electronic structure of liquid water. Furthermore, our XES spectra and maps give information about ultra-fast dissociation on the timescale of the O 1s core hole lifetime, which is strongly affected by the initial state hydrogen bonding configuration.

  9. Comparison of High Resolution Topographic Data Sources (SAR, IfSAR, and LiDAR) for Storm Surge Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.; Muldong, T. M. M.; Lagmay, A. M. A.; Caro, C. V.; Ramos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As an archipelagic country, the Philippines has experienced multiple storm surge threats. Moreover, the country's location, adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, results in an average of eight to nine typhoons that make landfall in a year. Storm surge hazard maps require high resolution topographic data to illustrate water inflow in the event of storm surges in vulnerable coastal areas and for accurate boundaries and coastline. Furthermore, potential hazard areas tend to be generalized in lower resolution data. The objective of this research is to compare three sources where accurate and quality storm surge hazard maps will draw bases from. For this purpose, the researcher used and compared SAR, IfSAR and LiDAR. The study involved comparing maps from different topographic data sources in Tacloban, in the province of Leyte. This area was one of the most heavily stricken areas during typhoon Haiyan where more than 6,000 people died and P34.37 billion worth of property was destroyed. In the comparison of the three sources, the following had be taken into consideration: cost of acquiring data, processing time, purpose, and the results. The research learned the following: Synthetic Aperture Radar or SAR produces data with a 30 meter resolution, while Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) offers a resolution of 5 meters. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) has the highest resolution of the three with 1 meter. In addition, higher costs are paid for more detailed topographic data. Also, processing time takes longer for finer details due to the memory of the computer units used for modelling. The sources were also evaluated on the necessity of the scale at which the maps are needed for specific purposes such as practicality and direct disaster response. Results from the maps have been validated through interviews with the locals on the experience of actual storm surges. Through this study, the researcher concluded that although LiDAR can offer a more detailed and

  10. Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Map Pervasive Folding in the Lithologically Indistinct Franciscan Coastal Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, G. A.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    We use high-resolution aeromagnetic data to map magnetic bodies of graywacke of limited exposure that are either interbedded or structurally emplaced within broader areas of non-magnetic graywacke within the Franciscan Complex Coastal belt in northern California, which is bounded by the San Andreas Fault on the west and the Franciscan Complex Central belt on the south and east. Previous work has not extensively subdivided the Coastal belt because of the poor exposure and the fact that the exposed lithology is primarily graywacke indistinguishable in outcrop and hand sample and is thus difficult to map in the field. A hand-held magnetic susceptibility meter, however, in combination with thin-section analysis, reveals that some Coastal belt graywackes are magnetic. The thin-section analysis shows that the magnetic samples have a significant component of andesitic grains, whereas the non-magnetic samples do not. Further, the locations of these magnetic rocks correspond to elongate regions of high magnetic intensity (magnetic anomalies) kilometers to tens of kilometers in length. Previous 2D modeling showed that the bodies of magnetic graywacke can be modeled as a folded sheet, with antiformal limbs near or exposed at the surface and synformal limbs reaching a depth of about 1 km. Locations of edges of magnetic source bodies can be extracted from their magnetic anomalies. Near surface, steeply dipping edges lie beneath local maxima in the horizontal gradient of the magnetic potential surface. The edges are demarcated by locating discrete points along the local maxima. We connected these points, using an algorithm with a specific set of parameters, to delineate the edges of the magnetic graywacke bodies. Together with the previous 2D modeling, the anomalies and their edges show that the Coastal belt contains antiformal structures 5 to 20 km in length and 1.5 km in width, with a wavelength approximately 1.5 km. The modal direction of elongation is oriented approximately

  11. VERITAS: A Mission Concept for the High Resolution Topographic Mapping and Imaging of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Pollard, B.

    2012-12-01

    Magellan, a NASA mission to Venus in the early 1990's, mapped nearly the entire surface of Venus with an S-band (12 cm) synthetic aperture radar and microwave radiometer and made radar altimeter measurements of the topography. These measurements revolutionized our understanding of the geomorphology, geology and geophysical processes that have shaped the evolution of the surface of Venus. The Magellan spacecraft had an elliptical orbit with an apoapsis of approximately 8000 km and a periapsis of 257 km and an orbital inclination of 86°. In this way the radar was able to collect long strips of data approximately 10000 km in length running north to south with altitudes varying from 3000 km to 257 km. During the remainder of the orbit the collected data was down linked to earth. The SAR mode operated in burst mode fashion whereby it transmitted a small string of pulses up to a couple of hundred pulses in length followed by a quiescent period when the radar ceased transmission and allowed interleaved operation of the altimeter and radiometer modes. This mode of operation allowed for a significant reduction in downlinked SAR imaging data at the expense of azimuth (i.e. along-track) resolution. However, the lack of finer resolution imagery and topography of the surface than that obtained by the Magellan mission has hampered the definitive answer to key questions concerning the processes and evolution of the surface of Venus. The Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR Topography And Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Mission is a proposed mission to Venus designed to obtain high resolution imagery and topography of the surface using an X-band radar configured as a single pass radar interferometer coupled with a multispectral NIR emissivity mapping capability. VERITAS would map surface topography with a spatial resolution of 250 m and 5 m vertical accuracy and generate radar imagery with 30 m spatial resolution. These capabilities represent an order of magnitude or better improvement

  12. Application of high resolution aeromagnetic data for basement topography mapping of Siluko and environs, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale O.; Akanji, Adesoji O.; Olayinka, Abel I.

