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Sample records for high-resolution electron collision

  1. ELECTRONICS UPGRADE OF HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mcintosh, J; Joe Cordaro, J

    2008-03-10

    High resolution mass spectrometers are specialized systems that allow researchers to determine the exact mass of samples to four significant digits by using magnetic and electronic sector mass analyzers. Many of the systems in use today at research laboratories and universities were designed and built more than two decades ago. The manufacturers of these systems have abandoned the support for some of the mass spectrometers and parts to power and control them have become scarce or obsolete. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been involved in the upgrade of the electronics and software for these legacy machines. The Electronics Upgrade of High Resolution Mass Spectrometers consists of assembling high-end commercial instrumentation from reputable manufacturers with a minimal amount of customization to replace the electronics for the older systems. By taking advantage of advances in instrumentation, precise magnet control can be achieved using high resolution current sources and continuous feedback from a high resolution hall-effect probe. The custom equipment include a precision voltage divider/summing amplifier chassis, high voltage power supply chassis and a chassis for controlling the voltage emission for the mass spectrometer source tube. The upgrade package is versatile enough to interface with valve control, vacuum and other instrumentation. Instrument communication is via a combination of Ethernet and traditional IEEE-488 GPIB protocols. The system software upgrades include precision control, feedback and spectral waveform analysis tools.

  2. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  3. High resolution electron crystallography of protein molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, R.M. |; Downing, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    Electron diffraction data and high resolution images can now be used to obtain accurate, three-dimensional density maps of biological macromolecules. These density maps can be interpreted by building an atomic-resolution model of the structure into the experimental density. The Cowley-Moodie formalism of dynamical diffraction theory has been used to validate the use of kinematic diffraction theory, strictly the weak phase object approximation, in producing such 3-D density maps. Further improvements in the preparation of very flat specimens and in the retention of diffraction to a resolution of 0.2 nm or better could result in electron crystallography becoming as important a technique as x-ray crystallography currently is for the field of structural molecular biology.

  4. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol.

  5. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A compact, light weight, high resolution electron monochromator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goembel, L.; Doering, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    A high resolution electron monochromator that incorporates Vespel polyimide plastic in its construction is described. A great saving in bulk can be realized by mounting the electron optical elements in Vespel tubes rather than mounting them by traditional means.

  7. Phase contrast in high resolution electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rose, H.H.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to a device for developing a phase contrast signal for a scanning transmission electron microscope. The lens system of the microscope is operated in a condition of defocus so that predictable alternate concentric regions of high and low electron density exist in the cone of illumination. Two phase detectors are placed beneath the object inside the cone of illumination, with the first detector having the form of a zone plate, each of its rings covering alternate regions of either higher or lower electron density. The second detector is so configured that it covers the regions of electron density not covered by the first detector. Each detector measures the number of electrons incident thereon and the signal developed by the first detector is subtracted from the signal developed by the record detector to provide a phase contrast signal. (auth)

  8. Electron Gun Technologies for High Resolution Electron Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Shin

    High-brightness electron gun technologies for high resolution electron microscopes are reviewed. High performance electron beam apparatuses today are equipped with either Schottky emission or field emission type cathodes, both of which have sharply etched tips for electric field enhancement that promotes electron emission. One of the key elements in these pointed cathodes is a proper control of the tip geometry. It substantially affects the emitter optics and performance. It is shown that the geometry is dictated by the faceting of the tip, which is in turn determined by the Equilibrium Crystal Shape (ECS). The ECS is the tip geometry that minimizes the surface free energy and dependent on the emitter operation environment. By proper choice of the tip field and temperature, one can control the degree of faceting and achieve optically desirable tip geometries.

  9. High resolution electron attachment to CO₂ clusters.

    PubMed

    Denifl, Stephan; Vizcaino, Violaine; Märk, Tilmann D; Illenberger, Eugen; Scheier, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Electron attachment to CO₂ clusters performed at high energy resolution (0.1 eV) is studied for the first time in the extended electron energy range from threshold (0 eV) to about 10 eV. Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to single molecules yields O(-) as the only fragment ion arising from the well known (2)Π(u) shape resonance (ion yield centered at 4.4 eV) and a core excited resonance (at 8.2 eV). On proceeding to CO₂ clusters, non-dissociated complexes of the form (CO₂)(n)(-) including the monomer CO₂(-) are generated as well as solvated fragment ions of the form (CO₂)(n)O(-). The non-decomposed complexes appear already within a resonant feature near threshold (0 eV) and also within a broad contribution between 1 and 4 eV which is composed of two resonances observed for example for (CO₂)(4)(-) at 2.2 eV and 3.1 eV (peak maxima). While the complexes observed around 3.1 eV are generated via the (2)Π(u) resonance as precursor with subsequent intracluster relaxation, the contribution around 2.2 eV can be associated with a resonant scattering feature, recently discovered in single CO₂ in the selective excitation of the higher energy member of the well known Fermi dyad [M. Allan, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2001, 87, 0332012]. Formation of (CO₂)(n)(-) in the threshold region involves vibrational Feshbach resonances (VFRs) as previously discovered via an ultrahigh resolution (1 meV) laser photoelectron attachment method [E. Leber, S. Barsotti, I. I. Fabrikant, J. M. Weber, M.-W. Ruf and H. Hotop, Eur. Phys. J. D, 2000, 12, 125]. The complexes (CO₂)(n)O(-) clearly arise from DEA at an individual molecule within the cluster involving both the (2)Π(u) and the core excited resonance. PMID:21491691

  10. High-resolution spectroscopic probes of collisions and half-collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.E.

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program explores the dynamics of gas phase collisions and photodissociation by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Simultaneous state and velocity detection frequently permits a determination of scalar or vector correlations among products. The correlated product distributions are always more informative, and often easier to interpret than the uncorrelated product state distributions. The authors have recently built an apparatus to record transient absorption spectra with 50 nS time resolution and 20 MHz frequency resolution using a single frequency Ti:sapphire laser. The photodissociation of NCCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SCN at 193 nm is discussed.

  11. Collision cross section measurements for biomolecules within a high-resolution FT-ICR cell: theory.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dan; Xin, Yi; Li, Dayu; Xu, Wei

    2015-04-14

    In this study, an energetic hard-sphere ion-neutral collision model was proposed to bridge-link ion collision cross section (CCS) with the image current collected from a high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) cell. By investigating the nonlinear effects induced by high-order electric fields and image charge forces, the energetic hard-sphere collision model was validated through experiments. Suitable application regions for the energetic hard-sphere collision model, as well as for the conventional Langevin and hard-sphere collision models, were also discussed. The energetic hard-sphere collision model was applied in the extraction of ion CCSs from high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectra. Discussions in the present study also apply to FT-Orbitraps and FT-quadrupole ion traps. PMID:25754983

  12. The theory and practice of high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.C. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation have produced the first commercial examples of what can justifiably be called High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopes. The key components of such instruments are a cold field emission gun, a small-gap immersion probe-forming lens, and a clean dry-pumped vacuum. The performance of these microscopes is characterized by several major features including a spatial resolution, in secondary electron mode on solid specimens, which can exceed 1nm on a routine basis; an incident probe current density of the order of 10{sup 6} amps/cm{sup 2}; and the ability to maintain these levels of performance over an accelerating voltage range of from 1 to 30keV. This combination of high resolution, high probe current, low contamination and flexible electron-optical conditions provides many new opportunitites for the application of the SEM to materials science, physics, and the life sciences. 27 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Robust High-Resolution Cloth Using Parallelism, History-Based Collisions and Accurate Friction

    PubMed Central

    Selle, Andrew; Su, Jonathan; Irving, Geoffrey; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we simulate high resolution cloth consisting of up to 2 million triangles which allows us to achieve highly detailed folds and wrinkles. Since the level of detail is also influenced by object collision and self collision, we propose a more accurate model for cloth-object friction. We also propose a robust history-based repulsion/collision framework where repulsions are treated accurately and efficiently on a per time step basis. Distributed memory parallelism is used for both time evolution and collisions and we specifically address Gauss-Seidel ordering of repulsion/collision response. This algorithm is demonstrated by several high-resolution and high-fidelity simulations. PMID:19147895

  14. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy of Cells Using Dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhang, Wei; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2014-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of cells can reveal valuable information about their morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been widely used to provide high-resolution images from the surface of biological samples. However, samples need to be dehydrated and coated with conductive materials for SEM imaging. Besides, immobilizing non-adherent cells during processing and analysis is challenging and requires complex fixation protocols. In this work, we developed a novel dielectrophoresis based microfluidic platform for interfacing non-adherent cells with high-resolution SEM at low vacuum mode. The system enables rapid immobilization and dehydration of samples without deposition of chemical residues over the cell surface. Moreover, it enables the on-chip chemical stimulation and fixation of immobilized cells with minimum dislodgement. These advantages were demonstrated for comparing the morphological changes of non-budding and budding yeast cells following Lyticase treatment. PMID:25089528

  15. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  16. Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, Janos

    2016-05-01

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays.

  17. A miniature high-resolution accelerometer utilizing electron tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockstad, Howard K.; Kenny, T. W.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.; Vanzandt, T. R.; Gabrielson, Thomas B.

    1992-01-01

    New methods have been developed to implement high-resolution position sensors based on electron tunneling. These methods allow miniaturization while utilizing the position sensitivity of electron tunneling to give high resolution. A single-element tunneling accelerometer giving a displacement resolution of 0.002 A/sq rt Hz at 10 Hz, corresponding to an acceleration resolution of 5 x 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz, is described. A new dual-element tunneling structure which overcomes the narrow bandwidth limitations of a single-element structure is described. A sensor with an operating range of 5 Hz to 10 kHz, which can have applications as an acoustic sensor, is discussed. Noise is analyzed for fundamental thermal vibration of the suspended masses and is compared to electronic noise. It is shown that miniature tunnel accelerometers can achieve resolution such that thermal noise in the suspended masses is the dominant cause of the resolution limit. With a proof mass of order 100 mg, noise analysis predicts limiting resolutions approaching 10 exp -9 g/sq rt Hz in a 300 Hz band and 10 exp -8 g/sq rt Hz at 1 kHz.

  18. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. PMID:27511534

  19. Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays. PMID:27157804

  20. Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays. PMID:27157804

  1. High-resolution electron microscopy and its applications.

    PubMed

    Li, F H

    1987-12-01

    A review of research on high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) carried out at the Institute of Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is presented. Apart from the direct observation of crystal and quasicrystal defects for some alloys, oxides, minerals, etc., and the structure determination for some minute crystals, an approximate image-contrast theory named pseudo-weak-phase object approximation (PWPOA), which shows the image contrast change with crystal thickness, is described. Within the framework of PWPOA, the image contrast of lithium ions in the crystal of R-Li2Ti3O7 has been observed. The usefulness of diffraction analysis techniques such as the direct method and Patterson method in HREM is discussed. Image deconvolution and resolution enhancement for weak-phase objects by use of the direct method are illustrated. In addition, preliminary results of image restoration for thick crystals are given. PMID:3505590

  2. [High resolution scanning electron microscopy of isolated outer hair cells].

    PubMed

    Koitschev, A; Müller, H

    1996-11-01

    Isolated hair cell preparations have gained wide acceptance as a model for studying physiological and molecular properties of the sensory cells involved in the hearing process. Ultrastructural details, such as stereocilia links, lateral membrane substructure or synaptic links are of crucial importance for normal sensory transduction. For this reason, we developed a high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) procedure to study the surface of isolated hair cells. Cells were mechanically and/or enzymatically separated, isolated and immobilized on cover slips by alcian blue and fixed by 2% glutardialdehyde or 1% OsO4. After dehydration, preparations were critical point-dried and sputter-coated with gold-palladium (2-4 nm). Up to 5 nm resolution was achieved. Optimal fixation kept the cells in their typical cylindrical forms. Preservation of the stereocilia and the apical plates of the outer hair cells depended strongly on the fixation process. Tip- and side-links were observed only sporadically because of the aggressive preparation procedure. The lateral plasma membranes of the cell bodies showed regular granular structures of 5-7 nm diameter at maximal magnification. The granular structure of the cell membrane seemed to correspond to putative transmembrane proteins believed to generate membrane-based motility. The remnants of the nerve endings and/or supporting cells usually covered the cell base. The preservation of the cells was better when enzymatic isolation was omitted. The technique used allowed for high resolution ultrastructural examination of isolated hair cells and, when combined with immunological labeling, may permit the identification of proteins at a molecular level. PMID:9064297

  3. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) of nanophase ferric oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Iron oxide minerals are the prime candidates for Fe(III) signatures in remotely sensed Martian surface spectra. Magnetic, Mossbauer, and reflectance spectroscopy have been carried out in the laboratory in order to understand the mineralogical nature of Martian analog ferric oxide minerals of submicron or nanometer size range. Out of the iron oxide minerals studied, nanometer sized ferric oxides are promising candidates for possible Martian spectral analogs. 'Nanophase ferric oxide (np-Ox)' is a generic term for ferric oxide/oxihydroxide particles having nanoscale (less than 10 nm) particle dimensions. Ferrihydrite, superparamagnetic particles of hematite, maghemite and goethite, and nanometer sized particles of inherently paramagnetic lepidocrocite are all examples of nanophase ferric oxides. np-Ox particles in general do not give X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns with well defined peaks and would often be classified as X-ray amorphous. Therefore, different np-Oxs preparations should be characterized using a more sensitive technique e.g., high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The purpose of this study is to report the particle size, morphology and crystalline order, of five np-Ox samples by HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction (ED).

  4. High Resolution Measurements and Electronic Structure Calculations of a Diazanaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruet, Sébastien; Goubet, Manuel; Pirali, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been suspected to be the carriers of so called Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs). Most of the results published in the literature report rotationally unresolved spectra of pure carbon as well as heteroatom-containing PAHs species. To date for this class of molecules, the principal source of rotational informations is ruled by microwave (MW) spectroscopy while high resolution measurements reporting rotational structure of the infrared (IR) vibrational bands are very scarce. Recently, some high resolution techniques provided interesting new results to rotationally resolve the IR and far-IR bands of these large carbonated molecules of astrophysical interest. One of them is to use the bright synchrotron radiation as IR continuum source of a high resolution Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometer. We report the very complementary analysis of the [1,6] naphthyridine (a N-bearing PAH) for which we recorded the microwave spectrum at the PhLAM laboratory (Lille) and the high resolution far-infrared spectrum on the AILES beamline at synchrotron facility SOLEIL. MW spectroscopy provided highly accurate rotational constants in the ground state to perform Ground State Combinations Differences (GSCD) allowing the analysis of the two most intense FT-FIR bands in the 50-900 wn range. Moreover, during this presentation the negative value of the inertial defect in the GS of the molecule will be discussed. A. Leger, J. L. Puget, Astron. Astrophys. 137, L5-L8 (1984) L. J. Allamandola et al. Astrophys. J. 290, L25-L28 (1985). Z. Kisiel et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 217, 115 (2003) S. Thorwirth et al. Astrophys. J. 662, 1309 (2007) D. McNaughton et al. J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154305 (2011). S. Albert et al. Faraday Discuss. 150, 71-99 (2011) B. E. Brumfield et al. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 1985-1988 (2012) O. Pirali et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10141 (2013).

  5. High-resolution simulations of the head-on collision of white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Senz, D.; Cabezón, R. M.; Arcones, A.; Relaño, A.; Thielemann, F. K.

    2013-12-01

    The direct impact of white dwarfs has been suggested as a plausible channel for Type Ia supernovae. In spite of their (a priori) rareness, in highly populated globular clusters and in galactic centres, where the amount of white dwarfs is considerable, the rate of violent collisions between two of them might be non-negligible. Even more, there are indications that binary white dwarf systems orbited by a third stellar-mass body have an important chance to induce a clean head-on collision. Therefore, this scenario represents a source of contamination for the supernova light-curve sample that it is used as standard candles in cosmology, and it deserves further investigation. Some groups have conducted numerical simulations of this scenario, but their results show several differences. In this paper, we address some of the possible sources of these differences, presenting the results of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations jointly with a detailed nuclear post-processing of the nuclear abundances, to check the viability of white dwarf collisions to produce significant amounts of 56Ni. To that purpose, we use a 2D axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamic code to obtain a resolution considerably higher than in previous studies. In this work, we also study how the initial mass and nuclear composition affect the results. The gravitational wave emission is also calculated, as this is a unique signature of this kind of events. All calculated models produce a significant amount of 56Ni, ranging from 0.1 to 1.1 M⊙, compatible not only with normal-branch Type Ia supernova but also with the subluminous and super-Chandrasekhar subset. Nevertheless, the distribution mass function of white dwarfs favours collisions among 0.6-0.7 M⊙ objects, leading to subluminous events.

  6. Dose-dependent high-resolution electron ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alfonso, A. J.; Allen, L. J.; Sawada, H.; Kirkland, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    Recent reports of electron ptychography at atomic resolution have ushered in a new era of coherent diffractive imaging in the context of electron microscopy. We report and discuss electron ptychography under variable electron dose conditions, exploring the prospects of an approach which has considerable potential for imaging where low dose is needed.

  7. Extracting biomolecule collision cross sections from the high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectral linewidths.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Chen, Yu; Mao, Lu; Marshall, Alan G; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-14

    It is known that the ion collision cross section (CCS) may be calculated from the linewidth of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectral peak at elevated pressure (e.g., ∼10(-6) Torr). However, the high mass resolution of FT-ICR is sacrificed in those experiments due to high buffer gas pressure. In this study, we describe a linewidth correction method to eliminate the windowing-induced peak broadening effect. Together with the energetic ion-neutral collision model previously developed by our group, this method enables the extraction of CCSs of biomolecules from high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectral linewidths, obtained at a typical operating buffer gas pressure of modern FT-ICR instruments (∼10(-10) Torr). CCS values of peptides including MRFA, angiotensin I, and bradykinin measured by the proposed method agree well with ion mobility measurements, and the unfolding of protein ions (ubiquitin) at higher charge states is also observed. PMID:26314765

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIOXINS AND FURANS BY HIGH RESOLUTION AND ELECTRON CAPTURE MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Known mixtures and unknown atmospheric sample extracts containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/P) were analyzed by both electron impact, high resolution, mass spectrometry (HRMS) and by electron capture, negative ion, low resolution ma...

  9. High resolution threshold photoelectron spectroscopy by electron attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Ajello, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is provided for determining the stable energy levels of a species ion, of an atomic, molecular, or radical type, by application of ionizing energy of a predetermined level, such as through photoionization. The system adds a trapping gas to the gaseous species to provide a technique for detection of the energy levels. The electrons emitted from ionized species are captured by the trapping gas, only if the electrons have substantially zero kinetic energy. If the electrons have nearly zero energy, they are absorbed by the trapping gas to produce negative ions of the trapping gas that can be detected by a mass spectrometer. The applied energies (i.e. light frequencies) at which large quantities of trapping gas ions are detected, are the stable energy levels of the positive ion of the species. SF6 and CFCl3 have the narrowest acceptance bands, so that when they are used as the trapping gas, they bind electrons only when the electrons have very close to zero kinetic energy.

  10. Copper Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes and High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Camille

    A new process of decorating carbon nanotubes with copper was developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite aluminum-nanotubes. The process consists of three stages: oxidation, activation and electroless copper plating on the nanotubes. The oxidation step was required to create chemical function on the nanotubes, essential for the activation step. Then, catalytic nanoparticles of tin-palladium were deposited on the tubes. Finally, during the electroless copper plating, copper particles with a size between 20 and 60 nm were uniformly deposited on the nanotubes surface. The reproducibility of the process was shown by using another type of carbon nanotube. The fabrication of nanocomposites aluminum-nanotubes was tested by aluminum vacuum infiltration. Although the infiltration of carbon nanotubes did not produce the expected results, an interesting electron microscopy sample was discovered during the process development: the activated carbon nanotubes. Secondly, scanning transmitted electron microscopy (STEM) imaging in SEM was analysed. The images were obtained with a new detector on the field emission scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-4700). Various parameters were analysed with the use of two different samples: the activated carbon nanotubes (previously obtained) and gold-palladium nanodeposits. Influences of working distance, accelerating voltage or sample used on the spatial resolution of images obtained with SMART (Scanning Microscope Assessment and Resolution Testing) were analysed. An optimum working distance for the best spatial resolution related to the sample analysed was found for the imaging in STEM mode. Finally, relation between probe size and spatial resolution of backscattered electrons (BSE) images was studied. An image synthesis method was developed to generate the BSE images from backscattered electrons coefficients obtained with CASINO software. Spatial resolution of images was determined using SMART. The analysis shown that using a probe

  11. High resolution fluorescent bio-imaging with electron beam excitation.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru

    2014-11-01

    We have developed electron beam excitation assisted (EXA) optical microscope[1-3], and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.Figure 1(a) shows schematic diagram of the proposed EXA microscope. An electron beam is focused on a luminescent film. A specimen is put on the luminescent film directly. The inset in Fig. 1(a) shows magnified image of the luminescent film and the specimen. Nanometric light source is excited in the luminescent film by the focused electron beam. The nanometric light source illuminates the specimen, and the scattered or transmitted radiation is detected with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The light source is scanned by scanning of the focused electron beam in order to construct on image. Figure 1(b) shows a luminescence image of the cells acquired with the EXA microscope, and Fig. 1(c) shows a phase contrast microscope image. Cells were observed in culture solution without any treatments, such as fixation and drying. The shape of each cell was clearly recognized and some bright spots were observed in cells. We believe that the bright spots indicated with arrows were auto-fluorescence of intracellular granules and light- grey regions were auto-fluorescence of cell membranes. It is clearly demonstrated that the EXA microscope is useful tool for observation of living biological cells in physiological conditions.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i

  12. High-resolution α and electron spectroscopy of Cf24998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Zhu, S.

    2015-04-01

    α -particle spectra of 249Cf have been measured with a double-focusing magnetic spectrometer and with passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. The conversion-electron spectra of 249Cf have been measured with a cooled Si(Li) detector and with a room-temperature PIPS detector. Precise energies of α groups in the decay of 249Cf have been measured with respect to the known energy of 250Cf. In addition, α -electron, α -γ , and γ -γ coincidence measurements were also performed to determine the spin-parity of the previously known 643.64-keV level. From electron intensities, conversion coefficients of transitions in the daughter 245Cm have been determined. The measured L3 conversion coefficients of the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions are found to be in agreement with the theoretical conversion coefficients for pure E 1 multipolarity. On the other hand, the K ,L1+L2 ,M , and N conversion coefficients are approximately twice the theoretical values for pure E 1 transitions. These measurements indicate anomalous E 1 conversion coefficients for the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions, as has been pointed out in earlier measurements. The measured conversion coefficient of the 255.5-keV transition gives an M 1 multipolarity for this transition which establishes a spin-parity of 7/2- and the 7/2-[743 ] single-particle assignment to the 643.64-keV level.

  13. Computer simulation of high resolution transmission electron micrographs: theory and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kilaas, R.

    1985-03-01

    Computer simulation of electron micrographs is an invaluable aid in their proper interpretation and in defining optimum conditions for obtaining images experimentally. Since modern instruments are capable of atomic resolution, simulation techniques employing high precision are required. This thesis makes contributions to four specific areas of this field. First, the validity of a new method for simulating high resolution electron microscope images has been critically examined. Second, three different methods for computing scattering amplitudes in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) have been investigated as to their ability to include upper Laue layer (ULL) interaction. Third, a new method for computing scattering amplitudes in high resolution transmission electron microscopy has been examined. Fourth, the effect of a surface layer of amorphous silicon dioxide on images of crystalline silicon has been investigated for a range of crystal thicknesses varying from zero to 2 1/2 times that of the surface layer.

  14. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Colloidal Nanocrystal Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuk, Jong Min; Park, Jungwon; Ercius, Peter; Kim, Kwanpyo; Hellebusch, Danny J.; Crommie, Michael F.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Zettl, A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-12-12

    We introduce a new type of liquid cell for in-situ electron microscopy based upon entrapment of a liquid film between layers of graphene. We employ this cell to achieve high-resolution imaging of colloidal platinum nanocrystal growth. The ability to directly image and resolve critical steps at atomic resolution provides new insights into nanocrystal coalescence and reshaping during growth.

  15. High resolution simulation of beam dynamics in electron linacs for x-ray free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Ryne, R. D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A. A.; Pogorelov, I. V.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we report on large-scale high resolution simulations of beam dynamics in electron linacs for the next-generation x-ray free electron lasers (FELs). We describe key features of a parallel macroparticle simulation code including three-dimensional (3D) space-charge effects, short-range structure wakefields, coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefields, and treatment of radio-frequency (rf) accelerating cavities using maps obtained from axial field profiles. We present a study of the microbunching instability causing severe electron beam fragmentation in the longitudinal phase space which is a critical issue for future FELs. Using parameters for a proposed FEL linac at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we show that a large number of macroparticles (beyond 100 million) is generally needed to control the numerical macroparticle shot noise and avoid overestimating the microbunching instability. We explore the effect of the longitudinal grid on simulation results. We also study the effect of initial uncorrelated energy spread on the final uncorrelated energy spread of the beam for the FEL linac.

  16. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hall G. E.; Goncharov, V.

    2012-05-29

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  17. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  18. Electron-electron collisions at TESLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Siegfried; Reyzl, Ingrid

    2001-07-01

    Electron-electron collisions at the future TESLA linear collider is a promising complement to e+e- collisions. A critical issue for the physics potential of this option is the achievable luminosity. For e+e- collisions, the pinch effect enhances the luminosity, while due to the repelling forces for e-e- collisions, the luminosity is significantly reduced and is more sensitive to beam separations. This report discusses the e-e- option for TESLA and the expected luminosity.

  19. High-Resolution Analytical Electron Microscopy Characterization of Corrosion and Cracking at Buried Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2001-07-01

    Recent results are presented demonstrating the application of cross-sectional analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) to corrosion and cracking in high-temperature water environments. Microstructural, chemical and crystallographic characterization of buried interfaces at near-atomic resolutions is shown to reveal evidence for unexpected local environments, corrosion reactions and material transformations. Information obtained by a wide variety of high-resolution imaging and analysis methods indicates the processes occurring during crack advance and provides insights into the mechanisms controlling environmental degradation.

  20. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  1. Refinement procedure for the image alignment in high-resolution electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Houben, L; Bar Sadan, M

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution electron tomography from a tilt series of transmission electron microscopy images requires an accurate image alignment procedure in order to maximise the resolution of the tomogram. This is the case in particular for ultra-high resolution where even very small misalignments between individual images can dramatically reduce the fidelity of the resultant reconstruction. A tomographic-reconstruction based and marker-free method is proposed, which uses an iterative optimisation of the tomogram resolution. The method utilises a search algorithm that maximises the contrast in tomogram sub-volumes. Unlike conventional cross-correlation analysis it provides the required correlation over a large tilt angle separation and guarantees a consistent alignment of images for the full range of object tilt angles. An assessment based on experimental reconstructions shows that the marker-free procedure is competitive to the reference of marker-based procedures at lower resolution and yields sub-pixel accuracy even for simulated high-resolution data. PMID:21930024

  2. Toward an image compression algorithm for the high-resolution electronic still camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, Rosalee

    1989-01-01

    Taking pictures with a camera that uses a digital recording medium instead of film has the advantage of recording and transmitting images without the use of a darkroom or a courier. However, high-resolution images contain an enormous amount of information and strain data-storage systems. Image compression will allow multiple images to be stored in the High-Resolution Electronic Still Camera. The camera is under development at Johnson Space Center. Fidelity of the reproduced image and compression speed are of tantamount importance. Lossless compression algorithms are fast and faithfully reproduce the image, but their compression ratios will be unacceptably low due to noise in the front end of the camera. Future efforts will include exploring methods that will reduce the noise in the image and increase the compression ratio.

  3. Exploring semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Rubio, Sergio I; Galindo, Pedro; Gonzalez, Luisa; Ripalda, JM; Varela del Arco, Maria; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    We review in this communication our contribution to the structural characterisation of semiconductor quantum dots and wires by high resolution electron microscopy, both in phase-contrast and Z-contrast modes. We show how these techniques contribute to predict the preferential sites of nucleation of these nanostructures, and also determine the compositional distribution in 1D and 0D nanostructures. The results presented here were produced in the framework of the European Network of Excellence entitled 'Self-Assembled semiconductor Nanostructures for new Devices in photonics and Electronics (SANDiE)'.

  4. High-Resolution Infrared and Electron-Diffraction Studies of Trimethylenecyclopropane ([3]-Radialene)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Corey; Holmes, Joshua; Nibler, Joseph W.; Hedberg, Kenneth; White, James D.; Hedberg, Lise; Weber, Alfons; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-05-16

    Combined high-resolution spectroscopic, electron-diffraction, and quantum theoretical methods are particularly advantageous for small molecules of high symmetry and can yield accurate structures that reveal subtle effects of electron delocalization on molecular bonds. The smallest of the radialene compounds, trimethylenecyclopropane, [3]-radialene, has been synthesized and examined in the gas phase by these methods. The first high-resolution infrared spectra have been obtained for this molecule of D3h symmetry, leading to an accurate B0 rotational constant value of 0.1378629(8) cm-1, within 0.5% of the value obtained from electronic structure calculations (density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/cc-pVTZ). This result is employed in an analysis of electron-diffraction data to obtain the rz bond lengths (in Å): C-H = 1.072 (17), C-C = 1.437 (4), and C=C = 1.330 (4). The analysis does not lead to an accurate value of the HCH angle; however, from comparisons of theoretical and experimental angles for similar compounds, the theoretical prediction of 117.5° is believed to be reliable to within 2°. The effect of electron delocalization in radialene is to reduce the single C-C bond length by 0.07 Å compared to that in cyclopropane.

  5. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9/Jupiter collision observed with a high resolution speckle imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Gravel, D.

    1994-11-15

    During the week of July 16, 1994, comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, broken into 20 plus pieces by tidal forces on its last orbit, smashed into the planet Jupiter, releasing the explosive energy of 500 thousand megatons. A team of observers from LLNL used the LLNL Speckle Imaging Camera mounted on the University of California`s Lick Observatory 3 Meter Telescope to capture continuous sequences of planet images during the comet encounter. Post processing with the bispectral phase reconstruction algorithm improves the resolution by removing much of the blurring due to atmospheric turbulence. High resolution images of the planet surface showing the aftermath of the impact are probably the best that were obtained from any ground-based telescope. We have been looking at the regions of the fragment impacts to try to discern any dynamic behavior of the spots left on Jupiter`s cloud tops. Such information can lead to conclusions about the nature of the comet and of Jupiter`s atmosphere. So far, the Hubble Space Telescope has observed expanding waves from the G impact whose mechanism is enigmatic since they appear to be too slow to be sound waves and too fast to be gravity waves, given the present knowledge of Jupiter`s atmosphere. Some of our data on the G and L impact region complements the Hubble observations but, so far, is inconclusive about spot dynamics.

  6. High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Erni, R.; Browning, N.

    2005-01-01

    A 200 keV FEI TF20 XT monochromated (scanning) transmission electron microscope funded by NASA's SRLIDAP program is undergoing installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Instrument specifications in STEM mode are Cs =1.0 mm, Cc =1.2 mm, image resolution =0.18 nm, and in TEM mode Cs =1.3 mm, Cc =1.3 mm, information limit =0.14 nm. Key features of the instrument are a voltage-stabilized high tension (HT) supply, a monochromator, a high-resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer/energy filter, a high-resolution annular darkfield detector, and a solid-state x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. The high-tension tank contains additional sections for 60Hz and high frequency filtering, resulting in an operating voltage of 200 kV plus or minus 0.005V, a greater than 10-fold improvement over earlier systems. The monochromator is a single Wien filter design. The energy filter is a Gatan model 866 Tridiem-ERS high resolution GIF spec d for less than or equal to 0.15 eV energy resolution with 29 pA of current in a 2 nm diameter probe. 0.13 eV has already been achieved during early installation. The x-ray detector (EDAX/Genesis 4000) has a take-off angle of 20 degrees, an active area of 30 square millimeters, and a solid angle of 0.3 steradians. The higher solid angle is possible because the objective pole-piece allows the detector to be positioned as close as 9.47 mm from the specimen. The voltage-stabilized HT supply, monochromator and GIF enable high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) with energy resolution comparable to synchrotron XANES, but with approximately 100X better spatial resolution. The region between 0 and 100 eV is called the low-loss or valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) region where features due to collective plasma oscillations and single electron transitions of valence electrons are observed. Most of the low-loss VEELS features we are detecting are being observed for the first time in IDPs. A major focus of

  7. Live correlative light-electron microscopy to observe molecular dynamics in high resolution.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shouhei; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2016-08-01

    Fluorescence microscopy (FM) is a powerful tool for observing specific molecular components in living cells, but its spatial resolution is relatively low. In contrast, electron microscopy (EM) provides high-resolution information about cellular structures, but it cannot provide temporal information in living cells. To achieve molecular selectivity in imaging at high resolution, a method combining EM imaging with live-cell fluorescence imaging, known as live correlative light-EM (CLEM), has been developed. In this method, living cells are first observed by FM, fixed in situ during the live observation and then subjected to EM observation. Various fluorescence techniques and tools can be applied for FM, resulting in the generation of various modified methods that are useful for understanding cellular structure in high resolution. Here, we review the methods of CLEM and live-cell imaging associated with CLEM (live CLEM). Such methods can greatly advance the understanding of the function of cellular structures on a molecular level, and thus are useful for medical fields as well as for basic biology. PMID:27385786

  8. Crack tip shielding observed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Adhika, Damar Rastri; Tanaka, Masaki; Daio, Takeshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The dislocation shielding field at a crack tip was experimentally proven at the atomic scale by measuring the local strain in front of the crack tip using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and geometric phase analysis (GPA). Single crystalline (110) silicon wafers were employed. Cracks were introduced using a Vickers indenter at room temperature. The crack tip region was observed using HRTEM followed by strain measurements using GPA. The measured strain field at the crack tip was compressive owing to dislocation shielding, which is in good agreement with the strain field calculated from elastic theory. PMID:26115957

  9. High Resolution UV Emission Spectroscopy of Molecules Excited by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.; Beegle, L.; Ciocca, M.; Dziczek, D.; Kanik, I.; Noren, C.; Jonin, C.; Hansen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Photodissociation via discrete line absorption into predissociating Rydberg and valence states is the dominant destruction mechanism of CO and other molecules in the interstellar medium and molecular clouds. Accurate values for the rovibronic oscillator strengths of these transitions and predissociation yields of the excited states are required for input into the photochemical models that attempt to reproduce observed abundances. We report here on our latest experimental results of the electron collisional properties of CO and N2 obtained using the 3-meter high resolution single-scattering spectroscopic facility at JPL.

  10. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    1996-01-01

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  11. High resolution electron microscopy of GaAs capped GaSb nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Molina Rubio, Sergio I; Beltran, AM; Ben, Teresa; Galindo, P.L.; Taboada, Alfonso G; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2012-01-01

    We show in this work that GaAs capping of 2 ML of GaSb grown by molecular beam epitaxy results in the formation of very small (with heights of about 1 nm) GaAsxSb1 x nanostructures surrounded by a GaAs rich layer. This conclusion is obtained by analyzing the morphology of the GaAsxSb1 x nanostructures by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy in Z-contrast mode. This result shows that a significant fraction of the Sb atoms must segregate along the growth direction during the GaAs capping process.

  12. Soot Nanostructure: Using Fringe Analysis Software on High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Carbon Soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Using high resolution transmission electron images of carbon nanotubes and carbon particles, we are able to use image analysis program to determine several carbon fringe properties, including length, separation, curvature and orientation. Results are shown in the form of histograms for each of those quantities. The combination of those measurements can give a better indication of the graphic structure within nanotubes and particles of carbon and can distinguish carbons based upon fringe properties. Carbon with longer, straighter and closer spaced fringes are considered graphite, while amorphous carbon contain shorter, less structured fringes.

  13. Quantitative high resolution electron microscopy of III-V compounds: A fuzzy logic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillebrand, R.; Hofmeister, H.; Werner, P.; Gösele, U.

    1995-09-01

    In the study of interdiffusion phenomena in layered structures of III-V compounds by high resolution electron microscopy, contrast features in the micrographs can be correlated with the variation of the chemical composition of the crystals. For quantitative interpretation of the micrographs a fuzzy logic approach is adapted to extract chemical information. The linguistic variable ``similarity of images'' is derived from the standard deviation (SD) of their difference patterns, which proved to be an appropriate measure. The approach developed is used to analyze simulated contrast tableaus of GaAs/P (As/P variation) and experimental micrographs of Al/GaAs (Al/Ga variation).

  14. High-resolution infrared detector and its electronic unit for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Montmessin, F.; Korablev, O.; Trokhimovsky, A.; Poiet, G.; Bel, J.-B.

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution infrared detector is used extensively for military and civilian purposes. Military applications include target acquisition, surveillance, night vision, and tracking. Civilian applications include, among others, scientific observations. For our space systems, we want to use the products developed by SOFRADIR Company. Thus, we have developed a space electronic unit that is used to control the high-resolution SCORPIO-MW infrared detector, which has a format of 640×512 pixels with 15μm×15μm pixel pitch. The detector within microelectronics based on infrared mid-wave (MW) complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) uses a micro-cooler in order to keep its temperature around 100 K. The standard wavelength range (3 to 5μm) is adapted to the 2.2 to 4.3μm wavelength range thanks to adaptation of the optical interface of the detector and with an antireflection coating. With our electronic system, we can acquire 3 images per second. To increase the signal to noise ratio, we have the opportunity to make a summation of 15 frames per image. Through this article, we will describe the space electronic system that we have developed in order to achieve space observations (e.g. Atmospheric Chemistry Suite package for ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter).

  15. Computer Simulation of High Resolution Transmission Electron Micrographs: Theory and Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilaas, Roar

    Computer simulation of electron micrographs is an invaluable aid in their proper interpretation and in defining optimum conditions for obtaining images experimentally. Since modern instruments are capable of atomic resolution, simulation techniques employing high precision are required. This thesis makes contributions to four specific areas of this field. First, the validity of a new method for simulating high resolution electron microscope images has been critically examined. This method, which has been termed the real space method (RSP) since the entire calculation is performed without any Fourier transforms, offers a considerable reduction in computing time over the conventional multislice approach when identical sampling conditions are employed. However, for the same level of accuracy the real space method requires more sampling points and more computing time than the conventional multislice method. These characteristics are illustrated with calculated results using both methods to identify practical limitations. Second, three different methods for computing scattering amplitudes in High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) have been investigated as to their ability to include upper Laue layer (ULL) interaction. The conventional first order multislice method using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and the second order multislice (SOM) method are shown to yield calculated intensities of first order Laue reflections with the use of slice thicknesses smaller than the crystal periodicity along the incident electron beam direction. It is argued that the calculated intensities of ULL reflections approach the correct values in the limiting case of vanishing slice thickness and electron wavelength. The third method, the improved phasegrating method (IPG) does also in principle include ULL effects, but is severely limited as to choice of slice thickness and sampling interval. A practical way to use slice thicknesses less than the crystal periodicity along the

  16. High-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM).

    PubMed

    Kohashi, Teruo; Konoto, Makoto; Koike, Kazuyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have developed spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) with a 5-nm resolution. The secondary electron optics is very important, as it needs to transfer a sufficient number of secondary electrons to the spin polarimeter, due to the low efficiency of the polarimeter. The optics was designed using a three-dimensional (3D) simulation program of the secondary electron trajectories, and it achieves highly efficient collection and transport of the secondary electrons even though the distance between the sample and the objective lens exit of the electron gun remains short. Moreover, the designed optics enables us to obtain clear SEM images in the spin SEM measurement and to precisely adjust the probe beam shape. These functions lead to images with high spatial resolution and sufficient signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. This optics has been installed in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) spin SEM chamber with a Schottky-type electron gun for the probe electron beam. We observed recorded bits on a perpendicular magnetic recording medium and visualized small irregularities in the bit shapes around the track edges and bit boundaries. The high resolution of 5 nm was demonstrated by observing the smallest domain composed by a single grain in the recording medium. PMID:19840986

  17. Random vs realistic amorphous carbon models for high resolution microscopy and electron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ricolleau, C. Alloyeau, D.; Le Bouar, Y.; Amara, H.; Landon-Cardinal, O.

    2013-12-07

    Amorphous carbon and amorphous materials in general are of particular importance for high resolution electron microscopy, either for bulk materials, generally covered with an amorphous layer when prepared by ion milling techniques, or for nanoscale objects deposited on amorphous substrates. In order to quantify the information of the high resolution images at the atomic scale, a structural modeling of the sample is necessary prior to the calculation of the electron wave function propagation. It is thus essential to be able to reproduce the carbon structure as close as possible to the real one. The approach we propose here is to simulate a realistic carbon from an energetic model based on the tight-binding approximation in order to reproduce the important structural properties of amorphous carbon. At first, we compare this carbon with the carbon obtained by randomly generating the carbon atom positions. In both cases, we discuss the limit thickness of the phase object approximation. In a second step, we show the influence of both carbons models on (i) the contrast of Cu, Ag, and Au single atoms deposited on carbon and (ii) the determination of the long-range order parameter in CoPt bimetallic nanoalloys.

  18. Application of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy to the study of aragonite crystallography and diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Haywick, D.W. . Geology Dept.); Ness, S.E. . Instrumentation Centre)

    1993-03-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is a valuable technique by which to study the ultrastructure of various organic and inorganic compounds. Some biogeological minerals, including skeletal aragonite, have proven to be relatively unstable under an electron beam. Nevertheless, these compounds can be examined by HRTEM provided that minimal exposure techniques are employed. The authors have successfully applied HRTEM to examine diagenetically altered Plio-Pleistocene aragonitic faunas from New Zealand. To date, they have obtained high-resolution images of lattice-fringes with a spacing of 3.7 [angstrom] using a defocused, low-intensity electron beam. At least two of the samples imaged revealed clusters of lattice planes which together, form an interlocking mosaic of variably oriented micro-domains between 5 and 100 nm across. These micro-domains suggest that at least some of the aragonite is heterogeneous at a nm-scale; however, the individual micro-domains, when averaged together, generate single crystal electron diffraction patterns typical of well-ordered aragonite. The origin of the micro-domains is presently unclear. They may be an artifact of diagenetic alteration of an ultrastructurally homogeneous crystal. It is more likely, however, that the micro-domains were produced during aragonite precipitation. If this scenario is correct, it could have major implications for carbonate diagenesis, particularly if micro-domains prove to be ubiquitous within biogenic carbonate minerals. Inter-domains boundaries would be zones of comparative weakness and may provide nucleation points for diagenetic alteration. The intent now is to apply HRTEM in conjunction with other analytical techniques (e.g. x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, stable isotope geochemistry) to characterize crystallographic changes during progressive diagenesis of aragonite, especially the aragonite-calcite transformation.

  19. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  20. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  1. Ultrastable gold substrates: Properties of a support for high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy of biological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurements show how the choice of support material and geometry can reduce specimen movement by more than an order of magnitude during low-dose imaging. We provide methods for fabrication of all-gold supports and preparation of vitrified specimens. We also analyse illumination geometry for optimal collection of high resolution, low-dose data. Together, the support structures and methods herein can improve the resolution and quality of images from any electron cryomicroscope. PMID:26592474

  2. A digitally configurable measurement platform using audio cards for high-resolution electronic transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopman, D. B.; Bedau, D.; Kent, A. D.

    2012-05-01

    We report on a software-defined digitally configurable measurement platform for determining electronic transport properties in nanostructures with small readout signals. By using a high-resolution audio analog-to-digital/digital-to-analog converter in a digitally compensated bridge configuration we significantly increase the measurement speed compared to established techniques and simultaneously acquire large and small signal characteristics. We characterize the performance (16 bit resolution, 100 dB dynamic range at 192 kS/s) and demonstrate the application of this measurement platform for studying the transport properties of spin-valve nanopillars, a two-terminal device that exhibits giant magnetoresistance and whose resistance can be switched between two levels by applied magnetic fields and by currents applied by the audio card. The high resolution and fast sampling capability permits rapid acquisition of deep statistics on the switching of a spin-valve nanopillar and reduces the time to acquire the basic properties of the device - a state-diagram showing the magnetic configurations as function of applied current and magnetic field - by orders of magnitude.

  3. High Resolution Electron Microscopy Of Dislocation Ribbons In A CMSX-4 Superalloy single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Vorontsov, V. A.; Kovarik, Libor; Mills, M. J.; Rae, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) has been used to study the structure of dislocations in single crystal superalloy samples that have been subjected to conditions that favour the primary creep regime. The study has revealed the detailed structure of extended a 2 h112i dislocations as they shear the 0 precipitates during creep. These dislocations dissociate in a manner that is consistent with the PFMD predictions made and also suggests the importance of the reordering process during their movement. The shearing done by the ah112i dislocationswas also found to distort the/ 0 interface, changing its appearance from linear to a 'saw tooth' pattern. Another important observation was the segregation of alloying element with high atomic mass to the stacking faults to reduce their energies during shear. Numerous a 2 h110i dissociated dislocations were also observed in the channels of the superalloy. The high resolution provided by the STEM imaging enables one to study the high energy faults that are usually di*cult to observe in conventional weak-beam TEM, such as CISF and CESF-1 in the 0 andthe ISF in the, and to make estimates of their energies. Key

  4. A digitally configurable measurement platform using audio cards for high-resolution electronic transport studies.

    PubMed

    Gopman, D B; Bedau, D; Kent, A D

    2012-05-01

    We report on a software-defined digitally configurable measurement platform for determining electronic transport properties in nanostructures with small readout signals. By using a high-resolution audio analog-to-digital/digital-to-analog converter in a digitally compensated bridge configuration we significantly increase the measurement speed compared to established techniques and simultaneously acquire large and small signal characteristics. We characterize the performance (16 bit resolution, 100 dB dynamic range at 192 kS/s) and demonstrate the application of this measurement platform for studying the transport properties of spin-valve nanopillars, a two-terminal device that exhibits giant magnetoresistance and whose resistance can be switched between two levels by applied magnetic fields and by currents applied by the audio card. The high resolution and fast sampling capability permits rapid acquisition of deep statistics on the switching of a spin-valve nanopillar and reduces the time to acquire the basic properties of the device - a state-diagram showing the magnetic configurations as function of applied current and magnetic field - by orders of magnitude. PMID:22667635

  5. Detecting non-maxwellian electron velocity distributions at JET by high resolution Thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Beausang, K V; Prunty, S L; Scannell, R; Beurskens, M N; Walsh, M J; de la Luna, E

    2011-03-01

    The present work is motivated by a long standing discrepancy between the electron temperature measurements of Thomson scattering (TS) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics for plasmas with strong auxiliary heating observed at both JET and TFTR above 6–7 keV, where in some cases the ECE electron temperature measurements can be 15%–20% higher than the TS measurements. Recent analysis based on ECE results at JET has shown evidence of distortions to the Maxwellian electron velocity distribution and a correlation with the TS and ECE discrepancies has been suggested. In this paper, a technique to determine the presence of non-Maxwellian behavior using TS diagnostics is outlined. The difficulties and limitations of modern TS system designs to determine the electron velocity distribution are also discussed. It is demonstrated that small deviations such as those suggested by previous ECE analysis could be potentially detected, depending on the spectral layout of the TS polychromators. The spectral layout of the JET high resolution Thomson scattering system is such that it could be used to determine these deviations between 1 and 6 keV, and the results presented here indicate that no evidence of non-Maxwellian behavior is observed in this range. In this paper, a modification to the current polychromator design is proposed, allowing non-Maxwellian distortions to be detected up to at least 10 keV. PMID:21585113

  6. Detecting non-Maxwellian electron velocity distributions at JET by high resolution Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Beausang, K. V.; Prunty, S. L.; Scannell, R.; Beurskens, M. N.; Walsh, M. J.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2011-03-15

    The present work is motivated by a long standing discrepancy between the electron temperature measurements of Thomson scattering (TS) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics for plasmas with strong auxiliary heating observed at both JET and TFTR above 6-7 keV, where in some cases the ECE electron temperature measurements can be 15%-20% higher than the TS measurements. Recent analysis based on ECE results at JET has shown evidence of distortions to the Maxwellian electron velocity distribution and a correlation with the TS and ECE discrepancies has been suggested. In this paper, a technique to determine the presence of non-Maxwellian behavior using TS diagnostics is outlined. The difficulties and limitations of modern TS system designs to determine the electron velocity distribution are also discussed. It is demonstrated that small deviations such as those suggested by previous ECE analysis could be potentially detected, depending on the spectral layout of the TS polychromators. The spectral layout of the JET high resolution Thomson scattering system is such that it could be used to determine these deviations between 1 and 6 keV, and the results presented here indicate that no evidence of non-Maxwellian behavior is observed in this range. In this paper, a modification to the current polychromator design is proposed, allowing non-Maxwellian distortions to be detected up to at least 10 keV.

  7. High resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy of ferritin in thin window liquid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Canhui; Qiao, Qiao; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Klie, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has seen a dramatic increase in interest in recent years with the commercial development of liquid and gas stages. High-resolution TEM characterization of samples in a liquid environment remains limited by radiation damage and loss of resolution due to the thick window-layers required by the in-situ stages. We introduce thin-window static-liquid cells that enable sample imaging with atomic resolution and electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy with 1.3 nm resolution. Using this approach, atomic and electronic structures of biological samples such as ferritin is studied via in-situ transmission electron microscopy experiments. Ferritin in solution is encapsulated using the static liquid cells with reduced window thickness. The integrity of the thin window liquid cell is maintained by controlling the electron dose rate. Radiation damage of samples, such as liquid water and protein, is quantitatively studied to allow precision control of radiation damage level within the liquid cells. Biochemical reactions, such as valence change of the iron in a functioning ferritin, is observed and will be quantified. Relevant biochemical activity: the release and uptake of Fe atoms through the channels of ferritin protein shell is also imaged at atomic resolution. This work is funded by Michigan Technological University. The UIC JEOL JEM-ARM200CF is supported by an MRI-R2 grant from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-0959470).

  8. A High-resolution 3D Geodynamical Model of the Present-day India-Asia Collision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaus, B.; Baumann, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present a high-resolution, 3D geodynamic model of the present-day India-Asia collision system. The model is separated into multiple tectonic blocks, for which we estimate the first order rheological properties and the impact on the dynamics of the collision system. This is done by performing systematic simulations with different rheologies to minimize the misfit to observational constraints such as the GPS-velocity field. The simulations are performed with the parallel staggered grid FD code LaMEM using a numerical resolution of at least 512x512x256 cells to resolve dynamically important shear zones reasonably well. A fundamental part of this study is the reconstruction of the 3D present-day geometry of Tibet and the adjacent regions. Our interpretations of crust and mantle lithosphere geometry are jointly based on a globally available shear wave tomography (Schaeffer and Lebedev, 2013) and the Crust 1.0 model (Laske et al. http://igppweb.ucsd.edu/~gabi/crust1.html). We regionally refined and modified our interpretations based on seismicity distributions and focal mechanisms and incorporated regional receiver function studies to improve the accuracy of the Moho in particular. Results suggest that we can identify at least one "best-fit" solution in terms of rheological model properties that reproduces the observed velocity field reasonably well, including the strong rotation of the GPS velocity around the eastern syntax of the Himalaya. We also present model co-variances to illustrate the trade-offs between the rheological model parameters, their respective uncertainties, and the model fit. Schaeffer, A.J., Lebedev, S., 2013. Global shear speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophysical Journal International 194, 417-449. doi:10.1093/gji/ggt095

  9. High resolution transmission electron microscopic in-situ observations of plastic deformation of compressed nanocrystalline gold

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Sheng; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-09-14

    Nanocrystalline (nc) metals possess extremely high strength, while their capability to deform plastically has been debated for decades. Low ductility has hitherto been considered an intrinsic behavior for most nc metals, due to the lack of five independent slip systems actively operating during deformation in each nanograin. Here we report in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations of deformation process of nc gold under compression, showing the excellent ductility of individual and aggregate nanograins. Compression causes permanent change in the profile of individual nanograins, which is mediated by dislocation slip and grain rotation. The high rate of grain boundary sliding and large extent of widely exited grain rotation may meet the boundary compatibility requirements during plastic deformation. The in situ HRTEM observations suggest that nc gold is not intrinsically brittle under compressive loading.

  10. Very high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer for an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Foerster, E.; Mahiri, J. |; Widmann, K.

    1997-01-01

    A very high resolution vacuum flat-crystal spectrometer was constructed for analyzing soft x rays emitted by an electron beam ion trap. The spectrometer was designed to operate at large Bragg angles ({theta}{le}85{degree}) in order to maximize the spectral dispersion and thus the resolving power. Using a quartz (100) crystal at a Bragg angle of 82{degree}, a measurement of the 2p{sub 1/2}, 2p{sub 3/2}{r_arrow}1s{sub 1/2} transitions in hydrogenic Mg{sup 11+} situated near 8.42 {Angstrom} was made. The nominal resolving power of the instrument was better than 30000 allowing us to infer the ion temperature (246{plus_minus}20 eV) from the observed line widths. A comparison with an existing flat-crystal spectrometer demonstrates the great improvement in resolving power achieved. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. High-resolution electron microscopy in spin pumping NiFe/Pt interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ley Domínguez, D. Sáenz-Hernández, R. J.; Faudoa Arzate, A.; Arteaga Duran, A. I.; Ornelas Gutiérrez, C. E.; Solís Canto, O.; Botello-Zubiate, M. E.; Rivera-Gómez, F. J.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A.; Azevedo, A.; Silva, G. L. da; Rezende, S. M.

    2015-05-07

    In order to understand the effect of the interface on the spin pumping and magnetic proximity effects, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) were used to analyze Py/Pt bilayer and Pt/Py/Pt trilayer systems. The samples were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature on Si (001) substrates. The Py layer thickness was fixed at 12 nm in all the samples and the Pt thickness was varied in a range of 0–23 nm. A diffusion zone of approximately 8 nm was found in the Py/Pt interfaces and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The FMR measurements show an increase in the linewidth and a shift in the ferromagnetic resonance field, which reach saturation.

  12. Nano features of Al/Au ultrasonic bond interface observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Hongjun; Li Mingyu Kim, Jong-Myung; Kim, Dae-Won; Wang Chunqing

    2008-10-15

    Nano-scale interfacial details of ultrasonic AlSi1 wire wedge bonding to a Au/Ni/Cu pad were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The intermetallic phase Au{sub 8}Al{sub 3} formed locally due to diffusion and reaction activated by ultrasound at the Al/Au bond interface. Multilayer sub-interfaces roughly parallel to the wire/pad interface were observed among this phase, and interdiffusional features near the Au pad resembled interference patterns, alternately dark and bright bars. Solid-state diffusion theory cannot be used to explain why such a thick compound formed within milliseconds at room temperature. The major formation of metallurgical bonds was attributed to ultrasonic cyclic vibration.

  13. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy with an electrostatic Zach phase plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettler, S.; Dries, M.; Zeelen, J.; Oster, M.; Schröder, R. R.; Gerthsen, D.

    2016-05-01

    A new method to control lattice-fringe contrast in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images by the implementation of a physical phase plate (PP) is proposed. PPs are commonly used in analogy to Zernike PPs in light microscopy to enhance the phase contrast of weak-phase objects with nm-sized features, which often occur in life science applications. Such objects otherwise require strong defocusing, which leads to a degradation of the instrumental resolution and impedes intuitive image interpretation. The successful application of an electrostatic Zach PP in HRTEM is demonstrated by the investigation of single crystalline Si and Ge samples. The influence of the Zach PP on the image formation process is assessed by analyzing the amplitudes of (111) reflections in power spectra which show a cosine-type dependence on the induced phase shift under certain conditions as predicted by theory.

  14. Time-resolved high-resolution electron microscopy of structural stability in MgO clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kizuka, T.; Tanaka, N.

    1996-12-31

    Structure and stability of atomic clusters have been studied by time-resolved high-resolution electron microscopy (TRHREM). Typical examples are observations of structural fluctuation in gold (Au) clusters supported on silicon oxide films, graphtized carbon films and magnesium oxide (MgO) films. All the observations have been performed on the clusters consisted of single metal element. Structural stability of ceramics clusters, such as metal-oxide, metal-nitride and metal-carbide clusters, has not been observed by TRHREM although the clusters show anomalous structural and functional properties concerning to solid state physics and materials science. In the present study, the behavior of ceramic, magnesium oxide (MgO) clusters is for the first time observed by TRHREM at 1/60 s time resolution and at atomic resolution down to 0.2 nm.

  15. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of two stony meteorites - Murchison and Kenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, I. D. R.; Buseck, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Matrix material from the Murchison C2(M) carbonaceous chondrite and less than micrometer-size pyroxene inclusions in an olivine from the Kenna ureilite have been characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. A diversity of textures and mineral associations, including serpentine-type and brucite-type mixed-layering, occur in the Murchison matrix. Such mixed layer structures are new types of layer silicate. Their presence in the matrix may prove to be genetically significant. The Kenna inclusions, formed at the olivine grain margins, are of two types: (1) a disordered orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene which may have inverted from protopyroxene and (2) a pigeonite with narrow anti-phase domains (80 A to 250 A) and boundaries parallel to (100).

  16. High-resolution electron microscopy in spin pumping NiFe/Pt interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ley Domínguez, D.; Sáenz-Hernández, R. J.; Faudoa Arzate, A.; Arteaga Duran, A. I.; Ornelas Gutiérrez, C. E.; Solís Canto, O.; Botello-Zubiate, M. E.; Rivera-Gómez, F. J.; Azevedo, A.; da Silva, G. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    In order to understand the effect of the interface on the spin pumping and magnetic proximity effects, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) were used to analyze Py/Pt bilayer and Pt/Py/Pt trilayer systems. The samples were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature on Si (001) substrates. The Py layer thickness was fixed at 12 nm in all the samples and the Pt thickness was varied in a range of 0-23 nm. A diffusion zone of approximately 8 nm was found in the Py/Pt interfaces and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The FMR measurements show an increase in the linewidth and a shift in the ferromagnetic resonance field, which reach saturation.

  17. Oxidation of diamond films by atomic oxygen: High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpilman, Z.; Gouzman, I.; Grossman, E.; Akhvlediani, R.; Hoffman, A.

    2007-12-01

    Diamond surface oxidation by atomic oxygen, annealing up to ˜700°C, and in situ exposure to thermally activated hydrogen were studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). After atomic oxygen (AO) exposure, HREELS revealed peaks associated with CHx groups, carbonyl, ether, and peroxide-type species and strong quenching of the diamond optical phonon and its overtones. Upon annealing of the oxidized surfaces, the diamond optical phonon overtones at 300 and 450meV emerge and carbonyl and peroxide species gradually desorb. The diamond surface was not completely regenerated after annealing to ˜700°C and in situ exposure to thermally activated hydrogen, probably due to the irreversible deterioration of the surface by AO.

  18. Installation of electric field electron beam blanker in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, Misa; Kimura, Yoshihide; Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Otsuka, Masayuki; Takai, Yoshizo

    2006-11-15

    We have newly installed an electric field electron beam blanker in a transmission electron microscopy, which chops an electron beam very quickly without the effect of hysteresis. The electric field, which is generated by the electron beam blanker, deflects the electron beam, and the electron beam is intercepted by an aperture. The response time of the beam blanker is 50 {mu}s. Therefore, a very short pulsed electron beam enables a charge-coupled device camera to directly expose an electron beam spot or diffraction pattern. Moreover, we measured the response of a deflector coil, which is usually used as an electron beam blanker, using our electron beam blanker. Our beam blanker will become a key component in a computer-assisted minimal dose system, which enables us to reduce the electron dose of the sample.

  19. Analysis of high quality monatomic chromium films used in biological high resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Apkarian, R P

    1994-01-01

    During the recent employment of field emission (FE) in-lens scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), refractory metal deposition technology has co-evolved to provide enhanced contrast of 1-10 nm hydrocarbon based biological structures imaged at high magnifications (> 200,000 times). Pioneer development employing the Penning sputter system in a high vacuum chamber proved that imaging of chromium (Cr) coated biological specimens contained enriched secondary electron (SE)-(I) contrasts. Single nanometer size fibrillar and particulate ectodomains within the context of complex biological membranes were accurately imaged without significant enlargement using the high resolution SE-I mode (HRSEM). This paper reports the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) testing of ultrathin (0.5-2.0 nm) Cr films deposited by planar magnetron sputter coating (PMSC). Essential parameters necessary to reproduce quality sputtered films of refractory metals used in HRSEM studies were described for the vacuum system and target operation conditions (current, voltage, and target distance). HRSEM imaging of biological specimens is presented to assess contrast attained from ultrathin fine grain Cr films deposited by PMSC. High magnification images were recorded to illustrate high quality contrasts attainable by HRSEM at low (1-5 kV) and high (10-30 kV) voltages. Dispersed molecules on formvar coated grids were sputter coated with a 1 nm thick Cr film before employing scanning transmission (STEM)/SEM modes of the FESEM to establish non-decorative image accuracy in the transmitted electron mode. PMID:7701300

  20. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution. PMID:26329206

  1. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  2. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated cells.

    PubMed

    Walther, P; Chen, Y; Pech, L L; Pawley, J B

    1992-11-01

    Cryo-fixed yeast Paramecia and sea urchin embryos were investigated with an in-lens type field-emission SEM using a cold stage. The goal was to further develop and investigate the processing of frozen samples for the low-temperature scanning electron microscope (LTSEM). Uncoated frozen-hydrated samples were imaged with the low-voltage backscattered electron signal (BSE). Resolution and contrast were sufficient to visualize cross-fractured membranes, nuclear pores and small vesicles in the cytoplasm. It is assumed that the resolution of this approach is limited by the extraction depth of the BSE which depends upon the accelerating voltage of the primary beam (V0). In this study, the lowest possible V0 was 2.6 kV because below this value the sensitivity of the BSE detector is insufficient. It is concluded that the resolution of the uncoated specimen could be improved if equipment were available for high-resolution BSE imaging at 0.5-2 kV. Higher resolution was obtained with platinum cryo-coated samples, on which intramembranous particles were easily imaged. These images even show the ring-like appearance of the hexagonally arranged intramembranous particles known from high-resolution replica studies. On fully hydrated samples at high magnification, the observation time for a particular area is limited by mass loss caused by electron irradiation. Other potential sources of artefacts are the deposition of water vapour contamination and shrinkage caused by the sublimation of ice. Imaging of partially dehydrated (partially freeze-dried) samples, e.g. high-pressure frozen Paramecium and sea urchin embryos, will probably become the main application in cell biology. In spite of possible shrinkage problems, this approach has a number of advantages compared with any other electron microscopy preparation method: no chemical fixation is necessary, eliminating this source of artefacts; due to partial removal of the water additional structures in the cytoplasm can be investigated

  3. Electron-beam-enhanced oxidation processes in II-VI compound semiconductors observed by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Thangaraj, N.; Wessels, B.W.

    1990-02-01

    Enhanced oxidation of ZnS and ZnSe semiconductor surfaces has been observed in situ during electron irradiation in a high-resolution electron microscope. The phase present at the surface region has been identified as ZnO by optical diffractogram and selected area electron diffraction techniques. For ZnS oxidation, both hexagonal ZnO having a random orientation and cubic ZnO in perfect epitaxial relationship with the bulk ZnS were observed. Enhanced oxidation of ZnSe to ZnO has also been observed under electron beam irradiation. However, only the hexagonal form was observed. The oxidation rates for both ZnS and ZnSe depended on electron flux but was independent of orientation. A model in which the oxidation process is limited by diffusion through the oxide film is proposed. By electron irradiation the diffusion rate is enhanced presumably by a nonthermal process.

  4. Transient Thermometry and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Filamentary Resistive Switches.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jonghan; Sharma, Abhishek A; Chen, Chao-Yang; Fantini, Andrea; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Herzing, Andrew A; Bain, James A; Picard, Yoosuf N; Skowronski, Marek

    2016-08-10

    We present data on the filament size and temperature distribution in Hf0.82Al0.18Ox-based Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices obtained by transient thermometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The thermometry shows that the temperature of the nonvolatile conducting filament can reach temperatures as high as 1600 K at the onset of RESET at voltage of 0.8 V and power of 40 μW. The size of the filament was estimated at about 1 nm in diameter. Hot filament increases the temperature of the surrounding high resistivity oxide, causing it to conduct and carry a significant fraction of the total current. The current spreading results in slowing down the filament temperature increase at higher power. The results of thermometry have been corroborated by HRTEM analysis of the as-fabricated and switched RRAM devices. The functional HfAlOx layer in as-fabricated devices is amorphous. In devices that were switched, we detected a small crystalline region of 10-15 nm in size. The crystallization temperature of the HfAlOx was determined to be 850 K in an independent annealing experiment. The size of the crystalline region agrees with thermal modeling based on the thermometry data. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coordinated with electron energy loss spectroscopy could not detect changes in the chemical makeup of the filament. PMID:27351065

  5. Earle K. Plyler Prize Talk: Using High Resolution Electronic Spectroscopy to Probe Reactive Chemical Intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Terry

    2009-03-01

    Gas phase chemical reactions, such as occur in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, plasma processing, etc. are of great importance to our economy and society. These reactions are typically very complex involving up to 1000's of elementary steps with a corresponding number of reactive chemical intermediates. Spectrospic diagnostics, based upon well analyzed and well understood spectra of the intermediates, are crucial for monitoring such reactions and unraveling their mechanisms. These spectral analyses often benefit from the guidance provided by quantum chemical calculations and conversely the molecular parameters, experimentally determined from the spectra, serve as ``gold standards'' for benchmarking such calculations. Such standards are especially valuable for reactive intermediates whose electronic or geometric structure is particularly complex because of electron-spin interactions, Jahn-Teller effects or other vibronic interactions, hindered internal motions, large molecular size and weight, etc. The organic alkoxy, RO., and peroxy, RO2., (R=alkyl group) free radicals are excellent examples of such species. The talk will focus on our recent characterization of these radicals via their ``high-resolution,'' mostly rotationally resolved, electronic spectra utilizing the techniques of laser induced fluorescence, stimulated emission pumping, and cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Selected spectra, their analysis, and the molecular information resulting therefrom will be discussed.

  6. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  7. Elemental analysis of organic species with electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Allison C; DeCarlo, Peter F; Jimenez, Jose L

    2007-11-01

    We present a new elemental analysis (EA) technique for organic species (CHNO) that allows fast on-line analysis (10 s) and reduces the required sample size to approximately 1 ng, approximately 6 orders of magnitude less than standard techniques. The composition of the analyzed samples is approximated by the average elemental composition of the ions from high-resolution electron ionization (EI) mass spectra. EA of organic species can be performed on organic/inorganic mixtures. Elemental ratios for the total organic mass, such as oxygen/carbon (O/C), hydrogen/carbon (H/C), and nitrogen/carbon (N/C), in addition to the organic mass to organic carbon ratio (OM/OC), can be determined. As deviations between the molecular and the ionic composition can appear due to chemical influences on the ion fragmentation processes, the method was evaluated and calibrated using spectra from 20 compounds from the NIST database and from 35 laboratory standards sampled with the high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The analysis of AMS (NIST) spectra indicates that quantification of O/C is possible with an error (average absolute value of the relative error) of 30% (17%) for individual species. Precision is much better than accuracy at +/-5% in the absence of air for AMS data. AMS OM/OC has an average error of 5%. Additional calibration is recommended for types of species very different from those analyzed here. EA was applied to organic mixtures and ambient aerosols (sampled at 20 s from aircraft). The technique is also applicable to other EI-HRMS measurements such as direct injection MS. PMID:17914892

  8. The first observation of titanate nanotubes by spherical aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, L.; Tanemura, S.; Jiang, T.; Tanemura, M.; Yoshida, K.; Tanaka, N.; Xu, G.

    2009-07-01

    Multi-wall titanate nanotubes (MW-TNNTs) with high aspect ratio, large surface area and good uniformity were produced by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of grounded TiO 2 aerogels and further by applying freeze-drying. Not only the crystal phase and diameter, but also morphology of the starting materials impact on the aspect ratio and transformation efficiency of the obtained nanotubes. Other parameters, such as pH value during neutralization process and drying method for the final products, are important to control length and dispersion of MW-TNNTs. By spherical aberration corrected high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy (Cs-corrected HRTEM) with lateral space resolution of 0.14 nm at 200 kV accelerating voltage and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS), the detailed structural analysis of MW-TNNTs reveals that (1) diameters of inner and outer tubes are about 4-7 nm and 10 nm, respectively, (2) numbers of layers are different from part to part along the longitudinal tube axis, (3) the walls of the tubes have interlayer spacing of 0.70-0.80 nm and the lateral fringes which are vertical to the walls have spacing of 0.32 nm, (4) each layer of MW-TNNT is the nanosheet composed by the arrayed TiO 6 octahedrons, and respective octahedron being slightly strained, and (5) no chirality of MW-TNNT tubular structure is observed.

  9. High-resolution far ultraviolet spectrum of electron-excited SO(sub 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palle, P. V.; Ajello, J.; Bhardwaj, A.

    2004-01-01

    The high resolution UV capabilities (lamda/delta lambda = 10(sup 5)) of the Hubble Space Telscope (HST) equipped with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) reflects a need for high resolution laboratory UV spectral data base for comparison with observation.

  10. Transfer-printing of single DNA molecule arrays on graphene for high resolution electron imaging and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Aline; Alava, Thomas; Barton, Robert A.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2011-01-01

    Graphene represents the ultimate substrate for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, but the deposition of biological samples on this highly hydrophobic material has until now been a challenge. We present a reliable method for depositing ordered arrays of individual elongated DNA molecules on single-layer graphene substrates for high resolution electron beam imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis. This method is a necessary step towards the observation of single elongated DNA molecules with single base spatial resolution to directly read genetic and epigenetic information. PMID:21919532

  11. [High resolution electron microscopy of the crystalline structure in remineralized enamel].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, N

    1989-09-01

    The present work was designed to elucidate crystallographic changes in enamel that had been demineralized in a 0.01 M acetate buffer (pH 4.0) for 2 days at 50 degrees C and then remineralized in a solution containing 1 mM Ca, 0.6 mM P, and 0.05 mM F for 1 or 2 weeks at 37 degrees C. The demineralized and remineralized enamel samples were observed by means of high-resolution electron microscopy, electron-probe analysis, and small area X-ray or electron diffraction. Before remineralization, demineralized enamel had been composed of sparsely arranged apatite crystals with either a central perforation or lateral surface defects or both. Measurements of crystalline (001) planes indicated that crystals in demineralized enamel were significantly larger than those in intact enamel, thus suggesting that crystal growth had taken place during demineralization. Small, newly formed, hexagonal crystals occurred in remineralized enamel. In some cases, precipitation of such small crystals together with localized enamel-crystal regrowth restored central perforations and lateral defects. A number of the small, newly formed crystals and preexisting enamel crystals aggregated to form a group with a roughly hexagonal outline. After the growth and fusion of these grouping crystals, a large, regular-hexagonal crystal formed. Such various kinds of lattice defects as edge dislocation, small-angle grain boundary, and lattice displacement were frequently detected in fusing crystal boundaries. Prolonging remineralization duration seemed to reinforce these lattice defects. Electron-probe and X-ray diffraction studies led to the assumption that the large hexagonal crystals were fluoroapatite. These results indicate that remineralization of demineralized enamel proceeds through several stages, including formation and growth of new crystals and regrowth of preexisting enamel crystals. PMID:2641199

  12. Electron Collisions with Large Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKoy, Vincent

    2006-10-01

    In recent years, interest in electron-molecule collisions has increasingly shifted to large molecules. Applications within the semiconductor industry, for example, require electron collision data for molecules such as perfluorocyclobutane, while almost all biological applications involve macromolecules such as DNA. A significant development in recent years has been the realization that slow electrons can directly damage DNA. This discovery has spurred studies of low-energy collisions with the constituents of DNA, including the bases, deoxyribose, the phosphate, and larger moieties assembled from them. In semiconductor applications, a key goal is development of electron cross section sets for plasma chemistry modeling, while biological studies are largely focused on understanding the role of localized resonances in inducing DNA strand breaks. Accurate calculations of low-energy electron collisions with polyatomic molecules are computationally demanding because of the low symmetry and inherent many-electron nature of the problem; moreover, the computational requirements scale rapidly with the size of the molecule. To pursue such studies, we have adapted our computational procedure, known as the Schwinger multichannel method, to run efficiently on highly parallel computers. In this talk, we will present some of our recent results for fluorocarbon etchants used in the semiconductor industry and for constituents of DNA and RNA. In collaboration with Carl Winstead, California Institute of Technology.

  13. High-resolution electron microscopy study of mesoporous dichalcogenides and their hydrogen storage properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Lan; Li, Jing; Gu, Dong; Shi, Yifeng; Che, Renchao; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2011-02-01

    In this work, we report a detailed investigation on the surface topology of ordered mesoporous WS2 nanoarrays nanocast from the silica SBA-15 template. Using a high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) technique, we acquire distinguishably clear images of the WS2 surface. A large number of small nanorods are found to be evenly distributed among the nanowire arrays, supporting their ordered mesostructures. Based on these observations, tunnel-like connecting pores are proposed to have a similar distribution in the mother mesoporous silica SBA-15 template. Interestingly, we observe the atomic crystal lattices of the layered WS2 on the HRSEM image. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that atomic crystal lattices have been directly observed using a SEM technique. In addition, both materials show good adsorption-desorption capabilities with hydrogen, and the maximum amount of hydrogen that can be taken up is 0.34 wt% for mesoporous WS2 and 0.52 wt% for mesoporous MoS2 at a pressure of 10 bar, indicating that both are potential hydrogen storage materials.

  14. 5f-electron states in uranium dioxide investigated using high-resolution neutron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoretti, G.; Blaise, A.; Caciuffo, R.; Fournier, J. M.; Hutchings, M. T.; Osborn, R.; Taylor, A. D.

    1989-07-01

    High-resolution, high-energy-transfer, inelastic neutron scattering has been used to explore the crystal-field (CF) excitations in UO2. As all the dipole-allowed transitions within the free-ion ground manifold have been identified, the observations provide a complete determination of the crystal-field potential and 5f-electron eigenstates. The fourth- and sixth-degree CF parameters are V4=-123 meV and V6=26.5 meV. In spite of the strength of the CF, the ground state is accurately given by the intermediate-coupling approximation with little modification by J-mixing effects. In the antiferromagnetic phase below TN=30.8 K, a splitting of the cubic CF levels, due to the combined effects of the molecular field and the distortion of the oxygen-ligand cage surrounding the U4+ ions, has been observed. Detailed CF calculations are presented both for the case of a double-k magnetic structure with a monoclinic distortion of the oxygen sublattice, and for a combined triple-k distortion and magnetic order. The observed splittings are shown to be more consistent with the triple-k model.

  15. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Ruben, G.C. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Direct imaging of CdTe(001) surface reconstructions by high-resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Smith, David J.

    1991-08-01

    Novel reconstructions of the CdTe(001) surface have been directly observed using high-resolution electron microscopy in the profile-imaging geometry. The CdTe(001) surface, obtained by in situ annealing under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, is found to have a (2 × 1) structure at temperatures of less than about 200° C, but it transforms reversibly into a (3 × 1) structure at temperatures above 200 °C. Structural models for the reconstructions have been proposed and confirmed by extensive computer simulations. The (2 × 1) reconstruction, stabilized by Cd atoms, consists of a {1}/{2} monolayer of Cd vacancies and a large inward relaxation of the remaining surface Cd atoms, similar to the (2 × 1) reconstruction previously proposed for the GaAs(001) surface. The (3 × 1) reconstruction, stabilized by Te atoms, involves formation of surface dimers and the presence of vacancies. In both reconstructions, atomic displacements are observed that extend a few layers into the bulk and serve to reduce the strain energy.

  17. In-Situ High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of Overheating of Cu Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunlin; Hu, Ziyu; Li, Yanfen; Liu, Limin; Mori, Hirotaro; Wang, Zhangchang

    2016-01-01

    Synthesizing and functionalizing metal nanoparticles supported on substrates is currently the subject of intensive study owing to their outstanding catalytic performances for heterogeneous catalysis. Revealing the fundamental effect of the substrates on metal nanoparticles represents a key step in clarifying mechanisms of stability and catalytic properties of these heterogeneous systems. However, direct identification of these effects still poses a significant challenge due to the complicacy of interactions between substrates and nanoparticles and also for the technical difficulty, restraining our understanding of these heterogeneous systems. Here, we combine in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with molecular dynamics simulations to investigate Cu nanoparticles supported on graphite and Cu2O substrates, and demonstrate that melting behavior and thermal stability of Cu nanoparticles can be markedly influenced by substrates. The graphite-supported Cu nanoparticles do not melt during annealing at 1073 K until they vanish completely, i.e. only the sublimation occurs, while the Cu2O-supported Cu nanoparticles suffer melting during annealing at 973 K. Such selective superheating of the Cu nanoparticles can be attributed to the adsorption of a thin carbon layer on the surface of the Cu nanoparticles, which helps guide further stability enhancement of functional nanoparticles for realistic applications. PMID:26785839

  18. Microstructure of massively transformed {gamma}-TiAl phase studied by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, E.; Kumagai, T.; Kajiwara, S.; Nakamura, M.

    1997-12-31

    A microstructure of the massively transformed {gamma}-TiAl ({gamma}{sub m}) phase in a Ti-48at.%Al alloy, which was heat treated in the high-temperature {alpha}-Ti (disordered hcp) single phase field (1,683 K), followed by ice water quenching, has been examined using high-resolution electron microscopy. The characteristic features of the microstructure originated from the {alpha}{yields}{gamma} massive transformation have been clarified in detail, which are as follows. (1) Extremely thin hcp plates (about 0.8--2nm in thickness), which are considered to be a retained {alpha} phase, are found to exist in the {gamma}{sub m} phase. (2) Twin boundaries are found to be not flat interfaces, that is, twin interfaces are not on the exact (111) mirror plane. This situation is attributed to the existence of a number of partial dislocations at the twin boundaries. (3) Antiphase relationship between the regions either side of the thin rotated domain wall is confirmed. The validity of this situation is explained by assuming that the thin rotated domain wall has been grown from a simple antiphase domain boundary. On the basis of these facts, mechanism of the {alpha}{yields}{gamma} massive transformation has been discussed.

  19. A high-resolution coherent transition radiation diagnostic for laser-produced electron transport studies (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, M.; Begishev, I. A.; Brown, R. J.; Mileham, C.; Myatt, J. F.; Nilson, P. M.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Zuegel, J. D.; Guo, C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution images of the rear-surface optical emission from high-intensity (I{approx}10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser illuminated metal foils have been recorded using coherent transition radiation (CTR). CTR is generated as relativistic electrons, generated in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions, exit the target's rear surface and move into vacuum. A transition radiation diagnostic (TRD) records time-integrated images in a 24 nm bandwidth window around {lambda}=529 nm. The optical transmission at {lambda}=1053 nm, the laser wavelength, is 15 orders of magnitude lower than the transmission at the wavelength of interest, {lambda}=527 nm. The detector is a scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) camera that operates with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10{sup 3} and has a dynamic range of 10{sup 4}. The TRD has demonstrated a spatial resolution of 1.4 {mu}m over a 1 mm field of view, limited only by the CCD pixel size.

  20. High-resolution electron microscopy study of synthetic carbonate and aluminum containing apatites.

    PubMed

    Layani, J D; Cuisinier, F J; Steuer, P; Cohen, H; Voegel, J C; Mayer, I

    2000-05-01

    Aluminum (Al)-containing calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatites were produced by a precipitation method from aqueous solution with carbonate (0-6.1%) and aluminum (0.1-0.5%) concentrations close to those found in biological materials. Two series of apatites were prepared: one at pH 7.0 and another at pH 9. 0. High-resolution electron microscopy has shown that many of them possess structural defects such as screw dislocations, grain boundaries, and central defects. Samples with high carbonate content and high water and high Al(3+) content had a high amount of structural defects. Accordingly, a sample (7Al1) with a relatively high carbonate content (6.1%) and a sample (7Al6) without carbonate but with a relatively high water (2.0 mol) and Al(3+) content (0. 39%) presented the highest amount of structural defects, 54% and 47%, respectively. A sample (7Al13) with a low level of crystalline water (1 mol) and low carbonate (2.5%) showed a small amount of defects. The presence of water associated with Al(3+) induced a high number of crystals having a central defect with a great similarity to the so-called water layer of octacalcium phosphate (OCP). Observed images of all these crystals have shown good correspondence with the computer-simulated image based on the crystal structure of hydroxyapatite, indicating that the addition of Al(3+) and carbonate does not perturb the apatitic structure. PMID:10679685

  1. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-07-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate the microstructure of diamond films grown by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using fullerene precursors. HRTEM observations of as-grown films revealed an array of larger crystals (>200 nm) within a polycrystalline matrix of much smaller crystallites (<20 nm). The randomly oriented small crystallites were nearly free of structural imperfections such as stacking faults or twins, while the larger ones had preferred <110> orientations with respect to the Si (100) substrate and showed evidence of structural defects on the periphery of the crystals. The most common defects were V-shaped {Sigma}9 twin boundaries, which are generally believed to serve as re-entrant sites for diamond nucleation and growth. The observation of growth steps on both (111) and (110) surfaces seems to support a reaction model in which fragments of C{sub 60}, including C{sub 2}, are considered the growth species. In particular, the nanocrystallinity of the films is most likely due to a high carbon cluster density from C{sub 60} fragmentation at or near the diamond surface, which can serve as nucleation sites for the growth of new crystallites.

  2. In-Situ High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of Overheating of Cu Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunlin; Hu, Ziyu; Li, Yanfen; Liu, Limin; Mori, Hirotaro; Wang, Zhangchang

    2016-01-01

    Synthesizing and functionalizing metal nanoparticles supported on substrates is currently the subject of intensive study owing to their outstanding catalytic performances for heterogeneous catalysis. Revealing the fundamental effect of the substrates on metal nanoparticles represents a key step in clarifying mechanisms of stability and catalytic properties of these heterogeneous systems. However, direct identification of these effects still poses a significant challenge due to the complicacy of interactions between substrates and nanoparticles and also for the technical difficulty, restraining our understanding of these heterogeneous systems. Here, we combine in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with molecular dynamics simulations to investigate Cu nanoparticles supported on graphite and Cu2O substrates, and demonstrate that melting behavior and thermal stability of Cu nanoparticles can be markedly influenced by substrates. The graphite-supported Cu nanoparticles do not melt during annealing at 1073 K until they vanish completely, i.e. only the sublimation occurs, while the Cu2O-supported Cu nanoparticles suffer melting during annealing at 973 K. Such selective superheating of the Cu nanoparticles can be attributed to the adsorption of a thin carbon layer on the surface of the Cu nanoparticles, which helps guide further stability enhancement of functional nanoparticles for realistic applications.

  3. High-resolution electron momentum spectroscopy of valence satellites of carbon disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengwu; Shan, Xu; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Enliang; Li, Zhongjun; Chen, XiangJun

    2010-09-01

    The binding energy spectrum of carbon disulphide (CS2) in the energy range of 9-23 eV has been measured by a high-resolution (e,2e) spectrometer employing asymmetric noncoplanar kinematics at an impact energy of 2500 eV plus the binding energy. Taking the advantage of the high energy resolution of 0.54 eV, four main peaks and five satellites in the outer-valence region are resolved. The assignments and pole strengths for these satellite states are achieved by comparing the experimental electron momentum profiles with the corresponding theoretical ones calculated using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The results are also compared in detail with the recent SAC-CI general-R calculations. General agreement is satisfactory, while the present experiment suggests cooperative contributions from Π2u, Σg+2 states to satellite 2 and Σg+2, Π2g states to satellite 3. Besides, relatively low pole strength for X Π2g state is obtained which contradicts all the theoretical calculations [2ph-TDA, ADC(3), SAC-CI general-R, ADC(4)] so far.

  4. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Calibration of Critical Dimension (CD) Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    ALLEN, RICHARD A.; CRESSWELL, MICHAEL W.; EVERIST, SARAH C.; GHOSHTAGORE, RATHINDRA N.; HEADLEY, THOMAS J.; LINHOLM, LOREN W.

    1999-09-21

    NIST and Sandia have developed a procedure for producing and calibrating critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials. These reference materials will be used to calibrate metrology instruments used in semiconductor manufacturing. The artifacts, with widths down to 100 nm, are produced in monocrystalline silicon with all feature edges aligned to specific crystal planes. A two-part calibration of these linewidths is used: the primary calibration, with accuracy to within a few lattice plane thicknesses, is accomplished by counting the lattice planes across the sample as-imaged through use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The secondary calibration is the high-precision electrical CD technique. NIST and Sandia are developing critical dimension (CD), or linewidth, reference materials for use by the semiconductor industry. To meet the current requirements of this rapidly changing industry, the widths of the reference features must be at or below the widths of the finest features in production and/or development. Further, these features must produce consistent results no matter which metrology tool (e.g., scanning electron microscope, scanned probe microscope, electrical metrology) is used to make the measurement. This leads to a requirement for the samples to have planar surfaces, known sidewall angles, and uniform material composition. None of the production techniques in use in semiconductor manufacturing can produce features with all these characteristics. In addition, requirements specified in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors indicate that the width of the feature must be accurately calibrated to approximately 1-2 nm, a value well beyond the current capabilities of the instruments used for semiconductor metrology.

  5. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    Plenary. Electron collisions - past, present and future / J. W. McConkey. Collisions of slow highly charged ions with surfaces / J. Burgdörfer ... [et al.]. Atomic collisions studied with "reaction-microscopes" / R. Moshammer ... [et al.]. Rydberg atoms: a microscale laboratory for studying electron-molecule tnteractions / F. B. Dunning -- Collisions involvintg photons. Quantum control of photochemical reaction dynamics and molecular functions / M. Yamaki ... [et al.]. Manipulating and viewing Rydberg wavepackets / R. R. Jones. Angle-resolved photoelectrons as a probe of strong-field interactions / M. Vrakking. Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a structured environment / I. C. H. Liu and J. M. Rost. Synchrotron-radiation-based recoil ion momentum spectroscopy of laser cooled and trapped cesium atoms / L. H. Coutinho. Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains / Y. Mairesse ... [et al.]. Selective excitation of metastable atomic states by Femto- and attosecond laser pulses / A. D. Kondorskiy. Accurate calculations of triple differential cross sections for double photoionization of the hygrogen molecule / W. Vanroose ... [et al.]. Double and triple photoionization of Li and Be / J. Colgan, M. S. Pindzola and F. Robicheaux. Few/many body dynamics in strong laser fields / J. Zanghellini and T. Brabec. Rescattering-induced effects in electron-atom scattering in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field / A. V. Flegel ... [et al.]. Multidimensional photoelectron spectroscopy / P. Lablanquie ... [et al.]. Few photon and strongly driven transitions in the XUV and beyond / P. Lambropoulos, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos and S. I. Themelis. Ionization dynamics of atomic clusters in intense laser pulses / U. Saalmann and J. M. Rost. On the second order autocorrelation of an XUV attosecond pulse train / E. P. Benis ... [et al.]. Evidence for rescattering in molecular dissociation / I. D. Williams ... [et al.]. Photoionizing ions using synchrotron radiation / R. Phaneuf. Photo double

  6. High resolution infrared ``vision'' of dynamic electron processes in semiconductor devices (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared cameras have been traditionally used in semiconductor industry for noncontact measurements of printed circuit boards (PCBs) local overheating. While an effective way to prevent defective PCB application in a "find-problems-before-your-customer-do" manner, this conventional static (25-50 frames/s) and small spatial resolution (>100 μm) approach is incapable, in principle, of explaining the physical reason for the PCB failure. What follows in this report is the demonstration of an IR camera based new approach in high-resolution dynamic study of electron processes responsible for single device performance. More specifically, time resolved two-dimensional visualization of current carrier drift and diffusion processes across the device base that happen in microsecond scale is of prime concern in the work. Thus, contrary to the conventional visualization-through-heating measurements, objective is mapping of electron processes in a device base through negative and positive luminescence (provoked by band-to-band electron transitions) and nonequilibrium thermal emission (provoked by intraband electron transitions) studies inside the region in which current flows. Therefore, the parameters of interest are not only a device thermal mass and thermal conductance, but also free carrier lifetime, surface recombination velocity, diffusion length, and contact properties. The micro-mapping system developed consists of reflective type IR microscope coaxially attached to calibrated scanning IR thermal imaging cameras (3-5 and 8-12 μm spectral ranges, HgCdTe cooled photodetectors, scene spatial resolution of some 20 μm, minimum time resolved interval of 10 μs, and temperature resolution of about 0.5 °C at 30 °C). Data acquisition and image processing (emissivity equalization, noise reduction by image averaging, and external triggering) are computer controlled. Parallel video channel equipped with a CCD camera permits easy positioning and focusing of <1×1 mm2 object

  7. Magnetic dynamics studied by high-resolution electron spectroscopy and time-resolved electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Rajeswari

    Future information technology requires an increased magnetically encoded data density and novel electromagnetic modes of data transfer. While to date magnetic properties are observed and characterized mostly statically, the need emerges to monitor and capture their fast dynamics. In this talk, I will focus on the spin dynamics i.e. spin wave excitations and the dynamics of a new topological distribution of spins termed ``skyrmions''. Wave packets of spin waves offer the unique capability to transport a quantum bit, the spin, without the transport of charge or mass. Here, large wave-vector spin waves are of particular interest as they admit spin localization within a few nanometers. By using our recently developed electron energy loss spectrometer, we could study such spin waves in ultrathin films with an unprecedented energy resolution of 4 meV. By virtue of the finite penetration depth of low energy electrons, spin waves localized at interfaces between a substrate and a thin capping layer can be been studied yielding information about the exchange coupling between atoms at the interface. The quantization of spin waves with wave vectors perpendicular to the film gives rise to standing modes to which EELS has likewise access. Such studies when carried out as function of the film thickness again yield information on the layer dependence of the exchange coupling. Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers in logic or storage devices. Currently, little is known about the influence of disorder, defects, or external stimuli on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the skyrmion lattice. In this talk, I will describe the dynamical role of disorder in a large and flat thin film of Cu2OSeO3, exhibiting a skyrmion phase in an insulating material. We image up to 70,000 skyrmions by means of cryo-Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy as a function of the applied magnetic field. In the skyrmion phase, dislocations are shown to cause the

  8. Microstructure development in latex coatings: High-resolution cryo-scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Haiyan

    2005-07-01

    High-resolution cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development in drying latex coatings: from a colloidal stable suspension into a coherent strong film by drying. Useful sample preparation artifacts during the freeze-fracture, i.e., pullouts were documented and analyzed. Pullouts indicate both physical properties of latex particles and the drying stages in latex coatings. The mechanism of pullout formation was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Latex coatings must possess satisfactory freeze-thaw stability to avoid problems during transportation and storage in cold winter. The behavior of latex particles during freeze-thaw cycles was visualized by Cryo-SEM. The images indicated that high concentration of polymerizable surfactant in a latex suspension improved its freeze-thaw stability. In film formation, skinning was captured from edge in and top down in coatings of 80nm diameter styrene-butadiene latex particles with exceptional low Tg (-65°C). Effects on skinning of drying conditions and the way the latex was initially stabilized against flocculation were investigated. A skinned pocket was unexpectedly found in the coating. The cause of such a skin around the air bubble was explained by both simple models calculating the dissolution time and force analysis on the particles. The film formation processes in conventional and low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex coatings were compared by time-sectioning Cryo-SEM. Some low-VOC latex coatings were found to dry as fast as conventional ones without deteriorating final good film properties.

  9. High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy on macromolecular complexes and cell organelles.

    PubMed

    Hoenger, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy techniques and computational 3-D reconstruction of macromolecular assemblies are tightly linked tools in modern structural biology. This symbiosis has produced vast amounts of detailed information on the structure and function of biological macromolecules. Typically, one of two fundamentally different strategies is used depending on the specimens and their environment. A: 3-D reconstruction based on repetitive and structurally identical unit cells that allow for averaging, and B: tomographic 3-D reconstructions where tilt-series between approximately ± 60 and ± 70° at small angular increments are collected from highly complex and flexible structures that are beyond averaging procedures, at least during the first round of 3-D reconstruction. Strategies of group A are averaging-based procedures and collect large number of 2-D projections at different angles that are computationally aligned, averaged together, and back-projected in 3-D space to reach a most complete 3-D dataset with high resolution, today often down to atomic detail. Evidently, success relies on structurally repetitive particles and an aligning procedure that unambiguously determines the angular relationship of all 2-D projections with respect to each other. The alignment procedure of small particles may rely on their packing into a regular array such as a 2-D crystal, an icosahedral (viral) particle, or a helical assembly. Critically important for cryo-methods, each particle will only be exposed once to the electron beam, making these procedures optimal for highest-resolution studies where beam-induced damage is a significant concern. In contrast, tomographic 3-D reconstruction procedures (group B) do not rely on averaging, but collect an entire dataset from the very same structure of interest. Data acquisition requires collecting a large series of tilted projections at angular increments of 1-2° or less and a tilt range of ± 60° or more. Accordingly, tomographic data

  10. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    Plenary. Electron collisions - past, present and future / J. W. McConkey. Collisions of slow highly charged ions with surfaces / J. Burgdörfer ... [et al.]. Atomic collisions studied with "reaction-microscopes" / R. Moshammer ... [et al.]. Rydberg atoms: a microscale laboratory for studying electron-molecule tnteractions / F. B. Dunning -- Collisions involvintg photons. Quantum control of photochemical reaction dynamics and molecular functions / M. Yamaki ... [et al.]. Manipulating and viewing Rydberg wavepackets / R. R. Jones. Angle-resolved photoelectrons as a probe of strong-field interactions / M. Vrakking. Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a structured environment / I. C. H. Liu and J. M. Rost. Synchrotron-radiation-based recoil ion momentum spectroscopy of laser cooled and trapped cesium atoms / L. H. Coutinho. Reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains / Y. Mairesse ... [et al.]. Selective excitation of metastable atomic states by Femto- and attosecond laser pulses / A. D. Kondorskiy. Accurate calculations of triple differential cross sections for double photoionization of the hygrogen molecule / W. Vanroose ... [et al.]. Double and triple photoionization of Li and Be / J. Colgan, M. S. Pindzola and F. Robicheaux. Few/many body dynamics in strong laser fields / J. Zanghellini and T. Brabec. Rescattering-induced effects in electron-atom scattering in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field / A. V. Flegel ... [et al.]. Multidimensional photoelectron spectroscopy / P. Lablanquie ... [et al.]. Few photon and strongly driven transitions in the XUV and beyond / P. Lambropoulos, L. A. A. Nikolopoulos and S. I. Themelis. Ionization dynamics of atomic clusters in intense laser pulses / U. Saalmann and J. M. Rost. On the second order autocorrelation of an XUV attosecond pulse train / E. P. Benis ... [et al.]. Evidence for rescattering in molecular dissociation / I. D. Williams ... [et al.]. Photoionizing ions using synchrotron radiation / R. Phaneuf. Photo double

  11. High-resolution patterning of graphene by screen printing with a silicon stencil for highly flexible printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Woo Jin; Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution screen printing of pristine graphene is introduced for the rapid fabrication of conductive lines on flexible substrates. Well-defined silicon stencils and viscosity-controlled inks facilitate the preparation of high-quality graphene patterns as narrow as 40 μm. This strategy provides an efficient method to produce highly flexible graphene electrodes for printed electronics. PMID:25377870

  12. The Application of High-Resolution Electron Microscopy to Problems in Solid State Chemistry: The Exploits of a Peeping TEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, LeRoy

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for using the high-resolution electron microscope in conjunction with other tools to reveal the identity and environment of atoms. Problems discussed include the ultimate structure of real crystalline solids including defect structure and the mechanisms of chemical reactions. (CS)

  13. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  14. Extended-range grazing-incidence spectrometer for high-resolution extreme ultraviolet measurements on an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Träbert, E.; Widmann, K.; Hell, N.

    2014-11-15

    A high-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for performing very high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Å to above 300 Å. The instrument operates without an entrance slit and focuses the light emitted by highly charged ions located in the roughly 50 μm wide electron beam onto a cryogenically cooled back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The measured line widths are below 0.025 Å above 100 Å, and the resolving power appears to be limited by the source size and Doppler broadening of the trapped ions. Comparisons with spectra obtained with existing grating spectrometers show an order of magnitude improvement in spectral resolution.

  15. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-12

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

  16. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams

    DOEpatents

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    1993-01-01

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography using electrons, ions or other particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1991-04-10

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position. Particle beams, including electrons, ions and neutral particles, may be used as well as electromagnetic radiation.

  18. Contrast transfer and resolution limits for sub-angstrom high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lentzen, Markus

    2008-02-01

    The optimum imaging of an object structure at the sub-angstrom length scale requires precise adjustment of the lens aberrations of a high-resolution instrument up to the fifth order. A least-squares optimization of defocus aberration C1, third-order spherical aberration C3, and fifth-order spherical aberration C5 yields two sets of aberration coefficients for strong phase contrast up to the information limit: one for variable C1 and C3, at fixed C5, another for variable C1, C3, and C5. An additional correction to the defocus aberration, dependent on object thickness, is described, which becomes important for the use of image simulation programs in predicting optimum high-resolution contrast from thin objects at the sub-angstrom scale. For instruments with a sub-angstrom information limit the ultimate structure resolution, the power to resolve adjacent atom columns in a crystalline object, depends on both the instrumental pointspread and an object pointspread due to finite width of the atomic column potentials. A simulation study on a simple double-column model yields a range for structure resolutions, dependent on the atomic scattering power, from 0.070 nm down to 0.059 nm, for a hypothetical 300-kV instrument with an information limit of 0.050 nm. PMID:18096097

  19. Sample preparation of biological macromolecular assemblies for the determination of high-resolution structures by cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stark, Holger; Chari, Ashwin

    2016-02-01

    Single particle cryo-EM has recently developed into a powerful tool to determine the 3D structure of macromolecular complexes at near-atomic resolution, which allows structural biologists to build atomic models of proteins. All technical aspects of cryo-EM technology have been considerably improved over the last two decades, including electron microscopic hardware, image processing software and the ever growing speed of computers. This leads to a more widespread use of the technique, and it can be anticipated that further automation of electron microscopes and image processing tools will soon fully shift the focus away from the technological aspects, onto biological questions that can be answered. In single particle cryo-EM, no crystals of a macromolecule are required. In contrast to X-ray crystallography, this significantly facilitates structure determination by cryo-EM. Nevertheless, a relatively high level of biochemical control is still essential to obtain high-resolution structures by cryo-EM, and it can be anticipated that the success of the cryo-EM technology goes hand in hand with further developments of sample purification and preparation techniques. This will allow routine high-resolution structure determination of the many macromolecular complexes of the cell that until now represent evasive targets for X-ray crystallographers. Here we discuss the various biochemical tools that are currently available and the existing sample purification and preparation techniques for cryo-EM grid preparation that are needed to obtain high-resolution images for structure determination. PMID:26671943

  20. Comparative analysis of dioxins and furans in ambient air by high-resolution and electron-capture mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C.J.; Harless, R.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Known mixtures and unknown atmospheric sample extracts containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were analyzed by both electron impact, high resolution, mass spectrometry (HRMS) and by electron capture, negative ion, low resolution mass spectrometry (ECNI). PCDD/F concentrations measured by the two methods were comparable, typically agreeing with + or - 33%. The major difference between the two techniques is that HRMS easily detects 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin but ECNI does not. Results suggest that ECNI can be a sensitive low cost alternative to HRMS for the determination of PCDD/F concentrations.

  1. Strain measurement at the nanoscale: Comparison between convergent beam electron diffraction, nano-beam electron diffraction, high resolution imaging and dark field electron holography.

    PubMed

    Béché, A; Rouvière, J L; Barnes, J P; Cooper, D

    2013-08-01

    Convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED), nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED or NBD), high resolution imaging (HRTEM and HRSTEM) and dark field electron holography (DFEH or HoloDark) are five TEM based techniques able to quantitatively measure strain at the nanometer scale. In order to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, two samples composed of epitaxial silicon-germanium layers embedded in a silicon matrix have been investigated. The five techniques are then compared in terms of strain precision and accuracy, spatial resolution, field of view, mapping abilities and ease of performance and analysis. PMID:23673283

  2. THE APPLICATION OF HIGH RESOLUTION ELECTRON ENERGY LOSS SPECTROSCOPY TO THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ADSORBED MOLECULES ON RHODIUM SINGLE CRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, L.H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of low energy electrons by metal surfaces has been studied for many years now. The electron's ease of generation and detection and high surface sensitivity (low penetration depth) make it an ideal probe for surface scientists. The impinging electron can interact with the surface in basically two ways: it can either elastically reflect (or diffract) from the surface without losing energy or lose a portion of it's incident energy and inelastically scatter. In this paper we will be concerned with only one of many possible inelastic scattering processes: the loss of the electron's energy to the vibrational modes of atoms and molecules chemisorbed on the surface. This technique is known as high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (or ELS, EELS, HRELS, HREELS, etc.).