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of hydrocarbon in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria, has since the early fifties shifted the attention of exploration/active geological studies from the Dahomey basin and the adjacent basement terrain in south-western Nigeria towards the south and this has left some gaps in information required for the discovery and exploitation of the economic potential of the region. This study mapped the Siluko transition zone in south-western Nigeria in terms of structures, geometry and basement topography with the object of providing requisite geological information that will engender interest in the exploration and exploitation of the numerous economic potentials of south-western part of Nigeria. Acquired high resolution aeromagnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced, the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, depth weighting analyses and modelling to generate the subsurface basement topography across the study area. The obtained results indicate regions of high and low magnetic anomalies with residual magnetic intensity values ranging from -100.8 nT to 100.9 nT. Euler Deconvolution indicates generally undulating basement topography with depth range of 125-1812 m. The basement relief is generally gentle and flat lying within the basement terrain with depth ranging from 125 to 500 m. However the sedimentary terrain is undulating and generally steeps south, down the basin with depth range of 300-1812 m. A basement topography model of the magnetic data constrained by Euler solutions correlate positively with the geology of the study area and indicates a generally increasing sedimentary deposits' thickness southward toward the western part of Dahomey basin. The revealed basement topography and structures as well as the delineated direction of continuous increase in thickness of sedimentary deposit provide insight to the controlling factor responsible for tar sand deposit and bitumen

  13. High resolution mapping of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) of biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Eisele, A.; Bens, O.; Spyra, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) are typically determined using satellite or airborne remote sensing, or field portable spectrometers, which give an averaged signal on centimetre to meter scale plots. Biological soil crust (BSC) patches may have smaller sizes, and ecophysiological, hydrological as well as pedological processes may be heterogeneously distributed within this level of resolution. A ground-based NDVI imaging procedure using low-cost equipment (Olympus Camedia 5000z digital camera equipped with a Hoya R72 infrared filter) was developed in this study to fill this gap at the level of field research, where carrying costly and bulky equipment to remote locations is often the limiting factor for data collection. A commercially available colour rendition chart (GretagMacbeth ColorChecker®) with known red (600-700 nm) and NIR (800-900 nm) reflectances was placed into each scene and used for calibration purposes on a per-image basis. Generation of NDVI images involved (i) determination of red and NIR reflectances from the pixel values of the red and NIR channels, respectively, and (ii) calculation and imaging of the NDVI, where NDVI values of -1 to +1 were mapped to grey values of 0 to 255. The correlation between NDVI values retrieved from these images and NDVI values determined using conventional field spectrometry (ASD FieldSpec 3 portable spectroradiometer) was close (r2 =0.91), the 95% confidence interval amounted to 0.10 NDVI units. The pixel resolution was 0.8 mm in the field and 0.2 mm in the laboratory, but can still be improved significantly with closer distance to the crust or with higher camera resolution. Geostatistical analysis revealed that both spatial variability as well as size of individual objects characterized by the NDVI increased with crust development. The latter never exceeded 4 mm in the investigated crusts, which points to the necessity of high resolution imaging for linking remote sensing with ecophysiology

  14. Efficient and reproducible high resolution spiral myocardial phase velocity mapping of the entire cardiac cycle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    systolic, early diastolic and atrial systolic peak radial velocities in the mid slice (for example) being −0.01 ± 0.36, 0.20 ± 0.56 and 0.14 ± 0.42 cm/s respectively. Reproducibility of the corresponding TTP values, when normalised to a fixed systolic and diastolic length, was also high (−13.8 ± 27.4, 1.3 ± 21.3 and 3.0 ± 10.9 ms for early systolic, early diastolic and atrial systolic respectively). Conclusions Retrospectively gated spiral PVM is an efficient and reproducible method of acquiring 3-directional, high resolution velocity data throughout the entire cardiac cycle, including atrial systole. PMID:23587250

  15. Mapping Human Brain Capillary Water Lifetime: High-Resolution Metabolic Neuromaging

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, William D.; Li, Xin; Sammi, Manoj K.; Bourdette, Dennis N.; Neuwelt, Edward A.; Springer, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Shutter-speed analysis of Dynamic-Contrast-Agent-(CA)-Enhanced normal, multiple sclerosis [MS], and glioblastoma [GBM] human brain data gives the mean capillary water molecule lifetime [τb] and blood volume fraction [vb; capillary density·volume product (′†·V)] in a high-resolution 1H2O MRI voxel [40 μL] or ROI. The equilibrium water extravasation rate constant, kpo [τb−1], averages 3.2 and 2.9 s−1 in resting-state normal white matter [NWM] and gray matter [NGM], respectively [n = 6]. The results {parenthesized} lead to three major conclusions. A) kpo differences are dominated by capillary water permeability [PW†], not size, differences. {NWM and NGM voxel kpo and vb values are independent. Quantitative analyses of concomitant population-averaged kpo,vb variations in normal and normal-appearing MS brain ROIs confirm PW† dominance.} B) PW† is dominated [> 95%] by a trans[endothelial]cellular pathway, not the PCA† para-cellular route. {In MS lesions and GBM tumors, PCA† increases but PW† decreases.} C) kpo tracks steady-state ATP production/consumption flux per capillary. {In normal, MS, and GBM brain, regional kpo correlates with literature MRSI ATP [positively] and Na+ [negatively] tissue concentrations. These suggest the PW† pathway is metabolically active. Excellent agreement of the relative NGM/NWM kpo·vb product ratio with the literature 31PMRSI-MT CMRoxphos ratio confirms the flux property.} We have previously shown the cellular water molecule efflux rate constant [kio] is proportional to plasma membrane P-type ATPase turnover, likely due to active trans-membrane water cycling. With synaptic proximities and synergistic metabolic co-operativities, polar brain endothelial, neuroglial, and neuronal cells form “gliovascular units.” We hypothesize a chain of water cycling processes transmits brain metabolic activity to kpo, letting it report neurogliovascular unit Na+,K+-ATPase activity. Cerebral kpo maps represent metabolic

  16. Mapping the electrostatic force field of single molecules from high-resolution scanning probe images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapala, Prokop; Švec, Martin; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Ondráček, Martin; van der Lit, Joost; Mutombo, Pingo; Swart, Ingmar; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-05-01

    How electronic charge is distributed over a molecule determines to a large extent its chemical properties. Here, we demonstrate how the electrostatic force field, originating from the inhomogeneous charge distribution in a molecule, can be measured with submolecular resolution. We exploit the fact that distortions typically observed in high-resolution atomic force microscopy images are for a significant part caused by the electrostatic force acting between charges of the tip and the molecule of interest. By finding a geometrical transformation between two high-resolution AFM images acquired with two different tips, the electrostatic force field or potential over individual molecules and self-assemblies thereof can be reconstructed with submolecular resolution.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIOXINS AND FURANS BY HIGH RESOLUTION AND ELECTRON CAPTURE MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Known mixtures and unknown atmospheric sample extracts containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/P) were analyzed by both electron impact, high resolution, mass spectrometry (HRMS) and by electron capture, negative ion, low resolution ma...