  3. Imaging interactions of metal oxide nanoparticles with macrophage cells by ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques†

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Starr, Clarise R.; Armstrong, Linda S.; Ponce, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Use of engineered metal oxide nanoparticles in a plethora of biological applications and custom products has warned about some possible dose-dependent cytotoxic effects. Macrophages are key components of the innate immune system used to study possible toxic effects and internalization of different nanoparticulate materials. In this work, ultra-high resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to offer new insights into the dynamical processes of interaction of nanomaterials with macrophage cells dosed with different concentrations of metal oxide nanoparticles (CeO2, TiO2 and ZnO). The versatility of FE-SEM has allowed obtaining a detailed characterization of processes of adsorption and endocytosis of nanoparticles, by using advanced analytical and imaging techniques on complete unstained uncoated cells, including secondary electron imaging, high-sensitive backscattered electron imaging, X-ray microanalysis and stereoimaging. Low voltage BF/DF-STEM confirmed nanoparticle adsorption and internalization into endosomes of CeO2 and TiO2, whereas ZnO develop apoptosis after 24 h of interaction caused by dissolution and invasion of cell nucleus. Ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscopy techniques provided new insights into interactions of inorganic nanoparticles with macrophage cells with high spatial resolution. PMID:23023106

  4. Metal-carbonyl organometallic polymers, PFpP, as resists for high-resolution positive and negative electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Cao, K; Wang, X S; Cui, B

    2015-12-25

    Metal-containing resists for electron beam lithography (EBL) are attracting attention owing to their high dry etching resistance and possibility for directly patterning metal-containing nanostructures. The newly developed organometallic metal carbonyl polymers, PFpP, can function as EBL resists with strong etching resistance. One significant feature of the PFpP resist is its high resolution. Line arrays with line-widths as narrow as 17 nm have been created. The resist can also be used in positive tone. PMID:26481609

  5. Method and apparatus for a high-resolution three dimensional confocal scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    de Jonge, Niels [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-08-17

    A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.

  6. Principles and prospects of direct high resolution electron image acquisition with CMOS detectors at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruqi, A. R.

    2009-08-01

    Two types of direct electron detectors, potentially useful in low energy electron microscopy and photoemission electron microscopy (LEEM/PEEM) experiments, are reviewed in this paper. Hybrid pixel detectors, using a silicon sensor and based on Medipix2 offer a high detective quantum efficiency, due to an essentially noiseless readout, but are technically challenging. Backthinned monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) are not noise-free but have other advantages as discussed in this review.

  7. High-resolution error detection in the capture process of a single-electron pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, S. P.; See, P.; Petrie, A.; Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Farrer, I.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kataoka, M.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic capture of electrons in a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) by raising a potential barrier is a crucial stage in metrological quantized charge pumping. In this work, we use a quantum point contact (QPC) charge sensor to study errors in the electron capture process of a QD formed in a GaAs heterostructure. Using a two-step measurement protocol to compensate for 1/f noise in the QPC current, and repeating the protocol more than 106 times, we are able to resolve errors with probabilities of order 10 - 6 . For the studied sample, one-electron capture is affected by errors in ˜ 30 out of every million cycles, while two-electron capture was performed more than 106 times with only one error. For errors in one-electron capture, we detect both failure to capture an electron and capture of two electrons. Electron counting measurements are a valuable tool for investigating non-equilibrium charge capture dynamics, and necessary for validating the metrological accuracy of semiconductor electron pumps.

  8. The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D

    2014-02-01

    The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself. PMID:24151325

  9. High-resolution imaging by scanning electron microscopy of semithin sections in correlation with light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Shodo, Ryusuke; Dan, Yukari; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we introduce scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of semithin resin sections. In this technique, semithin sections were adhered on glass slides, stained with both uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and observed with a backscattered electron detector at a low accelerating voltage. As the specimens are stained in the same manner as conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the contrast of SEM images of semithin sections was similar to TEM images of ultrathin sections. Using this technique, wide areas of semithin sections were also observed by SEM, without the obstruction of grids, which was inevitable for traditional TEM. This study also applied semithin section SEM to correlative light and electron microscopy. Correlative immunofluorescence microscopy and immune-SEM were performed in semithin sections of LR white resin-embedded specimens using a FluoroNanogold-labeled secondary antibody. Because LR white resin is hydrophilic and electron stable, this resin is suitable for immunostaining and SEM observation. Using correlative microscopy, the precise localization of the primary antibody was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. This method has great potential for studies examining the precise localization of molecules, including Golgi- and ER-associated proteins, in correlation with LM and SEM. PMID:26206941

  10. Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

  11. High resolution low-energy electron attachment to CF3I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marienfeld, S.; Fabrikant, I. I.; Braun, M.; Ruf, M.-W.; Hotop, H.

    2006-01-01

    Using several variants of the laser photoelectron attachment method, we have measured the energy-dependent yield for I- formation resulting from dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CF3I molecules over the energy range 0.5-500 meV. One approach involved a static target gas (TG = 300 K) and pulsed electron production/anion extraction. In another approach, a collimated target was provided by a differentially pumped, seeded supersonic beam (10% CF3I in helium carrier gas, stagnation pressure 1 bar, nozzle temperature 300 K and 600 K). At the onsets for excitation of one and two quanta for the C-I stretching mode ν3, clear downward cusps are detected. With reference to the recommended thermal DEA rate coefficient kA(Te = TG = 300 K) = 1.9 × 10-7 cm3 s-1, a new highly resolved absolute cross section for I- formation has been determined. Our experimental results are well reproduced by a cross section calculated in the framework of the resonance R-matrix theory. The input for the theory includes the known energetic and structural parameters of the neutral molecule and its anion and adopts a revised vertical attachment energy and a surface amplitude chosen to reproduce the thermal DEA rate coefficient. The theory is also applied to predict absolute cross sections for vibrational excitation of the C-I stretching mode ν3. Using our experimental and theoretical DEA cross sections we derive rate coefficients for Rydberg electron transfer (RET) and the dependence of the rate coefficients for free electron attachment of a Maxwellian electron ensemble on the mean electron energy from 0.002 to 2 eV at the constant gas temperature TG = 300 K; in both cases good agreement is observed with direct RET and swarm measurements.

  12. Inner-shell excitations of krypton 3d investigated by electron impact with high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Zhensheng; Zhu Linfan; Liu Xiaojing; Li Wenbin; Cheng Huadong; Sun Jianmin; Xu Kezun

    2005-06-15

    The inner-shell excitation spectra of krypton 3d electrons were measured at scattering angles of 0 deg. and 4 deg. by a fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer at an incident energy of 2.5 keV with an energy resolution better than 80 meV. Some interesting optically forbidden transitions were observed and the natural widths of the optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions were analyzed. It shows that the natural widths for the resonances having the same core hole are nearly equal, no matter whether they are optically allowed, optically forbidden, or different members of a Rydberg series.

  13. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance: A High-Resolution Tool for Muscle Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, LaDora V.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Ferrington, Deborah A.; Thomas, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle function can be altered by changes in protein structure and motion. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) paired with site-directed spin labeling has been used to study the relationships between (a) muscle force and myosin structure and (b) muscle relaxation and Ca-ATPase motion and structure. PMID:11210444

  14. Virtual nanoscopy: Generation of ultra-large high resolution electron microscopy maps

    PubMed Central

    Avramut, M. Cristina; M. van den Berg, Bernard; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Koster, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    A key obstacle in uncovering the orchestration between molecular and cellular events is the vastly different length scales on which they occur. We describe here a methodology for ultrastructurally mapping regions of cells and tissue as large as 1 mm2 at nanometer resolution. Our approach employs standard transmission electron microscopy, rapid automated data collection, and stitching to create large virtual slides. It greatly facilitates correlative light-electron microscopy studies to relate structure and function and provides a genuine representation of ultrastructural events. The method is scalable as illustrated by slides up to 281 gigapixels in size. Here, we applied virtual nanoscopy in a correlative light-electron microscopy study to address the role of the endothelial glycocalyx in protein leakage over the glomerular filtration barrier, in an immunogold labeling study of internalization of oncolytic reovirus in human dendritic cells, in a cryo-electron microscopy study of intact vitrified mouse embryonic cells, and in an ultrastructural mapping of a complete zebrafish embryo slice. PMID:22869601

  15. Understanding the structure of nanocatalysts with high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, L. D.; Rivas, J.; José-Yacamán, M.

    2014-03-01

    Nanomaterials including nanoparticles, nanowires and nanotubes play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis. Thanks to the rapid improvement of the electron microscopic techniques and with the advent of aberration corrected electron microscopy as well as theoretical methodologies, the potential effects induced by nanocatalysts are better understood than before by unravelling their atomic structure. A brief introduction to advanced electron microscopic techniques namely aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) is presented and subsequently two examples of nanocatalysts are considered in the present review. The first example will focus on the study of bimetallic/core-shell nanoalloys. In heterogeneous catalysis, catalysts containing two or more metals might show significantly different catalytic properties compared to the parent metals and thus are widely utilized in several catalytic reactions. Atom-by-atom insights of the nanoalloy based catalysts ex: Au-Pd will be described in the present review using a combination of advanced electron microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. A related example on the understanding of bimetallic clusters by HAADF-STEM will also be presented in addition to nanoparticles. In the second case understanding the structure of transition metal chalcogenide based nanocatalysts by HRTEM and aberration corrected STEM, for the case of MoS2 will be discussed. MoS2-based catalysts serve as model catalysts and are employed in the hydrodesulphurisations (HDS) reactions in the removal of sulphur from gasoline and related petrochemical products. They have been studied in various forms including nanowires, nanotubes and nanoplates. Their structure, atomic insights and as a consequence elucidation of their corresponding catalytic activity are thus important.

  16. Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    A spontaneous patterning technique via parallel vacuum ultraviolet is developed for fabricating large-scale, complex electronic circuits with 1 μm resolution. The prepared organic thin-film transistors exhibit a low contact resistance of 1.5 kΩ cm, and high mobilities of 0.3 and 1.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) in the devices with channel lengths of 1 and 5 μm, respectively. PMID:27184834

  17. High-resolution in situ observations of electron precipitation-causing EMIC waves

    SciTech Connect

    Rodger, Craig J.; Hendry, Aaron T.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Brundell, James B.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.

    2015-11-21

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are thought to be important drivers of energetic electron losses from the outer radiation belt through precipitation into the atmosphere. While the theoretical possibility of pitch angle scattering-driven losses from these waves has been recognized for more than four decades, there have been limited experimental precipitation observations to support this concept. We have combined satellite-based observations of the characteristics of EMIC waves, with satellite and ground-based observations of the EMIC-induced electron precipitation. In a detailed case study, supplemented by an additional four examples, we are able to constrain for the first time the location, size, and energy range of EMIC-induced electron precipitation inferred from coincident precipitation data and relate them to the EMIC wave frequency, wave power, and ion band of the wave as measured in situ by the Van Allen Probes. As a result, these observations will better constrain modeling into the importance of EMIC wave-particle interactions.

  18. High-resolution in situ observations of electron precipitation-causing EMIC waves

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodger, Craig J.; Hendry, Aaron T.; Clilverd, Mark A.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Brundell, James B.; Reeves, Geoffrey D.

    2015-11-21

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are thought to be important drivers of energetic electron losses from the outer radiation belt through precipitation into the atmosphere. While the theoretical possibility of pitch angle scattering-driven losses from these waves has been recognized for more than four decades, there have been limited experimental precipitation observations to support this concept. We have combined satellite-based observations of the characteristics of EMIC waves, with satellite and ground-based observations of the EMIC-induced electron precipitation. In a detailed case study, supplemented by an additional four examples, we are able to constrain for the first time the location, size,more » and energy range of EMIC-induced electron precipitation inferred from coincident precipitation data and relate them to the EMIC wave frequency, wave power, and ion band of the wave as measured in situ by the Van Allen Probes. As a result, these observations will better constrain modeling into the importance of EMIC wave-particle interactions.« less

  19. Acquisition of a High Resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope for the Analysis of Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nittler, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    This grant furnished funds to purchase a state-of-the-art scanning electron microscope (SEM) to support our analytical facilities for extraterrestrial samples. After evaluating several instruments, we purchased a JEOL 6500F thermal field emission SEM with the following analytical accessories: EDAX energy-dispersive x-ray analysis system with fully automated control of instrument and sample stage; EDAX LEXS wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for high sensitivity light-element analysis; EDAX/TSL electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system with software for phase identification and crystal orientation mapping; Robinson backscatter electron detector; and an in situ micro-manipulator (Kleindiek). The total price was $550,000 (with $150,000 of the purchase supported by Carnegie institution matching funds). The microscope was delivered in October 2002, and most of the analytical accessories were installed by January 2003. With the exception of the wavelength spectrometer (which has been undergoing design changes) everything is working well and the SEM is in routine use in our laboratory.

  20. Development of an Apparatus for High-Resolution Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) and Electron Ion Coincidence (EICO) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Hashimoto, Shogo; Fujita, Narihiko; Mase, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Okusawa, Makoto

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) apparatus for high-resolution Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA), a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DP-CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a magnetic shield, an xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface was irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons were energy-analyzed and detected by the ASMA and the DP-CMA, while desorbed ions were mass-analyzed and detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring Si 2p photoelectron spectra of clean Si(001)-2×1 and Si(111)-7×7, and by measuring Si-L23VV-Si-2p Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra (Si-L23VV-Si-2p APECS) of clean Si(001)-2×1.

  1. Interpenetration and deflection phenomena in collisions between supersonic, magnetized, tungsten plasma flows diagnosed using high resolution optical Thomson scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rozmus, W.; Burdiak, G.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S.; Yuan, J.

    2015-07-01

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the "precursor" plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100-140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.

  2. Interpenetration and deflection phenomena in collisions between supersonic, magnetized, tungsten plasma flows diagnosed using high resolution optical Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Burdiak, G.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rozmus, W.; Yuan, J.

    2015-07-15

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the “precursor” plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100–140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.

  3. High-Resolution {alpha} and Electron Spectroscopy of {sup 249}{sub 98}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Zhu, S.

    2015-04-13

    alpha-particle spectra of Cf-249 have been measured with a double-focusing magnetic spectrometer and with passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. The conversion-electron spectra of Cf-249 have been measured with a cooled Si(Li) detector and with a room-temperature PIPS detector. Precise energies of a groups in the decay of Cf-249 have been measured with respect to the known energy of Cf-250. In addition, alpha-electron, alpha-gamma, and gamma-gamma coincidence measurements were also performed to determine the spin-parity of the previously known 643.64-keV level. From electron intensities, conversion coefficients of transitions in the daughter Cm-245 have been determined. The measured L-3 conversion coefficients of the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions are found to be in agreement with the theoretical conversion coefficients for pure E1 multipolarity. On the other hand, the K, L-1 + L-2, M, and N conversion coefficients are approximately twice the theoretical values for pure E1 transitions. These measurements indicate anomalous E1 conversion coefficients for the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions, as has been pointed out in earlier measurements. The measured conversion coefficient of the 255.5-keV transition gives an M1 multipolarity for this transition which establishes a spin-parity of 7/2(-) and the 7/2(-)[743] single-particle assignment to the 643.64-keV level.

  4. Observation of Shock-Induced Phases of Nb2O5 Single Crystal under High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masae; Kusaba, Keiji; Bannai, Eisuke; Fukuoka, Kiyoto; Syono, Yasuhiko; Hiraga, Kenji

    1985-12-01

    Shock-loading experiments on Nb2O5 single crystals were carried out up to 54 GPa by the gun method. The shock-loaded materials are recovered by using both closed and open recovery fixtures and were examined by powder X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy. Complete conversion to T-Nb2O5 of μm size, denser by 12% than H-Nb2O5, was found in the pressure range from 20-40 GPa. When single-crystal H-Nb2O5 was shocked perpendicular to the b-axis using the open-system recovery fixture, an unidentified phase referred to as the X-phase, besides T-Nb2O5 and shock-reduced NbxO2 with the rutile structure, was observed. The high-resolution image of the X-phase is interpreted as two-dimensionally disordered H-Nb2O5. The X-phase is probably formed in the rapid decompression process from the shock-induced high-pressure phase.

  5. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.; Hull, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e., soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  6. Carbon Nanostructure Examined by Lattice Fringe Analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randy L.; Tomasek, Aaron J.; Street, Kenneth; Thompson, William K.

    2002-01-01

    The dimensions of graphitic layer planes directly affect the reactivity of soot towards oxidation and growth. Quantification of graphitic structure could be used to develop and test correlations between the soot nanostructure and its reactivity. Based upon transmission electron microscopy images, this paper provides a demonstration of the robustness of a fringe image analysis code for determining the level of graphitic structure within nanoscale carbon, i.e. soot. Results, in the form of histograms of graphitic layer plane lengths, are compared to their determination through Raman analysis.

  7. In-situ measurement of objective lens data of a high-resolution electron microscope.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1971-01-01

    Bragg-reflex images of small individual crystallites in the size range of 20-100 A diameter with known crystallographic orientation were used in a transmission electron microscope to determine in-situ: (a) the relationship between objective lens current (or accelerating voltage) changes in discrete steps and corresponding defocus, (b) the spherical aberration coefficient, and (c) the axial chromatic aberration coefficient of the objective lens. The accuracy of the described method is better than 5%. The same specimen can advantageously be used to properly aline the illuminating beam with respect to the optical axis.

  8. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Francis; Yang, Chun; Mouret, Gael; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lampin, Jean-François; Blary, Karine; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements. PMID:22291552

  9. High-resolution width-modulated pulse rebalance electronics for strapdown gyroscopes and accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, E. J.; Blalock, T. V.; Bryan, W. L.; Rush, K.

    1974-01-01

    Three different rebalance electronic loops were designed, implemented, and evaluated. The loops were width-modulated binary types using a 614.4 kHz keying signal; they were developed to accommodate the following three inertial sensors with the indicated resolution values: (1) Kearfott 2412 accelerometer - resolution = 260 micro-g/data pulse, (2) Honeywell GG334 gyroscope - resolution = 3.9 milli-arc-sec/data pulse, (3) Kearfott 2401-009 accelerometer - resolution = 144 milli-g/data pulse. Design theory, details of the design implementation, and experimental results for each loop are presented.

  10. High resolution patterning for flexible electronics via roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabik, Sami; de Riet, Joris; Yakimets, Iryna; Smits, Edsger

    2014-03-01

    Flexible electronics is a growing field and is currently maturing in applications such as displays, smart packaging, organic light-emitting diodes and organic photovoltaic cells. In order to process on flexible substrates at high throughput and large areas, novel patterning techniques will be essential. Conventional optical lithography is limited in throughput as well as resolution, and requires several alignment steps to generate multi-layered patterns, required for applications such as thin-film transistors. It therefore remains a complex and expensive process. Nanoimprint lithography is an emerging alternative to optical lithography, demonstrating patterning capabilities over a wide range of resolutions, from several microns down to a few nanometres. For display applications, nanoimprint lithography can be used to pattern various layers. Micron sized thin-film transistors for backplane can be fabricated where a self-aligned geometry is used to decrease the number of alignment steps, and increase the overlay accuracy. In addition, nano-structures can be used for optical applications such as anti-reflective surfaces and nano patterned transparent electrodes. Imprint lithography is a fully roll-to-roll compatible process and enables large area and high throughput fabrication for flexible electronics. In this paper we discuss the possibilities and the challenges of large area patterning by roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography, reviewing micron and nano sized structures realized on our roll-to-roll equipment. Nano patterned transparent electrodes, moth-eye antireflective coatings, and multilevel structures will be covered.

  11. High-resolution patterning electronic polymers using dopant induced solubility control (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moule, Adam J.; Jacobs, Ian E.; Li, Jun; Burg, Stephanie L.; Bilsky, David J.; Rotondo, Brandon T.; Stroeve, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Organic electronics promise to provide flexible, large-area circuitry such as photovoltaics, displays, and light emitting diodes that can be fabricated inexpensively from solutions. A major obstacle to this vision is that most conjugated organic materials are miscible, making solution-based fabrication of multilayer or micro- to nanoscale patterned films problematic. Here we demonstrate that the solubility of prototypical conductive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) can be reversibly "switched off" using high electron affinity molecular dopants, then later recovered with light or a suitable dedoping solution. Using this technique, we are able to stack mutually soluble materials and laterally pattern polymer films using evaporation of dopants through a shadow mask or with light, achieving sub-micrometer, optically limited feature sizes. After forming these structures, the films can be dedoped without disrupting the patterned features; dedoped films have identical optical characteristics, charge carrier mobilities, and NMR spectra as as-cast P3HT films. This method greatly simplifies solution-based device fabrication, is easily adaptable to current manufacturing workflows, and is potentially generalizable to other classes of materials.

  12. Electron-atom /molecule/ collision processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trajmar, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electron-atom (molecule) collision processes at low and intermediate energies, from near threshold to a few hundred electron volts, are discussed. Attention is given to experimental techniques and procedures, electron impact cross sections, impact excitation and electron-atom scattering in laser fields. Specific examples are presented that illustrate various experimental techniques and interpretations of observations.

  13. Observation of New Hollow States of Li^+ in High-Resolution Electron-Spectroscopy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, S.; Cubaynes, D.; Bizau, J.-M.; Wuilleumier, F. J.; Mosnier, J.-P.; Kennedy, E. T.

    1998-05-01

    Using the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Super-ACO storage ring in Orsay and an electron spectrometer with decelerating optics, we have observed new highly-excited (2l,3l') and (2l, 4l'') hollow states of the singly-charged lithium ion. They were observed in the second step of the autoionization decay of atomic hollow states created by photoexcitation of lithium atoms at excitation energies below the triple-ionization potential (203 eV), and after direct ionization into the continuum at photon energies above 203 eV . We have measured the energies and widths of the new states, and found that they are in excellent agreement with theoretical calculations by K. T. Chung using the saddle point approximation.

  14. Preparation of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea for high-resolution histology and transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brubacher, John L.; Vieira, Ana P.; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2014-01-01

    The flatworm Schmidtea mediterranea is an emerging model species in such fields as stem-cell biology, regeneration, and evolutionary biology. Excellent molecular tools have been developed for S. mediterranea, but ultrastructural techniques have received far less attention. Processing specimens for histology and transmission electron microscopy is notoriously idiosyncratic for particular species or specimen types. Unfortunately however, most methods for S. mediterranea described in the literature lack numerous essential details, and those few that do provide them rely on specialized equipment that may not be readily available. Here we present an optimized protocol for ultrastructural preparation of S. mediterranea. The protocol can be completed in six days, much of which is “hands-off” time. To aid with troubleshooting, we also illustrate the significant effects of seemingly minor variations in fixative, buffer concentration, and dehydration steps. This procedure will be useful for all planarian researchers, particularly those with relatively little experience in tissue processing. PMID:24556788

  15. Extended Depth of Field for High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hovden, Robert; Xin, Huolin L.; Muller, David A.

    2010-12-02

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) provide sub-Angstrom lateral resolution; however, the large convergence angle greatly reduces the depth of field. For microscopes with a small depth of field, information outside of the focal plane quickly becomes blurred and less defined. It may not be possible to image some samples entirely in focus. Extended depth-of-field techniques, however, allow a single image, with all areas in focus, to be extracted from a series of images focused at a range of depths. In recent years, a variety of algorithmic approaches have been employed for bright-field optical microscopy. Here, we demonstrate that some established optical microscopy methods can also be applied to extend the ~6 nm depth of focus of a 100 kV 5th-order aberration-corrected STEM (α{sub max} = 33 mrad) to image Pt-Co nanoparticles on a thick vulcanized carbon support. These techniques allow us to automatically obtain a single image with all the particles in focus as well as a complimentary topography map.

  16. Extended depth of field for high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hovden, Robert; Xin, Huolin L; Muller, David A

    2011-02-01

    Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) provide sub-Angstrom lateral resolution; however, the large convergence angle greatly reduces the depth of field. For microscopes with a small depth of field, information outside of the focal plane quickly becomes blurred and less defined. It may not be possible to image some samples entirely in focus. Extended depth-of-field techniques, however, allow a single image, with all areas in focus, to be extracted from a series of images focused at a range of depths. In recent years, a variety of algorithmic approaches have been employed for bright-field optical microscopy. Here, we demonstrate that some established optical microscopy methods can also be applied to extend the ∼ 6 nm depth of focus of a 100 kV 5th-order aberration-corrected STEM (α max = 33 mrad) to image Pt-Co nanoparticles on a thick vulcanized carbon support. These techniques allow us to automatically obtain a single image with all the particles in focus as well as a complimentary topography map. PMID:21122192

  17. Simulation of High Resolution Vibrational and Electronic Spectra with a Multifrequency Virtual Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biczysko, Malgorzata; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2013-06-01

    Moving from the common practice of extracting numerical data from experiment to be compared with quantum mechanical (QM) results toward a direct vis-à-vis} comparison of experimental and simulated spectra would strongly reduce any arbitrariness in analysis of complex experimental outcomes and allow a proper account of the information connected to both position and shape of spectral bands. The development of such ``virtual ab initio spectrometers'' for a wide range of wavelengths has been one of our major research goals in the last years [1,2]. Recent methodological advances from our group allow simulation of optical (IR, Raman, UV-vis, etc.) spectra line-shapes for medium-to-large closed- and open-shell molecular systems. Vibrational spectra are computed including anharmonicities through perturbative corrections while electronic spectra line-shapes are simulated accounting for the vibrational structure. Well resolved and accurate theoretical spectra provide data as close as possible to the results directly available from experiment allowing to avoid ambiguities in analysis of the latter. Several examples illustrating interpretation, assignment or revision of experimental spectra for prototypes of bio-molecular systems (phenyl radical, glycine, thymine, pyrimidine, anisole dimer) will be presented. 1. V. Barone, A. Baiardi, M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, C. Cappelli, F. Lipparini Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, 14, 12404, 2012 2. M. Biczysko, J. Bloino, G. Brancato, et al. Theor. Chem. Acc. 113, 1201, 2012

  18. High-Resolution Hypernuclear Spectroscopy Electron Scattering at Jlab, Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Franco Garibaldi

    2010-12-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy via electromagnetic induced reactions is a valuable and powerful way to study hypernuclei, hadronic systems with non-zero strangeness content, providing an alternative to the hadron induced reactions mainly studied so far. Electron-induced hypernuclear spectroscopy has been studied in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on three nuclei, 12C, 16O, and 9Be with unprecedented resolution and with an improved particle identification system, using a RICH detector, in order to unambiguously identify kaons, thus allowing the measurement of high-quality, almost background-free, hypernuclear spectra. Two superconducting septum magnets were added to the existing apparatus in order to permit particle detection at very forward angle providing a reasonable counting rate. These studies have provided the first quantitative information on, for instance, core-excited states in hypernuclei. In the case of oxygen, a waterfall target has been employed allowing for the simultaneous measurement of hypernuclear production on oxygen and of elementary kaon-Lambda electro-production on protons: a crucial measurement to disentangle the contribution of the elementary reaction from the measured hypernuclear production cross section, yielding direct access to the nucleus-hypernucleus transition structure. Final results for 12C and 16O as well as preliminary results on 9Be will be presented.

  19. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of carbon deposited on the NiO/MgO solid solution catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.H.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1999-05-15

    The carbon deposition due to the CH{sub 4} decomposition at 790 C over NiO/MgO catalysts was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no deposits could be detected over the catalysts with a NiO content smaller than 9.1 wt%, they were detected over the catalysts with NiO contents of 23 and 50 wt%. The carbon deposits are composed of platelets located at distances of about 0.34 nm, corresponding to the graphitic carbon. Various structures of the deposited carbon were observed: (a) carbon consisting of platelets parallel to the surface of the particle, which covers a catalyst particle, (b) nanotubes composed of platelets parallel to their axis, and (c) carbon vortexes consisting of platelets parallel to their axis.

  20. High-resolution electron microscopy of glycoproteins: the crystalline cell wall of Lobomonas.

    PubMed

    Roberts, K; Shaw, P J; Hills, G J

    1981-10-01

    Lobomonas piriformis is a member of an order of green algae (Volvocales) that have crystalline glycoprotein cell walls. As part of a program of investigation of these glycoproteins and their architecture we have studied the cell wall of Lobomonas by a variety of chemical, electron-microscopical and image-analysis techniques. Lobomonas and Vitreochlamys incisa show a very similar structure in their cell walls and represent I of the 4 classes into which all the structures of the wall of these algae that we have so far examined fall. The 2 classes that we have previously studied in detail, represented by Chlamydomonas reinhardii and chlorogonium elongatum, have a crystalline component of the wall that is a more or less smooth continuous surface overlying an amorphous inner wall layer. Although Lobomonas also has this 2-layer structure, the crystalline layer consists of distinct plates, each of which is built around a single, very coherent crystal lattice. The polar nature of the architecture of the cell wall is shown by sectioning and by examination of the cell-wall surface by metal-shadowing of carbon replicas, both of intact cells and of isolated cell-wall plates. There are great similarities in chemical composition between the glycoproteins of the cell wall of C. reinhardii and those of Lobomonas. Both has a large content of hydroxyproline in their amino acid composition and a sugar/hydroxyproline ratio of about 6.0, and both contain sugar sulphates. Lobomonas however has a large glucose content, whereas Chlamydamonas has almost none. Electron micrographs of walls stained with methylamine tungstate and shadowed specimens show that the Lobomonas crystal structure is entirely different from that of C. Reinhardii, and that there is a distinctly different structure in the centre of the plates from that at their edges, although the transition between the 2 areas occurs with no distortion of the crystal lattice. Computer image analysis has been used to calculate

  1. High-resolution total electron content observations of severe ionospheric disturbances using dense GPS receiver networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsugawa, Takuya; Kato, Hisao; Kubota, Minoru; Hidekatsu, Jin; Maruyama, Takashi; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Saito, Akinori; Nishioka, Michi; Otsuka, Yuichi; Miyake, Wataru; Supnithi, Pornchai; Kenpankho, Prasert

    Two-dimensional total electron content (TEC) maps have been derived from ground-based GPS receiver networks and applied to studies of various ionospheric disturbances since mid-1990s. For the purpose of monitoring and researching ionospheric disturbances which can degrade GNSS navigations and cause loss-of-lock on GNSS signals, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan has developed TEC maps over Japan using the dense GPS network, GEONET, which consists of more than 1,200 GPS receivers and is operated by Geophysical Survey Institute, Japan. Currently, we are providing two-dimensional maps of absolute TEC, detrended TEC with 60, 30, 15-minute window, rate of TEC change index (ROTI), and loss-of-lock on GPS signal over Japan. These data and quick-look maps since 1997 are archived and available in the website of NICT (http://wdc.nict.go.jp/IONO/). Recently developed GPS receiver networks in North America and Europe make it possible to obtain regional TEC maps with higher spatial and temporal resolution than the global weighted mean TEC maps in the IONEX format provided by several institutes such as International GNSS Service (IGS) and another global TEC map provided by MIT Haystack observatory. Recently, we have also developed the regional TEC maps over North America and Europe. These data and quick-look maps are also available in the NICT website. In this presentation, we will show some severe ionospheric events such as high latitude storm-time plasma bubbles and storm enhanced density events observed over Japan using the GPS-TEC database. These events cause loss-of-lock of GPS signals and large GPS positioning errors. We will also introduce some interesting ionospheric events over Europe and North America, and discuss about a future direction of our GPS-TEC data service.

  2. High resolution electron diffraction analysis of structural changes associated with the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B. -G.

    1994-04-01

    Changes in protein structure that occur during the formation of the M photointermediate of bacteriorhodopsin can be directly visualized by electron diffraction techniques. Samples containing a high percentage of the M intermediate were trapped by rapidly cooling the crystals with liquid nitrogen following illumination with filtered green light at 240K and 260K respectively. Difference Fourier projection maps for M minus bR at two temperatures and for M{sub 260K} minus M{sub 240K} are presented. While it is likely that a unique M-substate is trapped when illuminated at 260K produces a mixture of the M{sub 240K} substate and a second M-substate which may have a protein structure similar to the N-intermediate. The diffraction data clearly show that statistically significant structural changes occur upon formation of the M{sub 240K} specimen and then further upon formation of the second substate which is present in the mixture that is produced at 260K. A preliminary 3-D difference map, based on data collected with samples tilted up to 30{degree}, has been constructed at a resolution of 3.5{angstrom} parallel to the membrane plane and a resolution of 8.5{angstrom} perpendicular to the membrane. The data have been analyzed by a number of different criteria to ensure that the differences seen reflect real conformation changes at a level which is significantly above the noise in the map. Furthermore, a comparison of the positions of specific backbone and side-chain groups relative to significant difference peaks suggests that it will be necessary to further refine the atomic resolution model before it will be possible to interpret the changes in chemical structure that occur in the protein at this stage of the photocycle.

  3. High-resolution electronic spectroscopy of the doorway states to intramolecular charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Adam J; Bird, Ryan G; Zaleski, Daniel P; Pate, Brooks H; Pratt, David W

    2013-04-25

    Reported here are several of the ground, first, and second excited state structures and dipole moments of three benchmark intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) systems; 4-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)benzonitrile (PBN), 4,4'-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN), and 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)benzonitrile (PYRBN), isolated in the gas phase and probed by rotationally resolved spectroscopy in a molecular beam. The related molecules 1-phenylpyrrole (PP) and 4-aminobenzonitrile (ABN) also are discussed. We find that the S1 electronic state is of B symmetry in all five molecules. In PBN, a second excited state (S2) of A symmetry is found only ~400 cm(-1) above the presumed origin of the S1 state. The change in dipole moment upon excitation to the A state is measured to be Δμ ≈ 3.0 D, significantly smaller than the value predicted by theory and also smaller than that observed for the "anomalous" ICT band of PBN in solution. The B state dipole moments of DMABN and PYRBN are large, ~10.6 D, slightly larger than those attributed to "normal" LE fluorescence in solution. In addition, we find the unsaturated donor molecules (PP, PBN) to be twisted in their ground states and to become more planar upon excitation, even in the A state, whereas the saturated donor molecules (ABN, DMABN, PYRBN), initially planar, either remain planar or become more twisted in their excited states. It thus appears that the model that is appropriate for describing ICT in these systems depends on the geometry of the ground state. PMID:22913563

  4. mr-PosEBR: a novel positive tone resist for high resolution electron beam lithography and 3D surface patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfirrmann, Stefan; Kirchner, Robert; Lohse, Olga; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; Voigt, Anja; Harder, Irina; Kolander, Anett; Schift, Helmut; Grützner, Gabi

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution, we present the results of a systematic material variation for the development of a resist material for high resolution positive tone electron beam lithography (EBL). Several acrylic copolymer materials with different compositions, that is varying mass fractions of the comonomers and different molecular weights, were synthesized and - as resist solutions - evaluated in terms of EBL performance at acceleration voltages of 30 kV and 100 kV. The resist material exhibiting the best combination of the desired properties, named mr-PosEBR, is two times more sensitive than PMMA 495k and performs comparably to the known high resolution resist ZEP520A at 30 kV. For example, a grating pattern with 29 nm wide lines with a period of 100 nm could be lithographically generated in films of mr-PosEBR with an area dose of 100 μC/cm2. In terms of resolution, single lines of only 35 nm width could be fabricated via metal liftoff. Furthermore, the dry etch stability of mr-PosEBR in a CF4/SF6 process is similar to the one of ZEP520A. Consequently, via dry etching nano patterns in mr-PosEBR could be smoothly transferred into the underlying Si substrate with high fidelity. Moreover, mr-PosEBR was evaluated as electron beam grayscale patterning and reflow resist. It was shown that the resist exhibits a good grayscale and reflow performance very similar to PMMA 120k and ZEP520A. Via these well controllable processes the generation of a wide variety of features and applications is possible.

  5. Efficient cross-section preparation method for high-resolution imaging of hard polymer composites with a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, N; Yourdkhani, M; Hubert, P; Gauvin, R

    2015-11-01

    Characterization of distribution and arrangement of filler particles in polymer composites is of primary importance to understand and maximize their mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. An innovative procedure that allows reliable and straightforward preparation of cross-sections of polymer composites with the use of mechanical polishing, ion beam etching and soft gaseous etching is presented in this paper. Because of the inherent difference between the organic amorphous matrix and the inorganic crystalline nature of composite fillers, the removal of matrix layers at the surface of the cross-section at the expense of the inorganic materials allowed characterizing the composite filler particles structure and distribution over the surface. Since beam broadening did not occur before the beam hit the nanoparticles, high-resolution imaging in the scanning electron microscope was possible and true dimensions and orientation of the particles were observed. This provided more flexibility in selecting the primary beam voltage; especially, the use of low beam energy greatly improved the image contrast and reduced charging effects resulting from the primary electron beam bombardment. It was shown that only polymers with a carbonated main chain could be etched selectively by the gaseous etching process. PMID:26098996

  6. Soot Structure and Reactivity Analysis by Raman Microspectroscopy, Temperature-Programmed Oxidation, and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, Markus; Schuster, Manfred E.; Su, Dangsheng; Schlögl, Robert; Niessner, Reinhard; Ivleva, Natalia P.

    2009-11-01

    Raman microspectroscopy (RM), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were combined to get comprehensive information on the relationship between structure and reactivity of soot in samples of spark discharge (GfG), heavy duty engine diesel (EURO VI and IV) soot, and graphite powder upon oxidation by oxygen at increasing temperatures. GfG soot and graphite powder represent the higher and lower reactivity limits. Raman microspectroscopic analysis was conducted by determination of spectral parameters using a five band fitting procedure (G, D1-D4) as well as by evaluation of the dispersive character of the D mode. The analysis of spectral parameters shows a higher degree of disorder and a higher amount of molecular carbon for untreated GfG soot samples than for samples of untreated EURO VI and EURO IV soot. The structural analysis based on the dispersive character of the D mode revealed substantial differences in ordering descending from graphite powder, EURO IV, VI to GfG soot. HRTEM images and EELS analysis of EURO IV and VI samples indicated a different morphology and a higher structural order as compared to GfG soot in full agreement with the Raman analysis. These findings are also confirmed by the reactivity of soot during oxidation (TPO), where GfG soot was found to be the most reactive and EURO IV and VI soot samples exhibited a moderate reactivity.

  7. High-resolution electron microscopic evidence for the filamentous structure of the cyst wall in Giardia muris and Giardia duodenalis.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, S L; Bemrick, W J; Pawley, J

    1989-10-01

    High-resolution morphological studies of the cyst wall of Giardia spp. were performed using low-voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cyst wall was composed of membranous and filamentous layers. The membranous layer consisted of an inner and an outer cyst membrane separated by a thin layer of cytoplasm. The filamentous layer contained individual filaments that ranged from 7 to 20 nm in diameter when measured by LVSEM, formed a dense meshwork with branches or interconnections, and were occasionally arranged on the surface in whorled patterns. Cysts of Giardia muris from mice, Giardia duodenalis from dogs, pigs, voles, beavers, muskrats, and humans, and Giardia psittaci from a bird (parakeet), possessed an essentially identical wall composed of filaments. Inducement of excystation in viable Giardia cysts produced a dramatic increase in the interfilament spacing over an entire cyst, but none was observed in heat-killed or chemically fixed control cysts. These results demonstrated that the cyst wall of Giardia spp. was composed of a complex arrangement of filaments, presumably formed during the process of encystment. PMID:2795382

  8. Conformational ordering of biomolecules in the gas phase: nitrogen collision cross sections measured on a prototype high resolution drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; Goodwin, Cody R; Lareau, Nichole M; Leaptrot, Katrina L; Morris, Caleb B; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Mordehai, Alex; Klein, Christian; Barry, William; Darland, Ed; Overney, Gregor; Imatani, Kenneth; Stafford, George C; Fjeldsted, John C; McLean, John A

    2014-02-18

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid "omni-omic" characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field. PMID:24446877

  9. Conformational Ordering of Biomolecules in the Gas Phase: Nitrogen Collision Cross Sections Measured on a Prototype High Resolution Drift Tube Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid “omni-omic” characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field. PMID:24446877

  10. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  11. Secondary Electron Focusing to Retain High-Resolution Measurements in Linear-Electric- Field Time-of-Flight Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lundgren, R. A.; Panning, M. H.; Rogacki, S. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2008-12-01

    Linear-electric-field time-of-flight (LEF TOF) analyzers are useful for space applications of mass spectrometry. Particles pass through a thin Carbon foil and enter the analyzer with one of several charge states, typically different than that of the incident ion. High mass resolution (m/Δ m~ 100) is obtained for positive charge states whose isochronous flight times are not dependent on the particle's energy, while low mass resolution (m/Δ m~ 10) is recorded for charge states that travel straight through the analyzer and are affected by collisional scattering when passing through the Carbon foil. When the flight times of different masses and charge states are recorded by the same anode, it is sometimes difficult to extract the lower-count-rate isochronous measurements. We present a technique for overcoming this issue using a modified instrument geometry combined with a novel position-sensitive detector. This modified geometry of a cylindrically symmetric LEF TOF analyzer has inner electrostatic rings, which focus secondary electrons created by isochronous ion impact. Electrons are guided toward the central area of a position-sensitive serpentine delay line anode, and position and flight time information are processed by a time-to-digital converter in a field-programmable-gate-array chip. Neutrals and negative ions will impact the anode in regions other than the center, and can be separated out by their position. Using these advanced electronics with the modified design, the high-resolution measurement can be extracted from the data as a focused peak at the center of the anode, providing improved measurements without an increase in the instrument size. We report the results from simulations and laboratory measurements used to experimentally confirm the expected performance of this design.

  12. Genesis of presolar diamonds: Comparative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of meteoritic and terrestrial nano-diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Daulton, T.L. |; Eisenhour, D.D.; Buseck, P.R.

    1996-12-01

    Nano-diamonds isolated from acid dissolution residues of primitive carbonaceous meteorites (Allende and Murchison) were studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. To discriminate among their most likely formation mechanisms, high-pressure shock-induced metamorphism or low-pressure vapor condensation. the microstructures of presolar diamond crystallites were compared to those of (terrestrial) synthesized nano-diamonds. The synthesized diamonds used for comparison in this study were produced by high-pressure shock waves generated in controlled detonations and by direct nucleation and homoepitaxial growth from the vapor phase in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-type processes. Microstructural features were identified that appear unique to shock metamorphism and to nucleation from the vapor phase, respectively. A comparison of these features to the microstructures found in presolar diamonds indicates that the predominant mechanism for presolar diamond formation is a vapor deposition process, suggesting a circumstellar condensation origin. A new presolar grain component has also been identified in the meteoritic residues, the (2H) hexagonal polytype of diamond (lonsdaleite). 93 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Separating strain from composition in unit cell parameter maps obtained from aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.; Remmele, T.; Korytov, M.; Markurt, T.; Albrecht, M.; Duff, A.; Lymperakis, L.; Neugebauer, J.; Chèze, C.

    2014-01-21

    Based on the evaluation of lattice parameter maps in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we propose a simple method that allows quantifying the composition and disorder of a semiconductor alloy at the unit cell scale with high accuracy. This is realized by considering, next to the out-of-plane, also the in-plane lattice parameter component allowing to separate the chemical composition from the strain field. Considering only the out-of-plane lattice parameter component not only yields large deviations from the true local alloy content but also carries the risk of identifying false ordering phenomena like formations of chains or platelets. Our method is demonstrated on image simulations of relaxed supercells, as well as on experimental images of an In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N quantum well. Principally, our approach is applicable to all epitaxially strained compounds in the form of quantum wells, free standing islands, quantum dots, or wires.

  14. Study of Explosive Electron Emission from a Pin Cathode Using High Resolution Point-Projection X-Ray Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Parkevich, E. V.; Tilikin, I. N.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Agafonov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Most studies of Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) are based on the idea of cathode flares developing after explosion of metal whiskers (micron scale pins) on the cathode surface. The physical state of the pin material, the spatial structure of the explosion and its origin are still a matter of conjecture. In this work we used high-resolution point projection x-ray radiography to observe micron scale pin explosion in a high-current diode. Pin cathodes made from 10-25 micron Cu or Mo wires were placed in gaps in return current circuits of hybrid X-pinches on the XP and BIN pulsers. Pin lengths were varied over a range 1-4 mm and pin-anode gaps within 0.05-3 mm. The diode current and voltage were measured. In experiments with small pin-anode gap (0.1 - 1 mm) development of an expanded dense core of the pin was observed except the pin tip with length 100-200 microns indicating significant energy deposition in the wire material. In experiments with bigger gaps there was no visible wire core expansion within the spatial resolution of the experimental technique. Work at Cornell was supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NA0001836 and at the Lebedev Institute by the RSF grant 142200273.

  15. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations on textured rapidly quenched NdFeB permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lin; Luzzi, D. E.; Graham, C. D., Jr.

    1991-11-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to examine the microstructures of NdFeB magnets made by rapid solidification. The samples were General Motors MQ-3 magnets, and also MQ-3 magnets that had been recompressed perpendicular to the original compression axis. A major finding is that the Nd-rich grain-boundary phase is not uniformly distributed on all grain boundaries of the Nd2Fe14B phase. Some boundaries are completely clean, and where the Nd-rich phase does appear, its thickness varies widely. The grain-boundary phase (whose structure has been variously identified) is partially ordered at room temperature after slow cooling. Ordered domains and antiphase boundaries have been observed in this phase by HRTEM. Using the Nd2Fe14B fringe spacing as calibration, the lattice parameter of the grain-boundary phase is found to be 5.58 Å. In the completely ordered state, this phase is neither bcc nor fcc; it is simple cubic with a lower-symmetry space group Pm3m.

  16. Wide-band, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer for the Electron Beam Ion Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed two wide-band, high-resolution vacuum flat crystal spectrometers and implemented them on the Electron Beam Ion Trap located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Working in unison, these spectrometers can measure an x-ray bandwidth {le}9 {Angstrom} in the soft x-ray region below 21 {Angstrom}. In order to achieve this large bandwidth each spectrometer houses either two 125 mm {times} 13 mm {times} 2 mm RAP (rubidium acid phthalate, 2d=26.121 {Angstrom}), two 114 mm {times} 13 mm {times} 2 mm TlAP (thallium acid phthalate, 2d=25.75 {Angstrom}) crystals, or some combination thereof, for dispersion and two position sensitive proportional counters for detection of x rays. The spectrometers are used to measure wavelengths and relative intensities of the L-shell line emission from FethinspXVII{endash}XXIV for comparison with spectra obtained from astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The wide wavelength coverage attainable by these spectrometers makes it possible to measure all the L-shell emission from a given iron ion species simultaneously. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. XRD (x-ray diffraction) and HREM (high resolution electron microscopy) studies of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Siegel, R.W. )

    1990-12-01

    Consolidated powders of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) as part of an investigation of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline pure metals. XRD line broadening measurements were made to estimate grain size, qualitative grain size distribution and average long range strains in a number of samples. Mean grain sizes range from 4--60 nm and have qualitatively narrow grain size distributions. Long range lattice strains are of the order of 0.2--3% in consolidated samples. These strains apparently persist and even increase in Cu samples after annealing at 0.35 Tm (498K) for 2h, accompanied by an apparent increase in grain size of {ge}2x. Grain size, grain size distribution width and internal strains vary somewhat among samples produced under apparently identical processing conditions. HREM studies show that twins, stacking faults and low-index facets are abundant in as-consolidated nanocrystalline Cu samples. Methodology, results, and analysis of XRD and HREM experiments are presented. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Wide-band, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer for the Electron Beam Ion Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed two wide-band, high-resolution vacuum flat crystal spectrometers and implemented them on the Electron Beam Ion Trap located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Working in unison, these spectrometers can measure an x-ray bandwidth ⩽9 Å in the soft x-ray region below 21 Å. In order to achieve this large bandwidth each spectrometer houses either two 125 mm × 13 mm × 2 mm RAP (rubidium acid phthalate, 2d=26.121 Å), two 114 mm × 13 mm × 2 mm TlAP (thallium acid phthalate, 2d=25.75 Å) crystals, or some combination thereof, for dispersion and two position sensitive proportional counters for detection of x rays. The spectrometers are used to measure wavelengths and relative intensities of the L-shell line emission from Fe XVII-XXIV for comparison with spectra obtained from astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. The wide wavelength coverage attainable by these spectrometers makes it possible to measure all the L-shell emission from a given iron ion species simultaneously.

  19. High resolution transmission electron microscope Imaging and first-principles simulations of atomic-scale features in graphene membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-02-01

    Ultra-thin membranes such as graphene[1] are of great importance for basic science and technology applications. Graphene sets the ultimate limit of thinness, demonstrating that a free-standing single atomic layer not only exists but can be extremely stable and strong [2--4]. However, both theory [5, 6] and experiments [3, 7] suggest that the existence of graphene relies on intrinsic ripples that suppress the long-wavelength thermal fluctuations which otherwise spontaneously destroy long range order in a two dimensional system. Here we show direct imaging of the atomic features in graphene including the ripples resolved using monochromatic aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We compare the images observed in TEM with simulated images based on an accurate first-principles total potential. We show that these atomic scale features can be mapped through accurate first-principles simulations into high resolution TEM contrast. [1] Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191, (2007). [2] Novoselov, K. S.et al. Science 306, 666-669, (2004). [3] Meyer, J. C. et al. Nature 446, 60-63, (2007). [4] Lee, C., Wei, X. D., Kysar, J. W. & Hone, J. Science 321, 385-388, (2008). [5] Nelson, D. R. & Peliti, L. J Phys-Paris 48, 1085-1092, (1987). [6] Fasolino, A., Los, J. H. & Katsnelson, M. I. Nat. Mater. 6, 858-861, (2007). [7] Meyer, J. C. et al. Solid State Commun. 143, 101-109, (2007).