  18. Three very high resolution optical images for land use mapping of a suburban catchment: input to distributed hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacqueminet, Christine; Kermadi, Saïda; Michel, Kristell; Jankowfsky, Sonja; Braud, Isabelle; Branger, Flora; Beal, David; Gagnage, Matthieu

    2010-05-01

    resampled in the same low resolution of 2.5 m and compared in order to evaluate the accuracy of different image processing methods and to determine for each cover type, the more appropriate image and/or method. This comparison provides hydrologists with a synthetic land cover map. Four parameters affect the accuracy of land cover mapping: firstly the addition of the NIR band improves vegetation classification such as the distinction between coniferous forest and broad-leaved forest. Moreover the intensity of chlorophyllian activity allows us to characterize the use of agricultural fields. Secondly, the images were taken at three dates in the agricultural calendar. This multi-date data allows the discrimination between permanently vegetalized pastures, and temporarily bare crops, a useful information for hydrologists who study surfaces hydraulic properties. Thirdly, the high resolution of the BD Ortho IGN image emphasizes the heterogeneity inside the spatial entities. Thus, in urbanised areas, high-resolution imagery allows the precise identification of objects > 5 m2 and consequently the quantification of impervious and pervious surfaces. However, the continuity of forest areas is not maintained because of the presence of small entities with sparser tree cover that were classified as herbaceous areas. Finally, image characteristics are more crucial than classification methods for the accuracy of land cover mapping. However, object based approach improves the classification of mixed pixels on the edge between different objects. It's particularly true for buildings and roads.

  19. Construction of a high-density high-resolution genetic map and its integration with BAC-based physical map in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction of genetic linkage map is essential for genetic and genomic studies. Recent advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies made it possible to generate high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage maps, especially for the organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the pre...

  20. Mapping evapotranspiration with high resolution aircraft imagery over vineyards using one and two source modeling schemes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal and multispectral remote sensing data from low-altitude aircraft can provide high spatial resolution necessary for sub-field (= 10 m) and plant canopy (= 1 m) scale evapotranspiration (ET) monitoring. In this study, high resolution aircraft sub-meter scale thermal infrared and multispectral...

  1. Global High Resolution Mapping and Assimilation of Soil Moisture Observations for the SMAP Radar and Radiometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is being developed by NASA for launch in 2015. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, SMAP high-resolution so...

  2. A method for comparative metabolomics in urine using high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Padma; Nair, Sreenath; Rangiah, Kannan

    2016-04-22

    Developing a workflow for metabolite profiling from biological fluids using mass spectrometry is imperative to extract accurate information. In this study, urine samples from smokers (n=10) and nonsmokers (n=10) were analyzed using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) system. For the analysis, two different chromatographic methods [Reversed phase chromatography (RPC) and Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)], in two ionization modes (positive and negative) were used. Spiked reserpine (positive ion mode) or taurocholate (negative ion mode) were used for data extraction and normalization. Quality controls (QCs), prepared by pooling urine samples from both smokers and non-smokers (each n=10), were used to assess the reproducibility of the method. The final data output from SIEVE 2.2 after applying a cut-off for QC coefficient of variation (CV) <20% and p-value <0.05 showed 165, 83, 177 and 100 unique components in RP positive/negative, HILIC positive/negative modes, respectively. Statistical analysis showed clustering of the two groups and the QCs, while the variable importance in projection (VIP) scores for the top fifteen metabolites in each of the four modes indicated the metabolites most responsible for the differences. Application of the developed workflow for comparative metabolomic analysis of urine in different diseased models will be of great use in the field of clinical metabolomics. PMID:27012786

  3. Magellan radar image compared to high resolution Earth-based image of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A strip of a Magellan radar image (left) is compared to a high resolution Earth-based radar image of Venus, obtained by the U.S. National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center's Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. The small white box in the Arecibo image corresponds to the Magellan image. This portion of the Magellan imagery shows a small region on the east flank of a major volcanic upland called Beta Regio. The image is centered at 23 degrees north latitude and 286.7 degrees east longitude. The ridge and valley network in the middle part of the image is formed by intersecting faults which have broken the Venusian crust into a complex deformed type of surface called tessera, the Latin word for tile. The parallel mountains and valleys resemble the Basin and Range Province in the western United States. The irregular dark patch near the top of the image is a smooth surface, probably formed, according to scientists, by lava flows in a region about 10 kilometers (6 miles) across. Similar dark sur

  4. Chromosomal structure of Rhodobacter capsulatus strain SB1003: Cosmid encyclopedia and high-resolution physical and genetic map

    SciTech Connect

    Fonstein, M.; Haselkorn, R. )

    1993-03-15

    A combination of cosmid genome walking and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to construct a high-resolution physical and genetic map of the 3.8-megabase (Mb) genome of Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. The mapping was done by hybridization of pulsed-field gel blots and by grouping and further mapping of the cosmids and bacteriophages from genomic libraries. Cosmid clones formed two uninterrupted and ordered groups, one corresponding to the chromosome of R. capsulatus, the other to its 134-kb plasmid. Cos site end-labeling and partial EcoRV digestion of cosmids were used to construct a high-resolution EvoRV map of the genome. Overlapping of the mosmids was confirmed by the resemblance of the cosmid restriction maps and by direct end-to-end hybridization with SP6- and T7-specific transcripts. Twenty-three previously cloned genes and eight groups of repeated sequences, revealed in this work, were located in the ordered gene library and mapped with an accuracy of 1-10 kb. Blots of a minimal set of 192 cosmids, covering the chromosome and the plasmid with the known map position of each cosmid, give to R. capsulatus the same advantages that the Kohara phage panel gives to E. coli. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Mapping of an ophiolite complex by high-resolution visible-infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, Jean-Philippe; Launeau, Patrick; Pinet, Patrick; Despan, Daniela; Harris, Esther; Ceuleneer, Georges; Sotin, Christophe

    2006-08-01

    The Sumail massif of the Oman peridotite has been surveyed by the high spectral resolution imager HyMap. The field measurements have been taken simultaneously to the HyMap campaign with a GER 3700 spectrometer. To compare the two data sets, further calibration and atmospheric correction are made through empirical line corrections. A continuum removal by a modified Gaussian model on reflectance is then performed for each pixel to minimize atmospheric scattering and shadowing effects. Classification from spectral distance is established using field observations and comparisons at full spectral resolution to identify peridotite subunits (harzburgites and dunites) and to distinguish plagioclase-wehrlites from gabbros. Detections of hydrothermal transformations of olivine in serpentines and their alteration in carbonates along fracture networks, characterized by narrow spectral signatures, validate the classification. This demonstrates the utility of the high spectral resolution and the development of appropriate processing methods for geological identifications.

  6. Gaussian Multiple Instance Learning Approach for Mapping the Slums of the World Using Very High Resolution Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a computationally efficient algo- rithm based on multiple instance learning for mapping infor- mal settlements (slums) using very high-resolution remote sensing imagery. From remote sensing perspective, infor- mal settlements share unique spatial characteristics that dis- tinguish them from other urban structures like industrial, commercial, and formal residential settlements. However, regular pattern recognition and machine learning methods, which are predominantly single-instance or per-pixel classi- fiers, often fail to accurately map the informal settlements as they do not capture the complex spatial patterns. To overcome these limitations we employed a multiple instance based machine learning approach, where groups of contigu- ous pixels (image patches) are modeled as generated by a Gaussian distribution. We have conducted several experi- ments on very high-resolution satellite imagery, represent- ing four unique geographic regions across the world. Our method showed consistent improvement in accurately iden- tifying informal settlements.

  7. Expert system designed to assist in the interpretation and evaluation of thoracic surface maps produced by high-resolution electrocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    An expert system is an artificial intelligence program that relies on a knowledge base composed of information derived from an expert and is designed to perform a difficult task. The system is usually domain specific and provides an interactive consultation with the user in problem solving. High-resolution electrocardiography is a technique for acquiring information about the heart's electrical activity with the use of multilead electrodes. Thoracic surface maps are presented at precise intervals during the depolarization/repolarization stages of a heartbeat. Cardiologists have determined methods for relating the thoracic maps to the actual tissue condition of the heart giving a basis for diagnoses. This work shows the anatomy of the heart, techniques for measuring that activity, and in detail, the techniques used with High Resolution Electrocardiography. The field of artificial intelligence is explored with an emphasis on expert systems. An expert system developed to diagnose the HRE record is presented.

  8. High resolution population distribution maps for Southeast Asia in 2010 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Andrea E; Stevens, Forrest R; Linard, Catherine; Jia, Peng; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Spatially accurate, contemporary data on human population distributions are vitally important to many applied and theoretical researchers. The Southeast Asia region has undergone rapid urbanization and population growth over the past decade, yet existing spatial population distribution datasets covering the region are based principally on population count data from censuses circa 2000, with often insufficient spatial resolution or input data to map settlements precisely. Here we outline approaches to construct a database of GIS-linked circa 2010 census data and methods used to construct fine-scale (∼100 meters spatial resolution) population distribution datasets for each country in the Southeast Asia region. Landsat-derived settlement maps and land cover information were combined with ancillary datasets on infrastructure to model population distributions for 2010 and 2015. These products were compared with those from two other methods used to construct commonly used global population datasets. Results indicate mapping accuracies are consistently higher when incorporating land cover and settlement information into the AsiaPop modelling process. Using existing data, it is possible to produce detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for Southeast Asia. The 2010 and 2015 datasets produced are freely available as a product of the AsiaPop Project and can be downloaded from: www.asiapop.org. PMID:23418469

  9. Global High Resolution Mapping and Assimilation of Soil Moisture Observations from the SMAP Radar and Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, Rolf; Crow, Wade; Entekhabi, Dara; Kimball, John; Koster, Randal; Noku, Eni; O'Neill, Peggy

    2010-05-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) mission is being developed by NASA for launch in 2015. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, SMAP high-resolution soil moisture mapping has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. In this paper we provide a brief overview of the SMAP science objectives, instruments, and data products, with a special focus on the Level 4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product. The SMAP mission makes simultaneous active (radar) and passive (radiometer) measurements in the 1.26-1.43 GHz range (L-band) from a sun-synchronous low-earth orbit. Measurements will be obtained across a wide swath (1000 km) using conical scanning at a constant incidence angle (40°). The radar resolution varies from 1-3 km over the outer 70% of the swath to about 30 km near the center of the swath. The radiometer resolution is 40 km across the entire swath. The radiometer measurements will allow high-accuracy but coarse resolution (40 km) measurements. The radar measurements will add significantly higher resolution information. The radar, however, is very sensitive to surface roughness and vegetation structure. The combination of the two measurements allows blending the advantages of each instrument, enabling SMAP to provide global retrievals of surface soil moisture with a horizontal resolution of about 10 km and a refresh rate of 2 to 3 days. Additionally, a radar-based soil-vegetation freeze/thaw product in boreal latitudes will be provided at 3 km resolution with 1-2 day revisit. SMAP directly observes surface soil moisture (in the top 5 cm of the soil column). Several of the key applications targeted by SMAP, however, require knowledge of root zone soil moisture (~top 1 m of the soil column), which is not directly measured

  10. Mapping the electrostatic force field of single molecules from high-resolution scanning probe images

    PubMed Central

    Hapala, Prokop; Švec, Martin; Stetsovych, Oleksandr; van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Ondráček, Martin; van der Lit, Joost; Mutombo, Pingo; Swart, Ingmar; Jelínek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    How electronic charge is distributed over a molecule determines to a large extent its chemical properties. Here, we demonstrate how the electrostatic force field, originating from the inhomogeneous charge distribution in a molecule, can be measured with submolecular resolution. We exploit the fact that distortions typically observed in high-resolution atomic force microscopy images are for a significant part caused by the electrostatic force acting between charges of the tip and the molecule of interest. By finding a geometrical transformation between two high-resolution AFM images acquired with two different tips, the electrostatic force field or potential over individual molecules and self-assemblies thereof can be reconstructed with submolecular resolution. PMID:27230940

  11. Mapping trees outside forests using high-resolution aerial imagery: a comparison of pixel- and object-based classification approaches.