  20. Hydrogenated graphene on Ir(111): A high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy study of the vibrational spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyhl, Line; Balog, Richard; Angot, Thierry; Hornekær, Liv; Bisson, Régis

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen atom adsorption on high-quality graphene on Ir(111) [gr/Ir(111)] is investigated using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. The evolution of the vibrational spectrum, up to 400 meV, of gr/Ir(111) upon increasing hydrogen atom exposures is measured. The two dominant binding configurations of atomic hydrogen are identified as (1) graphanelike hydrogen clusters on the parts of the graphene more strongly interacting with the Ir(111) surface and (2) dimers bound more weakly to the freestanding parts of the graphene. The graphanelike surface structures lead to increased corrugation of the graphene sheet, yielding graphane-related phonon components. Additionally, a recent theoretical prediction of the existence of a bending character for a LO/TO graphane chair phonon mode is experimentally verified. No clear evidence was found for hydrogen bound on both sides of a high-quality graphene sheet and phonon features strongly suggest interactions between graphanelike hydrogen clusters and Ir atoms in the substrate.

  1. Characterization of Al2O3 in High-Strength Mo Alloy Sheets by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yucheng; Gao, Yimin; Wei, Shizhong; Hu, Yajie

    2016-02-01

    A novel type of alumina (Al2O3)-doped molybdenum (Mo) alloy sheet was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a subsequent powder metallurgy process. Then the characterization of α-Al2O3 was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as the research focus. The tensile strength of the Al2O3-doped Mo sheet is 43-85% higher than that of the pure Mo sheet, a very obvious reinforcement effect. The sub-micron and nanometer-scale Al2O3 particles can increase the recrystallization temperature by hindering grain boundary migration and improve the tensile strength by effectively blocking the motion of the dislocations. The Al2O3 particles have a good bond with the Mo matrix and there exists an amorphous transition layer at the interface between Al2O3 particles and the Mo matrix in the as-rolled sheet. The sub-structure of α-Al2O3 is characterized by a number of nanograins in the $\\left[ {2\\bar{2}1} \\right]$ direction. Lastly, a new computer-based method for indexing diffraction patterns of the hexagonal system is introduced, with 16 types of diffraction patterns of α-Al2O3 indexed. PMID:26914997

  2. High resolution electron microscopy of Ag-clusters in crystalline and non-crystalline morphologies grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Fisslthaler, Evelin; Grogger, Werner

    2013-06-07

    We present a first investigation of structural properties of Ag clusters with a diameter of up to 5.5 nm grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets (He{sub N}) and deposited on an amorphous C surface. With high resolution transmission electron microscope images we are able to show that in addition to the crystalline face centered cubic (fcc) structure, noncrystalline icosahedral (Ih), and decahedral (Dh) morphologies are grown. Relative abundances (56% fcc, 31% Dh, and 13% Ih) as well as the size distribution of each morphology (mean diameters d{sub fcc}=2.62(5) nm, d{sub Dh}=3.34(7) nm, and d{sub Ih}=3.93(2) nm) do not reflect the situation expected from pure energetic considerations, where small Ihs should be followed by medium sized Dhs and large fccs. Instead, kinetic factors seem to play an important role in the formation of these structures, as it appears to be the case for clusters formed by inert gas aggregation. Considering the low temperatures (0.37 K) and extremely high cooling rates, we discuss basic ideas that might lead to a qualitative picture of the cluster formation process inside He{sub N}.

  3. High resolution electron microscopy of Ag-clusters in crystalline and non-crystalline morphologies grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Koch, Markus; Fisslthaler, Evelin; Grogger, Werner; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2013-06-01

    We present a first investigation of structural properties of Ag clusters with a diameter of up to 5.5 nm grown inside superfluid helium nanodroplets (He(N)) and deposited on an amorphous C surface. With high resolution transmission electron microscope images we are able to show that in addition to the crystalline face centered cubic (fcc) structure, noncrystalline icosahedral (Ih), and decahedral (Dh) morphologies are grown. Relative abundances (56% fcc, 31% Dh, and 13% Ih) as well as the size distribution of each morphology (mean diameters d(fcc)=2.62(5) nm, d(Dh)=3.34(7) nm, and d(Ih)=3.93(2) nm) do not reflect the situation expected from pure energetic considerations, where small Ihs should be followed by medium sized Dhs and large fccs. Instead, kinetic factors seem to play an important role in the formation of these structures, as it appears to be the case for clusters formed by inert gas aggregation. Considering the low temperatures (0.37 K) and extremely high cooling rates, we discuss basic ideas that might lead to a qualitative picture of the cluster formation process inside He(N). PMID:23758376

  4. Comparative analysis of dioxins and furans by electron impact, high-resolution mass spectrometry and by electron capture, negative ionization, low-resolution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C.J.; Harless, R.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron impact, high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is currently the method of choice for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenso-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) because of its ability to detect PCDD/F in the presence of interfering compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which cannot be resolved by low resolution methods. The PDCC/F analyses may also be performed using electron capture, negative ionization (ECNI) low resolution mass spectrometry, providing extensive sample preparation is done to remove interferences. Before ECNI low resolution mass spectrometry (MS) can be accepted as a routine method for PCDD/F analysis, it is necessary to show that results generated by this method are comparable to those obtained by HRMS. Known mixtures and unknown air samples were analyzed by electron impact HRMS (Finnigan MAT 90 system) and by ECNI low resolution MS (Hewlett Packard 5985B). Both instruments were fitted with a gas chromatographic inlet. The PCDD/F concentrations determined by the two techniques compare favorably, typically within 20%. The major difference between these two methods is that the ECNI low resolution method shows poor sensitivity in detecting 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodioxin. However, ECNI MS offers the advantage of lower detection limits (50-100 fg) than electron impact HRMS (0.1 to 0.5 pg). These results suggest that ECNI low resolution MS can be a simple, low cost alternative to the common high resolution methods used for PCDD/F analysis.

  5. A High Resolution Look at Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes of Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hershey, D. L.; Guerrieri, D. A.; Qurashi, J.; Abbass, M.; Blake, D. R.; Khwaja, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate air pollution is a problem of health concern. The microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles found and collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia has been determined. Primary emphasis is given to the use of multiple high resolution electron microscopy (viz., Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM)) to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of ';coatings or contaminants' adsorbed or carried on by the black sand particles. White sand contains natural coarse particles associated with wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of an igneous/metamorphic rock source, and volcanic activities. Silicates (alumino-silicates) and quartz (clear, milky, rose) dominate white sand and rest appears to contain calcite, olivine, feldspar, and magnetite. Black sand particles exhibit very different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness) compared with white sand and volcanic ash. Morphological analyses have shown that the black sand contain ultrafine particles. Black sand is strongly magnetic, which indicates the mineral magnetite (strongly magnetic) or elemental iron. Iron, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S particles dominate the black sand. Natural and anthropogenic sources have been implicated for the observed particles. Analysis revealed that the surface of white sand particles is mainly covered with the fine particles. It is known that emissions from combustion contain carbon soot and other contaminants that are easily absorbed by soil particles during a long-range transport.

  6. High-resolution electron spectroscopy of lanthanide (Ce, Pr, and Nd) complexes of cyclooctatetraene: The role of 4f electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Sudesh; Roudjane, Mourad; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Yang Dongsheng; Liu Yang

    2013-04-28

    Cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium complexes of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT) complexes were produced in a laser-vaporization metal cluster source and studied by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The computations included the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, and the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method. The spectrum of each complex exhibits multiple band systems and is assigned to ionization of several low-energy electronic states of the neutral complex. This observation is different from previous studies of M(COT) (M = Sc, Y, La, and Gd), for which a single band system was observed. The presence of the multiple low-energy electronic states is caused by the splitting of the partially filled lanthanide 4f orbitals in the ligand field, and the number of the low-energy states increases rapidly with increasing number of the metal 4f electrons. On the other hand, the 4f electrons have a small effect on the geometries and vibrational frequencies of these lanthanide complexes.

  7. Electron-electron interactions in fast neutral-neutral collisions

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, R.D. ); Manson, S.T. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1992-11-01

    Differential electron emission is studied for 50--500 keV H[sup +] and H atom impact on helium. Using the first Born formulation, it is shown that projectile electron-target electron interactions are expected to dominate the differential cross sections for low energy target electron emission induced by fast neutral projectile impact on any target. Measurements of the 15[degrees] electron emission were made in order to investigate this prediction. For low impact energies, a constant ratio between the hydrogen atom and proton impact cross sections was found for emitted electron velocities less than half the projectile velocity, V[sub p] But as the collision energy increased, for electron velocities less than 0.25 V[sub p], the cross section ratio increased as the emitted electron velocity decreased. This is interpreted as a signature of projectile electron-target electron interactions becoming dominant for distant collisions between neutral particles.

  8. Electron-electron interactions in fast neutral-neutral collisions

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, R.D.; Manson, S.T.

    1992-11-01

    Differential electron emission is studied for 50--500 keV H{sup +} and H atom impact on helium. Using the first Born formulation, it is shown that projectile electron-target electron interactions are expected to dominate the differential cross sections for low energy target electron emission induced by fast neutral projectile impact on any target. Measurements of the 15{degrees} electron emission were made in order to investigate this prediction. For low impact energies, a constant ratio between the hydrogen atom and proton impact cross sections was found for emitted electron velocities less than half the projectile velocity, V{sub p} But as the collision energy increased, for electron velocities less than 0.25 V{sub p}, the cross section ratio increased as the emitted electron velocity decreased. This is interpreted as a signature of projectile electron-target electron interactions becoming dominant for distant collisions between neutral particles.

  9. High-resolution study of electron capture by 72- and 52-MeV 3He projectiles from targets of high atomic number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, I.; Ikegami, H.; Ogawa, H.; Haruyama, Y.; Tozaki, M.; Aoki, A.; Fukuzawa, F.; Yoshida, K.; Sugai, I.

    1996-01-01

    An electron capture at the cyclotron energy has been explored by using a high-resolution magnetic spectrograph. The K-shell electron capture from heavy elements (V, Cr, Cu, Ge, Nb, Ag, and Sn) by 3He2+ projectiles at 52 and 72 MeV was measured. The dependence of the cross sections on the atomic number of the target obtained at these two energies are compared with current electron-capture theories.

  10. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  11. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Brunger, M J; Neves, R F C; Lopes, M C A; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Blanco, F; García, G; Lima, M A P; Jones, D B

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range. PMID:26472380

  12. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  13. Neutron irradiation damage of nuclear graphite studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, R.; Jones, A. N.; McDermott, L.; Marsden, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear graphite components are produced from polycrystalline artificial graphite manufacture from a binder and filler coke with approximately 20% porosity. During the operational lifetime, nuclear graphite moderator components are subjected to fast neutron irradiation which contributes to the change of material and physical properties such as thermal expansion co-efficient, young's modulus and dimensional change. These changes are directly driven by irradiation-induced changes to the crystal structure as reflected through the bulk microstructure. It is therefore of critical importance that these irradiation changes and there implication on component property changes are fully understood. This work examines a range of irradiated graphite samples removed from the British Experimental Pile Zero (BEPO) reactor; a low temperature, low fluence, air-cooled Materials Test Reactor which operated in the UK. Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been employed to characterise the effect of increased irradiation fluence on graphite microstructure and understand low temperature irradiation damage processes. HRTEM confirms the structural damage of the crystal lattice caused by irradiation attributed to a high number of defects generation with the accumulation of dislocation interactions at nano-scale range. Irradiation-induced crystal defects, lattice parameters and crystallite size compared to virgin nuclear graphite are characterised using selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns in TEM and Raman Spectroscopy. The consolidated 'D'peak in the Raman spectra confirms the formation of in-plane point defects and reflected as disordered regions in the lattice. The reduced intensity and broadened peaks of 'G' and 'D' in the Raman and HRTEM results confirm the appearance of turbulence and disordering of the basal planes whilst maintaining their coherent layered graphite structure.

  14. High resolution analytical electron microscopy reveals cell culture media induced changes to the chemistry of silver nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Goode, Angela E.; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the potential adverse effects on human health upon exposure to engineered silver nanomaterials (particles, wires and plates). However, the majority of studies testing the toxicity of silver nanomaterials have examined nominally ‘as-synthesized’ materials without considering the fate of the materials in biologically relevant fluids. Here, in-house silver nanowires (AgNWs) were prepared by a modified polyol process and were incubated in three cell culture media (DMEM, RPMI-1640 and DCCM-1) to examine the impact of AgNW-medium interactions on the physicochemical properties of the AgNWs. High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy revealed that Ag2S crystals form on the surface of AgNWs within 1 hour of incubation in DCCM-1. In contrast, the incubation of AgNWs in RPMI-1640 or DMEM did not lead to sulfidation. When the DCCM-1 cell culture medium was separated into its small molecule solutes and salts and protein components, the AgNWs were found to sulfidize in the fraction containing small molecule solutes and salts, but not in the fraction containing the protein component of the media. Further investigation showed the AgNWs did not readily sulfidize in the presence of isolated sulfur containing amino acids or proteins, such as cysteine or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results demonstrate that the AgNWs can be transformed by the media before and during the incubation with cells and therefore the effects of cell culture media must be considered in the analysis of toxicity assays. Appropriate media and material controls must be in place to allow accurate predictions about the toxicity, and ultimately, the health risk of this commercially relevant class of nanomaterial. PMID:24160871

  15. Identifying the crystallinity, phase, and arsenic uptake of the nanomineral schwertmannite using analytical high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, R. A.; Kim, B.; Murayama, M.; Hochella, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Schwertmannite, an iron oxyhydroxide sulfate nanomineral, plays a significant role in the geochemistry of acid mine drainage (AMD) as a metastable phase with respect to goethite and by retaining toxic metals, e.g. arsenic [1]. Schwertmannite’s characteristic morphology is needles 100-300 nm long and only 5-10 nm in diameter extending from a dense aggregate. The poorly-and nano-crystalline nature of this mineral requires using high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) to be fully characterized. We used HRTEM to identify the polyphasic nature of natural samples of schwertmannite collected from the Iberian Pyrite Belt in Spain. In order to analyze the dense core, samples were prepared in thin section using an ultramicrotome. Data on a sample identified as pure schwertmannite through powder XRD shows the presence of 5-10 nm goethite nanocrystals making up a significant portion of one of the nanoneedle tips (Figure 1). These nanocrystals exhibit lattice fringes and faceted surfaces, both of which match that expected for goethite. The great majority of the nanoneedles are poorly-crystalline (no lattice fringes) with atomically rough surfaces which may be highly active in the uptake of As. The presence of a range of phases and crystallinities in this sample demonstrate incipient stages of the mechanism that results in transformation of schwertmannite to goethite. Further analytical TEM analyses will help us track sorption/desorption, as well as the specific locations of As within these materials upon initial formation, as well as during transformation. [1] Acero et al. (2006) GCA 70, 4130-4139. Figure 1. HRTEM image of 'schwertmannite' nanoneedle with FFT data (inset).

  16. Prominent conjugate processes in the PCI recapture of photoelectrons revealed by high resolution Auger electron measurements of Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Yoshiro; Kosugi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Norihiro; Shigemasa, Eiji; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Koike, Fumihiro

    2016-05-01

    The Xe (N5O2 , 3O2 , 3) Auger electron spectrum originating from 4d5/ 2 - 1 photoionization was measured with the photon energy tuned very close above the ionization threshold. As the photon energy approached the 4d5/ 2 - 1 photoionization threshold, Rydberg series structures including several angular momentum components were formed within the Auger profile by the recapture of the photoelectrons into high-lying final ion orbitals. Our spectrum with resolution much narrower than the lifetime width of the corresponding core excited state allowed us to resolve detailed structures due to the orbital angular momenta very clearly. Unexpectedly, conjugate peaks originating from the exchange of angular momentum between the photoelectron and the Auger electron through Post-Collision-Interaction were found to dominate the spectrum. The new assignments were in accord with the quantum defect values obtained for the high Rydberg series for singly charged ionic Xe + 5 p(1S0) ml. This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 23600009.

  17. Tryptamine in the gas phase. A high resolution laser study of the structural and dynamic properties of its ground and electronically excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T. V.; Korter, T. M.; Pratt, D. W.

    High resolution S1←S0 fluorescence excitation spectra of tryptamine have been observed in the collision-free environment of a supersonic molecular beam. Each origin band has been assigned to a unique conformer of the isolated molecule based on its observed rotational constants. For the first time, subbands have been detected in the rotationally resolved spectra of bands Cblue and D. A possible hindered motion is proposed to account for the appearance of these subbands. This motion connects the minima associated with the Antipy and Antiph conformers, and thus explores new regions of the energy landscape of this important biomolecule.

  18. Molecular Dissociation Induced by Electron Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    Free electrons can efficiently break molecules or molecular ions in low-energy collisions by the processes of dissociative recombination or attachment. These processes make slow electrons efficient chemical agents in many environments. For dissociative recombination, in particular, studies of the underlying reaction paths and mechanisms have become possible on a uniquely elementary level in recent years both for theory and experiment. On the experimental side, collisions can be prepared at resolved collision energies down to the meV (10 Kelvin) level, increasingly gaining control also over the initial molecular quantum level, and individual events are detected and kinematically analyzed by fast-beam coincidence fragment imaging. Experiments are reported from the ion cooler ring TSR in Heidelberg. Stored beams of molecular ions cooled in their external and internal degrees of freedom are collinearly merged with intense and cold electron beams from cryogenic GaAs photocathodes, recently shown to yield fast cooling of the center-of-mass motion also for heavy and correspondingly slow molecular ion beams. To reconstruct the molecular fragmentation events multiparticle imaging can now be used systematically with collision energies set a wide range, especially aiming at specific electron capture resonances. Thus, for CF^+ it is found that the electronic state of the C fragment (^3P or ^1D) switches resonantly when the collision energy is changed by only a small fraction. As a new powerful tool, an energy-sensitive multi-strip surface-barrier detector (EMU) has been set up to measure with near-unity efficiency the masses of all fragments together with their hit positions in high-multiplicity events. Among many uses, this device allows internal molecular excitations to be derived for individual chemical channels in polyatomic fragmentation. New results will be presented in particular on the breakup of the hydronium ion (D3O^+).

  19. Direct Observation of Iron-Induced Conformational Changes of Mitochondrial DNA by High-Resolution Field-Emission in-Lens Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaffee, Marcus; Walter, Patrick; Richter, Christoph; Muller, Martin

    1996-05-01

    When respiring rat liver mitochondria are incubated in the presence of Fe(III) gluconate, their DNA (mtDNA) relaxes from the supercoiled to the open circular form dependent on the iron dose. Anaerobiosis or antioxidants fail to completely inhibit the unwinding. High-resolution field-emission in-lens scanning electron microscopy imaging, in concert with backscattered electron detection, pinpoints nanometer-range iron colloids bound to mtDNA isolated from iron-exposed mitochondria. High-resolution field-emission in-lens scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection imaging permits simultaneous detailed visual analysis of DNA topology, iron dose-dependent mtDNA unwinding, and assessment of iron colloid formation on mtDNA strands.

  20. Electron Impact Collision Strength in Si IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noman, Hala; Gokce, Y.; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2016-05-01

    Results from work in progress under Iron Project on the electron impact excitation collision strengths and rate coefficients for transitions between the fine-structure levels of the 2s2 2p2 , 2 s 2p3 , 2p4 , 2s2 2 p 3 s , 2s2 2 p 3 p , and 2s2 2 p 3 d configurations in Si IX will be presented. The fine structure collision strength has been calculated at very fine energy mesh using relativistic effects in Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. Maxwellian averaged collision strengths have been tabulated for all possible transitions among all 46 enrgy levels. We made comparisions of our results with the previously reported results in the literature and found significant differences in low the temperature range (Te < 106 K) for few of the transitions. The correction to the previous reported values results due to more extensive expansion for Si IX target states.

  1. Very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronson, A. I.

    1974-01-01

    A primary sensor used in environmental and earth-resource observation, the Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) was designed for use on the ITOS D series spacecraft. The VHRR provides a 0.47 mile resolution made possible with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector cooled to approximately 105 K by a passive radiator cooler. The components of this system are described. The optical subsystem of the VHRR consists of a scanning mirror, a Dall-Kirkham telescope, a dichroic beam splitter, relay lenses, spectral filters, and an IR detector. Signal electronics amplify and condition the signals from the infrared and visible light detector. Sync generator electronics provides the necessary time signals. Scan-drive electronics is used for commutation of the motor winding, velocity, and phase control. A table lists the performance parameters of the VHRR.

  2. IRAS high resolution studies and modeling of closely interacting galaxies. Galaxy collisions: Infrared observations and analysis of numerical models. UV spectroscopy of massive young stellar populations in interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Susan A.

    1993-01-01

    The Final Technical Report covering the period from 15 Aug. 1989 to 14 Aug. 1991 is presented. Areas of research included Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) high resolution studies and modeling of closely interacting galaxies; galaxy collisions: infrared observations and analysis of numerical models; and UV spectroscopy of massive young stellar populations in interacting galaxies. Both observational studies and theoretical modelling of interacting galaxies are covered. As a consequence the report is divided into two parts, one on each aspect of the overall project.

  3. Evaluation of gas chromatography - electron ionization - full scan high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry for pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Mol, Hans G J; Tienstra, Marc; Zomer, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Gas chromatography with electron ionization and full scan high resolution mass spectrometry with an Orbitrap mass analyzer (GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS) was evaluated for residue analysis. Pesticides in fruit and vegetables were taken as an example application. The relevant aspects for GC-MS based residue analysis, including the resolving power (15,000 to 120,000 FWHM at m/z 200), scan rate, dynamic range, selectivity, sensitivity, analyte identification, and utility of existing EI-libraries, are assessed and discussed in detail. The optimum acquisition conditions in full scan mode (m/z 50-500) were a resolving power of 60,000 and an automatic-gain-control target value of 3E6. These conditions provided (i) an optimum mass accuracy: within 2 ppm over a wide concentration range, with/without matrix, enabling the use of ±5 ppm mass extraction windows (ii) adequate scan speed: minimum 12 scans/peak, (iii) an intra-scan dynamic range sufficient to achieve LOD/LOQs ≤0.5 pg in fruit/vegetable matrices (corresponding to ≤0.5 μg kg(-1)) for most pesticides. EI-Orbitrap spectra were consistent over a very wide concentration range (5 orders) with good match values against NIST (EI-quadrupole) spectra. The applicability for quantitative residue analysis was verified by validation of 54 pesticides in three matrices (tomato, leek, orange) at 10 and 50 μg/kg. The method involved a QuEChERS-based extraction with a solvent switch into iso-octane, and 1 μL hot splitless injection into the GC-HRMS system. A recovery between 70 and 120% and a repeatability RSD <10% was obtained in most cases. Linearity was demonstrated for the range ≤5-250 μg kg(-1). The pesticides could be identified according to the applicable EU criteria for GC-HRMS (SANTE/11945/2015). GC-EI-full scan Orbitrap HRMS was found to be highly suited for quantitative pesticide residue analysis. The potential of qualitative screening to extend the scope makes it an attractive alternative to GC

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30{degrees} and (1.5 x 1.5)R18{degrees} CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/{Delta}E{approx}-10{sup 6} in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  5. Large-Volume Reconstruction of Brain Tissue from High-Resolution Serial Section Images Acquired by SEM-Based Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin. PMID:23086880

  6. Progress in Computational Electron-Molecule Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rescigno, Tn

    1997-10-01

    The past few years have witnessed tremendous progress in the development of sophisticated ab initio methods for treating collisions of slow electrons with isolated small molecules. Researchers in this area have benefited greatly from advances in computer technology; indeed, the advent of parallel computers has made it possible to carry out calculations at a level of sophistication inconceivable a decade ago. But bigger and faster computers are only part of the picture. Even with today's computers, the practical need to study electron collisions with the kinds of complex molecules and fragments encountered in real-world plasma processing environments is taxing present methods beyond their current capabilities. Since extrapolation of existing methods to handle increasingly larger targets will ultimately fail as it would require computational resources beyond any imagined, continued progress must also be linked to new theoretical developments. Some of the techniques recently introduced to address these problems will be discussed and illustrated with examples of electron-molecule collision calculations we have carried out on some fairly complex target gases encountered in processing plasmas. Electron-molecule scattering continues to pose many formidable theoretical and computational challenges. I will touch on some of the outstanding open questions.

  7. The contribution of electron collisions to rotational excitations of cometary water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Xingfa; Mumma, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The e-H2O collisional rate for exciting rotational transitions in cometary water is evaluated for conditions found in comet Halley during the Giotto spacecraft encounter. In the case of the O(sub 00) yields 1(sub 11) rotational transition, the e-H2O collisional rate exceeds that for excitation by neutral-neutral collisions at distances exceeding 3000 km from the cometary nucleus. Thus, the rotational temperature of the water molecule in the intermediate coma may be controlled by collisions with electrons rather than with neutral collisions, and the rotational temperature retrieved from high resolution infrared spectra of water in comet Halley may reflect electron temperatures rather than neutral gas temperature in the intermediate coma.

  8. Theory of Electron-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Donald C

    2009-10-02

    Collisions of electrons with atoms and ions play a crucial role in the modeling and diagnostics of fusion plasmas. In the edge and divertor regions of magnetically confined plasmas, data for the collisions of electrons with neutral atoms and low charge-state ions are of particular importance, while in the inner region, data on highly ionized species are needed. Since experimental measurements for these collisional processes remain very limited, data for such processes depend primarily on the results of theoretical calculations. Over the period of the present grant (January 2006 - August 2009), we have made additional improvements in our parallel scattering programs, generated data of direct fusion interest and made these data available on The Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center Web site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In addition, we have employed these data to do collsional-radiative modeling studies in support of a variety of experiments with magnetically confined fusion plasmas.

  9. Electron collisions with coherently prepared atomic targets

    SciTech Connect

    Trajmar, S.; Kanik, I.; LeClair, L.R.; Khakoo, M.S.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.; Csanak, G.

    1998-02-01

    The subject of electron scattering by laser-excited atoms is briefly reviewed. To demonstrate some aspects of these electron collision processes, the authors describe the procedures and the results of a joint experimental and theoretical study concerning elastic scattering by coherently excited {sup 138}Ba (...6s6p {sup 1}P{sub 1}) atoms. Examples of experimental and theoretical collision parameters and magnetic sublevel differential cross sections for elastic scattering are given and compared. The convergent close coupling calculations (with the neglect of spin-orbit interaction) are in good agreement with experiment at 20 eV impact energy and 10, 15 and 20{degree} scattering angles and can be expected to yield reliable integral magnetic sublevel and alignment creation cross sections. The role of these quantities in plasma polarization spectroscopy is pointed out.

  10. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  11. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Studies of Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide Adsorption on Germanium Surfaces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entringer, Anthony G.

    The first high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) studies of the oxidation and nitridation of germanium surfaces are reported. Both single crystal Ge(111) and disordered surfaces were studied. Surfaces were exposed to H, O_2, NO, N _2O, and N, after cleaning in ultra-high vacuum. The Ge surfaces were found to be non-reactive to molecular hydrogen (H_2) at room temperature. Exposure to atomic hydrogen (H) resulted hydrogen adsorption as demonstrated by the presence of Ge-H vibrational modes. The HREEL spectrum of the native oxide of Ge characteristic of nu -GeO_2 was obtained by heating the oxide to 200^circC. Three peaks were observed at 33, 62, and 106 meV for molecular oxygen (O_2) adsorbed on clean Ge(111) at room temperature. These peaks are indicative of dissociative bonding and a dominant Ge-O-Ge bridge structure. Subsequent hydrogen exposure resulted in a shift of the Ge-H stretch from its isolated value of 247 meV to 267 meV, indicative of a dominant +3 oxidation state. A high density of dangling bonds and defects and deeper oxygen penetration at the amorphous Ge surface result in a dilute bridge structure with a predominant +1 oxidation state for similar exposures. Molecules of N_2O decompose at the surfaces to desorbed N_2 molecules and chemisorbed oxygen atoms. In contrast, both oxygen and nitrogen are detected at the surfaces following exposure to NO molecules. Both NO and N_2O appear to dissociate and bond at the top surface layer. Molecular nitrogen (N_2) does not react with the Ge surfaces, however, a precursor Ge nitride is observed at room temperature following exposure to nitrogen atoms and ions. Removal of oxygen by heating of the NO-exposed surface to 550^circC enabled the identification of the Ge-N vibrational modes. These modes show a structure similar to that of germanium nitride. This spectrum is also identical to that of the N-exposed surface heated to 550^circC. Surface phonon modes of the narrow-gap semiconducting

  12. Direct observation of the intergrown {alpha}-phase in {beta}-TmAlB{sub 4} via high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yubuta, Kunio; Mori, Takao; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Grin, Yuri; Okada, Shigeru; Shishido, Toetsu

    2009-08-05

    A TmAlB{sub 4} crystal with a ThMoB{sub 4}-type ({beta}-type) structure phase related to a hexagonal AlB{sub 2}-type structure was studied by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. A high-resolution image clearly exhibits an intergrown lamellar structure of a YCrB{sub 4}-type ({alpha}-type) phase in the matrix of the {beta}-type phase in TmAlB{sub 4} crystal. The lamellar structure can be characterized by a tiling of deformed hexagons, which are a common structure unit in the {alpha}-type and {beta}-type structures. The intergrown nanostructure is considered to be attributed to the origin of low temperature anomalies in physical properties.

  13. In Situ Real-time Environmental High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Nanometer Size Novel Xerogel Catalysts for Hydrogenation Reactions in Nylon 6,6.

    PubMed

    Gai; Kourtakis; Ziemecki

    2000-07-01

    In situ real-time environmental high resolution electron microscopy (EHREM) under controlled reaction environments permits direct atomic resolution imaging of dynamic surface and sub-surface microstructures of reacting catalysts. Using the EHREM and complementary microscopy methods, we have investigated selective hydrogenation reaction mechanisms over novel xerogel catalysts of ruthenium and Ru with Co and Au promoters on titania supports, and report an alternative heterogeneous catalytic process for the hydrogenation of adiponitrile (ADN) in the manufacture of Nylon 6,6. The direct EHREM observations are supported by ultra-high resolution low voltage scanning electron microscope (SEM) of spatial distributions of the highly dispersed nanometer-size catalyst particles and parallel chemical studies. The results demonstrate the important role of in situ EHREM in the design of heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation processes on the nanoscale. PMID:10898817

  14. Nature of One- and Two-Phonon Mixed Symmetry States in 92Zr and 94Mo from High-Resolution Electron and Proton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N. T.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Pietralla, N.

    2006-03-13

    High-resolution inelastic electron (performed at the S-DALINAC) and proton (performed at iThemba LABS) scattering experiments on 92Zr and 94Mo with emphasis on E2 transitions are presented The measured form factors and angular distributions provide a measure for the F-spin purity, respectively the isovector nature, of the proposed one-phonon mixed symmetry states and furthermore provide a sensitive test of a possible two-phonon character of excited 2+ states.

  15. Investigations of atomic configurations of 60° basal dislocations in wurtzite GaN film by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yunjie; Wang, Yumei; Deng, Zhen; Chen, Hong; Ge, Binghui

    2016-04-01

    GaN epitaxial films grown on Si (111) substrates were observed using a 200 kV high-resolution (HR) transmission electron microscope. Both perfect and dissociated 60° basal dislocations were found in ? HR images. By utilizing the image deconvolution method, the HR images were transformed into structure maps with an improved resolution, and then the atomic configurations of perfect and partial dislocations were determined. Afterwards, the possible dissociation schemes for the dissociated dislocations were derived.

  16. Studies of electron correlation effects in multicharged ion atom collisions involving double capture

    SciTech Connect

    Stolterfoht, N.; Sommer, K.; Griffin, D.C.; Havener, C.C.; Huq, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Swenson, J.K.; Meyer, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    We review measurements of L-Coster Kronig and Auger electron production in slow, multicharged collision systems to study electron correlation effects in the process of double electron capture. The n/sup /minus/3/ law was confirmed for the production of the Coster-Kronig configurations 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ (n greater than or equal to 6) in O/sup 6 +/ + He collisions. Enhancement of high angular momentum /ell/ in specific 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations was observed by means of high-resolution measurements of the Coster-Kronig lines. The importance of electron correlation effects in couplings of potential energy curves leading to the 1s/sup 2/2pn/ell/ configurations is verified by means of Landau-Zener model calculations. 32 refs., 4 figs.

  17. High Resolution Emission Spectroscopy of the Alpha Pi-1 - Chi Sigma-1(+) Fourth Positive Band System of CO from Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Alvarez, Marcos; Dziczek, Dariusz

    2000-01-01

    We report electron-impact induced fluorescence spectra [300 mA full width at half maximum (FWHM)] of CO for 20 and 100 eV impact energies of the spectral region of 1300 to 2050 A and high resolution spectra (FWHM) of the v'=5 to v"=l and the v'=3 to v"=O bands showing that the rotational structure of the band system are modeled accurately. The excitation function of the (0,1) band (1597 A) was measured from electron impact in the energy range from threshold to 750 eV and placed on an absolute scale from modem calibration standards.

  18. Electron-ion collision operator in strong electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraiman, Gennadiy; Balakin, Alexey

    2012-10-01

    The pair electron-ion collision operator is found for the kinetic equation describing the one-particle drift distribution in strong electromagnetic fields [1]. The pair collisions are studied under the conditions when the oscillation velocity of an electron driven by an external electromagnetic wave is much larger than the electron drift velocity. The operator is presented in the Boltzmann form and describes collisions with both small and large changes of the particle momentum. In contrast with the Landau collision operator, which describes diffusion in the momentum space, the collision operator that we propose describes a new and very important effect, namely, Coulomb attraction of a wave-driven oscillating electron to an ion due to multiple returns of the electron to the same ion. This effect leads to a large increase of the collision cross-section of electron-ion collisions in strong laser fields, to increased efficiency of the Joule heating in plasma, to the generation of fast electrons through e-i collisions, etc. [4pt] [1] A. A. Balakin and G. M. Fraiman, Electron-ion collision operator in strong electromagnetic fields, EPL 93, 35001 (2011).

  19. Flat-field grating spectrometer for high-resolution soft x-ray and EUV measurements on an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P; Magee, E; Trabert, E; Chen, H; Lepson, J K; Gu, M F; Schmidt, M

    2004-03-27

    A R = 44.3 m grazing-incidence grating spectrometer has been implemented on the Livermore electron beam ion traps for high-resolution measurements in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region spanning from below 10 Angstrom up to 50 Angstrom. The instrument uses a grating with variable line spacing (about 2400 l/mm) for a flat field of view. Spectra are recorded with a back-illuminated charge-coupled device detector. The new instrument greatly improves upon the resolution achieved with existing grating spectrometers and complements crystal spectrometers at the shorter wavelengths both in terms of wavelength coverage and polarization independent reflectivity response.

  20. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of electrically-driven reversible phase change in ge2sb2te5 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yeonwoong; Nam, Sung-Wook; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2011-03-01

    By combining high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization and electrical measurements on a unique device platform, we study the reversible electrically-driven phase-change characteristics of self-assembled Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) nanowires. Detailed HRTEM analyses are used to correlate and understand the effect of full and intermediate structural transformations on the measured electrical properties of the nanowire devices. The study demonstrates that our unique approach has the potential to provide new information regarding the dynamic structural and electrical states of phase-change materials at the nanoscale, which will aid the design of future phase-change memory devices. PMID:21271735

  1. High resolution multiple electron impact ionisation of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe atoms close to threshold: Appearance energies and Wannier exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gstir, B.; Denifl, S.; Hanel, G.; Rümmele, M.; Fiegele, T.; Stano, M.; Feketeova, L.; Matejcik, S.; Becker, K.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.

    2003-05-01

    We have determined appearance energies AE(X n+ /X) for the formation of multiply charged He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe ions up to charge state n=2 (He), n=4 (Ne), n=6 (Ar), n=6 (Kr) and n=8 (Xe) using a recently commissioned high-resolution electron impact ionization mass spectrometer. The data analysis is based on the Marquart-Levenberg algorithm, involving an iterative, non-linear least-squares fitting of the threshold data assuming a 2-function or a 3-function fit based on a Wannier-type power law. This allows us to extract the relevant AEs and corresponding Wannier exponents.

  2. Probing the electronic and vibrational structure of Au2Al2(-) and Au2Al2 using photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution photoelectron imaging.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Gary V; Czekner, Joseph; Jian, Tian; Li, Wei-Li; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-14

    The electronic and vibrational structures of Au2Al2(-) and Au2Al2 have been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), high-resolution photoelectron imaging, and theoretical calculations. Photoelectron spectra taken at high photon energies with a magnetic-bottle apparatus reveal numerous detachment transitions and a large energy gap for the neutral Au2Al2. Vibrationally resolved PE spectra are obtained using high-resolution photoelectron imaging for the ground state detachment transition of Au2Al2(-) at various photon energies (670.55-843.03 nm). An accurate electron affinity of 1.4438(8) eV is obtained for the Au2Al2 neutral cluster, as well as two vibrational frequencies at 57 ± 8 and 305 ± 13 cm(-1). Hot bands transitions yield two vibrational frequencies for Au2Al2(-) at 57 ± 10 and 144 ± 12 cm(-1). The obtained vibrational and electronic structure information is compared with density functional calculations, unequivocally confirming that both Au2Al2(-) and Au2Al2 possess C2v tetrahedral structures. PMID:25494751

  3. Probing the electronic and vibrational structure of Au2Al2- and Au2Al2 using photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution photoelectron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Gary V.; Czekner, Joseph; Jian, Tian; Li, Wei-Li; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    The electronic and vibrational structures of Au2Al2- and Au2Al2 have been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), high-resolution photoelectron imaging, and theoretical calculations. Photoelectron spectra taken at high photon energies with a magnetic-bottle apparatus reveal numerous detachment transitions and a large energy gap for the neutral Au2Al2. Vibrationally resolved PE spectra are obtained using high-resolution photoelectron imaging for the ground state detachment transition of Au2Al2- at various photon energies (670.55-843.03 nm). An accurate electron affinity of 1.4438(8) eV is obtained for the Au2Al2 neutral cluster, as well as two vibrational frequencies at 57 ± 8 and 305 ± 13 cm-1. Hot bands transitions yield two vibrational frequencies for Au2Al2- at 57 ± 10 and 144 ± 12 cm-1. The obtained vibrational and electronic structure information is compared with density functional calculations, unequivocally confirming that both Au2Al2- and Au2Al2 possess C2v tetrahedral structures.

  4. Newly appreciated roles for electrons in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, I.A. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Since the previous Debrecen workshop on High-Energy Ion-Atom Collisions there have been numerous experiments and substantial theoretical developments in the fields of fast ion-atom and ion- solid collisions concerned with explicating the previously largely underappreciated role of electrons as ionizing and exciting agents in such collisions. Examples to be discussed include the double electron ionization problem in He; transfer ionization by protons in He; double excitation in He; backward scattering of electrons in He; the role of electron-electron interaction in determining beta parameters for ELC; projectile K ionization by target electrons; electron spin exchange in transfer excitation; electron impact ionization in crystal channels; resonant coherent excitation in crystal channels; excitation and dielectronic recombination in crystal channels; resonant transfer and excitation; the similarity of recoil ion spectra observed in coincidence with electron capture vs. electron loss; and new research on ion-atom collisions at relativistic energies.

  5. A high-resolution time-of-flight energy analyzer for femtosecond electron pulses at 30 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliserin, Alexander; Walbran, Matthew; Baum, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We report a time-of-flight spectrometer for electron pulses at up to 30 keV, which is a suitable energy for atomic-resolution femtosecond investigations via time-resolved electron diffraction, microscopy, and energy loss spectroscopy. For realistic femtosecond beams without apertures, the instrument's energy resolution is ˜0.5 eV (full width at half maximum) or 2 × 10-5 at a throughput of 50%-90%. We demonstrate the analyzer's versatility by three first applications, namely, femtosecond electron pulse metrology via optical streaking, in situ drift correction in laser-microwave synchronization for electron pulse compression, and time-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy of aluminum, showing the instrument's capability of tracking plasmonic loss peak positions with few-meV accuracy.

  6. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles.

  7. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles. PMID:27121137

  8. A high-resolution time-of-flight energy analyzer for femtosecond electron pulses at 30 keV.

    PubMed

    Gliserin, Alexander; Walbran, Matthew; Baum, Peter

    2016-03-01

    We report a time-of-flight spectrometer for electron pulses at up to 30 keV, which is a suitable energy for atomic-resolution femtosecond investigations via time-resolved electron diffraction, microscopy, and energy loss spectroscopy. For realistic femtosecond beams without apertures, the instrument's energy resolution is ∼0.5 eV (full width at half maximum) or 2 × 10(-5) at a throughput of 50%-90%. We demonstrate the analyzer's versatility by three first applications, namely, femtosecond electron pulse metrology via optical streaking, in situ drift correction in laser-microwave synchronization for electron pulse compression, and time-resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy of aluminum, showing the instrument's capability of tracking plasmonic loss peak positions with few-meV accuracy. PMID:27036767

  9. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles. PMID:27121137

  10. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0(+) electronic state of (85)Rb(133)Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Kim, Jin-Tae; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-12-14

    We present the formation of ultracold (85)Rb(133)Cs molecules in the (5)0(+) electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0(+) state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0(+) electronic state of (85)Rb(133)Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0(+) state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state. PMID:26671380

  11. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0+ electronic state of 85Rb133Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Kim, Jin-Tae; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2015-12-01

    We present the formation of ultracold 85Rb133Cs molecules in the (5)0+ electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0+ state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0+ electronic state of 85Rb133Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0+ state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  12. Real-time high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of the growth process of ( 0 0 1 ) surfaces on a nanometer-sized Si multiply twinned particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeguchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Miyoko; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Furuya, Kazuo

    2001-11-01

    A nanometer-sized Si multiply twinned particle (MTP) was fabricated by electron-induced SiO 2-decomposition technique inside an ultrahigh vacuum electron microscope. Structure and growth kinetics of the (0 0 1) surface on the MTP were observed by profile imaging high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Real-time HRTEM observation indicated that the (0 0 1) surfaces were covered with single domain of 1×2 reconstruction and that a new top-layer formation was accompanied by the break of dimer structure of its subsurface. It was also found that the layer growth on the (0 0 1) surfaces showed an unusual behavior, due to a strain field caused by elastic deformation of the MTP.

  13. Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy studies on layered Li2-δ(Mn1-xCox)1+δO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Mochiku, Takashi

    2013-07-01

    The structure of Li2MnO3-LiCoO2 solid solutions or Li2-δ(Mn1-xCox)1+δO3 (LMCO) which are promising lithium-battery cathodes was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that Li1.6Mn0.2Co1.2O3 and Li1.7Mn0.4Co0.9O3 take a rhombohedral (R3¯m space group) structure, whereas Li1.85Mn0.7Co0.45O3 and Li1.95Mn0.9Co0.15O3 take a monoclinic (C2/m) superstructure. HREM studies on those samples reveal that all of the observed crystallites in sample Li1.95Mn0.9Co0.15O3 contain sharp stripe structures due to the planar defects along the ch-axis (stacking direction of the hexagonal close-packed planes) of parent rhombohedral R3¯m cell. Such stripe structures become faint with increasing x, Co content. The origin of the planar defects is mainly attributed not to the different structures but to the different local orientations of the monoclinic LMCO. Local disordering of Li and (Mn,Co) in (Li,Mn,Co) planes is developed with increasing x and the structures are transformed from C2/m to R3¯m. The alternative (Li,Mn,Co)-plane stacking structure, trigonal P3112 LMCO, was occasionally observed. However, only P3112 LMCO platelets with a thickness of a single unit cell were detected.

  14. Electronic Structure of AC-Clusters and High-Resolution X-ray Spectra of Actinides in Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, Nicolay Alex

    2007-07-01

    Ab initio calculations using SCF approach for and analysis of results of investigation of the electronic structure of the clusters RAn+:[L]k with rare earths or actinides were carried out for the clusters in solids and liquids. Theoretical results for the electronic structure, radial integrals and energy of X- ray lines are presented for AC ions with unoccupied 5f-shell in the clusters in oxides, chlorides and fluorides environment. Possibility of collapse of nf-shell for the separate clusters and identification of electronic state of ions with unstable nuclei, are discussed, too. (author)

  15. Intense energetic electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.; Dewey, Ryan M.; Lawrence, David J.; Goldsten, John O.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Anderson, Brian J.; Ho, George C.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Raines, Jim M.; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-03-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer, as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary nightside. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and prenoon sectors, at times executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  16. Energetic-electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-04-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS), as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work greatly extends our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary night side. The electrons populate the plasma sheet and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and pre-noon sectors, at time executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  17. Variation of mesospheric ozone during the highly relativistic electron event in May 1992 as measured by the High Resolution Doppler Imager instrument on UARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean; Goldberg, Richard A.; Jackman, Charles H.; Chenette, D. L.; Gaines, E. E.

    2000-10-01

    Highly relativistic electron precipitation events (HREs) include long-lived enhancements of the flux of electrons with E>1MeV into the Earth's atmosphere. HREs also contain increased fluxes of electrons with energies above 100 keV that have been predicted to cause large depletions of mesospheric ozone. For some of the measured instantaneous values of the electron fluxes during the HRE of May 1992, relative depletions greater than 22% were predicted to occur between altitudes of 55 and 80 km, where HOx reactions cause local minima in both the ozone number density and mixing ratio altitude profiles. These ozone depletions should follow the horizontal distribution of the electron precipitation, having a distinct boundary equatorward of the L=3 magnetic shell. To search for these effects, we have analyzed ozone data from the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) instrument on UARS. Owing to the multiple, off-track viewing angles of HRDI, observations in the region affected by the electrons are taken at similar local solar times before, during, and after the electron flux increase. Our analysis limits the relative ozone depletion to values <10% during the very intense May 1992 HRE. We do observe decreases in the ozone mixing ratio at several points in the diurnal cycle that may be associated with the transport of water vapor into the mesosphere during May 1992. This masking of the precipitating electron effects by the seasonal variations in water vapor can complicate the detection of those effects.

  18. Helium ion microscopy and ultra-high-resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of membrane-extracted cells reveals novel characteristics of the cytoskeleton of Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Ana Paula Rocha; Benchimol, Marlene; de Souza, Wanderley

    2015-06-01

    Giardia intestinalis presents a complex microtubular cytoskeleton formed by specialized structures, such as the adhesive disk, four pairs of flagella, the funis and the median body. The ultrastructural organization of the Giardia cytoskeleton has been analyzed using different microscopic techniques, including high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Recent advances in scanning microscopy technology have opened a new venue for the characterization of cellular structures and include scanning probe microscopy techniques such as ultra-high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (UHRSEM) and helium ion microscopy (HIM). Here, we studied the organization of the cytoskeleton of G. intestinalis trophozoites using UHRSEM and HIM in membrane-extracted cells. The results revealed a number of new cytoskeletal elements associated with the lateral crest and the dorsal surface of the parasite. The fine structure of the banded collar was also observed. The marginal plates were seen linked to a network of filaments, which were continuous with filaments parallel to the main cell axis. Cytoplasmic filaments that supported the internal structures were seen by the first time. Using anti-actin antibody, we observed a labeling in these filamentous structures. Taken together, these data revealed new surface characteristics of the cytoskeleton of G. intestinalis and may contribute to an improved understanding of the structural organization of trophozoites. PMID:25956335

  19. A high-resolution field-emission-gun, scanning electron microscope investigation of anisotropic hydrogen decrepitation in Nd-Fe-B-based sintered magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Soderznik, Marko; McGuiness, Paul; Zuzek-Rozman, Kristina; Kobe, Spomenka; Skulj, Irena; Yan Gaolin

    2010-05-15

    In this investigation commercial magnets based on (Nd,Dy){sub 14}(Fe,Co){sub 79}B{sub 7} were prepared by a conventional powder-metallurgy route with a degree of alignment equal to {approx}90% and then exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 1 bar. The magnets, in the form of cylinders, were observed to decrepitate exclusively from the ends. High-resolution electron microscopy was able to identify the presence of crack formation within the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains, with the cracks running parallel to the c axis of these grains. Based on the concentration profile for hydrogen in a rare-earth transition-metal material, it is clear that the presence of hydrogen-induced cracks running perpendicular to the ends of the magnet provides for a much more rapidly progressing hydrogen front in this direction than from the sides of the magnet. This results in the magnet exhibiting a macroscopic tendency to decrepitate from the poles of the magnet toward the center. This combination of microstructural modification via particle alignment as part of the sintering process and direct observation via high-resolution electron microscopy has led to a satisfying explanation for the anisotropic hydrogen-decrepitation effect.

  20. Entanglement creation in electron-electron collisions at solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, R.; Giebels, F.; Gollisch, H.

    2015-08-01

    For spin-polarized low-energy electrons impinging on a crystalline surface, an important reaction channel is the collision with a bound valence electron of opposite spin, followed by the emission of a correlated electron pair with antiparallel spins. While primary and valence electrons are not entangled, the screened Coulomb interaction generates spin entanglement between the two outgoing electrons. As a quantitative measure of this entanglement, we calculated a modified von Neumann entropy in terms of direct and exchange transition matrix elements. For coplanar symmetric setups with equal energies of antiparallel-spin electrons, maximal entanglement is analytically shown to occur quite universally, irrespective of the choice of the primary electron energy, the outgoing electron energy, and polar emission angle, and even of the choice of the surface system. Numerical results for Fe(110) and Cu(111) demonstrate first that strong entanglement can persist for unequal energies and second that an overall entanglement reduction due to nonentangled parallel-spin electrons can be avoided for ferromagnetic and even for nonmagnetic surfaces.

  1. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  2. High-resolution spot-scan electron microscopy of microcrystals of an alpha-helical coiled-coil protein.