    PubMed

    Meneguzzo, Dacia M; Liknes, Greg C; Nelson, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    Discrete trees and small groups of trees in nonforest settings are considered an essential resource around the world and are collectively referred to as trees outside forests (ToF). ToF provide important functions across the landscape, such as protecting soil and water resources, providing wildlife habitat, and improving farmstead energy efficiency and aesthetics. Despite the significance of ToF, forest and other natural resource inventory programs and geospatial land cover datasets that are available at a national scale do not include comprehensive information regarding ToF in the United States. Additional ground-based data collection and acquisition of specialized imagery to inventory these resources are expensive alternatives. As a potential solution, we identified two remote sensing-based approaches that use free high-resolution aerial imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) to map all tree cover in an agriculturally dominant landscape. We compared the results obtained using an unsupervised per-pixel classifier (independent component analysis-[ICA]) and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure in Steele County, Minnesota, USA. Three types of accuracy assessments were used to evaluate how each method performed in terms of: (1) producing a county-level estimate of total tree-covered area, (2) correctly locating tree cover on the ground, and (3) how tree cover patch metrics computed from the classified outputs compared to those delineated by a human photo interpreter. Both approaches were found to be viable for mapping tree cover over a broad spatial extent and could serve to supplement ground-based inventory data. The ICA approach produced an estimate of total tree cover more similar to the photo-interpreted result, but the output from the OBIA method was more realistic in terms of describing the actual observed spatial pattern of tree cover. PMID:23255169

  12. An Improved Method for the Estimation and Visualization of Velocity Fields from Gastric High-Resolution Electrical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) electrical mapping is an important clinical research tool for understanding normal and abnormal gastric electrophysiology. Analyzing velocities of gastric electrical activity in a reliable and accurate manner can provide additional valuable information for quantitatively and qualitatively comparing features across and within subjects, particularly during gastric dysrhythmias. In this study we compared three methods of estimating velocities from HR recordings to determine which method was the most reliable for use with gastric HR electrical mapping. The three methods were i) Simple finite difference ii) Smoothed finite difference and a iii) Polynomial based method. With synthetic data, the accuracy of the simple finite difference method resulted in velocity errors almost twice that of the smoothed finite difference and the polynomial based method, in the presence of activation time error up to 0.5s. With three synthetic cases under various noise types and levels, the smoothed finite difference resulted in average speed error of 3.2% and an average angle error of 2.0° and the polynomial based method had an average speed error of 3.3% and an average angle error of 1.7°. With experimental gastric slow wave recordings performed in pigs, the three methods estimated similar velocities (6.3-7.3 mm/s), but the smoothed finite difference method had a lower standard deviation in its velocity estimate than the simple finite difference and the polynomial based method, leading it to be the method of choice for velocity estimation in gastric slow wave propagation. An improved method for visualizing velocity fields is also presented. PMID:22207635

  13. Correlation between high-resolution remote-sensing imagery and detailed field mapping in Cordilleran Miogeocline

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, S.C.; Taranik, J.V.

    1986-05-01

    Selected areas were mapped at a scale of 1:6000 in the southern hot Creek Range (south-central Nevada), which is underlain by Paleozoic autochthonous limestone, shale, and sandstone, Paleozoic allochthonous chert and siltstone, and Tertiary rhyolitic to dactitic ash flow tuff. The mapping was compared with computer-processed Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery. The AIS imagery of the Hot Creek Range was acquired in 1984 by a NASA C-130 aircraft; it has a spatial resolution of 12 m, and swath width of 380 m. The sensor was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and is the first in a series of NASA imaging spectrometers. The AIS collects 128 spectral bands, having a bandwidth of approximately 9 nm, in the short-wave infrared between 1.2 and 2.4 ..mu..m. This part of the spectrum contains important narrow spectral absorption features for the carbonate ion, hydroxyl ion, and water of hydration. Using computer-processed AIS imagery, therefore, the authors can separate calcite from dolomite, and kaolinite from illite and montmorillonite as well as differentiate geologic units containing these minerals. On the AIS imagery, the Upper Mississippian Tripon Pass Limestone shows a distinctive calcite absorption feature at 2.34 ..mu..m; this feature is not as pronounced in Cambrian and Ordovician limestones. The dolomitized Nevada Formation exhibits the dolomite absorption feature at 2.32 ..mu..m. Clay mineral absorption features near 2.2 ..mu..m can be distinguished in altered volcanics. Mineralogic identification was confirmed with field and laboratory spectroradiometer measurements, thin-section examination, and x-ray analysis. AIS results and field mapping were also compared to computer-processed Landsat TM imagery, the highest spectral and spatial resolution worldwide data set currently available.

  14. High-resolution NO2 maps of Rotterdam and Zürich retrieved from the APEX imaging spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Gerrit; Hueni, Andreas; Brunner, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, nitrogen dioxide (NO_2) concentrations have high spatial and temporal variability making high-resolution NO2 maps an important tool for air pollution assessment and epidemiological studies. We retrieved high-resolution NO2 maps from the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer measured over Zürich on 30. August 2013 (11:24--12:05 UTC) and Rotterdam on 17. September 2014 (8:53--10:18 UTC). Our updated retrieval fits NO_2, O_3, O_4, H_2O and the Ring effect between 440 and 510 nm using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). The radiance spectra were spectrally calibrated using a high-resolution solar reference spectrum to correct spectral shifts in across- and along-track direction. Air mass factors were computed using the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model. The retrieved NO2 maps have 50×50m2 resolution and cover an area of 10×26 km2 for Zürich and 10×50 km2 for Rotterdam. The maps show enhanced NO2 values in populated areas and at least three strong plumes from oil refineries in Rotterdam. A comparison with ground measurements in Rotterdam shows only weak correlation, because most of the NO2 is found in elevated plumes. In conclusion, airborne observations allow mapping of the NO2 distribution in urban areas providing a different perspective on urban air quality which cannot be acquired by ground-based observations. The obtained maps will be used for further analysis such as estimating NOX emissions from oil refineries and comparison with urban-scale chemistry transport modelling.

  15. High-resolution seismic reflection profiling for mapping shallow aquifers in Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Missimer, T.M.; Gardner, Richard Alfred

    1976-01-01

    High-resolution continuous seismic reflection profiling equipment was utilized to define the configuration of sedimentary layers underlying part of Lee County, Florida. About 45 miles (72 kilometers) of profile were made on the Caloosahatchee River Estuary and San Carlos Bay. Two different acoustic energy sources, a high resolution boomer and a 45-electrode high resolution sparker, both having a power input of 300 joules, were used to obtain both adequate penetration and good resolution. The seismic profiles show that much of the strata of middle Miocene to Holocene age apparently are extensively folded but not faulted. Initial interpretations indicate that: (1) the top of the Hawthorn Formation (which contains the upper Hawthorn aquifer) has much relief due chiefly to apparent folding; (2) the limestone, sandstone, and unconsolidated sand and phosphorite, which together compose the sandstone aquifer, appear to be discontinuous; (3) the green clay unit of the Tamiami Formation contains large scale angular beds dipping eastward; and (4) numerous deeply cut alluvium-filled paleochannels underlie the Caloosahatchee River. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Object-based locust habitat mapping using high-resolution multispectral satellite data in the southern Aral Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, Peter; Wilps, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Three different object-based image classification techniques are applied to high-resolution satellite data for the mapping of the habitats of Asian migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratoria) in the southern Aral Sea basin, Uzbekistan. A set of panchromatic and multispectral Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre-5 satellite images was spectrally enhanced by normalized difference vegetation index and tasseled cap transformation and segmented into image objects, which were then classified by three different classification approaches: a rule-based hierarchical fuzzy threshold (HFT) classification method was compared to a supervised nearest neighbor classifier and classification tree analysis by the quick, unbiased, efficient statistical trees algorithm. Special emphasis was laid on the discrimination of locust feeding and breeding habitats due to the significance of this discrimination for practical locust control. Field data on vegetation and land cover, collected at the time of satellite image acquisition, was used to evaluate classification accuracy. The results show that a robust HFT classifier outperformed the two automated procedures by 13% overall accuracy. The classification method allowed a reliable discrimination of locust feeding and breeding habitats, which is of significant importance for the application of the resulting data for an economically and environmentally sound control of locust pests because exact spatial knowledge on the habitat types allows a more effective surveying and use of pesticides.

  17. High resolution mapping and classification of oyster habitats in nearshore Louisiana using sidescan sonar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Y.C.; Wilson, C.A.; Roberts, H.H.; Supan, J.

    2005-01-01

    Sidescan sonar holds great promise as a tool to quantitatively depict the distribution and extent of benthic habitats in Louisiana's turbid estuaries. In this study, we describe an effective protocol for acoustic sampling in this environment. We also compared three methods of classification in detail: mean-based thresholding, supervised, and unsupervised techniques to classify sidescan imagery into categories of mud and shell. Classification results were compared to ground truth results using quadrat and dredge sampling. Supervised classification gave the best overall result (kappa = 75%) when compared to quadrat results. Classification accuracy was less robust when compared to all dredge samples (kappa = 21-56%), but increased greatly (90-100%) when only dredge samples taken from acoustically homogeneous areas were considered. Sidescan sonar when combined with ground truth sampling at an appropriate scale can be effectively used to establish an accurate substrate base map for both research applications and shellfish management. The sidescan imagery presented here also provides, for the first time, a detailed presentation of oyster habitat patchiness and scale in a productive oyster growing area.

  18. Can remote high-resolution mapping help individual-based fish population models go up-scale? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, B.; Railsback, S.

    2009-12-01

    Spatially explicit, individual-based models of fish populations show great promise for linking physical conditions and processes to population dynamics. The ability to link physical processes and population outcomes is critical for optimizing habitat restoration efforts, forecasting the consequences of climate change, evaluating flow regimes, and other activities necessary to sustain at-risk fish populations. Because individual-based models simulate habitat from the perspective of individual fish, they commonly capture variation in physical habitat on a scale of 1- 50 square meters and rely on simulations (including hydraulic modeling) at the reach scale (0.2 to 1 km). Simulated reaches can be linked in some models such that virtual fish can move among them. The significance of the size, location and arrangement of reaches included in IBM simulations of fish populations has not been investigated in detail. However, the process of reach selection clearly benefits from information on channel physical conditions at the network scale, so that reaches can be selected to well-represent the diversity of habitat at larger spatial scales. High-resolution mapping of channel topography would be a richer source of network-scale information than others used to date, such as habitat typing and simple video. Remote, high-resolution mapping data might also provide a major step forward in the capability of individual-based models to address fish population dynamics at the network scale if the mapping data could be directly used for hydraulic simulations. Challenges for this step include the need to estimate physical habitat variables included in individual-based models that may not be readily discernable from topographic data, such as the availability of cover for fish. Exploring the use of high-resolution mapping data in individual-based modeling of fish populations seems worth doing, in that the individual-based models should be a particularly effective way to derive biological

  19. Comparing supervised and unsupervised multiresolution segmentation approaches for extracting buildings from very high resolution imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgiu, Mariana; ǎguţ, Lucian, , Dr

    2014-10-01

    Although multiresolution segmentation (MRS) is a powerful technique for dealing with very high resolution imagery, some of the image objects that it generates do not match the geometries of the target objects, which reduces the classification accuracy. MRS can, however, be guided to produce results that approach the desired object geometry using either supervised or unsupervised approaches. Although some studies have suggested that a supervised approach is preferable, there has been no comparative evaluation of these two approaches. Therefore, in this study, we have compared supervised and unsupervised approaches to MRS. One supervised and two unsupervised segmentation methods were tested on three areas using QuickBird and WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The results were assessed using both segmentation evaluation methods and an accuracy assessment of the resulting building classifications. Thus, differences in the geometries of the image objects and in the potential to achieve satisfactory thematic accuracies were evaluated. The two approaches yielded remarkably similar classification results, with overall accuracies ranging from 82% to 86%. The performance of one of the unsupervised methods was unexpectedly similar to that of the supervised method; they identified almost identical scale parameters as being optimal for segmenting buildings, resulting in very similar geometries for the resulting image objects. The second unsupervised method produced very different image objects from the supervised method, but their classification accuracies were still very similar. The latter result was unexpected because, contrary to previously published findings, it suggests a high degree of independence between the segmentation results and classification accuracy. The results of this study have two important implications. The first is that object-based image analysis can be automated without sacrificing classification accuracy, and the second is that the previously accepted idea