    PubMed

    Bullough, P A; Tulloch, P A

    1990-09-01

    We describe the electron microscopy of a crystalline assembly of an alpha-helical coiled-coil protein extracted from the ootheca of the praying mantis. Electron diffraction patterns of unstained crystals show crystal lattice sampling of the coiled-coil molecular transform to a resolution beyond 1.5 A. Using a "spot-scan" method of electron imaging, micrographs of unstained crystals have been obtained that visibly diffract laser light from crystal spacings as small as 4.3 A. A projection map was calculated to 4 A using electron diffraction amplitudes and phases from computer-processed images. The projection map clearly shows modulations in density arising from the 5.1 A alpha-helical repeat, the first time this type of modulation has been revealed by electron microscopy. The crystals have p2 plane group symmetry with a = 92.4 A, b = 150.7 A, y = 92.4 degrees. Examination of tilted specimens shows that c is approximately 18 A, indicating that the unit cell is only one molecule thick. A preliminary interpretation shows tightly packed molecules some 400 A long lying with their long axes in the plane of the projection. The molecules have a coiled-coil configuration for most of their length. The possible modes of packing of the molecules in three dimensions are discussed. PMID:2398496

  3. High resolution study of structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene grown on off-axis 4H-SiC (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannazzo, F.; Deretzis, I.; Nicotra, G.; Fisichella, G.; Ramasse, Q. M.; Spinella, C.; Roccaforte, F.; La Magna, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the structural and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on 8°-off 4H-SiC (0001) by high temperature thermal processes have been extensively investigated by a combination of several high resolution characterization techniques. The increase in the number of graphene layers with the growth temperature (from 1600 to 1700 °C) was studied by microRaman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) on cross-sectioned samples. The few layers of graphene reside on a stepped SiC surface with alternating (0001) terraces and (11-2n) facets. Peculiar corrugations (wrinkles) in the graphene membrane preferentially oriented perpendicularly to the substrate steps were also observed. Motivated by recent atomic resolution studies of the EG/SiC interface revealing a local delamination of the interfacial C buffer from the (11-2n) facets, we searched for a correlation of these interfacial structural properties with the macroscopic electronic transport in EG field effect transistors (FETs). In particular, electrical characterization of EG top gated FETs fabricated with the channel length parallel or perpendicular to the substrate steps revealed a peculiar anisotropy of the channel conductance with respect to the steps' orientation. This effect was explained in terms of a local enhancement of EG resistance on the (11-2n) facets with respect to the (0001) basal plane, which is consistent with a reduced doping due to the local buffer layer delamination from those facets. Furthermore, scanning probe microscopy-based local electron mean free path measurements on EG showed a ~3× enhancement of mean free path on the buffer-layer-free (11-2n) facets with respect to (0001) terraces, probably associated to a strong reduction of Coulomb scattering effects on graphene's electrons.

  4. Low-energy electron collisions with biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2012-11-01

    We report recent progress in applying the Schwinger multichannel computational method to the interactions of slow electrons with biomolecules. Calculations on constituents of DNA, including nucleobases, phosphate esters, and models of the backbone sugar, have provided insight into the nature of the low-energy shape resonances, and thereby into possible sites and mechanisms for electron attachment that may lead to strand-breaking. At the same time, more approximate calculations on larger assemblies such as nucleosides and deoxyadenosine monophosphate indicate how the resonance properties of the subunits will or will not persist in DNA itself. We are pursuing a similar strategy for another major class of biomolecules, the proteins, by beginning with fixed-nuclei studies of the constituent amino acids; here we present preliminary results for the simplest amino acid, glycine. We also describe efforts directed at an improved understanding electron collisions with alcohols, which, in addition to basic scientific interest, may prove useful in the modeling of ignition and combustion within biofuel-powered engines.

  5. Intense energetic-electron flux enhancements in Mercury's magnetosphere: An integrated view with high-resolution observations from MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. M.; Baker, D. N.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Lawrence, D. J.; Goldsten, J. O.; Peplowski, P. N.; Korth, H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Anderson, B. J.; Ho, G. C.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Schriver, D.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the surprising observations by Mariner 10 during its March 1974 flyby of Mercury was the detection of intense bursts of energetic particles in Mercury's magnetosphere in association with substorm-like magnetic field reconfigurations. A full understanding of where, when, and how such particle bursts occur was not possible from the limited Mariner 10 data. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury has provided a wealth of new data about energetic particle phenomena. With observations from MESSENGER's Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS), as well as data arising from energetic electrons recorded by the X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) and Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) instruments, recent work has greatly extended our record of the acceleration, transport, and loss of energetic electrons at Mercury. The combined data sets include measurements from a few keV up to several hundred keV in electron kinetic energy and have permitted relatively good spatial and temporal resolution for many events. We focus here on the detailed nature of energetic electron bursts measured by the GRNS system, and we place these events in the context of solar wind and magnetospheric forcing at Mercury. Our examination of data at high temporal resolution (10 ms) during the period March 2013 through October 2014 supports strongly the view that energetic electrons are accelerated in the near-tail region of Mercury's magnetosphere and are subsequently "injected" onto closed magnetic field lines on the planetary night side. The electrons evidently fill the plasma sheet volume and drift rapidly eastward toward the dawn and pre-noon sectors, at time executing multiple complete drifts around the planet to form "quasi-trapped" populations.

  6. Identification of biological molecules in situ at high resolution via the fluorescence excited by a scanning electron beam.

    PubMed Central

    Hough, P V; McKinney, W R; Ledbeter, M C; Pollack, R E; Moos, H W

    1976-01-01

    Proteins, nucleic acids, and fluorescein-conjugated antibody are shown to be identifidable in situ via the fluorescence excited by the focused electron beam of a canning electron microscope. A molecular species is identified by its characteristic fluorescence spectrum and by a characteristic alteration of the spectrum with time under the electron beam. Primary protein fluorescence is relatively rapidly destroyed by the beam, but protein photoproduct fluorescence is more rugged and will in some cases permit detection of small numbers of protein molecules. Nucleic acid fluorescence is extremely long-lived and will permit detection of small numbers of nucleic acid residues. The theoretical resolution limit for localization of a particular molecular species -- about 20 A--is determined by the known maximum distance for molecular excitation by fast electrons. Drect extapolation from an observed resolution of 900 A in the localization of nucleic acid using a low-efficiency detector leads to an experimental resolution limit of less than 60 A. Fluorescence is strongly quenched by residual water in the specimen. Similar quenching is produced by some macromolecular associations and so may serve to localize such associations. Images PMID:768980

  7. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K. )

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium.

  8. High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and photoelectron-diffraction studies of the geometric structure of adsorbates on single-crystal metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1982-11-01

    Two techniques which have made important contributions to the understanding of surface phenomena are high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and photoelectron diffraction (PD). EELS is capable of directly measuring the vibrational modes of clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces. In this work, the design, construction, and performance of a new EELS spectrometer are described. These results are discussed in terms of possible structures of the O-Cu(001) system. Recommendations for improvements in this EELS spectrometer and guidelines for future spectrometers are given. PD experiments provide accurate quantitative information about the geometry of atoms and molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. The technique has advantages when used to study disordered overlayers, molecular overlayers, multiple site systems, and adsorbates which are weak electron scatterers. Four experiments were carried out which exploit these advantages.

  9. A High Resolution On-Chip Delay Sensor with Low Supply-Voltage Sensitivity for High-Performance Electronic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Duo; Lai, Hsiu-Fan; Chan, Sheng-Min; Hong, Min-Rong

    2015-01-01

    An all-digital on-chip delay sensor (OCDS) circuit with high delay-measurement resolution and low supply-voltage sensitivity for efficient detection and diagnosis in high-performance electronic system applications is presented. Based on the proposed delay measurement scheme, the quantization resolution of the proposed OCDS can be reduced to several picoseconds. Additionally, the proposed cascade-stage delay measurement circuit can enhance immunity to supply-voltage variations of the delay measurement resolution without extra self-biasing or calibration circuits. Simulation results show that the delay measurement resolution can be improved to 1.2 ps; the average delay resolution variation is 0.55% with supply-voltage variations of ±10%. Moreover, the proposed delay sensor can be implemented in an all-digital manner, making it very suitable for high-performance electronic system applications as well as system-level integration. PMID:25688590

  10. Study by atomistic theory and high-resolution electron microscopies of Cu atoms at an Al grain boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Plitzko, Jurgen M.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; King, Wayne E.; Foiles, Stephen M.; Kisielowski, Christian; Duscher, Gerd

    2003-02-02

    New insight into the atomic segregation of copper to an aluminum grain boundary has been obtained using atomic resolution electron microscopy techniques coupled with ab-initio electronic structure calculations. We find the copper segregation to be site specific, changing the structure of the boundary by unexpectedly occupying interstitial sites. The calculated energy for segregation was found to be sufficient for essentially all of the interstitial sites to be filled. Minor elemental constituents in materials can have profound effects on their engineering performance, often through segregation to grain boundaries in the host material. One important example is the great resistance to electromigration damage in microelectronics imparted by small additions of copper to aluminum interconnects.

  11. Phase-modulated electronic wave packet interferometry reveals high resolution spectra of free Rb atoms and Rb*He molecules.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Lukas; Mudrich, Marcel; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Phase-modulated wave packet interferometry is combined with mass-resolved photoion detection to investigate rubidium atoms attached to helium nanodroplets in a molecular beam experiment. The spectra of atomic Rb electronic states show a vastly enhanced sensitivity and spectral resolution when compared to conventional pump-probe wave packet interferometry. Furthermore, the formation of Rb*He exciplex molecules is probed and for the first time a fully resolved vibrational spectrum for transitions between the lowest excited 5Π3/2 and the high-lying electronic states 2(2)Π, 4(2)Δ, 6(2)Σ is obtained and compared to theory. The feasibility of applying coherent multidimensional spectroscopy to dilute cold gas phase samples is demonstrated in these experiments. PMID:26309123

  12. Determination of electron-nucleus collisions geometry with forward neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, L.; Aschenauer, E.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-12-29

    There are a large number of physics programs one can explore in electron-nucleus collisions at a future electron-ion collider. Collision geometry is very important in these studies, while the measurement for an event-by-event geometric control is rarely discussed in the prior deep-inelastic scattering experiments off a nucleus. This paper seeks to provide some detailed studies on the potential of tagging collision geometries through forward neutron multiplicity measurements with a zero degree calorimeter. As a result, this type of geometry handle, if achieved, can be extremely beneficial in constraining nuclear effects for the electron-nucleus program at an electron-ion collider.

  13. New integrated Monte Carlo code for the simulation of high-resolution scanning electron microscopy images for metrology in microlithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgüsatiroglu, Emre; Illarionov, Alexey Yu.; Ciappa, Mauro; Pfäffli, Paul; Bomholt, Lars

    2014-04-01

    A new Monte Carlo code is presented that includes among others definition of arbitrary geometries with sub-nanometer resolution, high performance parallel computing capabilities, trapped charge, electric field calculation, electron tracking in electrostatic field, and calculation of 3D dose distributions. These functionalities are efficiently implemented thanks to the coupling of the Monte Carlo simulator with a TCAD environment. Applications shown are the synthesis of SEM linescans and images that focus on the evaluation of the impact of proximity effects and self charging on the quantitative extraction of critical dimensions in dense photoresist structures.

  14. Wide viewing-zone-angle full-color electronic holography system using very high resolution liquid crystal display panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoh, Takanori; Mishina, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Oi, Ryutaro; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2011-02-01

    A wide viewing-zone-angle full-color electronic holography reconstruction system is developed. Time division multiplexing of RGB color light and space division multiplexing of viewing-zone-angles are adopted to keep the optical system compact. Undesirable light such as illumination light, phase conjugate light, and high-order diffraction light are eliminated by half-zone-plate hologram generation and single sideband beam reconstruction. Color aberration and astigmatism caused by the reproduction optical system are analyzed and reduced. The developed system expands viewing-zone-angle of full-color holographic image three times wider than the original, suppressing undesirable light, color aberration, and astigmatism.

  15. High-Resolution and Specific Detection of Bacteria on Complex Surfaces Using Nanoparticle Probes and Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Nielsen, Shaun; Joseph, Stephen; Thomas, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The study of the interaction of bacteria with surfaces requires the detection of specific bacterial groups with high spatial resolution. Here, we describe a method to rapidly and efficiently add nanogold particles to oligonucleotide probes, which target bacterial ribosomal RNA. These nanogold-labeled probes are then used in an in situ hybridization procedure that ensures both cellular integrity and high specificity. Electron microscopy subsequently enables the visualization of specific cells with high local precision on complex surface structures. This method will contribute to an increased understanding of how bacteria interact with surface structures on a sub-micron scale. PMID:26018431

  16. Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution: Experimental methods and measurements for helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.F.; Cooper, G.; Brion, C.E. )

    1991-07-01

    An alternative method is described for the measurement of absolute optical oscillator strengths (cross sections) for electronic excitation of free atoms and molecules throughout the discrete region of the valence-shell spectrum at high energy resolution (full width at half maximum of 0.048 eV). The technique, utilizing the virtual-photon field of a fast electron inelastically scattered at negligible momentum transfer, avoids many of the difficulties associated with the various direct optical techniques that have traditionally been used for absolute optical oscillator strength measurements. The method is also free of the bandwidth (line saturation) effects that can seriously limit the accuracy of photoabsorption cross-section measurements for discrete transitions of narrow linewidth obtained using the Beer-Lambert law ({ital I}{sub 0}/{ital I}=exp({ital nl}{sigma}{sub {ital p}})). Since the line-saturation effects are not widely appreciated and are only usually considered in the context of peak heights, a detailed analysis of this problem is presented, with consideration of the integrated cross section (oscillator strength) over the profile of each discrete peak.

  17. High-resolution (e, 2e + ion) study of electron-impact ionization and fragmentation of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xueguang Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yong; Rabus, Hans; Ullrich, Joachim; Dorn, Alexander

    2015-05-07

    The ionization and fragmentation of methane induced by low-energy (E{sub 0} = 66 eV) electron-impact is investigated using a reaction microscope. The momentum vectors of all three charged final state particles, two outgoing electrons, and one fragment ion, are detected in coincidence. Compared to the earlier study [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134307 (2013)], considerable improvements to the instrumental mass and energy resolutions have been achieved. The fragment products CH{sub 4}{sup +}, CH{sub 3}{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, CH{sup +}, and C{sup +} are clearly resolved. The binding energy resolution of ΔE = 2.0 eV is a factor of three better than in the earlier measurements. The fragmentation channels are investigated by measuring the ion kinetic energy distributions and the binding energy spectra. While being mostly in consistence with existing photoionization studies the results show differences including missing fragmentation channels and previously unseen channels.

  18. High-resolution mapping of 1D and 2D dose distributions using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kolbun, N; Adolfsson, E; Gustafsson, H; Lund, E

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) was performed to visualise 2D dose distributions of homogenously irradiated potassium dithionate tablets and to demonstrate determination of 1D dose profiles along the height of the tablets. Mathematical correction was applied for each relative dose profile in order to take into account the inhomogeneous response of the resonator using X-band EPRI. The dose profiles are presented with the spatial resolution of 0.6 mm from the acquired 2D images; this value is limited by pixel size, and 1D dose profiles from 1D imaging with spatial resolution of 0.3 mm limited by the intrinsic line-width of potassium dithionate. In this paper, dose profiles from 2D reconstructed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) images using the Xepr software package by Bruker are focussed. The conclusion is that using potassium dithionate, the resolution 0.3 mm is sufficient for mapping steep dose gradients if the dosemeters are covering only ±2 mm around the centre of the resonator. PMID:24748487

  19. Oxygen Nanodistributions in Cobalt-Iron Electrodeposited Thin Films: Some Effects on Magnetic Properties High Resolution Analytical Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhalawaty, Shereen

    Soft magnetic alloys play a significant role for magnetic recording applications and highly sensitivity magnetic field sensors. In order to sustain the magnetic areal density growth, development of new synthesis techniques and materials is necessary. In this work, the effect of oxygen incorporation during electrodeposition of CoFe alloys on magnetic properties, magnetoresistance and structural properties has been studied. Understanding the magnetic properties often required knowledge of oxygen distribution and structural properties of the grown films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was a powerful tool in this study to correlate the oxygen-distribution nanostructure to the magnetic properties of deposited films. Off-axis electron holography in TEM was used to measure magnetic domain wall width in the deposited films. Elemental depth profiles of Fe, Co, O were investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Magnetic properties have been determined by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. Oxygen content in the CoFe deposited films was controlled by electrolyte composition. Films were deposited on Si 100 substrates and on other substrates such as Cu and Al. However, a good film quality was achieved on Si substrate. Electron energy loss and x-ray spectroscopies showed that the low oxygen films contained intragranular Fe2+ oxide (FeO) particles and that the high oxygen films contained intergranular Fe 3+ (Fe2O3) along grain boundaries. The films with oxide present at the grain boundary had significantly increased coercivity, magnetoresistance and reduced saturation magnetization relative to the lower oxygen content films with intragranular oxide. The differences in magnetic properties between low oxygen and high oxygen concentration films were attributed to stronger mobile domain wall interactions with the grain boundary oxide layers. The very high magnetoresistance values were achieved for magnetic devices with nanocontact

  20. Determining the Binding Sites of β-Cyclodextrin and Peptides by Electron-Capture Dissociation High Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yulin; Geib, Timon; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2015-07-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a group of cyclic oligosaccharides, which readily form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic compounds to increase bioavailability, thus making CDs ideal drug excipients. Recent studies have also shown that CDs exhibit a wide range of protective effects, preventing proteins from aggregation, degradation, and folding. These effects strongly depend on the binding sites on the protein surface. CDs only exhibit weak interactions with amino acids, however; conventional analytical techniques therefore usually fail to reveal the exact location of the binding sites. Moreover, some studies even suggest that CD inclusion complexes are merely electrostatic adducts. Here, electron capture dissociation (ECD) was applied in this proof-of-concept study to examine the exact nature of the CD/peptide complexes, and CD binding sites were unambiguously located for the first time via Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) tandem mass spectrometry.

  1. Optimal experimental design for the detection of light atoms from high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect

    Gonnissen, J.; De Backer, A.; Martinez, G. T.; Van Aert, S.; Dekker, A. J. den; Rosenauer, A.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-08-11

    We report an innovative method to explore the optimal experimental settings to detect light atoms from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Since light elements play a key role in many technologically important materials, such as lithium-battery devices or hydrogen storage applications, much effort has been made to optimize the STEM technique in order to detect light elements. Therefore, classical performance criteria, such as contrast or signal-to-noise ratio, are often discussed hereby aiming at improvements of the direct visual interpretability. However, when images are interpreted quantitatively, one needs an alternative criterion, which we derive based on statistical detection theory. Using realistic simulations of technologically important materials, we demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method and compare the results with existing approaches.

  2. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; Patthey, L.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Feng, Y.; David, C.

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy of >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.

  3. High-Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy and Immuno-Gold Labeling of the Nuclear Lamina and Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Martin W

    2016-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a technique used to image surfaces. Field emission SEMs (feSEMs) can resolve structures that are ~0.5-1.5 nm apart. FeSEM, therefore is a useful technique for imaging molecular structures that exist at surfaces such as membranes. The nuclear envelope consists of four membrane surfaces, all of which may be accessible for imaging. Imaging of the cytoplasmic face of the outer membrane gives information about ribosomes and cytoskeletal attachments, as well as details of the cytoplasmic peripheral components of the nuclear pore complex, and is the most easily accessed surface. The nucleoplasmic face of the inner membrane is easily accessible in some cells, such as amphibian oocytes, giving valuable details about the organization of the nuclear lamina and how it interacts with the nuclear pore complexes. The luminal faces of both membranes are difficult to access, but may be exposed by various fracturing techniques. Protocols are presented here for the preparation, labeling, and feSEM imaging of Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclear envelopes. PMID:27147058

  4. TDC-based readout electronics for real-time acquisition of high resolution PET bio-images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, N.; Saponara, S.; Ambrosi, G.; Baronti, F.; Bisogni, M. G.; Cerello, P.,; Ciciriello, F.; Corsi, F.; Fanucci, L.; Ionica, M.; Licciulli, F.; Marzocca, C.; Morrocchi, M.; Pennazio, F.; Roncella, R.; Santoni, C.; Wheadon, R.; Del Guerra, A.

    2013-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical and research tool for in vivo metabolic imaging. The demand for better image quality entails continuous research to improve PET instrumentation. In clinical applications, PET image quality benefits from the time of flight (TOF) feature. Indeed, by measuring the photons arrival time on the detectors with a resolution less than 100 ps, the annihilation point can be estimated with centimeter resolution. This leads to better noise level, contrast and clarity of detail in the images either using analytical or iterative reconstruction algorithms. This work discusses a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)-based magnetic-field compatible TOF-PET module with depth of interaction (DOI) correction. The detector features a 3D architecture with two tiles of SiPMs coupled to a single LYSO scintillator on both its faces. The real-time front-end electronics is based on a current-mode ASIC where a low input impedance, fast current buffer allows achieving the required time resolution. A pipelined time to digital converter (TDC) measures and digitizes the arrival time and the energy of the events with a timestamp of 100 ps and 400 ps, respectively. An FPGA clusters the data and evaluates the DOI, with a simulated z resolution of the PET image of 1.4 mm FWHM.

  5. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer. This was accomplished by employing a combination of soft ionization and desolvation conditions coupled with the radical-driven fragmentation technique electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here, a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap XL is systematically evaluated for its utility in providing single-amide deuterium incorporation for differential HDX analysis of a nuclear receptor upon binding small molecule ligands. We are able to show that instrumental parameters can be optimized to minimize scrambling and can be incorporated into an established and fully automated HDX platform making differential single-amide HDX possible for bottom-up analysis of complex systems. We have applied this system to determine differential single amide resolution HDX data for the peroxizome proliferator activated receptor bound with two ligands of interest.

  6. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore » >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  7. Characterization of the (0110) {alpha}-Ti/{gamma}-TiH interface using high-resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, M.M.; Howe, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Precipitation of {gamma}-TiH in {alpha}-Ti-H alloys involves a hcp {r_arrow} fct lattice transformation with hydrogen as an interstitial diffusing element. Results obtained from a previous TEM study have shown that the lengthening rate of {gamma}-TiH is diffusionally controlled at 25{degrees}C, and possibly interfacially controlled at temperatures of 50{degrees}C and higher. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the presence or absence of hydrogen atoms at the interface. TEM foils from a 800 ppm wt.% Ti-H alloy were analyzed using high-resolution TEM and image simulations in order to determine the effects of hydrogen on high-resolution images of the {alpha}-Ti/{gamma}-TiH interface, and EELS was used to determine the whether the hydride structure was fully formed up to the interface.

  8. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  9. A Structural Investigation of CdTe(001) Thin Films on GaAs/Si(001) Substrates by High-Resolution Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Chon; Baek, Seung Hyub; Kim, Hyun Jae; Song, Jin Dong; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2012-10-01

    Epitaxial CdTe thin films were grown on GaAs/Si(001) substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using thin GaAs as a buffer layer. The interfaces were investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and geometric phase analysis strain mapping. It was observed that dislocation cores exist at the CdTe/GaAs interface with periodic distribution. The spacing of the misfit dislocation was measured to be about 2 nm, corresponding to the calculated spacing of a misfit dislocation (2.6 nm) in CdTe/Si with Burgers vector of a[110]/2. From these results, it is suggested that the GaAs buffer layer effectively absorbs the strain originating from the large lattice mismatch between the CdTe thin film and Si substrate with the formation of periodic structural defects.

  10. Atomic arrangement at ZnTe/CdSe interfaces determined by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bonef, Bastien; Rouvière, Jean-Luc; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Gérard, Lionel; Mariette, Henri; André, Régis; Bougerol, Catherine; Grenier, Adeline

    2015-02-02

    High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments reveal the presence of an intermediate layer at the interface between two binary compounds with no common atom, namely, ZnTe and CdSe for samples grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy under standard conditions. This thin transition layer, of the order of 1 to 3 atomic planes, contains typically one monolayer of ZnSe. Even if it occurs at each interface, the direct interface, i.e., ZnTe on CdSe, is sharper than the reverse one, where the ZnSe layer is likely surrounded by alloyed layers. On the other hand, a CdTe-like interface was never observed. This interface knowledge is crucial to properly design superlattices for optoelectronic applications and to master band-gap engineering.

  11. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on the growth modes of GaSb islands grown on a semi-insulating GaAs (001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Noh, Y. G.; Kim, M. D.; Oh, J. E.

    2007-06-01

    The initial growth behaviors of GaSb on a GaAs substrate were studied using a high-resolution electron microscope (HRTEM). Four types of GaSb islands were observed by HRTEM. HRTEM micrographs showed that strain relaxation mechanisms were different in the four types of islands. Although 90° misfit dislocations relieve misfit strain in the islands, additional mechanisms are required to relax the remaining strain. The existence of elastic deformation near the surface related to dislocations and intermediate layers between GaSb and GaAs were demonstrated in island growths. Finally, the generation of planar defects to relieve strain was observed in a specific GaSb growth.

  12. High-resolution electron microscopy observation and dislocation reaction mechanism of fivefold twinning in a Cu-rich precipitate in a cold rolled ferritic steel containing copper

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ling; Wang, Wei; Chen, Bolin; Zhou, Xiying; Li, Zhongwen; Zhou, Bangxin; Wang, Lumin

    2014-09-15

    Ferritic steels containing copper have been studied as model systems for clusters/precipitate formation in reactor pressure vessel steels. The samples were aged at 400 °C for 4000 h and subsequently cold rolled to 30% reduction at room temperature. The microstructural characteristics of the samples were analyzed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Direct evidence was found that the fivefold twinning occurs via simultaneous emission of two Shockley partial dislocations from two particular α-Fe/Cu interfaces, and then the pileup tips of the twofold twin. - Highlights: • Fivefold twin is observed in a Cu-rich precipitate in cold rolled ferritic steels. • A dislocation reaction mechanism for the fivefold twin formation is proposed. • Two particular mismatching α-Fe/Cu-rich precipitate interfaces play a critical role.

  13. Opto-mechano-electrical tripling in ZnO nanowires probed by photocurrent spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Golberg, D. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Xu, Z. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Kvashnin, D. G.; Tang, D.-M.; Xue, Y. M.; Bando, Y.; Sorokin, P. B.

    2015-08-31

    Photocurrent spectroscopy of individual free-standing ZnO nanowires inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is reported. By using specially designed optical in situ TEM system capable of scanning tunneling microscopy probing paired with light illumination, opto-mechano-electrical tripling phenomenon in ZnO nanowires is demonstrated. Splitting of photocurrent spectra at around 3.3 eV under in situ TEM bending of ZnO nanowires directly corresponds to nanowire deformation and appearance of expanded and compressed nanowire sides. Theoretical simulation of a bent ZnO nanowire has an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The splitting effect could be explained by a change in the valence band structure of ZnO nanowires due to a lattice strain. The strain-induced splitting provides important clues for future flexible piezo-phototronics.

  14. A Comparative High-Resolution Electron Microscope Study of Ag Clusters Produced by a Sputter-Gas Aggregation and Ion Cluster Beam Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohl, Georg-Friedrich; Hihara, Takehiko; Sakurai, Masaki; Oishi, Takashi; Wakoh, Kimio; Sumiyama, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenji

    1994-03-01

    Ag clusters were formed by a sputter-gas-aggregation process [H. Haberland et al..: J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 10 (1992) 3266] and the ionized cluster beam (ICB) [T. Takagi: Ionized-Cluster Beam Deposition and Epitaxy (Noyes, Park Ridge, 1988)] technique. The Ag clusters deposited on collodion-coated microgrids were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The diameter of those clusters, d, ranges from 1 nm up to about 10 nm for specimens produced by the sputter-gas aggregation technique, depending on the sputter condition and the deposition time. Comparable times of the ICB deposition lead to a broader distribution up to d≈20 nm, suggesting the formation of islands with extremely flat shapes. High percentages of crystalline particles obtained by both techniques are either single crystals or multiple twins with clear lattice images.

  15. Restoring defect structures in 3C-SiC/Si (001) from spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope images by means of deconvolution processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, C; Wan, W; Li, F H; Tang, D

    2015-04-01

    The [110] cross-sectional samples of 3C-SiC/Si (001) were observed with a spherical aberration-corrected 300 kV high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Two images taken not close to the Scherzer focus condition and not representing the projected structures intuitively were utilized for performing the deconvolution. The principle and procedure of image deconvolution and atomic sort recognition are summarized. The defect structure restoration together with the recognition of Si and C atoms from the experimental images has been illustrated. The structure maps of an intrinsic stacking fault in the area of SiC, and of Lomer and 60° shuffle dislocations at the interface have been obtained at atomic level. PMID:25637810

  16. The properties of (2Fo - Fc) and (Fo - Fc) electron-density maps at medium-to-high resolutions.

    PubMed

    Minichino, A; Habash, J; Raftery, J; Helliwell, J R

    2003-05-01

    This paper reports on the efficacy of (F(o) - F(c)) versus (2F(o) - F(c)) electron-density maps at 3.2 A resolution. Firstly, a study is reported of a simple truncation at 2.3 and 3.2 A of the 1.6 A resolution crystal structure of concanavalin A at room temperature [Emmerich et al. (1994), Acta Cryst. D50, 749-756] with 149 known bound water molecules. Secondly, the concanavalin A 1.6 A resolution model was re-refined but with the data truncated to 3.2 A. In a similar evaluation, these procedures were repeated for the apocrustacyanin A1 cryotemperature 1.4 A resolution model [Cianci et al. (2001), Acta Cryst. D57, 1219-1229]. Maps at 1.4, 2.3 and 3.2 A resolutions were first generated and the structure was then re-refined at 3.2 A and additionally at 2.3 A resolution. The results on concanavalin A show that the number of bound water molecules that are resolved decreases by two thirds from 1.6 to 3.2 A, but that key structural waters, for example at the transition metal and the calcium ion, are still resolved in the (F(o) - F(c)) map but not in the (2F(o) - F(c)) map. For apocrustacyanin A1, the results with these two difference maps were less clear-cut. Two key structural bound waters (w93 and w105) were selected that had been previously identified in beta-crustacyanin [Cianci et al. (2002), Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 9795-9800] in protein-carotenoid interactions. The behaviour of w93 is similar to that of concanavalin A key waters, but that of w105 is not. These behaviours were therefore explored in finer resolution increments, namely 2.9, 2.7 and 2.5 A. Finally, further tests on "real" data sets for peanut lectin and concanavalin A at medium resolution confirm these map properties, namely that an (F(o) - F(c)) difference electron-density map is more effective than a (2F(o) - F(c)) map in showing bound water structure at lower resolutions ( approximately 3.2 A). This result is important since a growing number of protein crystal structure studies are concerned

  17. A revolutionary rotatable electron energy analyzer for advanced high-resolution spin-polarized photoemission studies. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Waddill, G. D.; Willis, R. F.

    1999-10-01

    This report details the construction and testing of a unique analyzer for spin-polarized photoemission studies of magnetic materials. This report details the progress of this project for the period from 9/1/96 through 8/31/99. Progress can be divided into two distinct areas. These are the fabrication, construction, and initial testing of the instrumentation, and the concurrent program of preliminary investigations into materials and experiments appropriate for future studies using the instrumentation developed. The analyzer complete with special input electron optics and Mott detector has been assembled in a special design UHV chamber equipped with all the capabilities needed to perform the described programs of research. These include a sophisticated five motorized axis sample manipulator with low and high temperature capability and rapid temperature cycling (acquired in collaboration with Dr. J.G. Tobin of LLNL), vacuum leak detection and gauging, in situ thin film growth instrumentation, and sample cleaning and magnetizing capabilities, The initial testing of the analyzer has been completed with successful data acquisition using both the multichannel detector mode, and spin-dependent using the Mott detector channeltrons. The data collected using the Mott detector were not truly spin dependent (see below), but demonstrate the operation of the lens and detector design. Acquisition of truly spin-dependent data await use of the EPU. Preliminary indications suggest that the analyzer performs at or above the original design parameters. In the second area of progress, we have conducted a number of preliminary studies toward the ends of identifying appropriate initial systems for investigation, and to further explore new experiments that the new instrumentation will help to pioneer. More detailed descriptions of all of these advances are given.

  18. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Syncytial-Type Cell Plates during Endosperm Cellularization Visualized by High Resolution Electron Tomography W⃞

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, Marisa S.; Mastronarde, David N.; Kang, Byung-Ho; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional architecture of syncytial-type cell plates in the endosperm of Arabidopsis has been analyzed at ∼6-nm resolution by means of dual-axis high-voltage electron tomography of high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted samples. Mini-phragmoplasts consisting of microtubule clusters assemble between sister and nonsister nuclei. Most Golgi-derived vesicles appear connected to these microtubules by two molecules that resemble kinesin-like motor proteins. These vesicles fuse with each other to form hourglass-shaped intermediates, which become wide (∼45 nm in diameter) tubules, the building blocks of wide tubular networks. New mini-phragmoplasts also are generated de novo around the margins of expanding wide tubular networks, giving rise to new foci of cell plate growth, which later become integrated into the main cell plate. Spiral-shaped rings of the dynamin-like protein ADL1A constrict but do not fission the wide tubules at irregular intervals. These rings appear to maintain the tubular geometry of the network. The wide tubular network matures into a convoluted fenestrated sheet in a process that involves increases of 45 and 130% in relative membrane surface area and volume, respectively. The proportionally larger increase in volume appears to reflect callose synthesis. Upon fusion with the parental plasma membrane, the convoluted fenestrated sheet is transformed into a planar fenestrated sheet. This transformation involves clathrin-coated vesicles that reduce the relative membrane surface area and volume by ∼70%. A ribosome-excluding matrix encompasses the cell plate membranes from the fusion of the first vesicles until the onset of the planar fenestrated sheet formation. We postulate that this matrix contains the molecules that mediate cell plate assembly. PMID:11549762

  19. Permanent Electronic Storage of Angiographic Images in the Catheterization Laboratory: High-Resolution and Real-Time Acquisition on Optical Laserdiscs.

    PubMed

    Azancot; Krone; Eiferman; Guermonprez; Metzger; Le Dref O; Steg; Bonan; Lesperance; Hudon; Friolo; Beaufils

    1997-03-01

    The use of electronic ÒfilmlessÓ media for long-term archiving of coronary angiograms has been impeded by the problems of image storage and data transfer among institutions. Although long-term analogue storage of the images is presently feasible, and much less costly than digital storage, processing has been limited to a 625 lines video format, not optimal for high quality images. We developed a bi-directional 1249/625 lines converter, able to store and to replay high resolution (1249 lines) video images, from Component Record Video (CRV) Optical Laser (Analogue) Videodisks. Image quality and medical relevance were evaluated five ways: 1) Outside experts compared 593 static images stored on CRV discs to the same images stored in a high-resolution digital format blinded to source of image. The four experts found no visual or medical difference in 98% of evaluated images and minor differences in the remainder. The differences in the remaining images were not consistent among experts. 2) Two of the experts also compared the enhanced CRV optically stored image to the image obtained on simultaneously recorded 35mm cine film, and found the enhanced CRV stored image to be superior or similar, but never inferior to the film image. 3) 90 representatives from 63 outside institutions compared images from both a digital hard drive and the enhanced CRV optical (analogue) storage displayed at a Windows based digital workstation. During the test they were blinded as to the source of the images. The representatives found no difference in image resolution, quality, diagnostic accuracy, and medical relevance. 4) We evaluated quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) on standard coronary test phantoms using enhanced CRV stored images digitally processed. The correlation of the enhanced CRV image to the actual size of the phantom vessels was similar to the results obtained in the literature from digitally stored images. 5) 78 arterial measurements ranging 0.65 to 4.85 mm were

  20. Electron transfer reactions on Cs/MoS2(0002) with chlorine, oxygen, and water: High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ken T.; Hess, James S.; Klier, Kamil

    1999-07-01

    Supra-valence electron transfer from surface Cs-doped MoS2(0002) to electron acceptor adsorbates was investigated by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) in the valence band region and above the valence band maximum (VBM). Deposition of a sub-monolayer amount of Cs onto the basal plane of MoS2 introduced a new electron density of states at ca. 1.25 eV above VBM. Angle-resolved HRXPS and theoretical analysis located this electron density in the MoS2 layer. Upon the reaction with Cl2, this Cs-induced photoelectron almost completely disappeared and the Cs 3d and Cl 2p core levels indicated the formation of a surface Cs-chloride species. The Cs-covered MoS2(0002) surface also reacted with O2 to form surface peroxides and superoxides, as evidenced by two distinct binding energies of the O 1s core level peaks. However, the reaction with water proved to be more difficult: Exposure of the Cs-covered MoS2(0002) surface to H2O at 10-5 Torr did not result in electron transfer reaction, but the Cs/MoS2(0002) surface exposed to H2O at 1 Torr showed a substantial decrease in the density of states above VBM as well as formation of a surface-hydroxide, indicated by the O 1s core level position. Theoretical calculations using a full-potential linearized augmented plane wave density functional theory (FLAPW-DFT) confirm the conclusion based on experimental intensity anisotropy of the new peak: the Cs 6s electron transfers into the MoS2 substrate, forming the Cs/MoS2 electron donor-acceptor complex with Csδ+. In addition, all phenomena observed during the adsorption of electron donor-acceptor molecules are quantitatively accounted by the theory.

  1. Electron collisions with hydrogen-bonded complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T. C.; Sanchez, S. d'A.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.

    2011-12-15

    We investigated elastic collisions of low-energy electrons with the hydrogen-bonded formic-acid dimer, formamide dimer, and formic-acid-formamide complex. We focused on how the {pi}{sup *} shape resonances of the isolated monomers are affected when bonded to another molecule. The scattering cross sections were computed with the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials in the static-exchange and static-exchange-plus-polarization approximations, for energies ranging from 1 to 6 eV. The present results support the existence of two low-lying {pi}{sup *} shape resonances for the formic-acid dimer, as suggested in previous theoretical and experimental studies. We also found low-lying {pi}{sup *} shape resonances for the formamide dimer and for the formic-acid-formamide complex. For the dimers, the presence of a center of inversion is key to understanding how these resonances arise from linear combinations of the {pi}{sup *} anion states of the respective monomers. For the formic-acid-formamide complex, the resonances are more localized on each unit, lying at lower energies with respect to the isolated monomers. The present results suggest that if there is no delocalization of the {pi}{sup *} resonances over the pair for hydrogen-bonded molecules, then their positions would lie below those of the units.

  2. High-resolution echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1979-01-01

    High resolution computer aided ultrasound system provides two-and three-dimensional images of beating heart from many angles. System provides means for determining whether small blood vessels around the heart are blocked or if heart wall is moving normally without interference of dead and noncontracting muscle tissue.

  3. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  4. Low-energy electron collisions with thiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Lima, M. A. P.; Bettega, M. H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We report on elastic integral, momentum transfer, and differential cross sections for collisions of low-energy electrons with thiophene molecules. The scattering calculations presented here used the Schwinger multichannel method and were carried out in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations for energies ranging from 0.5 eV to 6 eV. We found shape resonances related to the formation of two long-lived π* anion states. These resonant structures are centered at the energies of 1.00 eV (2.85 eV) and 2.82 eV (5.00 eV) in the static-exchange plus polarization (static-exchange) approximation and belong to the B1 and A2 symmetries of the C2v point group, respectively. Our results also suggest the existence of a σ* shape resonance in the B2 symmetry with a strong d-wave character, located at around 2.78 eV (5.50 eV) as obtained in the static-exchange plus polarization (static-exchange) calculation. It is worth to mention that the results obtained at the static-exchange plus polarization level of approximation for the two π* resonances are in good agreement with the electron transmission spectroscopy results of 1.15 eV and 2.63 eV measured by Modelli and Burrow [J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 5721 (2004), 10.1021/jp048759a]. The existence of the σ* shape resonance is in agreement with the observations of Dezarnaud-Dandiney et al. [J. Phys. B 31, L497 (1998), 10.1088/0953-4075/31/11/004] based on the electron transmission spectra of dimethyl(poly)sulphides. A comparison among the resonances of thiophene with those of pyrrole and furan is also performed and, altogether, the resonance spectra obtained for these molecules point out that electron attachment to π* molecular orbitals is a general feature displayed by these five-membered heterocyclic compounds.

  5. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  6. High Resolution Neutral Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucay, Igal; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Stratis, Georgios; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a high resolution neutral atom microscope based on metastable atom electron spectroscopy (MAES). When a metastable atom of a noble gas is near a solid, a surface electron will tunnel to an empty energy level of the metastable atom, thereby ejecting the excited electron from the atom. The emitted electrons carry information regarding the local topography and electronic, magnetic, and chemical structures of most hard materials. Furthermore, using a chromatic aberration corrected magnetic hexapole lens we expect to attain a spatial resolution below 10 nm. We will use this microscope to investigate how local phenomena can give rise to macroscopic effects in materials that cannot be probed using a scanning tunneling microscope, namely insulating transition metal oxides.

  7. Electron impact collision strengths in Ne VII

    SciTech Connect

    Di, L.; Shi, J.R.; Zhao, G.

    2012-07-15

    The lines of Ne VII have been observed in many astronomical objects, and some transitions from high energy levels were observed both in Seyfert galaxies and stellar coronae. Thus, the atomic data for these transitions are important for modeling. Using the code FAC we calculated the collision strengths based on the distorted-wave method with large configuration interactions included. The Maxwellian averaged effective collision strengths covering the typical temperature range of astronomical and laboratory hot plasmas are presented. We extend the calculation of the energy levels to n=4 and 5. The energy levels, wavelengths, spontaneous transition rates, weighted oscillator strengths, and effective collision strengths were reported. Compared with the results from experiment or previous theoretical calculations a general agreement is found. It is found that the resonance effects are important in calculating the effective collision strengths.

  8. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  9. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  10. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  11. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  12. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5) 0+ electronic state of 85 Rb133 Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting; Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Kim, Jin-Tae; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-05-01

    The creation and manipulation of ultracold polar molecules have attracted intensive attentions due to their permanent electric dipole moments interacting strongly with an external electric field and with long-range dipole-dipole force, which facilitate applications such as precision measurement, quantum control of cold chemical reactions, and quantum computation. The (5) 0+ state is a good candidate to produce ultracold ground state RbCs molecule through a short-range photoassociation (PA). We present the formation of ultracold 85 Rb133 Cs molecules in the (5) 0+ electronic state by PA and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with high resolution. Precise Dunham coefficients and the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve of the (5) 0+ state are determined The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5) 0+ electronic state are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5) 0+ state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring to the lowest rovibrational level of the ground state.

  13. The neural elements in the lining of the ventricular-subventricular zone: making an old story new by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre dos Santos; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Watanabe, Ii-sei

    2015-01-01

    The classical description of the neural elements that compose the lining of brain ventricles introduces us to the single layer of ependymal cells. However, new findings, especially in the lateral ventricle (LV)—the major niche for the generation of new neurons in the adult brain—have provided information about additional cell elements that influence the organization of this part of the ventricular system and produce important contributions to neurogenesis. To complement the cell neurochemistry findings, we present a three-dimensional in situ description that demonstrates the anatomical details of the different types of ciliated cells and the innervation of these elements. After processing adult rat brains for ultrastructural analysis by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and transmission electron microscopy, we observed a heterogeneous pattern of cilia distribution at the different poles of the LV surface. Furthermore, we describe the particular three-dimensional aspects of the ciliated cells of the LV, in addition the fiber bundles and varicose axons surrounding these cells. Therefore, we provide a unique ultrastructural description of the three-dimensional in situ organization of the LV surface, highlighting its innervation, to corroborate the available neurochemical and functional findings regarding the factors that regulate this neurogenic niche. PMID:26578896

  14. High resolution photoelectron imaging of UO- and UO2- and the low-lying electronic states and vibrational frequencies of UO and UO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czekner, Joseph; Lopez, Gary V.; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    We report a study of the electronic and vibrational structures of the gaseous uranium monoxide and dioxide molecules using high-resolution photoelectron imaging. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for both UO- and UO2-. The spectra for UO2- are consistent with, but much better resolved than a recent study using a magnetic-bottle photoelectron analyzer [W. L. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094306 (2014)]. The electron affinity (EA) of UO is reported for the first time as 1.1407(7) eV, whereas a much more accurate EA is obtained for UO2 as 1.1688(6) eV. The symmetric stretching modes for the neutral and anionic ground states, and two neutral excited states for UO2 are observed, as well as the bending mode for the neutral ground state. These vibrational frequencies are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical results. The stretching vibrational modes for the ground state and one excited state are observed for UO. The current results for UO and UO2 are compared with previous theoretical calculations including relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling. The accurate experimental data reported here provide more stringent tests for future theoretical methods for actinide-containing species.

  15. High resolution photoelectron imaging of UO(-) and UO2(-) and the low-lying electronic states and vibrational frequencies of UO and UO2.

    PubMed

    Czekner, Joseph; Lopez, Gary V; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-28

    We report a study of the electronic and vibrational structures of the gaseous uranium monoxide and dioxide molecules using high-resolution photoelectron imaging. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for both UO(-) and UO2(-). The spectra for UO2(-) are consistent with, but much better resolved than a recent study using a magnetic-bottle photoelectron analyzer [W. L. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094306 (2014)]. The electron affinity (EA) of UO is reported for the first time as 1.1407(7) eV, whereas a much more accurate EA is obtained for UO2 as 1.1688(6) eV. The symmetric stretching modes for the neutral and anionic ground states, and two neutral excited states for UO2 are observed, as well as the bending mode for the neutral ground state. These vibrational frequencies are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical results. The stretching vibrational modes for the ground state and one excited state are observed for UO. The current results for UO and UO2 are compared with previous theoretical calculations including relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling. The accurate experimental data reported here provide more stringent tests for future theoretical methods for actinide-containing species. PMID:25554146

  16. Multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1989-03-01

    Research in atomic physics at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Super-HILAC and Bevalac accelerators on multiple-electron processes in fast ion-atom collisions is described. Experiments have studied various aspects of the charge-transfer, ionization, and excitation processes. Examples of processes in which electron correlation plays a role are resonant transfer and excitation and Auger-electron emission. Processes in which electron behavior can generally be described as uncorrelated include ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions. A variety of experiments and results for energies from 1 MeV/u to 420 MeV/u are presented. 20 refs., 15 figs.

  17. High resolution infrared measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, B.; Cawley, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Sample ground based cloud radiance data from a high resolution infrared sensor are shown and the sensor characteristics are presented in detail. The purpose of the Infrared Analysis Measurement and Modeling Program (IRAMMP) is to establish a deterministic radiometric data base of cloud, sea, and littoral terrain clutter to be used to advance the design and development of Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems as well as other infrared devices. The sensor is a dual band radiometric sensor and its description, together with that of the Data Acquisition System (DAS), are given. A schematic diagram of the sensor optics is shown.

  18. The role of prompt electrons in the post-collision effect in fast ion - atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Víkor, Gy; Ricz, S.; Kövér, Á.; Gulyás, L.; Pelicon, P.; Sulik, B.

    1997-10-01

    The influence of the post-collision Coulomb effect of direct-electrons on the Auger-line energy shift has been studied in fast proton - atom collisions. KLL and LMM Auger spectra of neon and krypton target have been measured and analysed with high precision. The semiclassical theory of the post-collision interaction (PCI) has been extended to include the effect of both the receeding projectile ion and the ejected prompt electron. Experimental and theoretical line-energy shifts exhibit a reasonable agreement in the entire angular range of the Auger emission. In a narrow cone around 0953-4075/30/19/020/img9, the line-energy shift is influenced mainly by the PCI with the projectile ion, while at backward angles, it is predominantly governed by the ejected electron - Auger - electron interaction.

  19. Dynamical resonant electron capture in atom surface collisions: H- formation in H-Al(111) collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Teillet-Billy, D.; Gauyacq, J. P.

    1992-05-01

    The formation of H- ion by grazing-angle collisions of hydrogen on an Al(111) surface is investigated with the newly developed coupled angular mode method. The capture process involves a dynamical resonant process induced by the collision velocity. All the resonance properties of the H- level in front of an Al(111) surface are determined: position, width, and angular distribution of ejected electrons. The results are shown to account for the recent observations on H- formation by Wyputta, Zimny, and Winter.

  20. Evaluation of stacking faults and associated partial dislocations in AlSb/GaAs (001) interface by aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, C.; Ge, B. H.; Cui, Y. X.; Li, F. H.; Zhu, J.; Yu, R.; Cheng, Z. Y.

    2014-11-15

    The stacking faults (SFs) in an AlSb/GaAs (001) interface were investigated using a 300 kV spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The structure and strain distribution of the single and intersecting (V-shaped) SFs associated with partial dislocations (PDs) were characterized by the [110] HRTEM images and geometric phase analysis, respectively. In the biaxial strain maps ε{sub xx} and ε{sub yy}, a SF can be divided into several sections under different strain states (positive or negative strain values). Furthermore, the strain state for the same section of a SF is in contrast to each other in ε{sub xx} and ε{sub yy} strain maps. The modification in the strain states was attributed to the variation in the local atomic displacements for the SF in the AlSb film on the GaAs substrate recorded in the lattice image. Finally, the single SF was found to be bounded by two 30° PDs. A pair of 30° PDs near the heteroepitaxial interface reacted to form a Lomer-Cottrell sessile dislocation located at the vertices of V-shaped SFs with opposite screw components. The roles of misfit dislocations, such as the PDs, in strain relaxation were also discussed.

  1. Microstructure analysis of epitaxially grown self-assembled Ge islands on nanometer-scale patterned SiO2/Si substrates by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum; Ryu, Du Yeol; Russell, Thomas P.; Zhao, Zuoming; Liu, Jian; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2007-11-01

    The microstructure of epitaxially grown self-assembled Ge islands on patterned SiO2/Si substrates was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Ge islands were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on hexagonally ordered Si hole arrays with ˜25 nm diameter and ˜40 nm center-to-center distance, which are covered by 30 nm thick SiO2 mask layer patterned using self-assembled diblock copolymers. The Ge islands nucleate preferentially at the edge of overetched Si surface, and subsequently grow selectively on Si surface as opposed to SiO2 surface with increasing coverage. The lattice planes of some Ge islands are tilted from those of Si substrates. This is believed to be the reason for the observed misalignment of moiré fringes. The diameter of the Ge islands is identical to that of Si holes for large Ge coverage due to the selective growth behavior. These islands are found to have dislocations at the interface with the Si substrate. These results highlight the important microstructural issues and growth behavior of quantum dots on patterned substrates.