  20. Comparing supervised and unsupervised multiresolution segmentation approaches for extracting buildings from very high resolution imagery

    PubMed Central

    Belgiu, Mariana; Drǎguţ, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Although multiresolution segmentation (MRS) is a powerful technique for dealing with very high resolution imagery, some of the image objects that it generates do not match the geometries of the target objects, which reduces the classification accuracy. MRS can, however, be guided to produce results that approach the desired object geometry using either supervised or unsupervised approaches. Although some studies have suggested that a supervised approach is preferable, there has been no comparative evaluation of these two approaches. Therefore, in this study, we have compared supervised and unsupervised approaches to MRS. One supervised and two unsupervised segmentation methods were tested on three areas using QuickBird and WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The results were assessed using both segmentation evaluation methods and an accuracy assessment of the resulting building classifications. Thus, differences in the geometries of the image objects and in the potential to achieve satisfactory thematic accuracies were evaluated. The two approaches yielded remarkably similar classification results, with overall accuracies ranging from 82% to 86%. The performance of one of the unsupervised methods was unexpectedly similar to that of the supervised method; they identified almost identical scale parameters as being optimal for segmenting buildings, resulting in very similar geometries for the resulting image objects. The second unsupervised method produced very different image objects from the supervised method, but their classification accuracies were still very similar. The latter result was unexpected because, contrary to previously published findings, it suggests a high degree of independence between the segmentation results and classification accuracy. The results of this study have two important implications. The first is that object-based image analysis can be automated without sacrificing classification accuracy, and the second is that the previously accepted idea

  1. Comparing bias correction methods for high-resolution COSMO-CLM daily precipitation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutjahr, O.; Heinemann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Regional climate models (RCMs) are approaching to the 1km scale. This is necessary, since impact models, like hydrological or species distribution models, forced with the output of RCMs need input data on this high resolution in order to capture adequately the behaviour of the system on small scales and the extreme statistics. However, RCMs are still subject to systematic biases when compared to observations. Especially precipitation is often affected with large and non-linear bias. Since extreme values are critical to any impact model, a special care must be established for the tails of the distributions. Within the "Global-Change"-project of the Research Initiative Rhineland-Palatinate (http://www.uni-trier.de/index.php?id=40193&L=2), a new parametric bias correction method has been developed, which includes an extension for extreme values. Daily precipitation fields from COSMO-CLM (version 4.8.11) model output for the time period 1991-2000 and 2091-2100 were then bias corrected. This new method is compared to existing parametric and non-parametric methods in order to answer the question whether an extension with an extreme value distribution for the tail is necessary. Additionally, the effect of the bias correction on the climate signal is investigated, which should be the same after the corrections. As observations, 128 precipitation stations (DWD/LUWG) were used. Both parametric bias correction methods are able to correct the precipitation fields and are thus valid replacements for the empirical method but the extension with an extreme value distribution is an improvement, especially concerning estimated return values, which were underestimated in the uncorrected model and did not show any similarity to observations. Without an extension for extreme values, the pattern of the climate change signal deviates largely from the original and reveals another source of uncertainty. The comparison of the methods demonstrates the importance of special treatment of the

  2. Comparing supervised and unsupervised multiresolution segmentation approaches for extracting buildings from very high resolution imagery.

    PubMed

    Belgiu, Mariana; Dr Guţ, Lucian

    2014-10-01

    Although multiresolution segmentation (MRS) is a powerful technique for dealing with very high resolution imagery, some of the image objects that it generates do not match the geometries of the target objects, which reduces the classification accuracy. MRS can, however, be guided to produce results that approach the desired object geometry using either supervised or unsupervised approaches. Although some studies have suggested that a supervised approach is preferable, there has been no comparative evaluation of these two approaches. Therefore, in this study, we have compared supervised and unsupervised approaches to MRS. One supervised and two unsupervised segmentation methods were tested on three areas using QuickBird and WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The results were assessed using both segmentation evaluation methods and an accuracy assessment of the resulting building classifications. Thus, differences in the geometries of the image objects and in the potential to achieve satisfactory thematic accuracies were evaluated. The two approaches yielded remarkably similar classification results, with overall accuracies ranging from 82% to 86%. The performance of one of the unsupervised methods was unexpectedly similar to that of the supervised method; they identified almost identical scale parameters as being optimal for segmenting buildings, resulting in very similar geometries for the resulting image objects. The second unsupervised method produced very different image objects from the supervised method, but their classification accuracies were still very similar. The latter result was unexpected because, contrary to previously published findings, it suggests a high degree of independence between the segmentation results and classification accuracy. The results of this study have two important implications. The first is that object-based image analysis can be automated without sacrificing classification accuracy, and the second is that the previously accepted idea

  3. A high resolution genetic map anchoring scaffolds of the sequenced watermelon genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high-density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of ...

  4. TRMM Precipitation Radar Reflectivity Profiles Compared to High-Resolution Airborne and Ground-Based Radar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, G. M.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Satellite) Precipitation Radar (PR) products are evaluated by means of simultaneous comparisons with data from the high-altitude ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP), as well as ground-based radars. The comparison is aimed primarily at the vertical reflectivity structure, which is of key importance in TRMM rain type classification and latent heating estimation. The radars used in this study have considerably different viewing geometries and resolutions, demanding non-trivial mapping procedures in common earth-relative coordinates. Mapped vertical cross sections and mean profiles of reflectivity from the PR, EDOP, and ground-based radars are compared for six cases. These cases cover a stratiform frontal rainband, convective cells of various sizes and stages, and a hurricane. For precipitating systems that are large relative to the PR footprint size, PR reflectivity profiles compare very well to high-resolution measurements thresholded to the PR minimum reflectivity, and derived variables such as bright band height and rain types are accurate, even at high PR incidence angles. It was found that for, the PR reflectivity of convective cells small relative to the PR footprint is weaker than in reality. Some of these differences can be explained by non-uniform beam filling. For other cases where strong reflectivity gradients occur within a PR footprint, the reflectivity distribution is spread out due to filtering by the PR antenna illumination pattern. In these cases, rain type classification may err and be biased towards the stratiform type, and the average reflectivity tends to be underestimated. The limited sensitivity of the PR implies that the upper regions of precipitation systems remain undetected and that the PR storm top height estimate is unreliable, usually underestimating the actual storm top height. This applies to all cases but the discrepancy is larger for smaller cells where limited sensitivity is compounded