  2. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study of the hardening mechanism through phase separation in a beta-Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta alloy for implant applications.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Conrado R M; Ferrandini, Peterson L; Ramirez, Antonio J; Caram, Rubens

    2010-04-01

    beta-Ti alloys are highly attractive metallic materials for biomedical applications due to their high specific strength, high corrosion resistance and excellent biocompatibility, including low elastic modulus. This work aims to clarify the hardening mechanism of a beta-Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy using different characterization techniques. Ingots (50 g) of Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta (wt.%) alloy were arc furnace melted in an Ar((g)) atmosphere, homogenized, hot rolled, solubilized and finally aged at several temperatures from 200 to 700 degrees C for 4 h. Microstructure characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The 4 h aging showed that the highest hardness values were found when aged at 400 degrees C and the HR-TEM images confirmed splitting of spots on the Fourier space map, which indicated the presence of a coherent interface between separated phases (beta and beta') and explains the hardening mechanism of the alloy. Through geometric phase analysis analysis, using the HR-TEM image, the localized strain map showed 5-10 nm domains of the beta and beta' phases. The combination of suitable values of yield strength, hardness and low Young's modulus makes Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta alloy suitable for medical applications as a metallic orthopedic implant. PMID:19913645

  3. Structural Evidence for Actin-like Filaments in Toxoplasma gondii Using High-Resolution Low-Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Heide; Sibley, L. David; Ris, Hans

    2003-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is representative of a large group of parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa, which share a highly unusual motility system that is crucial for locomotion and active host cell invasion. Despite the importance of motility in the pathology of these unicellular organisms, the motor mechanisms for locomotion remain uncertain, largely because only limited data exist about composition and organization of the cytoskeleton. By using cytoskeleton stabilizing protocols on membrane-extracted parasites and novel imaging with high-resolution low-voltage field emission scanning electron microscopy (LVFESEM), we were able to visualize for the first time a network of actin-sized filaments just below the cell membrane. A complex cytoskeletal network remained after removing the actin-sized fibers with cytochalasin D, revealing longitudinally arranged, subpellicular microtubules and intermediate-sized fibers of 10 nm, which, in stereo images, are seen both above and below the microtubules. These approaches open new possibilities to characterize more fully the largely unexplored and unconventional cytoskeletal motility complex in apicomplexan parasites.

  4. In situ investigation of ion-induced dewetting of a thin iron-oxide film on silicon by high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirthapandian, S.; Schuchart, F.; Garmatter, D.; Bolse, W.

    2012-11-01

    Using our new in situ high resolution scanning electron microscope, which is integrated into the UNILAC ion beamline at the Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany, we investigated the swift heavy ion induced dewetting of a thin iron oxide layer on Si. Besides heterogeneous hole nucleation at defects and spontaneous (homogeneous) hole nucleation, we could clearly identify a dewetting mechanism, which is similar to the spinodal dewetting observed for liquid films. Instead of being due to capillary waves, it is based on a stress induced surface instability. The latter results in the formation of a wavy surface with constant dominant wave-length and increasing amplitude during ion irradiation. Dewetting sets in as soon as the wave-troughs reach the film-substrate interface. Inspection of the hole radii and rim shapes indicates that removal of the material from the hole area occurs mainly by plastic deformation at the inner boundary and ion induced viscous flow in the peripheral zone due to surface tension.

  5. Probing optical band gaps at the nanoscale in NiFe₂O₄ and CoFe₂O₄ epitaxial films by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.; Pachauri, N.; Gupta, A.

    2014-09-14

    Nanoscale optical band gap variations in epitaxial thin films of two different spinel ferrites, i.e., NiFe₂O₄ (NFO) and CoFe₂O₄ (CFO), have been investigated by spatially resolved high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Experimentally, both NFO and CFO show indirect/direct band gaps around 1.52 eV/2.74 and 2.3 eV, and 1.3 eV/2.31 eV, respectively, for the ideal inverse spinel configuration with considerable standard deviation in the band gap values for CFO due to various levels of deviation from the ideal inverse spinel structure. Direct probing of the regions in both the systems with tetrahedral A site cation vacancy, which is distinct from the ideal inverse spinel configuration, shows significantly smaller band gap values. The experimental results are supported by the density functional theory based modified Becke-Johnson exchange correlation potential calculated band gap values for the different cation configurations.

  6. On the quantum Landau collision operator and electron collisions in dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daligault, Jérôme

    2016-03-01

    The quantum Landau collision operator, which extends the widely used Landau/Fokker-Planck collision operator to include quantum statistical effects, is discussed. The quantum extension can serve as a reference model for including electron collisions in non-equilibrium dense plasmas, in which the quantum nature of electrons cannot be neglected. In this paper, the properties of the Landau collision operator that have been useful in traditional plasma kinetic theory and plasma transport theory are extended to the quantum case. We outline basic properties in connection with the conservation laws, the H-theorem, and the global and local equilibrium distributions. We discuss the Fokker-Planck form of the operator in terms of three potentials that extend the usual two Rosenbluth potentials. We establish practical closed-form expressions for these potentials under local thermal equilibrium conditions in terms of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals. We study the properties of linearized quantum Landau operator, and extend two popular approximations used in plasma physics to include collisions in kinetic simulations. We apply the quantum Landau operator to the classic test-particle problem to illustrate the physical effects embodied in the quantum extension. We present useful closed-form expressions for the electron-ion momentum and energy transfer rates. Throughout the paper, similarities and differences between the quantum and classical Landau collision operators are emphasized.

  7. High-resolution noise substitution to measure overfitting and validate resolution in 3D structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoxia; McMullan, Greg; Faruqi, Abdul R; Murshudov, Garib N; Short, Judith M; Scheres, Sjors H W; Henderson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) involves the calculation of an initial 3D model, followed by extensive iterative improvement of the orientation determination of the individual particle images and the resulting 3D map. Because there is much more noise than signal at high resolution in the images, this creates the possibility of noise reinforcement in the 3D map, which can give a false impression of the resolution attained. The balance between signal and noise in the final map at its limiting resolution depends on the image processing procedure and is not easily predicted. There is a growing awareness in the cryoEM community of how to avoid such over-fitting and over-estimation of resolution. Equally, there has been a reluctance to use the two principal methods of avoidance because they give lower resolution estimates, which some people believe are too pessimistic. Here we describe a simple test that is compatible with any image processing protocol. The test allows measurement of the amount of signal and the amount of noise from overfitting that is present in the final 3D map. We have applied the method to two different sets of cryoEM images of the enzyme beta-galactosidase using several image processing packages. Our procedure involves substituting the Fourier components of the initial particle image stack beyond a chosen resolution by either the Fourier components from an adjacent area of background, or by simple randomisation of the phases of the particle structure factors. This substituted noise thus has the same spectral power distribution as the original data. Comparison of the Fourier Shell Correlation (FSC) plots from the 3D map obtained using the experimental data with that from the same data with high-resolution noise (HR-noise) substituted allows an unambiguous measurement of the amount of overfitting and an accompanying resolution assessment. A simple formula can be used to calculate an

  8. Electron-exchange collisions with molecular open-shell targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtkötter, I.; Hanne, G. F.

    2009-08-01

    Low-energy electron-exchange collisions with the simple open-shell molecules O2 , NO, and NO2 have been investigated by measuring the change in electron-spin polarization after scattering polarized electrons from unpolarized molecules with energies between 8 and 20 eV and scattering angles up to 130° . Results for elastic collisions with O2 and NO are compared with existing theories where the agreement is fair. Direct observation of spin-exchange collisions is obtained for elastic scattering from NO2 and for electron-impact excitation of O2 (6.1 eV energy loss). It is also shown that the results may be influenced by spin-orbit interaction, which was assumed to be negligible in previous studies.

  9. Visco-plasticity of polycrystalline olivine at high pressure and 900°C: fresh outcomes from high resolution EBSD and electron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S. A.; Mussi, A.; Barou, F.; Tommasi, A.; Cordier, P.

    2013-12-01

    The rheology of olivine-rich rocks at lithospheric temperatures (<1000°C) remains poorly constrained, in contrast to the extensive experimental dataset on creep of olivine single crystals and aggregates at high temperature (T > 1200°C). Consequently, we have performed tri-axial compression experiments (in a Paterson's press) on two fine-grained polycrystalline olivine (San Carlos olivine) specimens at 900°C, under a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Two dense samples were deformed at constant strain rates of 1.0 × 10-5 s-1 and 3.4 × 10-5 s-1. Mechanical curves show continuous hardening, with a decrease of hardening rate with increasing strain. Both samples failed just before 10% of finite strain and yield final differential stresses of 930 and 1076 MPa. Recovered samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). High resolution EBSD maps (step size 0.15 and 0.2 microns) permit to quantify accurately the microstructure (grain size, shape, aspect ratio, and angle distribution of the grain ellipse relative to the compression axis). Weak crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) developed in the deformed olivine aggregates, where [010] axes are mostly parallel to the compression axis; [100] and [001] axes are more dispersed, but tend to be oriented at high angle to the compression axis. Misorientations across grain boundaries and sub-grain boundaries were analyzed as well, evidencing common subgrain boundaries parallel to (100) and rotations dominantly around [001], that is an ';ideal' tilt boundary of the [100](010) system. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy, involving electron tomography of dislocations has identified dislocations with [100] and [001] Burgers vectors gliding on multiple planes, evidence for cross-slip, and dislocation entanglements. These data permit to better constrain the active deformation mechanisms and slip systems involved in the

  10. Unconventional Specimen Preparation Techniques Using High Resolution Low Voltage Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy to Study Cell Motility, Host Cell Invasion, and Internal Cell Structures in Toxoplasma gondii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Heide; Ris, Hans

    2002-04-01

    Apicomplexan parasites employ complex and unconventional mechanisms for cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division that are only poorly understood. While immunofluorescence and conventional transmission electron microscopy have been used to answer questions about the localization of some cytoskeletal proteins and cell organelles, many questions remain unanswered, partly because new methods are needed to study the complex interactions of cytoskeletal proteins and organelles that play a role in cell locomotion, host cell invasion, and cell division. The choice of fixation and preparation methods has proven critical for the analysis of cytoskeletal proteins because of the rapid turnover of actin filaments and the dense spatial organization of the cytoskeleton and its association with the complex membrane system. Here we introduce new methods to study structural aspects of cytoskeletal motility, host cell invasion, and cell division of Toxoplasma gondii, a most suitable laboratory model that is representative of apicomplexan parasites. The novel approach in our experiments is the use of high resolution low voltage field emission scanning electron microscopy (LVFESEM) combined with two new specimen preparation techniques. The first method uses LVFESEM after membrane extraction and stabilization of the cytoskeleton. This method allows viewing of actin filaments which had not been possible with any other method available so far. The second approach of imaging the parasite's ultrastructure and interactions with host cells uses semithick sections (200 nm) that are resin de-embedded (Ris and Malecki, 1993) and imaged with LVFESEM. This method allows analysis of structural detail in the parasite before and after host cell invasion and interactions with the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole as well as parasite cell division.

  11. Local symmetry breaking of a thin crystal structure of β-Si3N4 as revealed by spherical aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwang Su; Zhang, Zaoli; Kaiser, Ute

    2012-06-01

    This report is an extension of the study for structural imaging of 5-6 nm thick β-Si(3)N(4) [0001] crystal with a spherical aberration corrected transmission electron microscope by Zhang and Kaiser [2009. Structure imaging of β-Si(3)N(4) by spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 109, 1114-1120]. In this work, a local symmetry breaking with an uneven resolution of dumbbells in the six-membered rings revealed in the reported images in the study of Zhang and Kaiser has been analyzed in detail. It is found that this local asymmetry in the image basically is not relevant to a slight mistilt of the specimen and/or a beam tilt (coma). Rather the certain variation of the tetrahedral bond length of Si-N(4) in the crystal structure is found to be responsible for the uneven resolution with a local structural variation from region to region. This characteristic of the variation is also supposed to give a distorted lattice of apparently 2°-2.5° deviations from the perfect hexagonal unit cell as observed in the reported image in the work of Zhang and Kaiser. It is discussed that this variation may prevail only in a thin specimen with a thickness ranging ~≤ 5-6 nm. At the same time, it is noted that the average of the bond length variation is close to the fixed length known in a bulk crystal of β-Si(3)N(4). PMID:22499470

  12. High resolution Doppler lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abreu, Vincent J.; Hays, Paul B.; Barnes, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A high resolution lidar system was implemented to measure winds in the lower atmosphere. The wind speed along the line of sight was determined by measuring the Doppler shift of the aerosol backscattered laser signal. The system in its present configuration is stable, and behaves as indicated by theoretical simulations. This system was built to demonstrate the capabilities of the detector system as a prototype for a spaceborne lidar. The detector system investigated consisted of a plane Fabry-Perot etalon, and a 12-ring anode detector. This system is generically similar to the Fabry-Perot interferometer developed for passive wind measurements on board the Dynamics Explorer satellite. That this detector system performs well in a lidar configuration was demonstrated.

  13. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  14. High resolution low dose transmission electron microscopy real-time imaging and manipulation of nano-scale objects in the electron beam

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Jr., R. Malcolm; Barnes, Zack; Sawatari, Chie; Kondo, Tetsuo

    2008-02-26

    The present invention includes a method, apparatus and system for nanofabrication in which one or more target molecules are identified for manipulation with an electron beam and the one or more target molecules are manipulated with the electron beam to produce new useful materials.

  15. Crystal Structures of U(Ta,W) 5O 16and U(Ta,W) 2O 8Revealed by High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askeljung, Charlotta; Sundberg, Margareta

    1999-04-01

    Two new phases, U(Ta,W)5O16and U(Ta,W)2O8, were formed by solid state reaction of the binary oxides (U3O8, Ta2O5, and WO3) and Ta metal powder. They were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The phases are orthorhombic with the following unit cell dimensions: U(Ta,W)5O16,a=10.052(1),b=7.3207(5), andc=7.9600(4) Å; and U(Ta,W)2O8,a= 20.232(2),b=7.4520(4), andc=4.0652(2) Å. Both structures are built up of (Ta,W)O6-octahedra arranged as ReO3-type slabs two octahedra wide. In U(Ta,W)5O16these slabs are connected by a thin lamella consisting of hexagonal UO8-bipyramids and (Ta,W)O6-octahedra alternating along both thebandcaxes. EDS analysis indicated a composition of UTa1.5W3.5O16. The structure is related to UMo5O16, but with every other layer displaced through {1}/{2}b. The second phase, U(Ta,W)2O8, is isotypic with the orthorhombic modification of UMo2O8, in which the ReO3-type slabs are intergrown with lamellas of edge-sharing pentagonal UO7-bipyramids. The composition UTa0.5W1.5O8was obtained by EDS analysis. Some defects in terms of three-octahedra-wide ReO3-type slabs have been observed in U(Ta,W)5O16crystals. EDS analyses of such crystals showed a high-tungsten and a low-tantalum content.

  16. Medical high-resolution image sharing and electronic whiteboard system: A pure-web-based system for accessing and discussing lossless original images in telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Liang; Li, Ying; Chen, Xin; Yang, Sheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Hongjun; Feng, Zhengquan; Nian, Yongjian; Qiu, Mingguo

    2015-09-01

    There are various medical image sharing and electronic whiteboard systems available for diagnosis and discussion purposes. However, most of these systems ask clients to install special software tools or web plug-ins to support whiteboard discussion, special medical image format, and customized decoding algorithm of data transmission of HRIs (high-resolution images). This limits the accessibility of the software running on different devices and operating systems. In this paper, we propose a solution based on pure web pages for medical HRIs lossless sharing and e-whiteboard discussion, and have set up a medical HRI sharing and e-whiteboard system, which has four-layered design: (1) HRIs access layer: we improved an tile-pyramid model named unbalanced ratio pyramid structure (URPS), to rapidly share lossless HRIs and to adapt to the reading habits of users; (2) format conversion layer: we designed a format conversion engine (FCE) on server side to real time convert and cache DICOM tiles which clients requesting with window-level parameters, to make browsers compatible and keep response efficiency to server-client; (3) business logic layer: we built a XML behavior relationship storage structure to store and share users' behavior, to keep real time co-browsing and discussion between clients; (4) web-user-interface layer: AJAX technology and Raphael toolkit were used to combine HTML and JavaScript to build client RIA (rich Internet application), to meet clients' desktop-like interaction on any pure webpage. This system can be used to quickly browse lossless HRIs, and support discussing and co-browsing smoothly on any web browser in a diversified network environment. The proposal methods can provide a way to share HRIs safely, and may be used in the field of regional health, telemedicine and remote education at a low cost. PMID:26093385

  17. High-resolution scanning electron-microscopic studies on the three-dimensional structure of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum in the different twitch muscle fibers of the frog.

    PubMed

    Ogata, T; Yamasaki, Y

    1987-12-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the three types of twitch fibers, i.e., the red, white and intermediate skeletal muscle fibers, of the vastus lateralis muscle of the Japanese meadow frog (Rana nigromaculata nigromaculata Hallowell) was examined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, after removal of the cytoplasmic matrices. The small red fibers have numerous mitochondrial columns of large diameter, while the large white fibers have a small number of mitochondrial columns of small diameter. In the medium-size intermediate fibers, the number and diameter of the mitochondrial columns are intermediate between those of the red and white fibers. In all three types of fibers, the terminal cisternae and transverse tubules form triads at the level of each Z-line. The thick terminal cisternae continue into much thinner flat intermediate cisternae, through a transitional part where a row of tiny indentations can be observed. Numerous slender longitudinal tubules originating from the intermediate cisternae, extend longitudinally or obliquely and form elongated oval networks of various sizes in front of the A-band, then fuse to form the H-band collar (fenestrated collar) around the myofibrils. On the surface of the H-band collar, small fenestrations as well as tiny hollows are seen. The three-dimensional structure of SR is basically the same in all three muscle fiber-types. However, the SR is sparse on the surface of mitochondria, so the mitochondria-rich red fiber has a smaller total volume of SR than the mitochondria-poor white fiber. The volume of SR of the intermediate fiber is intermediate between other the two. PMID:3690630

  18. High resolution electron microscopy of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system pili produced in varying conditions of iron availability.

    PubMed

    Haley, Kathryn Patricia; Blanz, Eric Joshua; Gaddy, Jennifer Angeline

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a helical-shaped, gram negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric niche of half of the human population. H. pylori is the primary cause of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. One virulence factor that has been associated with increased risk of gastric disease is the Cag-pathogenicity island, a 40-kb region within the chromosome of H. pylori that encodes a type IV secretion system and the cognate effector molecule, CagA. The Cag-T4SS is responsible for translocating CagA and peptidoglycan into host epithelial cells. The activity of the Cag-T4SS results in numerous changes in host cell biology including upregulation of cytokine expression, activation of proinflammatory pathways, cytoskeletal remodeling, and induction of oncogenic cell-signaling networks. The Cag-T4SS is a macromolecular machine comprised of sub-assembly components spanning the inner and outer membrane and extending outward from the cell into the extracellular space. The extracellular portion of the Cag-T4SS is referred to as the "pilus". Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Cag-T4SS pili are formed at the host-pathogen interface(. However, the environmental features that regulate the biogenesis of this important organelle remain largely obscure. Recently, we reported that conditions of low iron availability increased the Cag-T4SS activity and pilus biogenesis. Here we present an optimized protocol to grow H. pylori in varying conditions of iron availability prior to co-culture with human gastric epithelial cells. Further, we present the comprehensive protocol for visualization of the hyper-piliated phenotype exhibited in iron restricted conditions by high resolution scanning electron microscopy analyses. PMID:25489938

  19. High resolution solar flare X-ray spectra - The temporal behavior of electron density, temperature, and emission measure for two class M flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doschek, G. A.; Feldman, U.; Landecker, P. B.; McKenzie, D. L.

    1981-10-01

    High resolution soft X-ray flare spectra recorded by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and Aerospace Corporation Bragg crystal spectrometers flown on an orbiting spacecraft (P78-1) are combined and analyzed. The instruments were launched on t979 February 24 by the U.S. Air Force, and the data discussed in this paper cover the wavelength ranges, 1.82-1.97 Å, 3.143.24 Å, and 18.423.0 Å. The NRL experiment (SOLFLEX) covers the two short wavelength ranges (highly ionized Fe and Ca lines) and the Aerospace experiment (SOLEX) covers the t8.4-23.O Å range, which includes the Lyα O VIII line and the resonance, intercombination, and forbidden lines of O VII. We analyze the spectra of two flares which occurred on 1980 April 8 and May 9. Temporal coverage is fairly complete for both flares, including the rise and decay phases. Measurements of electron density Ne with rather high time resolution (about 1 minute) have been obtained throughout most of the lifetimes of the two flares. These measurements were obtained from the O VII lines and pertain to flare plasma at temperatures near 2 × 106 K. Peak density seems to occur slightly before the times of peak X-ray flux in the resonance lines of Fe XXV, Ca XIX, and O VII, and for both flares the peak density is about 1012 cm-3. Electron temperature Te as a function of time is determined from the Fe and Ca spectra. Peak temperature for both flares is about 18 × 106 K. Differential emission measures and volume emission measures are determined from the resonance lines of O VII, Ca XIX, and Fe XXV. The number of electrons NeΔV and the volume ΔV over which the O VII lines are formed are determined from the O VII volume emission measure Ne2ΔV and the density Ne. These quantities are determined as a function of time. The relationship of the low and high temperature regions is discussed.

  20. Electron-Nitrogen Collision Processes Relevant to Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-06-01

    Electron-N2 collisions play an important role in the nitrogen-rich upper atmospheres of Titan, Triton, and Earth. Modeling these processes requires accurate laboratory data. Despite the recognized importance of such data, there remained an unsatisfactory degree of consensus among much of the available laboratory collision cross section data. To address this situation, our group has devoted considerable effort over the past decade to improve the status of low energy electron collision data. In doing so, we have measured direct excitation cross sections for at least 17 electronic states of neutral N2 and a variety of key UV emission cross sections. Here we review the result of this effort, highlighting how the picture of electron collision processes has evolved, where consensus has been reached and where discrepancies still exist. New electron energy-loss measurements will be presented for excitation of the valence states, with finely spaced (<1eV) impact energy increments in the threshold-to-peak region where excitation is not in proportion to the Franck-Condon factors. These data are novel in that they include measurements at fixed electron scattering angles, differential in impact energy over a range of scattering angle. Also, new near-threshold integral cross sections are provided and compared to existing data.

  1. Crack nucleation using combined crystal plasticity modelling, high-resolution digital image correlation and high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in a superalloy containing non-metallic inclusions under fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiantian; Britton, Ben; Shollock, Barbara; Dunne, Fionn

    2016-01-01

    A crystal plasticity finite-element model, which explicitly and directly represents the complex microstructures of a non-metallic agglomerate inclusion within polycrystal nickel alloy, has been developed to study the mechanistic basis of fatigue crack nucleation. The methodology is to use the crystal plasticity model in conjunction with direct measurement at the microscale using high (angular) resolution-electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) and high (spatial) resolution-digital image correlation (HR-DIC) strain measurement techniques. Experimentally, this sample has been subjected to heat treatment leading to the establishment of residual (elastic) strains local to the agglomerate and subsequently loaded under conditions of low cyclic fatigue. The full thermal and mechanical loading history was reproduced within the model. HR-EBSD and HR-DIC elastic and total strain measurements demonstrate qualitative and quantitative agreement with crystal plasticity results. Crack nucleation by interfacial decohesion at the nickel matrix/agglomerate inclusion boundaries is observed experimentally, and systematic modelling studies enable the mechanistic basis of the nucleation to be established. A number of fatigue crack nucleation indicators are also assessed against the experimental results. Decohesion was found to be driven by interface tensile normal stress alone, and the interfacial strength was determined to be in the range of 1270–1480 MPa. PMID:27279765

  2. High Resolution Laboratory Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brünken, S.; Schlemmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this short review we will highlight some of the recent advancements in the field of high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy that meet the needs dictated by the advent of highly sensitive and broadband telescopes like ALMA and SOFIA. Among these is the development of broadband techniques for the study of complex organic molecules, like fast scanning conventional absorption spectroscopy based on multiplier chains, chirped pulse instrumentation, or the use of synchrotron facilities. Of similar importance is the extension of the accessible frequency range to THz frequencies, where many light hydrides have their ground state rotational transitions. Another key experimental challenge is the production of sufficiently high number densities of refractory and transient species in the laboratory, where discharges have proven to be efficient sources that can also be coupled to molecular jets. For ionic molecular species sensitive action spectroscopic schemes have recently been developed to overcome some of the limitations of conventional absorption spectroscopy. Throughout this review examples demonstrating the strong interplay between laboratory and observational studies will be given.

  3. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  4. GAS PHASE MOLECULAR DYNAMICS: HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC PROBES OF CHEMICAL DYNAMICS.

    SciTech Connect

    HALL, G.E.

    2006-05-30

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas Phase Molecular Dynamics group program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopic tools are developed and applied to problems in chemical dynamics. Recent topics have included the state-resolved studies of collision-induced electronic energy transfer, dynamics of barrierless unimolecular reactions, and the kinetics and spectroscopy of transient species.

  5. HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON-IMPACT EMISSION SPECTRA AND VIBRATIONAL EMISSION CROSS SECTIONS FROM 330-1100 nm FOR N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mangina, Rao S.; Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Dziczek, Dariusz

    2011-09-01

    Electron-impact emission cross sections for N{sub 2} were measured in the wavelength range of 330-1100 nm at 25 eV and 100 eV impact energies. Cross sections of several molecular emission bands of the first positive band system B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} A {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and the second positive band system C {sup 3}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} B {sup 3}{Pi}{sub g} ({nu}'') of N{sub 2}, the first negative band (1NB) system B {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub u} {sup +}({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') and Meinel band system A {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u} ({nu}') {yields} X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g} {sup +}({nu}'') of N{sub 2} {sup +} ions as well as line emissions of N (N I) and N{sup +} (N II) in the visible-optical-near-IR wavelength range reported in this work were measured for the first time in a single experimental setup at high spectral resolving power ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx} 10000) under single-collision-scattering geometry and optically thin conditions. Rotational emission lines of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2} {sup +} were observed for strong emission bands at a gas temperature of about 300 K. The absolute cross section of the strongest (0,0) vibrational band at 391.43 nm of 1NB was determined using the standard H{sub {alpha}} emission cross sections of H{sub 2} by electron impact at both 25 eV and 100 eV electron-impact energies, and the cross sections for the remainder of the emissions were determined using (0,0) 1NB value. A comparison of the present emission cross sections with the earlier published data from both electron energy loss and electron-impact-induced fluorescence emission is discussed.

  6. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  7. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  8. Structural characterization and gas reactions of small metal particles by high resolution in-situ TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and TED (Transmission Electron Diffraction)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1987-01-01

    The detection and size analysis of small metal particles supported on amorphous substrates becomes increasingly difficult when the particle size approaches that of the phase contrast background structures of the support. An approach of digital image analysis, involving Fourier transformation of the original image, filtering, and image reconstruction was studied with respect to the likelihood of unambiguously detecting particles of less than 1 nm diameter on amorphous substrates from a single electron micrograph.

  9. Determination of Electron Collision Cross Sections Set for Tetramethysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordage, Marie-Claude

    2007-12-01

    A swarm analysis technique based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to derive low energy electron collision cross sections for tetramethylsilane (TMS). The calculated swarm parameters with this first available cross sections set is consistent with measured values of the swarm parameters. Calculations of transport parameters in mixtures of TMS with argon are also presented.

  10. Dynamics of electronically inelastic collisions from 3D Doppler measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Suits, A.G.; de Pujo, P.; Sublemontier, O.; Visticot, J.; Berlande, J.; Cuvellier, J.; Gustavsson, T.; Mestdagh, J.; Meynadier, P. ); Lee, Y.T. )

    1991-11-25

    Flux-velocity contour maps were obtained for the inelastic collision process Ba({sup 1}{ital P}{sub 1})+O{sub 2}N{sub 2}{r arrow}Ba({sup 3}{ital P}{sub 2})+O{sub 2}N{sub 2} from Doppler scans of scattered Ba({sup 3}{ital P}{sub 2}) taken over a range of probe laser directions in a crossed-beam experiment. Collision with O{sub 2} resulted in sharply forward scattered Ba({sup 3}{ital P}{sub 2}), with efficient conversion of inital electronic energy into O{sub 2} internal energy and little momentum transfer. Collision with N{sub 2} was dominated by wide-angle scattering with most of the available electronic energy appearing in product translation. The results suggest the importance of large-impact-parameter collisions and a near-resonant energy transfer in the case of O{sub 2}, while for N{sub 2} close collisions dominate despite the presence of an analogous near-resonant channel. The results represent the first direct experimental demonstration of a near-resonant quenching process.

  11. High resolution IR diode laser study of collisional energy transfer between highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene and CO{sub 2}: The effect of donor fluorination on strong collision energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kilyoung; Johnson, Alan M.; Powell, Amber L.; Mitchell, Deborah G.; Sevy, Eric T.

    2014-12-21

    Collisional energy transfer between vibrational ground state CO{sub 2} and highly vibrationally excited monofluorobenzene (MFB) was studied using narrow bandwidth (0.0003 cm{sup −1}) IR diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Highly vibrationally excited MFB with E′ = ∼41 000 cm{sup −1} was prepared by 248 nm UV excitation followed by rapid radiationless internal conversion to the electronic ground state (S{sub 1}→S{sub 0}*). The amount of vibrational energy transferred from hot MFB into rotations and translations of CO{sub 2} via collisions was measured by probing the scattered CO{sub 2} using the IR diode laser. The absolute state specific energy transfer rate constants and scattering probabilities for single collisions between hot MFB and CO{sub 2} were measured and used to determine the energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E′), in the large ΔE region. P(E,E′) was then fit to a bi-exponential function and extrapolated to the low ΔE region. P(E,E′) and the biexponential fit data were used to determine the partitioning between weak and strong collisions as well as investigate molecular properties responsible for large collisional energy transfer events. Fermi's Golden rule was used to model the shape of P(E,E′) and identify which donor vibrational motions are primarily responsible for energy transfer. In general, the results suggest that low-frequency MFB vibrational modes are primarily responsible for strong collisions, and govern the shape and magnitude of P(E,E′). Where deviations from this general trend occur, vibrational modes with large negative anharmonicity constants are more efficient energy gateways than modes with similar frequency, while vibrational modes with large positive anharmonicity constants are less efficient at energy transfer than modes of similar frequency.

  12. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  13. A high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of interfaces between the γ, B2, and α2 phases in a Ti-Al-Mo alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Howe, J. M.; Perepezko, J. H.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to examine the interfacial structures in a Ti-50Al-5Mo (at. pct) alloy which was processed to produce combinations of γ, B2, and α2 phases in a single sample. A small amount of a fourth phase labeled ζ was also found in the microstructure. It may be the phase Ti2AlN but confirmation requires analysis of the N content in the phase.In this alloy, the orientation relationship between the γ and B2 phases is {111}γ ∥}110}B2 and <101]γ ∥ <111>B2 with a coherent habit-plane interface parallel to (474)γ. The orientation relationship between the B2 and α2 (and also the ζ @#@) phases is {110}B2 ∥(0001)α2/ζ and <111>B2 ∥<11-20>α2/ζ with a coherent interface parallel to the close-packed planes and along other orientations. The orientation relationship between the α2 (and also the ζ @#@) and γ phases is (0001)α2/ζ ∥{lll}γ and (11•20)α2/ζ ∥<10•1]γ. The α2 phase has a coherent interface parallel to the close-packed planes, while the ζ phase appears to adopt the (474)γ interface plane of the γ phase, similar to the B2 phase. In some cases, the interface configuration between the γ and B2 phases appears to be altered by the presence of α2 phase, resulting in a semicoherent interface. The phase labeled ζ in this study has the same orientation relationship with the γ and B2 phases as α2 but consists of an ABABAC... stacking of close-packed basal planes. The (474)γ habit plane interface between the γ and B2 phases is analyzed by several different theories of interfacial structure, and microstructural evolution in this system is also discussed.

  14. Electron Collision Cross Sections for the Cl2 Molecule from Electron Transport Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Do Anh; Jeon, Byung-Hoon

    2011-08-01

    The measured electron transport coefficients (electron drift velocity, Townsend first ionization coefficient, electron attachment coefficient, and density-normalized effective ionization coefficient) in pure Cl2 have been analyzed to derive the currently best available electron collision cross section set of the elastic and inelastic electron collision cross sections for the Cl2 molecule using an electron swarm study and a two-term approximation of the Boltzmann equation for energy. The electron transport coefficients calculated using the derived cross sections are consistent with the experimental data over a wide range of E/N values (ratio of the electric field E to the neutral number density N). The present electron collision cross section set for the Cl2 molecule is the best available so far for quantitative numerical modeling plasma discharges for processing procedures with materials containing Cl2 molecules.

  15. Inelastic collisions of positrons with one-valence-electron targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Raouf, Mohamed Assad

    1990-01-01

    The total elastic and positronium formation cross sections of the inelastic collisions between positrons and various one-valence-electron atoms, (namely hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium and rubidium), and one-valence-electron ions, (namely hydrogen-like, lithium-like and alkaline-earth positive ions) are determined using an elaborate modified coupled-static approximation. Special attention is devoted to the behavior of the Ps cross sections at the energy regions lying above the Ps formation thresholds.

  16. Ion formation upon electron collisions with valine embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Nikolaus; Ralser, Stefan; Renzler, Michael; Harnisch, Martina; Kaiser, Alexander; Denifl, Stefan; Böhme, Diethard K.; Scheier, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We report here experimental results for the electron ionization of large superfluid helium nanodroplets with sizes of about 105 atoms that are doped with valine and clusters of valine. Spectra of both cations and anions were monitored with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass resolution >4000). Clear series of peaks with valine cluster sizes up to at least 40 and spaced by the mass of a valine molecule are visible in both the cation and anion spectra. Ion efficiency curves are presented for selected cations and anions at electron energies up to about 40 eV and these provide insight into the mode of ion formation. The measured onset of 24.59 eV for cations is indicative of valine ionization by He+ whereas broad resonances at 2, 10 and 22 eV (and beyond) in the formation of anions speak to the occurrence of various modes of dissociative electron attachment by collisions with electrons or He*- and the influence of droplet size on the relative importance of these processes. Comparisons are also made with gas phase results and these provide insight into a matrix effect within the superfluid helium nanodroplet. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  17. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  18. High resolution structure and double electron-electron resonance of the zebrafish voltage-dependent anion channel 2 reveal an oligomeric population.

    PubMed

    Schredelseker, Johann; Paz, Aviv; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Leung, Calvin S; Drexler, Maria K; Chen, Jau-Nian; Hubbell, Wayne L; Abramson, Jeff

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a vast increase in structural and functional understanding of VDAC1, but VDAC2 and -3 have been understudied despite having many unique phenotypes. One reason for the paucity of structural and biochemical characterization of the VDAC2 and -3 isoforms stems from the inability of obtaining purified, functional protein. Here we demonstrate the expression, isolation, and basic characterization of zebrafish VDAC2 (zfVDAC2). Further, we resolved the structure of zfVDAC2 at 2.8 Å resolution, revealing a crystallographic dimer. The dimer orientation was confirmed in solution by double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy and by cross-linking experiments disclosing a dimer population of ∼20% in lauryldimethine amine oxide detergent micelles, whereas in lipidic bicelles a higher population of dimeric and higher order oligomers species were observed. The present study allows for a more accurate structural comparison between VDAC2 and its better-studied counterpart VDAC1. PMID:24627492

  19. Structural Characterization and Gas Reactions of Small Metal Particles by High Resolution In-situ TEM and TED. [Transmission Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, K.

    1985-01-01

    A commercial electron microscope with flat-plate upper pole piece configuration of the objective lens and top entry specimen introduction was modified to obtain 5 x 10 to the minus 10th power mbar pressure at the site of the specimen while maintaining the convenience of a specimen airlock system that allows operation in the 10 to the 10th power mbar range within 15 minutes after specimen change. The specimen chamber contains three wire evaporation sources, a specimen heater, and facilities for oxygen or hydrogen plasma treatment to clean as-introduced specimens. Evacuation is achieved by dural differential pumping, with fine entrance and exit apertures for the electron beam. With the microscope operating at .000001 mbar, the first differential pumping stage features a high-speed cryopump operating in a stainless steel chamber that can be mildly baked and reaches 1 x 10 to the minus 8th power mbar. The second stage, containing the evaporation sources and a custom ionization gauge within 10 cm from the specimen, is a rigorously uncompromised all-metal uhv-system that is bakable to above 200 C throughout and is pumped with an 80-liter ion pump. Design operating pressures and image quality (resolution of metal particles smaller than 1 nm in size) was achieved.

  20. High Resolution Structure and Double Electron-Electron Resonance of the Zebrafish Voltage-dependent Anion Channel 2 Reveal an Oligomeric Population*

    PubMed Central

    Schredelseker, Johann; Paz, Aviv; López, Carlos J.; Altenbach, Christian; Leung, Calvin S.; Drexler, Maria K.; Chen, Jau-Nian; Hubbell, Wayne L.; Abramson, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a vast increase in structural and functional understanding of VDAC1, but VDAC2 and -3 have been understudied despite having many unique phenotypes. One reason for the paucity of structural and biochemical characterization of the VDAC2 and -3 isoforms stems from the inability of obtaining purified, functional protein. Here we demonstrate the expression, isolation, and basic characterization of zebrafish VDAC2 (zfVDAC2). Further, we resolved the structure of zfVDAC2 at 2.8 Å resolution, revealing a crystallographic dimer. The dimer orientation was confirmed in solution by double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy and by cross-linking experiments disclosing a dimer population of ∼20% in lauryldimethine amine oxide detergent micelles, whereas in lipidic bicelles a higher population of dimeric and higher order oligomers species were observed. The present study allows for a more accurate structural comparison between VDAC2 and its better-studied counterpart VDAC1. PMID:24627492

  1. Understanding the promotion effect: A density functional theory study based on high resolution transmission electron microscopy images for molybdenum disulfide-cobalt promoted interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Murillo, Manuel Antonio

    could expect. The meaning could be understood in terms of energetic limits required to nucleate at the MoS2 basal planes. In recent years, in the literature a complete study made by Scanning Tunneling Microscope and DFT calculations for specific herringbone structure on MoS2/Au crystallites, indicating with this the latest results in advance characterization, this research path let catalysis experts to look over new techniques to achieve a complete characterization in nano structured materials. Finally we present here a complete density functional theory and HRTEM study to indicate how two structures MoS2 and Co9S 8 acted together in the formation of the so-called CoMoS phase. In this particular work one can find data based on Density of States and Band Structure calculations of MoS2/Co9S8 interface as well as real time images of high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and finally a proposed computational molecular structure to explain the promotion effect in MoS2 nano-structures.

  2. Mutual electron detachment in collisions between negative ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, R.; Melchert, F.; Krüdener, S.; Meuser, S.; Petri, S.; Benner, M.; Salzborn, E.

    1992-10-01

    Employing the crossed-beams technique, we have measured absolute cross sections for mutual electron detachment in collisions between two negative ions H-+X-→H0+X0+2e-(X-:B-, H-,Cu-,O-,Au-,F-) in the CM-energy range between a few keV and about 100 keV. The results obtained appear not to obey a simple scaling with negative ion binding energies. For H-+H--collisions also the single detachment reaction H-+H-→H0+... has been investigated.

  3. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  4. Role of electron-electron collisions in high field conduction in Nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    Role of electron-electron collisions in semiconductors is to exchange energy and momentum among the conduction electrons and to express the electron distribution in terms of electron temperature and electron drift velocity. This role takes particular importance when the external electric field produces large disparities in the energy distribution of electrons. Such disparities are introduced in polar semiconductors such as Nitrides. Electron-electron collisions give rise to heating or cooling of the electron gas. Heating is widely accepted but cooling in steady state and transient currents is new as is shown in this paper. It is also shown that the overshooting of electron velocity in transient currents in Nitrides is related to the electron cooling.

  5. Semiclassical theory of electronically nonadiabatic transitions in molecular collision processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, K. S.; George, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    An introductory account of the semiclassical theory of the S-matrix for molecular collision processes is presented, with special emphasis on electronically nonadiabatic transitions. This theory is based on the incorporation of classical mechanics with quantum superposition, and in practice makes use of the analytic continuation of classical mechanics into the complex space of time domain. The relevant concepts of molecular scattering theory and related dynamical models are described and the formalism is developed and illustrated with simple examples - collinear collision of the A+BC type. The theory is then extended to include the effects of laser-induced nonadiabatic transitions. Two bound continuum processes collisional ionization and collision-induced emission also amenable to the same general semiclassical treatment are discussed.

  6. Collisions between low-energy electrons and small polyatomic targets of biological relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Leigh

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, cross section measurements and calculations for DNA prototype molecules have received significant attention from the collisions community, due to the potential applications of this data in modelling electron transport through biological matter with a view to improving radiation dosimetry. Such data are additionally interesting from a fundamental aspect, as small carbon-based molecules are ideal targets for considering effects including target conformation, long-range dynamical interactions and coupling effects between the various degrees of freedom on the scattering properties of the target. At the California State University Fullerton, we have made a series of measurements of the elastic, vibrationally inelastic and electronically inelastic cross sections for a variety of small polyatomic targets, including water and the basic alcohols, ethylene, toluene and several fluorinated alkanes. These processes are important in a range of applications, primarily for modelling electron transport and thermalization, and energy deposition to a biological media. The data were obtained using a high resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer, operating in a crossed beam configuration with a moveable aperture gas source. The gas source design facilitates both an expedient and highly accurate method of removing background signal, and removes uncertainties from the data due to uncertainties in the beam profile. We have also performed scattering calculations employing the Schwinger Multichannel method, in collaboration with the California institute of technology, to compare with our measurements. In this talk, I will present an overview of our recent data and future research plans.

  7. Spectroscopic diagnostics of electron-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, A.

    1991-01-01

    Progress from May 1, 1987 to April 30, 1991 is summarized in two Progress Reports that are reproduced in Appendix A, and in attached publications. Since then, we have completed manuscript preparations and publications of earlier observations, while carrying out a high energy-resolution measurement of electron collisional excitations in sodium. The results of the latter experiment have not been prepared for publication, and the manuscript is included as Appendix B. An additional manuscript, describing the unique high-current electron monochromator developed for this experiment, is in preparation and not enclosed. All additional results and conclusions of our work under the contract are now available in four publications that are attached at the back of this report. Consequently, we will elaborate on those only to note that we have achieved our proposed goals, with the full detail proposed but at a slightly slower pace than we had hoped.

  8. Relativistic collision rate calculations for electron-air interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    1993-12-01

    The most recent data available on differential cross sections for electron-air interactions are used to calculate the avalanche, momentum transfer, and energy loss rates that enter into the fluid equations. Data for the important elastic, inelastic, and ionizing processes are generally available out to electron energies of 1--10 keV. Prescriptions for extending these cross sections to the relativistic regime are presented. The angular dependence of the cross sections is included where data are available as is the doubly differential cross section for ionizing collisions. The collision rates are computed by taking moments of the Boltzmann collision integrals with the assumption that the electron momentum distribution function is given by the Juettner distribution function which satisfies the relativistic H- theorem and which reduces to the familiar Maxwellian velocity distribution in the nonrelativistic regime. The distribution function is parameterized in terms of the electron density, mean momentum, and thermal energy and the rates are therefore computed on a two dimensional grid as a function of mean kinetic energy and thermal energy.

  9. Relativistic collision rate calculations for electron-air interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    1992-12-16

    The most recent data available on differential cross sections for electron-air interactions are used to calculate the avalanche, momentum transfer, and energy loss rates that enter into the fluid equations. Data for the important elastic, inelastic, and ionizing processes are generally available out to electron energies of 1--10 kev. Prescriptions for extending these cross sections to the relativistic regime are presented. The angular dependence of the cross sections is included where data is available as is the doubly differential cross section for ionizing collisions. The collision rates are computed by taking moments of the Boltzmann collision integrals with the assumption that the electron momentum distribution function is given by the Juettner distribution function which satisfies the relativistic H- theorem and which reduces to the familiar Maxwellian velocity distribution in the nonrelativistic regime. The distribution function is parameterized in terms of the electron density, mean momentum, and thermal energy and the rates are therefore computed on a two-dimensional grid as a function of mean kinetic energy and thermal energy.

  10. Influence of electron-ion collisions on Buneman instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostomyan, Eduard

    2016-07-01

    Buneman instability (BI) [1] has been found to play a role in many scenarios in space physics and geophysics. It has also been invoked to explain many phenomena in the earth ionosphere [2] and in the solar chromosphere [3]. In double-layer and collisionless shock physics the same instability has been found responsible in formation of nonlinear structures [4]. In situations where an electron beam enters plasma, like in the fast ignition scenario for inertial fusion [5], Buneman modes are excited and play essential role [6]. BI is caused by motion of plasma electrons against ions. However, up to now investigations on BI did not take into account influence collisions in plasma (for quantum case a paper has recently appeared [7]). Influence of collisions may be very important especially in dense fully ionized plasma with long distance character of interaction. Particularly collisions lead to energy dissipation with an array of ensuing effects e.g. change of the instability physical nature to that of dissipative type [8]. Due to role of BI in various processes in space (and laboratory) plasma necessity of the consideration is long overdue. Absence of investigations on a problem along with its importance may be explained by its complexity only. For given case correct consideration should be based on solution of transport equation with collisional term. In fully ionized plasma correct description of collisions is given by Landau collision integral (LCI) [9]. This is very complex formation. It greatly complicates transport equation and actually makes it intractable. Since its formulation in 1936, there is very little literature on solution of the transport equation with LCI. Almost all successful attempts to accommodate influence of collisions on various processes in plasma are based on BGK model [10]. This model is much simpler. However in fully ionized plasma usage LCI is more appropriate as it is designed for system with long distance character of particle interaction

  11. Electron Collisions in a Magneto-Optical Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dech, Jeffery Michael

    Measurements of the multiple ionization cross section ratios of Cesium were performed with ion time-of-flight (TOF) spectroscopy with a magneto-optical trap (MOT) apparatus, updating the previous measurement which dates back almost a century. Results are presented for collisions at energies of 50 eV to 120 eV. With a MOT, experiments can be performed with trapped, cold atomic targets which allow for unparalleled accuracy and experiments with signicant excited state target fractions above those achievable in most atomic beam experiments. A basic overview of optical cooling trapping, electron collision and atomic phenomena are presented. Experimental studies of electrons with Argon and Cesium targets were performed, measuring the multiple ionization ratios with ion TOF spectroscopy. The experimental apparatus and analysis methods are described in detail. Results are compared with previous measurements of multiple ionization ratios for both targets. Agreement within experimental error is found with the results of Tate and Smith across the energy range.

  12. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Sottile, F.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO2) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO2, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO2 may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  13. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Sottile, F.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO{sub 2}) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO{sub 2}, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO{sub 2} may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  14. A method to determine fault vectors in 4H-SiC from stacking sequences observed on high resolution transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fangzhen; Wang, Huanhuan; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Mueller, Stephan G.; Chung, Gil; Sanchez, Edward K.; Hansen, Darren; Loboda, Mark J.; Zhang, Lihua; Su, Dong; Kisslinger, Kim; Stach, Eric

    2014-09-14

    A new method has been developed to determine the fault vectors associated with stacking faults in 4H-SiC from their stacking sequences observed on high resolution TEM images. This method, analogous to the Burgers circuit technique for determination of dislocation Burgers vector, involves determination of the vectors required in the projection of the perfect lattice to correct the deviated path constructed in the faulted material. Results for several different stacking faults were compared with fault vectors determined from X-ray topographic contrast analysis and were found to be consistent. This technique is expected to applicable to all structures comprising corner shared tetrahedra.

  15. Electron capture processes in Li2+ + H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ling Ling; Liu, Ling; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, Ratko K.; Buenker, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The electron capture processes in Li2 + + H collisions have been investigated by using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling method and the two-center atomic-orbital close-coupling method in the energy ranges of 10-8-10 keV/u and 0.1-300 keV/u, respectively. The capture to singlet and triplet systems of states of Li+(1 s,n l 2S + 1L) is considered separately. Total, n,S-resolved and n,l,S-resolved electron capture cross sections are calculated and compared with the results of available experimental and theoretical studies. The present calculations show that the n = 2 shell of Li+ is the main capture channel for all energies considered in both the singlet and triplet case. While for collision energies E> 5 keV/u, the cross sections for capture to the n = 2 manifold are of the same order of magnitude for both the singlet and triplet states (with the 2 p capture cross section being dominant), for energies below ~5 keV/u the cross sections for capture to the n = 2 triplet manifold is significantly (more than three orders of magnitude at 0.1 keV/u) larger than that for capture to the n = 2 singlet manifold of states (with the 2 s capture cross section being dominant). The capture dynamics at low collision energies is discussed in considerable detail, revealing the important role of rotational couplings in population of l> 0 capture states. The elastic scattering processes have been studied as well in the energy range of 10-8-1 keV/u. The calculated elastic scattering cross section is much larger than the electron capture cross section in both the singlet and triplet case. However, as the collision energy increases, the difference between the elastic and electron capture cross sections decreases rapidly.

  16. Collisions of Electrons with Atomic Oxygen: Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. V.; Kanik, I.; Tayal, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    In 1990, two significant reviews of electron-atomic-oxygen collision processes were published. Since that time, a large volume of both experimental and theoretical research into these processes has occurred. These data are reviewed and recommendations regarding existing data sets and future research in this area are made. Attention is given to the challenges associated with handling atomic oxygen in terms of both experiment and theory.

  17. Tomography and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Study of Surfaces and Porosity in a Plate-Like γ-Al2O3

    SciTech Connect

    Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda; Wang, Chong M.; Qiu, Annie; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2012-12-10

    Morphological and surface characteristics of gamma-Al2O3 are topics of high relevance in the field of catalysis. Using tomography and high-resolution S/TEM imaging, we have studied the surface characteristics of a model gamma-Al2O3 synthesized in the shape of platelets and macroscopically defined by (110)Al2O3 and (111)Al2O3 surface facets. We show that the dominant (110)Al2O3 surface of the synthesized gamma-Al2O3 is not atomically flat but undergoes a significant reconstruction, forming nanoscale (111)Al2O3 terraces. In addition to high resolution imaging, tomographic analysis was carried out, enabling an examination of the pores/voids, which were found to be mostly enclosed within the bulk and inaccessible to gasses or metals. Tomographic analysis shows that the surfaces of the pores are defined exclusively by (100)Al2O3 and (111)Al2O3 facets. The importance of these findings is discussed in the context of relative surface energies of low index surfaces and ethanol desorption characteristics.

  18. Multielectron transitions resulting from interactions between target and projectile electrons in ionizing collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, S.T. ); DuBois, R.D. )

    1992-12-01

    Interactions between target and projectile electrons leading to ionization of one of the collision partners and simultaneous excitation of the other are investigated for fast clothed-particle--clothed-particle collisions. For H-atom impact, the first Born approximation is used to demonstrate that the low-energy-electron emission is dominated by electron-electron rather than by electron-nucleus interaction processes. For a broad class of structured particle collision systems, the electron-electron interaction is shown to play an important, non-neglibible, role. Doubly differential cross sections for energetic H-He collisions illustrate this point.

  19. High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

  20. Convergent Close-Coupling Approach to Electron-Atom Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, Andris

    2007-01-01

    It was with great pleasure and honour to accept the invitation to make a presentation at the symposium celebrating the life-long work of Aaron Temkin and Richard Drachman. The work of Aaron Temkin was particularly influential on our own during the development of the CCC method for electron-atom collisions. There are a number of key problems that need to be dealt with when developing a general computational approach to such collisions. Traditionally, the electron energy range was subdivided into the low, intermediate, and high energies. At the low energies only a finite number of channels are open and variational or close-coupling techniques could be used to obtain accurate results. At high energies an infinite number of discrete channels and the target continuum are open, but perturbative techniques are able to yield accurate results. However, at the intermediate energies perturbative techniques fail and computational approaches need to be found for treating the infinite number of open channels. In addition, there are also problems associated with the identical nature of electrons and the difficulty of implementing the boundary conditions for ionization processes. The beauty of the Temkin-Poet model of electron-hydrogen scattering is that it simplifies the full computational problem by neglecting any non-zero orbital angular momenta in the partial-wave expansion, without loosing the complexity associated with the above-mentioned problems. The unique nature of the problem allowed for accurate solution leading to benchmark results which could then be used to test the much more general approaches to electron-atom collision problems. The immense value of the Temkin-Poet model is readily summarised by the fact that the initial papers of Temkin and Poet have been collectively cited around 250 times to date and are still being cited in present times. Many of the citations came from our own work during the course of the development of the CCC method, which we now describe.

  1. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Mogi, D.; Tanioka, T.; Mason, N. J.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  2. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV.

    PubMed

    Limão-Vieira, P; Ferreira da Silva, F; Almeida, D; Hoshino, M; Tanaka, H; Mogi, D; Tanioka, T; Mason, N J; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0-10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ((1)Δ←(1)Σ(+)) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ((1)Σ(-)←(1)Σ(+)) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to (1)Σ(+) and (1)Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ((1)Σ(+) and (1)Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f0 value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). PMID:25681902

  3. Single electron capture in fast ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milojević, Nenad

    2014-12-01

    Single-electron capture cross sections in collisions between fast bare projectiles and heliumlike atomic systems are investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation. The prior and post transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of twodimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. The dielectronic interaction V12 = 1/r12 = 1/|r1 - r2| explicitly appears in the complete perturbation potential Vf of the post transition probability amplitude T+if. An illustrative computation is performed involving state-selective and total single capture cross sections for the p - He (prior and post form) and He2+, Li3+Be4+B5+C6+ - He (prior form) collisions at intermediate and high impact energies. We have also studied differential cross sections in prior and post form for single electron transfer from helium by protons. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  4. Local atomic and electronic structure of oxide/GaAs and SiO2/Si interfaces using high-resolution XPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, F. J.; Grunthaner, P. J.; Vasquez, R. P.; Lewis, B. F.; Maserjian, J.; Madhukar, A.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical structures of thin SiO2 films, thin native oxides of GaAs (20-30 A), and the respective oxide-semiconductor interfaces, have been investigated using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Depth profiles of these structures have been obtained using argon ion bombardment and wet chemical etching techniques. The chemical destruction induced by the ion profiling method is shown by direct comparison of these methods for identical samples. Fourier transform data-reduction methods based on linear prediction with maximum entropy constraints are used to analyze the discrete structure in oxides and substrates. This discrete structure is interpreted by means of a structure-induced charge-transfer model.

  5. Electronic state spectroscopy by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations of ethyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmialek, Malgorzata A.; Łabuda, Marta; Guthmuller, Julien; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Delwiche, Jacques; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    The high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of ethyl acetate, C4H8O2, is presented over the energy range 4.5-10.7 eV (275.5-116.0 nm). Valence and Rydberg transitions and their associated vibronic series observed in the photoabsorption spectrum, have been assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. Also, the photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of this ester in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km). Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionisation energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of ethyl acetate and are compared with a newly recorded photoelectron spectrum (from 9.5 to 16.7 eV). Vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band of this molecule for the first time.

  6. Electron capture and fragmentation in Ar11+ + CO collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.; Stöckli, M. P.; Tawara, H.; Carnes, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    Collisions between 32.2, 130.5 and 570.5 keV Ar11+ ions and CO molecules have been studied using the Macdonald Laboratory CRYEBIS. Coincidence time of flight was used to detect all recoil ions originating from each molecule and a position sensitive detector was used to determine final projectile charge states. Single-and double-electron capture cross-sections are much larger than those for ionization at these collision energies. The dominant recoil channel associated with the Ar10+ final charge state is the CO+ molecular ion. The main ion-pair channel is the C+ + O+ dissociation of CO2+ while the relative yields of higher charge states of the transient COq+ fall off rapidly. The dissociated ions corresponding to charge states up to CO4+ were detected in coincidence with Ar10+ (and Ar9+), indicating that multielectron capture followed by autoionization occurs.

  7. Coulomb collisions in the Boltzmann equation for electrons in low-temperature gas discharge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelaar, G. J. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the effects of electron-electron and electron-ion Coulomb collisions on the electron distribution function and transport coefficients obtained from the Boltzmann equation for simple dc gas discharge conditions. Expressions are provided for the full Coulomb collision terms acting on both the isotropic and anisotropic parts of the electron distribution function, which are then incorporated in the freeware Boltzmann equation solver BOLSIG+. Different Coulomb collision effects are demonstrated and discussed on the basis of BOLSIG+  results for argon gas. It is shown that the anisotropic part of the electron-electron collision term, neglected in previous work, can in certain cases have a large effect on the electron mobility and is essential when describing the transition towards the Coulomb-collision dominated regime characterized by Spitzer transport coefficients. Finally, a brief overview is presented of the discharge conditions for which different Coulomb collision effects occur in different gases.

  8. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of the high temperature crystal structures of GexSb2Te3+x (x=1,2,3) phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2002-10-01

    The crystal structures of GeSb2Te4, Ge2Sb2Te5, and Ge3Sb2Te6 were determined using electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The structure determined for the former two crystals deviates from the ones proposed in the literature. These crystal structures were developed jointly upon cooling of liquid Ge2Sb2Te5. A stacking disorder parallel to the basal plane was observed that increases with increasing cooling rates. For the GexSb2Te3+x (x=1,2,3) crystals it is shown that an a,b,c stacking holds with an alternating stacking of x GeTe double layers identically present in binary GeTe and one Te-Sb-Te-Te-Sb- repeat unit also present in binary Sb2Te3. A stacking disorder is a logical consequence of building crystals with these two principal units. On the other hand, it is likely that all stable crystals of the Ge-Sb-Te systems are an ordered sequence of these two units. Some of the implications of these findings of the stable and metastable crystal structures that develop from amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 are presented so as to understand the crucial crystallization process in Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material.

  9. Single electrons from heavy-flavor decays in collisions at.

    PubMed

    Adler, S S; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Amirikas, R; Aphecetche, L; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, R; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Berdnikov, Y; Bhagavatula, S; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Borenstein, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Chai, J-S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Constantin, P; d'Enterria, D; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Drapier, O; Drees, A; du Rietz, R; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Efremenko, Y V; El Chenawi, K; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Fields, D E; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Gogiberidze, G; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hartouni, E P; Harvey, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jeong, Y; Jia, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kang, J H; Kapoor, S S; Katou, K; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, E; Kim, G-B; Kim, H J; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Kiyoyama, K; Klein-Boesing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kurita, K; Kuroki, Y; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Ladygin, V; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, S; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Liu, Y; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Messer, F; Miake, Y; Milan, J; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Nakamura, T; Nandi, B K; Nara, M; Newby, J; Nilsson, P; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, K; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Parmar, A; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Peng, J-C; Peresedov, V; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Plasil, F; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosnet, P; Ryu, S S; Sadler, M E; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, M; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shaw, M R; Shea, T K; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarján, P; Tepe, J D; Thomas, T L; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Veszprémi, V; Villatte, L; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yang, Y; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zhou, S J; Zolin, L

    2006-01-27

    The invariant differential cross section for inclusive electron production in p+p collisions at [FORMULA: SEE TEXT] has been measured by the PHENIX experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider over the transverse momentum range 0.4electron spectrum from semileptonic decays of hadrons carrying heavy flavor, i.e., charm quarks or, at high , bottom quarks, is determined via three independent methods. The resulting electron spectrum from heavy-flavor decays is compared to recent leading and next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations. The total cross section of charm quark-antiquark pair production is determined to be [FORMULA: SEE TEXT]. PMID:16486684

  10. Electron impact collision strengths for excitation of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, D.H. . Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics)

    1990-08-20

    The principle task given us by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform under Subcontract 6181405 was to develop a method and corresponding computer programs to make very rapid, yet accurate, fully relativistic and quasirelativistic calculations of cross sections or collision strengths for electron impact excitation of highly charged ions with any value for the nuclear charge number Z. Also while this major code development was being done we were asked to calculate cross sections of interest using our previous rapid, more approximate codes, which used hydrogenic basis functions and screening constants with both the electron-electron Coulomb interaction and relativistic interactions included by perturbation theory. We were also asked to determine the branching ratio for ionization to various final states in complex cases, where two or more states corresponding to the final configuration of the ion were possible.

  11. Will Allis Prize Talk: Electron Collisions - Experiment, Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, and molecules represent one of the very early topics of quantum mechanics. In spite of the field's maturity, a number of recent developments in detector technology (e.g., the ``reaction microscope'' or the ``magnetic-angle changer'') and the rapid increase in computational resources have resulted in significant progress in the measurement, understanding, and theoretical/computational description of few-body Coulomb problems. Close collaborations between experimentalists and theorists worldwide continue to produce high-quality benchmark data, which allow for thoroughly testing and further developing a variety of theoretical approaches. As a result, it has now become possible to reliably calculate the vast amount of atomic data needed for detailed modelling of the physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres, the interpretation of astrophysical data, optimizing the energy transport in reactive plasmas, and many other topics - including light-driven processes, in which electrons are produced by continuous or short-pulse ultra-intense electromagnetic radiation. In this talk, I will highlight some of the recent developments that have had a major impact on the field. This will be followed by showcasing examples, in which accurate electron collision data enabled applications in fields beyond traditional AMO physics. Finally, open problems and challenges for the future will be outlined. I am very grateful for fruitful scientific collaborations with many colleagues, and the long-term financial support by the NSF through the Theoretical AMO and Computational Physics programs, as well as supercomputer resources through TeraGrid and XSEDE.

  12. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm(-1) spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm(-1) are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10(12) photons s(-1) in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS. PMID:26917127

  13. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm−1 spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm−1 are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s−1 in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS. PMID:26917127

  14. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-02-12

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm₋1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm₋1are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seedingmore » and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s₋1in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. Ultimately, this will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.« less

  15. Direct band gap measurement of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films using high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Sung; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Jong-Bong; Ko, Dong-Su; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, KiHong; Kim, Seong Heon; Yun, Dong-Jin; Ham, YongNam; Park, Gyeong Su; Song, Taewon; Lee, Dongho Nam, Junggyu; Kang, Hee Jae; Choi, Pyung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-06-29

    To investigate the band gap profile of Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})(Se{sub 1−y}S{sub y}){sub 2} of various compositions, we measured the band gap profile directly as a function of in-depth using high-resolution reflection energy loss spectroscopy (HR-REELS), which was compared with the band gap profile calculated based on the auger depth profile. The band gap profile is a double-graded band gap as a function of in-depth. The calculated band gap obtained from the auger depth profile seems to be larger than that by HR-REELS. Calculated band gaps are to measure the average band gap of the spatially different varying compositions with respect to considering its void fraction. But, the results obtained using HR-REELS are to be affected by the low band gap (i.e., out of void) rather than large one (i.e., near void). Our findings suggest an analytical method to directly determine the band gap profile as function of in-depth.

  16. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1985-08-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  17. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-04-15

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B/sub 13/C/sub 2/ sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B/sub 4/C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions.

  18. Nonlinear regime of electrostatic waves propagation in presence of electron-electron collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi

    2015-04-15

    The effects are presented of including electron-electron collisions in self-consistent Eulerian simulations of electrostatic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. The electron-electron collisions are approximately modeled through the full three-dimensional Dougherty collisional operator [J. P. Dougherty, Phys. Fluids 7, 1788 (1964)]; this allows the elimination of unphysical byproducts due to reduced dimensionality in velocity space. The effects of non-zero collisionality are discussed in the nonlinear regime of the symmetric bump-on-tail instability and in the propagation of the so-called kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) waves [T. W. Johnston et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 042105 (2009)]. For both cases, it is shown how collisions work to destroy the phase-space structures created by particle trapping effects and to damp the wave amplitude, as the system returns to the thermal equilibrium. In particular, for the case of the KEEN waves, once collisions have smoothed out the trapped particle population which sustains the KEEN fluctuations, additional oscillations at the Langmuir frequency are observed on the fundamental electric field spectral component, whose amplitude decays in time at the usual collisionless linear Landau damping rate.

  19. Vibrational and Electronic Energy Transfer and Dissociation of Diatomic Molecules by Electron Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At high altitudes and velocities equal to or greater than the geosynchronous return velocity (10 kilometers per second), the shock layer of a hypersonic flight will be in thermochemical nonequilibrium and partially ionized. The amount of ionization is determined by the velocity. For a trans atmospheric flight of 10 kilometers per second and at an altitude of 80 kilometers, a maximum of 1% ionization is expected. At a velocity of 12 - 17 kilometer per second, such as a Mars return mission, up to 30% of the atoms and molecules in the flow field will be ionized. Under those circumstances, electrons play an important role in determining the internal states of atoms and molecules in the flow field and hence the amount of radiative heat load and the distance it takes for the flow field to re-establish equilibrium. Electron collisions provide an effective means of transferring energy even when the electron number density is as low as 1%. Because the mass of an electron is 12,760 times smaller than the reduced mass of N2, its average speed, and hence its average collision frequency, is more than 100 times larger. Even in the slightly ionized regime with only 1% electrons, the frequency of electron-molecule collisions is equal to or larger than that of molecule-molecule collisions, an important consideration in the low density part of the atmosphere. Three electron-molecule collision processes relevant to hypersonic flows will be considered: (1) vibrational excitation/de-excitation of a diatomic molecule by electron impact, (2) electronic excitation/de-excitation, and (3) dissociative recombination in electron-diatomic ion collisions. A review of available data, both theory and experiment, will be given. Particular attention will be paid to tailoring the molecular physics to the condition of hypersonic flows. For example, the high rotational temperatures in a hypersonic flow field means that most experimental data carried out under room temperatures are not applicable. Also

  20. Probing the electronic and vibrational structure of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} using photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution photoelectron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gary V.; Czekner, Joseph; Jian, Tian; Li, Wei-Li; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-14

    The electronic and vibrational structures of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} have been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), high-resolution photoelectron imaging, and theoretical calculations. Photoelectron spectra taken at high photon energies with a magnetic-bottle apparatus reveal numerous detachment transitions and a large energy gap for the neutral Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}. Vibrationally resolved PE spectra are obtained using high-resolution photoelectron imaging for the ground state detachment transition of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} at various photon energies (670.55−843.03 nm). An accurate electron affinity of 1.4438(8) eV is obtained for the Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} neutral cluster, as well as two vibrational frequencies at 57 ± 8 and 305 ± 13 cm{sup −1}. Hot bands transitions yield two vibrational frequencies for Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} at 57 ± 10 and 144 ± 12 cm{sup −1}. The obtained vibrational and electronic structure information is compared with density functional calculations, unequivocally confirming that both Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} possess C{sub 2v} tetrahedral structures.

  1. Progress in electron-multiplying CCD (EMCCD) based high-resolution high-sensitivity x-ray detector for fluoroscopy and radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhls, Andrew T.; Yadava, Girijesh; Patel, Vikas; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    A new high-resolution, high-sensitivity, low-noise x-ray detector based on EMCCDs has been developed. The EMCCD detector module consists of a 1kx1k, 8μm pixel EMCCD camera coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillating phosphor via a fiber optic taper (FOT). Multiple modules can be used to provide the desired field-of-view (FOV). The detector is capable of acquisitions over 30fps. The EMCCD's variable gain of up to 2000x for the pixel signal enables high sensitivity for fluoroscopic applications. With a 3:1 FOT, the detector can operate with a 144μm effective pixel size, comparable to current flat-panel detectors. Higher resolutions of 96 and 48μm pixel size can also be achieved with various binning modes. The detector MTFs and DQEs were calculated using a linear-systems analysis. The zero frequency DQE was calculated to be 59% at 74 kVp. The DQE for the 144μm pixel size was shown to exhibit quantum-noise limited behavior down to ~0.1μR using a conservative 30x gain. At this low exposure, gains above 30x showed limited improvements in DQE suggesting such increased gains may not be necessary. For operation down to 48µm pixel sizes, the detector instrumentation noise equivalent exposure (INEE), defined as the exposure where the instrumentation noise equals the quantum-noise, was <0.1μR for a 20x gain. This new technology may provide improvements over current flat-panel detectors for applications such as fluoroscopy and angiography requiring high frame rates, resolution, dynamic range and sensitivity while maintaining essentially no lag and very low INEE. Initial images from a prototype detector are also presented.

  2. Rotational And Rovibrational Energy Transfer In Electron Collisions With Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thuemmel, Helmar T.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Air flows around a hypervelocity reentry vehicle undergo dissociation, rovibrational excitation and ionization. More specifically the air, initially 80% N2 and 20% O2, in the shock layer consists of species such as N, O, N2, O2, NO, N+, O+, N+, O+, NO+ and 2 free electrons. It was pointed out in multi temperature models'' that the temperature of the rotational energy modes and the gas-kinetic translational temperature are quickly equilibrated by a few collisions and rise rapidly to high temperatures as 50000K before falling off to equilibrium value of 10000K. Contrary, the electronic and vibrational temperatures state energy distributions remain low (less than 15000K) because of the slow equilibration. Electron vibrational energy transfer is thought to play a crucial role in such a ionizing flow regime since chemical reaction rates and dissociation depend strongly on the vibrational temperatures. Modeling of these flowfields in principle require the rovibrational excitation and de-excitation cross section data for average electron energies from threshold up to several eV (leV=11605.4 K). In this lecture we focus on theoretical description of rotational effects i.e. energy transfer of electrons to molecules such that the molecular rotational (vojo goes to voj) or vibrational and rotational (v(sub 0)j(sub 0) goes to vj) states are changed. Excitation and de-excitation of electronic states was discussed in a previous talk at this conference.

  3. Electronic and vibronic states of the acceptor-bound-exciton complex (A0,X) in CdS. II. Determination of the fine structure of the (A0,XB) electronic states by high-resolution excitation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, J.

    1985-03-01

    In a previous paper [R. Baumert, I. Broser, J. Gutowski, and A. Hoffman, Phys. Rev. B 27, 6263 (1983)] it has been shown that high-density, high-resolution excitation spectroscopy gives new information on the electronic and vibronic excited states of the acceptor-bound-exciton complex (A0,XA) with two holes from the A valence band in CdS. We now report on corresponding results for the (A0,XB) configuration which includes one hole from the second B valence band. This complex is unstable for a very fast B-->A hole conversion, and therefore gives rise to a set of excitation resonances of the I1 luminescence arising from the (A0,XA) recombination. A detailed theoretical analysis of the energetic structure of the (A0,XB) complex including the dependence on the excitation intensity and on an applied magnetic field allows the correct assignment of the excitation resonances to the (A0,XB) fine-structure levels originating from the interparticle-exchange interactions. It is shown that the magnetic field is a suitable means of distinguishing the different (A0,XB) ground-state levels. The magnetic field also creates allowed transitions which are dipole forbidden in the zero-field case. A self-contained model of the (A0,XB) complex thus can be developed, including all symmetry states and yielding adequate values for the exchange energies within the complex.

  4. Electronic spin-flipping collisions of hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zygelman, B.

    2010-03-15

    We present a unified multichannel approach to calculate electron spin-exchange and spin-flipping transition cross sections for collisions of H with H, H with T, and T with T. We use the theory to calculate the hyperfine quenching cross sections for collision energies that range from 1 mK to thermal temperatures. We show that spin-flipping transitions are induced by the splitting of the b {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub u} Born-Oppenheimer potential via the long-range magnetic interactions among electrons. We find that the spin-flipping cross sections in the tritium dimer are about a magnitude larger than that predicted by mass scaling the H-H cross sections. For the former, we show that the spin-exchange cross sections are several magnitudes larger, at cold temperatures, than that of the hydrogen system. We compare the results of the multichannel approach with those obtained using approximate methods such as the degenerate internal-state, the elastic, and Born approximations and discuss their respective range of validity.

  5. Absorption effects in electron-sulfur-dioxide collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, L. E.; Sugohara, R. T.; Santos, A. S. dos; Lee, M.-T.; Iga, I.; Souza, G. L. C. de; Homem, M. G. P.; Michelin, S. E.; Brescansin, L. M.

    2011-09-15

    A joint experimental-theoretical study on electron-SO{sub 2} collisions in the low and intermediate energy range is reported. More specifically, experimental elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections in absolute scale are measured in the 100-1000 eV energy range using the relative-flow technique. Calculated elastic differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections as well as grand-total and total absorption cross sections are also presented in the 1-1000 eV energy range. A complex optical potential is used to represent the electron-molecule interaction dynamics, whereas the Schwinger variational iterative method combined with the distorted-wave approximation is used to solve the scattering equations. Comparison of the present results is made with the theoretical and experimental results available in the literature.

  6. Vlasov simulations of electron-ion collision effects on damping of electron plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, J. W.; Brunner, S.; Berger, R. L.; Tran, T. M.

    2016-03-01

    Collisional effects can play an essential role in the dynamics of plasma waves by setting a minimum damping rate and by interfering with wave-particle resonances. Kinetic simulations of the effects of electron-ion pitch angle scattering on Electron Plasma Waves (EPWs) are presented here. In particular, the effects of such collisions on the frequency and damping of small-amplitude EPWs for a range of collision rates and wave phase velocities are computed and compared with theory. Both the Vlasov simulations and linear kinetic theory find the direct contribution of electron-ion collisions to wave damping significantly reduced from that obtained through linearized fluid theory. To our knowledge, this simple result has not been published before. Simulations have been carried out using a grid-based (Vlasov) approach, based on a high-order conservative finite difference method for discretizing the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the electron distribution function. Details of the implementation of the collision operator within this framework are presented. Such a grid-based approach, which is not subject to numerical noise, is of particular interest for the accurate measurements of the wave damping rates.

  7. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  8. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  9. Target electron ionization in Li2+-Li collisions: A multi-electron perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śpiewanowski, M. D.; Gulyás, L.; Horbatsch, M.; Kirchner, T.

    2015-05-01

    The recent development of the magneto-optical trap reaction-microscope has opened a new chapter for detailed investigations of charged-particle collisions from alkali atoms. It was shown that energy-differential cross sections for ionization from the outer-shell in O8+-Li collisions at 1500 keV/amu can be readily explained with the single-active-electron approximation. Understanding of K-shell ionization, however, requires incorporating many-electron effects. An ionization-excitation process was found to play an important role. We present a theoretical study of target electron removal in Li2+-Li collisions at 2290 keV/amu. The results indicate that in outer-shell ionization a single-electron process plays the dominant part. However, the K-shell ionization results are more difficult to interpret. On one hand, we find only weak contributions from multi-electron processes. On the other hand, a large discrepancy between experimental and single-particle theoretical results indicate that multi-electron processes involving ionization from the outer shell may be important for a complete understanding of the process. Work supported by NSERC, Canada and the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund.

  10. Increasing the electron-transfer ability of Cyanidioschyzon merolae ferredoxin by a one-point mutation – A high resolution and Fe-SAD phasing crystal structure analysis of the Asp58Asn mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, Yuko; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yamano, Akihito; Imai, Takeo; Morimoto, Yukio

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •A single amino acid change on the ferredoxin surface affects electron transfer. •Precise positions of amide atoms were located utilizing no prior structural data. •Ultra high resolution and SAD phasing may be used for bias-free model building. -- Abstract: Cyanidioschyzon merolae (Cm) is a single cell red algae that grows in rather thermophilic (40–50 °C) and acidic (pH 1–3) conditions. Ferredoxin (Fd) was purified from this algae and characterized as a plant-type [2Fe–2S] Fd by physicochemical techniques. A high resolution (0.97 Å) three-dimensional structure of the CmFd D58N mutant molecule has been determined using the Fe-SAD phasing method to clarify the precise position of the Asn58 amide, as this substitution increases the electron-transfer ability relative to wild-type CmFd by a factor of 1.5. The crystal structure reveals an electro-positive surface surrounding Asn58 that may interact with ferredoxin NADP{sup +} reductase or cytochrome c.

  11. High resolution positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy of the CuM 2,3VV-transition and of Cu sub-monolayers on Pd and Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Schreckenbach, K.

    2010-09-01

    We present a high resolution positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) of the CuM 2,3VV-transition with the unprecedented energy resolution of Δ/EE <1%. This energy resolution and the highly intense positron source NEPOMUC enabled us to resolve the double peak structure with PAES for the first time within a measurement time of only 5.5 h. In addition, sub-monolayers of Cu were deposited on Fe- and Pd-samples in order to investigate the surface selectivity of PAES in comparison with EAES. The extremely high surface selectivity of PAES due to the different positron affinity of Cu and Fe lead to the result that with only 0.96 monolayer of Cu on Fe more than 55% of the emitted Auger electrons stem from Cu, whereas with EAES the Cu Auger fraction amounted to less than 6%.

  12. Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy studies on layered Li{sub 2−δ}(Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}){sub 1+δ}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Hiroki; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Mochiku, Takashi

    2013-07-15

    The structure of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}–LiCoO{sub 2} solid solutions or Li{sub 2−δ}(Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}){sub 1+δ}O{sub 3} (LMCO) which are promising lithium-battery cathodes was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that Li{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.2}Co{sub 1.2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.9}O{sub 3} take a rhombohedral (R3-bar m space group) structure, whereas Li{sub 1.85}Mn{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.45}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 1.95}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} take a monoclinic (C2/m) superstructure. HREM studies on those samples reveal that all of the observed crystallites in sample Li{sub 1.95}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} contain sharp stripe structures due to the planar defects along the c{sub h}-axis (stacking direction of the hexagonal close-packed planes) of parent rhombohedral R3-bar m cell. Such stripe structures become faint with increasing x, Co content. The origin of the planar defects is mainly attributed not to the different structures but to the different local orientations of the monoclinic LMCO. Local disordering of Li and (Mn,Co) in (Li,Mn,Co) planes is developed with increasing x and the structures are transformed from C2/m to R3-bar m. The alternative (Li,Mn,Co)-plane stacking structure, trigonal P3{sub 1}12 LMCO, was occasionally observed. However, only P3{sub 1}12 LMCO platelets with a thickness of a single unit cell were detected. - Graphical abstract: An HREM image for Li{sub 1.95}(Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15})O{sub 3} and schematic drawings of C2/m and P3{sub 1}12 Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} projected along the various zone axes. Each projected unit cell is indicated by rectangles and parallelograms . - Highlights: • Li{sub 2−δ}(Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}){sub 1+δ}O{sub 3} was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). • HREM studies revealed a large amount of planar defects in C2/m Li{sub 1.95}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 3}. • The origin of the defects is the different

  13. STEM Electron Diffraction and High Resolution Images Used in the Determination of the Crystal Structure of Au144(SR)60 Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Bahena, Daniel; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Santiago, Ulises; Tlahuice, Alfredo; Ponce, Arturo; Bach, Stephan B. H.; Yoon, Bokwon; Whetten, Robert L.; Landman, Uzi; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the total structure of molecular nanocrystals is an outstanding experimental challenge that has been met, in only a few cases, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Described here is an alternative approach that is of most general applicability and does not require the fabrication of a single crystal. The method is based on rapid, time-resolved nanobeam electron diffraction (NBD) combined with high-angle annular dark field scanning/transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images in a probe corrected STEM microscope, operated at reduced voltages. The results are compared with theoretical simulations of images and diffraction patterns obtained from atomistic structural models derived through first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The method is demonstrated by application to determination of the structure of the Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 cluster. PMID:23687562

  14. Study of the structure of a thin aluminum layer on the vicinal surface of a gallium arsenide substrate by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lovygin, M. V. Borgardt, N. I.; Seibt, M.; Kazakov, I. P.; Tsikunov, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    The results of electron-microscopy studies of a thin epitaxial aluminum layer deposited onto a misoriented gallium-arsenide substrate are reported. It is established that the layer consists of differently oriented grains, whose crystal lattices are coherently conjugated with the substrate with the formation of misfit dislocations, as in the case of a layer on a singular substrate. Atomic steps on the substrate surface are visualized, and their influence on the growth of aluminum crystal grains is discussed.

  15. Structure analysis of OmpC, one of the major proteins in the outer membrane of E. coli, by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.F.

    1983-07-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the structure analysis of a pore-forming membrane protein, OmpC, which is one of the major proteins in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. In order to obtain structural information it was necessary to develop a suitable technique for preparing two-dimensional crystalline arrays of this membrane protein in an unfixed, unstained and hydrated condition. Electron micrographs were recorded at exposures of less than 5 electrons/A/sup 2/ in order to avoid severe radiation damage. The resulting images were crystallographically averaged, in order to overcome the statistical limitations associated with the low electron exposures. The resulting images, which extend to a resolution of approx. 13.5 A, lend themselves to a natural interpretation that is consistent with the mass density of protein, water and lipid, prior data from 2-D and 3-D structure studies of negatively stained specimens at approx. = 20 A resolution, and published spectroscopic data on the peptide chain secondary structure.

  16. Mutual neutralization in H+ - H- collisions by electron capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-07-01

    State-selective and total cross-sections for single-electron capture from H- by H+ covering the incident energy range from 10 to 3000 keV are computed by means of the four-body boundary corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation. A crucial connection between the Coulomb-distorted asymptotic state in the entrance channel and the pertinent perturbation, which causes the transition in the H+ - H- collisions, is consistently used in our computations of the “prior” version of cross-sections. The obtained results from the CB1-4B method clearly outperform the earlier findings by the close-coupling methods for the same problem. Comparisons with the available measurements are carried out and excellent agreement with the CB1 method is recorded down to impact energies as low as 10 keV.

  17. Collision-Based Computing Using Single-Electron Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shunsuke; Oya, Takahide

    2012-06-01

    A single-electron (SE) device based on “collision-based computing (CBC)” is proposed for information processing. CBC is an analog computing in which input signals behave like billiard balls, and the goals of moving balls are regarded as output positions. The proposed SE device consists of arrayed SE oscillators with coupling capacitor between each pair. An SE oscillator is a threshold decision device which can be used as a reaction-diffusion (RD) model, a kind of the analog computation model. The RD model can express the various behaviors of an excited wave, e.g., “moving at a constant velocity” and “disappearing due to collision”. These behaviors are also important for CBC. We designed basic SE-CBC circuits and a full adder as an application, and evaluated their operation by Monte-Carlo computer simulation. The results indicate that this circuit is useful for configuring various types of logical circuits.

  18. The Screening Effect in Electromagnetic Production of Electron Positron Pairs in Relativistic Nucleus-Atom Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jianshi; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Strayer, M. R.

    1999-01-01

    We study the screening effects of the atomic electrons in the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nucleus-atom collisions for fixed target experiments. Our results are contrasted with those obtained in bare collisions, with particular attention given to its dependence on the beam energy and the target atom.

  19. Investigation of CoPt and CoPt + ZrO{sub x} thin films for magnetic storage media using high-resolution analytical electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ristau, R.A.; Barmak, K.

    1996-12-31

    Materials for very high density magnetic storage media, with capacities of 10 Gbits/in{sup 2} and beyond, require high coercivity and high signal to noise ratio. To achieve storage densities of this level engineering of the material to produce very fine, magnetically decoupled domains is necessary. We have characterized the microstructure and microchemistry of 10 nm thick CoPt and CoPt + ZrO{sub x} thin films, as deposited and annealed, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanometer-scale energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS).

  20. Shape resonances in low-energy-electron collisions with halopyrimidines

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2013-12-07

    We report calculated cross sections for elastic collisions of low-energy electrons with halopyrimidines, namely, 2-chloro, 2-bromo, and 5-bromopyrimidine. We employed the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials to compute the cross sections in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization levels of approximation for energies up to 10 eV. We found four shape resonances for each molecule: three of π* nature localized on the ring and one of σ* nature localized along the carbon–halogen bond. We compared the calculated positions of the resonances with the electron transmission spectroscopy data measured by Modelli et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 10775 (2011)]. In general the agreement between theory and experiment is good. In particular, our results show the existence of a π* temporary anion state of A{sub 2} symmetry for all three halopyrimidines, in agreement with the dissociative electron attachment spectra also reported by Modelli et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 115, 10775 (2011)].

  1. Quasiclassical Methods for Ion Collisions with Two-Electron Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, James S.

    1996-05-01

    Results of two generalizations of the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method will be reported. The first is the model, termed CTMC-KW, originally proposed by Kirschbaum and Wilets(C. L. Kirschbaum and L. Wilets, Phys. Rev. A 21), 834 (1980). that achieves quasiclassical stability of multi-electron atoms via effective potentials motivated by the Heisenberg and Pauli principles. It was recently shown that this model gives fairly accurate binding energies for all atoms.(J. S. Cohen, Phys. Rev. A 51), 266 (1995) The second is a new model, termed CTMC-eb, that achieves stability via constraining potentials imposing lower bounds on the one-electron energies. The latter model is closer in spirit to the original CTMC method. Applications are made to single and double electron transfer and ionization cross sections for collisions of H^+, He^2+, and Li^3+ ions with the helium atom. All possible rearrangement processes are treated simultaneously and consistently. The cross sections will be compared with accurate experimental values.

  2. Observation of quantum-size effects in the electronic structure of CdSe quantum dots by high resolution positron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denison, A. B.; Eijt, S. W.; van Veen, A.; Falub, C. V.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Schut, H.; Barbiellini, B.; Bansil, A.

    2003-03-01

    The electron momentum density (EMD) of CdSe quantum dots deposited as micrometer thin layers is investigated in the diameter range from 2.5 to 6 nm. For this purpose, we have carried out depth-resolved positron 2D angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) experiments at the TU-Delft intense variable-energy positron beam, together with extensive first-principles simulations of the EMD, including the case of the bulk CdSe single crystal. The EMD shows a smearing at the Jones zone boundary, which is inversely proportional to the square of the quantum dot diameter. A reduction in the Cd(4d) electron contribution is revealed and tentatively ascribed to annihilation at incomplete TOPO-covered Se-rich surfaces. We compare and contrast our results to earlier Doppler measurements [1] and recently proposed models [1,2]. [1] M. Weber, K. Lynn, B. Barbiellini, P. Sterne and A. Denison, Phys. Rev. B 66 (2002) 41305 [2] R. Saniz, B. Barbiellini and A. Denison, Phys. Rev. B 65 (2002) 245310

  3. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation.

  4. Suprathermal electrons in kJ-laser produced plasmas: M- shell resolved high-resolution x-ray spectroscopic study of transient matter evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condamine, F. P.; Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.; Dozières, M.; Thais, F.; Angelo, P.; Bobin, J.-L.; Rosmej, F. B.

    2016-05-01

    Hot electrons are of key importance to understand many physical processes in plasma physics. They impact strongly on atomic physics as almost all radiative properties are seriously modified. X-ray spectroscopy is of particular interest due to reduced photoabsorption in dense matter. We report on a study of the copper Kα X-ray emission conducted at the ns, kJ laser facility PALS, Prague, Czech Republic. Thin copper foils have been irradiated with 1ω pulses. Two spherically bent quartz Bragg crystal spectrometers with high spectral and spatial resolution have been set up simultaneously to achieve a high level of confidence in the spectral distribution. In particular, an emission on the red wing of the Kα2 transition (λ = 1.5444 Å) could be identified with complex atomic structure calculations. We discuss possible implications for the analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena and present first atomic physics simulations.

  5. High resolution electronic spectroscopy of the A {sup 2}Σ{sup −} − X {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} transition of PtN

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, Kaitlin; O’Brien, Leah C.; Whittemore, Sean; O’Brien, James J.; Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2014-08-28

    The (2,0) vibrational band of the A {sup 2}Σ{sup −} − X {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} transition of platinum nitride, PtN, was recorded at Doppler-limited resolution using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy (ILS) and at sub-Doppler resolution using molecular beam laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. Isotopologue structure for {sup 194}PtN, {sup 195}PtN, and {sup 196}PtN, magnetic hyperfine splitting due to {sup 195}Pt (I = ½), and nuclear quadrupole splitting due to {sup 14}N (I = 1) were observed in the spectrum. Molecular constants for the ground and excited states are derived. The hyperfine interactions are used to illuminate the nature of the A {sup 2}Σ{sup −} excited electronic state.

  6. Oxidation products of the niobium tungsten oxide Nb{sub 4}W{sub 13}O{sub 47}: A high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Krumeich, Frank . E-mail: krumeich@inorg.chem.ethz.ch; Nesper, Reinhard

    2006-06-15

    Nb{sub 4}W{sub 13}O{sub 47}, a member of the solid solution series Nb{sub 8-n}W{sub 9+n}O{sub 47} (0=electron microscopy applying a high-angle annular dark field detector. At the selected imaging conditions (Z contrast), not only the metal positions are revealed by this technique but valuable additional information about the elemental distribution can be obtained simultaneously.

  7. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, Rémi; Li, Jingfeng; Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO2 are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO2(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  8. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzari, Rémi Li, Jingfeng Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO{sub 2} are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO{sub 2}(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  9. Denoising of high-resolution single-particle electron-microscopy density maps by their approximation using three-dimensional Gaussian functions.

    PubMed

    Jonić, S; Vargas, J; Melero, R; Gómez-Blanco, J; Carazo, J M; Sorzano, C O S

    2016-06-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) of frozen-hydrated preparations of isolated macromolecular complexes is the method of choice to obtain the structure of complexes that cannot be easily studied by other experimental methods due to their flexibility or large size. An increasing number of macromolecular structures are currently being obtained at subnanometer resolution but the interpretation of structural details in such EM-derived maps is often difficult because of noise at these high-frequency signal components that reduces their contrast. In this paper, we show that the method for EM density-map approximation using Gaussian functions can be used for denoising of single-particle EM maps of high (typically subnanometer) resolution. We show its denoising performance using simulated and experimental EM density maps of several complexes. PMID:27085420

  10. Direct observation and analysis of yolk-shell materials using low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy: Nanometal-particles encapsulated in metal-oxide, carbon, and polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Asahina, Shunsuke; Suga, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Young Jeong, Hu; Terasaki, Osamu E-mail: terasaki@kaist.ac.kr

    2014-11-01

    Nanometal particles show characteristic features in chemical and physical properties depending on their sizes and shapes. For keeping and further enhancing their features, the particles should be protected from coalescence or degradation. One approach is to encapsulate the nanometal particles inside pores with chemically inert or functional materials, such as carbon, polymer, and metal oxides, which contain mesopores to allow permeation of only chemicals not the nanometal particles. Recently developed low-voltage high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was applied to the study of structural, chemical, and electron state of both nanometal particles and encapsulating materials in yolk-shell materials of Au@C, Ru/Pt@C, Au@TiO{sub 2}, and Pt@Polymer. Progresses in the following categories were shown for the yolk-shell materials: (i) resolution of topographic image contrast by secondary electrons, of atomic-number contrast by back-scattered electrons, and of elemental mapping by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy; (ii) sample preparation for observing internal structures; and (iii) X-ray spectroscopy such as soft X-ray emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was also used for characterization of Au@C.

  11. High-resolution scanning hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Clifford; Luan, Lan; Hendrik Bluhm, J.; Moler, Kathryn; Guikema, Janice; Zeldov, Eli; Shtrikman, Hadas

    2006-03-01

    Scanning hall sensors can be used to directly image magnetic fields at surfaces. They offer high resolution, high sensitivity, operability over a broad temperature range, and linearity. We have fabricated hall sensors on GaAs / Al0.35Ga0.65As and GaAs / Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures containing 2D electron gases 40, 39 and 140nm beneath the surface. The sensitive areas of our probes range from microns to 85nm on a side. We report on the field sensitivities of probes of various sizes and their spatial resolution in a scanning configuration.

  12. Electron-excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry at high speed and at high resolution: silicon drift detectors and microcalorimeters.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Dale E

    2006-12-01

    Two recent developments in X-ray spectrometer technology provide dramatic improvements in analytical capabilities that impact the frontiers of electron microscopy. Silicon drift detectors (SDD) use the same physics as silicon (lithium) energy dispersive spectrometers [Si(Li) EDS] but differ in design: only 10% of the thickness of the Si(Li) EDS with an anode area below 0.1 mm2 and a complex rear surface electrode pattern that creates a lateral internal charge collection field. The SDD equals or betters the Si(Li) EDS in most measures of performance. For output versus input count rate, the SDD exceeds the Si(Li) EDS by a factor of 5 to 10 for the same resolution. This high throughput can benefit analytical measurements that are count limited, such as X-ray mapping and trace measurements. The microcalorimeter EDS determines the X-ray energy by measuring the temperature rise in a metal absorber. Operating at 100 mK, the microcalorimeter EDS achieves resolution of 2-5 eV over a photon energy range of 200 eV to 10 keV in energy dispersive operation, eliminating most peak interference situations and providing high peak-to-background to detect low fluorescence yield peaks. Chemical bonding effects on low energy (< 2 keV) peak shapes can be measured. PMID:19830945

  13. Electron beam lithographically-defined scanning electrochemical-atomic force microscopy probes: fabrication method and application to high resolution imaging on heterogeneously active surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Phillip S; Weaver, John M R; Burt, David P; Holder, Mark N; Wilson, Neil R; Unwin, Patrick R; Macpherson, Julie V

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes in detail the use of electron beam lithography (EBL) to successfully batch microfabricate combined scanning electrochemical-atomic force microscopy (SECM-AFM) probes. At present, the process produces sixty probes at a time, on a 1/4 of a three-inch wafer. Using EBL, gold triangular-shaped electrodes can be defined at the tip apex, with plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride serving as an effective insulating layer, at a thickness of 75 nm. The key features of the fabrication technique and the critical steps are discussed. The capability of these probes for SECM-AFM imaging in both tapping and constant distance mode is illustrated with dual topographical-electrochemical scans over an array of closely-spaced 1 microm diameter Pt disc electrodes, held at a suitable potential to generate an electroactive species at a transport-limited rate. As highlighted herein, understanding diffusion to heterogeneous electrode surfaces, including array electrodes, is currently topical and we present preliminary data highlighting the use of SECM-AFM as a valuable tool for the investigation of diffusion and reactivity at high spatial resolution. PMID:19817052

  14. High-resolution structure of a Shigella type III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state NMR (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the Type-III Secretion System (T3SS) needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent dataset of 691 ssNMR constraints and STEM measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N-terminus, that occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation. PMID:25264107

  15. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  16. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1990-01-01

    Earth resources observed in greater detail. High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, undergoing development for use in NASA's Earth Observing System, measures reflectance of Earth's surface in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. From an orbit around Earth, instrument scans surface of Earth in 200 wavelength bands simultaneously. Produces images enabling identification of minerals in rocks and soils, important algal pigments in oceans and inland waters, changes in spectra associated with biochemistry of plant canopies, compositions of atmospheric aerosols, sizes of grains in snow, and contamination of snow by impurities that absorb visible light.

  17. Modeling Charge Transfer in Fullerene Collisions via Real-Time Electron Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jakowski, Jacek; Irle, Stephan; Sumpter, Bobby G; Morokuma, Keiji

    2012-06-01

    An approach for performing real-time dynamics of electron transfer in a prototype redox reaction that occurs in reactive collisions between neutral and ionic fullerenes is discussed. The quantum dynamical simulations show that the electron transfer occurs within 60 fs directly preceding the collision of the fullerenes, followed by structural changes and relaxation of electron charge. The consequences of real-time electron dynamics are fully elucidated for the far from equilibrium processes of collisions between neutral and multiply charged fullerenes. PMID:26285634

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigation of electron collisions with acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homem, M. G. P.; Iga, I.; da Silva, L. A.; Ferraz, J. R.; Machado, L. E.; de Souza, G. L. C.; da Mata, V. A. S.; Brescansin, L. M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Lee, M.-T.

    2015-09-01

    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation on elastic electron scattering by acetone in the low- and intermediate-energy regions. More specifically, experimental differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are given in the 30-800 eV and 10∘-120∘ ranges. Theoretical cross sections are reported in the 1-500 eV interval. The experimental differential cross sections were determined using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry, whereas the absolute values of the cross sections were obtained using the relative-flow technique. Theoretically, a complex optical potential derived from a Hartree-Fock molecular wave function was used to represent the collision dynamics, and a single-center expansion method combined with the Padé approximant technique was used to solve the scattering equations. Our experimental cross-section data are in generally good agreement with the present calculated data. Also, our calculated grand-total and total absorption cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental results reported in the literature. Nevertheless, our calculations have revealed a strong shape resonance in the 2B2 scattering channel not clearly seen in the experimental results. Possible reasons for this fact are also discussed.

  19. Collisions of low-energy electrons with cyclohexane

    SciTech Connect

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2014-12-28

    We report calculated cross sections for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by cyclohexane (c-C{sub 6}H{sub 12}). We employed the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with norm-conserving pseudopotentials in the static-exchange and static-exchange plus polarization approximations, for impact energies up to 30 eV. We compare our calculated integral cross section with experimental total cross sections available in the literature. We also compare our calculated differential cross sections (DCSs) with experimental results for benzene and experimental and theoretical results for 1,4-dioxane, in order to investigate the similarities between those molecules under electron collisions. Although benzene is a cyclic six-carbon molecule, as cyclohexane, we found that the differential cross sections of the latter are more similar to those of 1,4-dioxane than those of benzene. These similarities suggest that the geometry may play an important role in the behavior of the DCSs of these molecules. Our integral cross section displays a broad structure at around 8.5 eV, in agreement with the total cross section experimental data of 8 eV and vibrational excitation data of 7.5 eV. The present integral cross section also shows the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum at around 0.12 eV. In general, our integral cross section shows a qualitative agreement with the experimental total cross section.

  20. Collisions of low-energy electrons with isopropanol

    SciTech Connect

    Bettega, M. H. F.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.; Jo, A.; Gauf, A.; Tanner, J.; Hargreaves, L. R.; Khakoo, M. A.

    2011-10-15

    We report measured and calculated cross sections for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by isopropanol (propan-2-ol). The experimental data were obtained using the relative flow technique with helium as the standard gas and a thin aperture as the collimating target gas source, which permits use of this method without the restrictions imposed by the relative flow pressure conditions on helium and the unknown gas. The differential cross sections were measured at energies of 1.5, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, and 30 eV and for scattering angles from 10 deg. to 130 deg. The cross sections were computed over the same energy range employing the Schwinger multichannel method in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation. Agreement between theory and experiment is very good. The present data are compared with previously calculated and measured results for n-propanol, the other isomer of C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH. Although the integral and momentum transfer cross sections for the isomers are very similar, the differential cross sections show a strong isomeric effect: In contrast to the f-wave behavior seen in scattering by n-propanol, d-wave behavior is observed in the cross sections of isopropanol. These results corroborate our previous observations in electron collisions with isomers of C{sub 4}H{sub 9}OH.

  1. Probing the electronic structure and Au—C chemical bonding in AuCn- and AuCnH- (n = 2, 4, and 6) using high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Iker; Ruipérez, Fernando; Ugalde, Jesus M.; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    We report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on AuC4-, AuC6-, and AuCnH- (n = 2, 4, and 6) using high-resolution photoelectron imaging and ab initio calculations. The ground state of AuC2H-, AuC4H-, and AuC6H- is found to be linear, while that of AuC4- and AuC6- is bent. All the species are found to be linear in their neutral ground states. The electron affinities (EAs) are measured to be 3.366(1) and 3.593(1) eV for AuC4 and AuC6, respectively. Both bending and stretching frequencies are resolved in the spectra of AuC4- and AuC6-. High-resolution data of AuCnH- reveal major vibrational progressions in the Au—C stretching and bending modes. AuC2H- has a ground state stretching frequency of 445(10) cm-1 and a bending frequency of 260(10) cm-1; AuC4H- has a ground state stretching frequency of 340(10) cm-1; AuC6H- has a ground state stretching frequency of 260(10) cm-1 and a bending frequency of 55(10) cm-1. The EAs are measured to be 1.475(1), 1.778(1), and 1.962(1) eV for AuC2H, AuC4H, and AuC6H, respectively. The strength of the Au—C bond decreases as the number of carbon atoms increases. The current study provides a wealth of electronic structure information about AuC4-, AuC6-, and AuCnH- (n = 2, 4, and 6) and their corresponding neutrals.

  2. The High Resolution Hurricane Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripoli, G. J.

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that an answer to the hurricane intensity forecast problem is to use very high cloud-resolving resolution in operational forecast models. In consideration of this hypothesis, the United States National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration commissioned a major study to take place over the past 1.5 years whereby the hypothesis would be tested with 6 different hurricane models featuring different dynamics cores and different physics. These models included the GFDL hurricane, Navy COAMPS, the WRF-ARW, WRF-AHW, WRF-NMM, and the UW-NMS. The experiment design was to choose and optimal mix of historic hurricanes where good observations of intensity at land fall existed and run 5 day model forecasts with 3 different resolutions of about 9-12 km (low resolution), 3-4 km (medium resolution) and 1-1.5 km (high resolution) and document how much the forecast improved in each case. The project focused on 10 storms over 2-12, 1-5 day forecast periods, for a total of 67 simulations. Not all groups completed all 67 simulations, but there were sufficient results to reach a stunning conclusion. The results of these tests suggested that little or no improvement in intensity prediction was achieved with high resolution.

  3. Relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen elastic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Attaourti, Y.; Manaut, B.; Makhoute, A.

    2004-06-01

    We study the effects of the relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions. We begin by considering the case when no radiation is present. This is necessary in order to check the consistency of our calculations and we then carry out the calculations using the relativistic Dirac-Volkov states. It turns out that a simple formal analogy links the analytical expressions of the unpolarized differential cross section without laser and the unpolarized differential cross section in the presence of a laser field.

  4. PREFACE: XXVIth International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orel, Ann; Starace, Anthony F.; Nikolić, Dragan; Berrah, Nora; Gorczyca, Thomas W.; Kamber, Emanuel Y.; Tanis, John A.