  5. High-resolution tree canopy mapping for New York City using LIDAR and object-based image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFaden, Sean W.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.; Royar, Anna R.; Lu, Jacqueline W. T.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban tree canopy is widely believed to have myriad environmental, social, and human-health benefits, but a lack of precise canopy estimates has hindered quantification of these benefits in many municipalities. This problem was addressed for New York City using object-based image analysis (OBIA) to develop a comprehensive land-cover map, including tree canopy to the scale of individual trees. Mapping was performed using a rule-based expert system that relied primarily on high-resolution LIDAR, specifically its capacity for evaluating the height and texture of aboveground features. Multispectral imagery was also used, but shadowing and varying temporal conditions limited its utility. Contextual analysis was a key part of classification, distinguishing trees according to their physical and spectral properties as well as their relationships to adjacent, nonvegetated features. The automated product was extensively reviewed and edited via manual interpretation, and overall per-pixel accuracy of the final map was 96%. Although manual editing had only a marginal effect on accuracy despite requiring a majority of project effort, it maximized aesthetic quality and ensured the capture of small, isolated trees. Converting high-resolution LIDAR and imagery into usable information is a nontrivial exercise, requiring significant processing time and labor, but an expert system-based combination of OBIA and manual review was an effective method for fine-scale canopy mapping in a complex urban environment.

  6. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    PubMed Central

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  7. High-Resolution Mapping of Lunar Crustal Magnetic Fields: Correlations with Albedo Markings of the Reiner Gamma Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M.; Binder, A.

    1999-01-01

    During the last eight months of the Lunar Prospector mission (December 1999-July 1999), the spacecraft was placed in a relatively low-altitude (15-30-km perapsis), near-polar orbit that allowed high-resolution mapping of crustal magnetic fields. We report here initial studies of the correlation of locally strong magnetic anomalies with unusual, swirl-like albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class. Based on this correlation, which is known from earlier studies of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data, it has been proposed that the swirls represent regions whose higher albedos have been preserved via deflection of the solar-wind ion bombardment by strong crustal fields. This model in turn depends on the hypothesis that solar-wind implanted H is at least one component of the process that optically matures exposed silicate surfaces in the inner solar system . Specifically, it is hypothesized that implanted H acts as an effective reducing agent to enhance the rate of production of nanophase metallic Fe particles from preexisting silicates during micrometeoroid impacts. According to the model, the curvilinear shapes of these albedo markings are caused, at least in part, by the geometry of ion deflections in a magnetic field. The improved resolution and coverage of the Prospector data allow more detailed mapping of the fields, especially on the lunar farside. This permits a more quantitative test of whether all albedo markings of this class are associated with strong local magnetic fields.Only if the latter condition is met can the solar-wind deflection hypothesis he valid. The basic procedure for mapping crustal magnetic fields using Lunar Prospector magnetometer data follows that developed for analysis of Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data. The specific mapping steps are (1) selection of mission time intervals suitable for mapping crustal fields; these are limited essentially either to times when the Moon is in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or to times when the Moon

  8. Using GeoMapApp to access and interpret high-resolution bathymetric data collected with deep submergence vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B.; O'hara, S. H.; Bonczkowski, J.; Arko, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Bathymetric data products generated with deep submergence technology can be of meter to sub-meter resolution, providing an unprecedented view of seafloor features. Data at this resolution provide near photo-quality information that can be used to not only quantify morphologic features and create geologic maps, but can also be used to develop and refine remote seafloor characterization techniques. Nesting these data within regional lower resolution data, and supplementing them with ground-truth photos and observations from seafloor samples is often the key to understanding the geologic features revealed in bathymetric data. Through the efforts of the Ridge 2000 Program and the Ridge 2000 Data Portal, many of these data have been acquired, assembled, spatially co-registered, and made directly accessible through a variety of programmatic interfaces. The Data Portal provides direct downloads of raw and processed data files with full attribution to contributing scientists and links to publications. In addition, GeoMapApp, a free Java-based visualization and analysis tool, provides quantitative access to several high-resolution bathymetry data sets within the context of important complementary data. The default basemap in GeoMapApp is the Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis, which includes ship-based bathymetry data from over 500 research cruises as well as contributed regional grids, providing resolution of 100 m or better in many areas. GeoMapApp provides quantitative access to the GMRT, which can be used to understand the regional context of localized high-resolution bathymetry data. Other related data directly accessible through GeoMapApp include sidescan data, sample positions and descriptions, and bottom photos acquired with National Deep Submergence Facility assets and the WHOI TowCam System. Quantitative tools for interrogating and interpreting the data (e.g. profiling, changing sun-illumination and color scale) are provided within GeoMapApp to

  9. High-resolution forest mapping for behavioural studies in the Nature Reserve ‘Les Nouragues’, French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Ringler, Max; Mangione, Rosanna; Pašukonis, Andrius; Rainer, Gerhard; Gyimesi, Kristin; Felling, Julia; Kronaus, Hannes; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime; Chave, Jérôme; Reiter, Karl; Ringler, Eva

    2015-01-01

    For animals with spatially complex behaviours at relatively small scales, the resolution of a global positioning system (GPS) receiver location is often below the resolution needed to correctly map animals’ spatial behaviour. Natural conditions such as canopy cover, canyons or clouds can further degrade GPS receiver reception. Here we present a detailed, high-resolution map of a 4.6 ha Neotropical river island and a 8.3 ha mainland plot with the location of every tree >5 cm DBH and all structures on the forest floor, which are relevant to our study species, the territorial frog Allobates femoralis (Dendrobatidae). The map was derived using distance- and compass-based survey techniques, rooted on dGPS reference points, and incorporates altitudinal information based on a LiDAR survey of the area. PMID:27053943

  10. High-Resolution Geologic and Stratigraphic Mapping in Olympia Cavi, Planum Boreum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortezzo, C. M.; Skinner, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    We began mapping in Olympia Cavi, Planum Boreum, Mars using MRO CTX and HiRISE scales images. Nine HiRISE DEMs provide topography for us to measure and detail the stratigraphy from three separate map areas to detail the changes in units over the areas.