    2009-12-01

    The XXVIth International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions was held on the campus of Western Michigan University (WMU) in Kalamazoo during 22-28 July 2009. Kalamazoo, the home of a major state university amid pleasant surroundings, was a delightful place for the conference. The 473 scientific participants, 111 of whom were students, had many fruitful discussions and exchanges that contributed to the success of the conference. Participants from 43 countries made the conference truly international in scope. The 590 abstracts that were presented on the first four days formed the heart of the conference and provided ample opportunity for discussion. This change, allowing the conference to end with invited talks, was a departure from the format used at previous ICPEAC gatherings in which the conferences ended with a poster session. The abstracts were split almost equally between the three main conference areas, i.e., photonic, electronic, and atomic collisions, and the posters were distributed across the days of the conference so that approximately equal numbers of abstracts in the different areas were scheduled for each day. Of the total number of presented abstracts, 517 of these are included in this proceedings volume, the first time that abstracts have been published by ICPEAC. There were 5 plenary lectures covering the different areas of the conference: Paul Corkum (University of Ottawa) talked on attosecond physics with atoms and molecules, Serge Haroche (Collège de France) on non-destructive photon counting, Toshiyuki Azuma (Tokyo Metropolitan University) on resonant coherent excitation of highly-charged ions in crystals, Eva Lindroth (Stockholm University) on atomic structure effects, and Alfred Müller (Justus Liebig University) on resonance phenomena in electron- and photon-ion collisions. Two speakers gave very illuminating public lectures that drew many people from the local area, as well as conference participants: Patricia Dehmer

  5. Femtosecond laser field induced modifications of electron-transfer processes in Ne{sup +}-He collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhenzhong; Chen Deying; Fan Rongwei; Xia Yuanqin

    2012-01-02

    We demonstrate the presence of femtosecond laser induced charge transfer in Ne{sup +}-He collisions. Electron transfer in ion-atom collisions is considerably modified when the collision is embedded in a strong laser field with the laser intensity of {approx}10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The observed anisotropy of the He{sup +} angular distribution confirms the prediction of early work that the capture probability varies significantly with the laser polarization angle.

  6. High-Resolution Shadowing of Transfer RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abermann, Reinhard J.; Yoshikami, Doju

    1972-01-01

    High-resolution shadowing with metals that melt at high temperatures was used to study macromolecules. Molecules of transfer RNA shadowed with tantalum-tungsten are readily visualized in an electron microscope. Mounting procedures for tRNA were perfected that reproducibly gave uniform distributions of both monomeric and dimeric tRNA particles, and allowed a statistical assessment of their gross shapes and sizes. Monomeric tRNA yielded a fairly homogeneous population of rod-shaped particles, with axial dimensions of about 40 × 85 Å. Dimers of yeast alanine tRNA held together by hydrogen bonds and dimers constructed by covalent linkage of the amino-acid acceptor (3′-) termini of monomers both gave slightly more heterogeneous populations of particles. Yet, their structures were also basically rod shaped, with their lengths ranging to about twice that of the monomer; this result indicates an end-to-end arrangement of the monomeric units within both dimers. These results suggest that the amino-acid acceptor terminus and the anticodon region are at the ends of the rod-shaped, dehydrated tRNA monomer visible by electron microscopy, consistent with the generally accepted view of tRNA structure in solution suggested by other workers using other methods. This study demonstrates that high-resolution shadowing with tantalum-tungsten provides a means to examine the three-dimensional structures of relatively small biological macromolecules. Images PMID:4504373

  7. Autoionization in electron - helium collisions: an (e, 2e) investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardzic, O.; Campbell, L.; Brunger, M. J.; Kheifets, A. S.; Weigold, E.

    1997-10-01

    In this (e, 2e) study into the n = 2 autoionization resonances of helium we present results for the triple differential cross sections (TDCS) at an incident energy of 80 eV. The scattered-electron angle is 0953-4075/30/19/024/img8 and the range of ejected-electron scattering angles are between 0953-4075/30/19/024/img9 and 0953-4075/30/19/024/img10. The measured coincidence ejected-electron spectra are analysed in terms of the Shore - Balashov parametrization to obtain the direct TDCS 0953-4075/30/19/024/img11 and the resonance parameters 0953-4075/30/19/024/img12 and 0953-4075/30/19/024/img13 for the 0953-4075/30/19/024/img14 and 0953-4075/30/19/024/img15 resonances as a function of the ejected-electron momentum. As in our previous studies (1995 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 28 728, 1997 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 30 3267) these derived parameters are compared with the results of a calculation based within the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) framework. The post-collision-interaction (PCI) related energy shift 0953-4075/30/19/024/img16 was also determined in the present experiments. Given the somewhat lower beam energy of this work compared to our earlier investigations (94.6 - 99.6 eV), we had anticipated that we would see larger PCI effects and that our DWBA calculation would prove to be too simplistic to provide a realistic description of the reaction mechanism. In fact, the calculated parameters 0953-4075/30/19/024/img17 agree quite well with the experimental results, both indicating strong correlations between the resonance amplitudes and the direct ionization amplitudes. Furthermore, 0953-4075/30/19/024/img16 was, to within the uncertainties in the data, found to be zero across the entire range of ejected-electron momenta studied.

  8. Target electron ionization in Li2+-Li collisions: A multi-electron perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śpiewanowski, M. D.; Gulyás, L.; Horbatsch, M.; Goullon, J.; Ferreira, N.; Hubele, R.; de Jesus, V. L. B.; Lindenblatt, H.; Schneider, K.; Schulz, M.; Schuricke, M.; Song, Z.; Zhang, S.; Fischer, D.; Kirchner, T.

    2015-04-01

    Target electron removal in Li2+-Li collisions at 2290 keV/amu is studied experimentally and theoretically for ground and excited lithium target configurations. It is shown that in outer-shell ionization a single-electron process plays the dominant part. However, the K-shell ionization results are more difficult to interpret. According to our calculations, the process is shown to be strongly single-particle like. On one hand, a high resemblance between theoretical single-particle ionization and exclusive inner-shell ionization is demonstrated, and contributions from multi-electron processes are found to be weak. On the other hand, it is indicated by the discrepancy between experimental and single-particle theoretical results that multi-electron processes involving ionization from the outer-shell may play a crucial role.

  9. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2015-12-14

    We present the formation of ultracold {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecules in the (5)0{sup +} electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0{sup +} state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0{sup +} state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  10. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  12. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  13. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W., III; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  14. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  15. Calibration of the high resolution spectrometer barrel calorimeter at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The High-Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) is a general-purpose detector for the study of high-energy electron-positron collisions. The HRS has been in data-taking operation since early 1982. This report covers the calibration of the barrel shower counter system. The barrel system consists of 40 modules placed in a circular arch having a mean radius of 2.1 m. Each module covers an azimuthal wedge of 9 degrees and has an active length of 3.0 m. There are three independent sections: (1) an inner sandwich of Pb and scintillator (NE110) of thickness 3 r.1., (2) a plane of 14 proportional wire cells equipped with charge-division read-out, and (3) an outer sandwich of Pb and scintillator (NE114) of thickness 8. r. 1. The light from the sandwich section is collected at both ends and is passed through long acrylic pipes (5 cm diameter, 162 cm long) to photomultipliers (Amperex XP2230) mounted outside the magnet steel.

  16. Pair production and electron capture in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. J.; Mullan, J. V.; McCann, J. F.; Crothers, D. S.

    2001-06-01

    Results are presented for simulations of electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions leading to electron capture and positron ejection. We apply a two-center relativistic continuum distorted-wave model to represent the electron or positron dynamics during the collision process. The results are compared with experimental cross-section data for La57+ and Au79+ impact on gold, silver, and copper targets. The theory is in good agreement with experiment for La57+ impact, verifying the result that the process increases in importance with both collision energy and target atomic number, and improves upon previous simulations of this process.

  17. Laser-Phase Dependence for Electron Capture in Laser-Assisted Proton -- Hydrogen Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhausen, Thomas; Thumm, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    We calculate electron capture probabilities for ion--atom collisions in a strong laser field (5x10^13 W/cm^2) by numerically solving the 3-dimensional time--dependent Schr"odinger equation. For circularly polarized laser fields and an impact energy of 1.2 keV, we find a substantial modification of the electronic dynamics in the p--H collision system as compared to field-free collisions. In particular, we observe a strong dependence on the laser phase and the impact parameter for electron capture, which can be explained using semi-classical arguments.

  18. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of aluminophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Ulan, J.G.; Gronsky, R. ); Szostak, R. ); Sorby, K. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-04-01

    VPI-5 transforms to AlPO{sub 4}-8 under mild thermal treatment (100{degree}C, 18 hrs). HRTEM micrographs, oriented normal to the c axis, show extensive defect-free regions in VPI-5, while slip planes normal to the c axis are found in AlPO{sub 4}-8. Analysis of the HRTEM data, in conjunction with infrared and thermal analysis, adsorption studies and x-ray powder diffraction, has lead to a proposed structure for AlPO{sub 4}-8. Though the sheets containing the 18 member rings which define the pores in VPI-5 remain intact in AlPO{sub 4}-8, reduction in the porosity is attributed to blockages created by the movement of these sheets relative to each other. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Differential electron-Cu5+ elastic scattering cross sections extracted from electron emission in ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C.; Hagmann, S.; Bhalla, C. P.; Grabbe, S. R.; Cocke, C. L.; Richard, P.

    1999-04-01

    We present a method of deriving energy and angle-dependent electron-ion elastic scattering cross sections from doubly differential cross sections for electron emission in ion-atom collisions. By analyzing the laboratory frame binary encounter electron production cross sections in energetic ion-atom collisions, we derive projectile frame differential cross sections for electrons elastically scattered from highly charged projectile ions in the range between 60° and 180°. The elastic scattering cross sections are observed to deviate strongly from the Rutherford cross sections for electron scattering from bare nuclei. They exhibit strong Ramsauer-Townsend electron diffraction in the angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons, providing evidence for the strong role of screening played in the collision. Experimental data are compared with partial-wave calculations using the Hartree-Fock model.

  20. Electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in atomic collisions. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, T.G.; Alston, S.G.

    1995-08-01

    The research program of Winter and Alston addresses the fundamental processes of electron transfer, ionization, and excitation in ion-atom, ion-ion, and ion-molecule collisions. Attention is focussed on one- and two-electron systems and, more recently, quasi-one-electron systems whose electron-target-core interaction can be accurately modeled by one-electron potentials. The basic computational approaches can then be taken with few, if any, approximations, and the underlying collisional mechanisms can be more clearly revealed. Winter has focussed on intermediate collision energies (e.g., proton energies for p-He{sup +} collisions on the order of 100 kilo-electron volts), in which many electron states are strongly coupled during the collision and a coupled-state approach, such as a coupled-Sturmian-pseudostate approach, is appropriate. Alston has concentrated on higher collision energies (million electron-volt energies), or asymmetric collision systems, for which the coupling of the projectile is weaker with, however, many more target states being coupled together so that high-order perturbation theory is essential. Several calculations by Winter and Alston are described, as set forth in the original proposal.

  1. Techniques in molecular spectroscopy: from broad bandwidth to high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossel, Kevin C.

    molecules such as CH5 + with highly non-classical behavior, and for tests of fundamental physics. We have developed a new technique---frequency comb velocity-modulation spectroscopy---that is the first system to enable rapid, broadband spectroscopy of molecular ions with high resolution. We have demonstrated the ability to record 150 cm-1 of spectra consisting of 45,000 points in 30 minutes and have used this system to record over 1000 cm-1 of spectra of HfF+ in the near-infrared around 800 nm. After improvements, the system can now cover more than 3250 cm-1 (700-900 nm). We have combined this with standard velocity-modulation spectroscopy to measure and analyze 19 ro-vibronic bands of HfF+. These measurements enabled precision spectroscopy of trapped HfF + for testing time-reversal symmetry. For this experiment, we perform Ramsey spectroscopy between spin states in the metastable 3Delta 1 level to look for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron with what we believe is the narrowest line observed in a molecular system (Fourier limited with 500 ms of coherence time). The long coherence time is a major advantage of using ions, but there are also some added complexities. We discuss various aspects metastable state preparation, state detection, and spectroscopy in a rotating frame (due to the necessary rotating electric bias field) that were particular challenging. In addition, we discuss limits to the coherence time---in particular, ion-ion collisions---as well as the sensitivity of the current measurements and provide a path towards a new limit on the electric dipole moment of the electron.

  2. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP-oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution.

    PubMed

    Howard, E I; Guillot, B; Blakeley, M P; Haertlein, M; Moulin, M; Mitschler, A; Cousido-Siah, A; Fadel, F; Valsecchi, W M; Tomizaki, Takashi; Petrova, T; Claudot, J; Podjarny, A

    2016-03-01

    Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA) binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H⋯H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium) positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface. PMID:27006775

  3. Electron-impact-induced {ital K} plus {ital M} shell ionization in solid targets of medium-{ital Z} elements studied by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ludziejewski, T.; Rymuza, P.; Sujkowski, Z.; Dousse, J.; Rheme, C.; Polasik, M.

    1996-07-01

    The {ital K}{beta}{sub 2} x-ray spectra of zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, and palladium bombarded by 150 and 300 keV electrons were measured with a high-resolution transmission curved crystal spectrometer. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations were used for the decomposition of the experimental spectra into the {ital K}{beta}{sub 2}{ital M}{sup 0} (diagram) and {ital K}{beta}{sub 2}{ital M}{sup 1} (satellite) components. The probabilities of energy dependent (direct Coulomb and two-step) processes were estimated from the differences in the satellite line yields for electrons and photons. The satellite yields are found to be considerably enhanced in comparison with those for the proton-induced ionization recently measured and analyzed in the same way [T. Ludziejewski {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Rev. A {bold 52}, 2791 (1995)]. This result indicates the importance of multielectron effects in the {ital K} plus {ital M} shell ionization by energetic projectiles. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. High resolution photoelectron imaging of UO{sup −} and UO{sub 2}{sup −} and the low-lying electronic states and vibrational frequencies of UO and UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Czekner, Joseph; Lopez, Gary V.; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-28

    We report a study of the electronic and vibrational structures of the gaseous uranium monoxide and dioxide molecules using high-resolution photoelectron imaging. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for both UO{sup −} and UO{sub 2}{sup −}. The spectra for UO{sub 2}{sup −} are consistent with, but much better resolved than a recent study using a magnetic-bottle photoelectron analyzer [W. L. Li et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094306 (2014)]. The electron affinity (EA) of UO is reported for the first time as 1.1407(7) eV, whereas a much more accurate EA is obtained for UO{sub 2} as 1.1688(6) eV. The symmetric stretching modes for the neutral and anionic ground states, and two neutral excited states for UO{sub 2} are observed, as well as the bending mode for the neutral ground state. These vibrational frequencies are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical results. The stretching vibrational modes for the ground state and one excited state are observed for UO. The current results for UO and UO{sub 2} are compared with previous theoretical calculations including relativistic effects and spin-orbit coupling. The accurate experimental data reported here provide more stringent tests for future theoretical methods for actinide-containing species.

  5. The effect of electron collisions on rotational excitation of cometary water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Xingfa; Mumma, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The e-H2O collisional rate for exciting rotational transitions in cometary water is evaluated for conditions found in Comet Halley. The e-H2O collisional rate exceeds that for excitation by neutral-neutral collisions at distances exceeding 3000 km from the cometary nucleus, in the case of the O sub 00 yields 1 sub 11 transition. The estimates are based on theoretical and experimental studies of e-H2O collisions, on ion and electron parameters acquired in-situ by instruments on the Giotto and Vega spacecraft, and on results obtained from models of the cometary ionosphere. The contribution of electron collisions may explain the need for large water-water cross-sections in models which neglect the effect of electrons. The importance of electron collisions is enhanced for populations of water molecules in regions where their rotational lines are optically thick.

  6. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  7. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  8. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  9. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  10. High-resolution simulation of field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Becker, R. ); Brodie, I.; Rosengreen, A.; Spindt, C.A. )

    1990-03-01

    High-resolution simulations of field emission electron sources have been made using the electron optics program EGN2. Electron emission distributions are made using the Fowler-Nordheim equation. Mesh resolution in the range of 1-5 {angstrom} is required to adequately model surface details that can result in emission currents in the range found experimentally. A typical problem starts with mechanical details with dimensions of about 1{mu}. To achieve high resolution a new boundary is defined by the tip, a nearby equipotential line, and a pair of field lines. The field lines (one of which is normally the axis of symmetry) define Neumann boundaries. This new boundary is then used by the boundary preprocessor POLYGON to create an enlarged version of the problem, typically by a factor of ten. This process can be repeated until adequate resolution is obtained to simulate surface details, such as microprotusion, that could sufficiently enhance the surface electric fields and cause field emission. When simulating experimental conditions under which emission of several microamperes per tip were observed, it was found that both a locally reduced work function and a surface protrusion were needed to duplicate the experimental results. If only a local region of reduced work function is used, the area involved and the extent of the reduction both need to be very large to reproduce the emission. If only a surface protrusion is used, it is possible to get the observed emission current with a reasonable protrusion of length a few times radius, but then the resulting beam spreads over a very large solid angle due to the strong local radial electric fields. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  11. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  12. High-resolution slug testing.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases. PMID:15819943

  13. Global high resolution climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert-Frisius, Martina; Feser, Frauke; Zahn, Matthias; von Storch, Hans; Rast, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Long-term reanalysis products represent an important data source for numerous climate studies. However, their coarse spatial resolution for data sets spanning the last more than 50 years and well known inhomogeneities in space and time make it difficult to derive changes in meteorological variables over time. We therefore use spectral nudging technique to down-scale the global reanalysis data to a finer resolution with a general global circulation model. With this technique the new calculated higher resolved global model fields are attracted to the large-scale state of the coarse resolution reanalysis. Besides the conservation of large-scale atmospheric information and the resulting finer topography, a surplus in contents of information in meteorological phenomena of small spatial extensions is expected. Following this strategy a simulation with the global high-resolution atmospheric model ECHAM6 (T255L95), developed by MPI-M Hamburg, will be started by spectrally nudging NCEP1 reanalysis for the time period from 1948 until 2013. Selected wavelengths of more than 1000 km of vorticity, divergence, temperature and the logarithm of the surface pressure will be imposed onto the simulated GCM counterparts at levels above 750 hPa. SST and sea ice distribution are taken from the NCEP1 data set. These simulations enable the investigation of long-term changes in meteorological phenomena; the focus is put here on intense storms. Various horizontal wavelength selections and associated vertical profiles in the strength of nudging were tested. The temporarily best configuration resulted in large time correlations for 2m-temperature and 10m wind speed at several selected locations in Germany in comparison to observations. Correlations were highest for extra-tropical regions, while over the western part of the Pacific and Indian Ocean relative low time correlations were found. In a continuing study meteorological quantities at different levels and the influences of the nudging

  14. Practising high-resolution anoscopy.

    PubMed

    Palefsky, Joel M

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of anal cancer is increasing in the general population among both men and women. The incidence is particularly high among men who have sex with men and HIV-infected men and women. Anal cancer is similar to cervical cancer and is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Anal cancer is potentially preventable through primary prevention with HPV vaccination or secondary prevention. Secondary prevention is modelled after cervical cancer, where cytology is used as a screening tool to identify women who need colposcopy. Colposcopy includes magnification of the cervix, which, along with acetic acid and Lugol's solution, is used to visualise and biopsy potentially precancerous lesions, enabling treatment before progression to cervical cancer. Anal cancer is likely preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), and a colposcope with acetic acid and Lugol's solution may similarly be used to visualise HGAIN to permit biopsy and treatment in an effort to prevent anal cancer. To distinguish it from cervical colposcopy, this technique is called high-resolution anoscopy (HRA). Many of the features that distinguish low-grade AIN from HGAIN are similar to those of the cervix, but HRA poses several additional challenges compared with cervical colposcopy. These include uneven topography; obscuring of lesions due to haemorrhoids, folds, stool or mucus; or lesions being located at the base of folds and anal glands. Consequently, a long learning curve is typically required before becoming fully competent in this technique. The technique of HRA, its uses and challenges in prevention of anal cancer are described in this article. PMID:23380236

  15. Limits of simulation based high resolution EBSD.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Jon

    2013-08-01

    High resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HREBSD) is a novel technique for a relative determination of both orientation and stress state in crystals through digital image correlation techniques. Recent works have tried to use simulated EBSD patterns as reference patterns to achieve the absolute orientation and stress state of crystals. However, a precise calibration of the pattern centre location is needed to avoid the occurrence of phantom stresses. A careful analysis of the projective transformation involved in the formation of EBSD patterns has permitted to understand these phantom stresses. This geometrical analysis has been confirmed by numerical simulations. The results indicate that certain combinations of crystal strain states and sample locations (pattern centre locations) lead to virtually identical EBSD patterns. This ambiguity makes the problem of solving the absolute stress state of a crystal unfeasible in a single-detector configuration. PMID:23676453

  16. High-resolution scanning hall probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, C. W.; Guikema, J. W.; Zeldov, E.

    2005-03-01

    Scanning hall sensors can be used to directly image magnetic fields at surfaces. They offer high resolution, high sensitivity, operability from cryogenic to room temperature, and linearity. We have fabricated hall sensors on GaAs / Al0.35Ga0.65As and GaAs / Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructures, one containing a 2D electron gas 40 nanometers below the surface and another 140nm below the surface, as well as an In0.5Al0.5As / GaSb / AlSb / InAs heterostructure containing a 2DEG 21nm below the surface. The sensitive areas of our probes range from microns to 60nm on a side. We report on the field sensitivities of the probes and their spatial resolution in a scanning configuration.

  17. Two-dimensional model of resonant electron collisions with diatomic molecules and molecular cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vana, Martin; Hvizdos, David; Houfek, Karel; Curik, Roman; Greene, Chris H.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William

    2016-05-01

    A simple model for resonant collisions of electrons with diatomic molecules with one electronic and one nuclear degree of freedom (2D model) which was solved numerically exactly within the time-independent approach was used to probe the local complex potential approximation and nonlocal approximation to nuclear dynamics of these collisions. This model was reformulated in the time-dependent picture and extended to model also electron collisions with molecular cations, especially with H2+.This model enables an assessment of approximate methods, such as the boomerang model or the frame transformation theory. We will present both time-dependent and time-independent results and show how we can use the model to extract deeper insight into the dynamics of the resonant collisions.

  18. A Novel Method for Profiling and Quantifying Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Environmental Samples Using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Negative Ionization High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Tian, Qichang; Huang, Huiting; Qiao, Lin

    2016-07-19

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex technical mixtures containing thousands of isomers. Analyzing CPs in environmental matrices is extremely challenging. CPs have broad, unresolved profiles when analyzed by one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC). Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) can separate CPs with a high degree of orthogonality. A novel method for simultaneously profiling and quantifying short- and medium-chain CPs, using GC×GC coupled with electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was developed. The method allowed 48 CP formula congener groups to be analyzed highly selectively in one injection through accurate mass measurements of the [M - Cl](-) ions in full scan mode. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) for the linear calibration curves for different chlorine contents were 0.982 for short-chain CPs and 0.945 for medium-chain CPs. The method was successfully used to determine CPs in sediment and fish samples. By using this method, with enhanced chromatographic separation and high mass resolution, interferences between CP congeners and other organohalogen compounds, such as toxaphene, are minimized. New compounds, with the formulas C9H14Cl6 and C9H13Cl7, were found in sediment and biological samples for the first time. The method was shown to be a powerful tool for the analysis of CPs in environmental samples. PMID:27183176

  19. Morphometric and high resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of low-level laser therapy and latex protein (Hevea brasiliensis) administration following a crush injury of the sciatic nerve in rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando J; Issa, João Paulo M; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim; Fazan, Valéria P S; Sousa, Luiz Gustavo; Iyomasa, Mamie M; Papa, Paula C; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2015-02-15

    This study evaluated the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT; 15 J/cm(2)) and a latex protein (F1) on a crush injury of the sciatic (ischiadicus) nerve. Seventy-two rats (male, 250 g) were divided into 6 groups: CG, control; EG, exposed nerve; IG, injured nerve without treatment; LG, injured nerve with LLLT; HG, injured nerve with F1; and LHG, injured nerve with LLLT and F1. After 4 or 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized and samples of the sciatic nerve were collected for morphometric and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) analysis. After 4 weeks, the morphometry revealed improvements in the treated animals, and the HG appeared to be the most similar to the CG; after 8 weeks, the injured groups showed improvements compared to the previous period, and the results of the treatment groups were more similar to one another. At HRSEM after 4 weeks, the treated groups were similar and showed improvement compared to the IG; after 8 weeks, the LHG and HG had the best results. In conclusion, the treatments resulted in improvement after the nerve injury, and this recovery was time-dependent. In addition, the use of the F1 resulted in the best morphometric and ultrastructural findings. PMID:25619570

  20. Layer specific optical band gap measurement at nanoscale in MoS2 and ReS2 van der Waals compounds by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dileep, K.; Sahu, R.; Sarkar, Sumanta; Peter, Sebastian C.; Datta, R.

    2016-03-01

    Layer specific direct measurement of optical band gaps of two important van der Waals compounds, MoS2 and ReS2, is performed at nanoscale by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. For monolayer MoS2, the twin excitons (1.8 and 1.95 eV) originating at the K point of the Brillouin zone are observed. An indirect band gap of 1.27 eV is obtained from the multilayer regions. Indirect to direct band gap crossover is observed which is consistent with the previously reported strong photoluminescence from the monolayer MoS2. For ReS2, the band gap is direct, and a value of 1.52 and 1.42 eV is obtained for the monolayer and multilayer, respectively. The energy loss function is dominated by features due to high density of states at both the valence and conduction band edges, and the difference in analyzing band gap with respect to ZnO is highlighted. Crystalline 1T ReS2 forms two dimensional chains like superstructure due to the clustering between four Re atoms. The results demonstrate the power of HREELS technique as a nanoscale optical absorption spectroscopy tool.

  1. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of the face-centered cubic/hexagonal close-packed martensite transformation in Co-31.8 wt pct Ni alloy: Part 2. Plate intersections, extended defects, and nucleation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, D. W.; Howe, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    The face-centered cubic/hexagonal close-packed (fcc/hcp) martensite phase transformation in a Co-31.8 wt pct Ni alloy was studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The HRTEM was used to study the structure and properties of intersections between martensite plates and other defects observed in the alloy such as stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and Z-type defects. The HRTEM was also used to attempt to determine if various proposed mechanisms for the fcc/hcp martensite transformation were operating. There is evidence to suggest that the reflection mechanism proposed by Bollmann and the dipole mechanism proposed by Hirth are active in the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation, although the evidence is not completely certain in either case. Growth of the hcp phase by a four- or six-plane mechanism as proposed by Mahajan et al. is possible in theory but was not observed in this study. Transformation by previously proposed pole mechanisms was also not observed in this study, although evidence for a new type of pole mechanism was found. The formation of SFT along the fcc/hcp martensite interface was observed to occur by the cross-slip of Shockley partial dislocations out of the fcc/hcp interface onto conjugate fcc matrix planes, followed by further cross-slip to form the SFT, as previously observed for grain boundaries in fcc alloys.

  2. Exfoliated nanoplatelets of an Aurivillius phase, Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}: Characterisation by X-ray diffraction and by high-resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chevallier, Virginie Nihoul, Genevieve Madigou, Veronique

    2008-03-15

    Nanoparticles of the Aurivillius phase La-substituted BTO (Bi{sub 4-x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}, with x=0.75) were obtained through a chemical lithiation process. They have been characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (diffraction and imaging at high resolution). The defect-free particles are platelet-shaped with the c large axis perpendicular to the plane. From high-resolution images, it is clear that the delamination process occurs at the level of the (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} intermediate layer and is destructive for this layer. The smallest thickness measured corresponds to one cell parameter (3.3 nm) but a large range of thicknesses have been observed: this suggests that the lithium insertion does not take place in all (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers, despite a large excess of lithium and a long reaction time. This is confirmed by ICP analysis, which leads to a formula Li{sub 0.99}Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.77}Ti{sub 3.00}O{sub 12} for the lithiated compound. This behaviour towards lithium intercalation differs from those observed with BTO in literature, where lithium insertion is reported as occurring in every (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layer. Possible explanations for this difference are advanced based on microstructural and structural considerations. - Graphical abstract: Bi{sub 3.25}La{sub 0.75}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanoplatelets, of which the thickness downs to one cell parameter along the c-axis, are obtained through a soft chemical lithiation process followed by exfoliation. Li{sup +} cations intercalate in the intermediate (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 2}){sup 2+} layers. However, not all of them actually accommodate lithium. Moreover, exfoliation is destructive for the host layers.

  3. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  4. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    PubMed Central

    Howard, E. I.; Guillot, B.; Blakeley, M. P.; Haertlein, M.; Moulin, M.; Mitschler, A.; Cousido-Siah, A.; Fadel, F.; Valsecchi, W. M.; Tomizaki, Takashi; Petrova, T.; Claudot, J.; Podjarny, A.

    2016-01-01

    Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA) binding pocket. Bader’s quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H⋯H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium) positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface. PMID:27006775

  5. High-resolution Mn K -edge x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy study of the electronic and local structure of the three different phases in N d0.5S r0.5Mn O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuerza, S.; García, J.; Subías, G.; Blasco, J.; Glatzel, P.

    2016-05-01

    N d0.5S r0.5Mn O3 is particularly representative of mixed-valent manganites since their three characteristic macroscopic phases (charge-ordered insulator, ferromagnetic-metallic, and paramagnetic insulator) appear at different temperatures. We here report a complete x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy (XES-XAS) study of N d0.5S r0.5Mn O3 as a function of temperature to investigate the electronic and local structure changes of the Mn atom in these three phases. Compared with the differences in the XES-XAS spectra between N d0.5S r0.5Mn O3 and the single-valent reference compounds NdMn O3 (M n3 + ) and Sr/CaMn O3 (M n4 + ), only modest changes have been obtained across the magnetoelectrical transitions. The XES spectra, including both the Mn Kα and Kβ emission lines, have mainly shown a subtle decrease in the local spin density accompanying the passage to the ferromagnetic-metallic phase. For the same phase, the small intensity variations in the pre-edge region of the high-resolution XAS spectra reflect an increase of the p -d mixing. The analysis of these XAS spectra imply a charge segregation between the two different Mn sites far from one electron, being in intermediate valences M n+3.5 ±δ /2(δ <0.2 e -) for all the phases. Our results indicate that the spin, charge, and geometrical structure of the Mn atom hardly change among the three macroscopic phases demonstrating the strong competition between the ferromagnetic conductor and the charge-ordered insulator behaviors in the manganites.

  6. Future trends in high-resolution lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawes, R. A.

    2000-02-01

    A perennial question is "what is the future of high-resolution lithography, a key technology that drives the semiconductor industry"? The dominant technology over the last 30 years has been optical lithography, which by lowering wavelengths to 193 nm (ArF) and 157 nm (F 2) and by using optical "tricks" such as phase shift masks, off-axis illumination and phase filters, should be capable of 100 nm CMOS technology. So where does this leave the competition? The 100-nm lithography used to be the domain of electron beam lithography but only in research laboratories. Significant efforts are being made to increase throughput by electron projection (scattering with angular limitation projection electron beam lithography or SCALPEL). X-ray lithography remains a demonstrated R&D tool waiting to be commercially exploited but the initial expenditure to do so is very high. Ion beam lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) ( λ<12 nm) have also received attention in recent years. This paper will concentrate on some of the key issues and speculate on how and when an alternative to optical lithography will be embraced by industry.

  7. Coincidence measurements of electron capture and loss in ion-atom collisions

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, R.D.

    1990-09-01

    Collisions between fast, fully stripped projectiles and atomic targets predominantly result in target electrons being ejected to the continuum. For fast partially stripped projectiles which bring weakly bound electrons into the collision, projectile ionization can also contribute to the observed electron spectra. At lower impact velocities, electron capture by the projectile ion becomes important and higher order processes, often referred to as transfer ionization, can be a significant source of free electrons. In recent years, coincidence techniques have been used to evaluate the relative importance of electron capture and loss in free electron production, to separate the capture and loss contributions from those resulting from target ionization alone, and to provide more detailed information about electron capture and loss mechanisms than is available from total cross section measurements. A brief survey of these experiments will be presented. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Few electron transitions in atomic collisions. Final report, September 1, 1992--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, J.

    1997-04-01

    During the past three years we have evaluated probabilities and cross sections for few and multiple electron transitions in atomic collisions. Our studies included interactions of atoms and molecules with incident protons, bare ions, electrons, positrons, anti-protons, ions carrying electrons and photons. We also: studied the inter-relation between collisions with charged particles and collisions involving various processes with photons. This work has complemented various studies of collisions of atoms with charged particles and with photons as well as more general efforts to understand the nature of multi-electron systems. Our aim has been to begin with relatively simple two electron systems and to focus on fast processes in which there is too little time for complicated processes to occur. We have used a variety of computational techniques, but we emphasize those appropriate for fast collisions in which we hope to obtain insight into the physical nature of the process itself. We generally considered systems in which experimental data was available.

  9. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils. PMID:24997950

  10. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Baboi, N.; Noelle, D.; Mildner, N.; Zapfe, K.; Rouvière, N.

    2006-11-01

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 μm and the damping time down to 10 ns.

  11. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  12. High Resolution Ozone Mapper (HROM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohr, J. R.; Decker, J.; Wegant, R.

    1976-01-01

    Using the backscatter ultraviolet instrument (BUV) aboard NIMBUS 4 as a baseline, point scanner mechanisms and spatial multiplex scanning systems were compared on the basis of sensitivity, field of view and simplicity. This comparison included both spectral and spatial scanning and multiplexing techniques. The selected system which optimally met the performance requirements for a shuttle based instrument was a pushbroom spatial scanner using a 15 element photomultiplier tube array and a Hadamard multiplex spectral scan. The selected system was conceptually designed. This design includes ray traces of the monochromator, mechanical layouts and the electronic block diagram.

  13. Head on collision of multi-solitons in an electron-positron-ion plasma having superthermal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Kaushik; Chatterjee, Prasanta Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2014-10-15

    The head-on collision and overtaking collision of four solitons in a plasma comprising superthermal electrons, cold ions, and Boltzmann distributed positrons are investigated using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) together with Hirota's method. PLK method yields two separate Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations where solitons obtained from any KdV equation move along a direction opposite to that of solitons obtained from the other KdV equation, While Hirota's method gives multi-soliton solution for each KdV equation all of which move along the same direction where the fastest moving soliton eventually overtakes the other ones. We have considered here two soliton solutions obtained from Hirota's method. Phase shifts acquired by each soliton due to both head-on collision and overtaking collision are calculated analytically.

  14. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Importantmore » swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.« less

  15. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. It is shown that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  16. Determination of equilibrium electron temperature and times using an electron swarm model with BOLSIG+ calculated collision frequencies and rate coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Pusateri, Elise N.; Morris, Heidi E.; Nelson, Eric M.; Ji, Wei

    2015-08-04

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) events produce low-energy conduction electrons from Compton electron or photoelectron ionizations with air. It is important to understand how conduction electrons interact with air in order to accurately predict EMP evolution and propagation. An electron swarm model can be used to monitor the time evolution of conduction electrons in an environment characterized by electric field and pressure. Here a swarm model is developed that is based on the coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) described by Higgins et al. (1973), hereinafter HLO. The ODEs characterize the swarm electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Important swarm parameters, the momentum transfer collision frequency, energy transfer collision frequency, and ionization rate, are calculated and compared to the previously reported fitted functions given in HLO. These swarm parameters are found using BOLSIG+, a two term Boltzmann solver developed by Hagelaar and Pitchford (2005), which utilizes updated cross sections from the LXcat website created by Pancheshnyi et al. (2012). We validate the swarm model by comparing to experimental effective ionization coefficient data in Dutton (1975) and drift velocity data in Ruiz-Vargas et al. (2010). In addition, we report on electron equilibrium temperatures and times for a uniform electric field of 1 StatV/cm for atmospheric heights from 0 to 40 km. We show that the equilibrium temperature and time are sensitive to the modifications in the collision frequencies and ionization rate based on the updated electron interaction cross sections.

  17. High resolution BPMS with integrated gain correction system

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, M.; Briegel, C.; Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Gianfelice, E.; Prieto, P.; Rechenmacher, R.; Voy, D.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2009-08-01

    High resolution beam position monitors (BPM) are an essential tool to achieve and reproduce a low vertical beam emittance at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The ATF damping ring (DR) BPMs are currently upgraded with new high resolution read-out electronics. Based on analog and digital down-conversion techniques, the upgrade includes an automatic gain calibration system to correct for slow drift effects and ensure high reproducible beam position readings. The concept and its technical realization, as well as preliminary results of beam studies are presented.

  18. Electron impact excitation collision strengths for extreme ultraviolet lines of Fe VII

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, S. S.; Zatsarinny, O. E-mail: oleg.zatsarinny@drake.edu

    2014-06-10

    Extensive calculations have been performed for electron impact excitation collision strengths and oscillator strengths for the Fe VII extreme ultraviolet lines of astrophysical importance. The collision strengths for fine-structure transitions are calculated in the B-spline Breit-Pauli R-matrix approach. The target wavefunctions have been calculated in the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method with term-dependent non-orthogonal orbitals. The close-coupling expansion includes 189 fine-structure levels of Fe VII belonging to terms of the ground 3p {sup 6}3d {sup 2} and excited 3p {sup 5}3d {sup 3}, 3p {sup 6}3d4l, 3p {sup 6}3d5s, and 3p {sup 6}3d5p configurations. The effective collision strengths are determined from the electron excitation collision strengths by integration over a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities. The effective collision strengths are provided for 17766 fine-structure transitions at electron temperatures from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} K. Our results normally agree with the previous R-matrix frame-transformation calculations by Witthoeft and Badnell. However, there are important differences for some transitions with the previous calculations. The corrections to the previous results are mainly due to more extensive expansions for the Fe VII target states.

  19. On The Effect of Electron Collisions in the Excitation of Cometary HCN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, Amy J.; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Schloerb, F. Peter; Combi, Michael R.; Hansen, Kenneth C.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2004-01-01

    The electron-HCN collision rate for the excitation of rotational transitions of the HCN molecule is evaluated in comets C/1995 01 (Hale-Bopp) and C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). Based on theoretical models of the cometary atmosphere, we show that collisions with electrons can provide a significant excitation mechanism for rotational transitions in the HCN molecule. Computed values of the cross section sigma(sub e-HCN) can be as high as 1.3 x cm2, more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than the commonly assumed HCN-H2O cross section. For the ground rotational transitions of HCN, the electron-HCN collision rate is found to exceed the HCN-H2O collision rate at distances greater than 3000 km from the cometary nucleus of Hale-Bopp and 1000 km from that of Hyakutake. Collisional excitation processes dominate over radiative excitation processes up to a distance of 160,000 km from the cometary nucleus of Hale-Bopp and 50,000 km from that of Hyakutake. Excitation models that neglect electron collisions can underestimate the HCN gas production rates by as much as a factor of 2.

  20. A New Apparatus for Studies of Low Energy Electron Collisions with Nucleotide Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duron, Jessica; Hargreaves, Leigh

    Low-energy electrons, the most copiously produced by-product of radiation cancer therapy, have been shown to be a strong driver of DNA damage in living cells [1]. Quantitative data describing these collisions are presently rare due to technological challenges in performing electron scattering measurements from the nucleobases, e.g. uracil, thymine, guanine, etc. These challenges include the low-vapor pressure of commercial samples (which are powders at room temperature), and the difficulty in making accurate flow measurements from heated gas sources, required to establish the absolute scale of the measured data. Based on techniques pioneered in positron collision physics [2], a new apparatus is presently undergoing commissioning at the California State University Fullerton, which aims to address these issues. We will make the first cross-section measurements for slow (E0 < 30eV) electron collisions with nucleotides. We will report design parameters and ongoing progress in the commissioning of this new experiment.

  1. Exact analytical solutions of continuity equation for electron beams precipitating in Coulomb collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranskis, R. R.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2014-06-10

    The original continuity equation (CE) used for the interpretation of the power law energy spectra of beam electrons in flares was written and solved for an electron beam flux while ignoring an additional free term with an electron density. In order to remedy this omission, the original CE for electron flux, considering beam's energy losses in Coulomb collisions, was first differentiated by the two independent variables: depth and energy leading to partial differential equation for an electron beam density instead of flux with the additional free term. The analytical solution of this partial differential continuity equation (PDCE) is obtained by using the method of characteristics. This solution is further used to derive analytical expressions for mean electron spectra for Coulomb collisions and to carry out numeric calculations of hard X-ray (HXR) photon spectra for beams with different parameters. The solutions revealed a significant departure of electron densities at lower energies from the original results derived from the CE for the flux obtained for Coulomb collisions. This departure is caused by the additional exponential term that appeared in the updated solutions for electron differential density leading to its faster decrease at lower energies (below 100 keV) with every precipitation depth similar to the results obtained with numerical Fokker-Planck solutions. The effects of these updated solutions for electron densities on mean electron spectra and HXR photon spectra are also discussed.

  2. Backscattering of fast electrons from solids within a multiple collision model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukanic, J.; Davidovic, D. M.

    2008-07-01

    Reflection of electrons from solids is treated by the approximate analytic solution of the linearized transport equation. Scattering of electrons on target atoms is determined by the screened Coulomb interaction and the energy loss due to interaction with target electrons is defined by Bethe- Bloch formula. The anisotropic P_3 approximation of the collision integral is utilized and the Bolzmann transport equation is Laplace transformed in relative path length and solved by applying the DP0 technique. The approach is applicable in a wide range of electron energy --from several tens of keV to several MeV- and for materials where the mean number of collisions of an electron with target atoms during slowing down is large. Analytic expressions for energy distribution of backscattered electrons as well as for the particle and energy reflection coefficients were derived. Comparison of our results with data of the computational bipartition model is presented.

  3. Absolute cross sections for electron loss, electron capture, and multiple ionization in collisions of Li2+ with argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losqui, A. L. C.; Zappa, F.; Sigaud, G. M.; Wolff, W.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; Santos, A. C. F.; Luna, H.; Melo, W. S.

    2014-02-01

    Exclusive absolute cross sections for the electron loss and capture processes, accompanied by target multiple ionization and pure target multiple ionization, as well as total electron loss and capture cross sections, in collisions of Li2+ with Ar have been measured in the 0.5-3.5 MeV energy range. The experimental data of the total electron loss cross section are compared with theoretical results based on the plane-wave Born approximation and the free-collision model, and with the available experimental data. Some discrepancies are observed when comparing the experimental data with the theoretical models, which can be attributed to the competitive mechanisms that lead to electron loss. The dependences of the single-capture and transfer-ionization processes on the projectile charge state are similar to those observed for collisions between other low-charged light ions and noble-gas targets. The same behaviour is observed when one compares the present data for the single- and double-ionization cross sections with those for He2+ projectiles on Ar. These facts indicate that the dynamics of the collision does not seem to depend on the projectile species, so that few-electron projectiles may act as structureless point charges in the intermediate- to high-velocity regime.

  4. High resolution single particle refinement in EMAN2.1.

    PubMed

    Bell, James M; Chen, Muyuan; Baldwin, Philip R; Ludtke, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    EMAN2.1 is a complete image processing suite for quantitative analysis of grayscale images, with a primary focus on transmission electron microscopy, with complete workflows for performing high resolution single particle reconstruction, 2-D and 3-D heterogeneity analysis, random conical tilt reconstruction and subtomogram averaging, among other tasks. In this manuscript we provide the first detailed description of the high resolution single particle analysis pipeline and the philosophy behind its approach to the reconstruction problem. High resolution refinement is a fully automated process, and involves an advanced set of heuristics to select optimal algorithms for each specific refinement task. A gold standard FSC is produced automatically as part of refinement, providing a robust resolution estimate for the final map, and this is used to optimally filter the final CTF phase and amplitude corrected structure. Additional methods are in-place to reduce model bias during refinement, and to permit cross-validation using other computational methods. PMID:26931650

  5. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  6. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  7. Solid state effects in electron emission from atomic collisions near surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, C.O.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Minniti, R.; Elston, S.B.

    1996-10-01

    We present a brief progress report of recent studies of the ejected electron spectra arising from glancing-angle ion-surface scattering involving collision energies of hundreds of keV/u. A broad range of electron energies and emission angles is analyzed containing prominent structures such as the convoy electron peak and the binary ridge. Particular emphasis is placed on the search for signatures of dynamic image interactions and multiple scattering near surfaces. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Accurate calculation of phase shifts for electron collisions with positive ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    2003-06-01

    The Harris-Nesbet variational method was considered for the calculation of phase shifts of electron collisions with hydrogen-like ions (Li2+, Be3+, and B4+). Calculations were carried out for both singlet and triplet scattering. Very accurate results of phase shift of electron collisions with these ionic targets were obtained for the first time for partial waves of L up to six. The phase shifts that we obtained for low partial wave (S, P, and D) scattering were compared with those available in the literature by a few other research groups employing different numerical methods.

  9. Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces: Fundamental science empowering advances in technology.

    PubMed

    Bartschat, Klaus; Kushner, Mark J

    2016-06-28

    Electron collisions with atoms, ions, molecules, and surfaces are critically important to the understanding and modeling of low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), and so in the development of technologies based on LTPs. Recent progress in obtaining experimental benchmark data and the development of highly sophisticated computational methods is highlighted. With the cesium-based diode-pumped alkali laser and remote plasma etching of Si3N4 as examples, we demonstrate how accurate and comprehensive datasets for electron collisions enable complex modeling of plasma-using technologies that empower our high-technology-based society. PMID:27317740

  10. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  11. High-resolution, cryogenic, side-entry type specimen stage

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne E.; Merkle, Karl L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-resolution, cryogenic side-entry type specimen stage includes a copper block within which a specimen can be positioned in the electron beam of an electron microscope, one end of the copper block constituting a specimen heat exchanger, means for directing a flow of helium at cryogenic temperature into the heat exchanger, and electrical leads running from the specimen to the exterior of the microscope for four point D.C. electrical resistivity measurements.

  12. Measurement and analysis of electron-neutral collision frequency in the calibrated cutoff probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, K. H.; You, S. J.; Kim, D. W.; Na, B. K.; Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.

    2016-03-01

    As collisions between electrons and neutral particles constitute one of the most representative physical phenomena in weakly ionized plasma, the electron-neutral (e-n) collision frequency is a very important plasma parameter as regards understanding the physics of this material. In this paper, we measured the e-n collision frequency in the plasma using a calibrated cutoff-probe. A highly accurate reactance spectrum of the plasma/cutoff-probe system, which is expected based on previous cutoff-probe circuit simulations [Kim et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 131502 (2011)], is obtained using the calibrated cutoff-probe method, and the e-n collision frequency is calculated based on the cutoff-probe circuit model together with the high-frequency conductance model. The measured e-n collision frequency (by the calibrated cutoff-probe method) is compared and analyzed with that obtained using a Langmuir probe, with the latter being calculated from the measured electron-energy distribution functions, in wide range of gas pressure.

  13. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  14. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  15. Non-convoy electron emission in ion metal surface collisions at grazing incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martiarena, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    In this work we calculate the electron emission due to the process of electron loss to the continuum by the projectile in fast grazing incidence ion-metal collisions. The combined effect of the projectile nucleus, its induced image charge and the surface potential on the emitted electron, is included starting from the calculated continuum wave function via the enhancement factor. We will call this model the Surface Continuum Distorted Wave (SCDW) Model. The electron emission predicted by the SCDW model, even when in this first calculation we only include the electron loss effect, describes the position of the peak and the relative intensities for higher observation angles.

  16. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  17. High-Resolution Plots of Trigonometric Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stick, Marvin E.; Stick, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Provides computer programs (for Apple microcomputers) for drawing (in high resolution graphics) a three-leaved rose, concentric circles, circumscribed and inscribed astroids. Sample output and discussions of the mathematics involved in the programs are included. (JN)

  18. CLASSICAL MODEL FOR ELECTRONICALLY NON-ADIABATIC COLLISION PROCESSES: RESONANCE EFFECTS IN ELECTRONIC-VIBRATIONAL ENERGY TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect

    Orel, Ann E.; Miller, William H.

    1980-11-01

    A recently developed classical model for electronically nonadiabatic collision processes is applied to electronic-vibrational energy transfer in a collinear atom~diatom system, A + BC(v=1) + A*+ BC(v=0), which closely resembles Br-H{sub 2}. This classical model, which treats electronic as well as heavy particle (i.e., translation, rotation, and vibration) degrees of freedom by classical mechanics, is found to describe the resonance features in this process reasonably well. The usefulness of the approach is that it allows one to extend standard Monte Carlo classical trajectory methodology to include electronically non-adiabatic processes in a dynamically consistent way,

  19. Electronic excitation of ground state atoms by collision with heavy gas particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1993-01-01

    Most of the important chemical reactions which occur in the very high temperature air produced around space vehicles as they enter the atmosphere were investigated both experimentally and theoretically, to some extent at least. One remaining reaction about which little is known, and which could be quite important at the extremely high temperatures that will be produced by the class of space vehicles now contemplated - such as the AOTV - is the excitation of bound electron states due to collisions between heavy gas particles. Rates of electronic excitation due to free electron collisions are known to be very rapid, but because these collisions quickly equilibrate the free and bound electron energy, the approach to full equilibrium with the heavy particle kinetic energy will depend primarily on the much slower process of bound electron excitation in heavy particle collisions and the subsequent rapid transfer to free electron energy. This may be the dominant mechanism leading to full equilibrium in the gas once the dissociation process has depleted the molecular states so the transfer between molecular vibrational energy and free electron energy is no longer available as a channel for equilibration of free electron and heavy particle kinetic energies. Two mechanisms seem probable in electronic excitation by heavy particle impact. One of these is the collision excitation and deexcitation of higher electronic states which are Rydberg like. A report, entitled 'Semi-Classical Theory of Electronic Excitation Rates', was submitted previously. This presented analytic expressions for the transition probabilities, assuming that the interaction potential is an exponential repulsion with a perturbation ripple due to the dipole-induced dipole effect in the case of neutral-neutral collisions, and to the ion-dipole interaction in the case of ion-neutral collisions. However the above may be, there is little doubt that excitation of ground state species by collision occurs at the

  20. Exclusive processes in electron-ion collisions in the dipole formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Cazaroto, E. R.; Navarra, F. S.; Carvalho, F.; Goncalves, V. P.

    2013-03-25

    We compare the predictions of two saturation models for production of vector mesons and of photons in electron-ion collisions. The models considered are the b-CGC and the rcBK. The calculations were made in the kinematical range of the LHeC and of the future eRHIC.